WorldWideScience

Sample records for contact lens powers

  1. Anomalies in the prescribing of soft contact lens power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Graeme; Moody, Kurt; Sulley, Anna

    2009-01-01

    To determine the proportion of prescribed soft lenses rounded to the nearest half diopter and any variations from country to country and between lens types. Marketing data were obtained for soft lenses supplied during a 1-year period for lenses representing each of the following categories: mid-water hydrogel (MWH), silicone hydrogel, daily disposable, and toric silicone hydrogel (TSH). The data were analyzed for several countries/regions. Spherical lenses were analyzed in the range 1.00 to 5.75 D for plus and minus powers, and toric lenses in the range 0.50 to 5.75 D. This ensured a similar number of lenses in full or half diopter powers were compared with quarter and three-quarter diopter powers, and that there was no enforced rounding due to nonavailability of powers. By comparing the proportion of lenses from the 2 power groups, the proportion of lenses rounded to the nearest half diopter was estimated. It was assumed that half the difference between the totals of the 2 power groups represented those lenses dispensed to the nearest half diopter and, therefore, dispensed inaccurately; this was termed the "rounding rate" (RR). The power distribution curve for the sphere powers spiked in half diopter steps, illustrated a bias toward prescribing full and half diopter powers. With all lenses, the RR varied widely between countries. For the MWH, this ranged from 1.7% (Canada) to 11.6% (Iberia). The RRs were 2 to 3 times higher for plus than minus power lenses, however, this also varied by country. Overall, the RRs were lower for the silicone hydrogel and daily disposable contact lenses compared with the MWH, in particular for France and Iberia. The TSH results showed the greatest consistency between countries, with RRs ranging from 3.9% (Germany) to 9.5% (Rest of Europe). Most countries showed similar or lower RRs for TSH compared with MWH although, for some countries (e.g., United Kingdom, Nordic), these were higher. There was less difference in RRs for TSH lenses

  2. Contact Lens Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Contact Lens Care Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... www.fda.gov/medwatch Learn More about Contact Lens Care Other Tips on Contact Lenses Decorative Contact ...

  3. Which soft contact lens power is better for piggyback fitting in keratoconus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of differente soft contact lens power in the anterior corneal curvature and regularity in subjects with keratoconus. Nineteen subjects (30 eyes) with keratoconus were included in the study. Six corneal topographies were taken with Pentacam Eye System over the naked eye and successively with soft lens (Senofilcon A) powers of -3.00, -1.50, 0.00, +1.50 and +3.00 D. Corneal measurements of mean central keratometry (MCK), maximum tangential curvature (TK), maximum front elevation (MFE) and eccentricity (Ecc) at 6 and 8 mm diameters as well as anterior corneal surface high order aberrations (i.e. total RMS, spherical- and coma-like and secondary astigmatism) were evaluated. Negative- and plano-powered soft lenses flattened (ppowered lenses did not induce any significant changes (p>0.05 in all cases) in MCK in comparison to the naked eye. The TK power decreased with negative lenses (psoft lens power in comparison to the naked eye (p>0.05 in all cases). Corneal eccentricity increased at 8 mm diameter for all lens powers (p0.05). Statistically differences were found in coma-like and secondary astigmatism (both ppowered soft contact lenses provide a flatter anterior surface in comparison to positive-powered lenses in subjects with keratoconus and thus they might be more suitable for piggyback contact lens fitting. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... glow-in-the-dark lizard lenses, costume contacts can certainly add a spooky, eye-popping touch. But ... consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be purchased over-the-counter or on the ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. Follow the contact lens care directions for cleaning, disinfecting, and wearing the lenses. Never share contact ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  11. Contact Lens Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is a risk of eye infection from bacteria in swimming pool water, hot tubs, lakes and the ocean Replace your contact lens storage case every 3 months or as directed by your eye care professional. Other Risks of Contact Lenses Other risks of contact lenses include pink eye ( ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... With Proper Contact Lens Care Apr 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of the ... edging closer, thanks to a wave of new technologies aiming to fix failing eye parts with human- ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... had not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like ... lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. ...

  18. On- and off-eye spherical aberration of soft contact lenses and consequent changes of effective lens power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Holger H; Cox, Michael J

    2003-02-01

    Soft contact lenses produce a significant level of spherical aberration affecting their power on-eye. A simple model assuming that a thin soft contact lens aligns to the cornea predicts that these effects are similar on-eye and off-eye. The wavefront aberration for 17 eyes and 33 soft contact lenses on-eye was measured with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The Zernike coefficients describing the on-eye spherical aberration of the soft contact lens were compared with off-eye ray-tracing results. Paraxial and effective lens power changes were determined. The model predicts the on-eye spherical aberration of soft contact lenses closely. The resulting power change for a +/- 7.00 D spherical soft contact lens is +/- 0.5 D for a 6-mm pupil diameter and +/- 0.1 D for a 3-mm pupil diameter. Power change is negligible for soft contact lenses corrected for off-eye spherical aberration. For thin soft contact lenses, the level of spherical aberration and the consequent power change is similar on-eye and off-eye. Soft contact lenses corrected for spherical aberration in air will be expected to be aberration-free on-eye and produce only negligibly small power changes. For soft contact lenses without aberration correction, for higher levels of ametropia and large pupils, the soft contact lens power should be determined with trial lenses with their power and p value similar to the prescribed lens. The benefit of soft contact lenses corrected for spherical aberration depends on the level of ocular spherical aberration.

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if you have perfect vision, you need to get an eye exam and a prescription ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... wear any kind of contact lens. In Butler's case, the lenses caused an infection and left her with a corneal ... A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... ask for a prescription. There is no such thing as a "one size fits all" contact lens. Lenses that are not properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into ...

  2. The rectenna design on contact lens for wireless powering of the active intraocular pressure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H W; Jeng, B M; Chen, C Y; Huang, H Y; Chiou, J C; Luo, C H

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a wireless power harvesting system with micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) fabrication for noninvasive intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement on soft contact lens substructure. The power harvesting IC consists of a loop antenna, an impedance matching network and a rectifier. The proposed IC has been designed and fabricated by CMOS 0.18 um process that operates at the ISM band of 5.8 GHz. The antenna and the power harvesting IC would be bonded together by using flip chip bonding technologies without extra wire interference. The circuit utilized an impedance transformation circuit to boost the input RF signal that improves the circuit performance. The proposed design achieves an RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 35% at 5.8 GHz.

  3. Contact Lens Related Corneal Ulcer

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, KY; Agarwal, P

    2010-01-01

    A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are: overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. Th...

  4. Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Sections Contact Lens-Related Eye ... Six Steps to Avoid Contact Lens Infections Contact Lens-Related Eye Infections Leer en Español: Infecciones relacionadas ...

  5. Straylight Measurements in Contact Lens Wear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Engelbrecht, Leonore A.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Mourits, Maarten P.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To quantify the effect of contact lens wear on straylight in rigid and soft contact lens wearers and (2) to relate findings to morphological changes and subjective complaints. Methods: Straylight was measured using the Oculus C-Quant during contact lens wear and after contact lens

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Costume Contacts May Contain Chemicals Harmful to Eyes Four Ways Over-the-Counter Costume Contact Lenses Can ... was in severe pain and on medication for four weeks, and couldn't see well enough to ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. "Many of the lenses found online or in beauty salons, novelty shops or in pop-up ... contact lenses from a retailer that does not ask for a prescription. ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get follow up exams with your eye care provider. If you notice redness, swelling, excessive discharge, pain or discomfort from wearing contact lenses, remove the lenses and seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  19. Optical design of soft multifocal contact lens with uniform optical power in center-distance zone with optimized NURBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-02-05

    This study aims to develop a new optical design method of soft multifocal contact lens (CLs) to obtain uniform optical power in large center-distance zone with optimized Non-Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS). For the anterior surface profiles of CLs, the NURBS design curves are optimized to match given optical power distributions. Then, the NURBS in the center-distance zones are fitted in the corresponding spherical/aspheric curves for both data points and their centers of curvature to achieve the uniform power. Four cases of soft CLs have been manufactured by casting in shell molds by injection molding and then measured to verify the design specifications. Results of power profiles of these CLs are concord with the given clinical requirements of uniform powers in larger center-distance zone. The developed optical design method has been verified for multifocal CLs design and can be further applied for production of soft multifocal CLs.

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not been properly fitted by an eye care professional, the lenses stuck to my eye like a ... prescription and proper fitting by an eye-care professional. Retailers that sell contacts without a prescription are ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye exam from a licensed eye ... available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seek immediate medical attention from an ophthalmologist. Related resources: Learn how to properly care for contact lenses . ... have given blind patients some functional vision, using human embryonic stem cells. Two blind patients regained enough ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that decorative lenses do not require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact ... By Kate Rauch In a small but intriguing study, scientists in England have given blind patients some ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos on your website Promotional materials for eye health observances EyeSmart resources are also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sell contacts without a prescription are breaking the law, and may be fined $11,000 per violation. " ... 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How common is retinal detachment for people with high myopia? ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the United States. All contact lenses are medical devices that require a prescription and proper fitting by ... Care Apr 23, 2018 How long does it take the eye to go back to its original ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... also available in Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spanish . Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers ... Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... A medical degree and many more years of training, for starters. A recent article from U.S. News and World Report explains what ophthalmologists are and how they can help you look after ... Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  16. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  17. CONTACT LENS RELATED CORNEAL ULCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGARWAL P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A corneal ulcer caused by infection is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One of the recent health concerns is the increasing incidence of corneal ulcers associated with contact lens user especially if the users fail to follow specific instruction in using their contact lenses. Risk factors associated with increased risk of contact lens related corneal ulcers are:overnight wear, long duration of continuous wear, lower socio-economic classes, smoking, dry eye and poor hygiene. The presenting symptoms of contact lens related corneal ulcers include eye discomfort, foreign body sensation and lacrimation. More serious symptoms are redness (especially circum-corneal injection, severe pain, photophobia, eye discharge and blurring of vision. The diagnosis is established by a thorough slit lamp microscopic examination with fluorescein staining and corneal scraping for Gram stain and culture of the infective organism. Delay in diagnosing and treatment can cause permanent blindness, therefore an early referral to ophthalmologist and commencing of antimicrobial therapy can prevent visual loss.

  18. Contact lens surface by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jung Hyuck; Lee, Suk Ju; Hwang, Kwang Ha; Jeon Jin

    2011-01-01

    Contact lens materials needs good biocompatibility, high refractive index, high optical transparency, high water content etc. Surface treat method by using plasma and radiation can modify the physical and/or chemical properties of the contact lens surface. Radiation technology such as electron beam irradiation can apply to polymerization reaction and enhance the functionality of the polymer.The purpose of this study is to modify of contact lens surface by using Eb irradiation technology. Electron beam was irradiated to the contact lens surface which was synthesized thermal polymerization method and commercial contact lens to modify physical and chemical properties. Ft-IR, XP, UV-vis spectrophotometer, water content, oxygen trans-metastability were used to characterize the surface state, physicochemical, and optical property of the contact lens treated with Eb. The water content and oxygen transmissibility of the contact lens treated with Eb were increased due to increase in the hydrophilic group such as O-C=O and OH group on the contact lens surface which could be produced by possible reaction between carbon and oxygen during the Eb irradiation. All of the lenses showed the high optical transmittance above 90%. In this case of B/Es, TES, Ti contact lens, the optical transmittance decreased about 5% with increasing Eb dose in the wavelength of UV-B region. The contact lens modified by Eb irradiation could improve the physical properties of the contact lens such as water content and oxygen transmissibility

  19. Compliance among soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Kutija, Marija Barisić; Masnec, Sanja; Jandroković, Sonja; Mrazovac, Danijela; Jurisić, Darija; Skegro, Ivan; Kalauz, Miro; Kordić, Rajko

    2014-12-01

    Contact lens compliance is proven to be crucial for preventing lens wear-related complications because of the interdependence of the steps in lens care regime and their influence on lens system microbial contamination. Awareness of the patients' lens handling compliance as well as correct recognition of non-compliant behaviours is the basis for creating more targeted strategies for patient education. The aim of this study was to investigate compliance among soft contact lens (SCL) wearers in different aspects of lens care handling and wearing habits. In our research 50 asymptomatic lens wearers filled out a questionnaire containing demographic data, lens type, hygiene and wearing habits, lenses and lens care system replacement schedule and self-evaluation of contact lens handling hygiene. We established criteria of compliance according to available manufacturer's recommendations, prior literature and our clinical experience. Only 2 (4%) of patients were fully compliant SCL wearers. The most common non-compliant behaviours were insufficient lens solution soaking time (62%), followed by failure to daily exchange lens case solution and showering while wearing lenses. 44% of patients reported storing lenses in saline solution. Mean lens storage case replacement was 3.6 months, with up to 78% patients replacing lens case at least once in 3 months. Average grade in self evaluating level of compliance was very good (4 +/- 0.78) (from 1-poor level of hygiene to 5-great level of hygiene). Lens wearers who reported excessive daily lens wear and more than 10 years of lens wearing experience were also found to be less compliant with other lens system care procedures. (t = -2.99, df=47, p rate, self grading was relatively high. Therefore, these results indicate the need for patient education and encouragement of better lens wearing habits and all of the lens maintenance steps at each patient visit.

  20. Reliability of power profiles measured on NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X) and effects of lens decentration for single vision, bifocal and multifocal contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of power profiles measured on NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X, Belgium) and investigate the effects of lens decentration on the power profiles for single vision (SV), bifocal (BF) and multifocal (MF) contact lenses. Accuracy of the sphere power was evaluated using single vision BK-7 calibration glass lenses of six minus and six plus powers. Three SV and four BF/MF contact lenses - three lenses each, were measured five times to calculate the coefficients of repeatability (COR) of the instrument. The COR was computed for each chord position, lens design, prescription power and operator. One lens from each type was measured with a deliberate decentration up to ±0.5mm in 0.1mm steps. For all lenses, the COR varied across different regions of the half-chord position. In general, SV lenses showed lower COR compared to the BF/MF group lenses. There were no noticeable trends of COR between prescription powers for SV and BF/MF lenses. The shape of the power profiles was not affected when lenses were deliberately decentered for all SV and PureVision MF lenses. However, for Acuvue BF lenses, the peak to trough amplitude of the power profiles flattened up to 1.00D. The COR across the half-chord of the optic zone diameter was mostly within clinical relevance except for the central 0.5mm half-chord position. COR were dependent on the lens type, whereby BF/MF group produced higher COR than SV lenses. The effects of deliberate decentration on the shape of power profiles were pronounced for lenses where the profiles had sharp transitions of power. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Contact lens rehabilitation following repaired corneal perforations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titiyal, Jeewan S; Sinha, Rajesh; Sharma, Namrata; Sreenivas, V; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2006-01-01

    Background Visual outcome following repair of post-traumatic corneal perforation may not be optimal due to presence of irregular keratometric astigmatism. We performed a study to evaluate and compare rigid gas permeable contact lens and spectacles in visual rehabilitation following perforating corneal injuries. Method Eyes that had undergone repair for corneal perforating injuries with or without lens aspiration were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses. The fitting pattern and the improvement in visual acuity by contact lens over spectacle correction were noted. Results Forty eyes of 40 patients that had undergone surgical repair of posttraumatic corneal perforations were fitted rigid gas permeable contact lenses for visual rehabilitation. Twenty-four eyes (60%) required aphakic contact lenses. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≥ 6/18 in the snellen's acuity chart was seen in 10 (25%) eyes with spectacle correction and 37 (92.5%) eyes with the use of contact lens (p < 0.001). The best-corrected visual acuity with spectacles was 0.20 ± 0.13 while the same with contact lens was 0.58 ± 0.26. All the patients showed an improvement of ≥ 2 lines over spectacles in the snellen's acuity chart with contact lens. Conclusion Rigid gas permeable contact lenses are better means of rehabilitation in eyes that have an irregular cornea due to scars caused by perforating corneal injuries. PMID:16536877

  2. Exchange of tears under a contact lens is driven by distortions of the contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara L; Ross, David S

    2014-12-01

    We studied the flow of the post-lens tear film under a soft contact lens to understand how the design parameters of contact lenses can affect ocular health. When a soft contact lens is inserted, the blinking eyelid causes the lens to stretch in order to conform to the shape of the eye. The deformed contact lens acts to assume its un-deformed shape and thus generates a suction pressure in the post-lens tear film. In consequence, the post-lens tear fluid moves; it responds to the suction pressure. The suction pressure may draw in fresh fluid from the edge of the lens, or it may eject fluid there, as the lens reassumes its un-deformed shape. In this article, we develop a mathematical model of the flow of the post-lens tear fluid in response to the mechanical suction pressure of a deformed contact lens. We predict the amount of exchange of fluid exchange under a contact lens and we explore the influence of the eye's shape on the rate of exchange of fluid. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Compensating additional optical power in the central zone of a multifocal contact lens forminimization of the shrinkage error of the shell mold in the injection molding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-04-20

    This study aims to develop a compensating method to minimize the shrinkage error of the shell mold (SM) in the injection molding (IM) process to obtain uniform optical power in the central optical zone of soft axial symmetric multifocal contact lenses (CL). The Z-shrinkage error along the Z axis or axial axis of the anterior SM corresponding to the anterior surface of a dry contact lens in the IM process can be minimized by optimizing IM process parameters and then by compensating for additional (Add) powers in the central zone of the original lens design. First, the shrinkage error is minimized by optimizing three levels of four IM parameters, including mold temperature, injection velocity, packing pressure, and cooling time in 18 IM simulations based on an orthogonal array L 18 (2 1 ×3 4 ). Then, based on the Z-shrinkage error from IM simulation, three new contact lens designs are obtained by increasing the Add power in the central zone of the original multifocal CL design to compensate for the optical power errors. Results obtained from IM process simulations and the optical simulations show that the new CL design with 0.1 D increasing in Add power has the closest shrinkage profile to the original anterior SM profile with percentage of reduction in absolute Z-shrinkage error of 55% and more uniform power in the central zone than in the other two cases. Moreover, actual experiments of IM of SM for casting soft multifocal CLs have been performed. The final product of wet CLs has been completed for the original design and the new design. Results of the optical performance have verified the improvement of the compensated design of CLs. The feasibility of this compensating method has been proven based on the measurement results of the produced soft multifocal CLs of the new design. Results of this study can be further applied to predict or compensate for the total optical power errors of the soft multifocal CLs.

  4. Focusing on Contact Lens Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their practices. Decorative contacts (also called “costume,” colored,” “fashion,” or “plano” contacts). The FDA has often warned ... Lenses Decorative Contact Lenses Hydrogen Peroxide Solution Related Consumer Updates 'Colored' and Decorative Contact Lenses: A Prescription ...

  5. An improved diagnostic contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R J

    1979-01-01

    Modification of a standard Goldmann goniolens by reducing the curvature of the contact surface to 8.5 mm radius of curvature (from the standard curvature of 7.4 mm) enabled gonioscopy to be carried out without the nuisance of air bubbles. Images PMID:465424

  6. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  7. Gram negative bacteria and contact lens induced acute red eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaridurg Padmaja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients using hydrogel contact lenses on a daily wear schedule slept overnight with the lenses and woke up with a Contact Lens Induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE. The contact lenses recovered aseptically at the time of the event grew significant colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila in patient A and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia liquefaciens from patient B. Similar organisams from the contact lenses were recovered from the lens case and lens care solutions of patient B. In both the patients the condition resolved on discontinuation of lens wear. Patient compliance as a requirement for successful contact lens wear is highlighted with the illustration of these cases.

  8. RISK FACTORS FOR CONTACT LENS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Štabuc Šilih

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are freely available without professional examination and fitting, as well as without adequate introduction and instructions on handling, disinfection and storage. Contact lenses may have physiological, metabolic and anatomic effect on the eyes, which is manifested both on the eyelids, lacrimal film, conjunctiva and in all layers of the cornea - the epithelium, stroma and the endothelium. We can see these complications too often at our everyday work. The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the potential complications due to inappropriate use of contact lenses.Contact lenses are otherwise a safe and effective method of correcting visual acuity; they are also useful for therapeutic purposes. Complications related to contact lenses wear could be largely avoided with an appropriate professional approach and the compliance of contact lens wearers. It is important to discuss with patients their medical history, their desires and expectations, their working and living environment; followed by professional examination of patients and appropriate fitting of contact lenses. Patients should receive detailed oral and written instructions and be subscribed to regular checks. But unfortunately, all this is not enough, if patients do not comply every day with given instructions.

  9. Forensic Analysis of a Contact Lens in a Murder Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerling, Charles S

    2016-03-01

    Contact lenses have had rare relevance in trials and/or investigations. After 5 years of burial, orbital remnants were retrieved from an exhumed body and subsequently identified as a key piece of material evidence in a murder trial. The exhumed case materials were evaluated under laboratory conditions and were determined to be contact lens remnants. Contact lens fracture and burial simulation studies were performed to provide additional corroboration of the physical findings of the exhumed contact lens remnants. This material evidence was instrumental in providing factual proof refuting the defendant's testimony in the murder trial. A brief history of contact lens composition and use is provided for understanding the methods and observational results. This forensic case study represents the first published documentation of a contact lens from an exhumed body being used in a murder investigation and establishes an operational procedure for future forensic contact lens examinations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Goldmann applanation tonometry over daily disposable contact lens: accuracy and safety of procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeri, Fabrizio; Lupelli, Luigi; Formichella, Paolo; Masci, Carlo; Fletcher, Robert

    2007-09-01

    To study accuracy and safety, related to sensation (discomfort) and trauma, when using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) on eyes wearing daily disposable soft contact lenses. The intra-ocular pressure (IOP) of 136 normal eyes of 68 subjects was measured by Goldmann tonometer. Measurements were made in one eye with a contact lens (hilafilcon A) without anaesthetic drops and then without the contact lens using one drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine hydrochloride. Each contact lens used was identical as to back optic zone, back vertex power. Standard Goldmann procedure only was used for the fellow eye of each subject. Subjective sensation (discomfort) responses to both procedures were studied in a subgroup (66 eyes) using a scale of discomfort, from 1 (no sensation) to 5 (highest sensation). Epithelial staining after tonometry was evaluated for this subgroup. No significant differences were found for the IOP with and without contact lens (tcontact lens insertion, tonometry on contact lens and application of topical anaesthetic). Corneal epithelial staining following the standard tonometry procedure was significantly higher than following the procedure with a contact lens (pcontact lens is accurate, compared to the standard procedure and within the IOP's normal range studied here. Also using a contact lens results in less trauma whilst discomfort is similar.

  11. High Dk piggyback contact lens system for contact lens-intolerant keratoconus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengor, Tomris; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat; Ozkurt, Yelda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the clinical success of high Dk (oxygen permeability) piggyback contact lens (PBCL) systems for the correction of contact lens intolerant keratoconus patients. Sixteen patients (29 eyes) who were not able to wear gas-permeable rigid lenses were included in this study. Hyper Dk silicone hydrogel (oxygen transmissibility or Dk/t = 150 units) and fluorosilicone methacrylate copolymer (Dk/t = 100 units) lenses were chosen as the PBCL systems. The clinical examinations included visual acuity and corneal observation by biomicroscopy, keratometer reading, and fluorescein staining before and after fitting the PBCL system. INDICATIONS FOR USING PBCL SYSTEM WERE: lens stabilization and comfort, improving comfort, and adding protection to the cone. Visual acuities increased significantly in all of the patients compared with spectacles (P = 0). Improvement in visual acuity compared with rigid lenses alone was recorded in 89.7% of eyes and no alteration of the visual acuity was observed in 10.3% of the eyes. Wearing time of PBCL systems for most of the patients was limited time (mean 6 months, range 3-12 months); thereafter they tolerated rigid lenses alone except for 2 patients. The PBCL system is a safe and effective method to provide centering and corneal protection against mechanical trauma by the rigid lenses for keratoconus patients and may increase contact lens tolerance.

  12. Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markoulli M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Markoulli, Sailesh Kolanu School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The number of contact lens wearers worldwide has remained relatively stable over the past decade, despite the investment that has gone into contact lens technology. This is largely because 10%–50% of wearers dropout of contact lens wear within 3 years of commencement; the most common reason cited being contact lens discomfort (CLD. Of the symptoms reported, sensation of dry eye is the most common. Given the outcome of reduced wearing time, increased chair time, and ultimate contact lens discontinuation, the challenge is to identify the warning signs of CLD early on. Clinically detectable changes such as conjunctival staining, conjunctival indentation, conjunctival epithelial flap formation, lid wiper epitheliopathy, Demodex blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction have been linked to CLD, highlighting the need to perform regular aftercare visits to identify these changes. At a cellular level, conjunctival metaplasia and reduced goblet cell density have been linked to CLD, leading to a downstream effect on the tear film breakup time of contact lens wearers. These factors suggest a strong link between CLD and friction, raising the need to target this as a means of minimizing CLD. The purpose of this review is to identify the clinical signs that relate to CLD as a means of earlier detection and management in order to combat contact lens dropout. Keywords: contact lens discomfort, dry eye disease, lid wiper epitheliopathy, tear film biomarkers, meibomian gland dysfunction

  13. Effect of contact lens use on Computer Vision Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauste, Ana; Ronda, Elena; Molina, María-José; Seguí, Mar

    2016-03-01

    To analyse the relationship between Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) in computer workers and contact lens use, according to lens materials. Cross-sectional study. The study included 426 civil-service office workers, of whom 22% were contact lens wearers. Workers completed the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q) and provided information on their contact lenses and exposure to video display terminals (VDT) at work. CVS was defined as a CVS-Q score of 6 or more. The covariates were age and sex. Logistic regression was used to calculate the association (crude and adjusted for age and sex) between CVS and individual and work-related factors, and between CVS and contact lens type. Contact lens wearers are more likely to suffer CVS than non-lens wearers, with a prevalence of 65% vs 50%. Workers who wear contact lenses and are exposed to the computer for more than 6 h day(-1) are more likely to suffer CVS than non-lens wearers working at the computer for the same amount of time (aOR = 4.85; 95% CI, 1.25-18.80; p = 0.02). Regular contact lens use increases CVS after 6 h of computer work. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  14. The effect of compliance on contact lens case contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilia, Daniel; Lazon de la Jara, Percy; Zhu, Hua; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Holden, Brien A

    2014-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of written instructions on contact lens case hygiene and to quantify the effect of noncompliance on contact lens case contamination. Data were retrospectively analyzed from 16 prospective, 3-month daily-wear studies during which six commercially available silicone hydrogel contact lenses and seven lens care solutions (LCS) were tested following a similar protocol. Verbal instructions regarding case hygiene (rinse case with LCS, not tap water) were given in nine studies, while the same instructions were given verbally and in written format in seven studies. A survey on contact lens, LCS, and lens case hygiene was completed at 1- and 3-month visits and compliance with case hygiene instructions was determined. Regular contact lens cases were used for 1 month and collected for microbial analysis at the 1- and 3-month visits. The rate of case contamination and the types of microbes contaminating cases were evaluated. Participants given verbal and written instructions were more likely to be compliant with case hygiene instructions than those just given verbal instructions (odds ratio [OR]: 2.19, p hygiene can be improved by effective communication of instructions. Contact lens wearers should be actively discouraged from rinsing contact lens cases with tap water because of the increased risk of GNB contamination.

  15. Measurement accuracy of a stressed contact lens during its relaxation period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.

    2018-02-01

    We examine the dioptric power and transmitted wavefront of a contact lens as it releases its handling stresses. Handling stresses are introduced as part of the contact lens loading process and are common across all contact lens measurement procedures and systems. The latest advances in vision correction require tighter quality control during the manufacturing of the contact lenses. The optical power of contact lenses is one of the critical characteristics for users. Power measurements are conducted in the hydrated state, where the lens is resting inside a solution-filled glass cuvette. In a typical approach, the contact lens must be subject to long settling times prior to any measurements. Alternatively, multiple measurements must be averaged. Apart from potential operator dependency of such approach, it is extremely time-consuming, and therefore it precludes higher rates of testing. Comprehensive knowledge about the settling process can be obtained by monitoring multiple parameters of the lens simultaneously. We have developed a system that combines co-aligned a Shack-Hartmann transmitted wavefront sensor and a time-domain low coherence interferometer to measure several optical and physical parameters (power, cylinder power, aberrations, center thickness, sagittal depth, and diameter) simultaneously. We monitor these parameters during the stress relaxation period and show correlations that can be used by manufacturers to devise methods for improved quality control procedures.

  16. Crystalline lens power and refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Morgan, Ian G; Nangia, Vinay; Jonas, Jost B

    2012-02-01

    To study the relationships between the refractive power of the crystalline lens, overall refractive error of the eye, and degree of nuclear cataract. All phakic participants of the population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study with an age of 50+ years were included. Calculation of the refractive lens power was based on distance noncycloplegic refractive error, corneal refractive power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, and axial length according to Bennett's formula. The study included 1885 subjects. Mean refractive lens power was 25.5 ± 3.0 D (range, 13.9-36.6). After adjustment for age and sex, the standardized correlation coefficients (β) of the association with the ocular refractive error were highest for crystalline lens power (β = -0.41; P lens opacity grade (β = -0.42; P lens power (β = -0.95), lower corneal refractive power (β = -0.76), higher lens thickness (β = 0.30), deeper anterior chamber (β = 0.28), and less marked nuclear lens opacity (β = -0.05). Lens thickness was significantly lower in eyes with greater nuclear opacity. Variations in refractive error in adults aged 50+ years were mostly influenced by variations in axial length and in crystalline lens refractive power, followed by variations in corneal refractive power, and, to a minor degree, by variations in lens thickness and anterior chamber depth.

  17. Applanation tonometry in silicone hydrogel contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R J; Dev Borman, A; Saleh, G M

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have investigated intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements through conventional soft (hydrogel) therapeutic contact lenses, and have found that an accurate IOP can be recorded in normal eyes, and in eyes with abnormal anterior segments. The IOP measurement through soft contact lenses may be affected by the water content and centre thickness of the lens. Silicone hydrogel contact lenses are now being used as therapeutic contact lenses due to their high oxygen permeability. The purpose of this study is to investigate if IOP can be accurately measured in a subject wearing a silicone hydrogel contact lens. In a cohort study, the IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer without a contact lens and then repeated with a hydrogel contact lens in situ. The IOP of 20 eyes of 10 volunteers with no ocular pathology was measured. The mean difference (+/-S.D.) found between IOP measurement with (mean 15.55+/-1.70 mmHg) and without (mean 16.05+/-1.90 mmHg) contact lens was found to be -0.5+/-0.89 mmHg. Statistical analysis was performed which revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.89. No significant statistical difference was found between the two groups with paired t-test (p=0.19). Accurate measurement of IOP by applanation tonometry can be achieved through a silicone hydrogel contact lens.

  18. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel; Albietz, Julie M; Tran, Huan; Du Toit, Cimonette; Li, Anita Hui; Yun, Tina; Han, Jee; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-12-01

    Contact lens induced dry eye affects approximately 50% of contact lens wearers. The aim was to assess the effects of Manuka (Leptospermum sp.) honey eye drops (Optimel, Melcare, Australia) on dry eye in contact lens wearers. The safety of the honey eye drops in contact lens wear and contact lens wearers' compliance were also evaluated. Prospective, randomised, cross over study, examiner masked, pilot treatment trial. Twenty-four participants aged 20 to 55 years with contact lens related dry eye were recruited and randomised to two treatment groups; 20 completed the study. One group used Optimel eye drops twice a day for two weeks followed by conventional lubricant (Systane Ultra, Alcon) therapy for two weeks; the other group completed the treatments in the reverse order. Before and after each treatment dry eye symptomology, ocular surface inflammation, and tear quantity and quality were assessed. Participants completed a daily log detailing their usage of treatments and any issues. Dry eye symptoms improved significantly after Optimel treatment. Patients with more severe symptoms at baseline showed a greater improvement in symptoms. No significant differences were observed in the objective signs of dry eye; presumably because of the short treatment duration. Seventy-five% of contact lens wearers reported good adherence to Optimel treatment and 95% reported no issues using this product. Optimel Eye Drops reduce the symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers and are safe to use. A longer treatment period to assess the effect on clinical signs of dry eye is required. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Daily disposable contact lens prescribing around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B; Helland, Magne; Itoi, Motozumi; Jones, Deborah; Nichols, Jason J; van der Worp, Eef; Woods, Craig A

    2010-10-01

    Daily disposable contact lenses were introduced into the market 16 years ago. Data that we have gathered from annual contact lens fitting surveys conducted in Australia, Canada, Japan, The Netherlands, Norway, the UK and the USA between 2000 and 2008 indicates an overall increase in daily disposable lens fitting during this period. Daily disposable lenses are especially popular in Japan, Norway and the UK. There is a trend for these lenses to be fitted on a part-time basis. Males are over-represented in daily disposable lens fitting-a trend that is especially evident in Canada. Daily disposable lens wearers are about two years younger than wearers of reusable lenses in Japan and The Netherlands. The convenience and health benefits of daily disposable lenses are expected to fuel continued growth in this sector. Copyright (c) 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro power profiles of daily disposable contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda-Salmerón, Lurdes; Madrid-Costa, David; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the distribution of refractive power within the optic zone of different soft contact lenses and to investigate the effect of lens decentration on the power profiles. The Nimo TR1504 instrument was used to measure the optical power across different aperture diameters (from 1.5mm to 5.5mm in steps of 0.5mm) of four daily disposable contact lenses: DAILIES TOTAL1, Proclear 1-Day, SofLens daily disposable and 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST. Measurements were performed using a wet cell. Power data were evaluated when contact lenses were in its centered position and after inducing different amounts of lens decentration (from 0.2mm to 1.0mm in steps of 0.2mm). All contact lenses showed an increase - more negative - in lens power with distance from the lens center. The amount of change varied depending on the lens. It was about 10% of lens power for DAILIES TOTAL1 (-0.29diopters (D)), SofLens daily disposable (-0.36D), and Proclear 1-Day (-0.32D) whereas 1-DAY ACUVUE MOIST showed a percentage variation of 3.3% (-0.10D). After inducing a lens decentration up to 1mm, the power curves were shifted in the negative direction. However, the change obtained in lens power compared with well-centered position was always lower than a quarter of diopter both for all the lenses and aperture diameters. Our results showed a variation of the refractive power from the lens center, becoming more negative toward the periphery, with a negligible effect of the decentration for all disposable contact lenses studied. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacterial Adhesion Forces to Ag-Impregnated Contact Lens Cases and Transmission to Contact Lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.

    Purpose: To measure adhesion forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Serratia marcescens to a rigid contact lens (CL), standard polypropylene, and Ag-impregnated lens cases using atomic force microscopy and determine bacterial transmission from lens case to CL. Methods: Adhesion

  2. Cytokine changes in tears and relationship to contact lens discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P; Zhao, Zhenjun; Naduvilath, Thomas; Lazon de la Jara, Percy

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reproducibility of a multiplex bead assay for measuring cytokines in tears and correlations between ocular discomfort with or without contact lens wear and the concentration of cytokines in tears. Ninety participants (divided into two groups) were enrolled in this prospective study. They were asked to rate their ocular comfort and collect their tears in the morning and just before sleep for 10 days with or without contact lenses. The participants collected their tears using a glass microcapillary tube for both stages. Galyfilcon A lenses were worn on a daily disposable basis during the contact lens stage, and comfort scores and tears were collected before lens insertion and prior to lens removal at the end of the day. Tears were analyzed for cytokine concentrations using a 27-plex multibead assay. Correlations were sought between cytokine concentrations and comfort. There was a significant (p-0.5 Log pg/ml, p-0.2 Log pg/ml, ptears was correlated to ocular comfort, but this was not changed by contact lens wear. Ocular comfort during the day is magnified by contact lens wear. However, the increase in the change in comfort during lens wear was not associated with changes in 15 cytokines in the tear film.

  3. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  4. A bandage contact lens prevents extrusion of ocular contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjiani, Vipul; Fearnley, Thomas; Tan, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    A 76 year old male presents with a corneal perforation in a phthisical eye. Definitive treatment in the form of an evisceration was delayed by 38 days. During this period a bandage contact lens prevented extrusion of ocular contents through an enlarging corneal perforation. This case demonstrates that a bandage contact lens can be effective in the immediate management of large corneal perforations whilst awaiting urgent definitive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Disinfection capacity of PuriLens contact lens cleaning unit against Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Thomas S; Hyon, Joon Young; Song, Jae Kyung; Reviglio, Victor E; Spahr, Harry T; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2004-01-01

    The PuriLens contact lens system is indicated for cleaning and disinfection of soft (hydrophilic) contact lenses by means of subsonic agitation to remove lens deposits and microorganisms, and ultraviolet irradiation of the storage solution for disinfection. The capacity of the PuriLens system to disinfect storage solutions contaminated with known concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acanthamoeba species was evaluated. An in vitro assessment of the antibacterial and antiparasitic efficacy of the PuriLens system was performed. Separated batches of the storage solution for the cleansing system were contaminated with stock strains of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. A comparison of the microbiologic content was made between the solution before and after the cycle. The PuriLens system effectively eradicated S. aureus and P. aeruginosa organisms after a 15-minute cycle. However, viable cysts of acanthamoeba were recovered in the solution after the 15-minute cycle. The PuriLens system is highly efficient in protecting against contamination with common bacterial ocular pathogens. Acanthamoeba cysts, however, can survive in the solution or contact lens bath undergoing integrated subsonic debridement and indirect ultraviolet light disinfection. Use of chemical disinfecting solutions that contain agents such as chlorhexidine or other cationic antiseptics may be advisable in conjunction with use of the PuriLens device, especially in high-risk settings.

  6. Contact Lens Visual Rehabilitation in Keratoconus and Corneal Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda Ozkurt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal distrophy. It’s a noninflammatory progressive thinning process that leads to conical ectasia of the cornea, causing high myopia and astigmatism. Many treatment choices include spectacle correction and contact lens wear, collagen cross linking, intracorneal ring segments implantation and finally keratoplasty. Contact lenses are commonly used to reduce astigmatism and increase vision. There are various types of lenses are available. We reviewed soft contact lenses, rigid gas permeable contact lenses, piggyback contact lenses, hybrid contact lenses and scleral-semiscleral contact lenses in keratoconus management. The surgical option is keratoplasty, but even after sutur removal, high astigmatism may stil exists. Therefore, contact lens is an adequate treatment option to correct astigmatism after keratoplasty.

  7. The significance of oxygen during contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric B

    2014-12-01

    In order to establish the relevance of oxygen to contemporary contact lens practice, a review of the literature was conducted. The results indicate that there are a number of processes occurring in the normal healthy eye where oxygen is required and which are potentially affected by the presence of a contact lens. These activities appear to take place at all corneal levels, as well as at the limbus. Evidence from laboratory, clinical and modelling studies indicates that what constitutes normal oxygenation (normoxia) depends on, among other things, the physiological system under consideration, corneal location and the state of eye closure. This diversity is reflected in the wide range of minimum lens oxygen transmissibility (Dk/t) requirements that are present in a literature. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Contact Lens-Induced Discomfort and Protein Changes in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Stapleton, Fiona Jane; Willcox, Mark Duncan Perry

    2016-08-01

    Ocular discomfort is among the main causes of contact lens wear discontinuation. This study investigated the association between subjective ocular comfort ratings and diurnal changes in tear protein concentrations with and without contact lens wear. The study was a prospective, open-label, single-group two-staged investigation. Basal tears were collected from 30 experienced contact lens wearers twice a day (morning and evening) using a noninvasive method without lens wear (stage 1) and during wear of Etafilcon A contact lenses (stage 2) for 7 to 10 days. Subjects rated their ocular comfort on a scale of 1 to 100 (with 100 as extremely comfortable) at each time of tear collection. Tears were analyzed using liquid quadrupole mass spectrometry in conjunction with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method. End-of-day comfort was reduced when wearing lenses (87.8 ± 14.3 AM vs. 79.2 ± 16.6 PM) compared to no lens wear (88.3 ± 12.6 AM vs. 84.7 ± 13.3 PM) (AM vs. PM, p tears (p < 0.05, r = -0.29). Only the absolute concentration of prolactin-induced protein correlated with subjective comfort ratings. Taking into consideration that prolactin-induced protein can be associated with disruption in water transport in lacrimal glands, our findings may indicate that changes to aqueous secretion are associated with contact lens discomfort.

  9. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Maurya

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation.

  10. Contact Lens Safety (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-18

    Contact lenses are a convenient alternative to glasses, but improper care and use can result in infections which can lead to eye damage. This podcast discusses contact lens safety.  Created: 8/18/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/18/2016.

  11. Acanthamoeba keratitis in Scotland: risk factors for contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, D V; Kirkness, C M; Bennett, H G; Peterson, M

    1999-01-01

    To investigate risk factors for Acanthamoeba keratitis amongst contact lens wearers in Scotland. Patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis in the Scottish study, all of whom wore contact lenses, were compared with 46 healthy asymptomatic contact lens-wearing controls. They were all visited at home for contact lens and environmental microbiological sampling. In addition, all 288 optical practices in the West of Scotland were polled for contact lens types and disinfecting solutions sold in 1995, and a sample, each of whom fitted more than 500 contact lenses per year, were polled for a second time. Independently, a poll was commissioned by the Eyecare Information Service in July/August 1995 to estimate the numbers of contact lens wearers in Scotland and the UK. Industry was polled for numbers of each contact lens disinfecting regimen sold in Scotland in 1995. West of Scotland, UK. All contact lens wearers among the 3 million population of the West of Scotland Health Board Areas. Risk factors for Acanthamoeba infection and recommendations for its prevention. When Acanthamoeba infection occurred, patients' home water systems were frequently (54%) found to be colonised by this amoeba. Patients more frequently washed their storage cases in tap water than controls (Pmethods (chlorine tablets or no disinfection). However further investigation showed that these methods were associated with an increased probability of rinsing the storage case in tap water, so that these two behaviours are confounded in the group studied. Failure to disinfect contact lenses, non-compliant use of chlorine tablets and/or introduction of tap water rinsing of storage cases were associated with increased risk of Acanthamoeba infection. New multipurpose solutions and hydrogen peroxide gave the lowest risk of Acanthamoeba infection, with no statistically significant difference between them. Ionic high-water content (FDA group 4) contact lenses were at increased risk of being associated with Acanthamoeba

  12. Customer loyalty among daily disposable contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neelam I; Naroo, Shehzad A; Eperjesi, Frank; Rumney, Nicholas J

    2015-02-01

    Optometric practices offer contact lenses as cash sale items or as part of monthly payment plans. With the contact lens market becoming increasingly competitive, patients are opting to purchase lenses from supermarkets and Internet suppliers. Monthly payment plans are often implemented to improve loyalty. This study aimed to compare behavioural loyalty between monthly payment plan members and non-members. BBR Optometry Ltd offers a monthly payment plan (Eyelife™) to their contact lens wearers. A retrospective audit of 38 Eyelife™ members (mean±SD: 42.7±15.0 years) and 30 non-members (mean±SD: 40.8±16.7 years) was conducted. Revenue and profits generated, service uptake and product sales between the two groups were compared over a fixed period of 18 months. Eyelife™ members generated significantly higher professional fee revenue (Ployalty among contact lens wearers, particularly service uptake and volume of lens purchases. Additionally the greater professional fees generated, render monthly payment plans an attractive business model and practice builder. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchoucha, Ibtissem; Aziz, Aurore; Hoffart, Louis; Drancourt, Michel

    2016-10-29

    The repertoire of free-living protozoa in contact lens solutions is poorly known despite the fact that such protozoa may act as direct pathogens and may harbor intra-cellular pathogens. Between 2009 and 2014, the contact lens solutions collected from patients presenting at our Ophthalmology Department for clinically suspected keratitis, were cultured on non-nutrient agar examined by microscope for the presence of free-living protozoa. All protozoa were identified by 18S rRNA gene sequencing. A total of 20 of 233 (8.6 %) contact lens solution specimens collected from 16 patients were cultured. Acanthamoeba amoeba in 16 solutions (80 %) collected from 12 patients and Colpoda steini, Cercozoa sp., Protostelium sp. and a eukaryotic more closely related to Vermamoeba sp., were each isolated in one solution. Cercozoa sp., Colpoda sp., Protostelium sp. and Vermamoeba sp. are reported for the first time as contaminating contact lens solutions. The repertoire of protozoa in contact lens solutions is larger than previously known.

  14. Microbial contamination of soft contact lenses & accessories in asymptomatic contact lens users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha V Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: With increasing use of soft contact lenses the incidence of contact lens induced infections is also increasing. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge of new and existing contact lens users about the risk of microbial contamination associated with improper use and maintenance of contact lenses, type of microbial flora involved and their potential to cause ophthalmic infections. Methods: Four samples each from 50 participants (n=200 were collected from the lenses, lens care solutions, lens care solution bottles and lens cases along with a questionnaire regarding their lens use. The samples were inoculated onto sheep blood agar, Mac Conkey′s agar and Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. Organisms were identified using standard laboratory protocols. Results: Overall rate of microbial contamination among the total samples was 52 per cent. The most and the least contaminated samples were found to be lens cases (62% and lens care solution (42%, respectively. The most frequently isolated contaminant was Staphylococcus aureus (21% followed by Pseudomonas species (19.5%. Majority (64% of the participants showed medium grade of compliance to lens cleaning practices. Rate of contamination was 100 and 93.75 per cent respectively in those participants who showed low and medium compliance to lens care practices as compared to those who had high level of compliance (43.75% ( p0 <0.05. Interpretation & conclusions: Lens care practices amongst the participants were not optimum which resulted into high level contamination. Hence, creating awareness among the users about the lens care practices and regular cleaning and replacements of lens cases are required.

  15. Bacterial adhesion forces to Ag-impregnated contact lens cases and transmission to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wenwen; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Hooymans, Johanna M M

    2013-03-01

    To measure adhesion forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Serratia marcescens to a rigid contact lens (CL), standard polypropylene, and Ag-impregnated lens cases using atomic force microscopy and determine bacterial transmission from lens case to CL. Adhesion forces of bacterial strains to Ag-impregnated and polypropylene lens cases and a rigid CL were measured using atomic force microscopy. Adhesion forces were used to calculate Weibull distributions, from which transmission probabilities from lens case to CL were derived. Transmission probabilities were compared with actual transmission of viable bacteria from a lens case to the CL in 0.9% NaCl and in an antimicrobial lens care solution. Bacterial transmission probabilities from polypropylene lens cases based on force analysis coincided well for all strains with actual transmission in 0.9% NaCl. Bacterial adhesion forces on Ag-impregnated lens cases were much smaller than that on polypropylene and CLs, yielding a high probability of transmission. Comparison with actual bacterial transmission indicated bacterial killing due to Ag ions during colony-forming unit transmission from an Ag-impregnated lens case, especially for P. aeruginosa. Transmission of viable bacteria from Ag-impregnated lens cases could be further decreased by use of an antimicrobial lens care solution instead of 0.9% NaCl. Bacterial transmission probabilities are higher from Ag-impregnated lens cases than from polypropylene lens cases because of small adhesion forces, but this is compensated for by enhanced bacterial killing due to Ag impregnation, especially when in combination with an antimicrobial lens care solution. This calls for a balanced combination of antimicrobial lens care solutions and surface properties of a lens case and CL.

  16. Surface modification of fluorosilicone acrylate RGP contact lens via low-temperature argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shiheng; Wang Yingjun; Ren Li; Zhao Lianna; Kuang Tongchun; Chen Hao; Qu Jia

    2008-01-01

    A fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was modified via argon plasma to improve surface hydrophilicity and resistance to protein deposition. The influence of plasma treatment on surface chemical structure, hydrophilicity and morphology of RGP lens was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The contact angle results showed that the hydrophilicity of the contact lens was improved after plasma treatment. XPS results indicated that the incorporation of oxygen-containing groups on surface and the transformation of silicone into hydrophilic silicate after plasma treatment are the main reasons for the surface hydrophilicity improvement. SEM results showed that argon plasma with higher power could lead to surface etching

  17. Which soft lens power is better for piggyback in keratoconus? Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; González-Meijóme, Jose-Manuel; Flores-Rodriguez, Patricia; Villa-Collar, Cesar

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate how soft lens power affects rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lens power and visual acuity (VA) in piggyback fittings for keratoconus. Sixteen keratoconus subjects (30 eyes) were included in the study. Piggyback contact lens fittings combining Senofilcon-A soft lenses of -6.00, -3.00, +3.00 and +6.00 D with Rose K2 RGP contact lenses were performed. Corneal topography was taken on the naked eye and over each soft contact lens before fitting RGP lenses. Mean central keratometry, over-refraction, RGP back optic zone radius (BOZR) and estimated final power as well as VA were recorded and analyzed. In comparison to the naked eye, the mean central keratometry flattened with both negative lens powers (psoft lens power (p=1.0); and steepened with the +6.00 soft lens power (p=0.02). Rigid gas-permeable over-refraction did not change significantly between different soft lens powers (all p>0.05). RGP's BOZR decreased significantly with both positive in comparison with both negative soft lens powers (all ppowers separately (both p>0.05). Estimated RGP's final power increased significantly with positive in comparison with negative lens powers (all ppowers separately (both p>0.05). Visual acuity did not change significantly between the different soft lens powers assessed (all p>0.05). The use of negative-powered soft lenses in piggyback fitting reduces RGP lens power without impacting VA in keratoconus subjects. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Wearable Contact Lens Biosensors for Continuous Glucose Monitoring Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsherif, Mohamed; Hassan, Mohammed Umair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-05-17

    Low-cost, robust, and reusable continuous glucose monitoring systems that can provide quantitative measurements at point-of-care settings is an unmet medical need. Optical glucose sensors require complex and time-consuming fabrication processes, and their readouts are not practical for quantitative analyses. Here, a wearable contact lens optical sensor was created for the continuous quantification of glucose at physiological conditions, simplifying the fabrication process and facilitating smartphone readouts. A photonic microstructure having a periodicity of 1.6 μm was printed on a glucose-selective hydrogel film functionalized with phenylboronic acid. Upon binding with glucose, the microstructure volume swelled, which modulated the periodicity constant. The resulting change in the Bragg diffraction modulated the space between zero- and first-order spots. A correlation was established between the periodicity constant and glucose concentration within 0-50 mM. The sensitivity of the sensor was 12 nm mM -1 , and the saturation response time was less than 30 min. The sensor was integrated with commercial contact lenses and utilized for continuous glucose monitoring using smartphone camera readouts. The reflected power of the first-order diffraction was measured via a smartphone application and correlated to the glucose concentrations. A short response time of 3 s and a saturation time of 4 min was achieved in the continuous monitoring mode. Glucose-sensitive photonic microstructures may have applications in point-of-care continuous monitoring devices and diagnostics at home settings.

  19. Oxygen transport through soft contact lens and cornea: Lens characterization and metabolic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahendra

    The human cornea requires oxygen to sustain metabolic processes critical for its normal functioning. Any restriction to corneal oxygen supply from the external environment (e.g., by wearing a low oxygen-permeability contact lens) can lead to hypoxia, which may cause corneal edema (swelling), limbal hyperemia, neovascularization, and corneal acidosis. The need for adequate oxygen to the cornea is a major driving force for research and development of hypertransmissible soft contact lenses (SCLs). Currently, there is no standard technique for measuring oxygen permeability (Dk) of hypertransmissible silicone-hydrogel SCLs. In this work, an electrochemistry-based polarographic apparatus was designed, built, and operated to measure oxygen permeability in hypertransmissible SCLs. Unlike conventional methods where a range of lens thickness is needed for determining oxygen permeabilities of SCLs, this apparatus requires only a single lens thickness. The single-lens permeameter provides a reliable, efficient, and economic tool for measuring oxygen permeabilities of commercial hypertransmissible SCLs. The single-lens permeameter measures not only the product Dk, but, following modification, it measures separately diffusivity, D, and solubility, k, of oxygen in hypertransmissible SCLs. These properties are critical for designing better lens materials that ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the cornea. Metabolism of oxygen in the cornea is influenced by contact-lens-induced hypoxia, diseases such as diabetes, surgery, and drug treatment, Thus, estimation of the in-vivo corneal oxygen consumption rate is essential for gauging adequate oxygen supply to the cornea. Therefore, we have developed an unsteady-state reactive-diffusion model for the cornea-contact-lens system to determine in-vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate. Finally, a metabolic model was developed to determine the relation between contact-lens oxygen transmissibility (Dk/L) and corneal oxygen deficiency. A

  20. Healthy Contact Lens Wear and Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Jennifer Cope explains some basic steps for proper wear and care of soft contact lenses.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  1. 21 CFR 886.5925 - Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Soft (hydrophilic) contact lens. 886.5925 Section 886.5925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... against the cornea and adjacent limbal and scleral areas of the eye to correct vision conditions or act as...

  2. 21 CFR 886.5916 - Rigid gas permeable contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigid gas permeable contact lens. 886.5916 Section 886.5916 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... against the cornea of the eye to correct vision conditions. The device is made of various materials, such...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1385 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) diagnostic contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) diagnostic contact lens. 886.1385 Section 886.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... directly on the globe or cornea of the eye for diagnosis or therapy of intraocular abnormalities. (b...

  4. Contact lens disinfection by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolman, P.J.; Dobrogowski, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A 253.7-nm ultraviolet light with an intensity of 1,100 microW/cm2 was tested for its germicidal activity against contact lenses and storage solutions contaminated with various corneal pathogens. The exposure time necessary to reduce a concentration of organisms from 10(6)/ml to less than 10/ml was 30 seconds for Staphylococcus aureus, 60 seconds for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 84 seconds for Candida albicans. The time necessary to sterilize a suspension of 10(4)/ml Acanthamoeba polyphaga was less than three minutes with this technique. Four brands of soft contact lenses were exposed to ultraviolet light for over eight hours without changing their appearance, comfort, or refraction

  5. Ocular discomfort responses after short periods of contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric; Tilia, Daniel; McNally, John; de la Jara, Percy Lazon

    2015-06-01

    To investigate if contact lens-related discomfort is a function of the time of day at which lenses are worn. This was a randomized, crossover, open-label clinical trial where subjective responses, with and without contact lenses, were assessed every 2 hours during five stages (A to E). Each stage began at the time when subjects would normally have inserted their contact lenses (T0). During stage A, no lenses were worn, whereas in stage B, lenses were worn continuously for 12 hours. In stages C to E, lenses were worn for only 4 hours. Contact lenses were inserted at T0 for stage C, but for stages D and E, lenses were not inserted until T0 + 4 and T0 + 8 hours, respectively. Mixed linear models were used for statistical analysis. In the absence of contact lenses, ocular comfort and dryness remained reasonably constant throughout the observation period. Ocular comfort and dryness decreased during 12 hours of continuous lens wear and became significantly worse from the 8-hour time onward compared with insertion (p 0.05) to the first 4 hours of continuous contact lens wear. Comparing the scores of each of these stages with the no-lens response at the corresponding time showed no significant differences for comfort (p > 0.23) or dryness (p > 0.37). Short periods of wear can be experienced at any time of day without significant change in ocular discomfort and dryness. This suggests that subjective responses at the end of the day are determined by the length of time lenses are in contact with the eye, rather than the time of day at which lenses are worn.

  6. Review on prevention of bacterial adhesion on contact lens using plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, N. A. H.; Zaaba, S. K.; Mustaffa, M. T.; Zakaria, A.; Shahriman A., B.

    2017-03-01

    Many researches had been conducted to enhance the properties of contact lens. Most of the research conducted discussed on the factors that affect the adhesion process to contact lenses, rate of contact lens contamination, and type of microbe that adhere on the contact lens surface and contact lens casing. Studies on the proposed strategies or technology that can be used to slower down the formation of bacteria on contact lens are being explored. New technologies or strategies to prevent or slow down the adhesion of bacteria on contact lens have become a priority in this area. This review paper covers two main aspects, namely factor that affect the bacteria adhesion on contact lens and also the introduction of plasma treatment as a potential method for contact lens treatment.

  7. Immunoglobulin Concentration in Tears of Contact Lens Wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Rajendra P.; Bhushan, Prashant; Singh, Virendra P.; Singh, Mahendra K.; Kumar, Prakash; Bhatia, Ravindra P.S.; Singh, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate changes in the concentration of tear immunoglobulins in contact lens wearers. Methods: A total of 45 cases including 23 contact lens wearers (43 eyes) and 22 age and sex matched healthy controls having no ocular pathology were studied for immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) in their tears by single radial immunodiffusion method. Results: Most of the cases used soft (56.6%) and semi-soft gas permeable (30.4%) contact lenses. Tear IgM was detected in only 17.4% and tear IgG in 43.6% of contact lens wearers, while in controls IgG was detected in 9.1% but none of the controls had IgM. There was a significant rise in total tear IgA (13.17 ± 4.44 mg/dl) in contact lens wearer as compared to controls (8.93 ± 3.79 mg/dl). Rise of tear IgA was more in symptomatic patients (15.38 ± 5.28 mg/dl) and in those wearing hard (19.73 ± 5.43 mg/dl) and semi-soft contact lenses (13.31 ± 5.43 mg/dl). A significant increase in tear IgA was noticed in subjects wearing lenses for >3 years (15.69 ± 5.39 mg/dl). About 43.4% of lens wearers were symptomatic and 80% of their lenses showed deposits and/or haziness. All cases with IgM in tear were symptomatic. Conclusion: The relation of immunoglobulin concentration with increasing duration of wear and material of contact lens shows that tear immunoglobulin rise accrues due to mechanical stimulation, hence contact lenses should not be used for a long period and lenses of hard nature should be discouraged. The maintenance, cleaning and deproteinization of the lenses are of high importance to avoid immunostimulation. PMID:25667732

  8. Increased resistance of contact lens related bacterial biofilms to antimicrobial activity of soft contact lens care solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine if clinical and reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus form biofilms on silicone hydrogel contact lenses, and ascertain antimicrobial activities of contact lens care solutions. METHODS Clinical and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with lotrafilcon A lenses under conditions that facilitate biofilm formation. Biofilms were quantified by quantitative culturing (colony forming units, CFUs), and gross morphology and architecture were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Susceptibilities of the planktonic and biofilm growth phases of the bacteria to five common multipurpose contact lens care solutions and one hydrogen peroxide care solution were assessed. RESULTS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus reference and clinical strains formed biofilms on lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses, as dense networks of cells arranged in multiple layers with visible extracellular matrix. The biofilms were resistant to commonly used biguanide preserved multipurpose care solutions. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms were susceptible to a hydrogen peroxide and a polyquaternium preserved care solution, whereas S. marcescens biofilm was resistant to a polyquaternium preserved care solution but susceptible to hydrogen peroxide disinfection. In contrast, the planktonic forms were always susceptible. CONCLUSIONS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus form biofilms on lotrafilcon A contact lenses, which in contrast to planktonic cells, are resistant to the antimicrobial activity of several soft contact lens care products. PMID:19654521

  9. Original Article Effect of Soft Contact Lens Materials on Tear Film ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems, results in intolerance of contact lens wear and damage (Foulks, ... reported that contact lens-related dry eye may be ... eliminating or modifying the refractive error ..... risk of eye infection, easier handling due to ... Adv Exp Med Biol.

  10. Non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Garg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to describe epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK with special focus on the disease in nonusers of contact lenses (CLs. This study was a perspective based on authors' experience and review of published literature. AK accounts for 2% of microbiology-proven cases of keratitis. Trauma and exposure to contaminated water are the main predisposing factors for the disease. Association with CLs is seen only in small fraction of cases. Contrary to classical description experience in India suggests that out of proportion pain, ring infiltrate, and radial keratoneuritis are seen in less than a third of cases. Majority of cases present with diffuse infiltrate, mimicking herpes simplex or fungal keratitis. The diagnosis can be confirmed by microscopic examination of corneal scraping material and culture on nonnutrient agar with an overlay of Escherichia coli. Confocal microscopy can help diagnosis in patients with deep infiltrate; however, experience with technique and interpretation of images influences its true value. Primary treatment of the infection is biguanides with or without diamidines. Most patients respond to medical treatment. Corticosteroids play an important role in the management and can be used when indicated after due consideration to established protocols. Surgery is rarely needed in patients where definitive management is initiated within 3 weeks of onset of symptoms. Lamellar keratoplasty has been shown to have good outcome in cases needing surgery. Since the clinical features of AK in nonusers of CL are different, it will be important for ophthalmologists to be aware of the scenario wherein to suspect this infection. Medical treatment is successful if the disease is diagnosed early and management is initiated soon.

  11. Verification of aspheric contact lens back surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Holger H; Cox, Michael J; Douthwaite, William A

    2003-08-01

    To suggest a tolerance level for the degree of asphericity of aspheric rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and to find a simple method for its verification. Using existing tolerances for the vertex radius, tolerance limits for eccentricity and p values and were calculated. A keratometer-based method and a method based on sag measurements were used to measure the vertex radius and eccentricity of eight concave progressively aspheric surfaces and six concave ellipsoidal surfaces. The results were compared with a gold standard measurement made using a high-precision mechanical instrument (Form Talysurf). The suggested tolerance for eccentricity and p value and is +/-0.05. The keratometer method was very accurate and precise at measuring the vertex radius (mean deviation +/- SD from Talysurf results, -0.002 +/- 0.008 mm). The keratometer was more precise than and similar in accuracy to the sag method for measurement of asphericity (mean deviation of keratometer method results from Talysurf results, 0.017 +/- 0.018; mean deviation of sag method results from Talysurf results using five semichords, -0.016 +/- 0.032). Neither method was precise enough to verify the asphericity within the suggested tolerance. The keratometer can be efficiently used to verify the back vertex radius within its International Organization for Standardization tolerance and the back surface asphericity within an eccentricity/p value tolerance of +/-0.1. The method is poor for progressive aspheres with large edge blending zones. Deriving the eccentricity from sag measurements is a potential alternative if the mathematical description of the surface is known. The limiting factor of this method is the accuracy and precision of individual sag measurements.

  12. Management and treatment of contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willcox MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mark DP WillcoxSchool of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles referring to Pseudomonas keratitis between the years 2007 and 2012 to obtain an overview of the current state of this disease. Keyword searches used the terms "Pseudomonas" + "Keratitis" limit to "2007–2012", and ["Ulcerative" or "Microbial"] + "Keratitis" + "Contact lenses" limit to "2007–2012". These articles were then reviewed for information on the percentage of microbial keratitis cases associated with contact lens wear, the frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of microbial keratitis around the world, the most common therapies to treat Pseudomonas keratitis, and the sensitivity of isolates of Pseudomonas to commonly prescribed antibiotics. The percentage of microbial keratitis associated with contact lens wear ranged from 0% in a study from Nepal to 54.5% from Japan. These differences may be due in part to different frequencies of contact lens wear. The frequency of Pseudomonas sp. as a causative agent of keratitis ranged from 1% in Japan to over 50% in studies from India, Malaysia, and Thailand. The most commonly reported agents used to treat Pseudomonas keratitis were either aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin fortified with a cephalosporin, or monotherapy with a fluoroquinolone (usually ciprofloxacin. In most geographical areas, most strains of Pseudomonas sp. (≥95% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, but reports from India, Nigeria, and Thailand reported sensitivity to this antibiotic and similar fluoroquinolones of between 76% and 90%.Keywords: Pseudomonas, keratitis, contact lens

  13. First contact diagnosis and management of contact lens-related complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Xavier J; Jhanji, Vishal; Constantinou, Marios; Amirul Islam, F M; Taylor, Hugh R; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2012-08-01

    To describe the spectrum of contact lens-related problems in cases presenting to a tertiary referral eye hospital. A retrospective case record analysis of 111 eyes of 97 consecutive patients was undertaken over a period of five months at the Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Contact lens-related complications (CLRC) were classified into microbial keratitis, sterile corneal infiltrates, corneal epitheliopathy and contact lens-related red eye (CLARE). Main parameters examined were nature of the first contact, clinical diagnosis, and management pattern. Forty-two percent of the initial presentations were to health care practitioners (HCPs) other than ophthalmologists. Mean duration from the onset of symptoms to presentation was 6.3 ± 10.9 days. Forty-nine percent (n = 54) of patients had an associated risk factor, most commonly overnight use of contact lenses (n = 14, 13 %). Most common diagnosis at presentation was corneal epitheliopathy (68 %) followed by sterile infiltrates (10 %), CLARE (8 %) and microbial keratitis (6 %). No significant differences were found in the pattern of treatment modalities administered by ophthalmologists and other HCPs. HCPs other than ophthalmologists are the first contact for contact lens-related problems in a significant proportion of patients. These HCPs manage the majority of CLRC by direct treatment or immediate referral.

  14. Aspergillus tamarii keratitis in a contact lens wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cuadros

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Keratitis produced by Aspergillus tamarii has been previously described associated to an ocular injury. We report a case in a contact lens wearer with a history of previous bilateral myopic LASIK ablation, bilateral intracorneal rings and vitrectomy and scleral buckling in his left eye. The fungus could be quickly identified combining phenotype, microscopy and mass spectrometry. Treatment with intravenous amphotericin, oral voriconazole, and topical amphotericin and natamycin and voriconazole was needed for corneal preservation.

  15. Thermal characterization of radiation processed contact lens material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, L.; Choughule, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermomechanical analysis (TMA) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) were used to characterize radiation processed contact lens gel material of 2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate(HEMA). DSC revealed two types of water in the gels. DSC and TGA in combination were used to quantitate the percentage of different types of the water in the gel material. Temperature expansion coefficients values indicate more dimensions stability in the radiation processed lenses of similar water contents. (author)

  16. A portable non-contact displacement sensor and its application of lens centration error measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zong-Ru; Peng, Wei-Jei; Wang, Jung-Hsing; Chen, Po-Jui; Chen, Hua-Lin; Lin, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chun-Cheng; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Chen, Fong-Zhi

    2018-02-01

    We present a portable non-contact displacement sensor (NCDS) based on astigmatic method for micron displacement measurement. The NCDS are composed of a collimated laser, a polarized beam splitter, a 1/4 wave plate, an aspheric objective lens, an astigmatic lens and a four-quadrant photodiode. A visible laser source is adopted for easier alignment and usage. The dimension of the sensor is limited to 115 mm x 36 mm x 56 mm, and a control box is used for dealing with signal and power control between the sensor and computer. The NCDS performs micron-accuracy with +/-30 μm working range and the working distance is constrained in few millimeters. We also demonstrate the application of the NCDS for lens centration error measurement, which is similar to the total indicator runout (TIR) or edge thickness difference (ETD) of a lens measurement using contact dial indicator. This application has advantage for measuring lens made in soft materials that would be starched by using contact dial indicator.

  17. Hand hygiene prior to contact lens handling is problematical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2012-04-01

    To establish guidelines for contact lens wearers' hand hygiene practices which achieve a balance between minimising risk of infection and reasonable expectations on the ability of patients to follow them. Evidence has been obtained from publications via PubMed, Advanced Medline Search, Cochrane Reviews, Google Scholar and using the key words hand hygiene, washing and contact lens. Guidelines for effective hand washing and the bother involved vary according to the level of hygiene required. High levels of non-compliance with hand hygiene practices, even among healthcare workers, gives an indication of how important the level of bother involved when following guidelines can be in contributing to non-compliance. Better patient education to improve hand washing techniques as well as patient attitudes toward hand hygiene are needed to reduce high non-compliance levels. Better hand hygiene techniques and higher frequency of their application give the prospect of reduced risk of infection and of any discomfort that arises from increased lens and ocular bioburden. In order that adoption rates might be maximised, the guidelines which have been distilled from this review attempt to strike a balance between technique redundancy and the associated higher levels of hygiene achieved and the possibility that the perception of too much bother involved could reduce participation rates. The guidelines have been expanded by the inclusion of suggested explanatory information in the expectation that helping patients to understand why the recommendations are made will have the effect of increasing their adoption. Copyright © 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacterial transmission from lens storage cases to contact lenses - Effects of lens care solutions and silver impregnation of cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeltfoort, Pit B. J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    2008-01-01

    The killing efficacies of multipurpose lens care solutions on planktonic and biofilm bacteria grown in polypropylene contact lens storage cases with and without silver impregnation and effects on bacterial transmission from storage cases to silicone hydrogel contact lenses were investigated. For

  19. Fluctuation in visual acuity during soft toric contact lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Paul; Morgan, Philip B; Moody, Kurt J; Maldonado-Codina, Carole

    2011-04-01

    To quantify changes in visual acuity (VA) with soft toric contact lenses as a result of lens movement and/or rotational instability caused by versional eye movements. A novel chart for vision assessment at near (40 cm) for soft toric contact lenses (VANT chart),consisting of a central, color-coded logMAR panel and eight peripheral letter targets set on a white background measuring 60 × 40 cm was constructed. In the developmental phase of the work, 10 subjects (20 eyes) wore 2 toric lenses in random order, and the impact of rapid and delayed eye versions in 8 directions of gaze on VANT acuity was investigated. In phase 2, 35 subjects (68 eyes) wore 4 toric lenses in random order, and a streamlined clinical protocol using the VANT chart was implemented. Standard assessments of toric lens fit and distance VA were also performed. Testing in the first phase showed no difference for change in VA for rapid vs. delayed version movements, (p = 0.17) but acuity reduction was greater for diagonal compared with horizontal/vertical versions (p = 0.06). As such, testing in phase 2 proceeded using rapid, diagonal versions only. In this second phase, there were differences for low-contrast distance VA measures between lens types (p = 0.02) and for both VANT baseline acuity (p = 0.03) and postversion acuity (p = 0.04), but no differences were found between lenses for magnitude of vision loss (p = 0.91), which was about one line. No relationship was established between the magnitude of vision loss and measured rotational stability (p = 0.75). This work has demonstrated that conventional approaches to measuring VA do not fully replicate the "real world" experience of soft toric lens wearers. The VANT chart has shown that VA is reduced immediately after versional eye movements and suggests that more dynamic methods of assessing visual performance should be considered for soft toric contact lens wearers, especially given the apparent inability of lens stability measurements to predict

  20. Citation parameters of contact lens-related articles published in the ophthalmic literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Sanz, Joan P

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at exploring the citation parameters of contact lenses articles published in the Ophthalmology thematic category of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). The Thompson Reuters Web of Science database was accessed to record bibliometric information and citation parameters of all journals listed under the Ophthalmology area of the 2011 JCR edition, including the journals with main publication interests in the contact lens field. In addition, the same database was used to unveil all contact lens-related articles published in 2011 in the same thematic area, whereupon differences in citation parameters between those articles published in contact lens and non-contact lens-related journals were explored. Significant differences in some bibliometric indicators such as half-life and overall citation count were found between contact lens-related journals (shorter half-life and fewer citations) and the median values for the Ophthalmology thematic area of the JCR. Visual examination of all Ophthalmology journals uncovered a total of 156 contact lens-related articles, published in 28 different journals, with 27 articles each for Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, Eye & Contact Lens, and Optometry and Vision Science. Significant differences in citation parameters were encountered between those articles published in contact lens and non-contact lens source journals. These findings, which disclosed contact lenses to be a fertile area of research, may be of interest to researchers and institutions. Differences in bibliometric indicators are of relevance to avoid unwanted bias when conducting between- and within-discipline comparisons of articles, journals, and researchers.

  1. Rat silicone hydrogel contact lens model: effects of high- versus low-Dk lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfan; Gabriel, Manal M; Mowrey-McKee, Mary F; Barrett, Ronald P; McClellan, Sharon; Hazlett, Linda D

    2008-11-01

    This study used a rat contact lens (CL) model to test if high- versus low-Dk lens wear caused changes in (1) conjunctival Langerhans cell (LC) number or location; (2) Bcl-2 expression; and (3) infection risk. Female, Lewis rats wore a high- or low-Dk CL continuously for 2 weeks. Afterward, corneas were harvested and processed for ADPase activity to identify LCs, for immunostaining and for real time-polymerase chain reaction. Contact lens-wearing rats also were challenged with Pseudomonas aeruginosa by placing a bacterial-soaked CL on the eye followed by topical delivery of bacteria. After 48 hrs, slit lamp examination and real time-polymerase chain reaction were used to evaluate the corneal response. Conjunctival LC were significantly increased after low- versus high-Dk CL wear (PDk lens wearing group. Bcl-2 mRNA levels were significantly decreased in low- versus high-Dk CL wearing rats, while Bax, FasL, caspase 3, and caspase 9 levels were unchanged. Immunostaining for Bcl-2 showed fewer positively stained epithelial cells in the low- versus high-Dk lens wearing group. After bacterial challenge, 30% of low- versus none of the high-Dk CL wearing corneas became infected and showed increased mRNA levels for several proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Low- versus high-Dk or non-CL wear led to an increased number of conjunctival LC, decreased Bcl-2 levels, and increased the risk of bacterial infection.

  2. The influence of end of day silicone hydrogel daily disposable contact lens fit on ocular comfort, physiology and lens wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffsohn, James; Hall, Lee; Mroczkowska, Stephanie; Hunt, Olivia A; Bilkhu, Paramdeep; Drew, Tom; Sheppard, Amy

    2015-10-01

    To quantify the end-of-day silicone-hydrogel daily disposable contact lens fit and its influence of on ocular comfort, physiology and lens wettability. Thirty-nine subjects (22.1±3.5 years) were randomised to wear each of 3 silicone-hydrogel daily-disposable contact lenses (narafilcon A, delefilcon A and filcon II 3), bilaterally, for one week. Lens fit was assessed objectively using a digital video slit-lamp at 8, 12 and 16h after lens insertion. Hyperaemia, non-invasive tear break-up time, tear meniscus height and comfort were also evaluated at these timepoints, while corneal and conjunctival staining were assessed on lens removal. Lens fit assessments were not different between brands (P>0.05), with the exception of the movement at blink where narafilcon A was more mobile. Overall, lag reduced but push-up speed increased from 8 to 12h (P0.05). Movement-on-blink was unaffected by wear-time (F=0.403, P=0.670). A more mobile lens fit with one brand did not indicate that person would have a more mobile fit with another brand (r=-0.06 to 0.63). Lens fit was not correlated with comfort, ocular physiology or lens wettability (P>0.01). Among the lenses tested, objective lens fit changed between 8h and 12h of lens wear. The weak correlation in individual lens fit between brands indicates that fit is dependent on more than ocular shape. Consequently, substitution of a different lens brand with similar parameters will not necessarily provide comparable lens fit. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The safety and efficacy of contact lens wear in the industrial and chemical workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyhurst, Keith; McNett, Ryan; Bennett, Edward

    2007-11-01

    The use and safety of contact lenses in the industrial and chemical workplace has often been questioned since the 1960s because of many unconfirmed reports of ocular injury resulting from contact lens wear. Because of these urban legends, contact lens wear has been banned or wearers have been required to wear additional personal protective equipment (PPE) not required of non-contact lens wearers. Literature review via Medline and Google search. Research has shown that contact lenses typically provide protective benefits that decrease the severity of ocular injury and improve worker performance. While contact lens wear contraindications do exist, in most cases, and with proper precautions, contact lens wear is still possible. Industrial and chemical companies need to establish written contact lens use policies based on current studies that have shown the safety of workplace contact lens wear when combined with the same PPE required of non-contact lens wearers. Practitioners need to discuss, with their contact lens patients, the additional responsibilities required to maintain proper lens hygiene and proper PPE in the workplace.

  4. Polymicrobial Infection of the Cornea Due to Contact Lens Wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old male presented with pain and redness in his left eye. He had a history of wearing contact lenses. His ophthalmic examination revealed a large corneal ulcer with surrounding infiltrate. Cultures were isolated from the contact lenses, lens solutions, storage cases, and conjunctivae of both eyes and also corneal scrapings of the left eye. Fortified vancomycin and amikacin drops were started hourly. Culture results of conjunctivae of each eye and left cornea were positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa; cultures from the contact lenses, lens solution and storage case of both eyes revealed Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans. Polymerase chain reaction of the corneal scraping was positive for Acanthameoba. The topical antibiotics were changed with ones that both bacteria were sensitive to and anti-amoebic therapy was added. The patient had two recurrences following initial presentation despite intensive therapy. Keratitis occurred due to multiple pathogens; the relapsing course despite adequate therapy is potentially associated with this polymicrobial etiology.

  5. A study of corneal endothelial changes in soft contact lens wearers using non-contact specular microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu M Magdum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the corneal endothelial changes after soft contact lens wear, to correlate these changes with the duration of soft contact lens wear, and to study the pattern of use and preferences of contact lens among young adults. Materials and Methods: This observational study was carried out in 100 eyes of 50 soft contact lens users aged between 19 and 27 years. Both eyes of 50 medical students who had never worn contact lenses served as controls. Data from each subject were collected using a structured questionnaire of 24 items that included demographic profile, pattern of contact lens use, symptoms, brand name, number of years worn, and hours of daily wear. These data were analyzed using Chi square for association. Specular microscopy was done using TOPCON SP-3000P. Computerized morphometry was used to evaluate central corneal thickness, size, shape, mean cellular density, hexagonality, coefficient of variation, and polymegathism of the corneal cells . Results: It was found that central corneal thickness was 0.532 ± 0.0309 mm in lens users and 0.514 ± 0.03 mm in controls, cell density was 2570.91 ± 432.06 cells/mm 2 in lens users and 2723.17 ± 327.64 cells/mm 2 in controls, while hexagonality was 54.81 ± 39.72% in lens users and 67.65 ± 36.49% in controls. Conclusion: Despite the known effects of long duration of soft contact lens use on corneal endothelial cell morphology, this study could not draw a significant correlation between them. However, a significant difference was found in the corneal endothelial thickness, cell density, and hexagonality. Among the soft contact lens users, 62% used soft disposable type while 38% used soft extended wear contact lens. Contact lenses were preferred over spectacles for better cosmetic appearance, comfort, and wider visual field.

  6. Study on the surface of fluorosilicone acrylate RGP contact lens treated by low-temperature nitrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Li; Yin Shiheng; Zhao Lianna; Wang Yingjun; Chen Hao; Qu Jia

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the surface hydrophilicity of fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens, low temperature nitrogen plasma was used to modify the lens surface. Effects of plasma conditions on the surface structures and properties were investigated. Results indicated that the surface hydrophilicity of RGP contact lens was significantly improved after treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the nitrogen element was successfully incorporated into the surface. Furthermore, some new bonds such as N-C=O, F - and silicate were formed on the lens surface after nitrogen plasma treatment, which could result in the improvement of the surface hydrophilicity. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM) results indicated that nitrogen plasma with moderate power could make the surface smoother in some degree, while plasma with higher power could etch the surface

  7. A contact-lens-shaped IC chip technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ching-Yu; Yang, Frank; Teng, Chih-Chiao; Fan, Long-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We report on novel contact-lens-shaped silicon integrated circuit chip technology for applications such as forming a conforming retinal prosthesis. This is achieved by means of patterning thin films of high residual stress on top of a shaped thin silicon substrate. Several strategies are employed to achieve curvatures of various amounts. Firstly, high residual stress on a thin film makes a thin chip deform into a designed three-dimensional shape. Also, a series of patterned stress films and ‘petal-shaped’ chips were fabricated and analyzed. Large curvatures can also be formed and maintained by the packaging process of bonding the chips to constraining elements such as thin-film polymer ring structures. As a demonstration, a complementary metal oxide semiconductor transistor (CMOS) image-sensing retina chip is made into a contact-lens shape conforming to a human eyeball 12.5 mm in radius. This non-planar and flexible chip technology provides a desirable device surface interface to soft tissues or non-planar bio surfaces and opens up many other possibilities for biomedical applications. (paper)

  8. the level of contact lens practice in port harcourt, rivers state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LIVINGSTON

    routine optometric examination- keratometer, slit lamp biomicroscope, retinoscope, trial case, and diagnostic contact lenses. For diagnostic contact lenses, the practitioner can confine himself to just a few lens types . A successful contact lens practice would involve astute practice management. Type of practice to be offered ...

  9. Disposable contact lens use as a risk factor for microbial keratitis

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, C.; Minassian, D.; Dart, J.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—A case-control study was performed to evaluate soft contact lens (SCL) wear modality as a risk factor for microbial keratitis.
METHODS—Contact lens wearers presenting as new patients to Moorfields Eye Hospital accident and emergency department during a 12 month period completed a self administered questionnaire detailing demographic data and contact lens use habits. Cases were patients with a clinical diagnosis of SCL related microbial keratitis. Controls were SCL users attending with di...

  10. [Current quality management situation and administration countermeasure study of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yungui; Yao, Ying; Shangguan, Shihao; Gu, Qun; Gao, Wuming; Chen, Yaoshui

    2014-05-01

    Study the current quality management situation of enterprises marketing corneal contact lens via systemic investigations and explore effective administration countermeasures in the future. The quality management indicators of sixty-two corneal contact lens marketing enterprises in Xuhui district of Shanghai were systematically investigated and enterprises of different operation models was compared and analyzed. Wholesale enterprises and retail chain enterprises are apparently better than independent enterprises almost in all facets. Facilitate market accession of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, encourage the business model of retail chain, enhance supervision of corneal contact lens marketing enterprises, especially independent franchisors.

  11. Power Profiles of Commercial Multifocal Soft Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the optical power profiles of commercially available soft multifocal contact lenses and compare their optical designs. The power profiles of 38 types of multifocal contact lenses-three lenses each-were measured in powers +6D, +3D, +1D, -1D, -3D, and -6D using NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X, Belgium). All lenses were measured in phosphate buffered saline across 8 mm optic zone diameter. Refractive index of each lens material was measured using CLR 12-70 (Index Instruments, UK), which was used for converting measured power in the medium to in-air radial power profiles. Three basic types of power profiles were identified: center-near, center-distance, and concentric-zone ring-type designs. For most of the lens types, the relative plus with respect to prescription power was lower than the corresponding spectacle add. For some lens types, the measured power profiles were shifted by up to 1D across the power range relative to their labeled power. Most of the lenses were designed with noticeable amounts of spherical aberration. The sign and magnitude of spherical aberration can either be power dependent or consistent across the power range. Power profiles can vary widely between the different lens types; however, certain similarities were also observed between some of the center-near designs. For the more recently released lens types, there seems to be a trend emerging to reduce the relative plus with respect to prescription power, include negative spherical aberration, and keep the power profiles consistent across the power range.

  12. Bacterial transmission from lens storage cases to contact lenses-Effects of lens care solutions and silver impregnation of cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeltfoort, Pit B J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C

    2008-10-01

    The killing efficacies of multipurpose lens care solutions on planktonic and biofilm bacteria grown in polypropylene contact lens storage cases with and without silver impregnation and effects on bacterial transmission from storage cases to silicone hydrogel contact lenses were investigated. For transmission studies, biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus 835 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa no. 3 were grown on lens storage cases and incubated with a contact lens in different multipurpose lens care solutions (Opti-Free(R)Express(R), ReNu(R) MultiPlus(R), and SoloCare Aquatrade mark) or 0.9% NaCl. In addition, planktonic bacteria were directly suspended in multipurpose solutions and their killing efficacies were determined. The numbers of transmitted live and dead bacteria on the lenses were measured using a combination of plate counting and fluorescence microscopy. The highest killing efficacies were shown by Opti-Free(R) Express(R) for planktonic as well as for biofilm bacteria. Silver impregnation of lens cases in combination with the prescribed solution increased the killing efficacy for P. aeruginosa in biofilms, whereas effects for S. aureus were minor. Lowest numbers of live and dead bacteria were transmitted to a lens in Opti-Free(R) Express(R) multipurpose solution, with no significant differences between lens types and no effects of silver impregnation. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical research on high oxygen permeable contact lens used after photorefractive keratectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Jiang Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the outcome of high oxygen permeable contact lens used after photorefractive keratectomy(PRKsurgery.METHODS: Totally 95 patients(190 eyesafter PRK were included. Patients were randomly assigned to wear high oxygen permeable contact lens in one eye and normal lens in the fellow eye after surgery. The subjective symptoms and corneal epithelial status after PRK were evaluated. Uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand haze were assessed at 6 months after PRK.RESULTS: Complaints of blurred vision, pain and photophobia were statistically more among the normal lens group than high oxygen permeable contact lens group(PPP=0.35. There was no difference in UCVA and haze 6 months after surgery(P=0.55. CONCLUSION: High oxygen permeable contact lens can significantly produce less the corneal irritated symptoms, reduce the discomfort feeling and promote healing of corneal epithelium after PRK.

  14. Determination of the total attenuation coefficient for six contact lens materials using the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, C C; Crofts, N C

    1996-03-01

    The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested.

  15. External ocular surface and lens microbiota in contact lens wearers with corneal infiltrates during extended wear of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark; Sharma, Savitri; Naduvilath, Thomas J; Sankaridurg, Padmaja R; Gopinathan, Usha; Holden, Brien A

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether carriage of microbes on the contact lens or ocular surfaces during extended wear (EW) with soft hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA)-based contact lenses predisposes the wearer to adverse events. Participants (non-contact lens wearers) were enrolled in a clinical study involving wear of HEMA-based hydrogel lenses on a six night EW basis with weekly replacement. Type and number of bacteria colonizing the lower lid margins, upper bulbar conjunctiva, and contact lenses during EW after one night, 1 week, 1 month, and thereafter every 3 months for 3.5 years were determined. The association of bacteria with adverse responses was compared between carriers (defined as having significant microbes cultured from two or more samples with 1 year) and noncarriers, and the strength of the association was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Carriers of gram-positive bacteria on lenses (particularly coagulase negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium spp.) were approximately three and eight times more likely to develop contact lens-induced peripheral ulcers (CLPUs) and asymptomatic infiltrates (AIs), respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was most frequently isolated from lenses during CLPU. Carriers of gram-negative bacteria on lenses were five times more likely to develop contact lens-induced acute red eye (CLARE). Haemophilus influenzae was isolated most frequently from lenses during CLARE and AI events. Bacterial carriage on contact lenses during EW predisposes the wearer to the development of corneal inflammatory events including CLARE, CLPU, and AI.

  16. Power profiles of single vision and multifocal soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra; Conrad, Fabian; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Fedtke, Cathleen; Ehrmann, Klaus; Holden, Brien A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optical zone power profile of the most commonly prescribed soft contact lenses to assess their potential impact on peripheral refractive error and hence myopia progression. The optical power profiles of six single vision and ten multifocal contact lenses of five manufacturers in the powers -1.00 D, -3.00 D, and -6.00 D were measured using the SHSOphthalmic (Optocraft GmbH, Erlangen, Germany). Instrument repeatability was also investigated. Instrument repeatability was dependent on the distance from the optical centre, manifesting unreliable data for the central 1mm of the optic zone. Single vision contact lens measurements of -6.00 D lenses revealed omafilcon A having the most negative spherical aberration, lotrafilcon A having the least. Somofilcon A had the highest minus power and lotrafilcon A the biggest deviation in positive direction, relative to their respective labelled powers. Negative spherical aberration occurred for almost all of the multifocal contact lenses, including the centre-distance designs etafilcon A bifocal and omafilcon A multifocal. Lotrafilcon B and balafilcon A seem to rely predominantly on the spherical aberration component to provide multifocality. Power profiles of single vision soft contact lenses varied greatly, many having a negative spherical aberration profile that would exacerbate myopia. Some lens types and powers are affected by large intra-batch variability or power offsets of more than 0.25 dioptres. Evaluation of power profiles of multifocal lenses was derived that provides helpful information for prescribing lenses for presbyopes and progressing myopes. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Risk of Contact Lens Wear and the Avoidance of Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farihah Tariq

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Contact lenses are lenses placed on the surface of the cornea to correct refractive errors such as myopia (short-sightedness, hypermetropia (far-sightedness and astigmatism. Lens-related complications are becoming a greater health concern as increasing number of individuals are using them as an alternative to spectacles. Contact lenses alter the natural ocular environment and reduce the efficacy of the innate defences. Although many complications are minor, microbial keratitis is potentially blinding and suspected cases should be rapidly diagnosed and referred to an ophthalmologist for treatment. Several risk factors have been identified with extended wear, poor hand hygiene, inadequate lens and lens-case care being the most significant. Promotion of good contact lens hygiene and practices are essential to reduce the adverse effects of contact lens wear.

  18. Soft contact lens biomaterials from bioinspired phospholipid polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Tatsuro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2006-03-01

    Soft contact lens (SCL) biomaterials originated from the discovery of a poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly[HEMA])-based hydrogel in 1960. Incorporation of hydrophilic polymers into poly(HEMA) hydrogels was performed in the 1970-1980s, which brought an increase in the equilibrium water content, leading to an enhancement of the oxygen permeability. Nowadays, the poly(HEMA)-based hydrogels have been applied in disposable SCL. At the same time, high oxygen-permeable silicone hydrogels were produced, which made it possible to continually wear SCL. Recently, numerous trials for improving the water wettability of silicone hydrogels have been performed. However, little attention has been paid to improving their anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. Since biomimetic phospholipid polymers possess excellent anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility they have the potential to play a valuable role in the surface modification of the silicone hydrogel. The representative phospholipid polymers containing a 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) unit suppressed nonspecific protein adsorption, increased cell compatibility and contributed to blood compatible biomaterials. The MPC polymer coating on the silicone hydrogel improved its water wettability and biocompatibility, while maintaining high oxygen permeability compared with the original silicone hydrogel. Furthermore, the newly prepared phospholipid-type intermolecular crosslinker made it possible to synthesize a 100% phospholipid polymer hydrogel that can enhance the anti-biofouling properties and biocompatibility. In this review, the authors discuss how polymer hydrogels should be designed in order to obtain a biocompatible SCL and future perspectives.

  19. Bacterial and fungal biofilm formation on contact lenses and their susceptibility to lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kackar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial biofilm formation on contact lenses and lens storage cases may be a risk factor for contact lens-associated corneal infections. Various types of contact lens care solutions are used to reduce microbial growths on lenses. Objectives: The present study aimed at comparing the growths of biofilms on the different contact lenses and lens cases. The study also aimed at determining the effect of lens care solutions and bacteriophage on these biofilms. Materials and Methods: One type of hard lens and two types of soft lenses were used for the study. The organisms used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 60193 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Biofilm production was performed by modified O'Toole and Kolter method and effect of lens cleaning solutions and a crude coliphage on biofilms was also studied. Results were visualised using scanning electron microscopy and quantitated by colony counting method and spectrophotometric measurement of optical density (OD. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 11.5, Kruskal–Wallis test and Chi-square test. Results: Soft lens cleaning solutions had a significant inhibitory effect (P = 0.020 on biofilm formation on soft lenses and also lens cases (P < 0.001. Soft lens cleaning solution 2 was more efficient than solution 1. However, no such inhibitory effect was observed with regard to hard lens cleaning solution, but for a significant reduction in the OD values (P < 0.001. There was no significant inhibitory effect by bacteriophages. Conclusion: This study showed the importance of selecting the appropriate lens cleaning solution to prevent biofilm production on contact lenses.

  20. Disinfection efficacy of contact lens care solutions against ocular pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Callahan, D E; McGrath, D; Manchester, R; Norton, S E

    2001-01-01

    Three commercially available products labeled as multi-purpose contact lens solutions, one multi-purpose disinfecting solution, and a hydrogen peroxide system were evaluated for antimicrobial activity according to the current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stand-alone procedure for disinfecting products. One multi-purpose solution was selected to assess its antimicrobial activity against two human corneal isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Products were challenged with bacteria and fungi, and following a specified period, aliquots of inoculated test solution were neutralized and plated on validated recovery media. After incubation the number of viable microorganisms was enumerated and mean log reductions determined. ReNu MultiPlus (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY), AOSEPT (CIBA Vision Corporation, Duluth, GA), and Opti-Free Express with Aldox (Alcon Laboratories, Ft. Worth, TX) were the only lens care products that met the stand-alone criteria for all required microorganisms within their minimum recommended disinfection time. Of these, ReNu MultiPlus provided the greatest overall antimicrobial activity. ReNu MultiPlus demonstrated a significantly higher mean log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens than Opti-Free Express. ReNu MultiPlus also gave a higher mean log reduction of S. aureus and S. marcescens than AOSEPT, and a higher mean log reduction of Candida albicans and Fusarium solani than AOSEPT, Complete Comfort Plus (Allergan, Irivine, CA), and Solo-Care (CIBA Vision Corp.) (at 4 hours). Both Complete Comfort Plus and Solo-Care (at 4 hours) met the primary acceptance criteria for bacteria; however, neither product possessed enough antimicrobial activity to meet the minimum criteria for yeast or mold. ReNu Multiplus was effective against corneal isolates of P. aeruginosa. ReNu MultiPlus, AOSEPT, and Opti-Free Express met the requirements of the stand-alone primary

  1. Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Kronborg, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    , and was treated with various topical antibiotics and steroids. 13 months after symptom onset the eye was removed owing to serious scarring of cornea and unbearable pain. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the cornea showed Acanthamoeba. In non-contact lens wearers suffering from Acanthamoeba......Acanthamoeba keratitis is potentially blinding and often associated with contact lens wearing. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient, a non-contact lens wearer, presented with keratitis. She experienced a protracted course of disease, characterized by exacerbations and remissions...

  2. A contact lens with integrated telecommunication circuit and sensors for wireless and continuous tear glucose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, H; Liao, Y; Lingley, A R; Afanasiev, A; Lähdesmäki, I; Otis, B P; Parviz, B A

    2012-01-01

    We present an integrated functional contact lens, composed of a differential glucose sensor module, metal interconnects, sensor read-out circuit, antenna and telecommunication circuit, to monitor tear glucose levels wirelessly, continuously and non-invasively. The electrochemical differential sensor module is based on immobilization of activated and de-activated glucose oxidase. We characterized the sensor on a model polymer eye and determined that it showed good repeatability, molecular interference rejection and linearity in the range of 0–2 mM glucose, covering normal tear glucose concentrations (0.1–0.6 mM). We also report the temperature, ageing and protein-fouling sensitivity of the sensor. We report the design and implementation of a low-power (3 µW) sensor read-out and telecommunication circuit to deliver wireless power and transmit data for the sensor module. Using this small chip (0.36 mm 2 ), we produced an integrated contact lens with sensors and demonstrated wireless operation of the system and glucose read-out over the distance of several centimeters. (paper)

  3. Compliance and hygiene behaviour among soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Nestha Mohamed, Fathimath; Bist, Jeewanand; Kandel, Himal; Marasini, Sanjay; Khadka, Jyoti

    2014-01-01

    Significant levels of non-compliance and poor hygiene among contact lens wearers have been reported previously from different parts of the world. This survey aimed at identifying the scope of hygiene and non-compliant behaviour of soft contact lens wearers in the Maldives. Established soft lens wearers attending two eye clinics in Male' city, were interviewed in office or via telephone. A set of interviewer-administered questions was used to access the subjective response on compliance and hygiene behaviour (hand and lens case hygiene, water exposure, adherence to lens replacement schedule, dozing and overnight wear, awareness of aftercare visits and reuse of disinfecting solution). Participants were also asked to rate themselves as a contact lens user based on their perceived compliance and hygiene practices. Out of 107 participants, 79 (74.8 per cent) were interviewed in the office and the rest via telephone. The majority of lens wearers were female, office workers and students, with a mean age of 20.64 ± 4.4 years. Mean duration of lens wear was 28.04 ± 8.36 months. Most of them were using spherical lenses (86.9 per cent) on a daily wear basis (96.3 per cent). Major reported forms of non-compliance were poor hand hygiene (60.7 per cent), lack of aftercare awareness (39.3 per cent), water exposure (35.5 per cent) and over-use of lenses (24.3 per cent). While females were more likely to overuse their lenses than males (p hygienic behaviour. A significant number of Maldivian contact lens wearers exhibited poor levels of hygiene and compliance with contact lenses and lens care systems. An effective educational reinforcement strategy needs to be developed to modify lens wearers' non-compliance. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2013 Optometrists Association Australia.

  4. Effect of infusion bottle height on lens power after lens refilling with and without a plug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of intraoperative infusion bottle height on the power of refilled pig lenses. Setting: Research Laboratory, Pharmacia Intraocular Lens Manufacturing Plant, Groningen, The Netherlands. Methods: This study comprised 2 groups of pig eyes. In 1 group, the lens was

  5. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. [Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    . These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy. Learning Objectives: To become familiar with method of eye dose estimation for patient in specific situation of brain perfusion CT To become familiar with level of eye lens radiation doses in patients undergoing brain perfusion MDCT To understand methods for reducing eye lens dose to patient Jong Min Park, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Eye lens dosimetry in radiotherapy using contact lens-shaped applicator Dose calculation accuracy of commercial treatment planning systems is relatively low at shallow depths. Therefore, in-vivo measurements are often performed in the clinic to verify delivered doses to eye lens which are located at shallow depth. Current in-vivo dosimetry for eye lens during radiotherapy is generally performed with small in-vivo dosimeters on the surface of patient eyelid. Since this procedure potentially contains considerable uncertainty, a contact lens-shaped applicator made of acrylic (lens applicator) was developed for in-vivo measurements of eye lens dose during radiotherapy to reduce uncertainty. The lens applicator allows the insertion of commercially available metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Computed tomography (CT) images of an anthropomorphic phantom with and without the lens applicator were acquired. A total of 20 VMAT plans were delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom and the doses with the lens applicator and the doses at the surface of the eyelid were measured using both micro and standard MOSFET dosimeters. The differences in measured dose at the surface of the eyelid from the calculated lens dose were acquired. The differences between the measured and the calculated doses at the lens applicator, as well as the differences between the measured and the calculated doses at the surface of the eyelid were acquired. The statistical significance of the

  6. TU-E-201-03: Eye Lens Dosimetry in Radiotherapy Using Contact Lens-Shaped Applicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.

    2015-01-01

    . These actions should be considered when they are consistent with the clinical task and patient anatomy. Learning Objectives: To become familiar with method of eye dose estimation for patient in specific situation of brain perfusion CT To become familiar with level of eye lens radiation doses in patients undergoing brain perfusion MDCT To understand methods for reducing eye lens dose to patient Jong Min Park, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Eye lens dosimetry in radiotherapy using contact lens-shaped applicator Dose calculation accuracy of commercial treatment planning systems is relatively low at shallow depths. Therefore, in-vivo measurements are often performed in the clinic to verify delivered doses to eye lens which are located at shallow depth. Current in-vivo dosimetry for eye lens during radiotherapy is generally performed with small in-vivo dosimeters on the surface of patient eyelid. Since this procedure potentially contains considerable uncertainty, a contact lens-shaped applicator made of acrylic (lens applicator) was developed for in-vivo measurements of eye lens dose during radiotherapy to reduce uncertainty. The lens applicator allows the insertion of commercially available metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) dosimeters. Computed tomography (CT) images of an anthropomorphic phantom with and without the lens applicator were acquired. A total of 20 VMAT plans were delivered to an anthropomorphic phantom and the doses with the lens applicator and the doses at the surface of the eyelid were measured using both micro and standard MOSFET dosimeters. The differences in measured dose at the surface of the eyelid from the calculated lens dose were acquired. The differences between the measured and the calculated doses at the lens applicator, as well as the differences between the measured and the calculated doses at the surface of the eyelid were acquired. The statistical significance of the

  7. Corneal cell adhesion to contact lens hydrogel materials enhanced via tear film protein deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M Elkins

    Full Text Available Tear film protein deposition on contact lens hydrogels has been well characterized from the perspective of bacterial adhesion and viability. However, the effect of protein deposition on lens interactions with the corneal epithelium remains largely unexplored. The current study employs a live cell rheometer to quantify human corneal epithelial cell adhesion to soft contact lenses fouled with the tear film protein lysozyme. PureVision balafilcon A and AirOptix lotrafilcon B lenses were soaked for five days in either phosphate buffered saline (PBS, borate buffered saline (BBS, or Sensitive Eyes Plus Saline Solution (Sensitive Eyes, either pure or in the presence of lysozyme. Treated contact lenses were then contacted to a live monolayer of corneal epithelial cells for two hours, after which the contact lens was sheared laterally. The apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus was then used to quantify the extent of cell adhesion to the contact lens surface. For both lens types, lysozyme increased corneal cell adhesion to the contact lens, with the apparent cell monolayer relaxation modulus increasing up to an order of magnitude in the presence of protein. The magnitude of this increase depended on the identity of the soaking solution: lenses soaked in borate-buffered solutions (BBS, Sensitive Eyes exhibited a much greater increase in cell attachment upon protein addition than those soaked in PBS. Significantly, all measurements were conducted while subjecting the cells to moderate surface pressures and shear rates, similar to those experienced by corneal cells in vivo.

  8. Corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in contact lens discomfort patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Aysun Sanal; Gurdal, Canan; Arslan, Nese

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in patients with contact lens discomfort. The study included 3 groups of participants: Contact lens wearers using silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses who are symptomatic (CLD, n=15) or asymptomatic (ACL, n=11) and non-wearers as controls (n=14). Duration of contact lens wear, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire responses, fluorescein tear break-uptime (FBUT), and corneal confocal microscopy findings were recorded. Mean age was 25.7±8.2 years and male/female ratio was 7/33. Demographic findings were similar regarding the groups. CLD patients had a longer lens use history than ACL (median 5 vs 2 years, pCLD group than ACL or controls (pCLD group, compared to controls and ACL (pCLD group compared to controls but similar to ACL (pCLD group than the ACL (p=0.014). Patients with CLD had been wearing contact lenses for longer than those without symptoms. OSDI and FBUT scores were worse in CLD patients. In contact lens discomfort patients, there were increased dendritiform cells, indicating intensified inflammatory status of the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contact lens-related polymicrobial keratitis from Pantoea agglomerans and Escherichia vulneris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent D. Venincasa

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: This is the first report of P. agglomerans and E. vulneris keratitis in association with contact lens wear. Both strains of P. agglomerans and E. vulneris were pansensitive to all tested antibiotics.

  10. Dark secrets behind the shimmer of contact lens: the Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Deepak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied the bacteriological profile of soft contact lens and its accessories among the asymptomatic subjects and monitored the compliance level with the lens use and its cleaning protocol. Findings A total of 115 (104 daily wear and 11 extended wear subjects using contact lens were studied. Data regarding the duration of use and frequency and method of cleaning were recorded. Contact lens, lens cases, preserving solutions and tips of solution bottles were the samples collected. The isolates were identified on the basis of their phenotypic characters. Samples from 24 subjects (21 daily wear and 3 extended wear were found contaminated. Of the 24 contaminated cases, 23 showed medium adherence to the cleaning protocol. Contamination rate was higher among the 56 daily wear lens users who used same lens for 2 years and more, than the 48 users who used their lenses for less than 2 years. Lens case contamination was found in all the 24 cases. The bacteria isolated were Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. In extended wear lens users, there was no change in microbial flora on repeating the cultures on day 7 and 14. Conclusion Non-compliance with contact lens use may lead to invitation of microbial flora. The accumulation of these bacteria may act as a precursor to biofilm formation, thus colonizing the lens accessories as well. The bacteria isolated in this study were similar to the ones causing microbial keratitis thus, predisposing the otherwise asymptomatic subjects to permanent visual damage.

  11. Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Kokke, K. H.; Morris, J. A.; Lawrenson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of dry eye are commonly reported in contact lens wearers and are a frequent cause of non-tolerance. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with particular omega-6 fatty acids in the form of evening primrose oil (EPO) on subjective symptoms, ocular surface signs and tear film characteristic in patients with contact lens associated dry eye.

  12. Effect of hemodialysis on intraocular lens power calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalışkan, Sinan; Çelikay, Osman; Biçer, Tolga; Aylı, Mehmet Deniz; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate changes in ocular biometric parameters after hemodialysis (HD) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Forty eyes of 40 patients undergoing HD were included in this cross-sectional study. Keratometry (K) readings, white-to-white (WTW) distance, central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), pupil diameter, lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL), and intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation were measured with Lenstar LS 900 (Haag Streit AG, Koeniz, Switzerland) before and after hemodialysis. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a non-contact tonometer (Tonopachy NT-530P, Nidek Co., LTD, Tokyo, Japan). Main outcomes were changes in biometric parameters after HD. Reliability of the measurements (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs)) and the effect size (Cohen's d) were also calculated. Mean difference in AL before and after HD was -0.041 ± 0.022 mm with ICCs > 0.90 (p  0.90 (p = 0.041 and Cohen's d = 0.20). Hemodialysis had no significant effect on K readings, WTW distance, CCT, ACD, LT, or IOP. Axial length and pupil diameter increase after HD with small effect size, while HD does not significantly affect IOL power calculations.

  13. Treatment, material, care, and patient-related factors in contact lens-related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamoorthy, Padmapriya; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effect of general contact lens and material characteristics, care solutions, treatment, and patient-related factors on contact lens-related dry eye. The data were derived from the Contact Lens and Dry Eye Study, designed as a cross-sectional and nested case-control study including 360 subjects. In separate statistical models, logistic regression was used to examine general contact lens characteristics, specific hydrogel lens materials, care solutions, and patient-related factors associated with dry eye status (controlled for age, gender, and current treatments). Several factors were significantly associated with dry eye, including treatment factors such as a recent contact lens refitting (odds ratios [OR] = 5.75, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = 2.14 to 15.46) and use of artificial tears/rewetting drops (OR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.16), in addition, currently worn materials including Food and Drug Administration (FDA) group II (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.14 to 6.19) and IV (OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.08 to 3.24). Significant patient-related factors included decreased overall satisfaction (OR = 3.57, 95% CI = 2.08 to 5.88,), dry eye in the absence of contact lens wear (OR = 6.54, 95% CI = 2.57 to 16.62), reduced daily lens wear duration (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.26), and reduced ability to wear lenses as long as desired (OR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.54). Care solutions were not associated with contact lens-related dry eye. The strong association of common treatment factors with dry eye status in contact lens wearers suggests that these treatments are not entirely effective. The use of high water content materials was strongly related to dry eye in lens wearers, whereas care solutions were not. Contact lens-related dry eye was also associated with several patient-related factors such as greater ocular discomfort (without lenses), dissatisfaction, and inability to wear lenses for desired durations.

  14. Effect of microwave treatment to acanthamoeba: a possibility of contact lens storage case sterilization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiti, K.; Faschinger, C.; Haller-Schober, E.M.; Walochnik, J.; Aspoeck, H.; Hiti, B.

    2003-01-01

    Microbially contaminated contact lens storage cases are considered to be a predisposing risk factor for Acanthamoeba keratitis. What kind of effect does microwave irradiation have on contact lens cases contaminated with Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites? Different types of contact lens cases were contaminated with trophozoites and cysts of three different Acanthamoeba species (A. hatchetti, A. castellanii, A. comandoni) and exposed to microwave irradiation for 3, 5 and 8 minutes respectively. One of the three test series was run with dehydrated cysts. After an irradiation period of 3 minutes under humid conditions cysts and trophozoites of all three strains were completely destroyed. Dehydrated cysts of A. hatchetti and A. castellanii were not killed by irradiation. There were no negative effects of irradiation on the contact lens cases themselves. Acanthamoeba cysts and trophozoites are effectively killed by microwave irradiation on condition that irradiation takes place in humid conditions. This can be easily achieved by filling the contact lens storage cases with tap water. We recommend microwave irradiation as a cheap and save method for the sterilization of contact lens cases in order to avoid a possible Acanthamoeba infection of the eye. (author)

  15. Myopia, contact lens use and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lynette; Manny, Ruth E; Weissberg, Erik; Fern, Karen D

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate whether contact lens (CL) use was associated with self-esteem in myopic children originally enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), that after 5 years continued as an observational study of myopia progression with CL use permitted. Usable data at the 6-year visit, one year after CL use was allowed (n = 423/469, age 12-17 years), included questions on CL use, refractive error measurements and self-reported self-esteem in several areas (scholastic/athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioural conduct and global self-worth). Self-esteem, scored from 1 (low) to 4 (high), was measured by the Self-Perception Profile for Children in participants under 14 years or the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, in those 14 years and older. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between self-esteem and relevant factors identified by univariate analyses (e.g., CL use, gender, ethnicity), while adjusting for baseline self-esteem prior to CL use. Mean (±S.D.) self-esteem scores at the 6-year visit (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.3 years; mean refractive error = -4.6 ± 1.5 D) ranged from 2.74 (± 0.76) on athletic competence to 3.33 (± 0.53) on global self-worth. CL wearers (n = 224) compared to eyeglass wearers (n = 199) were more likely to be female (p self-esteem or CL use. COMET participants who chose to wear CLs after 5 years of eyeglass use had higher self-esteem compared to those who remained in glasses both preceding and following CL use. This suggests that self-esteem may influence the decision to wear CLs and that CLs in turn are associated with higher self-esteem in individuals most likely to wear them. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Survival at Posterior Contact Lens Surfaces after Daily Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T.; Zhu, Lucia S.; Tam, K. P. Connie; Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis is a sight-threatening complication of contact lens wear, yet mechanisms by which lenses predispose to infection remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that tear fluid at the posterior contact lens surface can lose antimicrobial activity over time during lens wear. Methods Daily disposable lenses were worn for 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 h immediately after removal from their packaging, or after presoaking in sterile saline for 2 days to remove packaging solution. Unworn lenses were also tested, some coated in tears “aged” in vitro for 1 or 8 h. Lenses were placed anterior surface down into tryptic soy agar cradles containing gentamicin (100µg/ml) to kill bacteria already on the lens, and posterior surfaces inoculated with gentamicin-resistant P. aeruginosa for 3 h. Surviving bacteria were enumerated by viable counts of lens homogenates. Results Posterior surfaces of lenses worn by patients for 8 h supported more P. aeruginosa growth than lenses worn for only 1 h, if lenses were presoaked prior to wear (~ 2.4-fold, p = 0.01). This increase was offset if lenses were not presoaked to remove packaging solution (p = 0.04 at 2 h and 4 h). Irrespective of presoaking, lenses worn for 8 h showed more growth on their posterior surface than unworn lenses coated with tear fluid that was “aged” for 8 h vitro (~8.6-fold, presoaked, p = 0.003: ~ 5.4-fold from packaging solution, p = 0.004). Indeed, in vitro incubation did not impact tear antimicrobial activity. Conclusions This study shows that post lens tear fluid can lose antimicrobial activity over time during contact lens wear, supporting the idea that efficient tear exchange under a lens is critical for homeostasis. Additional studies are needed to determine applicability to other lens types, wearing modalities, and relevance to contact lens-related infections. PMID:25955639

  17. Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates to hydrogel contact lens disinfection correlates with cytotoxic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkis, C; Fleiszig, S M

    2001-04-01

    One of the most common pathogens in infection of hydrogel contact lens wearers is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can gain access to the eye via contamination of the lens, lens case, and lens care solutions. Only one strain per species is used in current regulatory testing for the marketing of chemical contact lens disinfectants. The aim of this study was to determine whether P. aeruginosa strains vary in their susceptibility to hydrogel contact lens disinfectants. A method for rapidly screening bacterial susceptibility to contact lens disinfectants was developed, based on measurement of the MIC. The susceptibility of 35 P. aeruginosa isolates to two chemical disinfectants was found to vary among strains. MICs ranged from 6.25 to 100% for both disinfectants at 37 degrees C, and a number of strains were not inhibited by a 100% disinfectant concentration in the lens case environment at room temperature (22 degrees C). Resistance to disinfection appeared to be an inherent rather than acquired trait, since some resistant strains had been isolated prior to the introduction of the disinfectants and some susceptible P. aeruginosa strains could not be made more resistant by repeated disinfectant exposure. A number of P. aeruginosa strains which were comparatively more resistant to short-term disinfectant exposure also demonstrated the ability to grow to levels above the initial inoculum in one chemical disinfectant after long-term (24 to 48 h) disinfectant exposure. Resistance was correlated with acute cytotoxic activity toward corneal epithelial cells and with exsA, which encodes a protein that regulates cytotoxicity via a complex type III secretion system. These results suggest that chemical disinfection solutions may select for contamination with cytotoxic strains. Further investigation of the mechanisms and factors responsible for resistance may also lead to strategies for reducing adverse responses to contact lens wear.

  18. Intraocular pressure measurement over soft contact lens by rebound tonometer: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacaroglu, Senay Asik; Un, Emine Seker; Ersoz, Mehmet Giray; Tasci, Yelda

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements by Icare rebound tonometer over a contact lens in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Fifty patients using contact lens were included in this study. One of the eyes of the patients was selected randomly and their IOP were measured by rebound tonometer with and without contact lens (RTCL, RT respectively) and by GAT, as well as their central corneal thickness (CCT) by optical pachymeter. The results of both methods were compared by correlation analysis, general linear method repeated measure and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean IOP values measured by RTCL, RT and GAT were 15.68±3.7, 14.50±3.4 and 14.16±2.8 (Pcontact lens by rebound tonometer was found to be higher than what was measured by GAT. Although this difference is statistically significant, it may be clinically negligible in the normal population.

  19. Artificial pupil versus contralateral balanced contact lens fit for presbyopia correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago García-Lázaro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess and compare the effects of contact lens-based artificial pupil design and contralateral balanced multifocal contact lens combination (CBMCLC on visual performance. Methods: This randomized crossover study conducted at the University of Valencia, Spain included 38 presbyopic patients using an artificial pupil contact lens in the nondominant eye and a CBMCLC. After a month of lens wear, the binocular distance visual acuity (BDVA, binocular near visual acuity (BNVA, defocus curve, binocular distance, and near contrast sensitivity and near stereoacuity (NSA were measured under photopic conditions (85 cd/m2. Moreover, BDVA and binocular distance contrast sensitivity were examined under mesopic conditions (5 cd/m2. Results: Visual acuity at an intermediate distance and near vision was better with the CBMCLC than with the artificial pupil (p<0.05. Statistically significant differences were found in contrast sensitivity between the two types of correction for distance (under mesopic conditions and for near vision, with the CBMCLC exhibiting better results in both cases (p<0.05. The mean NSA values obtained for the artificial pupil contact lens were significantly worse than those for the CBMCLC (p=0.001. Conclusion: The CBMCLC provided greater visual performance in terms of intermediate and near vision compared with the artificial pupil contact lens.

  20. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses after exposure to multi-purpose lens care solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, GM; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ; de Vries, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    Elemental surface compositions of contact lenses were measured after exposure to different lens care solutions (LCS) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and were related to adhesion and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Etafilcon A and polymacon contact lenses, prior to and after exposure to

  1. Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokke, Karolien H; Morris, Judith A; Lawrenson, John G

    2008-06-01

    Symptoms of dry eye are commonly reported in contact lens wearers and are a frequent cause of non-tolerance. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of oral treatment with particular omega-6 fatty acids in the form of evening primrose oil (EPO) on subjective symptoms, ocular surface signs and tear film characteristic in patients with contact lens associated dry eye. The study design was randomised, double-masked and placebo controlled. 76 female soft contact lens wearers were treated for 6 months with either EPO or placebo (olive oil). Subjects underwent three examinations (baseline, 3 and 6 months). At each examination subjects were given a questionnaire relating to lens comfort and dry eye symptoms and underwent a series of tests of tear film characteristics (tear meniscus height, break-up time), meibomian gland function (lipid layer thickness and quality) and ocular surface parameters (hyperaemia and staining). The EPO group showed a significant improvement in the specific symptom of 'dryness' at 3 and 6 months (porally administered omega-6 fatty acids in alleviating dry eye symptoms and improving overall lens comfort in patients suffering from contact lens associated dry eye.

  2. The impact of cellular debris on Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to silicone hydrogel contact lenses and contact lens storage cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Geoffrey W; Cavanagh, H Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate neutrophil-enhanced Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) biofilm formation on silicone hydrogel contact lenses and to determine the effect of epithelial biodebris on PA adherence in contact lens storage cases. A fully invasive PA corneal isolate stably conjugated to green fluorescent protein was used. Unworn lotrafilcon A contact lenses were incubated at various ratios of PA to polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) for 24 hours at 37°C. Lens-associated PA was evaluated using laser scanning confocal microscopy and nonviable PA were visualized using propidium iodide. Viable bacteria were enumerated by colony-forming unit (CFU) analysis. For acute epithelial cell studies, PA viability was determined after coincubation with freeze-thaw epithelial cell lysates in 96-well polystyrene plates. Levels of residual cellular debris and bacterial viability were further assessed in used contact lens storage cases. Laser scanning confocal microscopy demonstrated that cotreatment with PMA-stimulated neutrophils increased PA adherence over 24 hours to lens surfaces with a striking alteration of PA architecture. Propidium iodide staining showed that the adherent bacteria consisted of a mixture of viable and nonviable PA; a PMN-associated increase in viable PA was confirmed by CFU (PA:PMN 0.1:1, P = 0.025; PA:PMN 1:1, P = 0.005). Acute epithelial cell debris studies revealed a significant increase in viable PA in 96-well plates in the presence of epithelial freeze-thaw lysates (PA:debris 1:1, P = 0.002; PA:debris 100:1, P = 0.002). Crystal violet staining of used lens storage cases revealed residual cellular debris at all time points, which was independent of microbial contamination; all lens cases used for periods of 9 months or more were uniformly associated with high levels of viable microorganisms. These results demonstrate that prolonged corneal inflammation with the presence of PMNs when confronted with simultaneous PA challenge in extended contact lens wear has the potential

  3. In-vitro analysis of the microbicidal activity of 6 contact lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrandt Claudia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact lens-related infections are often associated with inadequate contact lens hygiene, and therefore, contact lens care products should be able to sufficiently minimise the amount of pathogens that are responsible for these infections. In 2001, the EN ISO 14729 was introduced to ensure adequate disinfection efficacy of contact lens care solutions, but this norm has recently been criticised. Methods In this study, six frequently used contact lens care solutions were retested according to the Stand Alone Test of the EN ISO 14729 (2001. The Stand Alone Test is a quantitative suspension test. In addition, the products were tested in a modified setting adding an organic load. The load was a mixture of human blood serum, lysozyme, and mucine, which resembles tear fluid. Results The criteria of the Stand Alone Test recommended in EN ISO 14729 were only met by Aosept Plus. This 3% hydrogen-peroxide-based contact lens care solution attained a reduction factor of > 5 log units for bacteria and > 4 for fungi in all cases. Two further contact lens care solutions, Blue Vision and Optifree Replenish, met the criteria of a reduction factor of > 3 log units for bacteria and > 1 log unit for fungi, but only in the presence of artificial tear fluid. The three remaining products did not exhibit adequate disinfecting efficacy, at least against one of the tested microorganisms. Conclusions Through the observation that the artificial tear fluid used in this study influences the disinfecting efficacy of contact lens care solutions, especially that of multi-purpose solutions, in a different way than does albumin, mucine, or even the organic load suggested in EN ISO 14729, it becomes obvious that the test conditions in the EN ISO 14729 should be revised in order to create more realistic conditions, e.g., by using a more realistic artificial tear fluid. Furthermore, we suggest adapting the EN ISO 14729 to the European test hierarchy for chemical

  4. Vortexlike Power Flow at the Interfaces of Metamaterial Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The metamaterial lens with DPS/DNS/DPS structure has been realized by using the two-dimensional (2D isotropic transmission line approach. We studied the vortexlike power flow at the interfaces of metamaterial lens and validated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulator. The computational results showing its different conditions near DPS/DNS and other kinds of interfaces are obtained by CST STUDIO SUITE at different frequencies, and demonstrate the intuitionistic power location at the metamaterial lens interfaces.

  5. Performance evaluation of delefilcon a water gradient daily disposable contact lenses in first-time contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sebastian; Lauenborg, Bo; Kern, Jami R

    2018-02-06

    To evaluate the tolerability of and subject and investigator satisfaction with delefilcon A (DAILIES TOTAL1 ® ) daily disposable contact lenses in first-time contact lens wearers. This European multicenter, open-label, single-arm, two-week trial enrolled first-time contact lens wearers and fitted them with delefilcon A contact lenses. Assessments were made at dispensing and at Weeks 1 and 2. Subject-reported outcomes included comfort, quality of vision, convenience, and intent to purchase, which were ranked by agreement responses. Investigator-reported outcomes included slit-lamp biomicroscopy findings and lens fit satisfaction. Ninety-two subjects were included in the per protocol dataset. Mean scores at Weeks 1 and 2 for subject-reported quality of vision and ocular comfort were significantly higher with delefilcon A contact lenses than with the subjects' habitual spectacles during the day, at the end of the day, and overall (all p ≤ 0.02). Ninety-one percent of subjects reported that their study lenses were more comfortable than expected, 98% agreed that they were convenient to use, and 92% were interested in purchasing the lenses (all p disposable contact lenses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Clinical Presentation and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Contact Lens Associated Microbial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Hedayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In recent years, the number of contact lens wearers has dramatically increased in Iran, particularly in youngsters. The purpose of current study was to assess the clinical presentation and antibiotic susceptibility of contact lens related microbial keratitis in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Methodology. A cross-sectional investigation of 26 patients (33 eyes with contact lens induced corneal ulcers who were admitted to Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahwaz City, from June 2012 to June 2013 was done. In order to study microbial culture and susceptibility of corneal ulcers, all of them were scraped. Results. Eight samples were reported as sterile. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (80% in positive cultures was the most widely recognized causative organism isolated. This is followed by Staphylococcus aureus 12% and Enterobacter 8%. The results showed that 84% of the microorganism cases were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, while imipenem, meropenem, and ceftazidime were the second most effective antibiotics (76%. Conclusion. Results of current study show the importance of referring all contact lens wearers with suspected corneal infection to ophthalmologists for more cure. The corneal scraping culture and contact lens solution should be performed to guide antibiotic therapy.

  7. Contact lens wear by Royal Air Force aircrew in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Richard M

    2014-04-01

    To provide an overview of the use of contact lenses by RAF aircrew in World War II by identifying some of the fitters and wearers and appraising the clinical results that they achieved. A wide-ranging literature search was undertaken that encompassed peer-reviewed journals, non-refereed publications, books, official publications, newspapers and archived documents. Thirty-one aircrew are known to have worn sealed scleral lenses in order to meet the required visual standards. Of these, only two were considered to be completely unsuccessful, one of whom was unilaterally aphakic. One additional case of undisclosed contact lens wear was found and the identity of this officer was established. Brief biographies of a few pilots establish the context of their contact lens wear. Overall, the results of scleral lens wear were variable reflecting those achieved by civilian patients of the period. While three men complained of discomfort due to heat and glare, one pilot experienced no photophobia when flying above white clouds in brilliant sunshine and another found no difficulty caused by altitude or tropical climate. Wearing time ranged from about 2h to 16, or more, hours. In about a third of the cases, wearing time was limited due to the onset of a form of contact lens induced-epithelial oedema known as Sattler's veil and effective solutions to this problem were not implemented until after the war. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phospholipids and their degrading enzyme in the tears of soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Motoko; Hata, Seiichiro

    2006-12-01

    Low tear phospholipids levels are associated with tear film instability in soft contact lens wearers. We assayed levels of phospholipids and their degrading enzyme secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) both in tears and deposited on contact lenses composed of 2 hydrophilic materials after 1 day of routine use. Polymacon (Medalist; FDA group 1, low water/nonionic) and Etafilcon A (One Day Acuvue; group 4, high water/ionic) contact lenses were worn for 12 hours by 16 experienced contact lens wearers. Phospholipids in tear fluids and deposited on contact lenses were estimated by phosphorus determination with ammonium molybdate through enzymatic digestion. Double-antibody sandwich ELISA was used to determine group IIa sPLA2 concentrations, and sPLA2 activity was assayed using 1,2-diheptanoyl thio-phosphatidylcholine as substrate. Phospholipids concentrations in tears with Polymacon and Etafilcon A were 186 +/- 39 and 162 +/- 33 microg/mL, respectively. The latter concentration was significantly lower than that observed in the same subjects when not wearing contact lenses (P = 0.0023). In tears, both group IIa sPLA2 concentrations and enzymatic activity remained unchanged, regardless of lens wearing. However, Etafilcon A (0.57 +/- 0.09 microg/lens) showed more group IIa sPLA2 deposition than Polymacon (0.01 +/- 0.01 microg/lens; P < 0.001). Furthermore, group IIa sPLA2 deposited on Etafilcon A but not on Polymacon lenses retained its enzymatic activity. Significant differences of group IIa sPLA2 deposition were found in the 2 lenses tested. Such deposition might induce phospholipid hydrolysis in tears and thereby promote tear film instability in hydrophilic contact lens wearers.

  9. Oral omega-3 fatty acid treatment for dry eye in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) supplementation on dry eye symptoms, tear film tests, and conjunctival impression cytology in patients with contact lens wear-associated dry eye. In this randomized, double-blind, multicentric trial, contact lens wearers (n = 496) were randomized to receive either O3FAs or placebo capsules (corn oil) twice daily for 6 months. Subjects underwent examinations at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At each visit, a questionnaire of dry eye symptoms and lens wear comfort was administered. Subjects further underwent measurement of tear film break-up time (TBUT) and a Schirmer test. Conjunctival impression cytology was performed by the transfer method. Improvement in symptoms and lens wear comfort were primary outcome measures. Changes from baseline in TBUT, Schirmer, and Nelson grade at 6 months were secondary outcome measures. The mean improvement in symptom score in the O3FA group was 4.7 ± 2 (2.0) as compared with 0.5 ± 2 (0.9) in the placebo group (P dry eye symptoms, improving lens wear comfort, and cytological changes in contact lens wearers.

  10. Contact Lens Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-18

    Contact lenses are a convenient and effective alternative to traditional eye glasses, but improper care and use can result in severe damage to the eyes. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper care and use of contact lenses.  Created: 8/18/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 8/18/2016.

  11. Contact Lens Safety (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Contact lenses are a convenient and effective alternative to traditional eye glasses, but improper care and use can result in severe damage to the eyes. In this podcast, Dr. Jennifer Cope discusses the importance of proper care and use of contact lenses.

  12. Acanthamoeba keratitis in a non-contact lens wearer with human immunodeficiency virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Kronborg, Gitte

    2003-01-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is potentially blinding and often associated with contact lens wearing. A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient, a non-contact lens wearer, presented with keratitis. She experienced a protracted course of disease, characterized by exacerbations and remissions......, and was treated with various topical antibiotics and steroids. 13 months after symptom onset the eye was removed owing to serious scarring of cornea and unbearable pain. Microbiological and histopathological examination of the cornea showed Acanthamoeba. In non-contact lens wearers suffering from Acanthamoeba...... keratitis the diagnosis is delayed, pathognomonic features are often not seen and visual outcome is usually poor. There is no known relation between HIV infection and Acanthamoeba keratitis....

  13. Resistance of Acanthamoeba cysts to disinfection in multiple contact lens solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephanie P; Sriram, Rama; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Roy, Sharon; Verani, Jennifer; Yoder, Jonathan; Lorick, Suchita; Roberts, Jacquelin; Beach, Michael J; Visvesvara, Govinda

    2009-07-01

    Acanthamoebae are free-living amoebae found in the environment, including soil, freshwater, brackish water, seawater, hot tubs, and Jacuzzis. Acanthamoeba species can cause keratitis, a painful vision-threatening infection of the cornea, and fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. More than 20 species of Acanthamoeba belonging to morphological groups I, II, and III distributed in 15 genotypes have been described. Among these, Acanthamoeba castellanii, A. polyphaga, and A. hatchetti are frequently identified as causing Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). Improper contact lens care and contact with nonsterile water while wearing contact lenses are known risk factors for AK. During a recent multistate outbreak, AK was found to be associated with the use of Advanced Medical Optics Complete MoisturePlus multipurpose contact lens solution, which was hypothesized to have had insufficient anti-Acanthamoeba activity. As part of the investigation of that outbreak, we compared the efficacies of 11 different contact lens solutions against cysts of A. castellanii, A. polyphaga, and A. hatchetti (the isolates of all species were genotype T4), which were isolated in 2007 from specimens obtained during the outbreak investigation. The data, generated with A. castellanii, A. polyphaga, and A. hatchetti cysts, suggest that the two contact lens solutions containing hydrogen peroxide were the only solutions that showed any disinfection ability, with 0% and 66% growth, respectively, being detected with A. castellanii and 0% and 33% growth, respectively, being detected with A. polyphaga. There was no statistically significant difference in disinfection efficacy between the 11 solutions for A. hatchetti.

  14. Impact of lens case hygiene guidelines on contact lens case contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T; Teng, Yuu Juan; Nicholas, Mary; Harmis, Najat; Zhu, Hua; Willcox, Mark D P; Stapleton, Fiona

    2011-10-01

    Lens case contamination is a risk factor for microbial keratitis. The effectiveness of manufacturers' lens case cleaning guidelines in limiting microbial contamination has not been evaluated in vivo. This study compared the effectiveness of manufacturers' guidelines and an alternative cleaning regimen. A randomized cross-over clinical trial with two phases (n = 40) was performed. Participants used the lens types of their choice in conjunction with the provided multipurpose solution (containing polyhexamethylene biguanide) for daily wear. In the manufacturers' guideline phase, cases were rinsed with multipurpose solution and air dried. In the alternative regimen phase, cases were rubbed, rinsed with solution, tissue wiped, and air-dried face down. The duration of each phase was 1 month. Lens cases were collected at the end of each phase for microbiological investigation. The levels of microbial contamination were compared, and compliance to both regimens was assessed. The case contamination rate was 82% (32/39) in the manufacturers' guideline group, compared with 72% (28/39) in the alternative regimen group. There were significantly fewer (p = 0.004) colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria from cases used by following the alternative regimen (CFU range of 0 to 10, and median of 12 CFU per well) compared with that of the manufacturer's guidelines (CFU range of 0 to 10, and median of 28 CFU per well). The compliance level between both guidelines was not significantly different (p > 0.05). The alternative guidelines are more effective in eliminating microbial contamination from lens cases than that of the current manufacturer's guideline. Simply incorporating rubbing and tissue-wiping steps in daily case hygiene reduces viable organism contamination.

  15. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Esther M; Grus, Franz-H; Pfeiffer, Norbert

    2004-03-23

    The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT), investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland) allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA). It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens,a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland). Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens. No difference (P = 0.09) was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg) and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg). The IOP values of SmartLens (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg) were significantly higher (P = 0.0008) both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg) were significantly lower (P = 0.0003) than those obtained by SmartLens (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg). DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens (contact lens tonometry) gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  16. In Vitro Effect of Lysozyme on Albumin Deposition to Hydrogel Contact Lens Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei Omali, Negar; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Heynen, Miriam; Fadli, Zohra; Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Jones, Lyndon W

    2017-11-01

    Albumin deposition on contact lenses could be detrimental to contact lens (CL) wear because this may increase the risk of bacterial binding and reduce comfort. Lysozyme deposition on selected lens materials would reduce albumin deposition on lenses. This study aims to determine if lysozyme deposition on CLs could act as a barrier against subsequent albumin adsorption, using an in vitro model. Six hydrogel CL materials (etafilcon A, polymacon, nelfilcon A, omafilcon A, ocufilcon B, and nesofilcon A) were evaluated. Four CLs of each type were soaked in lysozyme solution for 16 hours at 37°C. Lysozyme-coated lenses were then placed in vials with 1.5 mL of artificial tear solution containing I-labeled albumin for 16 hours at 37°C with shaking. Four uncoated lenses of each type were used as controls. Lenses soaked in radiolabeled albumin were rinsed in a phosphate-buffered saline solution, and radioactive counts were measured directly on lenses using a gamma counter. Albumin uptake on lenses was measured using a calibration curve by plotting radioactive counts versus protein concentration. Results are reported as mean ± SD. Lysozyme-coated etafilcon A lenses exhibited lower levels of deposited albumin than uncoated etafilcon A lenses (58 ± 12 vs. 84 ± 5 ng/lens; P albumin adsorption between control (uncoated) and lysozyme-coated polymacon (105 ± 10 vs. 110 ± 34 ng/lens), nelfilcon A (51 ± 7 vs. 42 ± 20 ng/lens), omafilcon A (90 ± 20 vs. 80 ± 38 ng/lens), ocufilcon B (87 ± 20 vs. 115 ± 50 ng/lens), and nesofilcon A (170 ± 29 vs. 161 ± 10 ng/lens) lens materials (P > .05). Uncoated nesofilcon A lenses deposited the highest amount of albumin when compared with other uncoated lenses (P albumin, which may potentially be beneficial to CL wearers.

  17. Acanthamoeba Species Keratitis in a Soft Contact Lens Wearer Molecularly Linked to Well Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mubareka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba species keratitis has been associated with soft contact lens wear. In the present report, an epidemiological link was established between the patient's isolate and well water from the home using molecular methods. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in Canada where such a link has been established. Primary care practitioners and specialists, including ophthalmologists and infectious diseases specialists, must maintain a high degree of clinical suspicion in soft contact lens wearers with keratitis unresponsive to conventional topical and systemic treatment.

  18. Performance of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses in experienced low-Dk/t daily lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillehay, Sally M; Miller, Marian B

    2007-11-01

    The silicone hydrogel lens O2OPTIX with a Dk/t of 138 (at -3.00 diopters [D]) was evaluated and compared with patients' habitual low-Dk/t lenses. This large, multisite (United States and Canada), single-masked study enrolled experienced daily-wear, low-Dk/t, 2-week replacement soft contact lens wearers. Subjects underwent baseline evaluations and were fitted with O2OPTIX lenses for a 2-week period. After 2 weeks, subjects returned for assessment versus their habitual lenses. Data for 760 subjects were analyzed. The overall average habitual contact lens power was -3.13 D, and the average O2OPTIX lens power was -3.22 D. Biomicroscopy evaluations showed improvements in signs related to corneal health with O2OPTIX. Conjunctival and limbal redness, corneal neovascularization, corneal edema, and corneal and conjunctival staining all decreased significantly from baseline. O2OPTIX lenses performed better than habitual lenses in terms of comfort, symptoms, and overall preference. When wearing O2OPTIX lenses, significantly fewer subjects reported problems compared to their habitual lenses, including uncomfortable lens wear (-20.3%), redness (-44.5%), dryness during the day (-40.2%), and dryness at the end of the day (-34.4%); 47.9% reported that they could wear O2OPTIX lenses longer than their habitual lenses. At the end of study, among those with a preference, a significantly greater proportion of patients (60.3%) preferred O2OPTIX lenses to their habitual lenses. Daily wear of O2OPTIX lenses resulted in improvements in corneal signs of health and patient symptoms and provided excellent vision and comfort. O2OPTIX lenses were preferred by subjects over their habitual lenses.

  19. Steady-State Diffusion of Water through Soft-Contact LensMaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasiero, Francesco; Krull, Florian; Radke, Clayton J.; Prausnitz, JohnM.

    2005-01-31

    Water transport through soft contact lenses (SCL) is important for acceptable performance on the human eye. Chemical-potential gradient-driven diffusion rates of water through soft-contact-lens materials are measured with an evaporation-cell technique. Water is evaporated from the bottom surface of a lens membrane by impinging air at controlled flow rate and humidity. The resulting weight loss of a water reservoir covering the top surface of the contact-lens material is recorded as a function of time. New results are reported for a conventional hydrogel material (SofLens{trademark} One Day, hilafilcon A, water content at saturation W{sub 10} = 70 weight %) and a silicone hydrogel material (PureVision{trademark}, balafilcon A, W{sub 10} = 36 %), with and without surface oxygen plasma treatment. Also, previously reported data for a conventional HEMA-SCL (W{sub 10} = 38 %) hydrogel are reexamined and compared with those for SofLens{trademark} One Day and PureVision{trademark} hydrogels. Measured steady-state water fluxes are largest for SofLens{trademark} One Day, followed by PureVision{trademark} and HEMA. In some cases, the measured steady-state water fluxes increase with rising relative air humidity. This increase, due to an apparent mass-transfer resistance at the surface (trapping skinning), is associated with formation of a glassy skin at the air/membrane interface when the relative humidity is below 55-75%. Steady-state water-fluxes are interpreted through an extended Maxwell-Stefan diffusion model for a mixture of species starkly different in size. Thermodynamic nonideality is considered through Flory-Rehner polymer-solution theory. Shrinking/swelling is self-consistently modeled by conservation of the total polymer mass. Fitted Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities increase significantly with water concentration in the contact lens.

  20. The use of contact lens telescopic systems in low vision rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Refracting telescopes are afocal compound optical systems consisting of two lenses that produce an apparent magnification of the retinal image. They are routinely used in visual rehabilitation in the form of monocular or binocular hand held low vision aids, and head or spectacle-mounted devices to improve distance visual acuity, and with slight modifications, to enhance acuity for near and intermediate tasks. Since the advent of ground glass haptic lenses in the 1930's, contact lenses have been employed as a useful refracting element of telescopic systems; primarily as a mobile ocular lens (the eyepiece), that moves with the eye. Telescopes which incorporate a contact lens eyepiece significantly improve the weight, comesis, and field of view compared to traditional spectacle-mounted telescopes, in addition to potential related psycho-social benefits. This review summarises the underlying optics and use of contact lenses to provide telescopic magnification from the era of Descartes, to Dallos, and the present day. The limitations and clinical challenges associated with such devices are discussed, along with the potential future use of reflecting telescopes incorporated within scleral lenses and tactile contact lens systems in low vision rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Ocular and visual alterations in computer workers contact lens wearers: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauste Francés, Ana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Seguí Crespo, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    The high number of computer workers wearing contact lenses raises the question whether the sum of these two risk factors for eye health may cause a worsening of Computer Vision Syndrome. The aim of this review is to synthesize the knowledge about ocular and visual alterations related with computer use in contact lens wearers. International review of scientific papers (2003-2013) in Spanish and English, using Scoping Review method, in Medline through PubMed and in Scopus. The initial search provided 114 references, after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria six of them were included. All of them reveal that symptoms when using computer are more prevalent in contact lens wearers, with values of symptoms presentation prevalence ranging from 95.0% to 16.9% in wearers and from 57.5% to 9.9% in non-wearers, and four times more likely to develop dry eye [OR: 4.07 (95% CI: 3.52 to 4.71)]. Computer workers suffer more ocular and visual disturbances if they also are contact lens users, but studies are few and non conclusive. Likewise, further research regarding contact lens type and their conditions of use, both in symptoms and tear quality and ocular surface are needed. Silicone hydrogel lenses are associated with more comfort.

  2. Publication analysis of the contact lens field: what are the current topics of interest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Genís; Sanz, Joan P

    2015-01-01

    To determine the main current research interests of scientists working in the contact lens field. All articles published in the 2011 issues of all journals included in the Journal Citation Reports subject category Ophthalmology were inspected to expose those papers related to the contact lens field. Information regarding source journal was obtained and authorship details were recorded to determine the top most prolific authors, institutions and countries. A comprehensive list of key words was compiled to generate a two-dimensional term map in which the frequency of occurrence of a particular term is defined by label size and the distance between two terms is an indication of the relatedness of these terms, based on their co-occurrences within groups of key words. Clusters of related terms were also identified. Visual examination of all articles uncovered a total of 156 papers, published in 28 different journals. Contact Lens & Anterior Eye, Eye & Contact Lens and Optometry and Vision Science had 27 articles each. The most prolific authors and institutions revealed the predominance of countries with long research tradition in the contact lens field. Ten different word clusters or areas of interest were identified, including both traditional, yet unresolved issues (e.g., comfort or dry eye), and the latest research efforts (e.g., myopia control). These findings, which revealed contact lenses to be a fertile area of research, may be of relevance to new researchers as well as to those interested in exploring the latest research trends in this scientific discipline. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. A Case of Non-Contact Lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kamel, A. G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a ubiquitous free-living amoeba and is responsible for an uncommon yet increasingly diagnosed keratitis in humans. Acanthamoeba keratitis is perhaps the most challenging ocular infection to manage successfully and it can result in permanently impaired vision or blindness. Although contact lens use is the principal risk factor, about 10% of cases occur following trauma and exposure to contaminated soil or water. Cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis involving contact lens wearers have previously been reported in Malaysia but this is the first time, a non-contact lens relatedAcanthamoeba keratitis is reported. The case involved a 28 year old Indonesian male construction worker who had a trauma of the right eye. While working his eye was struck by some sand and dust particles and he quickly washed his eye with water from an open tank at the construction site. He then experienced pain, redness, glaring and blurring of vision of the right eye. The diagnosis was missed at the initial presentation but subsequent culture of the corneal scraping demonstrated Acanthamoeba as the aetiological agent. The history, clinical findings, diagnosis and treatment of non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis are briefly discussed in this communication. We hope to create awareness especially among the medical and paramedical staff about the existence of this infection in the country and fully support the consideration of Acanthamoeba keratitis as part of the differential diagnosis of most cases of presumed microbial keratitis.

  4. Castor oil and mineral oil nanoemulsion: development and compatibility with a soft contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzer, Tatiele; Chaves, Paula; Bernardi, Andressa; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Guterres, Silvia S; Beck, Ruy C R

    2014-03-01

    The non-invasive ophthalmic therapy has a drawback: low residence time in the eye socket. Nanoparticles and contact lenses have been studied as promising ocular drug delivery systems. To develop a nanoemulsion and evaluate its compatibility with a soft contact lens as a potential strategy for ocular delivery. The formulations were developed by spontaneous emulsification and fully characterized. Two drops of nanoemulsion were instilled on the surface of a commercial contact lens and its transparency was measured using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Before and after the instillation of the drops, the morphology (scanning electron microscopy - SEM) and ion permeability of the lenses were analyzed. The formulations had a mean particle size of 234 nm, polydispersity below 0.16, zeta potential of -8.56 ± 3.49 mV, slightly acid pH, viscosity ≈1.2 mPa s(-1) and spherical-shaped particles. Nanoemulsion was non-irritant (hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane), which was confirmed by the cytotoxicity studies in the SIRC cell cultures. After instillation, SEM analysis showed nanodroplets inside and on the surface of the lenses, although their transparency remained near 100%. No significant differences were found between lens ion permeability coefficients before and after instillation. Formulations presented appropriate physicochemical characteristics and suitability for ocular application. The contact lens remained transparent and ion-permeable after association with the formulation.

  5. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  6. Possible environmental sources of Acanthamoeba spp in contact lens wearers.

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, D; Stapleton, F; Dart, J

    1992-01-01

    The water supply and dust samples from the home environment (bathrooms and kitchens) of 50 wearers of contact lenses (CLs) were cultured for the presence of free-living amoebae. CL cases, solutions, and water taps were cultured for bacteria, which amoebae require for growth. Acanthamoeba spp were isolated from water drawn from six bathroom cold water taps (tank supplied), five in the presence of limescale, and from one kitchen cold water tap (mains supplied). There was an association between ...

  7. Computerized videokeratoscopy contact lens software for RGP fitting in a bilateral postkeratoplasty patient: a clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka, L B; Reinhart, W

    1995-01-01

    Computerized videokeratoscopy systems now allow interactive rigid gas permeable (RGP) fitting evaluation using fluorescein pattern simulations through updated software programs. We used Computed Anatomy's Topographic Modeling System-1 (TMS-1) Custom Design Contact Lens Program successfully to refit a symptomatic bilateral post-penetrating keratoplasty patient. No trial lenses were used. For each eye the base curve, optic zone size, and edge lift were chosen from the optimal fluorescein pattern designed and titrated on the TMS-1 unit. Lens powers were based on the patient's previous lenses and overrefraction. Dispensed lenses provided a clinically acceptable fit, good comfort, and maximal visual acuity, and no adjustments were necessary. Corneal videokeratoscopy can be successfully employed to titrate an RGP fit, even on irregular corneas.

  8. Evaluation of diminished microbial contamination in handling of a novel daily disposable flat pack contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomachi, Miya; Sakanishi, Kotaro; Ichijima, Hideji; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a novel daily disposable (DD) flat package in regard to microbial contamination on the anterior and posterior surfaces of a contact lens (CL) during handling of the lens for insertion. Four kinds of commercially available general blister-packed daily disposable contact lenses (DD CLs) as controls and a novel Magic 1-day Menicon Flat Pack as a test lens were used for this in vitro study. Lenses were removed from their packages using fingers coated with fluorescein 3 to 5 μm beads or an approximately 7×10(2) to 2×10(3) colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL Staphylococcus aureus suspension. The transfer of fluorescein beads to the surface of the lenses was then observed by fluorescence microscopy. Microbial contamination on the lenses was observed by light microscopy after a 2-day incubation period; and, the number of colonies isolated from the contaminated lenses was determined after 4 days of incubation. The number of fluorescein beads on the Magic lens was significantly less (p<0.05) than that of the general blister-packed control lenses. Adherence of microbial colonies was observed on both inner and outer surfaces of general blister-packed lenses, whereas no colony formation was found on the inner surface of the Magic lens, and the lowest bacterial adherence was observed for the Magic lens. The data demonstrated that placement of the Magic DD lens onto the eye is accompanied by diminished microbial contamination compared with general blister-packed DD CLs. Eye care professionals; however, should instruct patients to comply with intended use of DD CLs to prevent CL-associated microbial keratitis. In all cases, hand washing is mandated prelens insertion.

  9. Clinical performance of Rose K2 soft contact lens for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Yilmaz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the comfort and visual performance of Rose K2 soft contact lenses in patients with keratoconus.METHODS: Fifty eyes of 50 participants were included in this cross-sectional study. Each participant received a full ophthalmologic examination involving refraction, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVA, best spectacle corrected visual acuity(BCVA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy-fundoscopy, break-up time(BUT, corneal topography, and contrast sensitivity. After contact lens was fitted best contact lens corrected visual acuity(BCLCVA, contrast sensitivity, and comfort rating via visual analogue scales(VASwere performed.RESULTS: The mean age was 26.2±6.0(range: 16 to 39y. The mean logMAR UCVA, BCVA, and BCLCVA with Rose K2 soft(in orderwere 0.61±0.37(range: 0.15-1.3, 0.42±0.32(range: 0-1.3, and 0.18±0.20(range: 0-1.3. There were significant increases in visual acuities with contact lenses(P P CONCLUSION: Rose K2 soft contact lens can improve visual acuity, contrast sensitivity with comfort in patients with keratoconus.

  10. The Management of Refractory Dry Eye With Semi-Scleral Contact Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Erdem; Bilgihan, Kamil; Novruzlu, Şahin; Yuksel, Nilay; Koksal, Murat

    2016-05-19

    We presented a case of refractory dry eye management with semi-scleral contact lens. Dry eye was associated with facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) palsy as a result of cerebellopontine angle tumor surgery. She was treated with several topical treatments and punctal plug. Despite the treatments, her symptoms still persisted. Her ophthalmic examination revealed scleral exposure because of lagophthalmos, conjunctival hyperemia, corneal debris, scar, and diffuse punctate epitheliopathy on her right eye. Lissamine green staining showed diffuse conjunctival and corneal staining. Therapeutic semi-scleral lenses were fitted. The corneal findings were resolved and the quality of patient life was improved with the aid of semi-scleral lens after 3 months.

  11. Clinical Presentation and Microbial Analyses of Contact Lens Keratitis; an Epidemiologic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Rasoulinejad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Microbial keratitis is an infective process of the cornea with a potentially and serious visual impairments. Contact lenses are a major cause of microbial keratitis in the developed countries especially among young people. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and microbiological characteristic of CLK in patients referred to the emergency department (ED of teaching hospitals, Babol, Iran. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of all patients with contact lens induced corneal ulcers admitted to the teaching hospitals of Babol, Iran, from 2011- 2013. An ophthalmologist examined patients with the slit-lamp and clinical features of them were noted (including pain, redness, foreign body sensation, chemosis, epiphora, blurred vision, discomfort, photophobia, discharge, ocular redness and swelling. All suspected infectious corneal ulcers were scraped for microbial culture and two slides were prepared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 18.0. Results: A total of 14 patients (17 eyes were recruited into the study (100% female. The patients’ age ranged from 16-37 years old (mean age 21.58±7.23 years. The most prevalent observed clinical signs were pain and redness. Three samples reported as sterile. The most common isolated causative organism was pseudomonas aeroginosa (78.6%, Staphylococcus aureus 14.3%, and enterobacter 7.1%, respectively. Treatment outcome was excellent in 23.5%, good in 47.1%, and poor in 29.4% of cases. Conclusion: Improper lens wear and care as well as the lack of awareness about the importance of aftercare visits have been identified as potential risk factors for the corneal ulcer among contact lens wearers. Training and increasing the awareness of adequate lens care and disinfection practices, consulting with an ophthalmologist, and frequent replacement of contact lens storage cases would greatly help reducing the risk of microbial keratitis.

  12. Metallic plates lens focalizing a high power microwave beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuffi, L.

    1987-08-01

    A metallic grating composed of thin parallel plates opportunely spaced, permits to correct the phase of an incident high power microwave beam. In this work we show how it is possible to obtain a beam focalisation (lens), a beam deflection (prisma), or a variation in the polarization (polarizer) using parallel metallic plates. The main design parameters are here presented, in order to obtain the wanted phase modification keeping low the diffraction, the reflected power, the ohmic losses and avoiding breakdowns. Following the given criteria, a metallic plate lens has been realized to focalize the 200 KW, 100 msec 60 GHz beam used in the ECRH experiment on the TFR tokamak. The experimental beam concentration followed satisfactory the design requirements. In fact, the maximum intensity increased about twice the value without lens. In correspondence of this distance a reduction of the beam size of about 50% have been measured for the -3 dB radius. The lens supported high power tests without breakdowns or increase of the reflected power

  13. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF CONTACT LENS USERS AMONG MEDICAL COLLEGE STUDENTS IN BANGALORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of contact lens (CL for the correction of refractive errors, cosmetic use and their usage as a therapeutic modality for corneal pathologies has increased many fold over the years. The present study was conducted with the aim to find the knowledge , attitude and pattern of CL use amongst medical college students and to highlight the complications and the correct method to be followed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included 520college students out of which 114 students who have worn contact lens for any period were included for the study. RESULTS: Results showed that 94.7% of the CL users use the daily wear soft contact lens’ most quoted reasons of usage were comfort and convenience (59.6% with cosmetic benefit (29.8% as the next most common reply. Common complaints were that of general discomfort (foreign body sensation, dry eyes and watering eyes. With the advent of e commerce 26.3% of students are buying lenses are online. CONCLUSION: Educated use of CLs amongst its users is advised in view of the symptoms and associated complications that may occur. Electronic media is playing a commendable role in the sales and educating the buyers about do’s and don’t’s of contact lens use

  14. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  15. Contact Lens-Induced Discomfort and Inflammatory Mediator Changes in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Simin; Zhao, Zhenjun; Stapleton, Fiona; Willcox, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Studies indicate that contact lens (CL) discontinuation mostly occurs because of dryness and discomfort symptoms. This study aimed to investigate relationships between changes in the concentration of tear inflammatory mediators with subjective comfort ratings with CL wear and no contact lens wear between morning and evening. Forty-five subjects collected tears twice daily in the morning and in the evening with or without lenses. Comfort was rated subjectively on a scale from 1 to 100 (where 100 was extremely comfortable) just before each tear collection. Tear samples were assayed for complement components (C3 and C3a), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), and bradykinin using commercially available immuno-based assay kits. Comfort ratings showed a statistically significant decline from morning to evening both with CL (89.0±10.1 AM vs. 76.7±15.2 PM; P0.05). Leukotriene B4 levels were slightly higher in CL (CL 43.4±12.6 pg/ml vs. No CL 39.4±13.4 pg/mL; P=0.034), whereas the concentration of LTB4, C3, C3a, and sIgA dropped by the end of the day in the presence or absence of lens wear (Ptear levels were not correlated with comfort ratings in any of the conditions. Leukotriene B4 had a higher concentration in the evening, and when measured as a ratio to sIgA, there was a trend for increased concentration of this mediator during CL wear. Although specific mediators showed changes from morning to evening with and without lens wear, most of these were not correlated with subjective comfort ratings in lens wear. The only mediator that showed an increase in concentration during the day and during lens wear was LTB4, and further studies on this mediator are warranted.

  16. [Comparative analysis of visual function and the quality of life index with eyeglasses or a progressive contact lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Neusa Vidal; Schor, Paulo; Lipener, César; Uras, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    To compare the visual function and the answers to a questionnaire of quality of life of patients wearing a progressive contact lens or eyeglasses. The Focus Progressive contact lens had been fitted in 35 patients with far visual acuity with progressive-addition eyeglasses equal to zero (log MAR) and near J1 (Jaeger). The far and near visual acuities and the measurement of contrast sensitivity were compared when the patients were wearing the eyeglasses or the contact lens and the patients' results of the scores of the quality of life questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) were analyzed statistically considering the type of ametropy and the age. The far and near visual acuities and the contrast sensitivity measurement were worse with the contact lens than with eyeglasses. The answers to the questionnaire did not differ when were comparing the same patients wearing eyeglasses or contact lens, no matter the type of ametropy. The myopic and the hyperopic subgroups had worse answers to the quality of life questionnaire when corrected with the contact lens than with eyeglasses, both with age equal to or less than their median. The visual function was worse with the contact lens. The type of ametropy did not influence the answers to the quality of life questionnaire considering the optical correction, but age did.

  17. Protein deposition on a lathe-cut silicone hydrogel contact lens material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Woods, Jill; Teichroeb, Jonathan H; Jones, Lyndon

    2009-03-01

    To determine the quantity of total protein, total lysozyme, and the conformational state of lysozyme deposited on a novel, lathe-cut silicone hydrogel (SiHy) contact lens material (sifilcon A) after 3 months of wear. Twenty-four subjects completed a prospective, bilateral, daily-wear, 9-month clinical evaluation in which the subjects were fitted with a novel, custom-made, lathe-cut SiHy lens material. The lenses were worn for three consecutive 3-month periods, with lenses being replaced after each period of wear. After 3 months of wear, the lenses from the left eye were collected and assessed for protein analysis. The total protein deposited on the lenses was determined by a modified Bradford assay, total lysozyme using Western blotting and the lysozyme activity was determined using a modified micrococcal assay. The total protein recovered from the custom-made lenses was 5.3 +/- 2.3 microg/lens and the total lysozyme was 2.4 +/- 1.2 microg/lens. The denatured lysozyme found on the lenses was 1.9 +/- 1.0 microg/lens and the percentage of lysozyme denatured was 80 +/- 10%. Even after 3 months of wear, the quantity of protein and the conformational state of lysozyme deposited on these novel lens materials was very similar to that found on similar surface-coated SiHy lenses after 2 to 4 weeks of wear. These results indicate that extended use of the sifilcon A material is not deleterious in terms of the quantity and quality of protein deposited on the lens.

  18. Nonadhesive, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated contact lens casesCompromising between ease of cleaning and microbial transmission to contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Wenwen; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Qiu, Jun; de-Bont, Nik; Gelling, Onko-Jan; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    Surface properties of lens cases are determinant for their cleanability and for microbial transmission from lens cases to contact lenses (CLs). PEG-polymer-brush-coatings are known to decrease microbial adhesion more than other surface-coatings. Here, we applied a robust, silica nanoparticles-based

  19. Fitting an MSD (mini scleral design) rigid contact lens in advanced keratoconus with INTACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kristine; Sorbara, Luigina

    2011-12-01

    Keratoconus is a bilateral degenerative disease characterized by a non-inflammatory, progressive central corneal ectasia (typically asymmetric) and decreased vision. In its early stages it may be managed with spectacles and soft contact lenses but more commonly it is managed with rigid contact lenses. In advanced stages, when contact lenses can no longer be fit, have become intolerable, or corneal damage is severe, a penetrating keratoplasty is commonly performed. Alternative surgical techniques, such as the use of intra-stromal corneal ring segments (INTACS) have been developed to try and improve the fit of rigid contact lenses in keratoconic patients and avoid penetrating keratoplasties. This case report follows through the fitting of rigid contact lenses in an advanced keratoconic cornea after an INTACS procedure and discusses clinical findings, treatment options, and the use of mini-scleral and scleral lens designs as they relate to the challenges encountered in managing such a patient. Mini-scleral and scleral lenses are relatively easy to fit, and can be of benefit to many patients, including advanced keratoconic patients, post-INTAC patients and post-penetrating keratoplasty patients. 2011 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A histopathological study of bulbar conjunctival flaps occurring in 2 contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markoulli, Maria; Francis, Ian C; Yong, Jim; Jalbert, Isabelle; Carnt, Nicole; Cole, Nerida; Papas, Eric

    2011-09-01

    To study the histopathology of paralimbal bulbar conjunctival flaps occurring secondary to soft contact lens wear. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy using sodium fluorescein, cobalt blue light, and a Wratten filter was used to observe the presence, location, and dimensions of bulbar conjunctival flaps presenting in a cohort of contact lens wearers. Two subjects who exhibited such flaps agreed to undergo conjunctival biopsy. Tissue samples, obtained from the region of the flap, and an adjacent unaffected area were processed by standard histopathological methods. In the first subject, analysis of the flap tissue showed even collagen distribution and overall normal histology. The flap of the second subject displayed a mild focal increase in collagen and mild degeneration of collagen, but no increase in elastic tissue. Conjunctival epithelium was normal in both cases. In these 2 subjects, conjunctival flap tissue either was normal or showed only minimal abnormality. There is insufficient evidence for significant pathological change on the time scale of this study.

  1. On the the Contact Lens Problem: Modeling Rigid and Elastic Beams on Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Philippe; Wilson, Stephen; Stone, Howard

    2011-11-01

    Generally, contact lenses are prescribed by the practitioner to fit each individual patient's eye, but these fitting-philosophies are based on empirical studies and a certain degree of trial-and-error. A badly fitted lens can cause a range of afflictions, which varies from mild dry-eye-discomfort, to more serious corneal diseases. Thus, at this heart of this problem, is the question of how a rigid or elastic plate interacts with the free-surface of a thin viscous film. In this talk, we present several mathematical models for the study of these plate-and-fluid problems. Asymptotic and numerical results are described, and we explain the role of elasticity, surface tension, viscosity, and pressure in determining the equilibrium solutions. Finally, we discuss the implications of our work on the contact lens problem, as well as on other coating processes which involve elastic substrates.

  2. Acanthamoeba encystment: multifactorial effects of buffers, biocides, and demulcents present in contact lens care solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs CJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher J Kovacs, Shawn C Lynch, Marjorie J Rah, Kimberly A Millard, Timothy W Morris Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, Rochester, NY, USA Purpose: To determine whether agents which are purportedly capable of inducing encystment of Acanthamoeba can recapitulate the signal when tested in differing formulations. Methods: In accordance with the International Standard ISO 19045, Acanthamoeba castellanii ATCC 50370 trophozoites were cultured in antibiotic-free axenic medium, treated with test solutions, and encystment rates plus viability were measured via bright field and fluorescent microscopy. Test solutions included phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, borate-buffered saline, biguanide- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-based biocides, propylene glycol (PG and povidone (POV ophthalmic demulcents, and one-step H2O2-based contact lens disinfection systems. Results: Only PBS solutions with 0.25 ppm polyaminopropyl biguanide (PAPB and increasing concentrations of PG and POV stimulated A. castellanii encystment in a dose-dependent manner, whereas PBS solutions containing 3% H2O2 and increasing concentrations of PG and POV did not stimulate encystment. Borate-buffered saline and PBS/citrate solutions containing PG also did not stimulate encystment. In addition, no encystment was observed after 24 hours, 7 days, or 14 days of exposures of trophozoites to one-step H2O2 contact lens disinfection products or related solutions. Conclusion: The lack of any encystment observed when trophozoites were treated with existing or new one-step H2O2 contact lens care products, as well as when trophozoites were exposed to various related test solutions, confirms that Acanthamoeba encystment is a complex process which depends upon simultaneous contributions of multiple factors including buffers, biocides, and demulcents. Keywords: propylene glycol, contact lens care system, hydrogen peroxide disinfecting solution

  3. Conjunctival impression cytology versus routine tear function tests for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prachi; Bhargava, Rahul; Arora, Yogesh C; Kaushal, Sidharth; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged contact lens wear is often accompanied by dryness of the eyes. The aim of this study was to compare conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and tear film tests such as tear film break up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test for dry eye evaluation in contact lens wearers and measure their correlation with dry eye symptoms. A case control study was done at three referral eye centers. The eyes of 230 contact lens users were compared to 250 eyes of age- and sex-matched controls. Participants were recruited based on their response to a questionnaire of dry eye symptoms, (Dry Eye Scoring System, DESS(©)) and measurements of TBUT, Schirmer test, and CIC was done. A correlation analysis between symptom severity and tear film tests was performed. Pearson's coefficient, R(2) > 0.5 was considered significant. As compared to controls (r (2) = 0.010), Nelson grade correlated significantly with dry eye symptoms (r (2) = 0.765), among cases. However, there was moderate correlation between dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, and TBUT (r (2) = 0.557 and 0.530, respectively) among cases and a weak correlation among controls (r (2) = 0.130 and 0.054, respectively). The sensitivity of TBUT was 86.4%, specificity was 82.4%, positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 4.50 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-5.85)], and negative LR was 0.09. The sensitivity of the Schirmer test was 48.2%, specificity 88%, LR 2.12 (95% CI 1.48-2.96), and negative LR 0.83. CIC correlates better than Schirmer and TBUT with dry eye symptoms. It may be the most appropriate test for dry-eye evaluation in contact lens wearers.

  4. Intraocular pressure measurement over soft contact lens by rebound tonometer:a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Asik Nacaroglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP measurements by Icare rebound tonometer over a contact lens in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT.METHODS: Fifty patients using contact lens were included in this study. One of the eyes of the patients was selected randomly and their IOP were measured by rebound tonometer with and without contact lens (RTCL, RT respectively and by GAT, as well as their central corneal thickness (CCT by optical pachymeter. The results of both methods were compared by correlation analysis, general linear method repeated measure and Bland-Altman analysis.RESULTS: Mean IOP values measured by RTCL, RT and GAT were 15.68±3.7, 14.50±3.4 and 14.16±2.8 (P<0.001, respectively. Mean IOP by RTCL was significantly higher than the measurements implemented by RT and GAT (P<0.001, while there was no difference between the measurements by GAT and RT (P=0.629. There was a good level of positive correlation between GAT and RTCL as well as RT (r=0.786 P<0.001, r=0.833 P<0.001, respectively. We have observed that CCT increase did not show any correlation with the differences of the measurements between RTCL and RT (P=0.329, RTCL and GAT (P=0.07 as well as RT and GAT (P=0.189 in linear regression model.CONCLUSION: The average of the measurements over contact lens by rebound tonometer was found to be higher than what was measured by GAT. Although this difference is statistically significant, it may be clinically negligible in the normal population.

  5. Comparative Study of Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens Disinfecting Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzman, Tomislav; Barišić Kutija, Marija; Kordić, Rajko; Popović Suić, Smiljka; Jandroković, Sonja; Škegro, Ivan; Pokupec, Rajko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare antimicrobial efficacy of rigid contact lens disinfecting solutions. We tested five commercially available solutions: Unique pH (Alcon Laboratories), Boston Advance (Polymer Technology Corp.), Nitilens Conditioner GP (Avizor), Total Care (AMO), Boston Simplus (Bausch&Lomb). Their efficacy to disinfect saline solution experimentally contaminated with American Type Culture Collection (ATCC): Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922...

  6. Design of retinal-projection-based near-eye display with contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuhang; Chen, Chao Ping; Mi, Lantian; Zhang, Wenbo; Zhao, Jingxin; Lu, Yifan; Guo, Weiqian; Yu, Bing; Li, Yang; Maitlo, Nizamuddin

    2018-04-30

    We propose a design of a retinal-projection-based near-eye display for achieving ultra-large field of view, vision correction, and occlusion. Our solution is highlighted by a contact lens combo, a transparent organic light-emitting diode panel, and a twisted nematic liquid crystal panel. Its design rules are set forth in detail, followed by the results and discussion regarding the field of view, angular resolution, modulation transfer function, contrast ratio, distortion, and simulated imaging.

  7. Application of fibrin glue with bandage contact lens in pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the efficacy of fibrin glue with bandage contact lens for pain relief after pterygium surgery performed with limbal autograft transplantation.METHODS: A prospective clinical trial was carried out in 52 patients(72 eyesoperated for primary nasal pterygium. All patients were randomly divided into the fibrin glue with bandage contact lens group(experimental group, 28 cases, 38 eyesand suture group(control group, 24 cases, 34 eyes. Autologous limbal graft taken from the superotemporal limbus was used to cover the sclera after pterygium excision under local anesthesia with 20g/L lidocaine. In experimental group, the transplant was attached to the sclera with fibrin tissue adhesive and in control group with 10-0 Virgin silk sutures. Experimental group weared bandage contact lens after surgery while the control group did not. The degree of pain after surgery was evaluated at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7d after surgery. Follow-up was 6mo, matching degree of graft and complication such as infection, relapse, implant healing badness and subconjunctival cyst were mainly observed and recorded.RESULTS: The pain index scores of the experimental group were significantly less than those of control group(all P=0.000. In observation period, all conjunctival autografts in both groups were successfully attached and were intact without falling off, dissolution or recurrence and there were no complications such as infection, relapse, implant healing badness and subconjunctival cyst.CONCLUSION: Fibrin glue with bandage contact lens could significantly release pain response afterpterygium excision surgery.

  8. A novel phosphorylcholine-coated contact lens for extended wear use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, J L; Redman, R P; Wang, J H; Leppard, S W; Obyrne, V J; Small, S A; Lewis, A L; Jones, S A; Stratford, P W

    2001-12-01

    The preparation and characterisation of a new phosphorylcholine (PC)-coated silicone hydrogel contact lens for use in extended wear is described. The Michael-type addition of amines to acrylates forms the basis of the synthesis of a novel silicone-based macromer with hydrophilic functionality. It is demonstrated that this macromer can be combined with other silicone-based monomers, hydrophilic monomers and crosslinker to produce a contact lenses formulation. Examples of lenses with water contents of 33% and 46% are illustrated and their properties compared to other commercially available lenses. Materials with comparatively low modulus (2-4MPa) with excellent elongation to break (>200%) can be obtained using this technology. In addition to the mechanical aspects. both the oxygen and solute permeabilities of the material can be controlled by the hydrophilic: hydrophobic monomer balance in the formulation. to obtain materials with attributes suitable for extended wear use. The PC coating is achieved by means of an in-mould coating (IMC) technique that produces a uniform and stable surface as determined by staining and XPS. The coating imparts both improved lens wettability (advancing contact angle of approximately 50 with virtually no hysteresis) and lower protein adsorption relative to the uncoated lens.

  9. Power profiles and short-term visual performance of soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric; Dahms, Anne; Carnt, Nicole; Tahhan, Nina; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the manner in which contemporary soft contact lenses differ in the distribution of optical power within their optic zones and establish if these variations affect the vision of wearers or the prescribing procedure for back vertex power (BVP). By using a Visionix VC 2001 contact lens power analyzer, power profiles were measured across the optic zones of the following contemporary contact lenses ACUVUE 2, ACUVUE ADVANCE, O2OPTIX, NIGHT & DAY and PureVision. Single BVP measures were obtained using a Nikon projection lensometer. Visual performance was assessed in 28 masked subjects who wore each lens type in random order. Measurements taken were high and low contrast visual acuity in normal illumination (250 Cd/m), high contrast acuity in reduced illumination (5 Cd/m), subjective visual quality using a numerical rating scale, and visual satisfaction rating using a Likert scale. Marked differences in the distribution of optical power across the optic zone were evident among the lens types. No significant differences were found for any of the visual performance variables (p > 0.05, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Friedman test). Variations in power profile between contemporary soft lens types exist but do not, in general, result in measurable visual performance differences in the short term, nor do they substantially influence the BVP required for optimal correction.

  10. Microbial contamination of contact lenses, lens care solutions, and their accessories: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2010-03-01

    A contact lens (CL) can act as a vector for microorganisms to adhere to and transfer to the ocular surface. Commensal microorganisms that uneventfully cohabitate on lid margins and conjunctivae and potential pathogens that are found transiently on the ocular surface can inoculate CLs in vivo. In the presence of reduced tissue resistance, these resident microorganisms or transient pathogens can invade and colonize the cornea or conjunctiva to produce inflammation or infection. The literature was reviewed and used to summarize the findings over the last 30 years on the identification, enumeration, and classification of microorganisms adherent to CLs and their accessories during the course of normal wear and to hypothesize the role that these microorganisms play in CL infection and inflammation. Lens handling greatly increases the incidence of lens contamination, and the ocular surface has a tremendous ability to destroy organisms. However, even when removed aseptically from the eye, more than half of lenses are found to harbor microorganisms, almost exclusively bacteria. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci are most commonly cultured from worn lenses; however, approximately 10% of lenses harbor Gram-negative and highly pathogenic species, even in asymptomatic subjects. In storage cases, the incidence of positive microbial bioburden is also typically greater than 50%. All types of care solutions can become contaminated, including up to 30% of preserved products. The process of CL-related microbial keratitis and inflammation is thought to be preceded by the presence or transfer or both of microorganisms from the lens to the ocular surface. Thus, this detailed understanding of lens-related bioburden is important in the understanding of factors associated with infectious and inflammatory complications. Promising mechanisms to prevent bacterial colonization on lenses and lens cases are forthcoming, which may decrease the incidence of microbially driven CL complications.

  11. Adaptação de lente de contato gelatinosa especial para ceratocone Keratoconus special soft contact lens fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Sakae Yamazaki

    2006-08-01

    , diagnosis, keratometry, visual acuity, spherical equivalent (SE, base curve and clinical indication were recorded. RESULTS: Of 66 patients (80 eyes with keratoconus the mean age was 29 years, 51.5% were men and 48.5% women. According to the groups: 15.0% were incipient, 53.7% moderate, 26.3% advanced and 5.0% were severe. The majority of the eyes of patients using contact lenses (91.25% achieved visual acuity better than 20/40. To 88 eyes 58% were tihed with lens with spherical power (mean -5.45 diopters and 41% with spherocylinder power (from -0.5 to -5.00 cylindrical diopters. The most frequent base curve was 7.6 in 61% of the eyes. The main reasons for this special lens fitting were due to reduced tolerance and poor fitting pattern achieved with other lenses. CONCLUSION: The special soft contact lens is useful in fitting difficult keratoconic patients by offering comfort and improving visual rehabilitation that may allow more patients to postpone the need for corneal transplant.

  12. Effect of corneal cross-linking on contact lens tolerance in keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünlü, Metin; Yüksel, Erdem; Bilgihan, Kamil

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to investigate changes in corneal sensation and rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens tolerance after corneal cross-linking (CXL) on patients with keratoconus. Thirty eyes of 30 patients, who were RGP lens intolerant, were treated with CXL. The main outcome measures were corneal sensation evaluation by Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry, sub-basal nerve fibre assessment by corneal in vivo confocal microscopy and RGP contact lens tolerance evaluation with the Likert scale and wearing time. All eyes were evaluated preoperatively and post-operatively at one, three and six months after CXL procedure. The mean age was 25.3 ± 6.2 years. Preoperatively, the maximum keratometry (Kmax) in study eyes was 56.89 ± 4.60 D. Six months after CXL, it reduced to 56.03 ± 4.85 D (p = 0.01). Preoperative mean corneal sensation was 0.44 ± 0.05 g/mm 2 , (range: 0.40 to 0.55); it was significantly decreased at the first month and increased to preoperative values after six months. The sub-basal nerve plexus could not be visualised in 90 per cent of the patients by confocal microscopy at one month post-operatively. Gradual restoration of corneal innervation with almost similar preoperative levels at post-operative month six was noted. There were significant differences in Likert scores between preoperative and third and sixth months after CXL. Likert scale scores correlated significantly with corneal sensitivity. It can be concluded that increased RGP contact lens tolerance after CXL may be associated with the potential role of decreased corneal sensitivity and corneal flattening after CXL. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  13. Ocular surface and tear film status among contact lens wearers and non-wearers who use VDT at work: comparing three different lens types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauste, Ana; Ronda, Elena; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Seguí Crespo, María-Del-Mar

    2018-04-01

    To analyze differences in the ocular surface appearance and tear film status of contact lens wearers and non-wearers in a group of visual display terminals (VDT) workers and additionally to assess differences between lens materials. Cross-sectional study of 236 office workers, of whom 92 were contact lens wearers. Workers provided information on their contact lenses (conventional hydrogel, silicone hydrogel or rigid gas permeable lenses) and exposure to VDT at work. Ocular surface and tear film status were determined by the presence of bulbar, limbal and lid redness, lid roughness and corneal staining type, and by Schirmer's and tear break-up time tests (TBUT). A generalized linear model was used to calculate the crude (cRR) and age- and sex-adjusted (aRR) relative risk to measure the association between ocular surface and tear film abnormalities and contact lens use and type. The aRR of ocular surface abnormalities was higher in contact lens wearers compared to non-wearers: bulbar redness (aRR 1.69; 95% CI 1.25-2.30), limbal redness (aRR 2.87; 1.88-4.37), lid redness (aRR 2.53; 1.35-4.73) and lid roughness (aRR 7.03; 1.31-37.82). VDT exposure > 4 h/day increased wearers' risk of limbal and lid redness. Conventional hydrogel wearers had the highest risk of ocular surface abnormalities, followed by silicone hydrogel wearers. Both contact and non-contact lens wearers had a high prevalence of altered TBUT (77.3 and 75.7% respectively) and Schirmer (51.8 and 41.3%). Regular contact lens use during VDT exposure at work increases risk of bulbar, limbal and lid redness, and lid roughness, especially in soft contact lens wearers. The high prevalence of altered TBUT and Schirmer's results in all participants suggests that VDT use greatly affects tear film characteristics.

  14. Inefficacy of marketed contact lens disinfection solutions against keratitis-causing Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhundi, Sahreena; Khan, Naveed Ahmed; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the anti-amoebic effects of marketed contact lens disinfecting solutions. Using amoebistatic, amoebicidal, and cysticidal assays, nine different contact lens solutions were tested including: ReNu MultiPlus, DuraPlus, Ultimate Plus, OptiFree Replenish, OptiFree Express, Kontex Clean, Kontex Normal, Kontex Multisol extra+, Kontex Soak. In vitro growth inhibition (amoebistatic) assays were performed by incubating Acanthamoeba castellanii with aforementioned contact lens disinfection solutions as per manufacturer's instructions in the growth medium for up to 48h at 30°C. To determine amoebicidal and cysticidal effects, amoebae were incubated with contact lens solutions in phosphate buffered saline for 24h and viability was determined by haemocytometer counting as well as re-inoculating them in the growth medium. For controls, solutions were tested against bacterial corneal pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as well as amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. Of the nine contact lens solutions tested, none of them showed potent amoebicidal effects. Only DuraPlus and OptiFree Replenish exhibited trophozoite lysis of 85.3% and 73.7% respectively. In contrast, all contact lens disinfection solutions except Kontex Clean, Kontex Normal, Kontex Multisol extra+, tested showed amoebistatic effects. Importantly, none of the contact lens disinfection solutions exhibited cysticidal effects using qualitative assays, i.e., cysts treated with aforementioned solutions re-emerged as viable amoebae upon inoculation in the growth medium. However, more than 3-log reduction was observed when ReNu MultiPlus, DuraPlus and OptiFree Express were tested against P. aeruginosa which is in accordance with the ISO Stand-Alone Primary acceptance criteria. These findings are of great concern for contact lens users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution Increases Pre- and Postlens Tear Film During Contact Lens Wear in Rabbit Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yukiko; Koh, Shizuka; Oshita, Yoshihiro; Nagano, Takashi; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nishida, Kohji; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the behavior of prelens tear film (PLTF) and postlens tear film (PoLTF) after the instillation of diquafosol using an experimental rabbit model of eyes with contact lens. Cross-sectional, anterior segment optical coherence tomographic images of the inferior midperipheral cornea were obtained at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in 10 Japanese white rabbits wearing contact lenses. From the obtained images, the areas of the PLTF and PoLTF were calculated. Both artificial tear solution and 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution were used for comparison. Significant fluid accumulation in both the PLTF and PoLTF was observed after diquafosol instillation, whereas no fluid accumulation was visible after the instillation of artificial tear or sodium hyaluronate. The increase in PLTF area after diquafosol instillation was significantly higher (Pophthalmic solution increases PLTF and PoLTF in rabbit eyes with contact lenses. Diquafosol has potential as a treatment option for contact lens-related dry eye.

  16. The effect of contact lens usage on corneal biomechanical parameters in myopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cankaya, Ali B; Beyazyildiz, Emrullah; Ileri, Dilek; Ozturk, Faruk

    2012-07-01

    To determine and compare the corneal biomechanical properties in myopic patients who use contact lenses and those who do not use contact lenses. The study consisted of 56 myopic patients who used contact lenses (study group) and 123 myopic patients who did not use contact lenses (control group). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with an ocular response analyzer (ORA) and a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasonic pachymeter. Axial length and anterior chamber depth measurements were acquired with contact ultrasound A-scan biometry. The differences in ORA parameters between study and control group participants were analyzed. The mean corneal hysteresis in study and control groups was 10.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg (6.5-15.9 mm Hg) and 9.7 ± 1.5 mm Hg (6.3-14.2 mm Hg), respectively (P = 0.16). The mean corneal resistance factor was 10.4 ± 1.9 mm Hg (4.6-15.5 mm Hg) in the study group compared with 9.6 ± 1.9 mm Hg (5.1-15.0 mm Hg) in the control group. The difference for corneal resistance factor was statistically significant (P = 0.014). There was no significant difference in corneal-compensated IOP (P = 0.24). Mean Goldmann-correlated IOP was significantly higher in the study group than in control subjects (15.8 ± 3.2 vs. 14.7 ± 3.7 mm Hg) (P = 0.044). None of the corneal biomechanical parameters was significantly correlated to duration of contact lens usage in the study group. Our results suggest that ORA-generated parameters may be different in subjects with and without contact lens usage. Further longitudinal studies need to be performed to establish the relevance of our results.

  17. Controlled delivery of pirfenidone through vitamin E-loaded contact lens ameliorates corneal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Phillip; Ghosh, Tanushri; Mondal, Kalyani; Konar, Aditya; Chauhan, Anuj; Hazra, Sarbani

    2018-06-01

    Chemical injury by alkali burn is a major cause of corneal blindness in the clinical setting. Current management advocates multiple therapies aimed to prevent inflammation, initiate quick re-epithelialization, arrest the fibrosis, and avoid dry eye and pain by using bandage contact lenses. We hypothesized sustained delivery of the anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic drug pirfenidone through vitamin E-loaded contact lenses as a logical single approach to counter the pathology involved. Vitamin E particles were created in situ in commercial silicon hydrogel contact lenses by soaking the lenses in a vitamin E-ethanol solution. The vitamin E-laden lenses were then placed into pirfenidone-saline solution to load the drug into the lens. The contact lenses were evaluated by both in vitro and in vivo means. For in vitro, lenses were placed into 3 mL of saline solution. The concentration of pirfenidone released was measured by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The contact lenses were implanted in rabbit eyes following the alkali burn; the drug availability in the aqueous humor was evaluated by HPLC at various time points 10 min, 30 min, 2 h, and 3 h; and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 was evaluated in the cornea at the end of the study period. In another group of rabbits inflicted with alkali injury, the corneas were graded after 7 days of contact lens implantation with and without pirfenidone. A mathematical model was developed for delivery of the drug to the cornea and aqueous humor after a contact lens is inserted in the eye. The model was validated with experimental data and used to determine the bioavailability both for contact lenses and eye drops. In vitro release of unmodified commercial contact lenses saw a release time of approximately 20 min, with a partition coefficient of 2.68 ± 0.06. The release of pirfenidone from 20% vitamin E-loaded lenses saw a release time of approximately 80 min, with a partition coefficient of 4

  18. Sustained Ocular Delivery of Ciprofloxacin Using Nanospheres and Conventional Contact Lens Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garhwal, Rahul; Shady, Sally F.; Ellis, Edward J.; Ellis, Jeanne Y.; Leahy, Charles D.; McCarthy, Stephen P.; Crawford, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To formulate conventional contact lenses that incorporate nanosphere-encapsulated antibiotic and demonstrate that the lenses provide for sustained antibacterial activity. Methods. A copolymer composed of pullulan and polycaprolactone (PCL) was used to synthesize core-shell nanospheres that encapsulated ciprofloxacin. Bactericidal activity of the nanosphere-encapsulated ciprofloxacin (nanosphere/cipro) was tested by using liquid cultures of either Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Nanosphere/cipro was then incorporated into HEMA-based contact lenses that were tested for growth inhibition of S. aureus or P. aeruginosa in liquid cultures inoculated daily with fresh bacteria. Lens designs included thin or thick lenses incorporating nanosphere/cipro and ciprofloxacin-HCl-soaked Acuvue lenses (Acuvue; Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc., Jacksonville, FL). Results. Less than 2 μg/mL of nanosphere/cipro effectively inhibited the proliferation of cultures inoculated with 107 or 108 bacteria/mL of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. HEMA-based contact lenses polymerized with nanosphere/cipro were transparent, effectively inhibited the proliferation of greater than 107/mL of bacteria added daily over 3 days of culture, and killed up to 5 × 109 total microbes in a single inoculation. A thicker lens design provided additional inhibition of bacterial growth for up to 96 hours. Conclusions. Core-shell nanospheres loaded with an antibiotic can be incorporated into a conventional, transparent contact lens and provide for sustained and effective bactericidal activity and thereby provide a new drug delivery platform for widespread use in treating ocular disorders. PMID:22266514

  19. Bacterial adhesion to conventional hydrogel and new silicone-hydrogel contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodjikian, Laurent; Casoli-Bergeron, Emmanuelle; Malet, Florence; Janin-Manificat, Hélène; Freney, Jean; Burillon, Carole; Colin, Joseph; Steghens, Jean-Paul

    2008-02-01

    As bacterial adhesion to contact lenses may contribute to the pathogenesis of keratitis, the aim of our study was to investigate in vitro adhesion of clinically relevant bacteria to conventional hydrogel (standard HEMA) and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses using a bioluminescent ATP assay. Four types of unworn contact lenses (Etafilcon A, Galyfilcon A, Balafilcon A, Lotrafilcon B) were incubated with Staphylococcus epidermidis (two different strains) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Lenses were placed with the posterior surface facing up and were incubated in the bacterial suspension for 4 hours at 37 degrees C. Bacterial binding was then measured and studied by bioluminescent ATP assay. Six replicate experiments were performed for each lens and strain. Adhesion of all species of bacteria to standard HEMA contact lenses (Etafilcon A) was found to be significantly lower than that of three types of silicone-hydrogel contact lenses, whereas Lotrafilcon B material showed the highest level of bacterial binding. Differences between species in the overall level of adhesion to the different types of contact lenses were observed. Adhesion of P. aeruginosa was typically at least 20 times greater than that observed with both S. epidermidis strains. Conventional hydrogel contact lenses exhibit significantly lower bacterial adhesion in vitro than silicone-hydrogel ones. This could be due to the greater hydrophobicity but also to the higher oxygen transmissibility of silicone-hydrogel lenses.

  20. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions in the Presence of Contact Lenses and Lens Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Manal M; McAnally, Cindy; Bartell, John

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to use antimicrobial efficacy endpoint methodology to determine compatibility of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPSs), lens cases, and hydrogel lenses for disinfection (AEEMC) against International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-specified microorganisms and clinical ocular isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Six MPSs (PQ/Aldox 1, 2, and 3; PQ/Alexidine; PQ/PHMB; and PHMB) were challenged against ISO-specified microorganisms and S. maltophilia using the AEEMC test. AEEMC tests were performed with and without balafilcon A, etafilcon A, and senofilcon A lenses in lens cases with organic soil. Exposure times included disinfection time (DT) and 24 hr. Additionally, all six MPSs were challenged with two strains of S. maltophilia, based on the ISO Stand-alone test. The efficacy against bacteria for PQ/Aldox and PQ/Alexidine MPSs was not diminished by the presence of lenses. The efficacy of PQ/PHMB and PHMB MPSs against Serratia marcescens was significantly reduced compared with the no-lens control at DT for at least one lens type. The PHMB MPS with lenses present also demonstrated reduced efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus at DT versus the control. PQ/Aldox MPSs retained activity against Fusarium solani with lenses present; however, all other test MPSs demonstrated reduced F. solani efficacy at DT with lenses present. With lenses, all MPSs showed reduced efficacy against Candida albicans. AEEMC antimicrobial efficacy test results vary based on challenge microorganism, contact lenses, and MPS biocide systems. This study highlights the importance of evaluating MPSs for compatibility with lenses and lens cases.

  1. Patient characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Garg, P; Rao, G N

    2000-10-01

    To review the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and visual outcome in patients with non-contact lens related Acanthamoeba keratitis and compare the findings with reported series of contact lens associated Acanthamoeba keratitis. Medical and microbiology records of 39 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis, at a tertiary eyecare centre in India between January 1996 and June 1998, were analysed retrospectively. A majority of the patients presented with poor visual acuity and large corneal stromal infiltrates (mean size 38.20 (SD 26. 18) mm). A predisposing factor was elicited in 19/39 (48.7%) patients (trauma 15, dirty water splash three, leaf juice one). None of the patients had worn contact lenses. Most patients (26/39 (66. 6%)) came from a low socioeconomic background. Complaint of severe pain was not a significant feature and radial keratoneuritis was seen in 1/39 (2.5%) patients. A ring infiltrate was present in 41.1% of cases. A clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 45% of the patients before they were seen by us. However, all patients were diagnosed microbiologically at our institute based on demonstration of Acanthamoeba cysts in corneal scrapings (34/39) and/or culture of Acanthamoeba (34/39). Treatment with biguanides (PHMB, 15/38 (39.4%), PHMB with CHx, 23/38 (60.5%), one patient did not return for treatment) resulted in healing with scar formation in 27 out of 31(87.0%) followed up patients (mean time to healing 106.9 days). Overall visual outcome was poor with no statistical difference between cases diagnosed within 30 days (early) or 30 days after (late) start of symptoms. The visual outcome in cases requiring tissue adhesive (five) and keratoplasty (three) was also poor. This is thought to be the largest series of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers. In such cases, the disease is advanced at presentation in most patients, pathognomonic clinical features are often not seen, disease

  2. Power operated contact apparatus for superconductive circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, D.C.; Efferson, K.R.

    1989-10-10

    This patent describes a power operated contact apparatus for extending and retracting one or more electrical leads into and out of a cryostat for making and breaking, at a cryogenic temperature, electrical contact with a superconductive circuit. It comprises at least one rigid elongated lead for extending into a cold space of the cryostat which is at or near a cryogenic temperature. The lead having an inner end and a outer end; a connector fixed at the inner end of the lead for making electrical contact in the cold space with a connector of the superconductive circuit; guide means journaling the lead for allowing the lead to move axially relative to the guide means and sealing against the lead; a foundation for sealed attachment to the cryostat and to the guide means so that the connector on the inner end of the lead is extendable into making electrical contact with the connector of the superconductive circuit in the cold space; power operated means mounted on the foundation and fixed to the outer end of the lead for extending and retracting the lead to and from making electrical contact with the superconductive circuit in the cold space; and means for de-icing the exterior of the leads and guide means when the leads are connected to the superconducting circuit.

  3. An evaluation of 1-day disposable contact lens wear in a population of allergy sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Valérie Y; Schnider, Cristina M; Veys, Jane

    2003-06-01

    This was a multi-site, 128-subject, bilateral crossover study to evaluate subjective comfort and slit-lamp findings with 1-day disposable contact lenses in a population of allergy sufferers during periods when allergen levels were elevated. The study involved 1-month of single-use daily wear with a 1-day disposable test lens (1. DAY ACUVUE Brand Contact Lenses, Johnson & Johnson Vision Care) and 1-month of daily wear with subjects' habitual lenses replaced to their usual replacement schedule. Pollen and mould counts were obtained for each site 1 week prior to the study and twice weekly throughout the study period. Subjective comfort and slit-lamp findings were recorded at baseline and after 1-month's wear of each modality. Sixty-seven percent of subjects agreed that the 1-day disposable lenses provided improved comfort when compared to the lenses they wore prior to the study, compared with 18% agreeing that the new pair of habitual lenses provided improved comfort. The 1-day disposable lenses showed greater improvement in slit-lamp findings from baseline than new habitual lenses. The use of 1-day disposable lenses is an effective strategy for managing allergy-suffering contact lens wearers.

  4. The Disinfecting Potential of Contact Lens Soutions used by Sultan Qaboos University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzeako, B. C.; Al-Sumri, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the disinfecting potential of some contact lens solutions used by some university students in Oman. Methods: This work was carried out from January to June 2010 in the Department of Microbiology & Immunology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman. Fifty disinfecting solutions, in which contact lenses were disinfected according to the manufacturers’ instructions, were collected from the students and plated on various microbiological culture media. Bacterial isolates were identified by API-20E, API-20NE and Phoenix automated systems while fungi were identified by their cultural characteristics and biochemistry. Results: From 98 isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 23.5%; Penicillium, 13%; Candida species, 9.2%; coagulase negative staphylococci, 9.2%; Serratia marcescens, 6.1%; Bacillus, 5.1%; Aspergillus flavus, 5.1%; Serratia liquefaciens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Aspergillus niger, 4.1% each; Chryseomonas luteola and Chryseomonas indologenes, 3.1% each; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Serratia odorifera, 2.0% each; Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae, 1% each. Most isolates (65%) came from polyhexanide containing solutions. Conclusion: Contact lens disinfecting solutions with the same formulations, but manufactured by different companies, possessed different disinfecting potentials. PMID:21969898

  5. Is purchasing lenses from the prescriber associated with better habits among soft contact lens wearers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Robin L; Wagner, Heidi; Kinoshita, Beth; Sorbara, Luigina; Mitchell, G Lynn; Lam, Dawn; Richdale, Kathryn; Zimmerman, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    To compare the habits of United States (US) soft contact lens (SCL) wearers who bought SCLs from their eye care practitioner (ECP), on the internet/telephone, or at retail (not where they were examined) to test the effect of proximity to the prescriber on SCL wear and care practices. Adult SCL wearers completed an adapted Contact Lens Risk Survey (CLRS) online that queried items related to risk factors for SCL-related complications. Responses from subjects who purchased at the ECP, via the internet/telephone, or at a retail store were compared (Chi-Square). Purchase sources were: ECP 646 (67%, 44±12 yrs, 17% male), Retail 104 (11%, 45±13 yrs, 28% male), and Internet/telephone 218 (23%, 45±12 yrs, 18% male); age (p=0.51), gender (p=0.021). Internet purchasers had fewer annual eye exams (79% ECP, 83% retail, 66% internet/telephone, p=0.007), purchased more hydrogel SCLs (34% ECP, 29% retail, 45% internet/telephone, p=0.0034), and paid for SCLs with insurance less often (39% ECP, 29% retail, 19% internet/telephone, p0.05). In this sample, the purchase location of SCL wearers had limited impact on known risk factors for SCL-related complications. Internet purchasers reported less frequent eye exams and were more likely to be wearing hydrogel SCLs. Closer access to the ECP through in-office SCL purchase did not improve SCL habits or reduce the prevalence of risk behaviors. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contact lens use and its compliance for care among healthcare workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Hamza Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor care and hygiene of contact lens (CL results in eye problems and infections. Healthcare workers have an important role in advocating correct lens care. Objectives: To determine the practices of CL care and the adverse consequences of poor CL care among healthcare workers. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study in one public and three private sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, in 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: We questioned 500 healthcare workers of all ages and both sexes, who wore CL, about compliance with advice on care and any complications due to improper hygiene practices. Ethical approval was obtained. Chi-square tests were used to determine significance and p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the total CL users, 385 (77% were females. Most (75% respondents wore CL to correct myopia, whereas 54% wore CL only occasionally. Surprisingly, only 24% knew the CL cleaning protocol. Lens solution was changed daily by 33% of users and after more than 2 weeks by 42%. Although 412 (82% participants practised reasonable hand hygiene before inserting CL, 88 (18% did not. Infection and eye dryness were statistically significantly (P < 0.01 associated with sex, hand-washing, and frequency of CL use. Conclusion: Noncompliance with the CL protocol was common among healthcare workers in our society. This behavior calls for targeted health education and awareness programs for healthcare workers.

  7. A Conjunctival Mass in the Deep Superior Fornix After a Long Retained Hard Contact Lens in a Patient With Keloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zola, Enrica; van der Meulen, Ivanka J. E.; Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; van Vliet, J. Mj; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of an upper eyelid mass induced by a rigid contact lens retained for more than 3 years in the eye of a patient with a general history of keloids and to provide a review of the literature on retained contact lenses. Methods: Case report. Results: A 45-year-old woman with an

  8. Calculation of crystalline lens power in chickens with a customized version of Bennett's equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael; Rozema, Jos J; Schaeffel, Frank; Morgan, Ian G

    2014-03-01

    This paper customizes Bennett's equation for calculating lens power in chicken eyes from refraction, keratometry and biometry. Previously published data on refraction, corneal power, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens radii of curvature, axial length and eye power in chickens aged 10-90 days were used to estimate Gullstrand's lens power and Bennett's lens power for chicken eyes, and to calculate the lens equivalent refractive index. Bennett's A and B constants for the front and back surface powers of the lens were calculated for data measured from day 10 to 90 at 10 day intervals, and mean customized constants were calculated. The mean customized constants for Bennett's equation for chicks were A=0.574±0.023 and B=0.379±0.021. As found previously, lens power decreases with age in chicks, while corneal power decreases and axial length increases. The lens equivalent refractive index decreases with age from 10 to 90 days after hatching. Bennett's equation can be used to calculate lens power in chicken eyes for studies on animal myopia, using standard biometry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling the evaporation of a tear film over a contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbott, Kevin; Xu, Amber; Anderson, Daniel M; Seshaiyer, Padmanabhan

    2015-06-01

    A contact lens (CL) separates the tear film into a pre-lens tear film (PrLTF), the fluid layer between the CL and the outside environment, and a post-lens tear film (PoLTF), the fluid layer between the CL and the cornea. We examine a model for evaporation of a PrLTF on a modern permeable CL allowing fluid transfer between the PrLTF and the PoLTF. Evaporation depletes the PrLTF, and continued evaporation causes depletion of the PoLTF via fluid loss through the CL. Governing equations include Navier-Stokes, heat and Darcy's equations for the fluid flow and heat transfer in the PrLTF and porous layer. The PoLTF is modelled by a fixed pressure condition on the posterior surface of the CL. The original model is simplified using lubrication theory for the PrLTF and CL applied to a sagittal plane through the eye. We obtain a partial differential equation (PDE) for the PrLTF thickness that is first-order in time and fourth-order in space. This model incorporates evaporation, conjoining pressure effects in the PrLTF, capillarity and heat transfer. For a planar film, we find that this PDE can be reduced to an ordinary differential equation (ODE) that can be solved analytically or numerically. This reduced model allows for interpretation of the various system parameters and captures most of the basic physics contained in the model. Comparisons of ODE and PDE models, including estimates for the loss of fluid through the lens due to evaporation, are given. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  10. Activity of a melimine derived peptide Mel4 against Stenotrophomonas, Delftia, Elizabethkingia, Burkholderia and biocompatibility as a contact lens coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Zhao, Timothy; Cheah, Kai Bing; Holmlund, Larke; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-06-01

    To determine the antimicrobial activity of the melimine derived peptide Mel4 against Delftia, Stenotrophomonas, Elizabethkingia, Burkholderia and to investigate biocompatibility of Mel4 as an antimicrobial coating on contact lenses in animals and humans. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Mel4 was determined against the four Gram negative bacteria by investigating growth curves for 24h followed by viable counts to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Contact lenses were coated by covalently binding Mel4, characterized by amino acid analysis, and were investigated for changes in lens parameters. Safety of Mel-4 coated lenses were determined in a rabbit model of daily contralateral wear. A prospective, randomised, double-masked, contralateral, 1week daily wear human clinical trial was used to evaluate subjective responses and ocular physiology. Mel4 was active against all the bacteria tested (MIC 50 ranged from 31-1000μgml -1 ) and produced an antimicrobial surface on contact lenses. Mel4-coating resulted hydrophilic surface without any significant change in contact lens parameters, and showed no signs of cytotoxicity or ocular irritation during rabbit wear. During human clinical trial, there were no differences between Mel4 coated and uncoated contact lenses in lens performance indicators and ocular signs such as corneal fluorescein staining. Mel4 and control uncoated lenses had no differences in ocular symptoms during lens wear. Mel4 has achieved antimicrobial activity against variety of Gram negative bacteria that are often resistant to the action of cationic peptides and have been implicated in contact lens related adverse events. Mel4-coated contact lenses were safe to wear. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Daily Contact Lens Cleaning on Ocular Adverse Events during Extended Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Jerome; Rathi, Varsha M; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Naduvilath, Thomas; Holden, Brien A; Willcox, Mark D P

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess what effect daily cleaning of contact lenses with a multipurpose disinfection solution (MPDS), during 30 nights extended wear, would have on contact lens-related adverse events. This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group, 3-month clinical study in which 193 participants were dispensed with lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel lenses for a 30-day extended-wear schedule and with lenses replaced monthly. Participants were randomized to a control or test group. Test subjects were required to remove lenses daily after waking, clean them with the MPDS, and reinsert the lenses. Control subjects wore lenses without removal for 30 days extended wear. Handling-related lens contamination was assessed at the baseline visit. There was no significant difference between the test and control groups for the incidence of significant corneal infiltrative events (1.3 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.368), total corneal infiltrative events (2.6 vs. 4.9%, p = 0.682), or mechanical events (1.3 vs. 2.5%, p = 1.00). The test group had greater corneal staining (p lenses) resulted in isolation of Gram-positive bacteria from 92.5% of test lenses compared with 87.5% of control lenses (p = 0.712). Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 5% of test subjects compared with 2.5% of control subjects (p = 1.00). Fungus was isolated from 2.5% of subjects in both the test and control groups (p = 1.00). The intervention of daily morning cleaning of the lens surface with an MPDS during extended wear did not significantly influence the incidence of adverse events.

  12. Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer′s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46 mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

  13. Effect of contact lens wear and a near task on tear film break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Meredith E; Begley, Carolyn G; Himebaugh, Nikole H; Port, Nicholas L

    2010-05-01

    To study the effect of extrinsic controls on blinking by examining blink parameters and tear stability among adapted soft contact lens (CL) wearers performing tasks that require varying amounts of visual concentration. The Demographic Questionnaire, Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire, and Current Symptoms Questionnaire were completed by 15 adapted soft CL wearers (nine females). Three 55 s simultaneous measurements of tear film stability via retroillumination and blinking were obtained with a slit-lamp biomicroscope and 200 Hz video camera while subjects listened to music and played a video game with and without their habitual CLs. Interblink interval (IBI) and blink amplitude (BA) were calculated. The area of break-up (AB) was calculated for the retroillumination image before each blink. The Current Symptoms Questionnaire was completed four times throughout testing. With the game compared to music, IBI was significantly longer and BA significantly decreased without CLs (p or = 0.5579, p or = 0.6262, p or = 0.5064, p film instability increased. Blinking frequency also increased, but it remained high when subjects played the game, and symptoms of ocular irritation increased. This suggests that wearing soft CLs, even when fully adapted, provides enough extrinsic ocular surface stimulation to override internal controls and affect blink parameters.

  14. Efficacy of contact lens disinfecting solutions against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuj, Kapur; Gunderson, Charlise; Troupe, John; Huber, Mary E

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate the disinfection properties of multipurpose contact lens disinfection solutions, based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14729 guidelines. ReNu with MoistureLoc Multi-Purpose Solution, OPTI-FREE Express with Aldox Multi-Purpose Solution, Betadine 5% sterile ophthalmic preparation solution (povidone iodine), and 0.9% normal saline solution were inoculated with strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Surviving bacteria were quantified at specified times. ReNu with MoistureLoc, OPTI-FREE Express, and 5% ophthalmic povidone iodine were effective in achieving a 5-log reduction in bacterial count. Additionally, all three products maintained their effectivity at 72 hours. However, ReNu with MoistureLoc and povidone iodine resulted in the greatest reduction in bacterial colonization. ReNu with MoistureLoc, OPTI-FREE Express, and 5% ophthalmic povidone iodine meet the ISO 14729 guidelines for standalone contact lens solutions. However, ReNu with MoistureLoc and 5% ophthalmic povidone iodine are most efficient in reducing and maintaining low bacterial count for a period of 72 hours.

  15. Bacterial Colonization of Disposable Soft Contact Lenses Is Greater during Corneal Infiltrative Events than during Asymptomatic Extended Lens Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja R.; Sharma, Savitri; Willcox, Mark; Naduvilath, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Deborah F.; Holden, Brien A.; Rao, Gullapalli N.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially gram-negative bacteria, are considered to play a role in the etiology of certain corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) observed during soft contact lens wear. This study explored the possibility of microbial colonization of soft contact lenses as a risk factor leading to CIEs. In a clinical trial conducted from March 1993 to January 1996, 330 subjects wore disposable soft contact lenses on a 6-night extended-wear and disposal schedule. During this period, 4,321 lenses ...

  16. A class I (Senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVB-induced ocular effects, including cataract, in the rabbit in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R; Dang, Loan

    2011-06-01

    UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270-360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm(2) on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract.

  17. Common symptoms of Nepalese soft contact lens wearers: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Kishor; Martin, Raul; Franco, Sandra; Lira, Madalena

    2015-01-01

    To determine the common symptoms in current soft contact lens (CL) wearers and their association with other factors among Nepalese population. All the current CL wearers who started to wear soft CL in Nepal Eye Hospital between July 2007 and June 2012 were invited for the participation. Frequency of the ten most common symptoms, divided into never, occasionally, frequently and consistent were recorded. Association between degree of symptoms with other factors, e.g. age, gender, profession, cigarette smoking, ethnicity, level of education and duration and wearing modality of CL wear were analyzed. Out of 129 subjects participated in this study, 67% were female; the mean age of the subjects was 23.9±4.3 years. Ninety seven percent of them had at least one symptom occasionally or frequently or consistently. Discomfort was found in 88.4% of the total subjects. Other common symptoms were foreign body sensation in 73.6%, redness in 65.9%, reduced wearing time in 63.6% and dryness in 62.8%. Symptoms were found occasionally in the majority of subjects. Degree of symptoms was not associated with age, gender, profession, education status, ethnicity of subjects and duration or modality of lens wear (p>0.05) but was positively associated with passive cigarette smoking (p<0.001). Almost all of the Nepalese soft CL wearers had some types of symptoms at least occasionally. Discomfort was the most common symptom. Degree of symptoms was associated with the passive smoking but not with other factors like age, sex, profession and duration of lens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. [Eyelid hygiene for contact lens wearers with blepharitis. Comparative investigation of treatment with baby shampoo versus phospholipid solution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaireddin, R; Hueber, A

    2013-02-01

    Blepharitis due to Meibom gland dysfunction (MGD) is presumed to be one of the main reasons for dry eye symptoms which occur in up to 50% of contact lens users. Thus, MGD presumably plays an important role in dry eye in contact lens wearers. In the present prospective, randomized and double blind trial the efficacy of two established treatment options for MGD and blepharitis was evaluated in symptomatic contact lens wearers. In this prospective, randomized 2-centre trial 53 symptomatic contact lens wearers suffering from blepharitis were included. Patients were randomly selected for two treatment groups: group A performed lid margin hygiene using the commonly recommended mild baby shampoo (Bübchen Kinder Shampoo-extra augenmild, Bübchen Werk Ewald Hermes Pharmazeutische Fabrik GmbH, Soest, Germany) and group B performed lid margin hygiene using a phospholipid-liposome solution specially designed for lid hygiene (Blepha Cura, Optima, Moosburg/Wang, Germany), each for 4 weeks. Before as well as 4 weeks after initiation of this study the following tests were performed: standardized subjective assessment using the ocular surface disease index, non-invasive break-up time (NIBUT) and objective evaluation of lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF) and further lid margin criteria by double blinded evaluation of slit lamp photographs. Of the 53 symptomatic contact lens wearers suffering from blepharitis 21 (39,6%) were randomly selected for treatment group A and 32 (60.4%) for group B. In both treatment groups there was objective and subjective improvement of symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers. Interestingly, there was a significantly greater improvement, subjective as well as objective, in treatment group B which used the phospholipidliposome solution for lid margin hygiene compared to group A using baby shampoo. Although both therapies improved symptoms of dry eye due to blepharitis in symptomatic contact lens wearers, patients using phospholipid

  19. A Novel Anti-Spoofing Solution for Iris Recognition Toward Cosmetic Contact Lens Attack Using Spectral ICA Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Wang, Wei; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we maneuvered a dual-band spectral imaging system to capture an iridal image from a cosmetic-contact-lens-wearing subject. By using the independent component analysis to separate individual spectral primitives, we successfully distinguished the natural iris texture from the cosmetic contact lens (CCL) pattern, and restored the genuine iris patterns from the CCL-polluted image. Based on a database containing 200 test image pairs from 20 CCL-wearing subjects as the proof of concept, the recognition accuracy (False Rejection Rate: FRR) was improved from FRR = 10.52% to FRR = 0.57% with the proposed ICA anti-spoofing scheme. PMID:29509692

  20. A Novel Anti-Spoofing Solution for Iris Recognition Toward Cosmetic Contact Lens Attack Using Spectral ICA Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Wang, Wei; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2018-03-06

    In this study, we maneuvered a dual-band spectral imaging system to capture an iridal image from a cosmetic-contact-lens-wearing subject. By using the independent component analysis to separate individual spectral primitives, we successfully distinguished the natural iris texture from the cosmetic contact lens (CCL) pattern, and restored the genuine iris patterns from the CCL-polluted image. Based on a database containing 200 test image pairs from 20 CCL-wearing subjects as the proof of concept, the recognition accuracy (False Rejection Rate: FRR) was improved from FRR = 10.52% to FRR = 0.57% with the proposed ICA anti-spoofing scheme.

  1. A Novel Anti-Spoofing Solution for Iris Recognition Toward Cosmetic Contact Lens Attack Using Spectral ICA Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsun Hsieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we maneuvered a dual-band spectral imaging system to capture an iridal image from a cosmetic-contact-lens-wearing subject. By using the independent component analysis to separate individual spectral primitives, we successfully distinguished the natural iris texture from the cosmetic contact lens (CCL pattern, and restored the genuine iris patterns from the CCL-polluted image. Based on a database containing 200 test image pairs from 20 CCL-wearing subjects as the proof of concept, the recognition accuracy (False Rejection Rate: FRR was improved from FRR = 10.52% to FRR = 0.57% with the proposed ICA anti-spoofing scheme.

  2. Characterization of Soft Contact Lens Edge Fitting during Daily Wear Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele Cui

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine conjunctival overlap over the edge of soft contact lens and to visualize the peripheral postlens tear film (PoLTF underneath soft contact lenses using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT. Methods. Twenty participants (4 males and 16 females, 23.0 ± 3.7 years were fitted with two different types of soft contact lenses randomly. The limbus with lens was imaged with the UHR-OCT at the horizontal meridian every two hours up to 6 hours during lens wear. The conjunctival overlap was ranked as the percentage of the edge covered by the conjunctiva. The frequency of occurrence for visualized peripheral PoLTF was determined. Results. The average conjunctival overlaps at insertion were 49% and 73% for galyfilcon A and balafilcon A lenses and increased significantly to 84% and 90% by 6 hours of lens wear (P<0.001. Lenses with rounded edges had more conjunctival overlap than the lenses with angled edges (P=0.014. There were significant decreases for PoLTF on the conjunctiva (P=0.014 and peripheral cornea (P=0.004 over the study period compared to insertion. The percentage of subjects with PoLTF on the conjunctiva (32.5% and peripheral cornea (36% were greater in subjects wearing balafilcon A lenses (P=0.017. Conclusions. Increased conjunctival overlap over the lens edges and reduced PoLTF underneath the peripheral region of soft contact lenses were shown during lens daily wear. The lens edge configuration may play a role in conjunctival response and peripheral PoLTF.

  3. Dry Eye Treatment Based on Contact Lens Drug Delivery: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Fonseca, Begoña; Carracedo, Gonzalo; Martin-Gil, Alba; Martinez-Aguila, Alejandro; Pintor, Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Dry eye disease affects a substantial segment of the word population with increasing frequency. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film, which causes ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Because of its multifactorial etiology, the use of different pharmacological treatment for dry eye treatment has been proposed, which include anti-inflammatory molecules, lubricants or comfort agents, and secretagogues. However, in some cases these pharmacological approaches only relieve symptoms temporarily, and consequently, eye care professionals continue to have difficulties managing dry eye. To improve pharmacological therapy that allows a more efficient and long-term action, effective ocular drug delivery of the currently available drugs for dry eye treatment is required. Contact lenses are emerging as alternative ophthalmic drugs delivery systems that provide an increased residence time of the drug at the eye, thus leading to enhanced bioavailability and more convenient and efficacious therapy. In this article, we reviewed the different techniques used to prepare contact lens-based drug delivery systems and focused on articles that describe the delivery of compounds for dry eye treatment through contact lenses.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of Acanthamoeba isolated from corneal scrapes and contact lens wearers in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, Rodolfo D; Mongi, Florencia; Laconte, Laura; Rivero, Fernando; Sastre, Dario; Teherán, Aníbal; Herrera, Giovanny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we describe the frequency of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) in patients that assisted in the Ophthalmology Department and determine the species/genotypes of free living amoebas (FLA) isolates. FLA from Corneal scrapes (CS) and contact lens (CL) wearers were studied by morphological and molecular characterization. A database was constructed with sociodemographic, clinical findings and history of use of CL variables. During January 2000 and September 2016 patients with corneal pathology admitted to the Ophthalmology Service of the University Hospital in Córdoba city, Argentina were included in the study. FLA were detected in 1.5% (11/739) and in 17% (11/65) of CS and CL analyzed respectively. FLA isolates from CL users evidenced an 80.9% of inappropriate lens maintenance, 4.8% (1/21) were not CL users that have been in contact with waters in outdoor environment and 14,3% (3/21) with no data about CL users. Acanthamoeba was confirmed in 100% and 82% of CS and LC respectively. The most frequent symptom associated with AK was red eye and photophobia. FLA from CS belonged to group II but 82% (9/11) and 18% (2/11) from CL belonged to group II and III respectively. T4 genotype and A. polyphaga species were detected in 100% of Acanthamoeba isolates. Poor CL hygiene practices, highlights the need for improved education about the severity of AK and consequences of improper CL hygiene. Genotype T4 detected in 100% of both CS and CL samples, consistently with previous findings indicating that this genotype is by far the most prevalent isolated from ocular infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Amniotic membrane welded to contact lens by 1470-nm diode laser:a novel method for sutureless amniotic membrane transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Rasier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To avoid the side effects of the suture usage by welding amniotic membrane (AM to contact lens (CL with laser.METHODS:AM was taken from pregnant women and cleaned from blood clots with sterile phosphate-buffered physiological saline solution which included antibiotics. Stromal side of the AM was spread inside of the CL and it was welded to CL by 1470 nm diode laser. 600 μm diameter fiber tip of the laser was contacted with the epithelial side of the AM from 4 separate points. After welding excess amniotic membrane around the CL was cut with a scalpel.RESULTS:Stromal side of the AM was spread inside of the CL and then with laser fiber, different power levels and exposure times were applied on the epithelium of AM and 340 mW for seven seconds was found optimal. CL and AM attached with the spot welding effect in 4 points by touching fiber tip. CL-AM welded complex did not separated from each other while holding AM that extend beyond the CL with the help of two forceps.CONCLUSION:As a conclusion, it was aimed in this study to achieve the success of the conventional amniotic membrane transplantation (AMTwith the easiness of applying a CL and to avoid risks and side effects of corneal or conjunctival suturing. The results showed that the application of the CL–AM complex will be as easy as the application of a CL and lasts shortly.

  6. Power Matters: Foucault's "Pouvoir/Savoir" as a Conceptual Lens in Information Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Michael; Heizmann, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper advocates Foucault's notion of pouvoir/savoir (power/knowledge) as a conceptual lens that information researchers might fruitfully use to develop a richer understanding of the relationship between knowledge and power. Methods: Three of the authors' earlier studies are employed to illustrate the use of this conceptual lens.…

  7. Short-term corneal changes with gas-permeable contact lens wear in keratoconus subjects: a comparison of two fitting approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Jiménez, Miguel; Santodomingo-Rubido, Jacinto; Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Méijome, Jose-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior corneal topography and higher-order aberrations (HOA) after 14-days of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) contact lens (CL) wear in keratoconus subjects comparing two different fitting approaches. Thirty-one keratoconus subjects (50 eyes) without previous history of CL wear were recruited for the study. Subjects were randomly fitted to either an apical-touch or three-point-touch fitting approach. The lens' back optic zone radius (BOZR) was 0.4mm and 0.1mm flatter than the first definite apical clearance lens, respectively. Differences between the baseline and post-CL wear for steepest, flattest and average corneal power (ACP) readings, central corneal astigmatism (CCA), maximum tangential curvature (KTag), anterior corneal surface asphericity, anterior corneal surface HOA and thinnest corneal thickness measured with Pentacam were compared. A statistically significant flattening was found over time on the flattest and steepest simulated keratometry and ACP in apical-touch group (all p<0.01). A statistically significant reduction in KTag was found in both groups after contact lens wear (all p<0.05). Significant reduction was found over time in CCA (p=0.001) and anterior corneal asphericity in both groups (p<0.001). Thickness at the thinnest corneal point increased significantly after CL wear (p<0.0001). Coma-like and total HOA root mean square (RMS) error were significantly reduced following CL wearing in both fitting approaches (all p<0.05). Short-term rigid gas-permeable CL wear flattens the anterior cornea, increases the thinnest corneal thickness and reduces anterior surface HOA in keratoconus subjects. Apical-touch was associated with greater corneal flattening in comparison to three-point-touch lens wear. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. The ocular response to extended wear of a high Dk silicone hydrogel contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonn, Desmond; MacDonald, Karen E; Richter, Doris; Pritchard, Nicola

    2002-05-01

    A four-month extended wear clinical trial was conducted to compare the ocular effects of a high Dk Balafilcon A silicone hydrogel lens and a low Dk HEMA 38.6 per cent H20 soft lens. Twenty-four subjects who were adapted to daily wear of soft lenses wore a high Dk lens in one eye and a low Dk HEMA lens in the other eye for four months on an extended wear basis after one week of daily wear. Thirteen progress evaluations were conducted using standard clinical procedures. Eighteen subjects (75 per cent) completed the study. The high Dk lens induced significantly less bulbar and limbal injection and corneal vascularisation than the low Dk HEMA lens (p Dk lens. A significant increase in myopia was found in the eyes wearing the low Dk HEMA lens (mean = 0.50 D, p Dk lens. Three subjects developed small infiltrates in the high Dk lens wearing eyes and significantly more post-lens debris was observed under the high Dk lens. Six subjects developed papillary conjunctivitis in the eye wearing silicone hydrogel lenses but only two of those were discontinued from the study. No hypoxia-related effects were observed with extended wear of the high Dk Balafilcon A silicone hydrogel lens.

  9. Estimating a just-noticeable difference for ocular comfort in contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric B; Keay, Lisa; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2011-06-21

    To estimate the just-noticeable difference (JND) in ocular comfort rating by human, contact lens-wearing subjects using 1 to 100 numerical scales. Ostensibly identical, new contact lenses were worn simultaneously in both eyes by 40 subjects who made individual comfort ratings for each eye using a 100-point numerical ratings scale (NRS). Concurrently, interocular preference was indicated on a five-point Likert scale (1 to 5: strongly prefer right, slightly prefer right, no preference, slightly prefer left, strongly prefer left, respectively). Differences in NRS comfort score (ΔC) between the right and left eyes were determined for each Likert scale preference criteria. The distribution of group ΔC scores was examined relative to alternative definitions of JND as a means of estimating its value. For Likert scores indicating the presence of a slight interocular preference, absolute ΔC ranged from 1 to 30 units with a mean of 7.4 ± 1.3 (95% confidence interval) across all lenses and trials. When there was no Likert scale preference expressed between the eyes, absolute ΔC did not exceed 5 units. For ratings of comfort using a 100-point numerical rating scale, the inter-ocular JND is unlikely to be less than 5 units. The estimate for the average value in the population was approximately 7 to 8 units. These numbers indicate the lowest level at which changes in comfort measured with such scales are likely to be clinically significant.

  10. Contact lens assisted imaging with integrated flexible handheld probe for glaucoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xun Jie Jeesmond; V. K., Shinoj; Murukeshan, V. M.; Baskaran, M.; Aung, Tin

    2017-06-01

    Angle closure glaucoma accounts for majority of the bilateral blindness in Asian countries such as Singapore, China, and India. Abnormalities in the optic nerve and aqueous outflow system are the most indicative clinical hallmarks for glaucoma of this clinical subtype. Traditional photographic imaging techniques to assess the drainage angle are contact based, and may expose patients to risk of corneal abrasion and infections. In addition, these procedures require the use of viscous ophthalmic gels as coupling medium to overcome the phenomenon of total internal reflection at the tear-air interface. In this paper, we propose an integrated flexible handheld probe consisting of a micro color CCD video camera and white light LEDs. The handheld probe is able to capture images of the fundus and opposite iridocorneal angle when placed at the central cornea or limbus respectively. Here, we propose the use of hydrogel contact lens as an index matching medium and better protective barrier, as an alternative to conventional ophthalmic gels. The proposed imaging system and methodology has been successfully tested on porcine eye samples, ex vivo. With its high repeatability, reproducibility, and a good safety profile, it is believed that the proposed imaging system and methodology will complement existing imaging modalities in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma.

  11. Contact lens wearers' experiences while trekking in the Khumbu region/Nepal: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2015-01-01

    Safe contact lens wear depends on a hygiene regime and lens-appropriate wear patterns which may be compromised during travel in remote and wilderness areas. The purpose of this study was to describe the experience of contact lens wearers while trekking at high-altitude in Nepal. For this descriptive study, trekkers with contact lenses were recruited in Lukla and invited to complete an online-questionnaire on trip preparation, contact lens use, care and experiences, and possible changes for future travel. Quantitative data were analysed using SurveyMonkey; content analysis applied to qualitative responses. The majority of the 158 participants (124; 78.48%) reported no problems with their lenses (daily disposables, soft lenses, extended-wear lenses, hard/rigid lenses) during their stay although dry air, dust, wind, cold temperatures, and difficult hygiene maintenance were challenging. Freezing lenses and freezing solutions were additional challenges. Thirty-four (21.52%) experienced a variety of problems. Improvements were requested from manufacturers. Lodges should provide better access to clean water, mirrors and lighting. Almost 60% of participants had not sought any pre-travel health advice. Remote and wilderness areas provide a challenge for appropriate contact lens wear and care. The decision between the potential risk of infection due to touching lenses (daily disposables, soft/hard lenses) and the potential risk of corneal erosion (extended-wear lenses) needs to be made in pre-travel consultations. Travel health professionals and travel agencies should remind CL-wearing trekkers to carefully assess their wear and care routine to accommodate potentially challenging conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Infiltrados corneales asociados al uso de lentes de contacto Corneal infiltrates associated with contact lens wear

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    Vivian Padrón Álvarez

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 15 pacientes que usan lentes de contacto rígidas, permeables al gas (LCRPG y lentes de contacto blandas (LCB que presentaron infiltrados corneales. Se realizó estudio microbiológico de las lesiones y seguimiento clínico de estos casos. En 3 de los casos estudiados el cultivo fue positivo a estafilococo aureus, el resto de los estudios microbiológicos fueron negativos. Todos los pacientes respondieron rápidamente al retirar la lente de contacto y al tratamiento con antibióticos tópicos y ninguno tuvo afectación permanente de la agudeza visual. El diagnóstico exacto y el manejo apropiado de los infiltrados corneales en pacientes que usan lentes de contacto es de gran importancia por la posibilidad de infección o de secuela visual permanente.15 patients wearing gas permeable rigid contact lenses (GPRCL and soft contanct lenses (SCL that presented corneal infiltrates were studied. A microbiological study of the injuries and a clinical follow-up of these cases were conducted. In 3 of the studied cases the culture was positive to Staphyloccocus aureus. The rest of the mircobiological studies were negative. All the patients responded rapidly to the contact lens removal and to the treatment with topical antibiotics. None of them had permanent affection of visual acuity. The accurate diagnosis and the appropiate management of the corneal infiltrates in patients wearing contact lenses is very important due to the possibility of infection or of permanent visual sequela.

  13. Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis Ceratites microbianas relacionadas a lente de contato

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    Aline Silveira Moriyama

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Contact lens-associated microbial keratitis is a severe condition with sight-threatening potential and increasing incidence. Information regarding the etiological agents is essential in guiding management and may vary geographically. The aim of this study was to analyze the microbiological results of corneal scrapings collected from patients presenting with contact lens-associated microbial keratitis. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the records of all patients who were clinically diagnosed with contact lens-associated microbial keratitis and had corneal scrapings sent to the Laboratory of Ocular Microbiology, UNIFESP/EPM during a 5-year period from January 2002 to December 2007. RESULTS: The etiological agent was identified in 239 patients. Bacterial isolates accounted for 166 (69.46% cases, Acanthamoeba for 95 (39.75% cases and fungi for 4 (1.67% cases. Among the bacterial infections, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was demonstrated in 74 cases, while Pseudomonas spp was found in 32 patients. All coagulase negative Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Resistance to gentamicin was documented in a single case of Pseudomonas. Fourth-generation flouoroquinolone resistance was not observed among Pseudomonas cases. CONCLUSION: Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequent isolate, and such data must be considered when determining empiric treatment. Second-generation fluoroquinolones ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin and fourth-generation fluoroquinolones moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin showed a good antibacterial profile and therefore could be good options for initial management.OBJETIVO: A ceratite microbiana associada ao uso de lente de contato é uma condição clínica grave, com risco de perda visual e cuja incidência vem aumentando progressivamente. Os principais agentes etiológicos podem variar geograficamente e informações referentes aos agentes causais são essenciais para

  14. Evaluation of a contact lens-embedded sensor for intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twa, Michael D; Roberts, Cynthia J; Karol, Huikai J; Mahmoud, Ashraf M; Weber, Paul A; Small, Robert H

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate a novel contact lens-embedded pressure sensor for continuous measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). Repeated measurements of IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) were recorded in 12 eyes of 12 subjects in sitting and supine positions using 3 configurations of the dynamic contour tonometer: slit-lamp mounted (DCT), hand-held (HH), and contact lens-embedded sensor (CL). The IOP and OPA for each condition were compared using repeated measures ANOVA and the 95% limits of agreement were calculated. The sitting IOP (mean and 95% CI) for each configuration was DCT: 16.3 mm Hg (15.6 to 17.1 mm Hg), HH: 16.6 mm Hg (15.6 to 17.6 mm Hg), and CL: 15.7 mm Hg (15 to 16.3 mm Hg). The sitting OPA for each configuration was DCT: 2.4 mm Hg (2.1 to 2.6 mm Hg), HH: 2.4 mm Hg (2.1 to 2.7 mm Hg), and CL: 2.1 mm Hg (1.8 to 2.3 mm Hg). Supine IOP and OPA measurements with the CL and HH sensors were both greater than their corresponding sitting measurements, but were significantly less with the CL sensor than the HH sensor. The mean difference and 95% Limits of Agreement were smallest for the DCT and CL sensor comparisons (0.7+/-3.9 mm Hg) and widest for the CL and HH sensors (-1.9+/-7.25 mm Hg); these wider limits were attributed to greater HH measurement variability. The CL sensor was comparable to HH and DCT sensors with sitting subjects and is a viable method for measuring IOP and OPA. Supine measurements of IOP and OPA were greater than sitting conditions and were comparatively lower with the CL sensor. HH measurements were more variable than CL measurements and this influenced the Limits of Agreement for both sitting and supine conditions.

  15. Impact of duration of contact lens wear on the structure and function of the meibomian glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Waleed M; Markoulli, Maria; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of the duration of contact lens (CL) wear on the meibomian glands (MGs), eyelid and tear film. This was a cross-sectional study of CL wearers and non-wearers (NWs) aged between 18 and 35 years. The sample comprised of: (i) Three groups of CL wearers of different duration profiles (short, moderate and long experience of CL wear); (ii) a group of previous CL wearers (PWs) who had ceased wear for at least 6 months prior to the present study; (iii) healthy non-wearers as a control group. Study procedures were conducted in the order from least invasive to most invasive as follows: symptom assessment, lipid assessment, non-invasive break-up time, tear meniscus area, tear osmolarity and evaporation, Phenol red thread, MG expressibility, ocular surface and eyelid assessments, meibography, Marx line and lid wiper assessment using lissamine green. For statistical comparison of continuous data, one-way analysis of variance was used with Bonferroni post-hoc correction, where appropriate. Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson Chi-Square respectively were used for ordinal and categorical variables. A total of 100 participants (49 males and 51 females; mean age ± SD: 25.4 ± 4.1) were enrolled across the five groups, such that each was composed of 20 age/sex matched individuals. Significant differences between the study groups were found for MG expressibility (p < 0.001), number of plugged orifices (p = 0.001), number of expressed orifices (p < 0.001), MG dropout (p = 0.001), Marx line score (p < 0.001), palpebral redness (p = 0.003), and roughness (p = 0.002), non-invasive break-up time (p < 0.001), Phenol red thread (p = 0.005), and tear meniscus area (p = 0.029). For all these variables, the NW group was statistically different from all other groups. Duration of wear was not a significant factor, except for Marx line score which was different in PWs compared to those with longer experience of CL wear (p = 0.03) CONCLUSION: Alterations to MG morphology and

  16. Oxygen permeability (Dk) of thirty-seven rigid contact lens materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, William J; Cappelli, Quido A

    2002-02-01

    Oxygen permeability (Dk) was determined for 37 available rigid contact lens materials in a masked fashion. The results were compared with those of an earlier study that included different lots of 14 test materials assessed in the current study. Six lenses of different thicknesses in each test and reference material were obtained. Test materials were arranged in sets of six to eight materials per set. Each set of materials, with inclusion of at least two reference materials for the purpose of simultaneous calibration, was measured to obtain preliminary amperages. Four preliminary measures were performed per thickness, resulting in 24 per material, in a schedule designed to spread the potential effects of machine drift and other factors. The mean preliminary amperages were used to derive corrected Dk values according to American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z80.20-1998, and the values were linearly calibrated using the measured and established Dk values of the reference materials. The resistance (t/Dk) vs. thickness (t) plots for the 37 test and seven reference materials were approximated linearly. In 54 of 57 linear regressions, the coefficients of determination (R2) were >0.96, and in 48 instances were >0.98. Fourteen Dk values from the current study and an earlier study were linearly correlated (R2 = 0.9846), with a slope close to unity (+1.056) and intercept close to zero (-0.292). Ten of the current values fell within 10% of their corresponding earlier values. Only three current Dk values fell outside of the ANSI Z80.20-1998 tolerance for Dk (+/-20%). Two of these Dk values met the product tolerance when an obvious outlying point was graphically identified and omitted from the linear resistance (t/Dk) vs. thickness (t) regression. Omission of a single outlying point from a linear resistance vs. thickness regression can help provide a more valid Dk value. The ANSI Z80.20-1998 tolerance of +/-20% on Dk and the measurement reproducibility of +/-10% were

  17. Nonadhesive, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated contact lens cases--compromising between ease of cleaning and microbial transmission to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wenwen; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Qiu, Jun; de-Bont, Nik; Gelling, Onko-Jan; van der Mei, Henny C; Busscher, Henk J

    2013-05-01

    Surface properties of lens cases are determinant for their cleanability and for microbial transmission from lens cases to contact lenses (CLs). PEG-polymer-brush-coatings are known to decrease microbial adhesion more than other surface-coatings. Here, we applied a robust, silica nanoparticles-based brush-coating to polypropylene cases to evaluate their ease of cleaning and probability of bacterial transmission to CLs. Adhesion forces of nine bacterial strains (Pseudomonas, Staphylococci, and Serratia) to rigid CLs, polypropylene, and silica nanoparticles-based brush-coated polypropylene were measured using atomic-force-microscopy and subjected to Weibull analyses to yield bacterial transmission probabilities. Biofilms of each strain were grown in coated and uncoated cases and rinsed with a NaCl or antimicrobial lens care solution. Residual, viable organisms were quantified. Bacterial adhesion forces of all strains were significantly, up to tenfold smaller on brush-coated than on uncoated polypropylene. This yielded, higher transmission probabilities to a CL, but mild-rinsing yielded 10-100 fold higher removal of bacteria from brush-coated than from polypropylene cases. Moreover, due to weak adhesion forces, bacteria on brush-coated cases were two-to-three fold more susceptible to an antimicrobial lens care solution than on polypropylene cases. Therewith, the design of lens case surfaces is a compromise between ease of cleaning and transmission probability to CLs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Positional accommodative intraocular lens power error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position

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    David P Piñero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the predictability of the refractive correction achieved with a positional accommodating intraocular lenses (IOL and to develop a potential optimization of it by minimizing the error associated with the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and by developing a predictive formula for the effective lens position (ELP. Materials and Methods: Clinical data from 25 eyes of 14 patients (age range, 52-77 years and undergoing cataract surgery with implantation of the accommodating IOL Crystalens HD (Bausch and Lomb were retrospectively reviewed. In all cases, the calculation of an adjusted IOL power (P IOLadj based on Gaussian optics considering the residual refractive error was done using a variable keratometric index value (n kadj for corneal power estimation with and without using an estimation algorithm for ELP obtained by multiple regression analysis (ELP adj . P IOLadj was compared to the real IOL power implanted (P IOLReal , calculated with the SRK-T formula and also to the values estimated by the Haigis, HofferQ, and Holladay I formulas. Results: No statistically significant differences were found between P IOLReal and P IOLadj when ELP adj was used (P = 0.10, with a range of agreement between calculations of 1.23 D. In contrast, P IOLReal was significantly higher when compared to P IOLadj without using ELP adj and also compared to the values estimated by the other formulas. Conclusions: Predictable refractive outcomes can be obtained with the accommodating IOL Crystalens HD using a variable keratometric index for corneal power estimation and by estimating ELP with an algorithm dependent on anatomical factors and age.

  19. Broadband Loop Antenna on Soft Contact Lens for Wireless Ocular Physiological Monitoring

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    Ssu-Han Ting

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel loop antenna with broadband for wireless ocular physiological monitoring (WOPM. The antenna is fabricated on a thin-film poly-para-xylylene C (parylene C substrate with a small thickness of 11 μm and dimension of π×6.5×6.5 mm2. With the advantage of small size, the proposed antenna is suitable to apply to the soft contact lens and transmit the signal in microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS. Because the pig's eye and human's eye have similar parameters of conductivity and permittivity, the experimental results are obtained by applying the proposed antenna on the pig's eye and cover from 1.54 to 6 GHz for ISM band (2.4 and 5.8 GHz applications. The measured antenna radiation patterns, antenna gains, and radiation efficiency will be demonstrated in this paper, which are suitable for application of wireless ocular physiological monitoring.

  20. Clinical observation on Hiline rigid gas permeable contact lens for keratoconus

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    Hui Ding

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effect of the Hiline rigid gas permeable contact lens(Hiline RGPCLfor keratoconus in clinical practice and the predictors for RGPCL fitting.METHODS:Fifty-seven eyes in 36 patients with keratoconus fitted with Hiline RGPCL were divided into three groups, mild(n=10, moderate(n=24and advanced(n=23group. After fitting evaluation, visual acuity measurements were taken to compare the best corrected visual acuity wearing spectacle lenses and Hiline RGPCL. The predictors for RGPCL fitting by the corneal curvature were analyzed.RESULTS:In all groups, the application of Hiline RGPCL obtained acceptable vision. There was statistically significant improvement in vision with the Hiline RGPCL than that of with spectacle lenses in mild group(t=-2.968,P=0.016, moderate group(t=-6.293,Pt=-12.792,Pr=0.715,P=0.02. In moderate group, the base curve of RGPCL correlated with average K as well as 0.2mm steeper average K(r=0.495,P=0.014. In advanced group, the base curve of RGPCL correlated with every indicator, especially the corneal curvature in central area(r=0.802,PCONCLUSION:Guiding by corneal topography, improvement of visual acuity is successfully achieved by fitting with Hiline RGPCL. Selecting different predictors in different grades can reduce the complexity and improve the usefulness of the Hiline RGPCL in clinical practice.

  1. Bacterial Colonization of Disposable Soft Contact Lenses Is Greater during Corneal Infiltrative Events than during Asymptomatic Extended Lens Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja R.; Sharma, Savitri; Willcox, Mark; Naduvilath, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Deborah F.; Holden, Brien A.; Rao, Gullapalli N.

    2000-01-01

    Microorganisms, especially gram-negative bacteria, are considered to play a role in the etiology of certain corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) observed during soft contact lens wear. This study explored the possibility of microbial colonization of soft contact lenses as a risk factor leading to CIEs. In a clinical trial conducted from March 1993 to January 1996, 330 subjects wore disposable soft contact lenses on a 6-night extended-wear and disposal schedule. During this period, 4,321 lenses (118 during CIEs; 4,203 during asymptomatic lens wear) were recovered aseptically and analyzed for microbial colonization. A greater percentage of lenses were free from microbial colonization during asymptomatic wear than during CIEs (42 versus 23%; P bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi was greater during CIEs than during asymptomatic lens wear (P bacteria were isolated most frequently and were usually normal external ocular microbiota. Of the gram-positive bacteria, the incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae was greater during CIE than during asymptomatic wear (7.6 versus 0.6%; P bacteria were seen in few cases during asymptomatic wear, their incidence during CIE in comparison to asymptomatic wear was substantial and significant (23.7 versus 3.8%; P bacteria or S. pneumoniae. Colonization of soft contact lenses with pathogenic bacteria, especially gram-negative bacteria and S. pneumoniae, appears to be a significant risk factor leading to CIE. PMID:11101574

  2. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  3. A Class I UV-blocking (senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVA-induced yellow fluorescence and NADH loss in the rabbit lens nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F; Leverenz, Victor R; Fick, Catherine E

    2012-09-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm(2) on the cornea) for 1 h using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 h. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  4. Liquid lens with double tunable surfaces for large power tunability and improved optical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Qiong-Hua; Jiang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a liquid lens with two tunable interfaces formed by two kinds of immiscible liquids. The proposed liquid lens uses liquid pressure to change the shape of the interfaces. It can provide a large tunable range of optical power and improved optical performance. By applying suitable liquids the gravity effect can also be negligible. To prove the principles, a liquid lens with 7 mm aperture was fabricated. The optical performance indicates that the proposed liquid lens can provide a large tunable range of both positive and negative powers even using liquids with small differences in refractive indices. The resolution is better than 50 lp mm −1 under white light environment. The spherical aberration and coma are also largely reduced. The proposed liquid lens can also provide the optical designer with the freedom to choose the combination of liquids to reduce or even correct aberrations

  5. Comparison of two optical biometers in intraocular lens power calculation

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    Sheng Hui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the consistency and accuracy in ocular biometric measurements and intraocular lens (IOL power calculations using the new optical low-coherence reflectometry and partial coherence interferometry. Subjects and Methods: The clinical data of 122 eyes of 72 cataract patients were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were measured with a new optical low-coherence reflectometry system, using the LENSTAR LS 900 (Haag Streit AG/ALLEGRO BioGraph biometer (Wavelight., AG, and partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster V.5.4 [Carl Zeiss., Meditec, AG] before phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. Repeated measurements, as recommended by the manufacturers, were performed by the same examiner with both devices. Using the parameters of axial length (AL, corneal refractive power (K1 and K2, and anterior chamber depth (ACD, power calculations for AcrySof SA60AT IOL were compared between the two devices using five formulas. The target was emmetropia. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS 13.0 with t-test as well as linear regression. A P value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The mean age of 72 cataract patients was 64.6 years ± 13.4 [standard deviation]. Of the biometry parameters, K1, K2 and [K1 + K2]/2 values were significantly different between the two devices (mean difference, K1: −0.05 ± 0.21 D; K2: −0.12 ± 0.20 D; [K1 + K2]/2: −0.08 ± 0.14 D. P <0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in AL and ACD between the two devices. The correlations of AL, K1, K2, and ACD between the two devices were high. The mean differences in IOL power calculations using the five formulas were not statistically significant between the two devices. Conclusions: New optical low-coherence reflectometry provides measurements that correlate well to those of partial coherence interferometry, thus it is a precise device that can be used for the

  6. The effects of the modulus of the lens material on intraocular pressure measurement through soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, S; Güngör, I

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the effects of the modulus of the lens material on the intraocular pressure measurement using the Tono-Pen XL applanation tonometer through soft contact lenses. Thirty eyes of 15 patients with myopia were evaluated. Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements were performed using Tono-Pen XL directly over cornea, and subsequently through three soft contact lenses made up of different lens materials. All were -3.00 diopter soft contact lenses: lotrafilcon A with a low water content (24%) and high modulus (1.4 MPa) (CL-I), balafilcon A with a moderate water content (36%) and moderate modulus (1.1 MPa) (CL-II), and vifilcon A with a moderate water content (55%) and low modulus (0.79 MPa) (CL-III). IOP measurements through contact lenses were compared with each other, and with direct corneal measurements. The mean age of the patients (11 males and 4 females) was 26.86±5.62 years. All measurements obtained through CLs were significantly higher than the direct corneal measurements. The measurements through CLs differed by 4.61±0.54 mmHg (P=0,001), 2.9±0.46 mmHg (P=0.001), and 1.94±0.51 mmHg (P=0,003) for CL-I, CL-II and CL-III, respectively. In the paired comparisons of measurements through CLs, all comparisons were significant except the comparison of measurements through CL-II and CL-III (P=0.128). IOP measurements through silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with a high modulus and low water content were higher compared to the other contact lenses. While measuring IOP through CLs, the clinicians should consider the effect of the lens material and the features of the device used.

  7. Removal of intraocular foreign body in anterior chamber angle with prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ming; Yan, Hua; Cai, Jin-Hong; Li, Hai-Bo

    2017-01-01

    To introduce a novel approach in removal of anterior chamber angle foreign body (ACFB) using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps. Data of 42 eyes of 42 patients who had undergone removal of ACFB using a prism contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps from January 2008 to October 2013 were collected and analyzed. Twenty eyes in group A received the conventional approach by using toothed forceps through corneal limbus incision, and 22 eyes in group B underwent the novel method through the opposite corneal limbus incision. The success rate of ACFB once removal was 75% (15/20) in group A, and 100% (22/22) in group B. The average operation time of group A was significantly longer compared with group B (34.9±9.88min vs 22.13±8.85min; P contact lens and 23-gauge foreign body forceps is a safer, more effective, and convenient technique compared with the conventional approach.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Tear Film Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Contact Lens Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel Elgin, Cansu; İskeleli, Güzin; Talaz, Serap; Akyol, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    To compare tear films levels of various inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic contact lens (CL) users. CL users of rigid gas-permeable CLs (RGPCL) (group 1) or silicone hydrogel CLs (SiHCL) (group 2) were compared with non-CL-using healthy subjects (group 3). Tear samples were collected from subjects in each group after ensuring that there were no complications secondary to CL wear in the CL-wearing participants. Tear-film levels of interleukins (ILs)-1β, -6, and -8; granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (using the Luminex method); and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (using the ELISA method) were determined. Cytokine levels were compared among the three groups using analysis-of-variance (ANOVA) and Kruskall-Wallis tests. There were significant differences in concentrations of IL-1β, GM-CSF and LTB4 among the three groups (p = 0.002, p = 0.021 and p = 0.009, respectively), as shown by the Kruskall-Wallis test comparing all three groups for the three cytokines. There were no significant differences for IL-6 and IL-8 (p = 0.079 and 0.094, respectively) when all three groups were compared. There were substantial statistically significant differences between RGPCL users, SiHCL users and control subjects in levels of tear film cytokines. Although CL users were asymptomatic, changes in tear-film levels of several important inflammatory mediators revealed that a chronic inflammatory process occurs during CL wear.

  9. Cornea stress test--evaluation of corneal endothelial function in vivo by contact lens induced stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Jagjit

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and valid assessment of corneal endothelial function is a critical input for diagnosing, prognosticating and monitoring progression of disorders affecting corneal endothelium. In 123 eyes, corneal endothelial function was assessed employing data from the corneal hydration recovery dynamics. Serial pachometric readings were recorded on Haag-Striet pachometer with Mishima-Hedbys modification before and after two hours of thick soft contact lens wear. Percentage Recovery Per Hour (PRPH was derived from raw data as an index of endothelial function. Assessed PRPH in pseudophakic corneal oedema and Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy eyes (35.9 +/- 9.8% was significantly lower than normal controls (61.9 +/- 10.5%. On employing receiver operation characteristics curve analysis the tested results demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and specificity (92% for detection of low endothelial function at PRPH cut off of 47.5%. Using this PRPH cut off, 80% of Fuchs′ endothelial dystrophy and 93.3% of pseudophakic corneal oedema eyes could be demonstrated to have low endothelial function. A total of 66.7% of diabetic eyes also demonstrated PRPH of lower than 47.5%. Clear corneal grafts demonstrated PRPH values of 24.6% to 73.0%. Of 6 corneal grafts that demonstrated initial PRPH of lower than 47.5%, 4 failed within 4 to 6 months. Our data demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity of this corneal stress test. PRPH index was useful in quantifying endothelial function in clinical disorders including diabetes mellitus. The index PRPH was demonstrated to be useful in monitoring and prognosticating outcome of corneal grafts.

  10. Refractive power and biometric properties of the nonhuman primate isolated crystalline lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, David; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Ziebarth, Noel M; Acosta, Ana Carolina; Arrieta-Quintera, Esdras; Augusteyn, Robert C; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. To characterize the age dependence of shape, refractive power, and refractive index of isolated lenses from nonhuman primates. Methods. Measurements were performed on ex vivo lenses from cynomolgus monkeys (cyno: n = 120; age, 2.7-14.3 years), rhesus monkeys (n = 61; age, 0.7-13.3 years), and hamadryas baboons (baboon: n = 16; age, 1.7-27.3 years). Lens thickness, diameter, and surface curvatures were measured with an optical comparator. Lens refractive power was measured with a custom optical system based on the Scheiner principle. The refractive contributions of the gradient, the surfaces, and the equivalent refractive index were calculated with optical ray-tracing software. The age dependence of the optical and biometric parameters was assessed. Results. Over the measured age range isolated lens thickness decreased (baboon: -0.04, cyno: -0.05, and rhesus: -0.06 mm/y) and equatorial diameter increased (logarithmically for the baboon and rhesus, and linearly for cyno: 0.07 mm/y). The isolated lens surfaces flattened and the corresponding refractive power from the surfaces decreased with age (-0.33, -0.48, and -0.68 D/y). The isolated lens equivalent refractive index decreased (only significant for the baboon, -0.001 D/y), and as a result the total isolated lens refractive power decreased with age (baboon: -1.26, cyno: -0.97, and rhesus: -1.76 D/y). Conclusions. The age-dependent trends in the optical and biometric properties, growth, and aging, of nonhuman primate lenses are similar to those of the pre-presbyopic human lens. As the lens ages, the decrease in refractive contributions from the gradient refractive index causes a rapid age-dependent decrease in maximally accommodated lens refractive power.

  11. Activity of a melimine derived peptide Mel4 against Stenotrophomonas, Delftia, Elizabethkingia, Burkholderia and biocompatibility as a contact lens coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutta, Debarun; Zhao, Timothy; Cheah, Kai Bing

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the antimicrobial activity of the melimine derived peptide Mel4 against Delftia, Stenotrophomonas, Elizabethkingia, Burkholderia and to investigate biocompatibility of Mel4 as an antimicrobial coating on contact lenses in animals and humans. Methods In vitro antimicrobial...... activity of Mel4 was determined against the four Gram negative bacteria by investigating growth curves for 24 h followed by viable counts to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Contact lenses were coated by covalently binding Mel4, characterized by amino acid analysis, and were...... was active against all the bacteria tested (MIC50 ranged from 31–1000 μg ml−1) and produced an antimicrobial surface on contact lenses. Mel4-coating resulted hydrophilic surface without any significant change in contact lens parameters, and showed no signs of cytotoxicity or ocular irritation during rabbit...

  12. A novel in-vitro method for assessing contact lens surface dewetting: Non-invasive keratograph dry-up time (NIK-DUT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Sebastian; Sickenberger, Wolfgang

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to develop a novel technique called non-invasive keratograph dry-up time (NIK-DUT), which used an adapted corneal topographer, to analyse in-vitro contact lens surface dewetting and the effects of combinations of lenses and lens care solutions on dewetting. Variables were assessed to optimise sensitivity and reproducibility. To validate the method, in-vitro dewetting of silicone hydrogel contact lenses (balafilcon A, comfilcon A, lotrafilcon A, lotrafilcon B and senofilcon A) was tested. All lens types were soaked in OPTI-FREE ® PureMoist ® Multipurpose Disinfecting Solution (OFPM) and Sensitive Eyes ® Saline Solution. The mean NIK-DUT, defined as drying of 25% of the placido ring measurement segments (NIK-DUT_S25), was calculated for each lens/lens solution combination and a visual map constructed representing the time and location of the dry-up event. Optimal conditions for NIK-DUT measurement included mounting onto a glass stage with a surface geometry of r=8.5mm, e=0, and measuring with high intensity red or white illumination. This method detected significant differences in contact lens dewetting with different lens soaking solutions. NIK-DUT_S25 for all lenses was longer when pre-soaked in OFPM versus saline. Visual analysis showed that dewetting of contact lenses was not uniform across surfaces and differed between test solutions. NIK-DUT is suitable for detecting differences in dewetting among various contact lenses and lens-care combinations. NIK-DUT can quantify the dewetting of large areas of lens surfaces with little subjective influence. Lens care solutions containing surface-active wetting agents were found to delay surface dewetting of silicone hydrogel lenses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infectious Keratitis in a High Oxygen Transmissible Rigid Contact Lens Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Cynthia; Zhu, Meifang; Petroll, W. Matthew; Robertson, Danielle M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To establish a rabbit model of infectious Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis using ultrahigh oxygen transmissible rigid lenses and characterize the frequency and severity of infection when compared to a non–oxygen transmissible lens material. Methods. Rabbits were fit with rigid lenses composed of ultrahigh and non–oxygen transmissible materials. Prior to wear, lenses were inoculated with an invasive corneal isolate of P. aeruginosa stably conjugated to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Corneas were examined before and after lens wear using a modified Heidelberg Rostock Tomograph in vivo confocal microscope. Viable bacteria adherent to unworn and worn lenses were assessed by standard plate counts. The presence of P. aeruginosa-GFP and myeloperoxidase-labeled neutrophils in infected corneal tissue was evaluated using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Results. The frequency and severity of infectious keratitis was significantly greater with inoculated ultrahigh oxygen transmissible lenses. Infection severity was associated with increasing neutrophil infiltration and in severe cases, corneal melting. In vivo confocal microscopic analysis of control corneas following lens wear confirmed that hypoxic lens wear was associated with mechanical surface damage, whereas no ocular surface damage was evident in the high-oxygen lens group. Conclusions. These data indicate that in the absence of adequate tear clearance, the presence of P. aeruginosa trapped under the lens overrides the protective effects of oxygen on surface epithelial cells. These findings also suggest that alternative pathophysiological mechanisms exist whereby changes under the lens in the absence of frank hypoxic damage result in P. aeruginosa infection in the otherwise healthy corneal epithelium. PMID:25125601

  14. The risk of capsular breakage from phacoemulsification needle contact with the lens capsule: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jay J; Kuo, Annie F; Olson, Randall J

    2010-06-01

    To determine capsular breakage risk from contact by phacoemulsification needles by machine and tip type. Experimental laboratory investigation. Infiniti (Alcon, Inc.) with Intrepid cartridges and Signature (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.) phacoemulsification machines were tested using 19- and 20-gauge sharp and rounded tips. Actual and unoccluded flow vacuum were determined at 550 mm Hg, bottle height of 75 cm, and machine-indicated flow rate of 60 mL/minute. Breakage from brief tip contact with a capsular surrogate and human cadaveric lenses was calculated. Nineteen-gauge tips had more flow and less unoccluded flow vacuum than 20-gauge tips for both machines, with highest unoccluded flow vacuum in the Infiniti. The 19-gauge sharp tip was more likely than the 20-gauge sharp tip to cause surrogate breakage for Signature with micropulse and Ellips (Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.) ultrasound at 100% power. For Infiniti using OZil (Alcon, Inc.) ultrasound, 20-gauge sharp tips were more likely than 19-gauge sharp tips to break the membrane. For cadaveric lenses, using rounded 20-gauge tips at 100% power, breakage rates were micropulse (2.3%), Ellips (2.3%), OZil (5.3%). Breakage rates for sharp 20-gauge Ellips tips were higher than for rounded tips. Factors influencing capsular breakage may include active vacuum at the tip, flow rate, needle gauge, and sharpness. Nineteen-gauge sharp tips were more likely than 20-gauge tips to cause breakage in lower vacuum methods. For higher-vacuum methods, breakage is more likely with 20-gauge than with 19-gauge tips. Rounded-edge tips are less likely than sharp-edged tips to cause breakage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of type III secretion system and lens material on adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Elizabeth P; Tsay, Ruey-Yug; Chia, Jean-San; Wu, Semon; Lee, Jing-Wen; Hu, Fung-Rong

    2012-09-21

    To determine the distribution of invasive and cytotoxic genotypes among ocular isolates of P. aeruginosa and investigate the influence of the type III secretion system (T3SS) on adhesion to conventional, cosmetic, and silicone hydrogel contact lenses (CL). Clinical isolates from 2001 to 2010 were analyzed by multiplex PCR for exoS, exoU, and exoT genes. Bacterial adhesion to etafilcon, nelfilcon (gray colored), balafilcon, and galyfilcon CL with or without artificial tear fluid (ATF) incubation were compared. Surface characteristics were determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Among 87 total isolates, 64 strains were from microbial keratitis cases. CL-related microbial keratitis (CLMK) isolates were mostly of the cytotoxic genotype (expressing exoU) (P = 0.002). No significant differences were found in bacterial adhesion to all types of CL between the genotypes under T3SS-inducing conditions. A trend for least bacterial adhesion of galyfilcon compared to the other CL was noted for both genotypes. Needle complex pscC mutants adhered less to all materials than the wild type (P bacteria adhering on CL surfaces. CLMK isolates were mostly of cytotoxic genotype. Different genotypes did not significantly differ in its adhesion to various CL. T3SS and other adhesins are involved in bacteria-contact lens adhesion through complex interactions. Contact lens materials may also play an important role in the adherence of both genotypes of P. aeruginosa.

  16. Clinical observation on bandage type corneal contact lens applied after pterygium excision combined with fresh amniotic membrane transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of fresh amniotic membrane transplantation in combination with bandage type corneal contact lens in the treatment of pterygium. METHODS: This study was a prospective analysis of 600 pterygium excision patients(600 cases, 600 eyesin the He Eye Hospital from January 2016 to June 2016. The patients were randomly and evenly divided into two groups: observation group and control group, 300 cases in each group(300 eyes. Observation group wore the bandage type corneal contact lens after surgery and took it down at fifth day. The control group did not. The degree of pain after surgery were evaluated at 2h, 1, 3 and 5d after surgery. The clinical outcomes in these two groups were compared in a 12mo postoperative follow-up observation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the observation and control group in the percentage of age and gender and size of the pterygium(P>0.05. After surgery, the degree of pain of treatment group significantly decreased compared to control group, the difference was statistically significant(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Bandage contact lenses could significantly release pain response after pterygium excision. But it can not reduce the recurrence rate.

  17. The potential pathogenicity of chlorhexidine-sensitive Acanthamoeba strains isolated from contact lens cases from asymptomatic individuals in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Cabrera-Serra, M Gabriela; Rancel, Fernando; Coronado-Alvarez, Nieves M; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2008-11-01

    Pathogenic strains of the genus Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a serious sight-threatening infection of the eye known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. The prevalence of this infection has risen in the past 20 years, mainly due to the increase in number of contact lens wearers. In this study, the prevalence of Acanthamoeba in a risk group constituted by asymptomatic contact lens wearers from Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, was evaluated. Contact lenses and contact lens cases were analysed for the presence of Acanthamoeba isolates. The isolates' genotypes were also determined after rDNA sequencing. The pathogenic potential of the isolated strains was subsequently established using previously described molecular and biochemical assays, which allowed the selection of three strains with high pathogenic potential. Furthermore, the sensitivity of these isolates against two standard drugs, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine, was analysed. As the three selected strains were sensitive to chlorhexidine, its activity and IC(50) were evaluated. Chlorhexidine was found to be active against these strains and the obtained IC(50) values were compared to the concentrations of this drug present in contact lens maintenance solutions. It was observed that the measured IC(50) was higher than the concentration found in these maintenance solutions. Therefore, the ineffectiveness of chlorhexidine-containing contact lens maintenance solutions against potentially pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba is demonstrated in this study.

  18. Atomic force microscopy and Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer technique to assess contact lens deposits and human meibum extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Sarah; Drolle, Elizabeth; Lorentz, Holly; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Leonenko, Zoya; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the differences in meibomian gland secretions, contact lens (CL) lipid extracts, and CL surface topography between participants with and without meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Meibum study: Meibum was collected from all participants and studied via Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition with subsequent Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) visualization and surface roughness analysis. CL Study: Participants with and without MGD wore both etafilcon A and balafilcon A CLs in two different phases. CL lipid deposits were extracted and analyzed using pressure-area isotherms with the LB trough and CL surface topographies and roughness values were visualized using AFM. Meibum study: Non-MGD participant meibum samples showed larger, circular aggregates with lower surface roughness, whereas meibum samples from participants with MGD showed more lipid aggregates, greater size variability and higher surface roughness. CL Study: Worn CLs from participants with MGD had a few large tear film deposits with lower surface roughness, whereas non-MGD participant-worn lenses had many small lens deposits with higher surface roughness. Balafilcon A pore depths were shallower in MGD participant worn lenses when compared to non-MGD participant lenses. Isotherms of CL lipid extracts from MGD and non-MGD participants showed a seamless rise in surface pressure as area decreased; however, extracts from the two different lens materials produced different isotherms. MGD and non-MGD participant-worn CL deposition were found to differ in type, amount, and pattern of lens deposits. Lipids from MGD participants deposited irregularly whereas lipids from non-MGD participants showed more uniformity. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Bilateral Acanthamoeba ulcer in a user of disposable soft contact lenses: a tragic incident or a consequence of the aggressive policy of soft contact lens trading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Dias, Vanderson Glerian; Marcomini, Luís Antonio Gorla

    2008-01-01

    This is the report of a case of bilateral Acanthamoeba keratitis in a 19-year-old woman who bought a pair of disposable soft contact lenses in a boutique. She wore this same pair of lenses for 3 months daily without the appropriate care. This led to bilateral corneal transplantation with cataract extraction and also trabeculectomy in the right eye. When last seen, both grafts were crystal clear but the visual acuities were far from satisfactory. She also had bilateral secondary glaucoma, barely controlled by topical medication. Actually, the physical features and the wearing time characteristics of the disposable soft contact lenses created unprecedented difficulties to the medical surveillance of their wearers. Without the right assistance they tend to become careless regarding routine cleaning. They also feel free to buy less expensive lenses, to use saline instead of lens solutions, to violate the limits of wearing time and to extend the use over the sleeping period. Additionally, the aggressive marketing and the wide distribution of these lenses increase the chances that economically or educationally unprepared people will acquire them. The question that remains is: Is the present case an accidental event or an example of what is likely to happen in the future if the indiscriminate selling of disposable soft contact lenses continues to evolve?

  20. Optimal power distribution for minimizing pupil walk in a 7.5X afocal zoom lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wanyue; Zhao, Yang; Berman, Rebecca; Bodell, S. Yvonne; Fennig, Eryn; Ni, Yunhui; Papa, Jonathan C.; Yang, Tianyi; Yee, Anthony J.; Moore, Duncan T.; Bentley, Julie L.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive design study was conducted to find the best optimal power distribution and stop location for a 7.5x afocal zoom lens that controls the pupil walk and pupil location through zoom. This afocal zoom lens is one of the three components in a VIS-SWIR high-resolution microscope for inspection of photonic chips. The microscope consists of an afocal zoom, a nine-element objective and a tube lens and has diffraction limited performance with zero vignetting. In this case, the required change in object (sample) size and resolution is achieved by the magnification change of the afocal component. This creates strict requirements for both the entrance and exit pupil locations of the afocal zoom to couple the two sides successfully. The first phase of the design study looked at conventional four group zoom lenses with positive groups in the front and back and the stop at a fixed location outside the lens but resulted in significant pupil walk. The second phase of the design study focused on several promising unconventional four-group power distribution designs with moving stops that minimized pupil walk and had an acceptable pupil location (as determined by the objective and tube lens).

  1. Proper balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid supplements with topical cyclosporine attenuated contact lens-related dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Chen, Xi; Hao, Jingfang; Yang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    Essential fatty acids had been applied in the treatment of dry eye syndrome (DES), but the effects of different combinations of fatty acids have not been investigated. 360 long-term contact lens wearers were included in this double-blinded study. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids were combined in different ratios and supplied to the participants that were randomly divided into six groups, and the effects of different essential fatty acids mixture on DES with or without topical cyclosporine were investigated. More than half of long-term contact lens wearers suffered from DES, which were found to be attenuated by oral supplement of properly balanced O3FA and O6FA fatty acid. The topical cyclosporine treatment considerably inhibited the production of cytokines compared to the cyclosporine negative groups, which further relieved DES. Proper balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid combination significantly alleviated contact lens-related DES.

  2. Variable wide range of lens power and its improvement in a liquid-crystal lens using highly resistive films divided into two regions with different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Marenori; Sato, Susumu

    2018-05-01

    The variable range of lens power of a liquid-crystal (LC) lens driven by two voltages is discussed on the basis of calculated and experimental results. The LC lens has two electrodes, which are a circularly hole-patterned electrode and a circular electrode, in addition to a common electrode, and highly resistive transparent films. The variable range of lens power increases with increasing driving voltage applied across the circularly hole-patterned electrode and the common electrode, and with decreasing diameter of highly resistive films. However, the optical-phase retardation profile tends to deviate from a parabolic curve in these cases. As a method to improve the trade-off properties, the highly resistive film is divided into two regions with different diameters, where the sheet resistance of an outer film is larger than that of an inner one. The improved LC lens has a lens power that varies in a wide range, and it exhibits a good parabolic phase retardation profile.

  3. Interaction of heavy ion beams with a hydrogen plasma: plasma lens effect and stopping power enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Dumail, M.; Kubica, B.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Servajean, A.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    1988-01-01

    By coupling a hydrogen plasma to a Tandem accelerator, transmission and energy losses of 2 MeV/u carbon and sulfur beams passing through a plasma target have been investigated. Fluctuations in beam transmission have been observed and attributed to a plasma lens effect. Moreover, energy loss measurements indicate an enhanced stopping power of the plasma relative to its cold matter equivalent

  4. Lente de contato em crianças: aspectos epidemiológicos Contact lens in children: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Alves Salame

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Traçar o perfil epidemiológico de crianças encaminhadas para adaptação de lente de contato. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de pacientes registrados no Setor de lente de contato da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os pacientes com até 12 anos de idade foram avaliados quanto ao sexo, idade, diagnóstico, indicação e tipo de lente de contato testada na primeira consulta. RESULTADOS: Dos 73 prontuários avaliados, 34 (46,6% pertenciam a crianças do sexo masculino e 39 (53,4% a crianças do sexo feminino. A idade variou de 2 a 12 com média de 10,2 e desvio-padrão de 2,42 anos. O diagnóstico mais encontrado foi afacia em 16 (21,9% crianças, seguido de ceratocone em 14 (19,1%, leucoma em 11 (15%, anisometropia em 10 (13,7%, ametropia em 9 (12,3%, astigmatismo irregular em 7 (9,5% e ectopia lentis em 4 (5,4%. Uma criança era alta míope (1,3% e outra emétrope (1,3% que possuía desejo de usar lente de contato estética. Em relação às indicações, 52 (71,2% pacientes tinham indicação médica, 9 (12,3% indicação óptica e 12 (16,4% indicação cosmética. Foram testadas lentes em 103 olhos sendo as mais testadas a rígida gás permeável esférica em 43 (41,7%, a gelatinosa esférica em 41 (39,8% e a gelatinosa cosmética em 11 (10,6%. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos usuários de lente de contato nessa faixa etária tem como diagnóstico mais prevalente a afacia, a indicação mais freqüente a de ordem médica e a lente mais testada a rígida gás permeável esférica.PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiology of children submitted to contact lens fit. METHODS: Retrospective study of 73 children that had been submitted to contact lens fit at the "Universidade Federal de São Paulo". This study analyzed sex distribution, age, diagnosis, indications and contact lens fitted at first examination. RESULTS: 34 children (46.6% were male and 39 (53.4% female, aged between 2 and 12 years with mean of 10.2 and

  5. Antimicrobial efficacy assessment of multi-use solution to disinfect hydrophilic contact lens, in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lui,Aline Cristina Fioravanti; Netto,Adamo Lui; Silva,Cely Barreto da; Hida,Richard; Mendes,Thais Sousa; Lui,Giovana Arlene Fioravanti; Gemperli,Daniela Barbosa; Vital,Enderson Dantas

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of disinfecting solutions in hydrophilic contact lenses (CL). METHODS: Two multi-use solutions denominated solution A (0.001% polyquaternium-1 and 0.0005% myristamidopropyl dimethylamine) and solution B (0.0001% polyaminopropyl biguanide) were used. The solutions were tested in hydrophilic contact lenses infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27583), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC1226), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC13883), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923)...

  6. Imaging properties of the light sword optical element used as a contact lens in a presbyopic eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelczyc, K; Bará, S; Lopez, A Ciro; Jaroszewicz, Z; Kakarenko, K; Kolodziejczyk, A; Sypek, M

    2011-12-05

    The paper analyzes the imaging properties of the light sword optical element (LSOE) applied as a contact lens to the presbyopic human eye. We performed our studies with a human eye model based on the Gullstrand parameterization. In order to quantify the discussion concerning imaging with extended depth of focus, we introduced quantitative parameters characterizing output images of optotypes obtained in numerical simulations. The quality of the images formed by the LSOE were compared with those created by a presbyopic human eye, reading glasses and a quartic inverse axicon. Then we complemented the numerical results by an experiment where a 3D scene was imaged by means of the refractive LSOE correcting an artificial eye based on the Gullstrand model. According to performed simulations and experiments the LSOE exhibits abilities for presbyopia correction in a wide range of functional vision distances.

  7. Sensitivity of the corneal-plane refractive compensation to change in power and axial position of an intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available If an intraocular lens is displaced or if its power is changed what are the consequences for the refractive compensation of the eye?  Gaussian optics is used to obtain explicit formulae for the sensitivityof the corneal-plane refractive compensation (also called the refraction, refractive state, etc to change in power and axial displacement of a thin intraocular lens implanted in a simple eye.  In particular, for a pseudophakic Gullstrand simplified eye with intraocular lens placed 5 mm behind the cornea the sensitivity to errors in the power of the intraocular lens is about  71 . 0 − 71 for an intraocular lens of power   for an intraocular lens of power 20 D, that is, the refractive compensation decreases by about 0.71 dioptres per dioptre increase in the power of the intraocular lens.  More generally the sensitivity is approximately  ( m   0037 . 0 63 . 0 F − − 0.63 ( 003 . 0 63 . 0 − − (0.0037mF where FI is the power of the intraocular lens.  Also for Gullstrand’s simplified eye the sensitivity of refractive compensation to axial displacement of the intraocular lens is approximately linear in FI about  (64D FI, in fact.  That is, for each dioptre of the power of the intraocular lens the refractive compensation increases by about 0.064 dioptres per millimetre of axial displacement towards the retina. 

  8. The influence of lens power and center thickness on the intraocular pressure measured through soft lenses: a comparison of two noncontact tonometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuehi, Kelechi C

    2012-06-01

    To quantify the influence of soft contact lens power and thickness on the intraocular pressure (IOP). Thirty-nine young, healthy adult volunteers completed this study. One eye of each subject was randomly assigned either a +6D or a -6D high water content daily disposable lens. The other eye was fitted with the second lens. Triplicate measurements of IOP were taken before, during, and after contact lens wear. Each time, IOP was assessed in a randomized order with two noncontact tonometers. The lenses were swapped between eyes during a second session of measurements, one week later. In the first session with the +6D lenses, the average IOPs (±SDs) before, with the lenses fitted, and after the lenses were removed, were: 14.3 ± 2.9 mmHg, 17.0 ± 3.3 mmHg and 13.9 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively, for the CT80 and 13.6 ± 3.1 mmHg, 17.1 ± 4.5 mmHg and 13.3 ± 2.9 mmHg, respectively, for the PT100. The corresponding values for the first session with the -6D lenses were: 14.3 ± 3.1 mmHg, 13.1 ± 3.1 mmHg and 14.1 ± 3.3 mmHg, respectively, for the CT80 and 13.6 ± 3.2 mmHg, 13.0 ± 3.0 mmHg and 13.6 ± 3.2 mmHg, respectively, for the PT100. IOP significantly (Psoft contact lens-induced changes were consistent between sessions but varied between tonometers. The measurement of IOP through soft contact lenses resulted in consistent, statistically significant differences in IOP, which were not uniform across tonometers and which did not appear to be solely related to the central thickness of the soft contact lenses. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resultados topográficos en pacientes portadores de lentes de contacto Topographic results achieved patients wearing contact lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Aymeé Díaz Martínez

    2009-06-01

    results achieved in patients wearing contact lens, who were candidates to refractive surgery with Excimer laser at "Carlos J. Finlay" hospital; to determine the behaviour according to age and sex; to find out the type of contact lens used and the length of wear; and to identify the relationship of the induced corneal topographic pattern in contact lens wearers with corneal warpage and ketatoconus. METHODS: A retrospective study of the corneal topography of candidates to refractive surgery in the last 2 years was performed in 80 patients (contact lens wearers. OPTIKON AMF510P and HUMPHREY topographers were the instruments to screen the patients. All of them were performed a complete ophthalmological exam (manifest refraction, biomicroscopy, keratometry, pachymetry and corneal topography. Results and their stability were compared. Also age, sex, type of lenses and length of wear were analyzed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty eight eyes were treated, 83 of them presented with normal topographic pattern whereas 58 had contact lens-induced corneal warpage and 17 suffered keratoconus. The average age of patients was 27 years. Mean corneal astigmatism in patients with keratoconus was -3.25 D and in patients with corneal warpage -1.12 D. The reading of the most even meridian in patients with keratocomus was 46,75 dioptries and with corneal warpage was 43,25 D. As to keratoconus, the most curved meridian reading was 54,75 dioptres and in corneal warpage was 46 dioptres. CONCLUSIONS: The type of contact lens and the length of wear has an effect on the occurrence of induced corneal warpage and subclinical keratoconus, and both recorded a similar topographic pattern.

  10. Contact lens technology to 2020 and beyond: a review of recent patent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric B

    2017-09-01

    Contact lenses have been a common means of vision correction for more than half a century. Recent developments raise the possibility that the next several years will see the range of applications in which they are used broaden considerably, with an associated expansion in both the number and type of individuals who consider them to be a valuable option. To describe this new landscape, a review of recent patent submissions covering the period 1 January 2014 to 1 February 2017 was undertaken. The results show that in the main, areas where contact lenses will be applied include drug delivery, visual augmentation and biosensing. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  11. An Evaluation of the Softperm Contact Lens in the Simulated Aircraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    information for future use. SPHERICAL LENSES FOR: Cosmetic Refractive Ametropia (not aphakic) may include astigmatism not in excess of 4.00 diopters which...SoftPerm- Contact Lenses are indicated for daily wear for the cor- rection of Cosmetic Refractive Ametropia (not aphakic) by persons with non

  12. Mechanical design of a power-adjustable spectacle lens frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Asuncion; Barbero, Sergio

    2011-05-01

    Power-adjustable spectacle lenses, based on the Alvarez-Lohmann principle, can be used to provide affordable spectacles for subjective refractive errors measurement and its correction. A new mechanical frame has been designed to maximize the advantages of this technology. The design includes a mechanism to match the interpupillary distance with that of the optical centers of the lenses. The frame can be manufactured using low cost plastic injection molding techniques. A prototype has been built to test the functioning of this mechanical design.

  13. The effects of high-Dk rigid contact lens center thickness, material permeability, and blinking on the oxygen uptake of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Hope Patterson; Fink, Barbara A; Mitchell, Lynn G; Hill, Richard M

    2005-06-01

    The human corneal oxygen uptake responses associated with the static (nonblinking) and dynamic (blinking) wear of five rigid gas-permeable materials with high oxygen permeabilities were determined for three different center thicknesses and compared with the responses for the normal open eye and severe hypoxic stress (static wear of polymethylmethacrylate). Corneal oxygen uptake rates were measured with a Clark-type polarographic electrode during two sessions with each of 10 human subjects. Measurements were made on the right eye for the normal open eye (air) and after 5 minutes of static and dynamic wear of polymethylmethacrylate and five rigid gas-permeable contact lens materials: Fluoroperm 92 (paflufocon A, Dk = 92), Fluoroperm 151 (paflufocon D, Dk = 151), 1992 Menicon SF-P (melafocon A, Dk = 102), 1995 Menicon SF-P (melafocon A, Dk = 159), and Menicon Z (tisilfocon A, Dk = 163-250). Lenses were manufactured in three different center thicknesses (0.12, 0.16, and 0.20 mm), with all other parameters remaining constant. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used and included lens material (five levels), blinking condition (two levels), and lens thickness (three levels) as within-subject effects. Significant differences were found in corneal oxygen responses to lens material (p Dk rigid lens materials studied here, moderate changes in lens thickness or material permeability may result in modest differences in corneal hypoxic relief, whereas blinking results in no significant improvement to corneal oxygenation.

  14. Results from a global survey of contact lens-wearer satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemp J

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessie Lemp, Jami R Kern Global Medical Affairs, Alcon Laboratories, Inc, Fort Worth, Texas, USA Purpose: The objective of the study reported here was to obtain information on acceptance and satisfaction with OPTI-FREE® PureMoist® Multi-Purpose Disinfecting Solution (MPDS from contact lens wearers globally. Methods: Eligible contact lens wearers provided baseline demographic and lens-wear-regimen information, and advised their ocular dryness/discomfort level and current lens-wear experience. Volunteers received OPTI-FREE PureMoist MPDS and a survey consisting of ten statements about the trial solution. Volunteers were instructed to use the solution daily and to complete the survey after 2 weeks of use. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted on data from the entire group, from the subset of respondents reporting ocular dryness and/or discomfort at trial initiation (symptomatic subgroup, and from each geographic region. Results: Volunteers from nine countries returned 10,610 surveys, in which 50% of respondents classified themselves as having ocular dryness/discomfort. Lens comfort and visual performance responses from the total population and the symptomatic subgroup were significantly more positive after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use than at baseline, irrespective of the habitual lens-care solution. In the USA, Southeast Asia, and Europe, 14% to 20% more respondents reported that their contact lenses provided all-day comfort after 2 weeks of OPTI-FREE PureMoist use compared with baseline (P<0.0001. Australia reported 31% more patients with all-day comfort after OPTI-FREE PureMoist use (P<0.0001. Approximately four out of five respondents from both populations reported their intent to continue using OPTI-FREE PureMoist. Globally, 39% of all respondents and 58% of symptomatic respondents experienced reduced end-of-day dryness with their contact lenses after use of OPTI-FREE PureMoist (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Results from this large

  15. Workplace Ostracism Seen through the Lens of Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, John; Al Hajj, Raghid; Vongas, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on approach/inhibition theory of power, we investigated two factors that influence the manner by which victims react to workplace ostracism: the hierarchical status of the ostracizer and the level of an ostracizee’s external social support including family, friends, and significant others. Across an experimental vignette study (Study 1) and a field study (Study 2), we found support for a three-way interaction with felt ostracism, ostracizee external social support, and ostracizer status influencing victims’ organizational citizenship behavior and deviance directed toward other individuals. In addition, felt ostracism and ostracizee external social support interacted to predict turnover intentions. Overall, victims who were ostracized by a legitimate higher-status authority (e.g., manager) and whose external social support network was limited experienced the most negative outcomes across both studies. Our findings suggest that contextual factors both inside and outside the organization jointly impact the way in which individuals react to perceived workplace ostracism. Implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:28928702

  16. Workplace Ostracism Seen through the Lens of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fiset

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on approach/inhibition theory of power, we investigated two factors that influence the manner by which victims react to workplace ostracism: the hierarchical status of the ostracizer and the level of an ostracizee’s external social support including family, friends, and significant others. Across an experimental vignette study (Study 1 and a field study (Study 2, we found support for a three-way interaction with felt ostracism, ostracizee external social support, and ostracizer status influencing victims’ organizational citizenship behavior and deviance directed toward other individuals. In addition, felt ostracism and ostracizee external social support interacted to predict turnover intentions. Overall, victims who were ostracized by a legitimate higher-status authority (e.g., manager and whose external social support network was limited experienced the most negative outcomes across both studies. Our findings suggest that contextual factors both inside and outside the organization jointly impact the way in which individuals react to perceived workplace ostracism. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Workplace Ostracism Seen through the Lens of Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, John; Al Hajj, Raghid; Vongas, John G

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on approach/inhibition theory of power, we investigated two factors that influence the manner by which victims react to workplace ostracism: the hierarchical status of the ostracizer and the level of an ostracizee's external social support including family, friends, and significant others. Across an experimental vignette study (Study 1) and a field study (Study 2), we found support for a three-way interaction with felt ostracism, ostracizee external social support, and ostracizer status influencing victims' organizational citizenship behavior and deviance directed toward other individuals. In addition, felt ostracism and ostracizee external social support interacted to predict turnover intentions. Overall, victims who were ostracized by a legitimate higher-status authority (e.g., manager) and whose external social support network was limited experienced the most negative outcomes across both studies. Our findings suggest that contextual factors both inside and outside the organization jointly impact the way in which individuals react to perceived workplace ostracism. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  18. Acrylic acid surface-modified contact lens for the culture of limbal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Brown, Karl David; Lowe, Sue Peng; Liu, Guei-Sheung; Steele, David; Abberton, Keren; Daniell, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Surface treatment to a biomaterial surface has been shown to modify and help cell growth. Our aim was to determine the best surface-modified system for the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), which would facilitate expansion of autologous limbal epithelial cells, while maintaining cultivated epithelial cells in a less differentiated state. Commercially available contact lenses (CLs) were variously surface modified by plasma polymerization with ratios of acrylic acid to octadiene tested at 100% acrylic acid, 50:50% acrylic acid:octadiene, and 100% octadiene to produce high-, mid-, and no-acid. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to analyze the chemical composition of the plasma polymer deposited layer. Limbal explants cultured on high acid-modified CLs outgrew more cells. Immunofluorescence and RT2-PCR array results indicated that a higher acrylic acid content can also help maintain progenitor cells during ex vivo expansion of epithelial cells. This study provides the first evidence for the ability of high acid-modified CLs to preserve the stemness and to be used as substrates for the culture of limbal cells in the treatment of LSCD.

  19. Assessment of multifocal contact lens over-refraction using an infrared, open-field autorefractor: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Anna; Aldaba, Mikel; Arjona, Montserrat; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of an infrared open-field autorefractor as a predictor of the refractive error when fitting multifocal contact lenses (MCL). Objective and subjective measurements of the non-cycloplegic distance refractive error were compared in patients wearing MCL. We used the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor for the objective measurements. Three commercially available MCL were tested. Twenty-one eyes of sixteen healthy adults were included in the study. Over-refraction was evaluated in terms of spherical equivalent (SE) and astigmatic vectors (J0 and J45). The mean difference±SD of each parameter was calculated. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the normal distribution. Pearson's correlation, Bland and Altman plot and paired sample t test were used to compare the results obtained with both methods. The mean difference between objective and subjective results of the SE over-refraction was 0.13±0.42D; for astigmatic vectors J0 and J45 were 0.03±0.32D and -0.00±0.17D, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a normal distribution for all parameters. The highest Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for the SE with values of 0.98 without MCL and 0.97 with MCL. The lowest were obtained for J45 with values of 0.65 without MCL and 0.75 with MCL. Significant correlations were obtained for each parameter. The paired sample t test failed to show significant differences in analyzed parameters except for J0 without MCL. The Grand Seiko WAM-5500 can be used as a screening method of over-refraction in the clinical fitting of MCL. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tolerance and nature of residual refraction in symmetric power space as principal lens powers and meridians change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelman, Herven; Abelman, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Unacceptable principal powers in well-centred lenses may require a toric over-refraction which differs in nature from the one where correct powers have misplaced meridians. This paper calculates residual (over) refractions and their natures. The magnitude of the power of the over-refraction serves as a general, reliable, real scalar criterion for acceptance or tolerance of lenses whose surface relative curvatures change or whose meridians are rotated and cause powers to differ. Principal powers and meridians of lenses are analogous to eigenvalues and eigenvectors of symmetric matrices, which facilitates the calculation of powers and their residuals. Geometric paths in symmetric power space link intended refractive correction and these carefully chosen, undue refractive corrections. Principal meridians alone vary along an arc of a circle centred at the origin and corresponding powers vary autonomously along select diameters of that circle in symmetric power space. Depending on the path of the power change, residual lenses different from their prescription in principal powers and meridians are pure cross-cylindrical or spherocylindrical in nature. The location of residual power in symmetric dioptric power space and its optical cross-representation characterize the lens that must be added to the compensation to attain the power in the prescription.

  1. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a contact lens-induced acute red eye (CLARE) is protease-deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrellas, P S; Alionte, L G; Hobden, J A

    2000-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases are thought to be important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of corneal disease. This study examined protease production from two strains of P. aeruginosa responsible for two very distinct clinical diseases: strain Paer1, isolated from a Contact Lens-induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE), and strain KEI 1025, isolated from a corneal ulcer. Strains were compared to a laboratory strain (ATCC 19660) known to produce severe keratitis in experimentally infected mice for protease production and for ocular virulence. Protease production was examined with colorimetric assays, gelatin zymography and western blots. Elastase A activity was quantitated with a staphylolytic assay. Ocular virulence was examined using a mouse scratch model of keratitis. In contrast to strains KEI 1025 or ATCC 19660, Paer1 was unable to produce enzymatically active elastase A, elastase, and protease IV. All three strains produced active alkaline protease. Strains KEI 1025 and ATCC 19660 produced a fulminant keratitis in mice whereas Paer1 produced a mild transient infection. Restoration of elastase activity in Paer1 via genetic complementation did not result in a virulent phenotype. Co-infection of mouse eyes with strains Paer1 and ATCC 19660 resulted in the eventual loss of Paer1 from corneal tissue. These studies suggest that P. aeruginosa elastase A and/or protease IV, but not alkaline protease or elastase, contribute to the ocular virulence of this organism.

  2. The Use of the Esclera Scleral Contact Lens in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porta Weber, Sarah; Becco de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira; Hofling-Lima, Ana Luisa

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the Esclera scleral contact lens (SCL) treatment and its impact on clinical testing for moderate to severe dry eye disease (DED). Prospective interventional case series. A total of 41 eyes from 25 patients with moderate to severe DED were evaluated for the Esclera SCL treatment. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), tear osmolarity, the Schirmer I test, tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, meibomian grading, and Ocular Surface Disease Index and SF-36v2 questionnaires were assessed before and after the SCL treatment. These values were compared to assess the real benefit of using SCL as a treatment for DED. Forty-one eyes from 25 patients were fitted with SCL for management of DED. The underlying diseases were Stevens-Johnson syndrome (22 eyes), Sjogren syndrome (11 eyes), graft-vs-host disease (2 eyes), dry eye after keratomileusis in situ (2 eyes), and undifferentiated ocular surface disease (4 eyes). BCVA improved from 0.703 ± 0.55 logMAR with habitual correction to 0.406 ± 0.43 logMAR with SCL (P dry eye symptoms and quality of life as assessed by the OSDI and SF-36v2 questionnaires (both with P dry eye symptoms, and quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Addendum report of the JHPS expert committee on radiation protection of the lens of the eye (1). Eye lens dosimetry R and D, and radiation management and estimated eye-lens exposure for workers in Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Keiichi; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Iimoto, Takeshi; Ichiji, Takeshi; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Iwai, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Kazuko; Katoh, Masahiro; Kurosawa, Tadahiro; Kawaura, Chiyo; Tsujimura, Norio; Hayashida, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Tadashi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2015-01-01

    The Expert Committee on Radiation Protection of the Lens of the Eye was established under the Japan Health Physics Society in April, 2013 (completed, March, 2015). The Committee looked at new/revised documents and standards related to the eye lens published by international organizations such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The Committee also examined recent and previous studies related to eye-lens radiation exposure and dosimetry in Japan. These findings were published in this journal as the Interim Report of the Committee. Since then, the Committee expanded its activity to give an overview the current progress of eye-lens dosimetry R and D at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, along with research related to radiation management and estimated eye-lens exposure of Japanese nuclear-power-plant workers (including those at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant) for publishing an addendum Committee report. These additional findings are reported here. (author)

  4. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  5. Extended depth of focus contact lenses vs. two commercial multifocals: Part 2. Visual performance after 1 week of lens wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaraju, Ravi C; Tilia, Daniel; Sha, Jennifer; Diec, Jennie; Chung, Jiyoon; Kho, Danny; Delaney, Shona; Munro, Anna; Thomas, Varghese

    To compare the visual performance of prototype contact lenses designed via deliberate manipulation of higher-order spherical aberrations to extend-depth-of-focus with two commercial multifocals, after 1 week of lens wear. In a prospective, participant-masked, cross-over, randomized, 1-week dispensing clinical-trial, 43 presbyopes [age: 42-63 years] each wore AIROPTIX Aqua multifocal (AOMF), ACUVUE OASYS for presbyopia (AOP) and extended-depth-of-focus prototypes (EDOF) appropriate to their add requirements. Measurements comprised high-contrast-visual-acuity (HCVA) at 6m, 70cm, 50cm and 40cm; low-contrast-visual-acuity (LCVA) and contrast-sensitivity (CS) at 6m and stereopsis at 40cm. A self-administered questionnaire on a numeric-rating-scale (1-10) assessed subjective visual performance comprising clarity-of-vision and lack-of-ghosting at various distances during day/night-viewing conditions and overall-vision-satisfaction. EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for HCVA averaged across distances (p≤0.038); significantly worse than AOMF for LCVA (p=0.021) and significantly worse than AOMF for CS in medium and high add-groups (p=0.006). None of these differences were clinically significant (≤2 letters). EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for mean stereoacuity (36 and 13 seconds-of-arc, respectively: p≤0.05). For clarity-of-vision, EDOF was significantly better than AOP at all distances and AOMF at intermediate and near (p≤0.028). For lack-of-ghosting averaged across distances, EDOF was significantly better than AOP (p<0.001) but not AOMF (p=0.186). EDOF was significantly better than AOMF and AOP for overall-vision-satisfaction (p≤0.024). EDOF provides better intermediate and near vision performance than either AOMF or AOP with no difference for distance vision after 1 week of lens wear. Copyright © 2017 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved accuracy of intraocular lens power calculation with the Zeiss IOLMaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Thomas

    2007-02-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate how the level of accuracy in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation can be improved with optical biometry using partial optical coherence interferometry (PCI) (Zeiss IOLMaster) and current anterior chamber depth (ACD) prediction algorithms. Intraocular lens power in 461 consecutive cataract operations was calculated using both PCI and ultrasound and the accuracy of the results of each technique were compared. To illustrate the importance of ACD prediction per se, predictions were calculated using both a recently published 5-variable method and the Haigis 2-variable method and the results compared. All calculations were optimized in retrospect to account for systematic errors, including IOL constants and other off-set errors. The average absolute IOL prediction error (observed minus expected refraction) was 0.65 dioptres with ultrasound and 0.43 D with PCI using the 5-variable ACD prediction method (p ultrasound, respectively (p power calculation can be significantly improved using calibrated axial length readings obtained with PCI and modern IOL power calculation formulas incorporating the latest generation ACD prediction algorithms.

  7. Safety and efficacy of topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1.0% in the treatment of contact lens-related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Bickle, Katherine M; Zink, Richard C; Schiewe, Michael D; Haque, Reza M; Nichols, Kelly K

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of azithromycin ophthalmic solution 1% in patients with contact lens-related dry eye (CLDE). This was a 4-week, single-center, open-label clinical trial in patients diagnosed with CLDE using the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ). Fifty patients were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment groups: azithromycin ophthalmic solution administered bid on days 1 and 2 and on days 3 to 29±1 or Visine for Contacts rewetting drops administered qid on days 1 to 29±1. The patient diaries were used daily to collect data on comfortable and total contact lens wear time and ocular dryness throughout the treatment period. Tear osmolarity, fluorescein corneal staining, and visual acuity were also assessed during clinic visits. Fifty patients were enrolled, and 44 completed the study. One patient discontinued in the azithromycin group, and five patients discontinued in the rewetting drops group because of adverse events. A statistically significant increase in mean comfortable contact lens wear time from baseline was observed for the subjects treated with azithromycin ophthalmic solution as compared with the subjects treated with rewetting drops at week 4 (P=0.004; primary endpoint), in addition to weeks 2 and 3. The improvement in the mean comfortable wear time for the patients in the azithromycin treatment group exceeded 2 hrs throughout the treatment period (weeks 1-4). No significant differences were observed between the groups for total wear time, low contrast visual acuity, or tear osmolarity. Subject-rated ocular dryness (PM time assessments) was significantly improved from baseline in the subjects treated with azithromycin ophthalmic solution as compared with those treated with rewetting drops at weeks 2 and 3 endpoints (P=0.015 for each week). Additionally, a statistical difference was observed in favor of the azithromycin treatment group at week 2 for the

  8. Comparison of bandage contact lens removal on the fourth versus seventh postoperative day after photorefractive keratectomy: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad; Shakoor, Delaram; Hashemi, Hassan; Aghaie Meybodi, Mohamad; Rajabi, Fateme; Hosseini, Pegah

    2017-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of bandage contact lens (BCL) removal on the fourth versus seventh post-operative day following photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). This study recruited eyes of patients who underwent PRK surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. In Group 1 BCL was removed on the 4th postoperative day, while in Group 2, BCL was removed on the 7th postoperative day. After BCL removal, patients were asked to express their pain score and eye discomfort. At one and three months follow-up examinations, visual acuity scale was assessed. Slit-lamp examination was performed in all visits to evaluate complications. 260 eyes of 130 patients underwent PRK. The age and sex ratio were not significantly different between the two groups. One month after the surgery, the logMAR uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) were significantly lower in Group 2 (P value = 0.016, 0.001 respectively), however, the UDVA and CDVA were not significantly different after 3 months (P > 0.05). In Group 1, filamentary keratitis (FK) was observed in 10 (7.6%) eyes, 6 (4.61%) eyes were diagnosed with recurrent corneal erosion (RCE) and corneal haze was detected in 3 (2.3%) eyes. However, in Group 2, RCE was observed in 4 (2.3%) and FK was noted in 4 (3.07%) eyes. No haze was seen in Group 2. The difference in rate of complications was statistically significant (14.6% and 6.1% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively, P = 0.02). Pain and eye discomfort scores were not significantly different (P > 0.05). There was no major complications including infectious keratitis in either groups. Following PRK surgery, BCL removal on the seventh postoperative day yields faster visual rehabilitation and lower rate of postoperative complications with no increase in eye pain, discomfort or infection.

  9. [IOP measurement through frequent-replacement soft contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touboul, J

    2008-07-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) can be measured through soft contact lenses with an air-puff tonometer. These measurements seemed accurate for low-power negative lenses. For positive soft contact lenses, IOP is overestimated. The measurement of IOP through a soft contact lens is acceptable in clinical practice only for glaucoma screening. In glaucomatous patients or patients with ocular hypertension, IOP measurements should be performed without a contact lens. The main technique for IOP measurement remains Goldmann applanation tonometry.

  10. The Associations of Lens Power With Age and Axial Length in Healthy Chinese Children and Adolescents Aged 6 to 18 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shuyu; Zhang, Bo; Hong, Yuan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xun

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between lens power and age as well as the relationship between lens power and axial length (AL) in Chinese children and adolescents. The participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination that included AL, cycloplegic refraction, and Pentacam measurements. The crystalline lens power was calculated using Bennett's formula and then compared among the children of different age groups, refractive statuses, and AL categories. The association of lens power and AL was analyzed using multiple regression. A total of 1992 children and adolescents aged 6- to 18-years old were included. The difference in lens power was greater before 10-years old, followed by a relatively smaller difference in children aged 10 to 14 years and the difference in lens power came to a near plateau in adolescents after 14-years old. The negative association between lens power and AL was found to be more evident in nonmyopes than in myopes irrespective of age (younger than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.499, myopes: β = -0.872; older than 10 years: nonmyopes: β = -1.288, myopes: β = -0.390, all P power in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years exhibited three stages. The association between lens power and AL differed between the nonmyopes and myopes. These findings suggested that less reduction in lens power might be associated with both growing age and increasing AL in myopes.

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

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  17. Can the accuracy of multifocal intraocular lens power calculation be improved to make patients spectacle free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramji, Hasnain; Moore, Johnny; Moore, C B Tara; Shah, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    To optimise intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation techniques for a segmental multifocal IOL, LENTIS™ MPlus(®) (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) and assess outcomes. A retrospective consecutive non-randomised case series of patients receiving the MPlus(®) IOL following cataract surgery or clear lens extraction was performed at a privately owned ophthalmic hospital, Midland Eye, Solihull, UK. Analysis was undertaken of 116 eyes, with uncomplicated lens replacement surgery using the LENTIS™ MPlus(®) lenses. Pre-operative biometry data were stratified into short (<22.00 mm) and long axial lengths (ALs) (≥22.00 mm). IOL power predictions were calculated with SRK/T, Holladay I, Hoffer Q, Holladay II and Haigis formulae and compared to the final manifest refraction. These were compared with the OKULIX ray tracing method and the stratification technique suggested by the Royal College of Ophthalmologists (RCOphth). Using SRK/T for long eyes and Hoffer Q for short eyes, 64% achieved postoperative subjective refractions of ≤±0.25 D, 83%≤±0.50 D and 93%≤±0.75 D, with a maximum predictive error of 1.25D. No specific calculation method performed best across all ALs; however for ALs under 22 mm Hoffer Q and Holliday I methods performed best. Excellent but equivalent overall refractive results were found between all biometry methods used in this multifocal IOL study. For eyes with ALs under 22 mm Hoffer Q and Holliday I performed best. Current techniques mean that patients are still likely to need top up glasses for certain situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Atomic force microscopy and Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer technique to assess contact lens deposits and human meibum extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hagedorn

    2015-07-01

    Conclusions: MGD and non-MGD participant-worn CL deposition were found to differ in type, amount, and pattern of lens deposits. Lipids from MGD participants deposited irregularly whereas lipids from non-MGD participants showed more uniformity.

  19. Wireless energy transfer: Dielectric lens antennas for beam shaping in wireless power-transfer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho, Nuno B.; Pinho, Pedro

    2017-02-01

    In the current contest of wireless systems, the last frontier remains the cut of the power cord. In that sense, the interest over wireless energy transfer technologies in the past years has grown exponentially. However, there are still many challenges to be overcome in order to enable wireless energy transfer full potential. One of the focus in the development of such systems is the design of very-high-gain, highly efficient, antennas that can compensate for the propagation loss of radio signals over the air. In this paper, we explore the design and manufacturing process of dielectric lenses, fabricated using a professional-grade desktop 3D printer. Lens antennas are used in order to increase beam efficiency and therefore maximize the efficiency of a wireless power-transfer system operating at microwave frequencies in the Ku band. Measurements of two fabricated prototypes showcase a large directivity, as predicted with simulations. xml:lang="fr"

  20. Therapeutic efficiency of sodium hyaluronate eye drops on dry eye in juvenile with myopia wearing rigid gas permeable contact lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the therapeutic efficiency of preservative-free sodium hyaluronate eye drops on dry eye in juvenile myopia wearing rigid gas permeable contact lens(RGP.METHODS:Ninety cases with dry eye related to wearing RGP in juvenile with myopia from January to May 2015 were selected. The patients aged 12.75±4.15 years old,with diopter of -3.50±1.50D as spherical equivalent and received normalized RGP. They were divided into 3 groups randomly,each group of 30 cases(60 eyes:group A used rewetting drops,1 drop each time,4 times per day; group B used preservative-free sodium hyaluronate eye drops(1g/L,1 drop each time,4 times per day; group C used rewetting drops at first, then sodium hyaluronate eye drops was used 15 minutes later.All cases had been detected and evaluated by subjective symptoms of dry eye,Schirmer I test(SⅠt,break-up time(BUTand corneal fluorescent staining,at pre-therapy and 1, 2, 4wk of post-therapy.RESULTS:The subjective symptoms of dry eye,corneal fluorescent staining and BUT of three groups had been obviously improved at 1wk after therapies than those before therapies(PP>0.05.Every index of the three groups measured at 2 and 4wk after treatments had no significant differences compared to those measured at 1wk(P>0.05.There was no significant difference on subjective symptoms,SⅠt and BUT between group A and B(P>0.05,except on corneal fluorescent staining, on which group B was superior to group A and on which the difference was significant(PPPCONCLUSION:Preservative-free sodium hyaluronate eye drops(1g/Lcan stabilize the tear film and promote the repair of corneal epithelial defects and significantly improve dry eye symptoms and signs in juvenile myopia wearing RGP,so it has certain clinical application value.

  1. Adaptação de lentes de contato após cirurgia refrativa Contact lens fitting after refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimara da Candelária Renesto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a adaptação e o uso de lente de contato em pacientes que foram submetidos à cirurgia refrativa. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo de 53 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia refrativa, que posteriormente passaram a usar lente de contato, no período de 1999 a 2003. Foram avaliados a ametropia prévia, tipo de cirurgia realizada, refração pós-cirúrgica, equivalente esférico pós-cirurgia, ceratometria pós-operatória, curva base da lente adaptada, tipo de lente de contato adaptada, acuidade visual com óculos no pós-operatório, acuidade visual final com lente de contato, complicações e motivo da interrupção do uso. O tempo de seguimento variou de 1 mês a 84 meses (média de 42,5 meses. RESULTADOS: Dos 53 pacientes analisados, 19 pacientes foram submetidos a LASIK (Laser Assisted in Situ Keratomileusis, 29 pacientes foram submetidos à RK (ceratotomia radial, 4 pacientes foram submetidos a PRK (ceratectomia fotoablativa e em um paciente não foi possível obter o tipo de cirurgia realizado. Em 61,29% dos pacientes, (57 olhos de um total de 93, foram adaptadas lentes de contato rígidas gás-permeáveis esféricas. Houve melhora da acuidade visual em 60,21% dos casos (AV>20/40, com poucas complicações. CONCLUSÃO: Devido ao número cada vez maior de cirurgias refrativas realizadas, espera-se que aumente o número de pacientes insatisfeitos com o resultado no pós-operatório e para os quais o uso de lentes de contato venha a ser a melhor opção. A adaptação de lentes de contato pós-cirurgia refrativa exige conhecimento e dedicação e em geral tem bons resultados principalmente pela melhora da acuidade visual.PURPOSE: To evaluate the fitting and use of contact lens in patients submitted to refractive surgery. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in 53 patients submitted to refractive surgery who later started to use contact lens, from 1999 to 2003. The parameters were: previous ametropia, refractive

  2. Issues behind Radiation management of workers at Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company. From the viewpoint of radiation exposure of the ocular lens and the biological effects to the lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashida, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Hatsusaka, Natsuko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Tatsuzaki, Hideo; Akahane, Keiichi; Yokoyama, Sumi

    2017-01-01

    In March 2011, the accident occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company. During recovery from critical situations, the radiation dose for some emergency workers exceeded the effective dose limit recommended for an emergency situation. A month after the accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection issued a statement on tissue reactions recommending significant reduction of the equivalent dose limit to the lens of the eye. Many radiation workers will need to be involved in treatment of water contaminated with radionuclides, fuel debris retrieval, and decommissioning of reactors for a long period of time. Thus, the optimized radiation control in the fields, exposure reduction, prevention of tissue reactions, and reduction of stochastic risks for workers becomes necessary. This paper discusses issues in relation to radiation protection of the ocular lens in such recovery workers, from the viewpoint of radiation exposure of workers, its management, manifestations and mechanisms of the lens effects. (author)

  3. EVALUATION OF EYE LENS DOSE TO WORKERS IN THE STEAM GENERATOR AT THE KOREAN OPTIMIZED POWER REACTOR 1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Sung Jun; Kim, Jinhwan; Cho, Gyuseong

    2018-03-15

    ICRP (2011) revised the dose limit to the eye lens to 20 mSv/y based on a recent epidemiological study of radiation-induced cataracts. Maintenance of steam generators at nuclear power plants is one of the highest radiation-associated tasks within a non-uniform radiation field. This study aims to evaluate eye lens doses in the steam generators of the Korean OPR1000 design. The source term was characterized based on the CRUD-specific activity, and both the eye lens dose and organ dose were simulated using MCNP6 combined with an ICRP voxel phantom and a mesh phantom, respectively. The eye lens dose was determined to be 5.39E-02-9.43E-02 Sv/h, with a negligible effect by beta particles. As the effective dose was found to be 0.81-1.21 times the lens equivalent dose depending on the phantom angles, the former can be used to estimate the lens dose in the SG of the OPR1000 for radiation monitoring purposes.

  4. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  5. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Camps, Vicente J; Ramón, María L; Mateo, Verónica; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP). Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y) with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany). In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj) was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj) for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj) and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj) obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal) and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay I). PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05). In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D) and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D) when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01) and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj. Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  6. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP.METHODS:Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany. In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay Ⅰ.RESULTS:PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05. In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01 and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj.CONCLUSION:Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  7. Comparison of IOL--master and ultrasound biometry in preoperative intra ocular lens (IOL) power calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolega, Marija Škara; Kovačević, Suzana; Čanović, Samir; Pavičić, Ana Didović; Bašić, Jadranka Katušić

    2015-03-01

    Postoperative refractive outcome largely depends on the accuracy of calculating power of implanted IOL. Lens power calculation can be done by conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master). The aim was to compare the accuracy of IOL power calculations using conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry.40 eyes were included in this prospective randomized trial. Twenty eyes underwent IOL master and 20 eyes had aplanation ultrasound biometry. There were included only eyes with age-related cataract and postoperative natural visual acuity (VA) 0.7. Visual acuity was performed 6 weeks after cataract surgery. After 6 weeks best natural visual acuity were 0.9 (± 0.1) in IOL-Master group and 0.85 (± 0.15) in ultrasound biometry. The postoperative mean absolute refractive error was 0.75 (± 0.5) D for ultrasound biometry and 0.50 (± 0.50) D for IOL-Master. Optical biometry with the IOL-Master proved to be slightly more accurate than ultrasound biometry for IOL power calculation.

  8. Refractive outcomes of intraoperative wavefront aberrometry versus optical biometry alone for intraocular lens power calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zina Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes of intraoperative wavefront aberrometry versus optical biometry alone for intraocular lens (IOL power calculation in eyes undergoing cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation. Methods: Preoperative data were obtained with the IOLMaster. Intraoperative aphakic measurements and IOL power calculations were obtained in some patients with the optiwave refractive analysis (ORA system. Analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of monofocal IOL power prediction and postoperative manifest refraction at 1 month of the ORA versus IOLMaster. Results: Two hundred and ninety-five eyes reviewed, 61 had only preoperative IOLMaster measurements and 234 had both IOLMaster and ORA measurements. Of these 234 eyes, 6 were excluded, 107 had the same recommended IOL power by ORA and IOLMaster. Sixty-four percent of these eyes were within ±0.5D. 95 eyes had IOL power implantation based on ORA instead of IOLMaster. Seventy percent of these eyes were within ±0.5D of target refraction. 26 eyes had IOL power chosen based on IOLMaster predictions instead of ORA. Sixty-five percent were within ±0.5D. In the group with IOLMaster without ORA measurements, 80% of eyes were within ±0.5D of target refraction. The absolute error was statistically smaller in those eyes where the ORA and IOLMaster recommended the same IOL power based on preoperative target refraction compared to instances in which IOL selection was based on ORA or IOLMaster alone. Neither prediction errors were statistically different between the ORA and IOLMaster alone. Conclusion: Intraoperative wavefront aberrometry with the ORA system provides postoperative refractive results comparable to conventional biometry with the IOLMaster for monofocal IOL selection.

  9. Clinical and theoretical results of intraocular lens power calculation for cataract surgery after photorefractive keratectomy for myopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odenthal, M.T.; Eggink, C.A.; Melles, G.R.J.; Pameyer, J.H.; Geerards, A.J.; Beekhuis, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the refractive results of cataract surgery after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for patients with myopia, and to find a more accurate method to predict intraocular lens (IOL) power in these cases. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, retrospective clinical study. PATIENTS AND METHODS:

  10. Effects of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Application on Corneal High-order Aberration and Visual Guality in Patients with Corneal Opacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Aydın Kurna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Evaluation of the corneal high-order aberrations and visual quality changes after application of silicone hydrogel contact lenses in patients with corneal opacities due to various etiologies. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Fifteen eyes of 13 patients with corneal opacities were included in the study. During the ophthalmologic examination before and after contact lens application, visual acuity was measured with Snellen acuity chart and contrast sensitivity - with Bailey-Lowie Charts in letters. Aberrations were measured with corneal aberrometer (NIDEK Magellan Mapper under a naturally dilated pupil. Spherical aberration, coma, trefoil, irregular astigmatism and total high-order root mean square (RMS values were recorded. Measurements were repeated with balafilcon A lenses (PureVision 2 HD, B&L on all patients. Re sults: Patient age varied between 23 and 50 years. Two eyes had subepithelial infiltrates due to adenoviral keratitis, 1 had nebulae due to previous infections or trauma, and 2 had Salzmann’s nodular degeneration. We observed a mean increase of 1 line in visual acuity and 5 letters in contrast sensitivity with contact lenses versus glasses in the patients. Mean RMS values of spherical aberration, irregular astigmatism and total high-order aberrations decreased significantly with contact lenses. Dis cus si on: Silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses may improve visual quality by decreasing the corneal aberrations in patients with corneal opacities. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 97-102

  11. Crystal Structure of Chicken γS-Crystallin Reveals Lattice Contacts with Implications for Function in the Lens and the Evolution of the βγ-Crystallins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Vatsala; Chaturvedi, Sumit K; Schuck, Peter; Wistow, Graeme

    2017-07-05

    Previous attempts to crystallize mammalian γS-crystallin were unsuccessful. Native L16 chicken γS crystallized avidly while the Q16 mutant did not. The X-ray structure for chicken γS at 2.3 Å resolution shows the canonical structure of the superfamily plus a well-ordered N arm aligned with a β sheet of a neighboring N domain. L16 is also in a lattice contact, partially shielded from solvent. Unexpectedly, the major lattice contact matches a conserved interface (QR) in the multimeric β-crystallins. QR shows little conservation of residue contacts, except for one between symmetry-related tyrosines, but molecular dipoles for the proteins with QR show striking similarities while other γ-crystallins differ. In γS, QR has few hydrophobic contacts and features a thin layer of tightly bound water. The free energy of QR is slightly repulsive and analytical ultracentrifugation confirms no dimerization in solution. The lattice contacts suggest how γ-crystallins allow close packing without aggregation in the crowded environment of the lens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effects of resonator input power on Kerr lens mode-locked lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lasers. S KAZEMPOUR, A KESHAVARZ∗ and G HONARASA. Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran ... Keywords. Femtosecond pulses; Kerr lens sensitivity; Kerr lens mode-locked laser. ... The optical lengths of Kerr medium with thickness d and refractive index n under.

  13. Diffusion and Monod kinetics model to determine in vivo human corneal oxygen-consumption rate during soft contact lens wear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Del Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Present results are relevant for the calculation on the partial pressure of oxygen, available at different depths into the corneal tissue behind contact lenses of different oxygen transmissibility.

  14. Human Tear Fluid Reduces Culturability of Contact Lens Associated Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms but Induces Expression of the Virulence Associated Type III Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yvonne T.; Tam, Connie; Zhu, Lucia S.; Evans, David J.; Fleiszig, Suzanne M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a significant virulence determinant for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Using a rodent model, we found that contact lens (CL)-related corneal infections were associated with lens surface biofilms. Here, we studied the impact of human tear fluid on CL-associated biofilm growth and T3SS expression. Methods P. aeruginosa biofilms were formed on contact lenses for up to 7 days with or without human tear fluid, then exposed to tear fluid for 5 or 24 h. Biofilms were imaged using confocal microscopy. Bacterial culturability was quantified by viable counts, and T3SS gene expression measured by RT-qPCR. Controls included trypticase soy broth, PBS and planktonic bacteria. Results With or without tear fluid, biofilms grew to ~108 cfu viable bacteria by 24 h. Exposing biofilms to tear fluid after they had formed without it on lenses reduced bacterial culturability ~180-fold (pbacteria [5.46 ± 0.24-fold for T3SS transcriptional activitor exsA (p=.02), and 3.76 ± 0.36-fold for T3SS effector toxin exoS (p=.01)]. Tear fluid further enhanced exsA and exoS expression in CL-grown biofilms, but not planktonic bacteria, by 2.09 ± 0.38-fold (p = 0.04) and 1.89 ± 0.26-fold (p<.001), respectively. Conclusions Considering the pivitol role of the T3SS in P. aeruginosa infections, its induction in CL-grown P. aeruginosa biofilms by tear fluid might contribute to the pathogenesis of CL-related P. aeruginosa keratitis. PMID:27670247

  15. Sustained ophthalmic delivery of highly soluble drug using pH-triggered inner layer-embedded contact lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiang; Cheng, Hongbo; Huo, Yingnan; Mao, Shirui

    2018-06-10

    In the present work the feasibility of using inner layer-embedded contact lenses (CLs) to achieve sustained release of highly water soluble drug, betaxolol hydrochloride (BH) on the ocular surface was investigated. Blend film of cellulose acetate and Eudragit S100 was selected as the inner layer, while silicone hydrogel was used as outer layer to construct inner layer-embedded contact lenses. Influence of polymer ratio in the blend film on in vitro drug release behavior in phosphate buffered solution or simulated tear fluid was studied and drug-polymer interaction, erosion and swelling of the blend film were characterized to better understand drug-release mechanism. Storage stability of the inner layer-embedded contact lenses in phosphate buffer solution was also conducted, with ignorable drug loss and negligible change in drug release pattern within 30 days. In vivo pharmacokinetic study in rabbits showed sustained drug release for over 240 h in tear fluid, indicating prolonged drug precorneal residence time. In conclusion, cellulose acetate/Eudragit S100 inner layer-embedded contact lenses are quite promising as controlled-release carrier of highly water soluble drug for ophthalmic delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intraocular lens power selection and positioning with and without intraoperative aberrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Kathryn M; Woodcock, Emily C; Talamo, Jonathan H

    2015-04-01

    To determine the value of intraoperative aberrometry in cases of toric intraocular lens (IOL) implantation and positioning. In this non-randomized retrospective comparative trial, two groups of eyes underwent cataract extraction with toric IOL implantation: the aberrometry group (n = 37 eyes), where toric IOL power and alignment were determined before surgery with automated keratometry, standard optical biometry, and an online calculator and then refined using intraoperative aberrometry, and the toric calculator group (n = 27 eyes), where IOL selection was performed in a similar manner but without intraoperative aberrometry. The primary outcome measure was mean postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (RRA). Mean RRA measured at follow-up after surgery was 0.46 ± 0.42 and 0.68 ± 0.34 diopters (D) in the aberrometry and toric calculator groups, respectively (P = .0153). A 75% and 57% reduction in cylinder was noted between preoperative keratometric astigmatism and postoperative RRA in the aberrometry and toric calculator groups, respectively (P = .0027). RRA of 0.25 D or less, 0.50 D or less, 0.75 D or less, and 1.00 D or less was seen 38%, 78%, 86%, and 95% of the time, respectively, in the aberrometry group and 22%, 33%, 74%, and 89% of the time, respectively, in the toric calculator group. These data show that the chance of a patient being in a lower postoperative RRA range increased when intraoperative aberrometry was used (P = .0130). Patients undergoing cataract extraction with toric IOL placement aided by intraoperative aberrometry were 2.4 times more likely to have less than 0.50 D of RRA compared to standard methods. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of an algorithm to minimize the power error selection of an aspheric intraocular lens by optimizing the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive predictability achieved with an aspheric intraocular lens(IOLand to develop a preliminary optimized algorithm for the calculation of its power(PIOL.METHODS: This study included 65 eyes implanted with the aspheric IOL LENTIS L-313(Oculentis GmbHthat were divided into 2 groups: 12 eyes(8 patientswith PIOL≥23.0 D(group A, and 53 eyes(35 patientswith PIOLIOLadjwas calculated considering a variable refractive index for corneal power estimation, the refractive outcome obtained, and an adjusted effective lens position(ELPadjaccording to age and anatomical factors. RESULTS: Postoperative spherical equivalent ranged from -0.75 to +0.75 D and from -1.38 to +0.75 D in groups A and B, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in groups A(P=0.64and B(P=0.82between PIOLadj and the IOL power implanted(PIOLReal. The Bland and Altman analysis showed ranges of agreement between PIOLadj and PIOLReal of +1.11 to -0.96 D and +1.14 to -1.18 D in groups A and B, respectively. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found between PIOLadj and PIOL obtained with Hoffer Q and Holladay I formulas(PCONCLUSION: The refractive predictability of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric IOL can be optimized using paraxial optics combined with linear algorithms to minimize the error associated to the estimation of corneal power and ELP.

  18. Non-contacting actuation by radiation powered telemetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Zhao Chunnong; Kapitola, Peter; Jacob, John; Ju Li; Blair, David G

    2004-01-01

    In laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, local control relative to vibration isolated parts of a suspension chain may introduce noise through wires. In this paper we present a feasibility study of a wireless signal transmission method for control systems. A prototype system provides a wireless two-way signal transmission over short distances at more than 800 kbits s -1 . Wireless electric power for the system may be provided using a diode laser and solar cells with up to 33% conversion efficiency

  19. Risk of corneal inflammatory events with silicone hydrogel and low dk hydrogel extended contact lens wear: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Diaz, Mireya

    2007-04-01

    High Dk silicone hydrogel (SH) lenses have been shown to significantly decrease the risk of hypoxic complications compared to traditional low Dk hydrogels. However, the risks of inflammatory complications with SH compared to low Dk lenses are not as clear. A meta-analysis was performed to combine the relevant literature to evaluate the risks of corneal inflammatory events in users of SH and low Dk hydrogel extended wear lenses. A systematic search was conducted using online databases, unpublished meeting abstracts, and retrieval of other cited references presented or published between 1990 and February 2006. Each study was evaluated for quality in terms of the research question, and these quality assessments were used to determine which studies should be used in subgroup analyses. A generalized linear mixed model framework with an underlying Poisson distribution for the occurrence of events was employed to combine information from the included studies. Twenty-three studies published or presented on either or both arms by February 2006 were selected for analysis. A total of 9,336 subjects and 18,537 eyes comprised the entire sample. Seven studies were published in the 1990s. Eighteen studies (78%) were prospective, and 11 (48%) used randomization. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 36 months, with a median of 12 months. The rates of infiltrates for low Dk hydrogels and SH lenses were 7.7 (2.2, 26.7) and 14.4 (4.3, 48.2) per 100 eye-years, respectively. In the subset of five best quality studies, the unadjusted risk ratio for corneal inflammatory events for SH lenses compared to low Dk lenses was 2.18 (p Dk extended wear lenses when typically worn for 7 days extended wear. The increased risk cannot be definitively linked to SH lens materials because the effect of material on outcome is confounded by length of wear.

  20. Clinical comparison of the (polymacon) spin-cast hydrogel contact lens to the (polymacon) lathe-cut hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J F

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical acceptability of polymacon spin-cast to polymacon lathe-cut hydrophilic contact lenses. Ten patients successfully wearing polymacon spin-cast lenses were studied. Each patient had one eye refitted with polymacon lathe-cut lenses. Comparison of the two types of lenses was then made. Objective evaluation included centration, movement, visual acuity, and over-refraction. Subjective criteria were based on patient comfort and stability and quality of vision. Results indicate that lathe-cut lenses can be just as clinically satisfactory as the spincast ones.

  1. Non-contact magnetic coupled power and data transferring system for an electric vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Sakamoto, H.

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a system which transmits electric power and communication data simultaneously in a non-contact method using a magnetic coupling coil. Already, we are developing the fundamental technology of a non-contact charging system, and this is applied in electric shavers, electric toothbrushes, etc. Moreover, basic experiments are being conducted for applying this non-contact charging system to electric equipments such as an electric vehicle (EV), which is a zero emission vehicle and environmentally excellent and will be the transportation means of the next generation. The technology can also be applied in other electronic equipment, etc. However, since the power supply route for these individual devices is independent, the supply system is complicated. EV also has to perform the transmission of electric power and the transmission of information (data), such as the amount of the charge, in a separate system, and thus is quite complicated. In this study, by performing simultaneously the transmission of electric power and information (data) using magnetic coupling technology in which it does not contact, the basic experiment aimed at attaining and making unification of a system simple was conducted, and the following good results were obtained: (1) Electric power required for load can be transmitted easily by non-contact. (2) A signal can easily be transmitted bidirectionally by non-contact. (3) This system is reliable, and is widely applicable

  2. Development and characterisation of electrospun timolol maleate-loaded polymeric contact lens coatings containing various permeation enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Prina; Al-Kinani, Ali A; Arshad, Muhammad Sohail; Chang, Ming-Wei; Alany, Raid G; Ahmad, Zeeshan

    2017-10-30

    Despite exponential growth in research relating to sustained and controlled ocular drug delivery, anatomical and chemical barriers of the eye still pose formulation challenges. Nanotechnology integration into the pharmaceutical industry has aided efforts in potential ocular drug device development. Here, the integration and in vitro effect of four different permeation enhancers (PEs) on the release of anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate (TM) from polymeric nanofiber formulations is explored. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) engineering, more specifically electrospinning, was used to engineer nanofibers (NFs) which coated the exterior of contact lenses. Parameters used for engineering included flow rates ranging from 8 to 15μL/min and a novel EHD deposition system was used; capable of hosting four lenses, masked template and a ground electrode to direct charged atomised structures. SEM analysis of the electrospun structures confirmed the presence of smooth nano-fibers; whilst thermal analysis confirmed the stability of all formulations. In vitro release studies demonstrated a triphasic release; initial burst release with two subsequent sustained release phases with most of the drug being released after 24h (86.7%) Biological evaluation studies confirmed the tolerability of all formulations tested with release kinetics modelling results showing drug release was via quasi-Fickian or Fickian diffusion. There were evident differences (p<0.05) in TM release dependant on permeation enhancer. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. AFM and SFG studies of pHEMA-based hydrogel contact lens surfaces in saline solution: adhesion, friction, and the presence of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Han; Opdahl, Aric; Marmo, Chris; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2002-04-01

    The surfaces of two types of soft contact lenses neutral and ionic hydrogels--were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and sum-frequency-generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. AFM measurements in saline solution showed that the presence of ionic functional groups at the surface lowered the friction and adhesion to a hydrophobic polystyrene tip. This was attributed to the specific interactions of water and the molecular orientation of hydrogel chains at the surface. Friction and adhesion behavior also revealed the presence of domains of non-crosslinked polymer chains at the lens surface. SFG showed that the lens surface became partially dehydrated upon exposure to air. On this partially dehydrated lens surface, the non-crosslinked domains exhibited low friction and adhesion in AFM. Fully hydrated in saline solution, the non-crosslinked domains extended more than tens of nanometers into solution and were mobile.

  4. Novel Anti-Biofouling Soft Contact Lens: l-Cysteine Conjugated Amphiphilic Conetworks via RAFT and Thiol-Ene Click Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengfeng; Liu, Ziyuan; Wang, Haiye; Feng, Xiaofeng; He, Chunju

    2017-07-01

    A unique l-cysteine conjugated antifouling amphiphilic conetwork (APCN) is synthesized through end-crosslinking of well-defined triblock copolymers poly(allyl methacrylate)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(allyl methacrylate) via a combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and thiol-ene "click" chemistry. The synthesized poly(ethylene glycol) macro-RAFT agent initiates the polymerization of allyl methacrylate in a controlled manner. The vinyl pendant groups of the precursor partially conjugate with l-cysteine and the rest fully crosslink with mercaptopropyl-containing siloxane via thiol-ene click chemistry under UV irradiation into APCNs, which show distinguished properties, that is, excellent biocompatibility, more than 39.6% water content, 101 barrers oxygen permeability, optimized mechanical properties, and more than 93% visible light transmittance. What's more, the resultant APCNs exhibit eminent resistance to protein adsorption, where the bovine serum albumin and lysozyme adsorption are decreased to 12 and 21 µg cm -2 , respectively. The outstanding properties of APCNs depend on the RAFT controlled method, which precisely designs the hydrophilic/hydrophobic segments and eventually greatly improves the crosslinking efficiency and homogeneity. Meantime, the l-cysteine monolayer can effectively reduce the surface hydrophobicity and prevent protein adsorption, which exhibits the viability for antifouling surface over and under ophthalmic devices, suggesting a promising soft contact lens. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery García-Porta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy contact lens (CL wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p<0.05, χ2 was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p<0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test. Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group.

  6. Preparation and characterization of a hydrogel carrier to deliver gatifloxacin and its application as a therapeutic contact lens for bacterial keratitis therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yunfeng; Fu, Yeyun; Ma, Dong; Xue, Wei; Lv, Hongling; Lu, Qingjun; Zhong, Jingxiang; Huang, Yuexin

    2013-01-01

    A soft and biocompatible hydrogel exhibiting a higher loading and the sustained release of gatifloxacin (GFLX) was developed as the potential matrix to fabricate a therapeutic contact lens for curing bacterial keratitis. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and five other kinds of vinyl monomers with different side groups were used as co-monomers. Copolymerization took place in a cornea shaped mould via the gradient temperature-elevating method. The results of drug loading and in vitro release experiments showed that P(HEMA-co-MAA) achieved the highest drug loading of 11.78±0.77 µg mg −1 among the obtained hydrogels, as well as a slow release. In addition, its physical properties and cytocompatibility were also proved suitable and safe for wearing on the eye surface. In animal experiments, a rat model of bacterial keratitis was established and employed to evaluate the clinical results of certain treatments employing obtained hydrogels; saline and GFLX eye drops were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Corneal abscess and opacity caused by epithelial erosion and stromal ulceration were almost healed after wearing the drug loaded P(HEMA-co-MAA) hydrogel for 48 h. Its excellent antibacterial effect was also confirmed by testing the bacterial activity in tear extraction via the streak line method. (paper)

  7. In Vitro Model for Predicting the Protective Effect of Ultraviolet-Blocking Contact Lens in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abengózar-Vela, Antonio; Arroyo, Cristina; Reinoso, Roberto; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Corell, Alfredo; González-García, María Jesús

    2015-01-01

    To develop an in vitro method to determine the protective effect of UV-blocking contact lenses (CLs) in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells exposed to UV-B radiation. SV-40-transformed HCE cells were covered with non-UV-blocking CL, UV-blocking CL or not covered, and exposed to UV-B radiation. As control, HCE cells were covered with both types of CLs or not covered, but not exposed to UV-B radiation. Cell viability at 24, 48 and 72 h, after UV-B exposure and removing CLs, was determined by alamarBlue(®) assay. Percentage of live, dead and apoptotic cells was also assessed by flow cytometry after 24 h of UV-B exposure. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production after 1 h of exposure was assessed using the dye H(2)DCF-DA. Cell viability significantly decreased, apoptotic cells and intracellular ROS production significantly increased when UVB-exposed cells were covered with non-UV-blocking CL or not covered compared to non-irradiated cells. When cells were covered with UV-blocking CL, cell viability significantly increased and apoptotic cells and intracellular ROS production did not increase compared to exposed cells. UV-B radiation induces cell death by apoptosis, increases ROS production and decreases viable cells. UV-blocking CL is able to avoid these effects increasing cell viability and protecting HCE cells from apoptosis and ROS production induced by UV-B radiation. This in vitro model is an alternative to in vivo methods to determine the protective effect of UV-blocking ophthalmic biomaterials because it is a quicker, cheaper and reliable model that avoids the use of animals.

  8. The Transfer efficiency analysis and modeling technology of new non - contact power transmission equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the shortcomings of current power transmission which is used in ultrasound - assisted machining and the different transfer efficiency caused by the related parameters of the electromagnetic converter, this paper proposes an analysis model of the new non-contact power transmission device with more stable output and higher transmission efficiency. Then By utilizing Maxwell finite element analysis software, this paper studies the law of the transfer efficiency of the new non-contact transformer and compares new type with traditional type with the method of setting the boundary conditions of non-contact power supply device. At last, combining with the practical application, the relevant requirements which have a certain reference value in the application are put forward in the actual processing.

  9. A study regarding efficacy of various intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of intraocular lens power calculation formulas in a subset of Indian myopic population. Retrospectively reviewed 43 patients who underwent phacoemulsification with high axial length (AL (>24.5 mm, range 24.75-32.35 mm. The power of the implanted intraocular lens (IOL was used to calculate the predicted post-operative refractive error by four formulas: Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK II, SRK/T, Holladay 1, and Hoffer Q. The predictive accuracy of the formulas was analyzed by comparing the difference between the "actual" and "predicted" postoperative refractive errors. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA tests were done to have pair-wise comparisons between the formulas and P < 0.05 was considered significant. A subcategory of axial length 24.5-26.5 mm was also tested. Holladay 1, Hoffer Q and SRK/T formulas showed a slight tendency toward resultant hyperopia, with mean error of +0.24 diopters (D, +0.58 D, and +0.92 D, respectively. The Holladay 1 formula provided the best predictive result overall.

  10. Soft, smart contact lenses with integrations of wireless circuits, glucose sensors, and displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, So-Yun; Cheong, Woon Hyung; Jang, Jiuk; Park, Young-Geun; Na, Kyungmin; Kim, Yun-Tae; Heo, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Chang Young; Lee, Jung Heon; Bien, Franklin; Park, Jang-Ung

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in wearable electronics combined with wireless communications are essential to the realization of medical applications through health monitoring technologies. For example, a smart contact lens, which is capable of monitoring the physiological information of the eye and tear fluid, could provide real-time, noninvasive medical diagnostics. However, previous reports concerning the smart contact lens have indicated that opaque and brittle components have been used to enable the operation of the electronic device, and this could block the user's vision and potentially damage the eye. In addition, the use of expensive and bulky equipment to measure signals from the contact lens sensors could interfere with the user's external activities. Thus, we report an unconventional approach for the fabrication of a soft, smart contact lens in which glucose sensors, wireless power transfer circuits, and display pixels to visualize sensing signals in real time are fully integrated using transparent and stretchable nanostructures. The integration of this display into the smart lens eliminates the need for additional, bulky measurement equipment. This soft, smart contact lens can be transparent, providing a clear view by matching the refractive indices of its locally patterned areas. The resulting soft, smart contact lens provides real-time, wireless operation, and there are in vivo tests to monitor the glucose concentration in tears (suitable for determining the fasting glucose level in the tears of diabetic patients) and, simultaneously, to provide sensing results through the contact lens display.

  11. Experience with the lathe cut Bausch & Lomb Soflens: Part II--Power and optics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, B A; Levinson, A

    1978-04-01

    Ten familiar spin cast and ten lathe cut Bausch & Lomb SOFLENS contact lenses were measured as to their power on a lensometer and on an eye. Both quality of the optics and quantitative measurements were considered. Lens flexure and the presence of a fluid lens between the posterior surface of the contact lens and the anterior cornea is indicated for both lenses to explain differences between power of the lens in air and on the eye. The spin cast lens design appears to create a quantitatively larger fluid lens, and one which will add positive optical power to the lens/eye system. Either from this and/or additional factors, the lathe cut lens appears to give improved optical performance both in air and on the eye.

  12. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. © 2012 IEEE

  13. Scheimpflug camera combined with placido-disk corneal topography and optical biometry for intraocular lens power calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kurşat; Kaldirim, Havva; Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Akdemir, Mehmet Orcun; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the keratometry (K) values obtained by the Scheimpflug camera combined with placido-disk corneal topography (Sirius) and optical biometry (Lenstar) for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation before the cataract surgery, and to evaluate the accuracy of postoperative refraction. 50 eyes of 40 patients were scheduled to have phacoemulsification with the implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens. The IOL power was calculated using the SRK/T formula with Lenstar K and K readings from Sirius. Simulated K (SimK), K at 3-, 5-, and 7-mm zones from Sirius were compared with Lenstar K readings. The accuracy of these parameters was determined by calculating the mean absolute error (MAE). The mean Lenstar K value was 44.05 diopters (D) ±1.93 (SD) and SimK, K at 3-, 5-, and 7-mm zones were 43.85 ± 1.91, 43.88 ± 1.9, 43.84 ± 1.9, 43.66 ± 1.85 D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the K readings (P = 0.901). When Lenstar was used for the corneal power measurements, MAE was 0.42 ± 0.33 D, but when simK of Sirius was used, it was 0.37 ± 0.32 D (the lowest MAE (0.36 ± 0.32 D) was achieved as a result of 5 mm K measurement), but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.892). Of all the K readings of Sirius and Lenstar, Sirius 5-mm zone K readings were the best in predicting a more precise IOL power. The corneal power measurements with the Scheimpflug camera combined with placido-disk corneal topography can be safely used for IOL power calculation.

  14. Crianças usuárias de lente de contato nos serviços público e privado: análise comparativa Pediatric contact lens users in public and private services: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Araújo Toscano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar as indicações, tipo, complicações do uso de lentes de contato e acuidade visual em crianças de serviços de Oftalmologia público e privado. MÉTODOS: Os dados dos prontuários de 59 crianças usuárias de lentes de contato em serviço privado (Hospital de Olhos de Pernambuco - Grupo 1, e 43 no serviço público (Fundação Altino Ventura - Grupo 2, foram analisados. A coleta de dados incluiu características sociodemográficas, idade da primeira consulta, indicação do uso da lente, tipo de lente, complicações e acuidade visual. RESULTADOS: As mais comuns indicações do uso de lente de contato no grupo 1 foram: ametropia (55,9%, anisometropia (18,6% e esotropia (16,9%. Neste grupo o leucoma e phthisis não estavam presentes. No grupo 2, as indicações mais comuns foram: anisometropia (23,2%, ametropia e leucoma (18,6% cada, e phthisis (16,3%. A esotropia não apareceu no grupo 2. O tipo de lente de contato mais prescrita foi a gelatinosa de uso permanente (não descartável no grupo 1 (45,8% e no grupo 2 (32,6%. A complicação mais encontrada no grupo 1 foi desconforto (33,3% e no grupo 2 perda da lente (60%. CONCLUSÕES: A indicação de ametropia predominou nos pacientes privados e as anisometropias nos públicos. O tipo de lente de contato mais prescrita nos dois grupos foi a gelatinosa de uso permanente. A complicação mais frequente no grupo 1 foi desconforto e no grupo 2 perda da lente. A acuidade visual na maioria dos pacientes manteve-se.PURPOSE: To analyze the indications, type and complications of contact lens use and visual acuity in children, in ophthalmological, public and private, services. METHODS: The information from the medical records of 59 contact lens users at a private service (Hospital de Olhos de Pernambuco - Recife - PE- Brazil - group 1, and 43 at public service (Fundação Altino Ventura - Recife - PE - Brazil - group 2, was analyzed. The collected data included: demographic information

  15. Effect of pupillary dilation on Haigis formula-calculated intraocular lens power measurement by using optical biometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khambhiphant B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bharkbhum Khambhiphant,1 Suganlaya Sasiwilasagorn,2 Nattida Chatbunchachai,3 Krit Pongpirul2,4 1Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Samut Prakan Hospital, Samut Prakan, Thailand; 4Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pupillary dilation on the Haigis formula-calculated intraocular lens (IOL power and ocular biometry measurements by using IOLMaster®. Methods: A prospective study was performed for biometry measurements of 373 eyes of 192 healthy subjects using the IOLMaster at the outpatient department of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital from February 2013 to July 2013. The axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD, keratometry (K, and IOL power were measured before and after 1% tropicamide eye drop instillation. The Haigis formula was used in the IOL power calculation with the predicted target to emmetropia. Each parameter was compared by a paired t-test prior to and after pupillary dilation. Bland–Altman plots were also used to determine the agreement between each parameter. Results: The mean age of the subjects was 53.74±14.41 years (range 18–93 years. No differences in AL (P=0.03, steepest K (P=0.42, and flattest K (P=0.41 were obtained from the IOLMaster after pupillary dilation. However, ACD and IOL power were significantly different postdilation (P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively. In ACD and IOL power measurements, the concordance rates were 93.03% and 97.05% within 95% limits of agreement (-0.48 to 0.26 mm and -1.09 to 0.88 D, respectively in the Bland–Altman plots. Conclusion: Biometry measurements in the cycloplegic stage should be considered in the IOL formulas that use parameters other than AL and K. Keywords: Haigis

  16. Measured Changes in Limbal Strain During Simulated Sleep in Face Down Position Using an Instrumented Contact Lens in Healthy Adults and Adults With Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatau, Alison; Solano, Francisco; Idrees, Sana; Jefferys, Joan L; Volpe, Peter; Damion, Christopher; Quigley, Harry A

    2016-04-01

    Eyes of patients with glaucoma may be damaged during sleep. To measure strains in glaucoma eyes and control eyes produced by mechanical force or deformation of the eye from contact when one side of the face rests against a pillow. This study took place in a clinic-based setting among 22 patients with glaucoma and 11 age-matched controls. The research was conducted at Wilmer Eye Institute between February 4, 2014, and December 2, 2014. Data analysis was done from June 3, 2014, to June 30, 2015. We used a contact lens sensor (CLS) to measure change in limbal strain associated with placing one side of the face down (FD) on a pillow in simulated sleep. Baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with a tonometer. The CLS data were collected every 5 minutes during intervals of up to 60 minutes in various positions, including sitting, lateral decubitus, FD (with the CLS-instrumented eye toward the pillow), and supine. Measured changes in limbal strain were related to estimated changes in IOP and to modeled strain produced by changes in IOP. Among 22 patients with glaucoma and 11 controls, 17 were female. The mean age for the glaucoma group was 62.6 years, while the mean age for the control group was 61.4 years (P = .68). Baseline IOP was also similar for the 2 groups. The mean IOP sitting at the start was 13.7 mm Hg for the glaucoma group and 13.8 mm Hg for the control group (P = .73), and the mean IOP lying at the start was 17.5 mm Hg for the glaucoma group and 16.0 mm Hg for the control group (P = .88). By multivariable linear regression, FD position was associated with an increase in limbal strain in glaucoma eyes (mean [SE], 44.1 [20.4] mV Eq; P = .03) but not in control eyes (mean [SE], 13.6 [13.9] mV Eq, P = .33). While FD, the increased CLS values in patients with glaucoma did not decrease over time (slope, 0.275 mV Eq/min; P = .53 by univariable linear regression). Magnitudes of measured changes in limbal strain were greater in

  17. Measurement of the geometric parameters of power contact wire based on binocular stereovision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xue-Tao; Zhang, Ya-feng; Meng, Fei

    2010-10-01

    In the electrified railway power supply system, electric locomotive obtains power from the catenary's wire through the pantograph. Under the action of the pantograph, combined with various factors such as vibration, touch current, relative sliding speed, load, etc, the contact wire will produce mechanical wear and electrical wear. Thus, in electrified railway construction and daily operations, the geometric parameters such as line height, pull value, the width of wear surface must be under real-timely and non-contact detection. On the one hand, the safe operation of electric railways will be guaranteed; on the other hand, the wire endurance will be extended, and operating costs reduced. Based on the characteristics of the worn wires' image signal, the binocular stereo vision technology was applied for measurement of contact wire geometry parameters, a mathematical model of measurement of geometric parameters was derived, and the boundaries of the wound wire abrasion-point value were extracted by means of sub-pixel edge detection method based on the LOG operator with the least-squares fitting, thus measurements of the wire geometry parameters were realized. Principles were demonstrated through simulation experiments, and the experimental results show that the detection methods presented in this paper for measuring the accuracy, efficiency and convenience, etc. are close to or superior to the traditional measurements, which has laid a good foundation for the measurement system of geometric parameters for the contact wire of the development of binocular vision.

  18. Lens Systems Incorporating A Zero Power Corrector Principle Of The Design And Its Application In Large Aperture, Moderate Field Of View Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H. W.; McDowell, M. W.

    1986-02-01

    A new lens design concept, based on the use of a zero (or near zero) power corrector, will be described. The logical development of the design, based on the work of Schmidt', Houghton' and others will be discussed and examples will be given of moderate field of view lenses with apertures ranging from f/0.35 to f/2. It will also be shown that the lens configuration is relatively insensitive to the aperture stop location and that for less demanding applications only very basic optical glass types need be used.

  19. Editorial: Big data through the power lens: Marker for regulating innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ulbricht, Lena; von Grafenstein, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Facing general conceptions of the power effects of big data, this thematic edition is interested in studies that scrutinise big data and power in concrete fields of application. It brings together scholars from different disciplines who analyse the fields agriculture, education, border control and consumer policy. As will be made explicit in the following, each of the articles tells us something about firstly, what big data is and how it relates to power. They secondly also shed light on how ...

  20. Hourly awakening vs continuous contact lens sensor measurements of 24-hour intraocular pressure: effect on sleep macrostructure and intraocular pressure rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mottet, Benjamin; Hubanova, Ralitsa; Romanet, Jean-Paul; Chiquet, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    All studies of 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythm conducted to date have used repeated IOP measurements requiring nocturnal awakenings, potentially disturbing sleep macrostructure. To evaluate the effects on sleep architecture and IOP rhythm of hourly awakening vs a contact lens sensor (CLS) to continuously monitor IOP without awakening. Cross-sectional study at a referral center of chronobiology among 12 young healthy volunteers, with a mean (SD) age of 22.3 (2.3) years. Volunteers underwent two 24-hour IOP measurement sessions during a 2-month period. The eye order and session order were randomized. During one session, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS, and the IOP of the fellow eye was measured hourly using a portable noncontact tonometer (session with nocturnal hourly awakening). During the other session, the IOP of the first eye was continuously monitored using a CLS, and the IOP of the fellow eye was not measured (session without nocturnal awakening). Overnight polysomnography was performed during the 2 sessions. A nonlinear least squares, dual-harmonic regression analysis was used to model the 24-hour IOP rhythm from the CLS data. Comparisons of acrophase, bathyphase, amplitude, and the midline estimating statistic of rhythm were used to evaluate the effect of hourly awakening on IOP rhythm. To evaluate the effects of hourly awakening on sleep architecture, comparisons of sleep structure were used, including total sleep period, rapid eye movement, wake after sleep onset, absolute and relative total sleep time, and non-rapid eye movement sleep (N1, N2, and N3). A 24-hour IOP rhythm was found in all individuals for the sessions with and without awakening (P  .30). Hourly awakening during noncontact tonometer IOP measurements did not seem to alter the mean variables of the 24-hour IOP pattern evaluated using CLS, including signal, maximum signal, minimum signal, acrophase, and bathyphase (P > .15). The 24-hour IOP

  1. Pupil diameter, working distance and illumination during habitual tasks. Implications for simultaneous vision contact lenses for presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genís Cardona

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Potential multifocal contact lens users may present with different ages, different jobs or hobbies and different preferences regarding lighting conditions and working distances. This results in different pupil size, even within the same task. This information may be critical when selecting a particular lens design and add power. Eye care practitioners are therefore advised to assess pupil diameter in real life conditions.

  2. High power single-frequency and frequency-doubled laser with active compensation for the thermal lens effect of terbium gallium garnet crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiwei; Lu, Huadong; Su, Jing; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-05-01

    The thermal lens effect of terbium gallium garnet (TGG) crystal in a high power single-frequency laser severely limits the output power and the beam quality of the laser. By inserting a potassium dideuterium phosphate (DKDP) slice with negative thermo-optical coefficient into the laser resonator, the harmful influence of the thermal lens effect of the TGG crystal can be effectively mitigated. Using this method, the stable range of the laser is broadened, the bistability phenomenon of the laser during the process of changing the pump power is completely eliminated, the highest output power of an all-solid-state continuous-wave intracavity-frequency-doubling single-frequency laser at 532 nm is enhanced to 30.2 W, and the beam quality of the laser is significantly improved.

  3. Biometry and intraocular lens power calculation results with a new optical biometry device: comparison with the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaswin, Godefroy; Rousseau, Antoine; Mgarrech, Mohamed; Barreau, Emmanuel; Labetoulle, Marc

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the agreement in axial length (AL), keratometry (K), anterior chamber depth (ACD) measurements; intraocular lens (IOL) power calculations; and predictability using a new partial coherence interferometry (PCI) optical biometer (AL-Scan) and a reference (gold standard) PCI optical biometer (IOLMaster 500). Service d'Ophtalmologie, Hopital Bicêtre, APHP Université, Paris, France. Evaluation of a diagnostic device. One eye of consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery was measured. Biometry was performed with the new biometer and the reference biometer. Comparisons were performed for AL, average K at 2.4 mm, ACD, IOL power calculations with the Haigis and SRK/T formulas, and postoperative predictability of the devices. A P value less than 0.05 was statistically significant. The study enrolled 50 patients (mean age 72.6 years±4.2 SEM). There was a good correlation between biometers for AL, K, and ACD measurements (r=0.999, r=0.933, and r=0.701, respectively) and between IOL power calculation with the Haigis formula (r=0.972) and the SRK/T formula (r=0.981). The mean absolute error (MAE) in IOL power prediction was 0.42±0.08 diopter (D) with the new biometer and 0.44±0.08 D with the reference biometer. The MAE was 0.20 D with the Haigis formula and 0.19 with the SRK/T formula (P=.36). The new PCI biometer provided valid measurements compared with the current gold standard, indicating that the new device can be used for IOL power calculations for routine cataract surgery. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Pentacam equivalent keratometry reading and IOL Master keratometry measurement in intraocular lens power calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunaratne, Nicholas

    2013-12-01

    To compare the accuracy of the Pentacam Holladay equivalent keratometry readings with the IOL Master 500 keratometry in calculating intraocular lens power. Non-randomized, prospective clinical study conducted in private practice. Forty-five consecutive normal patients undergoing cataract surgery. Forty-five consecutive patients had Pentacam equivalent keratometry readings at the 2-, 3 and 4.5-mm corneal zone and IOL Master keratometry measurements prior to cataract surgery. For each Pentacam equivalent keratometry reading zone and IOL Master measurement the difference between the observed and expected refractive error was calculated using the Holladay 2 and Sanders, Retzlaff and Kraff theoretic (SRKT) formulas. Mean keratometric value and mean absolute refractive error. There was a statistically significantly difference between the mean keratometric values of the IOL Master, Pentacam equivalent keratometry reading 2-, 3- and 4.5-mm measurements (P variance). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean absolute refraction error for the IOL Master and equivalent keratometry readings 2 mm, 3 mm and 4.5 mm zones for either the Holladay 2 formula (P = 0.14) or SRKT formula (P = 0.47). The lowest mean absolute refraction error for Holladay 2 equivalent keratometry reading was the 4.5 mm zone (mean 0.25 D ± 0.17 D). The lowest mean absolute refraction error for SRKT equivalent keratometry reading was the 4.5 mm zone (mean 0.25 D ± 0.19 D). Comparing the absolute refraction error of IOL Master and Pentacam equivalent keratometry reading, best agreement was with Holladay 2 and equivalent keratometry reading 4.5 mm, with mean of the difference of 0.02 D and 95% limits of agreement of -0.35 and 0.39 D. The IOL Master keratometry and Pentacam equivalent keratometry reading were not equivalent when used only for corneal power measurements. However, the keratometry measurements of the IOL Master and Pentacam equivalent keratometry reading 4.5 mm may be

  5. MISSING: BUBBLE CHAMBER LENS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Would the person who borrowed the large bubble chamber lens from the Microcosm workshops on the ISR please return it. This is a much used piece from our object archives. If anybody has any information about the whereabouts of this object, please contact Emma.Sanders@cern.ch Thank you

  6. Lens Systems Incorporating A Zero Power Corrector Objectives And Magnifiers For Night Vision Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Klee, H. W.

    1986-02-01

    The use of the zero power corrector concept has been extended to the design of objective lenses and magnifiers suitable for use in night vision goggles. A novel design which can be used as either an f/1.2 objective or an f/2 magnifier is also described.

  7. The Power of Symbolic Play in Emotional Development through the DIR Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Serena

    2017-01-01

    Symbolic play is a powerful vehicle for supporting emotional development and communication. It embraces all developmental capacities. This article describes how symbols are formed and how emotional themes are symbolized whereby children reveal their understanding of the world, their feelings and relationships, and how they see themselves in the…

  8. The Relationship between Anterior Chamber Depth, Axial Length and Intraocular Lens Power among Candidates for Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat, Mohammad Reza; Azimi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Tehranian, Naghmeh; Bamdad, Shahram

    2016-10-01

    Basic anatomical parameters in ophthalmology are variable in different countries according to ethnic groups, genetics and some environmental factors. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOL) in a referral center from eastern Iran among patients who had cataract surgery, in comparison to studies from other regions of the world. In a cross-sectional retrospective study from 2011 to 2013, the records of 698 cataract patients referring to Khatam Al Anbia general hospital in Mashhad, Iran were evaluated. We divided patients, based on their AL and ACD, into three separate groups and compared their results. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. The Chi-Square test and the Independent-samples t-test were used to compare qualitative and quantitative data between two groups, respectively. The Kendall and the Pearson product-moment correlation tests were used to assess the relationship between AL and ACD. The linear Regression model was used to obtain a mathematical model to estimate ACD, using AL, age and sex. Among individuals who had normal AL (between 22-24.5mm), there was a positive correlation between AL and ACD (p24.5mm), no significant correlation was detected. We also found that older people have shorter AL (p=0.001 and r=-0.287). Men have an average longer AL (23.7±2.4mm vs. 22.9±2.1mm; pworld and although some anatomical variations may exist regarding ophthalmic anatomy, factors like race and geographical area have little effect on the relationship between ACD, AL and IOL power calculation, furthermore our results support the use of third and fourth generation formulas for IOL power calculation.

  9. Evaluation of the contact switch materials in high voltage power supply for generate of underwater shockwave by electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Higa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed the high voltage power-supply unit by Cockcroft-Walton circuit for ingenerate high pressure due to underwater shockwave by electrical discharge. This high voltage power supply has the problem of the metal contact switch operation that contact switch stop by melting and bonding due to electrical spark. We have studied the evaluation of materials of contact switch for the reducing electrical energy loss and the problem of contact switch operation. In this research, measurement of discharge voltage and high pressure due to underwater shockwave was carried out using the contact switch made of different materials as brass plate, brass-carbon plate-brass and carbon block. The contact switch made of carbon is effective to reduce energy loss and problem of contactor switch operation.

  10. Reduction in ionic permeability of a silicone hydrogel contact lenses after one month of daily wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira da Silva, Ana Rita; González-Méijome, José M; Compañ, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the ionic permeability using the ionoflux method of new and worn samples of a silicone hydrogel contact lens material. Methods. An ionoflux experimental setup was established to measure the ionic permeability (NaCl) of soft contact lenses. Samples of a silicone hydrogel lens (Comfilcon A, Coopervision, Pleasanton, CA) with optical powers of −1.00, −1.50 and −4.75 diopters (D) were used in this study. Three samples of each power were measured after being worn for one month on a daily wear basis. Lenses were cleaned and disinfected every night using multipurpose disinfecting solutions. Three samples of new lenses from the same batch and the same optical power were also measured to evaluate the effect of lens wear on the ionic permeability of the lens material. Before measurement, the lenses were equilibrated with a 1 M NaCl solution during one week before of each measurement. Results. Lens power had minimal effect on the ionic permeability of a modern silicone hydrogel contact lens with the −1.00 lens having a 15% lower permeability compared to the other two lenses. After one month of lens wear the apparent ionic permeability for lenses with −1.50 D decreased by 15%. In the case of −1.00 and −4.75 D lenses there was a decrease of 26%. Conclusions. The ionic permeability of silicone hydrogel lenses of different optical powers was not significantly different. Worn lenses present a significant reduction of the ionic permeability after a month of wear. The potential effect this reduction on lens movement and discomfort associated to lens wear should be further evaluated. (paper)

  11. Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Madzivhandila, V

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� Recovery of flue gas energy in heat integrated IGCC power plants using the contact economizer system Vhutshilo Madzivhandilaa, Thokozani... temperature and the thermal efficiency of the plant. The 13th Asia Pacific Confederation of APCChE 2010 Chemical Engineering Congress October 5-8, 2010, Taipei � �� 1. Introduction The IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) is one...

  12. Medindo o poder refrativo de lentes de contato gelatinosas personalizadas Measuring the refractive power of customized soft contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Vieira de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    tecnologia é importante para o desenvolvimento de novos métodos para correção de aberrações de pacientes que normalmente não podem passar por cirurgia refrativa e ao mesmo tempo estão insatisfeitos com os óculos de grau convencionais. Entre estes pacientes, podemos citar aqueles portadores de ceratocone ou que tenham sido submetidos ao transplante de córnea.PURPOSE: Soft contact lenses with spherical base curves have been used for many years. The computation of the refractive powers of these lenses is easy, requiring only that one uses the lens maker equation for thick lenses. Nevertheless, for customized contact lenses, there is yet no reliable method for measuring the higher order optical aberrations. In this study we have developed in the Center for Visual Sciences of the University of Rochester an optical apparatus that allows for precise measurement of low and high order aberrations of customized soft contact lenses. METHODS: An optical apparatus was mounted on a conventional optical bench. This apparatus consists of a wet cell where the contact lenses are placed, a series of relay lenses, mirrors, beam splitters, and a Hartmann-Shack sensor. Bausch & Lomb manufactured the lenses used in this study. RESULTS: The root mean square error (RMSE of the instrument was 0.04 microns. Given that the RMSE of the customized lens is between 4 and 6 microns, i.e., the precision of the instrument is approximately 1%. This precision is more than sufficient for the type of measurements necessary for manufacturing customized contact lenses. CONCLUSION: The instrument developed is extremely precise for measuring high order aberrations - up to the 10th order Zernike polynomials, that is, up to the 66th term. This technology is important for the development of new methods of optical corrections for patients that usually do not adapt to normal sphere-cylinder spectacles or that cannot undergo refractive surgery, such as those which have keratoconus, for example.

  13. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-09-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm2, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  14. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiangyu, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn; Jiang, Tao [Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei, E-mail: chenxiangyu@binn.cas.cn, E-mail: ouyangwei@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, 3663 North Zhongshan Road, Shanghai 200062 (China)

    2015-09-14

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm{sup 2}, which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics.

  15. Field emission device driven by self-powered contact-electrification: Simulation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiangyu; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Zhuo; Ou-Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A self-powered field emission device (FED) driven by a single-electrode tribo-electric nanogenerator (TENG) is demonstrated. The mechanical motion works as both a power supply to drive the FED and a control unit to regulate the amount of emitted electrons. By using the Fowler-Nordheim equation and Kirchhoff laws, a theoretical model of this self-powered FED is proposed, and accordingly the real-time output characteristics of the device are systematically investigated. It is found that the motion distance of the TENG controls switch-on of the FED and determines the charge amount for emission, while the motion velocity regulates the amplitude of emission current. The minimum contact area for the TENG to generate field emission is about 9 cm 2 , which can be improved by optimizing FED structure and the tribo-materials of TENG. The demonstrated concept of this self-powered FED as well as the proposed physical analysis can serve as guidance for further applications of FED in such fields of self-powered electronics and soft electronics

  16. Dynamic solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation system: Concept design, modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Jung Gil; Kim, Woo-Seung; Choi, June-Seok; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Kim, Young-Deuk

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the monthly average daily and hourly performances of a solar-powered multi-stage direct contact membrane distillation (SMDCMD) system with an energy recovery scheme and dynamic operating system. Mid

  17. Quadrupole magnetic lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskunov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The following connection of windings of electromagnet is suggested for simplification of the design of qUadrupole magnetic lens intended for use in radiotechnical and electron-optical devices. The mentioned windings are connected with each other by a bridge scheme and the variable resistors are switched in its diagonals in the lens containing four electromagnet with windings connected with two variable resistors the mobile contacts of which are connected with a direct current source. Current redistribution between left windings and right windings takes place at shift of mobile contact of variable resistor, and current redistribution between upper and low coils of electromagnets takes place at shifting mobile contact of the other variable resistor. In this case smooth and independent electron-optical misalignment of lens by two mutually perpendicular directions proceeds. Use of the given design of the lens in the oscillograph permits to use printing assembly for alignment plate and to reduce the number of connections at the expense of decreasing the number of resistors

  18. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  19. Real time optimization of solar powered direct contact membrane distillation based on multivariable extremum seeking

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents a real time optimization scheme for a solar powered direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) water desalination system. The sun and weather conditions vary and are inconsistent throughout the day. Therefore, the solar powered DCMD feed inlet temperature is never constant, which influences the distilled water flux. The problem of DCMD process optimization has not been studied enough. In this work, the response of the process under various feed inlet temperatures is investigated, which demonstrates the need for an optimal controller. To address this issue, we propose a multivariable Newton-based extremum seeking controller which optimizes the inlet feed and permeate mass flow rates as the feed inlet temperature varies. Results are presented and discussed for a realistic temperature profile.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography–Based Corneal Power Measurement and Intraocular Lens Power Calculation Following Laser Vision Correction (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Tang, Maolong; Wang, Li; Zhang, Xinbo; Armour, Rebecca L.; Gattey, Devin M.; Lombardi, Lorinna H.; Koch, Douglas D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To use optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure corneal power and improve the selection of intraocular lens (IOL) power in cataract surgeries after laser vision correction. Methods: Patients with previous myopic laser vision corrections were enrolled in this prospective study from two eye centers. Corneal thickness and power were measured by Fourier-domain OCT. Axial length, anterior chamber depth, and automated keratometry were measured by a partial coherence interferometer. An OCT-based IOL formula was developed. The mean absolute error of the OCT-based formula in predicting postoperative refraction was compared to two regression-based IOL formulae for eyes with previous laser vision correction. Results: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients all had uncomplicated cataract surgery with monofocal IOL implantation. The mean arithmetic prediction error of postoperative refraction was 0.05 ± 0.65 diopter (D) for the OCT formula, 0.14 ± 0.83 D for the Haigis-L formula, and 0.24 ± 0.82 D for the no-history Shammas-PL formula. The mean absolute error was 0.50 D for OCT compared to a mean absolute error of 0.67 D for Haigis-L and 0.67 D for Shammas-PL. The adjusted mean absolute error (average prediction error removed) was 0.49 D for OCT, 0.65 D for Haigis-L (P=.031), and 0.62 D for Shammas-PL (P=.044). For OCT, 61% of the eyes were within 0.5 D of prediction error, whereas 46% were within 0.5 D for both Haigis-L and Shammas-PL (P=.034). Conclusions: The predictive accuracy of OCT-based IOL power calculation was better than Haigis-L and Shammas-PL formulas in eyes after laser vision correction. PMID:24167323

  1. Vortex gas lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Berschauer, Andrew; Parker, Timothy W.; Vickers, Jesse E.

    1989-01-01

    A vortex gas lens concept is presented. Such a lens has a potential power density capability of 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 10th w/sq cm. An experimental prototype was constructed, and the divergence half angle of the exiting beam was measured as a function of the lens operating parameters. Reasonably good agreement is found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations. The expanded beam was observed to be steady, and no strong, potentially beam-degrading jets were found to issue from the ends of the lens. Estimates of random beam deflection angles to be expected due to boundary layer noise are presented; these angles are very small.

  2. Non-Contact Thermal Properties Measurement with Low-Power Laser and IR Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Troy L.; Hecht, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    As shown by the Phoenix Mars Lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), contact measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity (using a modified flux-plate or line-source heat-pulse method) are constrained by a number of factors. Robotic resources must be used to place the probe, making them unavailable for other operations for the duration of the measurement. The range of placement is also limited by mobility, particularly in the case of a lander. Placement is also subject to irregularities in contact quality, resulting in non-repeatable heat transfer to the material under test. Most important from a scientific perspective, the varieties of materials which can be measured are limited to unconsolidated or weakly-cohesive regolith materials, rocks, and ices being too hard for nominal insertion strengths. Accurately measuring thermal properties in the laboratory requires significant experimental finesse, involving sample preparation, controlled and repeatable procedures, and, practically, instrumentation much more voluminous than the sample being tested (heater plates, insulation, temperature sensors). Remote measurements (infrared images from orbiting spacecraft) can reveal composite properties like thermal inertia, but suffer both from a large footprint (low spatial resolution) and convolution of the thermal properties of a potentially layered medium. In situ measurement techniques (the Phoenix TECP is the only robotic measurement of thermal properties to date) suffer from problems of placement range, placement quality, occupation of robotic resources, and the ability to only measure materials of low mechanical strength. A spacecraft needs the ability to perform a non-contact thermal properties measurement in situ. Essential components include low power consumption, leveraging of existing or highly-developed flight technologies, and mechanical simplicity. This new in situ method, by virtue of its being non-contact, bypasses all of these

  3. Objective lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  4. Chip-carrier thermal barrier and its impact on lateral thermal lens profile and beam parameter product in high power broad area lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieprich, J.; Winterfeldt, M.; Kernke, R.; Tomm, J. W.; Crump, P.

    2018-03-01

    High power broad area diode lasers with high optical power density in a small focus spot are in strong commercial demand. For this purpose, the beam quality, quantified via the beam parameter product (BPP), has to be improved. Previous studies have shown that the BPP is strongly affected by current-induced heating and the associated thermal lens formed within the laser stripe. However, the chip structure and module-assembly related factors that regulate the size and the shape of the thermal lens are not well known. An experimental infrared thermographic technique is used to quantify the thermal lens profile in diode lasers operating at an emission wavelength of 910 nm, and the results are compared with finite element method simulations. The analysis indicates that the measured thermal profiles can best be explained when a thermal barrier is introduced between the chip and the carrier, which is shown to have a substantial impact on the BPP and the thermal resistance. Comparable results are observed in further measurements of samples from multiple vendors, and the barrier is only observed for junction-down (p-down) mounting, consistent with the barrier being associated with the GaAs-metal transition.

  5. Experimental Investigation on the Feasibility of Using a Fresnel Lens as a Solar-Energy Collection System for Enhancing On-Orbit Power Generation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Yong Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cube satellites have a limitation for generating power because of their cubic structure and extremely small size. In addition, the incidence angle between the sun and the solar panels continuously varies owing to the revolution and rotation of the satellite according to the attitude control strategy. This angle is an important parameter for determining the power generation performance of the cube satellite. In this study, we performed an experimental feasibility study that uses a Fresnel lens as a solar-energy collection system for cube satellite applications, so that the power generation efficiency can be enhanced under the worst incidence angle condition between the sun and solar panels by concentrating and redirecting solar energy onto the solar panels with a commercial Fresnel lens. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we conducted a power-measurement test using a solar simulator and Fresnel lenses at various angles to the light source. In addition, we predicted the on-orbit power-generation enhancement achieved by employing the solar-energy collection system with various attitude control strategies.

  6. Complicación poco frecuente del uso de lentes de contacto duros: Presentación de 1 caso Rare complications of the use of hard contact lens: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Escalona Leyva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó una rara complicación con el uso de lentes de contacto duros en una paciente femenina de 45 años de edad, con antecedentes de 15 años de uso que acudió a la consulta por pérdida de sus lentes de contacto de 15 días de evolución. Se detectó aumento de volumen, doloroso en el párpado superior izquierdo donde se encontró en su eversión el lente "sembrado" en el tarso con granuloma que lo envuelve. Se presentan los hallazgos clínicos y la evolución.A rare complication of the use of hard contact lenses. A case report A rare complication with the use of hard contact lenses was observed in a 45-year-old female patient who had worn them during 15 years and visited the physician's office 15 days after losing her contact lenses. It was observed increase of volume, painful in the left upper eyelid, where it was found in its eversion the lens "planted" in the tarsus with a granuloma covering it. The clinical findings and evolution are presented.

  7. DISSECTING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS B1608+656. I. LENS POTENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suyu, S. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Blandford, R. D.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; McKean, J. P.; Treu, T.

    2009-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing is a powerful technique for probing galaxy mass distributions and for measuring cosmological parameters. Lens systems with extended source-intensity distributions are particularly useful for this purpose since they provide additional constraints on the lens potential (

  8. The measurement of intraocular pressure over positive soft contact lenses by rebound tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Zeri

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Rebound tonometry over positive hydrogel CLs leads to a certain degree of IOP underestimation. This result did not change for the two positive lenses used in the experiment, despite their large difference in power and therefore in lens thickness. Optometrists should bear this in mind when measuring IOP with the rebound tonometer over plus power contact lenses.

  9. Monolithic integration of collimating Fresnel lens for beam quality enhancement in tapered high-power laser diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lau, F.K.; Tee, C.W.; Zhao, Xin; Williams, K.A.; Penty, R.V.; White, I.H.; Calligaro, M.; Lecomte, M.; Parillaud, O.; Michel, N.; Krakowski, M.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, a monolithic integrated lens for wide aperture gain-guided tapered laser beam quality enhancement by compensating the quadratic phase curvature. The 3mm long tapered laser with an output aperture of 170µm adopted in this design consists of a gain-guided tapered

  10. Lente de contato de material híbrido em pacientes com ceratocone e astigmatismo miópico composto Hybrid material contact lens in keratoconus and myopic astigmatism patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leal

    2007-03-01

    óculos, exceto para a freqüência B (3 cpg, maior nos usuários de óculos. As aberrações de alta ordem analisadas apresentaram diminuição estatisticamente significante, quando comparados os pacientes sem e com uso de lentes de contato, com exceção da aberração esférica e do coma. CONCLUSÃO: A lente de contato de material híbrido, quando utilizada por portadores de ceratocone e astigmatismo miópico composto, propiciaram desempenho visual e conforto satisfatórios, em níveis que não diferiram, das lentes de contato rígidas-gás-permeáveis nos dois grupos de pacientes.PURPOSE: To evaluate comfort and visual performance in relation to two different used contact lens types: hybrid material (HM and rigid-gas-permeable (RGP, in patients with regular myopic astigmatism and with keratoconus. METHODS: A randomized, double masked, prospective study of 22 patients with the diagnosis of myopic astigmatism (8 with myopic astigmatism and 14 with keratoconus was conducted. Fifteen patients were female and 7 were male, and mean age was: 32.13 ± 8.12 years. In one of the eyes a rigid-gas-permeable contact lens was adapted (DK 30, and in the other a hybrid material contact lens was adapted (DK 23. All patients were submitted to the following tests: measurement of comfort level by means of the analogical visual scale, tear break-up time, best corrected visual acuity with the Bailey-Lovie scale adapted for 4 meters, functional acuity contrast test (FACT and wavefront analysis. RESULTS: In relation to comfort, there was no association with the evaluated contact lens type (p=0.350. There was a variation in comfort level during the first 7 days. The visual acuity increased between the 7th and the 15th day of adaptation. Visual acuity stabilized right after this period. The visual acuity did not show differences in relation to the studied lens type. It was verified that there was no difference in the tear break-up time (p=0.989 in relation to the studied lenses type and

  11. Optical and visual performance of aspheric soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Suzanne; Efron, Nathan; Morgan, Philip B

    2008-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether aspheric design soft contact lenses reduce ocular aberrations and result in better visual acuity and subjective appreciation of clinical performance compared with spherical soft contact lenses. A unilateral, double-masked, randomized and controlled study was undertaken in which ocular aberrations and high and low contrast logMAR visual acuity were measured on myopic subjects who wore aspheric design (Biomedics 55 Evolution, CooperVision) and spherical design (Biomedics 55, CooperVision) soft contact lenses. Ten subjects who had about -2.00 D myopia wore -2.00 D lenses and 10 subjects who had about -5.00 D myopia wore -5.00 D lenses. Measurements were made under photopic and mesopic lighting conditions. Subjects were invited to grade comfort, vision in photopic and mesopic conditions, and overall impression with the two lens types on 100 unit visual analogue scales. There was no significant difference in high contrast or low contrast visual acuity between the two lens designs of either power under photopic or mesopic conditions. Both lens designs displayed lower levels of spherical aberration compared with the "no lens" condition under photopic and mesopic light levels (p designs. There were no statistically significant differences in subjective appreciation of clinical performance between lens designs or lens powers. At least with respect to the brand of lenses tested, the fitting of aspheric design soft contact lenses does not result in superior visual acuity, aberration control, or subjective appreciation compared with equivalent spherical design soft contact lenses.

  12. Technique Development Results for the Study of a Novel Dexamethasone Impregnated Bandage Contact Lens in a Rabbit Model After Photorefractive Keratectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-22

    PRK Inflammation in a Rabbit Model Timothy A. Soekenl, Michael Merkley!, Wesley Brundridgel, Gary Legaultl, Matthew Caldwelll, Joseph Ciolino2...7 .0 Dexamethasone Impregnated Contact Lenses in the Treatment of Post- PRK Inflammation · in a Rabbit Model Timothy A. Soeken 1, Michael Merkley1

  13. Quantum-dot saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:KGW laser with >450  kW of peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, R; Zhao, H; Fedorova, K A; Rafailov, E U; Major, A

    2016-08-15

    The hybrid action of quantum-dot saturable absorber and Kerr-lens mode locking in a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser was demonstrated. Using a quantum-dot saturable absorber with a 0.7% (0.5%) modulation depth, the mode-locked laser delivered 90 fs (93 fs) pulses with 3.2 W (2.9 W) of average power at the repetition rate of 77 MHz, corresponding to 462 kW (406 kW) of peak power and 41 nJ (38 nJ) of pulse energy. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest average and peak powers generated to date from quantum-dot saturable absorber-based mode-locked lasers.

  14. Boundary element method for normal non-adhesive and adhesive contacts of power-law graded elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Popov, Valentin L.

    2018-03-01

    Recently proposed formulation of the boundary element method for adhesive contacts has been generalized for contacts of power-law graded materials with and without adhesion. Proceeding from the fundamental solution for single force acting on the surface of an elastic half space, first the influence matrix is obtained for a rectangular grid. The inverse problem for the calculation of required stress in the contact area from a known surface displacement is solved using the conjugate-gradient technique. For the transformation between the stresses and displacements, the Fast Fourier Transformation is used. For the adhesive contact of graded material, the detachment criterion based on the energy balance is proposed. The method is validated by comparison with known exact analytical solutions as well as by proving the independence of the mesh size and the grid orientation.

  15. Quasi-mosaicity of (311) planes in silicon and its use in a Laue lens with high-focusing power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Paternò, Gianfranco; Bellucci, Valerio; Guidi, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    (311) curved planes can be exploited for efficiently focus hard X-rays. With this purpose, a self-standing bent crystal was manufactured at the Sensor and Semiconductor Laboratory of Ferrara (Italy). The crystal was designed as an optical component for a X-ray concentrator such as a Laue lens. The curvature of (311) planes was obtained through the quasi-mosaic effect. The diffraction efficiency of the sample was tested at the Institut Laue Langevin of Grenoble (France) by using a collimated monochromatic X-ray beam. This was the first prove of the diffraction properties of (311) quasi-mosaic planes. Diffraction efficiency resulted 35 % with a 182 keV X-ray beam, in agreement with the theoretical expectation. It corresponded to a reflectivity of 33 %. While the chosen orientation is not the most performing lying of planes, it can be used, in addition to smaller-index planes, in order to raise the total effective area of a Laue lens. To quantify it, a Laue lens based on quasi-mosaic silicon and germanium crystals, exploiting (111), (422) and (311) diffracting planes, was achieved and simulated with the LaueGen code.

  16. Bifocal liquid lens zoom objective for mobile phone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Schreiber, P.; Bräuer, A.; Craen, P.

    2007-02-01

    Miniaturized camera systems are an integral part of today's mobile phones which recently possess auto focus functionality. Commercially available solutions without moving parts have been developed using the electrowetting technology. Here, the contact angle of a drop of a conductive or polar liquid placed on an insulating substrate can be influenced by an electric field. Besides the compensation of the axial image shift due to different object distances, mobile phones with zoom functionality are desired as a next evolutionary step. In classical mechanically compensated zoom lenses two independently driven actuators combined with precision guides are needed leading to a delicate, space consuming and expansive opto-mechanical setup. Liquid lens technology based on the electrowetting effect gives the opportunity to built adaptive lenses without moving parts thus simplifying the mechanical setup. However, with the recent commercially available liquid lens products a completely motionless and continuously adaptive zoom system with market relevant optical performance is not feasible. This is due to the limited change in optical power the liquid lenses can provide and the dispersion of the used materials. As an intermediate step towards a continuously adjustable and motionless zoom lens we propose a bifocal system sufficient for toggling between two effective focal lengths without any moving parts. The system has its mechanical counterpart in a bifocal zoom lens where only one lens group has to be moved. In a liquid lens bifocal zoom two groups of adaptable liquid lenses are required for adjusting the effective focal length and keeping the image location constant. In order to overcome the difficulties in achromatizing the lens we propose a sequential image acquisition algorithm. Here, the full color image is obtained from a sequence of monochrome images (red, green, blue) leading to a simplified optical setup.

  17. Crystalline lens and refractive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, Rafael

    2015-07-01

    Individual refractive errors usually change along lifespan. Most children are hyperopic in early life. This hyperopia is usually lost during growth years, leading to emmetropia in adults, but myopia also develops in children during school years or during early adult life. Those subjects who remain emmetropic are prone to have hyperopic shifts in middle life. And even later, at older ages, myopic shifts are developed with nuclear cataract. The eye grows from 15 mm in premature newborns to approximately 24 mm in early adult years, but, in most cases, refractions are maintained stable in a clustered distribution. This growth in axial length would represent a refractive change of more than 40 diopters, which is compensated by changes in corneal and lens powers. The process which maintains the balance between the ocular components of refraction during growth is still under study. As the lens power cannot be measured in vivo, but can only be calculated based on the other ocular components, there have not been many studies of lens power in humans. Yet, recent studies have confirmed that the lens loses power during growth in children, and that hyperopic and myopic shifts in adulthood may be also produced by changes in the lens. These studies in children and adults give a picture of the changing power of the lens along lifespan. Other recent studies about the growth of the lens and the complexity of its internal structure give clues about how these changes in lens power are produced along life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acanthamoeba sp.: un caso de queratitis no relacionada con el uso de lentes de contacto Acanthamoeba sp.: a case report in a non-contact lens wearer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Menghi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp. generalmente se relaciona con el uso de lentes de contacto y en menor proporción se vincula con el contacto con agua contaminada. Se caracteriza por una disminución de la capacidad visual y la presencia de un fuerte dolor ocular. al examen clínico, puede confundirse con una infección herpética. Si la infección no es diagnosticada y tratada a tiempo en forma adecuada, puede culminar en la perforación de la córnea y, eventualmente, en la pérdida del ojo. en este trabajo se informa uno de los pocos casos registrados de queratitis por Acanthamoeba sp. no relacionada con el uso de lentes de contacto.Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis is generally related to wearing contact lenses, and, to a lesser extent, to contaminated water. it is characterized by reduced visual capacity and the presence of severe ocular pain. Clinically, it can be mistaken for a herpes infection. if it is not diagnosed, and timely and adequately treated, it can result in corneal perforation and, eventually, in vision loss. One of the few registered cases of Acanthamoeba sp. keratitis not related to the use of contact lenses is herein reported.

  19. Self-powered, ultra-sensitive, flexible tactile sensors based on contact electrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhu, Guang

    2018-03-20

    A tactile sensor for sensing touch from a human finger includes a triboelectric layer and includes a material that becomes electrically charged after being in contact with the finger. The first side of a first conductive layer is in contact with the second side of triboelectric layer. The first side of a dielectric layer is in contact with the first conductive layer and the second side of the dielectric layer is in contact with a second conductive layer. When the triboelectric layer becomes electrically charged after being in contact with the finger, the first conductive layer and the second conductive layer are subjected to an electric field, which has a first field strength at the first conductive layer and a second field strength, different from the first field strength, at the second conductive layer. A plurality of tactile sensors can be arranged as a keyboard.

  20. Lens Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nash, Ulrik William

    2014-01-01

    Firms consist of people who make decisions to achieve goals. How do these people develop the expectations which underpin the choices they make? The lens model provides one answer to this question. It was developed by cognitive psychologist Egon Brunswik (1952) to illustrate his theory of probabil...