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Sample records for consuming appliances maeleudstyr

  1. Assessing consumer benefits of selected gas appliance technology center tasks. Topical report, April-December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Bournakis, A.D.; Worek, W.M.; Kalensky, D.C.; Dombrowski, L.P.

    1992-12-01

    The Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) was created in 1983 to assist the gas industry in bringing about a new generation of reasonably priced, advanced gas appliances. The objective of the report is to evaluate consumer benefits of sixteen selected GATC tasks for the time period between 1983 and 1990. Tasks were selected for review based upon their degree of industry impact and how well they represented activities in the four targeted research areas of Space Conditioning, Commercial Appliances, Residential Appliances, and Codes and Standards

  2. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  3. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data employed to analyse the factors influencing consumers’ purchase decision-making processes were obtained through a questionnaire that was conducted in December 2011 in Basra, a city in southern Iraq. The major findings of the study indicated that, overall, the set of independent variables are weakly associated with the dependent variable. However, the in-depth analysis found that social factors, physical factors, and marketing mix elements are strongly associated with consumer buying behaviour. These analyses make it possible to discover consumer decision-making rules. The results may assist producers and retailers in understanding consumer behaviour and improving consumer satisfaction.

  4. Energy efficiency and appliance purchases in Europe: Consumer profiles and choice determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Rui; Antunes, Dalila

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to the following: (1) understand the factors/characteristics typically considered when purchasing electrical appliances, (2) analyse the differences between consumer profiles regarding these and (3) understand the factors driving the consideration of energy efficiency class by purchasers. Results indicate a preference for first considering cost, followed by quality and energy consumption considerations. These are correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class in consumer choices. Also, regression analysis shows environmental attitudes to be negative predictors of energy efficiency class consideration, while specific environmental behaviours were positive predictors. Finally, consumer profiles were identified based on gender, age and whether or not the purchaser was accompanied when decisions were made. Implications for retail employee training and the development of persuasive messages for consumers based on established profiles are discussed. - Highlights: → We assessed factors typically considered by consumers in electrical appliances choice. → Characteristics identified as most important for choice were as follows: cost, quality and energy consumption. → These correlated positively with the consideration of energy efficiency class. → Differences between consumer profiles regarding the characteristics consideration were identified. → Differences imply persuasive messages adaption to these, to increase energy class consideration.

  5. Estimating returns to scale and scale efficiency for energy consuming appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group; Okwelum, Edson O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group

    2018-01-18

    Energy consuming appliances accounted for over 40% of the energy use and $17 billion in sales in the U.S. in 2014. Whether such amounts of money and energy were optimally combined to produce household energy services is not straightforwardly determined. The efficient allocation of capital and energy to provide an energy service has been previously approached, and solved with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) under constant returns to scale. That approach, however, lacks the scale dimension of the problem and may restrict the economic efficient models of an appliance available in the market when constant returns to scale does not hold. We expand on that approach to estimate returns to scale for energy using appliances. We further calculate DEA scale efficiency scores for the technically efficient models that comprise the economic efficient frontier of the energy service delivered, under different assumptions of returns to scale. We then apply this approach to evaluate dishwashers available in the market in the U.S. Our results show that (a) for the case of dishwashers scale matters, and (b) the dishwashing energy service is delivered under non-decreasing returns to scale. The results further demonstrate that this method contributes to increase consumers’ choice of appliances.

  6. Boundedly rational consumers, energy and investment literacy, and the display of information on household appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    It is an ongoing debate how to increase the adoption of energy-efficient light bulbs and household appliances in the presence of the so-called ‘energy efficiency gap’. One measure to support consumers’ decision-making towards the purchase of more efficient appliances is the display of energy-related

  7. Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yuki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Sadakata, Hideki; Fujita, Atsushi; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics regulations of IEC61000-3-2. To meet these requirements, this paper proposes a two-stage soft-switching high-frequency inverter with simple PFC function that is suitable for consumer IH cooking appliances. The proposed system comprises a soft-switching chopper based boost PFC converter with passive snubber and phase-shifted PWM controlled ZVZCS high-frequency inverter. In order to satisfy the utility AC grid current harmonic regulations, a simple PFC control technique with discontinuous current mode is introduced. This technique as well as the fundamental operating performances of the proposed IH system is tested. The effectiveness of proposed IH system is substantially proved from a practical point of view on the basis of the experimental results.

  8. Preliminary Study of Perception and Consumer Behaviour Towards Energy Saving for Household Appliances: A Case of Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam Akil, Yusri; Mangngenre, Saiful; Mawar, Sri; Amar, Kifayah

    2018-03-01

    Electricity load has tendency to increase over the time. Therefore, efforts to maintain a balance between electricity supply and demand such as increasing energy saving related to the use of home electricity appliances are urgently needed. In general, one of the household appliances which consumes relatively high electricity energy is refrigerator. The purpose of this study is to analyze residential consumers perceptions and their behaviours about electricity energy saving in relation to the usage of household appliances in Makassar, Indonesia particularly for refrigerator. Moreover, typical relationship between perceptions and consumers behaviours is also analyzed by composed two regression models, namely model for usage behaviour (UREFm model) and model for habitual behaviour (HREFm model) by using general perception, specific perception, and external factors as explanation variables. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed for survey which involved 40 respondents as a preliminary study and then statistical tests including regression analysis were applied to analyze usable data. The target of respondent was an owner of a house in Makassar with installed power capacity at least 900 VA. Reliability test shown that all items in the developed questionnaire can be used for main survey as obtained Cronbach’s alpha values were above 0.6. Evaluation for consumers perceptions on energy saving in relation to demographic aspect using mean and Standard Deviation values indicated some significant differences. Other results regarding regression analysis shown that both composed models were well validated and had quite good fitness degree with adjusted R-squared values around 49.31% for UREFm model and 80.90% for HREFm model. Among considered variables, specific perception, and external factors were found have significant influence to the usage and habitual behaviours of consumers as confirmed by their p-values in each model below 0.05. Findings of this research can be

  9. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0... online at DOE's Web site at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/current_rulemakings... on the business or marketing decisions made by manufacturers in response to amendments to applicable...

  10. Estimating sales and sales market share from sales rank data for consumer appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzani, Samir; Van Buskirk, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Our motivation in this work is to find an adequate probability distribution to fit sales volumes of different appliances. This distribution allows for the translation of sales rank into sales volume. This paper shows that the log-normal distribution and specifically the truncated version are well suited for this purpose. We demonstrate that using sales proxies derived from a calibrated truncated log-normal distribution function can be used to produce realistic estimates of market average product prices, and product attributes. We show that the market averages calculated with the sales proxies derived from the calibrated, truncated log-normal distribution provide better market average estimates than sales proxies estimated with simpler distribution functions.

  11. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  12. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S3: THIRD INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  13. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S2: SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  14. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S1: FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  15. consumers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: It was found that the haemoglobin, packed sell volume, red blood cell count and the white blood cell count were within the reference ... alcohol}. One bottle of beer and one medium calabash of. BURUKUTU contain about 2 units of alcohols. Like the palm wine of Southem Nigeria, BURUKUTU is consumed by the.

  16. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  17. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice.

  18. Impacts of appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, P.; Kesselring, J.

    1992-12-01

    Federal efficiency standards for appliances limit the range of models available on the market. Utility energy efficiency programs often encourage consumers to purchase the most efficient of the remaining options, but more-stringent efficiency standards could have a significant impact on such utility efforts. Using long-run technology scenario forecasting, EPRI-sponsored researchers studied ways in which the interplay of technological change, federal standards, utility efficiency programs, and market forces could affect future energy markets for three major residential end uses: refrigeration, central air conditioning, and water heating. The researchers reached several important conclusions about utility demand-side management efforts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Advances in household appliances- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R and D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R and D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to 'level' the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers. - Highlights: → This paper presents latest developments/status of advanced residential appliances. → Stringent minimum energy performance standards can reduce appliance energy use. → There is a potential to reduce energy use in appliances by up to 50%.

  20. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode

  1. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good oppourtunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode.

  2. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an effective treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A custom-fit oral sleep appliance can improve your sleep, restore your alertness and revitalize your health. Here is a guide to help you get ...

  3. Decision-making in electrical appliance use in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Akihiko; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey as well as an argument from the viewpoint of behavioral economics with the aim of clarifying how consumers make decisions about electrical appliance use in the home. A survey of consumers showed that most have little awareness of the energy efficiency of appliances, the price of the services produced by electrical appliances, or electricity rates. These findings indicate that price does not function as a signal in electricity consumption through electrical appliance use. Rather, we found that consumer decision-making in electricity consumption is dependent on the characteristics of the particular electrical appliances they use. Additionally, we argue that the payment system for home electricity consumption plays an important role in decision-making, causing biases due to aspects of human psychology discussed here in terms of satisficing and heuristics, payment decoupling, and budgeting. We conclude that decision-making about electrical appliance use and electricity consumption in the home is not always rational and is affected both by the particular characteristics of appliances and the payment system for electricity consumption along with human psychology

  4. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  5. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  6. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO 2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  7. Oral radiation protector appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, T.M.; Dudas, R.M.; Shusta, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    An appliance for protecting teeth, gingiva, periodontal or alveola bone, salivary glands, and adjacent body areas against the harmful side effects of radiation therapy consists of an intraoral portion and an extraoral portion that may be selectively attached. The intraoral portion is substantially u-shaped to encompass the teeth and adjacent areas. The intraoral part may be made of lead sheet coated with plastic; the extraoral portion may be of lead sheet

  8. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  9. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  10. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  11. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  12. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  13. Vibhute Class II Correction Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed functional appliances have gained the popularity for growth modification in noncompliant patients, especially hybrid types. But for this, clinicians have to depend on certain commercially available appliances; otherwise components required in fabrication of hybrid type appliances are not routinely available in clinics, which discourage their, use. Additionally, these preformed appliances have less scope in changing their length as per patient′s requirement of particular mandibular advancement. This article explains the chairside fabrication of open coil NiTi spring loaded hybrid type fixed functional appliance named ′Vibhute Class II Correction Appliance′ (VCCA. This custom-made tinier and hygienic design provides stable fixation, less breakages with increased range of mandibular movement involving unrestricted mouth opening. VCCA permits quick chairside fabrication with ease in installation of appliance and is inexpensive.

  14. A Study on Efficient Energy Use for Household Appliances in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The energy consumption of various household appliances has been measured over a period of one month in Zomba using a Landis +Gyr power meter. It was observed that the electrical-cooking stove, water heater, dry iron, and incandescent bulbs were the most electrical power-consuming appliances. It has also been ...

  15. File System Virtual Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    System [80]. In Sun’s VFS paper, Kleiman stated that “Sun is currently discussing with AT&T and Berkeley the merging of this interface with AT&T’s File...26] DeBergalis, M., Corbett, P., Kleiman , S., Lent, A., Noveck, D., Talpey, T., and Wittle, M. 2003. The Direct Access File System. In Conference on...Users Group Meeting. 481–496. [51] Katcher, J. 1997. PostMark: A New File System Benchmark. Tech. Rep. TR3022, Network Appliance. October. [52] Kleiman , S

  16. Remote repair appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  17. Improvements in appliance holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to appliance holders for locating tools, instruments, etc. in operative relationship to workpieces and accessible through passageways of restricted transverse dimensions. The appliance holder described comprises an elongated external frame provided with transversely, outwardly expanding frictional gripping means in two longitudinally spaced sets and with a ring of spur teeth. An inner elongated frame is held within the external frame in two longitudinally spaced rotary bearings and carries a spur wheel which engages the ring of the spur teeth. A motor is arranged to rotate the spur wheel and hence the inner frame in relation to the external frame. A carriage is carried by the inner frame, longitudinally movable by a motor in relation thereto, and a further carriage is mounted on this first carriage. This second cariage is transversely movable in relation to the inner frame and is provided with a face plate for attachment of tools, instruments, etc. A motor is mounted on the first carriage for moving the second carriage. (U.K.)

  18. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  19. Non-Intrusive Appliance Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system.

  20. Energy conservation opportunities in commercial appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.R.; Searight, E.F.; Wong, A.

    1978-12-01

    This study establishes a data base of energy-consuming appliances in the commercial sector, and identifies and rates the most-promising development opportunities that would save significant amounts of energy on a national level. A detailed national inventory of 45 major appliances and their energy consumption was established for the year 1975. Thirty-four potential appliance improvements were identified, evaluated, and ranked. The opportunities are identified by means of a literature search and contact with industry representatives. The commercial sector is defined in terms of the divisions prescribed in the S.I.C. Manual (1972) of the OMB. These groups are recombined into the commercial subsectors of communications; utilities; wholesale; retail; finance, insurance, real estate, and services; hospital; schools; and public administration. The major energy-consuming appliances in the following six functional-use categories were identified: space heating and cooling; water heating; refrigeration; cooking; and lighting. The equipment in these categories was estimated to consume 87% of the total energy used in the commercial sector, with the remaining 13% consumed by equipment such as computers, business machines, laundry equipment, dishwashing, and other food-service equipment. (MCW)

  1. 76 FR 36908 - Draft Competition Rules for a Global Appliance Efficiency Award for Televisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... outreach to appliance and consumer electronics industry associations, this notice is intended to announce... counterparts from Australia, Canada, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The Awards Working Group has...

  2. Transforce lingual appliances pre-adjusted invisible appliances simplify treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    Transforce lingual appliances are designed to be used in conjunction with conventional fixed appliances. Lingual arch development is normally followed by bonded fixed appliances to detail the occlusion. Alternatively Transforce appliance treatment is an efficient method of preparing complex malocclusions prior to a finishing stage with invisible appliances. This approach is ideal for adult treatment, using light continuous forces for arch development with appliances that are comfortable to wear. Sagittal and Transverse appliances are designed for arch development in a range of sizes for contracted arches. They can be used to treat all classes of malocclusion and are pre-adjusted fixed/removable devices for non-compliance treatment. Force modules with nickel titanium coil springs enclosed in a tube deliver a gentle, biocompatible continuous force with a long range of action. They are excellent for mixed dentition and ideal for adult arch development. There are multiple sizes for upper and lower arch development and a sizing chart may be placed over a study model for correct selection, eliminating the need for laboratory work.

  3. An orthodontic oral appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Marie; Legrell, Per Erik

    2010-11-01

    This pilot study was performed to test the hypothesis that an orthodontic oral appliance (OA) that is designed to work against the backwardly directed forces on the upper incisors may counteract the reduction in overjet from these devices. Thirty patients with normal bites, good oral health, and milder sleep apnea were randomized to treatment with either OAs or orthodontic OAs. Bite changes were evaluated on plaster casts and radiographs and by questionnaires after a mean of 2.4 years in 19 frequent users. Four of nine patients in the orthodontic OA group increased their overjet by > or =0.4 mm, while none of the 10 patients in the OA group experienced that effect. Only the orthodontic OA increases the overjet; this design may therefore be beneficial to patients at risk of negative effects on their bite during OA treatment.

  4. Turning the Appliance Market Around towards A++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Brange, Birgitte; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    2007-01-01

    in the course of a few years. Where models C, D, E earlier dominated the market, the A, A+ and A++, came to dominate as the standard models in stock. Consequently, their prices dropped significantly. The theory of a rational market behavior is based on some assumptions, one being that full information...... energy efficient model within their specification, and 4) in the website are also listed the shops, where consumers can get the appliances at lowest prices. The latter was the most innovative and maybe also the most effective measure in the package. Results showed up as a permanent U-turn of the market...... is available to all actors. The website identifying to the consumers the shops with the lowest priced efficient models was a step in that direction, and the result did not fail to turn up....

  5. Lingual orthodontic appliances: invisible braces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J C

    1991-04-01

    Lingual orthodontics is a relatively new method of delivering orthodontic treatment. These appliances may be used on any patient, but they have a special application for that small group of adult patients who need orthodontic treatment but refuse to accept the appearance of conventional appliances. The technique is difficult to manage and should be used only by experienced orthodontists. Although the patients may experience difficulties, these are usually adequately compensated for by the improved aesthetics.

  6. PAT portable appliance testing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 require any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required.This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam that anyone who conducts this work is required to take by law.It is an affordable and handy reference for electricians who administer PAT. It is also an ideal refesher and revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff, caretakers and charity shop volunteers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.Brian Scaddan, I Eng, MIET, is a consultant for and an Honorary Member of City & Guilds. ...

  7. Redesigning a collection system for "small" consumer electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melissen, Franciscus

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes that the collection system within the recycling scheme for consumer electronics in the Netherlands has not been entirely successful in convincing consumers to hand in their used appliances by means of dedicated collection routes. Particularly regarding small appliances,

  8. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances of "Prohibition on Certain Hazardous Substances in Consumer Products" instruction using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiaozhen; Du, Zhenxia; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jinhua; Yu, Wenlian

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances by accelerated solvent extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established. Samples, heated for 5 min, were extracted by toluene/methanol (10:1, v/v) under the pressure 1500 psi at 100°C, and were extracted 3 static cycles with 20 min per cycle. And then 15 mL extractant solvent was used to wash the samples, and at last the sample was purged by nitrogen for 100 s. The partial extractant (10 mL) was concentrated by nitrogen and re-dissolved with 1 mL methanol/water (1:1, v/v). The three compounds were separated by BEH C18 column effectively in 3 min and detected by electrospray ionization mode mass spectrometry. The linear ranges for bisphenol A, perfluorooctanoic acid, and tetrabromobisphenol A were 1-100, 10-1000 ng/mL, and 0.1-10 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.996. The LOD and limit of quantitation for three compounds were 0.1, 10, 1 ng/mL, and 0.5, 50, 5 ng/mL, respectively. And the recoveries were 84-92, 76-82, and 72-74%, respectively, with RSD < 5%. The method was successfully used in determining the real samples. The method and the result were confirmed by liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Junginger, Martin; Blok, Kornelis

    2010-01-01

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves. (author)

  10. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  11. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  12. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    . On the contrary, the low priority devices have to pause their operation, when the algorithm dictates it, and resume it in the future. This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks periods....... Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. In order to analyze this scenario, teletraffic engineering theory, which is used in evaluating the performance of telecommunication networks, is used. A reversible fair scheduling......Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...

  13. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  14. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...... materials and environments. This has been done by the use of existing hardware technologies in novel combinations, controlled and mediated in the software applications we have developed. These developments, (the SpacePanel, the TagTable and ProjecTable , the SitePack and the software application Topos...

  15. Assessment of perceived orthodontic appliance attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziuchkovski, James P; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2008-04-01

    To date, no studies have been published in the literature evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to assess appliance variables, including appliance type, brand, wire, and ligature tie, for their relative attractiveness. Demographic factors were also evaluated. Appliances were placed in an adult, and digital images were captured, standardized, and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Subjects (n = 200) rated each image for attractiveness on a visual analog scale. The attractiveness ratings were analyzed by using factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures. Post-hoc testing was done with the Tukey-Kramer test (overall a appliances), ceramic, and all self-ligating/stainless steel appliances. No differences between brands in each appliance type were found. Ratings of some ceramic appliances were significantly affected by archwire and ligature tie, depending on several demographic interactions. Orthodontic appliance attractiveness varies by the following hierarchy of appliance types: alternative > ceramic > all stainless steel/self-ligating. Wire and tie selection can affect the appearance of ceramic appliances but have no impact on stainless steel or self-ligating appliances. Certain demographic factors have variable effects on attractiveness ratings.

  16. Invisible orthodontics part 2: lingual appliance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Ailbhe; Waring, David; Malik, Ovais

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this second article of the three part series is to sum up the current developments in lingual orthodontics. This article attempts to review the development, advantages and disadvantages, bonding techniques, bracket mechanics, patient factors and types of lingual appliance systems available. In addition, the article shows examples of treated cases with lingual appliances. Lingual appliances are a useful addition to the armamentarium of invisible orthodontic appliances, with significant developments over the last few years. Clinicians need to be aware of the advances and predictable results achievable with lingual appliances.

  17. Overview on PIV Application to Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Paone, Nicola; Rossi, Massimiliano; Castellini, Paolo

    The term appliances describes a wide range of products that are used to perform a wide variety of tasks. In the home environment, household appliances like refrigerators, ovens, washing machines, dishwashers, vacuum cleaners, hair driers are sold in million pieces per year; they also have commercial and industrial application. Typical products of the appliance industry have a relatively low industrial cost and the appliance market shows a strong competition, in which appliance technical performance plays a role together with aesthetics and costs. Therefore, efforts in applied research for product technical improvement can be done only if the ratio cost to benefits is advantageous. Many such appliances have complex fluid-dynamic problems; it is important that any experimental technique bears inherent characteristics of simplicity, provides a rapid means to collect experimental data, provides information that engineers can readily exploit for product enhancement, and mostly for computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) code validation. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) satisfies most of the above-mentioned requirements and therefore appears as a good candidate experimental technique to be proposed in the field of appliances. Nevertheless, PIV applications are rare. The PIVNet2 workshop on "PIV application to appliances" that took place in Ancona on June 2003 intended to illustrate the great potential for application of the PIV technique in this sector. This chapter presents an overview of PIV application to appliances according to the outcome from this workshop.

  18. Fibrotic encapsulation of orthodontic appliance in palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Jananni; Muthanandam, Sivaramakrishnan; Umapathy, Gubernath; Kannan, Anitha Logaranjani

    2017-01-01

    Iatrogenic trauma though not serious is very common in dental practice. Orthodontic treatment can inflict such injuries as they are prolonged over a long period of time. Ill-fabricated orthodontic appliances, such as wires and brackets, or the patients' habits such as application of constant pressure over the appliance can traumatize the adjacent oral soft tissues. In rare cases, these appliances can get embedded into the mucosa and gingival tissues. This case report describes one such case of iatrogenic trauma to the palatal mucosa due to entrapment of a tongue spike appliance and its surgical management.

  19. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  20. State and Local Consumer Publications. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This bibliography, designed primarily for state and local consumer offices, includes 650 publications on a wide range of consumer affairs subjects. Topics include advertising, appliance purchase and repair, automobiles, how and where to complain, contracts, credit and banking, fraud, door-to-door sales, energy and utilities, financial planning and…

  1. 15 CFR 9.9 - Consumer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer education. 9.9 Section 9.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.9 Consumer education. The...

  2. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliance mechanical strength and fasteners. (1) All handrails, handholds, and sill steps shall be made of 1-inch diameter steel pipe, 5/8-inch thickness steel, or a material of equal or greater mechanical strength. (2) All safety appliances shall be securely fastened to the car body structure with mechanical...

  3. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on ...

  4. An Efficient, Scalable Time-Frequency Method for Tracking Energy Usage of Domestic Appliances Using a Two-Step Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Meehan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Load monitoring is the practice of measuring electrical signals in a domestic environment in order to identify which electrical appliances are consuming power. One reason for developing a load monitoring system is to reduce power consumption by increasing consumers’ awareness of which appliances consume the most energy. Another example of an application of load monitoring is activity sensing in the home for the provision of healthcare services. This paper outlines the development of a load disaggregation method that measures the aggregate electrical signals of a domestic environment and extracts features to identify each power consuming appliance. A single sensor is deployed at the main incoming power point, to sample the aggregate current signal. The method senses when an appliance switches ON or OFF and uses a two-step classification algorithm to identify which appliance has caused the event. Parameters from the current in the temporal and frequency domains are used as features to define each appliance. These parameters are the steady-state current harmonics and the rate of change of the transient signal. Each appliance’s electrical characteristics are distinguishable using these parameters. There are three Types of loads that an appliance can fall into, linear nonreactive, linear reactive or nonlinear reactive. It has been found that by identifying the load type first and then using a second classifier to identify individual appliances within these Types, the overall accuracy of the identification algorithm is improved.

  5. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    to consume no more than 50 kWh per year, without using any risky synthetic gasses. Washing appliances will use no electricity for heating, which will bring annual electricity consumption below 50 kWh for a washing machine. For electronic equipment, the efficiency gain known from battery operated version...... should be applied to units on the main supply, bringing the electricity consumption for a computer used 2 hours per day down to 5 kWh per year, for instance. With careful behaviour, annual electricity consumption for a household can easily be brought down below 250 kWh per capita, compared to 1000-2000 kWh...

  6. Load control in low voltage level of the electricity grid using µCHP appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of microCHP (Combined Heat and Power) appliances and other means of distributed generation causes a shift in the way electricity is produced and consumed. Households themselves produce electricity and deliver the surplus to the grid. In this way, the distributed generation also has

  7. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  8. [Patients' experiences with the Forsus appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-guang; Wu, Zi-zhong; Zhang, Shi-jie; Zhang, Miao; Lin, Xian-jun

    2014-04-01

    To investigate patients' experiences with the Forsus appliance. This questionnaire survey was focused on patients' comprehensive experiences with Forsus, both initially and after several months of wearing, including the patients' overall impressions of the appliance. The survey was conducted in 64 patients wearing Forsus. A high percentage of patients(83.7%) reported neutral to favorable experience with Forsus. 85.4% of patients reported gradual adaption to the appliance within 4 weeks. Cheek irritation was the most serious side effect (about 52%). Cheek irritation and other side effect disappeared over time. The Forsus appliance is relatively well accepted by patients. Most patients experience some discomfort and functional limitations at first. However, the side effect gradually diminishes with time, and the patients adapt to the appliance finally. Practitioners should be especially vigilant about problems of cheek irritation.

  9. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  10. Air conditioning with small power gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canci, Franco

    1997-01-01

    This article describes research and test activities on small power air conditioning appliances for residential use carried out in the United States, Japan and Europe. The absorption technology aims at the following objectives: to develop appliances requiring reduced maintenance and having a size comparable with electric units of the same output; to reduce production costs and therefore the final prince by adopting special manufacturing technologies such as welded plate exchangers; to obtain appliances which operate both in summer and winter ( as heat pumps), allowing to minimize management and installation costs in southern European climates. The final aim is to offer the customer one appliance only for the following purposes: hot water production for sanitary use, water refrigeration for summer air conditioning, hot water production production for winter heating. This kind of appliance should have management and maintenance costs similar to current individual boilers

  11. Consumer’s Attitude Towards Investments in Residential Energy-Efficient Appliances: How End-User Choices Contribute to Change Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio; Wente, Jordan William Halverson

    2017-01-01

    uses logistic regression over a set of socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral variables to predict purchase propensities. The findings are relevant for policy makers interested in targeting consumers in the appliance market, particularly for a relatively wealthy national context. The study......The proliferation of increasingly energy-efficient (EE) appliances is a key strategy to address the impacts of rising residential electricity demand (Danish Energy Agency 2017). To this end, governments and institutions are interested in understanding the drivers of consumer choice between...

  12. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  13. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances (2015 Update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States); Chung, Greg [Navigant Consulting, Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Energy commissioned a technology characterization and assessment of appliances used in commercial buildings for cooking, cleaning, water heating, and other end-uses. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development, and demonstration opportunities to improve energy efficiency in each end-use. This report serves as an update to a 2009 report of the same name by incorporating updated data and sources where possible and updating the available technology options that provide opportunities for efficiency improvements.

  14. Teaching Aids in Consumer Economics, 1970-71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Council on Economic Education, Albany.

    The document consists of 12 consumer education units for grade 12: Consumer Purchasing; Purchasing Food, Clothing, Furniture, and Appliances; Purchasing and Maintaining an Automobile; Housing; Consumer Credit; Money Management; Fraud, Quackery, and Deception; Banking and Savings; Investments; Life Insurance; Security Programs (Social Security,…

  15. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  16. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  17. Quality of Lab Appliances in Orthodontic Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzansky, D P; Park, J H

    Lab appliances are an integral part of orthodontics, from active treatment to retention. The quality and fit of an appliance can affect the treatment result and stability. This study aims to determine common points of failure in orthodontic appliances, and suggest methods to reduce this rate. A survey consisting of 23 questions was distributed to active members of the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) via Survey Monkey. The most common appliance to need an adjustment was the wrap-around retainer, with the Hawley retainer as a close second. The least common appliance needing adjustment was the Essix/clear retainer. Respondents were asked which component of each appliance was most commonly responsible for an ill-fit. For Hawley and wrap-around retainers, clasps were the most common problem at 50%, whereas spring aligners had two components - clasps and labial bows, both at 38%. Ill-fitting Essix/clear retainers had gingival impingement (52%) closely followed by poor posterior seating (43%). Communication between the orthodontist and lab technician can be improved by establishing a quality assurance protocol for outgoing and incoming cases. The labial bow of Hawley's, wrap-arounds and spring aligners should be clearly demarcated on the casts. Impressions should be free of distortion and casts should be inspected for accuracy. Clear retainers and positioner should be trimmed to avoid gingival impingement. The type of clasp should be selected based on the anatomy of the teeth, and bands should be checked for accuracy of fit.

  18. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  19. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  20. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  1. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  2. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. Methods The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Results Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Conclusions Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height. PMID:25162565

  3. Orthodontic appliance preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Daniel K; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Firestone, Allen R; Christensen, James C

    2010-12-01

    Although attractiveness and acceptability of orthodontic appliances have been rated by adults for themselves and for adolescents, children and adolescents have not provided any substantial data. The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences and acceptability of orthodontic appliances in children and adolescents. Images of orthodontic appliances previously captured and standardized were selected and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Additional images of shaped brackets and colored elastomeric ties, as well as discolored clear elastomeric ties, were captured and incorporated onto existing survey images with Photoshop (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The survey displayed 12 orthodontic appliance variations to 139 children in 3 age groups: 9 to 11 years (n = 45), 12 to 14 years (n = 49), and 15 to 17 years (n = 45). The subjects rated each image for attractiveness and acceptability. All images were displayed and rated twice to assess rater reliability. Overall reliability ratings were r = 0.74 for attractiveness and k = 0.66 for acceptability. There were significant differences in bracket attractiveness and acceptability in each age group. The highest-rated appliances were clear aligners, twin brackets with colored ties, and shaped brackets with and without colored ties. Colored elastomeric ties improved attractiveness significantly over brackets without colored ties for children in the 12-to-14 year group. There was a tendency for older subjects to rate clear orthodontic appliances higher than did younger subjects. Ceramic brackets with discolored ties tended to be rated lower than ceramic brackets with new ties and scored lowest in acceptability and attractiveness in all age groups. Girls rated shaped brackets significantly higher than did boys. Children's preferences for orthodontic appliances differ by age and sex. Child and adolescent preferences differ from adult preferences. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby

  4. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  5. Skeletal class II malocclusion correction using the Bass appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II malocclusion is best treated by growth modification using the myofunctional appliances or the orthopedic appliances or the combination of the both depending upon the type of malocclusion encountered during the growth period of an individual. Though all myofunctional appliances work on the same principle with few basic differences; the orthodontist has to make a choice among the plethora of the appliances at his disposal. The present article is a case report of class II malocclusion treatment using the Bass appliance for the growth modification, which was followed by fixed appliance for the occlusal detailing.

  6. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  7. Titanium orthodontic appliances for allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspero, C; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Nolet, F; Esposito, L; Farronato, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the use of orthodontic appliances made in titanium for patients with an allergy to resin and nickel. We aim to highlight the resolution of problems such as stomatitis and peri-labial dermatitis, which generally manifest in patients who use traditional orthodontic appliances in acrylic resin and steel. A total of 120 patients of ages between ten and fifteen undergoing orthodontic treatment requiring a rapid palatal expander or a mobile appliance were evaluated and two patch sensitivity tests were done to assess the presence of allergies. The biocompatibility of a material is directly dependent on its corrosion effect. If a metal does not allow the release of ions it will not have a damaging action or cause destruction on the cellular DNA. The oxidation status of an ion is related to the reactivity of the ion itself and thus may give the latter a carcinogenic effect. Titanium appliances used for this study have obtained excellent results due to their ability to form superficial oxides, which block the oxidation phenomenon and thus corrosion. We have noticed a total regression of the symptoms after the use of titanium appliances in patients who had a sensitivity reaction.

  8. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...

  9. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  10. [Invisible and almost invisible orthodontic appliances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Pascal

    2014-03-01

    Patient demand for invisible esthetic orthodontic appliances is steadily increasing. Two types of orthodontic appliances have a high rate of patient acceptance. The lingual technique has continually evolved by offering both prefabricated brackets or custom-made brackets. The various techniques have been improved over time, and the results are better than ever. Thermoplastic aligners are an alternative to lingual devices and their use is rapidly growing. Their specific properties make it easier to assess their indications and limitations. A review of the literature, the development of these systems and a presentation of some clinical examples of treated cases will help us to provide some of the basics for understanding each of these two types of appliances and to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of each system. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2014.

  11. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    appliances is proposed and analyzed. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where...... the electrical devices are classified into low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate normally. On the contrary, the low priority devices are granted or denied access to electrical power according to; their energy consumption and the available margin....... This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks. Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. To analyze...

  12. Colostomies and the use of colostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Elaine

    The surgical formation of a colostomy is indicated as part of the treatment of various conditions, primarily colon cancer, requiring the patient (ostomist) to wear a colostomy pouch. Today's stoma appliances bear no resemblance to those worn three or four decades ago when colostomy, ileostomy and urostomy bags were made entirely from rubber. The patient, who would have two to three bags in circulation at a time, would interchange them allowing for the washing and drying of the previous one, thus minimizing odour and potential perishing of the rubber. The design of these appliances was simple, but they were large and bulky and the outlet resembled that of a hot-water bottle stopper or a cap from an old soda bottle that required the insertion of coinage (2p) to open it. This article explores the range of colostomy appliances and management options available to the nurse when caring for patients with a colostomy.

  13. A study to detect important factors influencing purchasing product: A case study of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghafurian Shagerdi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are among basic requirements of anyone in the world and it is always important to find out about factors influencing this industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive model to detect major factors influencing on consumer purchasing intention. For this purpose, the proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 customers who have some experiences on purchasing home appliances in city of Tehran, Iran, recently. Cronbach alpha was calculated for all components of the survey and they were all well above the minimum acceptable level. We analyzed the data using structural equation modeling via LISREL and the results of this survey show that brand familiarity, brand trust, and perceived value have significant positive effects on consumers purchase intention.

  14. Arch development with trans-force lingual appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William J

    2005-01-01

    Trans-Force lingual appliances are designed to correct arch form in patients with contracted dental arches. Interceptive treatment with this new series of pre-activated lingual appliances offers new possibilities for arch development, in combination with fixed appliances. Palatal and lingual appliances insert in horizontal lingual sheaths in molar bands. No activation is required after the appliance is fitted, and this principle is extended to a series of appliances for sagittal and transverse arch development. Both sagittal and transverse appliances have additional components to achieve 3-way expansion where this is indicated. The invisible lingual appliances may be used in correction of all classes of malocclusion at any stage of development, from mixed dentition through permanent dentition, and this approach has wide indications in adult treatment.

  15. Appliance Recognition in an OSGi-based Home Energy Management Gateway

    OpenAIRE

    Federica, Paganelli; Francesca, Paradiso; Stefano, Turchi; Antonio, Luchetta; Pino, Castrogiovanni; Dino, Giuli

    2015-01-01

    The rational use and management of energy is considered a key societal and technological challenge. Home energy management systems (HEMS) have been introduced especially in private home domains to support users in managing and controlling energy consuming devices. Recent studies have shown that informing users about their habits with appliances as well as their usage pattern can help to achieve energy reduction in private households. This requires instruments able to monitor energy consumptio...

  16. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  17. A Study on Home Appliance Recycling Law of Japan

    OpenAIRE

    許, 楊; Yang, XU

    2011-01-01

    The establishment of the recycling based society which reconciles the economy and the environment has received significant attention.The study focuses on the home appliance recycling law. Some used home appliances are treated legally, others are exported illegally. Therefore this paper clarifies the results of the application of the home appliance recycling law and tries to present elemental conditions to create the global recycling system of used home appliances.

  18. Skeletal class II malocclusion correction using the Bass appliance

    OpenAIRE

    Jigar Doshi; Tarulatha Revanappa Shyagali; Kalyani M Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal class II malocclusion is best treated by growth modification using the myofunctional appliances or the orthopedic appliances or the combination of the both depending upon the type of malocclusion encountered during the growth period of an individual. Though all myofunctional appliances work on the same principle with few basic differences; the orthodontist has to make a choice among the plethora of the appliances at his disposal. The present article is a case report of class II maloc...

  19. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

  20. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orthodontic appliance and accessories. 872.5410... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and accessories. (a) Identification. An orthodontic appliance and accessories is a device intended for use in...

  1. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Plastic Surgery for the fabrication of ear pressure clip for the left auricular keloid. She complained of swelling ... A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. ... She was also instructed about use, maintenance of hygiene and regular follow-up for periodic ...

  2. Clinical evolution of the Invisalign appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaskalic, Vicki; Boyd, Robert L

    2002-10-01

    The Invisalign System of tooth movement has been available to orthodontists since 1999 and has now become available to the entire dental profession. This paper explores the role of this system within the dental armamentarium and describes the clinical evolution of the appliance, based on a feasibility study initiated at the University of the Pacific in 1997.

  3. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  4. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  5. Management of overbite with the Invisalign appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Roozbeh; Cohanim, Bobby; Hujoel, Philippe; Daher, Sam; Neal, Michelle; Liu, Weitao; Huang, Greg

    2017-04-01

    Most of the published literature on the management of overbite with the Invisalign appliance (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif) consists of case reports and case series. In this retrospective study of 120 patients, we sought to assess the nature of overbite changes with the Invisalign appliance. Records were collected from 3 practitioners, all experienced with the Invisalign technique. The patients were consecutively treated adults (>18 years old) who underwent orthodontic treatment only with the Invisalign appliance. Patients with major transverse or anteroposterior changes or extraction treatment plans were excluded. The study sample included 68 patients with normal overbites, 40 with deepbites, and 12 with open bites. Their median age was 33 years, and 70% of the patients were women. Cephalometric analyses indicated that the deepbite patients had a median overbite opening of 1.5 mm, whereas the open bite patients had a median deepening of 1.5 mm. The median change for the normal overbite patients was 0.3 mm. Changes in incisor position were responsible for most of the improvements in the deepbite and open bite groups. Minimal changes in molar vertical position and mandibular plane angle were noted. The Invisalign appliance appears to manage the vertical dimension relatively well, and the primary mechanism is via incisor movements. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A New Resource for Global Efficiency Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F; McNeil, Michael A; Tu, Thomas; Xu, Feiyang

    2017-09-06

    A major barrier to effective appliance efficiency program design and evaluation is a lack of data for determination of market baselines and cost-effective energy savings potential. The data gap is particularly acute in developing countries, which may have the greatest savings potential per unit GDP. To address this need, we are developing the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), which automatically compiles data from a wide variety of online sources to create a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a wide range of energy-consuming products across global markets. This paper summarizes the database framework and demonstrates the power of IDEA as a resource for appliance efficiency research and policy development. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we develop robust cost-effectiveness indicators that allow rapid determination of savings potential within each market, as well as comparison of that potential across markets and appliance types. We discuss implications for future energy efficiency policy development.

  7. Refrigerator efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buskirk, Robert; Ben Hagan, Essel; Ofosu Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2007-01-01

    In some cases, a simple replication of developed country appliance efficiency labels and standards may not be completely feasible in Ghana, Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developed country appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should be possible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true in developed countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiency improvements provide the greatest energy savings potential in the residential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like many African countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does not have manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approach may hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of used appliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges of the Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energy efficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigerator market transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an average energy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetary savings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modified refrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaian context. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be an example for many other African countries

  8. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  9. Consumer Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Melissa Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to prove that despite consumers' impression that they are alone in deciding their consumption decision they are wrong. Consumers are manipulated on various levels by marketers. It is the marketer who decides what consumer identities should be created. Consumers are persuaded by marketers on different levels beginning with consumers' needs. Marketers begin by appealing to consumer drives, motivations and emotions to persuade their consumers to purchase their brand...

  10. A run-around heat exchanger system to improve the energy efficiency of a home appliance using hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Sung; Jacobi, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    A significant portion of the energy consumed by many home appliances using hot water is used to heat cold supply water. Such home appliances generally are supplied water at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature, and the supply water is normally heated to its maximum operating temperature, often using natural gas or an electrical heater. In some cases, it is possible to pre-heat the supply water and save energy that would normally be consumed by the natural gas or electrical heater. In order to save the energy consumed by an appliance using water heater, a run-around heat exchanger system is used to transfer heat from the ambient to the water before an electrical heater is energized. A simple model to predict the performance of this system is developed and validated, and the model is used to explore design and operating issues relevant to the run-around heat exchanger system. Despite the additional power consumption by the fan and pump of the run-around heat exchanger system, the experimental data and analysis show that for some systems the overall energy efficiency of the appliance can be improved, saving about 6% of the energy used by the baseline machine.

  11. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO 2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO 2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO 2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  12. The Determination of Load Profiles and Power Consumptions of Home Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Issi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increment of distributed electricity generation based on renewable energy sources and improvement of communication technologies have caused the development of next-generation power grids known as smart grids. The structures of smart grids have bidirectional communication capability and enable the connection of energy generated from distributed sources to any point on the grid. They also support consumers in energy efficiency by creating opportunities for management of power consumption. The information on power consumption and load profiles of home appliances is essential to perform load management in the dwelling accurately. In this study, the power consumption data for all the basic home appliances, utilized in a two-person family in Çankırı, Turkey, was obtained with high resolution in one-second intervals. The detailed power consumption analysis and load profile were executed for each home appliance. The obtained data is not only the average power consumption of each appliance but also characterizes different operating modes or their cycles. In addition, the impact of these devices on home energy management studies and their standby power consumptions were also discussed. The acquired data is an important source to determine the load profile of individual home appliances precisely in home energy management studies. Although the results of this study do not completely reflect the energy consumption behavior of the people who live in this region, they can reveal the trends in load demands based on a real sample and customer consumption behavior of a typical two-person family.

  13. [Appliance of viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlak, Tonko; Jungić, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Viscosupplementation or intraarticular appliance of hyaluronic acid is one of the methods in the treatment of patients with OA. Application is indicated in OA grade I-III according to Kellgren. Medical devices of hyaluronic acid, present on Croatian market, are produced by extraction from rooster combs or by biofermentation from nonpathogenic streptococcus strains. Boifermentative production excludes present of animal origin proteins and prions in medical device, same as possibility of unwanted alergic reactions appearance. Numerous researches have proved that this kind of treatment is safe, effective, well tolerated and it can be repeated if needed. Alleviation of the symptoms is proved up to one year after the last i.a. injection of hyaluronic acid. Appliance of viscosupplementation significantly slows down progression of OA and more invasive treatment methods are usually prolonged or delayed.

  14. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F R; Lentini-Oliveira, D; Machado, M A C; Prado, G F; Prado, L B F; Saconato, H

    2007-04-18

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they change the mandible posture forwards and potentially enlarge the upper airway and increase the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effectiveness of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for OSAS in children. A sensitive search was developed for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 3); PubMed (January 1966 to September 2005); EMBASE (1980 to September 2005); Lilacs (1982 to September 2005); BBO-Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (1986 to September 2005); and SciELO (1997 to September 2005). There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiologic function, behavioural problems, drop outs and withdrawals, quality of life, side effects (tolerability), economic evaluation. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. The initial search identified 384 trials

  15. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  16. Switch green : Energy Star appliance feebate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2004, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the residential sector have grown by 10 per cent, and are likely to continue growing unless a policy aimed at reducing emissions is introduced. The residential sector is a significant contributor to Canada's overall GHG emissions, and an important source for potential reductions. This report presented the results of a study that described and evaluated a new economic instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption in Canada from household appliances, such as air conditioners, furnaces and boilers. Results of a quantitative analysis to determine the effect of changing taxation of residential appliances to reflect energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were presented. In addition, the report presented the results of a qualitative evaluation of the policy, using the criteria established in the 2005 budget plan, a framework for evaluating environmental tax proposals. The report outlined the context for the tax proposal that was evaluated and provided a summary of trends in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption as well as a discussion of important trends in residential energy consumption. A review of policies already in place to address energy consumption from household appliances was also presented. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  17. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  18. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  19. Fabrication of lingual orthodontic appliances: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Ian; Lee, Jang Yeol

    2013-09-01

    Lingual orthodontics is increasing in popularity, with more adults receiving orthodontic treatment and opting for truly invisible appliances that do not have any limitations on the type of tooth movement they can achieve. In addition, there are a growing number of children receiving lingual appliances as they have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of decalcification. Combining this growth in popularity with advances in computer technology, it is possible to treatment plan, design the appliance and have it custom made all with the click of a button. This article highlights the different methods that have been utilized in the fabrication of lingual appliances.

  20. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients.

  1. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  2. The 2D lingual appliance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciafesta, Vittorio

    2013-09-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) lingual bracket system represents a valuable treatment option for adult patients seeking a completely invisible orthodontic appliance. The ease of direct or simplified indirect bonding of 2D lingual brackets in combination with low friction mechanics makes it possible to achieve a good functional and aesthetic occlusion, even in the presence of a severe malocclusion. The use of a self-ligating bracket significantly reduces chair-side time for the orthodontist, and the low-profile bracket design greatly improves patient comfort.

  3. Presurgical Orthopedics Appliance: The Latham Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    The Latham appliance is an active presurgical orthopedic device used for cleft defects. Its long-term effects are debated. It was introduced to help surgeons achieve a more predictable surgical outcome; hence, it should be evaluated for its presurgical benefits. The device has been successful in expanding and aligning the maxillary segments; retruding protruded premaxillae; aligning bilateral alveolar ridges; placing less tension on surgical closures; and reducing fistulation rates. However, it has not been shown to have either a positive or negative long-term effect on maxillary development or occlusion. It is a valuable preoperative tool for surgeons treating cleft defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Condenser assembly system for an appliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litch, Andrew David

    2017-10-17

    An appliance includes a compact condenser assembly formed with at least two separately and independently produced wire on tube condensers. Each of the at least two wire on tube condensers has a condenser inlet and a condenser outlet. The at least two wire on tube condensers are at least substantially locked and positioned in a matingly engaged configuration forming a compact condenser assembly. The at least two wire on tube condensers are configured to be operationally connected in at least one of a parallel configuration, a series configuration, a selectable configuration, and a bypass configuration.

  5. Consumer entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, Domenico; Poldner, Kim; Pascucci, Stefano; Gartner, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to understand innovative processes of resource redeployment taking place during consumption. We label this as consumer entrepreneurship. We define consumer entrepreneurship as the process of sharing and recombining resources innovatively to seek opportunities for

  6. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  7. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, S.M.; Riesgo, O.; Duffo, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  8. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  9. Mandibular appliance modulates condylar growth through integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Rubia; Hajjar, D; Franchini, K Gomes; Moriscot, A Sigari; Santos, M Fagundes

    2008-02-01

    Functional orthopedic therapy corrects growth discrepancies between the maxilla and mandible, possibly through postural changes in the musculature and modulation of the mandibular condylar cartilage growth. Using Wistar rats, we tested the hypothesis that chondrocytes respond to forces generated by a mandibular propulsor appliance by changes in gene expression, and that integrins are important mediators in this response. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the use of the appliance for different periods of time modulated the expression of fibronectin, alpha5 and alphav integrin subunits, as well as cell proliferation in the cartilage. In vitro, cyclic distension of condylar cartilage-derived cells increased fibronectin mRNA, as well as Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and II mRNA and cell proliferation. A peptide containing the Arginine-Glycine-Asparagine sequence (RGD), the main cell-binding sequence in fibronectin, blocked almost all these effects, confirming that force itself modulates the growth of the rat condylar cartilage, and that RGD-binding integrins participate in mechanotransduction.

  10. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... transformers, including those installed in domestic systems, must have a suitable thermal protection device to...

  11. Distal driving of molar by smart distal-propeller appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U H Vijayashree

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, maxillary molar distalization with noncompliance mechanics has been an increasingly popular method for the resolution of Class II malocclusion. This communication describes one particular molar distalizing appliance, the Smart distal-propeller appliance which is simple, inexpensive, easily fabricated that can be used for unilateral or bilateral molar distalization.

  12. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... is provided over a bathtub or in a shower stall, it must be of the enclosed and gasketed type, and be...-2005. (d) The switch for shower lighting fixtures and exhaust fans located over a tub or in a shower...

  13. Convex stoma appliances: an audit of stoma care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Angie

    2016-12-08

    This article observes the complexities surrounding the use of convex appliances within the specialist sphere of stoma care. It highlights some of the results taken from a small audit carried out with 24 stoma care nurses examining the general use of convex appliances and how usage of convex products has evolved, along with specialist stoma care practice.

  14. Appliance choice functions in Canadian households. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydinalp, M.; Fung, A.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Decisions regarding the purchase of various types of major household appliances are influenced by the economic and demographic characteristics of households, i.e., appliance customers. It is therefore necessary to understand the relationship between these characteristics and the decisions made regarding the purchase of appliances to be able to predict future trends in appliance purchases, and consequently, the future appliance energy consumption of the national stock of appliances. In this paper, a methodology is presented to develop choice functions for the purchase of new major household appliances. This methodology is used to develop appliance choice functions for Canada. (author)

  15. Consumer Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  16. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  17. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  18. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  19. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  20. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of a theoretical model to investigate factors associated with environmentally significant choice behaviour in the South African major household appliance market: An integrative conceptual approach.

  1. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  2. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application

  3. Orthodontic bone remodeling in relation to appliance decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, G J; Keeling, S D

    1995-01-01

    This study examined alveolar bone turnover and orthodontic tooth movement after appliance decay. One group of rats (N = 54) received orthodontic force (40 g initial activation) while the other (N = 36) was sham-treated. Groups of six rats were sacrificed at various times following activation. Tooth movement and appliance decay were monitored cephalometrically, and bone turnover was monitored locally by histomorphometry and phosphatase chemistries and systemically by serum phosphatase and osteocalcin changes. A significant association was found between spring forces assessed by direct measurement and by cephalometric images (R2 = 0.784; p = 0.02). The cephalometric method indicated appliances were at least 93% deactivated by day 16. Tooth movement continued beyond the point of appliance decay (p osteocalcin also increased after appliance decay (p < 0.05), but alkaline phosphatase did not. Bone acid phosphatase was characterized by a peak after appliance decay (p = 0.0004), but alkaline phosphatase remained depressed (p < 0.0001). These data demonstrate that significant amounts of alveolar bone turnover continue for an indeterminant period following appliance decay.

  4. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  5. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  6. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  7. Pyogenic granuloma: a rare side complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Priti N; Gill, Daljit; Lloyd, Tim

    2011-12-01

    This case report discusses a rare side effect associated with the use ofa fixed quad helix orthodontic appliance. A 14-year-old healthy girl presented with a painful enlarging mass on her tongue, which was causing distress to both her and her parents. Investigations confirmed that the mass was a pyogenic granuloma and management involved surgical excision of the mass and removal of the quad helix appliance. At least once previous case associated with an orthodontic quad helix appliance has been reported in the literature.

  8. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  9. A retrospective cephalometric investigation of two fixed functional orthodontic appliances in class II treatment: Functional Mandibular Advancer vs. Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael; Lisson, Jörg Alexander; Frye, Linda; Gross, Ulrich; Hourfar, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study is to compare skeletal and dental changes in class II patients treated with fixed functional appliances (FFA) that pursue different biomechanical concepts: (1) FMA (Functional Mandibular Advancer) from first maxillary molar to first mandibular molar through inclined planes and (2) Herbst appliance from first maxillary molar to lower first bicuspid through a rod-and-tube mechanism. Forty-two equally distributed patients were treated with FMA (21) and Herbst appliance (21), following a single-step advancement protocol. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment and immediately after removal of the FFA. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed with customized linear measurements. The actual therapeutic effect was then calculated through comparison with data from a growth survey. Additionally, the ratio of skeletal and dental contributions to molar and overjet correction for both FFA was calculated. Data was analyzed by means of one-sample Student's t tests and independent Student's t tests. Statistical significance was set at p appliance were found, intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant differences. Almost all measurements resulted in comparable changes for both appliances. Statistically significant dental changes occurred with both appliances. Dentoalveolar contribution to the treatment effect was ≥70%, thus always resulting in ≤30% for skeletal alterations. FMA and Herbst appliance usage results in comparable skeletal and dental treatment effects despite different biomechanical approaches. Treatment leads to overjet and molar relationship correction that is mainly caused by significant dentoalveolar changes.

  10. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  11. Prospects of Appliance-Level Load Monitoring in Off-the-Shelf Energy Monitors: A Technical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Ul Haq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid initiative has encouraged utility companies worldwide to roll-out new and smarter versions of energy meters. Before an extensive roll-out, which is both labor-intensive and incurs high capital costs, consumers need to be incentivised to reap the long-term benefits of such smart meters. Off-the-shelf energy monitors (e-monitors can provide consumers with an insight into such potential benefits. As e-monitors are owned by the consumer, the consumer has greater control over the data, which significantly reduces the privacy and data confidentiality concerns. Because only limited online technical information is available about e-monitors, we evaluate several existing e-monitors using an online technical survey directly from the vendors. Besides automated e-monitoring, the use of different off-the-shelf e-monitors can also help to demonstrate state-of-the-art techniques such as non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, data analytics, and the predictive maintenance of appliances. Our survey indicates a trend towards the incorporation of such state-of-the-art capabilities, particularly the appliance-level e-monitoring and load disaggregation. We have also discussed some essential requirements to implement load disaggregation in the next generation e-monitors. In future, these intelligent e-monitoring techniques will encourage effective consumer participation in the demand-side management (DSM programs.

  12. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Artificial limbs, braces, orthopedic shoes, hearing aids, wheelchairs, medical accessories, similar... necessary by the wearing of such appliances, may be purchased, made or repaired for any veteran upon a...

  13. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  14. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Aesthetic Fixed Orthopedic Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ozhohan, Z. R.; Biben, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of examination of 80 patients with aesthetic fixed orthopedic appliances. The state of the occlusal surface of fixed orthopedic appliances as well as the occlusal contact surface area was studied. The occlusal surfaces were made of ceramics and zirconium dioxide. The surface area of occlusal contacts was studied using 3Shape Dental System since computer occlusiography provides the most accurate results. Physical examination indicated a higher level of ceramic ...

  15. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhlman,Deise Caldas; Lima,Tatiana Araújo de; Duplat,Candice Belchior; Capelli Junior,Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 ...

  16. Treatment with active orthodontic appliance in adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Radeska, Ana; Radeski, Josif; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Papakoca, Kiro; Zarkova, Julija

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Showing the efficiency of orthodontic mobile appliance in treatment of adult patient Case summary: The patient A.K. Age 25 years whit forced progenia, bilateral hypodontia of the maxillary incisors and cross bite of 2 mm in front. The patient was treated with active orthodontic appliance whit bitten ridge and down labial arch. The treatment lasted 18 months after which periods is reached normal occlusion with normal overlap in front and closed diastema mediana. The hypodontia of the m...

  17. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; Lima, Tatiana Araújo de; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher economic status, golden orthodontic brackets and

  18. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Caldas Kuhlman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276 was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those

  19. Residential Demand Response Scheduling with Consideration of Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raka Jovanovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new demand response scheduling framework for an array of households, which are grouped into different categories based on socio-economic factors, such as the number of occupants, family decomposition and employment status. Each of the households is equipped with a variety of appliances. The model takes the preferences of participating households into account and aims to minimize the overall production cost and, in parallel, to lower the individual electricity bills. In the existing literature, customers submit binary values for each time period to indicate their operational preferences. However, turning the appliances “on” or “off” does not capture the associated discomfort levels, as each appliance provides a different service and leads to a different level of satisfaction. The proposed model employs integer values to indicate household preferences and models the scheduling problem as a multi-objective mixed integer programming. The main thrust of the framework is that the multi-level preference modeling of appliances increases their “flexibility”; hence, the job scheduling can be done at a lower cost. The model is evaluated by using the real data provided by the Department of Energy & Climate Change, UK. In the computational experiments, we examine the relation between the satisfaction of consumers based on the appliance usage preferences and the electricity costs by exploring the Pareto front of the related objective functions. The results show that the proposed model leads to significant savings in electricity cost, while maintaining a good level of customer satisfaction.

  20. Redesigning a collection system for 'small' consumer electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melissen, Frans W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper establishes that the collection system within the recycling scheme for consumer electronics in the Netherlands has not been entirely successful in convincing consumers to hand in their used appliances by means of dedicated collection routes. Particularly regarding small appliances, consumers are persisting in their habit of discarding their appliances by means of the refuse bag/bin for regular household waste. Therefore, the current collection system has been unable to direct consumer behavior in the desired direction. Consequently, the layout of the current system is reviewed and redesigned in order to tackle this problem. This design effort applies the Triad model (behavioral model) in the analysis stage and the Morphological Chart method (design tool) in the synthesis stage, and results in a concrete proposal for a new system. Finally, the applicability of this design approach beyond the specific circumstances of the case study presented in this paper is discussed. This case represents only one example of the broader, worldwide challenge to design appropriate collection systems to direct consumer behavior in desired directions. It is argued that the approach presented in this paper could be a valuable contribution to research dealing with this challenge

  1. Premolar root changes following treatment with the banded herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiopoulos, Athanasios T; Athanasiou, Athanasios E; Papadopoulos, Moschos A; Kolokithas, George; Ioannidou, Ioulia

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to radiographically assess root morphology changes in maxillary and mandibular premolars following Herbst appliance treatment. Twenty-five consecutive adolescents (19 boys and six girls, mean age 13.08 years) with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion were treated with the banded Herbst appliance for a mean period of 13.16 months. Periapical radiographs of the upper and lower premolars were obtained before appliance insertion and immediately after appliance removal using the parallel technique. All radiographs were scanned, digitized and analyzed using appropriately adjusted cephalometric software. The pre- and post-treatment length and area of the first and second maxillary and mandibular premolar roots were calculated. Statistical analysis included paired t-tests to evaluate pre- and posttreatment changes, and independent t-tests to compare the pre and post-treatment differences between the first and the second premolars, which served as controls. The level of significance was set at p appliance. We observed a statistically-significant decrease in the root area of the first mandibular premolars compared to that of the second mandibular premolars. Although we observed no statistically-significant root morphology changes in the first and second premolars following Herbst appliance treatment, the mandibular first premolars revealed significantly more root resorption than did the mandibular second premolars.

  2. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  3. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A; Coughlan, James M

    2015-10-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future.

  4. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  5. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of maximum protrusion, the titration appliance may provide immediate, temporary therapeutic benefit.

  6. Investigation of transient behaviour of combi boiler type appliances for domestic hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaca, Ayşe Uğurcan; Erek, Aytunç; Altay, Hürrem Murat

    2015-01-01

    Combi boiler type appliances heating both space and water demanded for use and consuming natural gas as the energy source are one of the most common branches of the household goods. This study touches mainly on two types of combi boiler concepts to investigate only domestic hot water (DHW) heating function since highly efficient condensing appliances have been manufactured in terms of space heating. First concept has the normal working configuration of the heat exchangers of a standard combi boiler; whereas, the second has the opposite operation order of the heat exchangers. 1D transient energy equations have been constructed with the help of the laws of thermodynamics in order to model the heat exchangers in a standard combi boiler. After obtaining a general mathematical model for the standard combi boiler, the energy equations have been discretised with finite difference scheme, and solved numerically in Matlab ® . Subsequently, numerical results are validated experimentally in different working modes of a standard appliance. As the last step, similar results are obtained for the second proposed concept using the related equations of the standard combi model to compare both concepts on a numerical basis. - Highlights: • 1D theoretical model of a combi boiler was constructed and verified experimentally. • Preliminary estimations will be obtained from the model about the laboratory tests. • Number of the laboratory tests will be decreased thanks to the theoretical model. • The model was used to compare the transient behaviour of two kinds of combi boilers. • The second combi boiler alternative to standard one has a higher comfort potential

  7. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated in the organ......What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated...... in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological......) theories of the fetish to organizational sensemaking. Second, we describe a distinctive process of organizational market sensemaking that is sensuous, magical, and analogical. Third, we offer a subtle critique of commercial ethnography, a popular research practice that aims to bring ‘real’ consumers...

  8. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  9. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  10. New horizons in orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics: fixed Twin Blocks & TransForce lingual appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century functional appliances evolved from night time wear to more flexible appliances for increased day time wear to full time wear with Twin Block appliances. The current trend is towards fixed functional appliances and this paper introduces the Fixed Twin Block, bonded to the teeth to eliminate problems of compliance in functional therapy. TransForce lingual appliances are pre-activated and may be used in first phase treatment for sagittal and transverse arch development. Alternatively they may be integrated with fixed appliances at any stage of treatment.

  11. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  12. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  13. An Iterative Load Disaggregation Approach Based on Appliance Consumption Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, monitoring single-appliance consumption level by decomposing the aggregated energy consumption, is a novel and economic technology that is beneficial to energy utilities and energy demand management strategies development. Hardware costs of high-frequency sampling and algorithm’s computational complexity hampered NILM large-scale application. However, low sampling data shows poor performance in event detection when multiple appliances are simultaneously turned on. In this paper, we contribute an iterative disaggregation approach that is based on appliance consumption pattern (ILDACP. Our approach combined Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm, which provide an initial appliance operating status, and sub-sequence searching Dynamic Time Warping, which retrieves single energy consumption based on the typical power consumption pattern. Results show that the proposed approach is effective to accurately disaggregate power consumption, and is suitable for the situation where different appliances are simultaneously operated. Also, the approach has lower computational complexity than Hidden Markov Model method and it is easy to implement in the household without installing special equipment.

  14. Nickel ions release in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, L; Lusvardi, G; Gentile, D

    2006-03-01

    The extent to which orthodontic appliances can cause contact allergies due to nickel release is a controversial matter. Since the data provided by literature are contrasting, the Authors think that it is important to analyse nickel ions released in organic tissues by means of a plasma spectrometer. About 100 intact hairs were taken from 15 patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. The hairs had been washed 12 to 24 h before, in order to limit environmental contamination. The same procedure was carried out on a control group corresponding in sex, age and abode. The samples of hair were taken from at least 3 different scalp sites: frontal, vertex and occipital areas. According to the spectrophotometric analysis of the hair, there were no differences in nickel concentrations between the test group (0.50 mg/g on average) and control group (0.64 mg/g) (*Pnickel concentration was found in the control sample (without orthodontic appliances) to a maximum of 2.20 mg/g. This suggests that environmental contamination, in particular diet, has an influence on ion concentration. Other studies also confirm that gut absorption of nickel released in the mouth by orthodontic appliances is much lower than the absorption of nickel release through diet. It can be assumed that orthodontic appliances do not release significant values of nickel to be a risk factor to the patient's health.

  15. Status Checking System of Home Appliances using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Chi-Yurl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes status checking system of home appliances based on machine learning, which can be applied to existing household appliances without networking function. Designed status checking system consists of sensor modules, a wireless communication module, cloud server, android application and a machine learning algorithm. The developed system applied to washing machine analyses and judges the four-kinds of appliance’s status such as staying, washing, rinsing and spin-drying. The measurements of sensor and transmission of sensing data are operated on an Arduino board and the data are transmitted to cloud server in real time. The collected data are parsed by an Android application and injected into the machine learning algorithm for learning the status of the appliances. The machine learning algorithm compares the stored learning data with collected real-time data from the appliances. Our results are expected to contribute as a base technology to design an automatic control system based on machine learning technology for household appliances in real-time.

  16. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... bulbs (often cardboard sheets with plastic bulb covers) have little or no room for the new label. \\13... many consumers. And, although typical usage patterns (e.g., hours per day of operation) may vary for these products, the standard usage assumption on the Lighting Facts label (i.e., three hours per day...

  17. 75 FR 41696 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... consumers take from advertising terms and must substantiate any expressed or implied advertising claims. See... energy efficient bulbs that meet their lighting needs. \\1\\ This document uses the terms lamp, lightbulb... requirements on bulbs that will be in production for only six months would entail significant short- term costs...

  18. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  19. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.

  20. Can negotiated agreements replace efficiency standards as an instrument for transforming the electrical appliance market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, P.

    2003-01-01

    Without reinforced energy saving policies, residential consumption of electricity will increase sharply over the next 20 years, in particular, as a result of expected growth in the specific uses of electricity. The main problem is not a lack of energy-efficient technologies, which do indeed exist for electrical appliances, but one of slow diffusion of existing technologies due to the weakness of the price signal and the purchasing behaviour of consumers. In association with energy labelling, minimum energy performance standards have proved to be very effective in stimulating technological progress and organising market transformation. But standards also suffer from long and often difficult implementation periods because of the resistance of the industrial sector. For manufacturers, similar results could be obtained more easily and more rapidly with voluntary agreements because they introduce flexibility margins in the achievement of commitments. This paper analyses the specific advantages of voluntary agreements for improving energy efficiency in the domestic appliances sector. We conclude that voluntary agreements may be an effective instrument for market transformation in certain conditions, but the alternative of regulatory measures must remain a credible, realistic threat if voluntary agreements are to have a really significant impact on performance improvement

  1. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  2. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  3. [A retrospective study on incisor root resorption in patients treated with bracketless invisible appliance and straight wire appliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan; Yang, Lu; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Luo, San-Lian; Zheng, Ji-Wei

    2017-02-01

    To assess root resorptions in patients treated with bracketless invisible appliance and straight wire appliance using cone-beam CT (CBCT). Twenty-eight patients treated with bracketless invisible appliance (as experimental group) or straight wire appliance (as control group) were randomly selected. CBCT images were analyzed at 3 time points (pre-operation, 6 month after operation, post-operation). Root resorption was calculated using root length at 3 time points. The difference between the 2 groups was analyzed with SPSS16.0 software package. To those teeth with no root length reduction, the bone defect was evaluated using CBCT. After 6-month of treatment, 47.3% teeth from the experimental group had root resorption, while 68.3% in the control group. There was significant difference between the 2 groups (Porthodontic treatment, the incidence of root resorption in the control groups increased to be 85.3% and 68.3% in the experimental group (Pinvisible appliance suffer from less root resorption.

  4. A Wireless Monitoring System Using a Tunneling Sensor Array in a Smart Oral Appliance for Sleep Apnea Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Ying Yeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder, and the most common type is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Untreated OSA will cause lots of potential health problems. Oral appliance therapy is an effective and popular approach for OSA treatment, but making a perfect fit for each patient is time-consuming and decreases its efficiency considerably. This paper proposes a System-on-a-Chip (SoC enabled sleep monitoring system in a smart oral appliance, which is capable of intelligently collecting the physiological data about tongue movement through the whole therapy. A tunneling sensor array with an ultra-high sensitivity is incorporated to accurately detect the subtle pressure from the tongue. When the device is placed on the wireless platform, the temporary stored data will be retrieved and wirelessly transmitted to personal computers and cloud storages. The battery will be recharged by harvesting external RF power from the platform. A compact prototype module, whose size is 4.5 × 2.5 × 0.9 cm3, is implemented and embedded inside the oral appliance to demonstrate the tongue movement detection in continuous time frames. The functions of this design are verified by the presented measurement results. This design aims to increase efficiency and make it a total solution for OSA treatment.

  5. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  6. Management of anterior dental crossbite with removable appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Tuba Ulusoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of an 8-year-old girl with anterior dental crossbite using a series of removable appliances to bring the teeth into a normal position. Clinical presentation and intervention: A removable acrylic appliance with a bite plate incorporating a screw was used to correct the anterior dental crossbite and align the incisors. The subsequent eruption of the maxillary left lateral incisor on the palatinal side was treated with a second acrylic plate incorporating a labiolingual spring. After an 8-month period, the anterior crossbite involving multiple incisors was corrected.

  7. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  8. Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances.

  9. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances.

  10. Characterization of commercial building appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.F.; Teagan, P.W.; Dieckmann, J.T.

    1993-08-01

    This study focuses on ``other`` end-uses category. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of energy end-use functions other than HVAC and lighting for commercial buildings, and to identify general avenues and approaches for energy use reduction. Specific energy consuming technologies addressed include non-HVAC and lighting technologies in commercial buildings with significant energy use to warrant detailed analyses. The end-uses include office equipment, refrigeration, water heating, cooking, vending machines, water coolers, laundry equipment and electronics other than office equipment. The building types include offices, retail, restaurants, schools, hospitals, hotels/motels, grocery stores, and warehouses.

  11. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya, Muhammad Ery; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  12. Considerations in evaluating emissions from consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girman, John R.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Wind, Marilyn L.

    While several indoor air quality studies suggest consumer products (e.g. aerosol sprays, paint removers, etc.) can be significant sources of volatile organic compounds, until recently characterizing emissions from consumer products has received relatively little attention. Many considerations that must be addressed in designing studies of consumer product emissions are similar to those addressed in studies of the emissions from building materials and combustion appliances. These similarities are discussed and, in addition, the considerations unique to studies of consumer product emissions are discussed with reference to an ongoing study of consumer products that contain methylene chloride. These unique considerations include bulk chemical analysis, the form of the product (e.g. liquid, aerosol or paste) and the related consumer usage pattern. The issue of personal exposure of the product user vs the average area concentration resulting from product use must be considered, as well as the challenge of incorporating results into predictive models that adequately treat the effect of different usage patterns. Finally, post-study considerations, such as exploring new issues discovered in the study, studying similar products, and validating predictive models through extension into field studies are summarized.

  13. Comparative distalization effects of Jones jig and pendulum appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; Pinzan, Arnaldo; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we compared the dentoalveolar changes of Class II patients treated with Jones jig and pendulum appliances. The experimental group comprised 40 Class II malocclusion subjects, divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 20 patients (11 boys, 9 girls) at a mean pretreatment age of 13.17 years, treated with the Jones jig appliance for 0.91 years; group 2 comprised 20 patients (8 boys, 12 girls) at a mean pretreatment age of 13.98 years, treated with the pendulum appliance for 1.18 years. Only active treatment time of molar distalization was evaluated in the predistalization and postdistalization lateral cephalograms. Molar, second premolar, and incisor angular and linear variables were obtained. The intergroup treatment changes in these variables were compared with independent t tests. The maxillary second premolars showed greater mesial tipping and extrusion in the Jones jig group, indicating more anchorage loss during molar distalization with this appliance. The amounts and the monthly rates of molar distalization were similar in both groups. The Jones jig group showed greater mesial tipping and extrusion of the maxillary second premolars. The mean amounts and the monthly rates of first molar distalization were similar in both groups.

  14. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  15. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: IMPLEMENTING RULES Exemptions § 81.20 Lights and sound signal...

  16. The effect of orthodontic extraoral appliances on depression and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-11

    Apr 11, 2013 ... [10] found similar results indicating that the. The effect of orthodontic extraoral appliances on depression and the anxiety levels of patients and parents. T Topcuoglu, O Yildirim1, M Birlik2, O Sokucu3, M Semiz4. Private Orthodontics, Mersin, 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Abant ...

  17. Low-power Appliance Recognition using Recurrent Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizky Pratama, Azkario; Simanjuntak, Frans Juanda; Lazovik, Aliaksandr; Aiello, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Indoor energy consumption can be understood by breaking overall power consumption down into individual components and appliance activations. The clas- sification of components of energy usage is known as load disaggregation or ap- pliance recognition. Most of the previous efforts address the

  18. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Customer service in appliance sales departments of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For some time now, researchers across the world have therefore shown particular interest in service quality as an indication of retailers' service excellence. This research investigated the customer service in appliance sales departments in prominent retail stores in Tshwane, RSA in three phases to involve different role ...

  20. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... form of an industry-wide standard and at a minimum shall: (1) Identify the type(s) of car to which the... or supports considered part of the car body. Safety appliance brackets or supports will be considered part of the car body and will not be required to be mechanically fastened to the piece of passenger...

  1. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  2. Toothbrushing forces in children with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasman, P A; MacGregor, I D; Wilson, Z; Kelly, P J

    1998-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether toothbrushing forces are influenced by wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Thirty children, (10 males, 20 females) with planned fixed appliance therapy and aged 10-15 years, were recruited to the study. No subject had previously worn an orthodontic appliance. At baseline, each subject brushed their teeth in their usual way, unsupervised. The toothbrush used was a purpose-designed electronic instrument that measured the force applied to the brush and transmitted force data by radio to a remote PC. After toothbrushing, subjects had orthodontic brackets fitted. Toothbrushing was repeated at 2 and 14 weeks after baseline, and brushing forces recorded. There were no significant differences between the measurements made at baseline and those made at 2 and 14 weeks. There were no differences between males and females in the forces used at any time point. It was concluded that toothbrushing forces are unaffected by placing fixed orthodontic appliances in children. The brushing forces recorded were comparable with those previously found by other investigators.

  3. Low-complexity energy disaggregation using appliance load modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Altrabalsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale smart metering deployments and energy saving targets across the world have ignited renewed interest in residential non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NALM, that is, disaggregating total household’s energy consumption down to individual appliances, using purely analytical tools. Despite increased research efforts, NALM techniques that can disaggregate power loads at low sampling rates are still not accurate and/or practical enough, requiring substantial customer input and long training periods. In this paper, we address these challenges via a practical low-complexity lowrate NALM, by proposing two approaches based on a combination of the following machine learning techniques: k-means clustering and Support Vector Machine, exploiting their strengths and addressing their individual weaknesses. The first proposed supervised approach is a low-complexity method that requires very short training period and is fairly accurate even in the presence of labelling errors. The second approach relies on a database of appliance signatures that we designed using publicly available datasets. The database compactly represents over 200 appliances using statistical modelling of measured active power. Experimental results on three datasets from US, Italy, Austria and UK, demonstrate the reliability and practicality.

  4. Determining the Relationship between the Use of Fixed Appliances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike Saghiri

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... 3Department of Orthodontic, Director of Orthosurgery Fellowship, Dental School, Shaheed Beheshti University of. Medical Sciences, Tehran ... Fixed appliances for orthodontic treatment increased the potential of gingival bleeding and Hyperplasia. .... youngsters, but does not leave long term destruction on.

  5. Refrigeration Controls: Electrical & Mechanical; Appliance Repair 3: 9027.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This booklet outlines a course designed to equip major appliance service students with the fundamental knowledge and understanding of procedures, basic electrical circuitry, and nomenclatures of components necessary in successfully tracing a circuit and repairing or replacing a malfunctioning component. Course content includes goals, specific…

  6. 76 FR 31749 - Energy Conservation Program for Certain Consumer Appliances: Test Procedures for Battery Chargers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...] Active mode. [cir] Multi-port charger. [cir] Multi-voltage [agrave] la carte charger. [cir] Standby mode... ``required to report their energy usage to California to indicate by a Roman numeral (`IV' or `V') the level... automotive equipment and USB ports. (Motorola, No. 50 at pp. 2-3). CEA commented that the ``stated scope of...

  7. 77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... the standards-setting process to account for the increase in measured energy due to the standby and... energy use is of a magnitude that it would materially affect that standard-setting process without..., therefore, would factor into any standard setting process, but is not so great that it would overwhelm the...

  8. Consumer Response to Product-Integrated Energy Feedback: Behavior, Goal Level Shifts and Energy Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCalley, L.T.; de Vries, Pieter Walter; Midden, Cees J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent experiments suggest that interactive control panels of individual appliances can be used to stimulate energy saving behavior by offering the means for consumers to set a goal and receive immediate energy use feedback. The underlying source of the behavioral response, however,

  9. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  10. Correction of an adult Class II division 2 individual using fixed functional appliance: A noncompliance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas Basavaraddi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the application of fixed functional appliance in the treatment of an adult female having Class II division 2 malocclusion with retroclination of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was used to correct the overjet after the uprighting of upper incisors. Fixed functional appliance was fitted on a rigid rectangular arch wire. Application of fixed functional appliance achieved a good Class I molar relationship along with Class I canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite. Fixed functional appliance is effective in the treatment of Class II malocclusions, even in adult patients, and can serve as an alternate choice of treatment instead of orthognathic surgery. This is a case; wherein, fixed functional appliance was successfully used to relieve deep bite and overjet that was ensued after leveling and aligning. We demonstrate that fixed functional appliance can act as a “noncompliant corrector” and use of Class II elastics can be avoided.

  11. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  12. Green Marketing: A Study of Consumer Perception and Preferences in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Mayank; Jain, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed by manufacturers and customers about the environmental impact of products during recent decades. Consumers and manufacturers have directed their attention toward environment friendly products that are presumed to be “green” or environment friendly like low power consuming (energy-efficient) electrical appliances, organic foods, lead free paints, recyclable paper, and phosphate free detergents. Indian marketers are also realizing the importance of the Green Marketi...

  13. Energy-efficiency labels and standards: A guidebook for appliances, equipment and lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Wiel, Stephen

    2001-02-16

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the United Nations Foundation (UNF) recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year with significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation has made this the international guidance tool it was intended to be. The lead authors would also like to thank the following individuals for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook: Marcy Beck, Elisa Derby, Diana Dhunke, Ted Gartner, and Julie Osborn of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as well as Anthony Ma of Bevilacqua-Knight, Inc. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards-setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design, development, implementation, maintenance, and evaluation of the

  14. Comparison of Jones jig molar distalization appliance with extraoral traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, S; Uner, O

    2000-01-01

    In this study, 20 patients were evaluated. Ten were treated with intraoral distalization followed by fixed appliance therapy, and 10 were treated with extra oral traction followed by fixed appliance therapy. Molar relationship correction was achieved in 2.5 months with intraoral distalization and in 10.7 months with extraoral distalization. A significant anterior movement of the anchorage unit (P <.001) was observed with the intraoral distalization and a significant distal drift of premolars was observed in the headgear group (P <.05). Palatal plane was found to tip downward significantly in the headgear group (P <.05). Total outcome of the 2 methods were discussed evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of the 2 distalization methods.

  15. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection

  16. Analysis appliance by gamma tomography with focused collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and specifically an image-forming appliance providing a very sensitive quantitative determination and the localization in space of the radioactivity of a body organ such as the brain of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The characteristics of this appliance, which forms an image in a transversal scanning field by means of radioactive isotope radiations, includes several highly focused collimators, placed in line and focused inwards so that they form an arrangement that surrounds a given scanning field. Each collimator is mobile with respect to the adjacent collimator and a system moves the collimators so that the focus of each one uniformly samples at least a half of the total scanning field corresponding to a cross section. The number of detectors is an even one between two and twenty four, and the collimators are twelve in number [fr

  17. Application of SMA technology to auxiliary functions in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bart; Brei, Diann E.; Patera, John

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally smart material actuation has been reserved for high technology industries such as space and aerospace; however, as the field matures more and more instances are found in low-cost, high production areas. This paper describes one such instance - the application of shape memory alloys to auxiliary functions in appliances. This investigation focused on lid locks for washing machines because it is representative of several other applications found in appliances including valves, dispensers, locks, brakes, etc. Several competing concepts for SMA actuated lid locks are discussed including simple analytical design models and experimental characterization of proof-of-concept prototypes. A comparison of these designs based on performance (force, response times), energy (power requirements) and economic metrics is given. From this study, a final concept was developed based upon the best attributes of the different concepts. The resulting proof-of-concept prototype demonstrated improved performance over the current state with a potential for cost reduction.

  18. Designing, Building and Controlling of Home Appliances Unit Using PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ben Safar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart home is a residential building that is usually new or modern equipped with necessary tools and wiring that enable its occupants to control a number of electrical devices and several household appliances through a suitable software. Recently, the development of home automation systems is accelerating rapidly as a result of the rapid intersection of modern technologies. Here we are talking about systems for home communication networks as well as entertainment, security, convenience, etc. These systems are controlled by sending signals through wires distributed throughout the house or Through wireless means to programmable keys or devices so that they understand these commands and deal with them as desired. In this paper, I will discuss how to design the circuit with appropriate components, build it in Printed Circuit Board and connect it to a personal computer by using programmable language in order to control all home appliances by just one click. 

  19. Appliance of geochemical engineering in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Zhang Chengjiang; Ni Shijun; Li Kuanliang

    2008-01-01

    The basic foundation of applying geochemical engineering to control environment, common engineering models of disposal radioactive waste and the functions of the engineering barriers are introduced in this paper. The authors take the geochemical engineering barrier materiel research of a radioactive waste repository as an example to explain the appliance of geochemical engineering in the disposal of radioactive waste. And the results show that it can enhance the security of the nuclear waste repository if we use geochemical engineering barrier. (authors)

  20. Orthodontic treatment with a series of removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, David A; Trosien, Andrew H; Fong, Patricia F; Miller, Robert A; Lee, Rodney S

    2003-09-01

    In the United States, the demand for straight white teeth has never been more important to patients. Crowded, poorly aligned teeth are not esthetically pleasing and are difficult to keep clean. However, until recently, the process of straightening the teeth typically has involved appliances involving bands, brackets and wires that also can be difficult to clean. The desire for a cosmetic solution to misaligned teeth has led to an increase in the number of patients seeking veneers, crowns and other laboratory-fabricated cosmetic restorations. Some clinicians are not aware that there are other ways to align teeth without either significant enamel reduction or conspicuous fixed orthodontic appliances. An alternative method of treatment, involving a series of clear removable appliances, circumvents this shortcoming and enables tooth alignment while avoiding deterioration in the cosmetics of the smile during treatment. This article describes a method of treatment, Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif.), that clinicians can use in conjunction with 3-D computer models to accomplish the esthetic and oral hygiene objectives during and after treatment. The authors present three case reports, all involving a chief concern of crowding. The first case involved treatment of both arches by interproximal reduction, alignment of teeth and leveling the curve of Spee. The second case involved treatment of both arches by proclination, expansion and minor interproximal reduction. The final case shows relief of lower-arch crowding via lower-incisor extraction. In addition to satisfying the patient's chief concern of desiring straight teeth, this method of treatment satisfies additional objectives of esthetic treatment and esthetic results with significant oral hygiene benefits. Clinicians can address a patient's chief concern effectively without requiring an inventory of appliances (such as bands, brackets, wires and instruments). Furthermore, the use of 3-D computer models

  1. Evaluation of photo-activation appliances used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Ribeiro de Magalhães Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the Vickers microhardness promoted by three photo-activation appliances: one Halogen Light Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and two Light Emitting Diodes. One with a larger diode (Ultraled, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and the other with seven smaller diodes (Ultraled xp, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in composites with different matrixes. Methods: Three test specimens were made for each resinous materials using silicone molds measuring 4 X 8 X 30 mm. Polymerization was performedin three stages and on the two surfaces. After having been submitted to careful polishing with sequential abrasive papers and diamond paste, the Vickers microhardness of the test specimens was determined. Afterwards these values were submitted to statistical analysis by the ANOVA table and Student’s-t test. Results: The microhardness values obtained in the hybrid composite were as follows: 51.63 kg/mm2 +- 3.27; 52.22 kg/mm2 +- 3.3; 38.08 kg/mm2 +-0.31 and in the ormocer, 41.87 kg/mm2 +- 2.36; 41.5 kg/mm2 +- 1.2; 33.63 kg/mm2 +- 1.2, by the Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances, respectively. Conclusion: The Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances promoted microhardness values that were similar between them and higher than the values produced by Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in the composites. It was verified that the intensity of the photo-activator appliances is directly related to the microhardness they produce in the composites.

  2. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  3. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG's), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL's), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL's. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL's and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL's. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG's registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach.

  4. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  5. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  6. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG’s), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL’s), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL’s. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL’s and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL’s. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG’s registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach. PMID:28824226

  7. Evaluation of safety management in an Appliances manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of accidents and work related diseases, are not allowed regardless of the safety of employees, customers, contractors and other persons. Assessment of individual safety management activities could reduce many losses. Present study aimed to evaluate the safety management of a household appliance manufacturing company.  .Material and Method: This study has done in a household appliance manufacturing company in Damavand city. Two questionnaires were firstly designed based on the weighted scores. The questionnaire 1 consisted of 4 indicators: Safety of machinery, Electrical safety, Risk assessment and Fire safety. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 11 sub indicators. Both questionnaires were completed by 30 HSE experts and supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was based on cronbachs alpha coefficient. the safety status of each unit was determined and scored using information acquired by the questionnaires. Lastly, the safety of the entire company was determined.  .Result: Results showed that in safety management: the pressing and store house were in a good range of 66.66 and 60.12 points. Powder painting, enameling, laboratory were in a average range of 56.25, 55.92 and 54.15 points. Assembling and door storage were in a week range of 46.06 points.  .Conclusion: The findings showed that the safety status in the studied appliances company is in average range with 55.45 points. Therefore, it is recommended that the safety indicators should be improved for the betterment of the safety management in the company.

  8. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sastry, Chellury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  9. Association of tooth brushing behavior with oral hygiene index among students using fixed appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria, N.; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Uses of fixed appliance have become popular recently. The purpose of its use is to correct malposition of teeth in order to normalize the masticatory function and to eliminate the accumulation of food remain between the teeth. These will prevent the formation of caries and any periodontal tissue disease. Fixed appliance patients must routinely maintain their oral hygiene. This study was an analytical survey with cross-sectional design to know the relationship between behavior in tooth brushing of students using thefixed appliance and oral hygiene in Poltekkes Kemenkes Medan. The average of Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S) value of students using fixed appliance (2.68) was still above national target which is ≤2, and there was a relationship between behavior in tooth brushing of students using the fixed appliance and oral hygiene (poral hygiene and to prevent caries formation and periodontal disease patients using fixed appliances should maintain their dental health.

  10. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  11. Evaluation of heating performances and associated variability of domestic cooking appliances (oven-baking and pan-frying)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernela, Jérémie; Heyd, Bertrand; Broyart, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    By comparison with those in industry, domestic cooking processes are rarely studied with respect to heat transfer although they can drastically modify the quality of heated products. In order to compensate for this lack of information in the literature, the aim of this work was to propose test procedures to evaluate the variability of domestic appliance heating performances in the case of oven-baking and pan-frying. The measurements included the continuous recording of pan temperature during pan-frying using different types of hobs (electric, halogen, gas, induction) and pans; the continuous recording of air temperature and measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient and equivalent radiative temperature during oven-baking using different types of ovens. The results revealed broad variations in heating conditions depending on the type of appliance used and on consumer behaviour. For pan-frying, it was shown that pan temperature varied constantly during heating. From an initial value of 200 °C and a given product load, it could fall to 150 °C or rise to 330 °C at medium or high heat, respectively. For oven-baking, heating was sometimes performed at an actual air temperature that differed considerably from the air temperature set on the oven. These measurements also showed relatively low convective heat transfer coefficient values, ranging from 6 W/m 2 K under free convection to 16 W/m 2 K under forced convection. -- Highlights: • Domestic oven baking and pan-frying are thermally chracterised. • Quantitative data on the variability of domestic heating conditions are given. • Variability due to domestic appliances and cooking practices is very large

  12. Frog Appliance- An Innovative Treatment Option for the Replacement of Missing Teeth in An Epileptic Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Anita; Reddy, Hanumanth; Sajjnar, Arun B; Jain, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which may result in various oro-facial injuries among which fracture of crown and avulsion of tooth are commonly reported. Challenges come in growing epileptic children where fixed prosthesis could not be delivered and it demands a fixed semi-permanent prosthesis that needs strength along with esthetics. The present paper reports an innovative appliance which has fulfilled fore mentioned criteria; with the appliance named-frog appliance. PMID:26155578

  13. Post-Retention Changes in Class II Correction With the Forsus (trademark) Appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    ForsusTM appliance. Methods: 40 Class II patients (25 males , 15 females) consecutively treated with the ForsusTM appliance had cephalometric radiographs...was taken. Sample Population The 40 patients (25 male , 15 female) treated with the ForsusTM in conjunction with fixed appliances for a mean...range of values were caused by the experimental group 46 containing individuals who were treated early (i.e. before puberty ) and those who were

  14. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC. However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.

  15. When do energy-efficient appliances generate energy savings? Some evidence from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the energy efficiency of household appliances have the potential to decrease residential energy use, but these reductions accrue gradually over time as newer appliances replace older models. SHEU-2003 data are used to examine appliance replacement patterns in Canada for refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers and clothes dryers. The data indicate that the ages at which appliances are replaced tend to be lowest for dishwashers and highest for freezers, with over 40% of freezers in use for more than 20 years before being retired. The life spans of Canadian appliances are compared to the underlying assumptions regarding appliance lifetimes used in models of residential energy demand. We find that Canadian appliance retirement patterns differ from those assumed in the previous literature. Socioeconomic factors related to appliance replacement are also examined. We find that replacement patterns can be sensitive to household characteristics such as income, providing evidence that there may be scope for targeted policies aimed at inducing earlier replacements of older household appliances with new energy-efficient models

  16. The impact of personality on adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Bachar, Eytan; Tsur, Boaz; Chaushu, Stella; Shalish, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of psychological traits on patients' choice of orthodontic appliances and their adjustability to orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 68 adult patients divided into three groups (28 buccal, 19 lingual, and 21 clear aligners). Prior to treatment participants filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory to assess symptoms of mental distress and the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale to assess narcissistic personality traits. During the first week after appliance delivery and on day 14, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to assess their perception of pain and four areas of dysfunction. The correlation between personality traits and patients' reaction to treatment was evaluated. Somatization was the only trait that affected the choice of lingual and clear aligner appliance. Reduced self-esteem regulation was associated with increased pain in all patients, while exploitation was associated with pain in lingual patients. Narcissistic vulnerability slightly influenced patients' adaptability to orthodontic appliances. Although adjustability to lingual appliances was the most difficult, only two parameters were affected by personality features. In the buccal group, adjustability was affected by numerous parameters. Adaptation to the clear aligner appliance was relatively uneventful and least affected by psychological features. Anxious individuals tend to prefer lingual and clear aligner appliances. The selection of lingual and clear aligner appliances governs the patient's response and recovery process, leaving little room for the effect of psychological features. On the other hand, the buccal appliance allows for greater impact of personality traits on adjustability.

  17. Effects of the pendulum appliance, cervical headgear, and 2 premolar extractions followed by fixed appliances in patients with Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; McNamara, James A

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, we compared the cephalometric effects, the dental-arch changes, and the efficiency of Class II treatment with the pendulum appliance, cervical headgear, or extraction of 2 maxillary premolars, all associated with fixed appliance therapy. The sample of 82 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into 3 groups: group 1 patients (n = 22; treatment time, 3.8 years) were treated with the pendulum appliance and fixed orthodontic appliances. Group 2 patients (n = 30; treatment time, 3.2 years) were treated with cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances; group 3 patients (n = 30; treatment time, 2.1 years) were treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions and fixed appliances. The average starting ages of the groups ranged from 13.2 to 13.8 years. Data were obtained from serial cephalometric measurements and dental casts. The dental casts were analyzed with the treatment priority index. The treatment efficiency index was also used. The 3 treatment protocols produced similar cephalometric effects, especially skeletally. Comparisons among the 2 distalizing appliances (pendulum and cervical headgear) and extraction of 2 maxillary premolars for Class II treatment showed changes primarily in the maxillary dentoalveolar component and dental relationships. The facial profile was similar after treatment, except for slightly more retrusion of the upper lip in the extraction patients. The treatment priority index demonstrated that occlusal outcomes also were similar among the groups. The treatment efficiency index had higher values for the extraction group. The effects of treatment with the pendulum appliance or cervical headgear and extraction of 2 maxillary premolars associated with fixed appliances were similar from both occlusal and cephalometric standpoints. Class II treatment with extraction of maxillary teeth was more efficient because of the shorter treatment time. Differences in maxillary incisor retraction should be noted, but

  18. Online Consumer Ethnocentrism of Danish Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...

  19. Marketing strategies - consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.

    1985-01-01

    As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice

  20. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ...-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, water heaters, clothes washers, room air conditioners, and furnaces. The... several energy, environmental and consumer organizations (including Alliance to Save Energy, Appliance... Commission has coupled new ranges for dishwashers, room air conditioners, and water heaters in this Notice...

  1. Distribution and use of cooking appliances that can affect indoor air quality. Topical report, November 1985-December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koontz, M.D.; Mehegan, L.L.; Nagda, N.L.

    1992-12-01

    As part of research on residential air quality, a study to determine the prevalence of kitchen fans among U.S. households, the frequency of fan use, factors affecting the use, prevalence of supplemental cooking appliances (e.g., microwave ovens) and their impact on use of gas ranges or ovens, is described. Previous research demonstrated that residential levels of combustion products such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide are generally higher in homes with gas than with electric ranges. Effectiveness of a fan can be high if it is located very near the range, vented to the outside, and used consistently during cooking. Surveys were administered in 1985 and 1991 to randomly selected members of the nationwide Consumer Mail Panel maintained by Market Facts, Incl. The first survey focused on kitchen fans, and found that only about 10 percent of the sampled population truly benefitted from range fans. The second survey focused on supplemental cooking appliances, and in it more than 90 percent of households reported owning a microwave oven.

  2. Standby consumption of household appliances; Standby-Verbrauch von Haushaltgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.; Bush, E.

    2003-07-01

    While electricity consumption of household appliances is well documented for conventional operation cycles, there are still many gaps in our knowledge regarding consumption in the standby status. The aim of this project was to obtain new findings by carrying out market surveys, measurements and evaluations. The total standby losses for household appliances in Switzerland amount to approximately 400 GWh, and the associated electricity costs are about 80 million Swiss francs. The greatest fraction - approximately 80 percent - is traceable to heating requirements for coffee machines. In some appliance categories the share of standby losses compared to overall electricity consumption is extremely high. This figure for coffee machines in offices is 84 percent, for coffee machines in private households it is 60 percent, and for induction cooker tops it is 48 percent. The main technical requirements for enhancing the energy efficiency of coffee machines are an automatic switch-off function and improved insulation of boilers. According to the latest manufacturers' specifications of induction cooker tops, it is apparently possible to significantly reduce the surprisingly high losses associated with control devices. Generally speaking, the efficiency of power supply units could still be improved. It is now possible to reduce consumption levels from the previously standard level of about 4 W to less than 0.5 W. Since it appears that relatively simple measures may significantly increase the efficiency, it is recommended that action be taken. Here, it is essential to work out detailed guidelines and define testing standards for declaring standby losses. The proposal put forward here for an energy declaration for coffee machines is intended to help test centres, EU authorities and manufacturers to carry out uniform measurements and evaluations. Given the high power consumption of coffee machines, their significant efficiency enhancement potential and the availability of

  3. APPLIANCE OF COMPETITORS TECHNIQUES IN LEADING THE SKIES IN TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašid Hadžić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Competitors techniques in skiing characterize driving on edges, without gliding in certain fazes of turning. Today that characteristic is more and more present in all di- scipline, (downhill, super G, giant slalom and slalom so we can talk about appliance of basic technique of leading skies on all disciplines, with differences in position of skies in amplitude of moving and frequencies of changes of edges. From that point of view we distinct three typical shape of moving in turning, which have mutual distinction in influence on ski loading, and that has influence on tur- ning line and acceleration or checking in certain fazes of turning.

  4. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  5. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  6. A comparison between indirect and objective wear-time assessment of removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Timm C; Meyer-Gutknecht, Hannes; Mayer, Nicolai; Weber, Joachim; Weimer, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Patients do not always adhere to the wear times prescribed for removable orthodontic appliances. We evaluated the validity and usability of indirect wear-time assessment methods by comparing wear-time estimates with microelectronically measured wear times in patients with removable orthodontic appliances. Wear times of 33 expansion plates, 34 functional appliances, and 42 retention plates of patients aged 6-20 years (12.3±2.9 years, 50.5% female) were indirectly determined by practitioners using a questionnaire assessing five parameters on a 5-point Likert scale: appliance handling, appliance appearance, bite shift, tooth movement, and appliance fit. The perceived difficulty in assessing each parameter was rated. Actual wear times were evaluated with microelectronic sensors in the appliances. Regression analyses revealed that practitioners' decisions about wear times varied depending on the type of appliance and criteria used, with only one standard criterion best predicting estimated wear time for each appliance. Different standard criteria were better predictors of measured wear time: 22.3% of wear-time variability was explained by expansion plate appearance, 31.2% by functional appliance handling, and 18.8% by retainer fitting. However, practitioners rated the difficulty of assessment in most cases as 'easy'. The study was not double blinded for technical reasons, and practitioners may have considered the evaluation criteria more carefully than in normal daily practice. Practitioners' decisions about wear times based on standard criteria strongly vary depending on the type of appliance and criteria used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  8. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  9. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  10. Regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances using reversible fair scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel methodology for regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances. To achieve this objective, we will make use of the reversible fair scheduling algorithm originally developed for telecommunication networks. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregati....... Moreover, users will be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting prolonging the operation of some of their home appliances....

  11. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  12. Open-bite treatment utilizing clear removable appliances with intermaxillary and intramaxillary elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    Clear removable appliances with elastics can be effective and efficient in extruding maxillary teeth during aligner treatment or following a relapse of an open bite. Some patients with open bites refuse to wear conventional fixed appliances. In these individuals, clear aligners with elastics could be a valuable alternative. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  13. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  14. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  15. Implant-retained oral appliances : a novel treatment for edentulous patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; de Vries, Frist; Heydenrijk, Kees; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    Objectives: Mandibular repositioning appliances (MRAs) are a viable treatment alternative in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Because these appliances require retention in the patient's dentition, edentelous patients generally do not qualify for this treatment. This

  16. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chien Lin

    2007-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal overjet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  17. www.topten.info goes European. How to get Mr. Smith hooked to energy efficient appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attali, Sophie; Bush, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Topten is a consumer-oriented online search tool first created in Switzerland, which presents the 'best appliances' in various categories of products (white and brown goods, ITC, cars, lighting...). Energy efficiency is the key criteria. But Topten is more than an internet platform. It is a communication tool which helps to show how our energy consumption causes climate change and what we can do personally to reduce our impact. It is also a powerful instrument to influence manufacturers. Topten is independent of producers and retailers and relies on neutral tests and analyses of independent institutions and standardized declarations of manufacturers. The paper presents: The tool itself: what can be seen on www.topten.ch, why it has been developed in this way, how it is constantly updated, who is behind it with which goals... The results in Switzerland after five years of growing success, the media's central role in rising awareness, Topten's role as a reference for energy efficiency policies, manufacturers' reactions,... The new policy orientation taken by Topten with the support of WWF Europe: the extension to other countries through a Topten.info platform - in order to create multinational pressure at the European level to influence manufacturers while working specifically on national markets and adapting the concept to the specific needs of each country

  18. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields Produced by Domestic Appliances (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.W.; Kaune, W.T.; Grainger, P.; Golding, J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 50 homes and their appliances examined whether a detailed appliance-use questionnaire and survey would yield data comparable with direct personal monitoring. This was coupled with direct measurement of the appliances in use to determine the field at 50 cm and 1 m. The findings were that individual time-weighted average (TWA) exposures calculated from questionnaire and activity diaries in conjunction with the appliance magnetic field were unrelated to actual personal exposure measurement. It was concluded that questionnaires are of little or no value for TWA estimation. However, peak exposure and short-term temporal variability could be modelled in subjects spending at least 15 min per day within 1 m of an operating microwave cooker or conventional cooker. This method could be extended to other appliances. (author)

  19. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ...'' appliances, as well as other complementary technologies (such as smart meters) that may be necessary to the... Conservation Program: Treatment of ``Smart'' Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and Test Procedures... analytical treatment of ``smart'' appliances in the development of DOE's energy conservation standards, as...

  20. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  1. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI. A questionnaire was used to collect patient’s information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Results Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7, mesial (0.8 ± 0.6, and distal (0.8 ± 0.5 areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3 (P < 0.038. The maxillary lateral incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 and maxillary canines (1.0 ± 0.8 had more biofilm than other teeth (P < 0.05. The maxillary arch (0.8 ± 0.7 had significantly more biofilm than mandibular arch (0.6 ± 0.6 (P = 0.042. No significant difference was found between the right side (0.7 ± 0.7 and left side (0.7 ± 0.6 (P = 0.627. Less biofilm was found in females (0.6 ± 0.5, adults (0.3 ± 0.3, and “self-motivated” patients (0.3 ± 0.3, compared with males (0.9 ± 0.5, children (0.8 ± 0.6, and “family-motivated” patients (1.1 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001. The amount of biofilm was associated with self-report of the frequency of daily tooth brushing (P < 0.001. Conclusions Patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances have the highest biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.

  2. Who puts the most energy into energy conservation? A segmentation of energy consumers based on energy-related behavioral characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sütterlin, Bernadette; Brunner, Thomas A.; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The present paper aims to identify and describe different types of energy consumers in a more comprehensive way than previous segmentation studies using cluster analysis. Energy consumers were segmented based on their energy-related behavioral characteristics. In addition to purchase- and curtailment-related energy-saving behavior, consumer classification was also based on acceptance of policy measures and energy-related psychosocial factors, so the used behavioral segmentation base was more comprehensive compared to other studies. Furthermore, differentiation between the energy-saving purchase of daily products, such as food, and of energy efficient appliances allowed a more differentiated characterization of the energy consumer segments. The cluster analysis revealed six energy consumer segments: the idealistic, the selfless inconsequent, the thrifty, the materialistic, the convenience-oriented indifferent, and the problem-aware well-being-oriented energy consumer. Findings emphasize that using a broader and more distinct behavioral base is crucial for an adequate and differentiated description of energy consumer types. The paper concludes by highlighting the most promising energy consumer segments and discussing possible segment-specific marketing and policy strategies. - Highlights: ► By applying a cluster-analytic approach, new energy consumer segments are identified. ► A comprehensive, differentiated description of the different energy consumer types is provided. ► A distinction between purchase of daily products and energy efficient appliances is essential. ► Behavioral variables are a more suitable base for segmentation than general characteristics.

  3. Premaxillary distraction osteogenesis with an individual tooth-borne appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengi, A Osman; Gürton, A Omit; Okcu, Kemal Murat; Aydintug, Yavuz Sinan

    2004-06-01

    Distraction osteogenesis defines a technique of bone generation and osteosynthesis by the distraction of native preexisting bone. The technique offers a promising treatment alternative for patients with maxillary hypoplasia and a retrognathic mandible. In this case report, the steps in the treatment of an 18.2-year-old girl with premaxillary hypoplasia and anterior crossbite are described. The patient was treated with a distraction osteogenesis technique, and premaxillary advancement was performed using an individual tooth-borne distraction device. The surgical operation consisted of a classical segmental maxillary osteotomy carefully respecting the palatal periosteum. The distractor was cemented in the mouth after the surgical procedures. The patient was observed during a seven-day latency period, after which the device was activated 0.5 mm every 12 hours. The anterior crossbite was eliminated in one week, and the treatment was finished with fixed orthodontic appliances.

  4. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  5. Inventory of usage pattern for wood burning appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) in co-operation with the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) and Statistics Sweden (SCB) have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  6. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  7. A cephalometric comparison of treatment with the Twin-block and stainless steel crown Herbst appliances followed by fixed appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Abbie T; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2004-07-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 treatment protocols for correcting Class II disharmony. The first phase of treatment consisted of functional jaw orthopedics with either the Twin-block or the stainless-steel crown Herbst appliance; the second phase consisted of comprehensive fixed-appliance therapy in both protocols. Each of the 2 samples comprised 28 consecutively treated Class II patients. The mean age at the start of treatment was approximately 12 years, and the mean age at the end of the treatment was approximately 14.5 years in both groups. The duration of the treatment phase with the functional appliance was approximately 13 months, and the duration of fixed-appliance therapy was approximately 15 months in both groups. The sex distribution was identical in the 2 groups. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the start of treatment (T1) and at the end of the overall treatment protocol (T2). Nonparametric statistics were used for comparisons of starting forms and of the T1-T2 changes between the 2 treatment groups. The stainless-steel crown Herbst appliance and the Twin-block appliance produced very similar therapeutic modifications in Class II patients, although the Twin-block group exhibited almost 2 mm greater correction of the maxillomandibular differential than did the crown Herbst group. The treatment effects of both protocols led to a normalization of the dentoskeletal parameters at the end of the overall treatment period. Twin-block therapy also induced a greater increase in the height of the mandibular ramus (posterior facial height). Overall, only minor differences were detected in the treatment and posttreatment effects of a compliance-free (crown Herbst) and a noncompliance-free (Twin-block) appliance for correcting Class II disharmony.

  8. Effects of fixed appliances in correcting Angle Class II on the depth of the posterior airway space: FMA vs. Herbst appliance--a retrospective cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Czapka, Kathrin; Ludwig, Björn; Glasl, Bettina; Gross, Ulrich; Lisson, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study based on the metric evaluation of lateral cephalograms was to investigate the extent to which treatment with two different fixed appliances for the correction of Angle Class II influenced the morphology of the extrathoracic airway space (the posterior airway space, PAS). A total of 43 patients with Angle Class II malocclusion were classified into two groups according to the appliance used for treatment: the functional mandibular advancer (FMA; n = 18) or the Herbst appliance (n = 25). Lateral cephalograms were taken of each patient at the start of functional jaw orthopedic treatment (time point T1) and at its completion (time point T2). Specific distances and angles were measured and analyzed in a cephalometric analysis. We observed major differences among the 43 patients in the depth of the posterior airway space during treatment with fixed appliances for Angle Class II correction. Regression analysis revealed that changes in sagittal and vertical positions had different effects on the depth of specific PAS sections: increases in anterior facial height are associated proportionately with increases in PAS width, particularly in the upper region. On the other hand, increases in posterior facial height and in the mandible's forward displacement correlated inversely to the decreases in depth, particularly in the central and lower PAS regions. The two treatment appliances (FMA, Herbst appliance) had the same effects on extrathoracic airway depth. Analyses of lateral cephalograms indicate that Angle Class II treatment with fixed appliances does not prevent sleep apnea in patients at risk. Nevertheless, this study does not permit absolutely reliable conclusions about the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway space. As the lateral cephalogram provides good images of structures in the midsagittal plane but is incapable of imaging the transverse dimension, there is an automatic lack of information concerning the precise

  9. Design and manufacturing of patient-specific orthodontic appliances by computer-aided engineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Neri, Paolo; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2018-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient's needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions. In this article, a computer-aided design-based methodology for the design and manufacturing of a patient-specific eruption guidance appliances is presented. The proposed approach is based on the digitalization of several steps of the overall process: from the digital reconstruction of patients' anatomies to the manufacturing of customized appliances. A finite element model has been developed to evaluate the temporomandibular joint disks stress level caused by using symmetric eruption guidance appliances with different teeth misalignment conditions. The developed model can then be used to guide the design of a patient-specific appliance with the aim at reducing the patient discomfort. At this purpose, two different customization levels are proposed in order to face both arches and single tooth misalignment issues. A low-cost manufacturing process, based on an additive manufacturing technique, is finally presented and discussed.

  10. Immunoexpression of cytokeratin 19 in oral swab from fixed orthodontic appliance users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Mutia Ramdhini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of fixed orthodontic appliances can improve someone's mastication, speech and appearance. However, this appliance acts as a strange object that may cause irritation to the mucosa epithelial of oral cavity, because of the friction and pressure from the components of the fixed orthodontic appliances which are in direct contact with the oral mucosa. Irritation in the oral mucosa could stimulate the increase of cytokeratin. The appearance of cytokeratin is then used to identify the condition of these cells. This study was a descriptive research to find the expression of cytokeratin 19 with immunohistochemical method in oral mucosa epithelial of fixed orthodontic appliances users. Sample in this study was chosen from 30 fixed orthodontic appliances users. The result of this study was determined by calculating the number of positive cells (brown, compared with total number of cells. The account of positive cells would present the reaction of the epithelial cells according to the inflamation stage which caused by the use of orthodontic appliances. As a conclusion of this study, the use of fixed orthodontic appliances may cause changes in epithelial mucosa which form an adaptation process by increasing the number of progenitor cells marked by cytokeratin 19.

  11. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagkiolidou, Angeliki; Ludwig, Björn; Pazera, Pawel; Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and 1.6-mm diameter placed during orthodontic treatment by the same experienced orthodontist. In total, 196 patients (121 girls, 75 boys; median age, 11.7; interquartile range, 3.7) who received 384 miniscrews were evaluated. Two hundred four miniscrews were used with rapid palatal expansion appliances, 136 with appliances for distalization of posterior teeth, and 44 with other appliances, such as transpalatal arches for tooth stabilization. The overall survival of the miniscrews was excellent (97.9%) in the cases examined. Cox regression analysis showed no difference in the overall survival rates of miniscrews loaded with different appliances for sex (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.27; P = 0.73) after adjusting for appliance and age. This study shows that miniscrews placed in the paramedian anterior palate for supporting various orthodontic appliances have excellent survival. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of thermoplastic appliance thickness on initial stress distribution in periodontal ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Shin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation into the initial stress distribution induced within the periodontal ligament by thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses is performed. Based on the plaster model of a 25-year-old male patient, a finite element model of the maxillary lateral incisors and their supporting structures is constructed. In addition, four finite element models of thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses in the range of 0.5–1.25 mm are also constructed based on the same plaster model. Finite element analysis simulations are performed to examine the effects of the force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances on the stress response of the periodontal ligament during the elastic recovery process. The results show that the stress induced in the periodontal ligament increases with an increasing appliance thickness. For example, the stress triples from 0.0012 to 0.0038 MPa as the appliance thickness is increased from 0.75 to 1.25 mm. The results presented in this study provide a useful insight into as a result of the compressive and tensile stresses induced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses. Moreover, the results enable the periodontal ligament stress levels produced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses to be reliably estimated.

  13. Upper removable appliance or Jones Jig for distalizing first molars? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, L D; O'Brien, K D; Mandall, N A

    2002-11-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two intra-oral methods of distalizing upper first permanent molars: an upper removable appliance (URA) and a Jones Jig. Twelve patients were randomly allocated to URA treatment and 11 patients to a Jones Jig. Upper study models were collected at the start of treatment and after 6 months of appliance wear. The amount of distal movement, tipping and rotation of the upper first permanent molars and mesial movement of the upper first permanent premolars was measured using a reflex metrograph. There were no statistically significant differences between the two treatment methods for any of the outcome measures (P Jig as a non-compliance appliance.

  14. E-waste Management in Japan: a focus on Appliance Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Fumikazu; Yoshida, Haruyo

    2013-01-01

    As 10 years have passed since the Japanese home electrical appliance recycling system came into operation, the results of the system have become clearer, and it is therefore time for us to analyze and evaluate its performance in terms of both the environment and the economy. The system covers 4 specified house appliances, and although roughly 2/3 of these discarded appliances are collected and recycled formally by the manufactures, the greater part of the remaining 1/3 is exported as used ite...

  15. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalayci, Nurhat; Yetmez, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  16. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhat Ozkalayci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  17. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  18. Essays on consumer welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, P.

    2017-01-01

    The fast-changing retail industry (with its numerous new product developments and new marketing channels) has policy makers worried about possible detrimental effects of these changes for consumer welfare. Despite the interest of policy makers, only few marketing studies have considered the impact of retailing on consumer welfare. This dissertation contributes to the consumer welfare research from a marketing/retailing perspective. In contrast to the marketing literature, where consumer welfa...

  19. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  20. Defining Consumer Ombudsmen

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, Chris; Hirst, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    This report seeks to describe consumer ombudsmen as they have developed in the United Kingdom. The recent European Union Directive on Consumer Alternative Dispute Resolution (2013/11/EU) defines consumer dispute resolution mechanisms in general, but does not distinguish between them individually. It does not, for instance, distinguish between consumer ombudsmen, arbitrators and adjudication schemes. Other existing approaches to definition, such as the Ombudsman Association’s criteria for ‘omb...

  1. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  2. Self-consuming materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, Steven G.; Grubelich, Mark C; Celina, Mathias C.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-05-23

    A self-consuming structure is disclosed that is formed from a self-consuming composition based on an epoxy or polyurethane having fuel and/or oxidizer molecularly dispersed and/or as particulates in the epoxy or polyurethane. The composition may be used to form self-consuming structural components.

  3. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  4. Cephalometric study of Class II Division 1 patients treated with an extended-duration, reinforced, banded Herbst appliance followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblyn, Travis; Rogers, Michael; Andrews, Lee; Martin, Chris; Tremont, Timothy; Gunel, Erdogan; Ngan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The Herbst appliance has been used in the treatment of Class II malocclusions with deficient mandibles. Various protocols, including different durations of the orthopedic treatment phase and stepwise advancement of the mandible, have been advocated for increasing the orthopedic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with a reinforced banded Herbst appliance for an extended duration and fixed appliance therapy. The study group consisted of 30 patients (16 boys, 14 girls; mean age, 12.3 ± 2.5 years) with Class II Division 1 malocclusions who were successfully treated with the new Herbst protocol followed by fixed appliances. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken before treatment, at the completion of Herbst treatment, and after removal of fixed appliances. The average treatment times were 1.5 ± 0.7 years for the Herbst treatment and 1.8 ± 0.5 years for the fixed appliances. A control Class II sample from the Bolton-Brush study was used to subtract growth from treatment changes to determine the appliance effect. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test. After the Herbst treatment, the incisal relationships of all subjects had been overcorrected to end-to-end relationships. Overjet was reduced by 7.2 mm after subtracting changes from growth. The skeletal contribution was 2.5 mm (35%), and the dental contribution was 4.7 mm (65%). The molar relationship was overcorrected to a more Class I relationship by 7.5 mm. The Wits appraisal was improved by 4.2 mm. Vertically, overbite was decreased by 3.3 mm. The maxillary and mandibular molars were extruded by 1 mm. The occlusal plane rotated clockwise by 5° with little change in the mandibular plane angle. After the treatment with fixed appliances, the overjet correction was maintained at 7.6 mm. The skeletal contribution was 2.9 mm (38%), and the dental contribution was 4.7 mm (62%). The molar

  5. Energy-Efficiency Labels and Standards: A Guidebook forAppliances, Equipment, and Lighting - 2nd Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, Stephen; McMahon, James E.

    2005-04-28

    Energy-performance improvements in consumer products are an essential element in any government's portfolio of energy-efficiency and climate change mitigation programs. Governments need to develop balanced programs, both voluntary and regulatory, that remove cost-ineffective, energy-wasting products from the marketplace and stimulate the development of cost-effective, energy-efficient technology. Energy-efficiency labels and standards for appliances, equipment, and lighting products deserve to be among the first policy tools considered by a country's energy policy makers. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and several other organizations identified on the cover of this guidebook recognize the need to support policy makers in their efforts to implement energy-efficiency standards and labeling programs and have developed this guidebook, together with the Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (CLASP), as a primary reference. This second edition of the guidebook was prepared over the course of the past year, four years after the preparation of the first edition, with a significant contribution from the authors and reviewers mentioned previously. Their diligent participation helps maintain this book as the international guidance tool it has become. The lead authors would like to thank the members of the Communications Office of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for their support in the development, production, and distribution of the guidebook. This guidebook is designed as a manual for government officials and others around the world responsible for developing, implementing, enforcing, monitoring, and maintaining labeling and standards setting programs. It discusses the pros and cons of adopting energy-efficiency labels and standards and describes the data, facilities, and institutional and human resources needed for these programs. It provides guidance on the design

  6. Development of a multimodal transportation educational virtual appliance (MTEVA) to study congestion during extreme tropical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    In this study, a prototype Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is developed to assist in transportation and cyberinfrastructure undergraduate education. This initial version of the MTEVA provides a graphical user interface...

  7. Poster Abstract: A Practical Model for Human-Smart Appliances Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Jonathan; Fruergaard, Andreas; Johannesen, Marco Høvinghof

    2016-01-01

    for human-smart appliance interaction. We present a prototype implementation with an off-the-shelf smart lighting and heating system in a shared office space. Our approach minimizes the need for location metadata. It relies on a human-feedback loop (both sensor based and manual) to identify the optimal......Buildings are increasingly equipped with smart appliances that allow a fine grained adaption to personal comfort requirements. Such comfort adaption should be based on a human-feedback loop and not on a centralized comfort model. We argue that this feedback-loop should be achieved through local...... interaction with smart appliances. Two issues stand out: (1) How to impose logical locality when interacting with a smart appliance? (2) How to mediate conflicts between several persons in a room, or between building-wide policies and user preferences? We approach both problems by defining a general model...

  8. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  9. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study. Results of the study showed even though most of the students felt uncertain about the technical appliances in E-learning Portal, the study illustrates the true nature of the student’s perceptions with respect to the functionality and effectiveness of technical appliance in E-learning Portal. This research is essential to elucidate the functions of technical appliances in facilitating the process of learning through the portal.

  10. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  11. Modified custom made J-hook for maxillary protraction in a rapid maxillary expansion appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithesh Kumar Kodoth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple yet innovative attaching the J-hook along with an rapid maxillary appliance for the protraction of maxilla is presented. The proposed method not only simplifies construction but also is equally effective.

  12. Changes in 3D Midfacial Parameters after Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dave Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: These data support the notion that maxillary bone width and volume can be changed in nongrowing adults. Furthermore, midfacial redevelopment may provide a potentially-useful method of managing adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, using biomimetic, oral appliances.

  13. 78 FR 51100 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    .../appliance_standards/asrac.html : Update on Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Certification... regarding commercial/industrial pumps working group. Any new business as discussed by the ASRAC committee...

  14. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  15. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeevarathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA, which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  16. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  17. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  18. The effects of customer benefit and regulation on environmental product innovation. Empirical evidence from appliance manufacturers in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerer, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Environmental product (EP) innovations and their determinants have received increasing attention from researchers during the past years. So far, empirical studies have shown inconsistent results, especially regarding the impact of regulation. In this paper, I seek to advance the understanding of EP-innovation by introducing and testing a novel research framework. First, a novel unit of analysis, the environmental issue level, is applied. EP-innovation is not studied in broad terms but specifically for four environmental issues that are relevant to the electrical and electronic appliances industry: energy efficiency, toxic substances, material efficiency, and electromagnetic fields. Second, the customer benefit, a concept from the green marketing literature, is included as an explanatory variable for EP-innovation for the first time. The argument is that green products which besides their public benefits have private environmental benefits for the customer (e.g., energy savings) will generate stronger consumer demand and can thus constitute the firm's motivation to implement those innovations in the first place. Third, EP-innovation is observed more comprehensively, measuring its extent and level of novelty. I apply this research framework to study EP-innovations of German manufacturers of electrical and electronic appliances. My results support the issue level as unit of analysis. The impact of customer benefit and regulation on EP-innovation is analyzed with logit regression and the results clearly show that both customer benefit and regulation play a key role for EP-innovation. They not only foster the implementation of EP-innovations but also their broad application and their level of novelty. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the Jones jig appliance for distal molar movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickman, C D; Sinha, P K; Nanda, R S

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the Jones jig appliance on distal movement of maxillary molars and reciprocal effects on premolars and maxillary incisors. Cephalometric radiographs before and after orthodontic treatment of 72 consecutively treated patients, 46 females and 26 males, were measured to define treatment changes attributed to the Jones jig. Comparative measurements were made on a matched sample of 35 patients (20 females and 15 males) treated with cervical headgear by the same clinician. Both series of patients were treated to correct an Angle Class II molar relationship. The molar correction in the Jones jig patients consisted primarily of molar distal movement. Dental, soft tissue, and skeletal changes were evaluated and compared for significant differences between techniques. The results from the Jones jig sample showed the mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 2.51 mm, with distal tipping of 7.53 degrees. The mean reciprocal mesial movement of the maxillary premolar was 2.0 mm, with mesial tipping of 4.76 degrees. The maxillary first molar extruded 0.14 mm; the maxillary premolar extruded 1.88 mm. The maxillary second molars were also moved distally 2.02 mm and tipped distally 7.89 degrees. The longitudinal assessment (initial to completion of orthodontic treatment) showed significant differences between the Jones jig sample and the cervical headgear sample for lower lip to E-line and SNA. The Jones jig sample showed a mean decrease in lower lip to E-line of 0.25 mm versus 1.20 mm (P jig sample versus 1.20 degrees (P jig sample and cervical headgear sample did not show significant differences of the final position in either linear or angular measurements of the maxillary first molars and corresponding premolar-incisor anchor units. The Jones jig appliance demonstrated treatment results comparable with those of the sample treated with cervical headgear. The Jones jig sample demonstrated effective distal molar

  20. Efficacy of modified pendulum appliance for the correction of class II malocclusion: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Koul; Ayushi Singla; Anil Singla; Vivek Mahajan; Harupinder Singh Jaj; Priyanka Negi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the efficiency of pendulum appliance for distalizing maxillary first molar while decreasing the anchorage loss by banding first and second premolar and making them one unit. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 20 patients (mean age 13 ± 2 years) who had skeletal Class I and Angle's Class II molar relation. Modified pendulum appliance was given to distalize maxillary first molar and to decrease the anchorage los...

  1. Mini-screws, a viable adjunct along with Incognito lingual appliance: A case series

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Lin; K K Fiona Pang; U T Sukie Wong; Viraj Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Invisible orthodontics have been around for too long, and with the advent of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology appliances such as Incognito TM has made the whole treatment experience more pleasant and aesthetic. However, even in lingual orthodontics, biomechanics play the most important role, and the use of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) has made the whole treatment more effective and efficient. This article focuses on cases where TADs in lingual appliances pla...

  2. Optimal joint scheduling of electrical and thermal appliances in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Elham; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal appliances are scheduled based on desired temperature and energy prices. • A discomfort index has been introduced within the home energy scheduling model. • Appliances are scheduled based on activity probability and desired options. • Starting probability depends on the social random factor and consumption behavior. - Abstract: With the development of home area network, residents have the opportunity to schedule their power usage in the home by themselves aiming at reducing electricity expenses. Moreover, as renewable energy sources are deployed in home, a home energy management system needs to consider both energy consumption and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost. In this paper, a smart home energy management model has been presented in which electrical and thermal appliances are jointly scheduled. The proposed method aims at minimizing the electricity cost of a residential customer by scheduling various type of appliances considering the residents consumption behavior, seasonal probability, social random factor, discomfort index and appliances starting probability functions. In this model, the home central controller receives the electricity price information, environmental factors data as well as the resident desired options in order to optimally schedule appliances including electrical and thermal. The scheduling approach is tested on a typical home including variety of home appliances, a small wind turbine, photovoltaic panel, combined heat and power unit, boiler and electrical and thermal storages over a 24-h period. The results show that the scheduling of different appliances can be reached simultaneously by using the proposed formulation. Moreover, simulation results evidenced that the proposed home energy management model exhibits a lower cost and, therefore, is more economical.

  3. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Nathali Silva; Murad Khan; Kijun Han

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage...

  4. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  5. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Raveli, Taisa Boamorte; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years), Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B), lingual (L) and to...

  6. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    OpenAIRE

    Feu, Daniela; Catharino, Fernanda; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli Junior, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 y...

  7. Clinical Effectiveness of Using Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances with Combined Occlusal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions. Aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface demonstrated high functional and aesthetic characteristics. The use of the USHPS system showed a decisive advantage of milled frameworks and combined occlusal surface over traditional cast ceramic frameworks.The combination of high mechanical, strength and tribological properties of zirconium dioxide and high biological as well as aesthetic properties of ceramic materials helped reveal high clinical characteristics of aesthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface.

  8. A prospective cohort study of a clip-on fixed functional appliance

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Michael J F; Deacon, Scott; O'Brien, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a fixed Twin-block appliance by using a study with a prospective cohort design. Thirty-two children were included in the study over a 2-year period. Cephalometric data were analyzed with the Pancherz cephalometric analysis. Study models were analyzed with the PAR index, and the treatment processes were recorded from the patients' records. The results showed that this appliance was effective in correcting Class II malocclusion; the non...

  9. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  10. Simulation platform for direct load control of household appliances. Literature survey and G2 implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, J.; Vlaheli, A.

    1996-10-01

    There is an incentive for the power utilities to look for other ways than building new power stations to satisfy increasing customer power needs. One way to fulfill this demand is by redistributing the available electric power between the different power consumers. This method can successfully be used during high peak hours. The utility is also able to make financial profits selling the redistributed electric power at a higher price to customers with temporary high power demands. Direct Load Control - DLC, a Demand Side Management - DSM tool, is one way to achieve a redistribution of electric power. This masters thesis project consisted in developing a user-friendly simulation platform for domestic appliances combined with an electric power control system to be employed for Direct Load Control. The platform contains the necessary facilities for designing an electrical distribution network model and is implemented in G2, an object-oriented real-time environment. The final application provides an on-line instrument for the utility to control the power consumption over the entire system in terms of dispensing power in an electrical network. The report consists of two main parts. The first part describes a literature survey we systematically compiled to gather literature sources. The second part outlines our design and implementation of the G2 simulation platform for a water-heater model with a Direct Load Control system. The entire simulation platform is designed to allow a flexible change and improvement of the different models. Consequently, our software is a powerful tool for studying a wide range of problems related to a Load Management program involving electrical household loads. 9 refs, 32 figs

  11. Appliances and their impact: the ownership of domestic technology and time spent on household work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, Michael; Rice, James Mahmud; Wajcman, Judy

    2004-09-01

    Ever since the appearance of Vanek's pioneering article in 1974, there has been a controversy about whether 'labour saving' domestic appliances actually save labour time. Vanek argued that time spent in housework had barely changed since 1926, despite the diffusion of practically every known domestic appliance over this period. Gershuny and Robinson challenge Vanek's 'constancy of housework' thesis, arguing that, between 1965 and 1985, domestic technology has significantly reduced the weekly hours of women's routine housework. Although there is much talking past each other, none of the protagonists in this dispute have any direct data about which households own or do not own domestic appliances. Instead, they all rely on the passage of the years as a proxy for ownership of domestic appliances, since a higher proportion of contemporary households now own domestic appliances. The Australian 1997 Time Use Survey (Australian Bureau of Statistics 1998b) is rare among official surveys, as it simultaneously provides detailed information on time spent in housework and an inventory of household appliances. The analysis of this data show that domestic technology rarely reduces women's unpaid working time and even, paradoxically, produces some increases in domestic labour. The domestic division of labour by gender remains remarkably resistant to technological innovation.

  12. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  13. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  14. Alteration in Taste Perception among Young Children during the use of Removable Orthodontic Appliance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Priyanka; Sakthivel, V S; Naqvi, Zuber A; Goyal, Vinod; Tripathi, Swati; Singh, Smita

    2017-07-01

    The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste perceptions has always had a controversial subject. The present study was designed to analyze the change in taste perception in children using removable orthodontic appliances. All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception. The verbal score was calculated based on the correct and incorrect taste stimuli given to them. Visual analog scale was used to assess intensity and hedonic (palatability) estimation of the volunteers. The volunteers from both study and control groups scored different values for taste stimuli. The majority of stimuli were estimated correctly by both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control groups. In different testing sessions, the scoring of the volunteers was nearly constant, indicating that an appliance does not play a major role in the alteration of taste stimuli. The appliance brings about transient change in taste perception, we should educate the patient before delivering the appliance about the transient change in taste perception and encourage full-time wear of the appliance, including during meals, without fear of affecting taste sensations.

  15. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, W Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-04-01

    The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner C.O.S., 3M). A digital impression was used to design 2 multicomponent orthodontic appliances. Biocompatible acrylic baseplates were produced with the aid of a 3D printer. The metal springs and clasps were produced by a bending robot. The fit of the 2 appliances was assessed by 2 experienced orthodontists. The authors assessed both orthodontic appliances with the volunteer's dentition and found the fit to be excellent. Clinicians can fully produce a multicomponent dental appliance consisting of both an acrylic baseplate and other parts, such as clasps, springs, or screws, using a digital workflow process without the need for a physical model of the patient's dentition. Plaster models can be superfluous for orthodontic treatment as digital models can be used in all phases of a full digital workflow in orthodontics. The arduous task of making a multicomponent dental appliance that involves bending wires can possibly be replaced by a computer, design software, a 3D printer, and a bending robot. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A randomized clinical trial comparing mandibular incisor proclination produced by fixed labial appliances and clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Garvey, Thérèse; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-09-01

    To compare the mandibular incisor proclination produced by fixed labial appliances and third generation clear aligners. Patients underwent a course of orthodontic treatment using either fixed labial appliances or clear aligners (Invisalign). Mandibular incisor proclination was measured by comparing pretreatment and near-end treatment lateral cephalograms. Eligibility criteria included adult patients with mild mandibular incisor crowding (clear aligner group. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups: Fixed appliance mean crowding was 2.1 ± 1.3 mm vs clear aligner mean crowding, 2.5 ± 1.3 mm; pretreatment mean mandibular incisor inclination for the fixed appliance group was 90.8 ± 5.4° vs 91.6 ± 6.4° for the clear aligner group. Fixed appliances produced 5.3 ± 4.3° of mandibular incisor proclination. Clear aligners proclined the mandibular incisors by 3.4 ± 3.2°. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > .05). There was no difference in the amount of mandibular incisor proclination produced by clear aligners and fixed labial appliances in mild crowding cases.

  18. Soft tissue profile changes after Functional Mandibular Advancer or Herbst appliance treatment in class II patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourfar, Jan; Lisson, Jörg Alexander; Gross, Ulrich; Frye, Linda; Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael

    2018-03-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare the effects on soft tissue profile in class II patients after treatment with either "Functional Mandibular Advancer" (FMA) or Herbst appliance. The study included n = 42 patients treated with either FMA (n = 21) or Herbst appliance (n = 21) by the same experienced orthodontist. The treatment followed a single-step advancement protocol. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed through a set of customized measurements. The actual therapeutic effect was calculated using data from a growth survey. After testing for normal distribution and homogeneity of variance, data were analyzed by one-sample Student's t tests and independent Student's t tests. Statistical significance was set at p profile were found in FMA and Herbst appliance patients. All remaining variables revealed no significant differences. Treatment-related changes on the facial soft tissue profile could be regarded similar in class II patients treated with FMA or Herbst appliance. No treatment-related changes that were specific for FMA or Herbst appliance could be identified. Only moderate changes were noted comparing pre- and posttreatment soft tissue profiles. Despite proven differences in skeletal and dental treatment effects, the facial profile has not to be taken into consideration when choosing between FMA and Herbst appliance for class II treatment.

  19. The impact of orthodontic appliances on eating - young people's views and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Louise A; Geldenhuys, Mieke; Moynihan, Paula J; Slater, Dina R; Exley, Catherine E; Rolland, Sarah L

    2015-06-01

    Orthodontic appliances are known to cause patients difficulty with eating. Learning more about the issues patients face, while eating with orthodontic appliances in place, will allow us to create more informative and relevant patient information, thereby improving patient compliance and treatment success. This study aims to understand how orthodontic appliances impact on eating in the broader context and to explore adolescent patients' perceptions of eating with orthodontic appliances. Purposive sampling was used and 19 participants currently undergoing orthodontic treatment and aged 11-14 years were selected for either a focus group or semi-structured interview to explore eating-related issues. Data collection and analysis were carried out as an iterative process broadly following principles of thematic analysis. Data collection ceased when no new themes emerged. Two main themes relating to eating problems emerged: restriction of food choice and problems associated with the eating process. Participants reported restricting food choice due to physical aspects of the appliance, advice given by their orthodontist, fear of breakage and also to minimize embarrassment. Participants also reported problems with the time taken to eat, chewing problems, taste change and being messy while eating. Additionally, time in treatment, the location of eating and relationship with those present during eating influenced emotions. Some participants indicated a positive impact of orthodontic appliances on their diet. These results can be used to further inform dietary advice offered to patients. Factors were identified which may not be considered in clinical practice but which could improve the value of dietary advice given to patients.

  20. Comparative evaluation of sagittal anchorage loss in lingual and labial appliances during space closure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to assess and compare the anchorage loss between labial and lingual appliance systems during space closure. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were part of the study among which 10 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.6 years were treated using lingual appliance system (0.018" slot-STb™ and 10 subjects (mean age 19 ± 6.1 years were treated using labial preadjusted edgewise appliance system (0.018" slot-MBT™ . First premolar extractions were performed to enable retraction of anterior teeth. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at two intervals, before starting space closure and after space closure that were connoted as T0 and T1 and were analyzed using the method described by Pancherz to measure anchorage loss. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate intraexaminer reliability of the measurements. Student′s t-test was performed to verify any statistical significant correlation between the labial and lingual appliance systems. Statistical differences were determined at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05. Results: The results showed that all ICC for lingual and labial group were ≥0.90 showing good repeatability of the measurements. Mean anchorage loss of 1.238 ± 0.17 mm in lingual appliance system and an anchorage loss of 2.06 ± 0.39 mm occurred with the labial appliance system. On the comparison between the two appliance systems, lingual appliance demonstrated a significantly lesser anchorage loss than did the labial appliance. Interpretation and Conclusion: This prospective study concludes with the fact that lingual appliance provided better anchorage control than labial appliance during space closure. Use of lingual appliance could be considered in critical anchorage cases when compared with labial appliance.

  1. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  2. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A; Cistulli, Peter A

    2014-02-15

    Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA.

  3. The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Abbott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians’ interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5 designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described.

  4. Development of the consumption behavior that promotes sustainable society: Focusing on recycling of small waste home appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Takae

    2015-04-01

    Hiroshima University High School (HUHS) became the first UNESCO Associated School in Japan in 1953, and since then it has practiced ESD in various educational activities in all ranges of education. As a teacher of home economics, I have focused on consumer affairs and encouraged my students to consider what each of them can do as an individual consumer in order to create a sustainable society. In Japan, several acts related to consumer affairs have been enforced in recent years. "Act on Promotion of Consumer Education" was enforced in December 2012, and construction of the "Consumer Citizen Society" was proposed. It places emphasis not only on environmental concerns but also on the initiative of consumers and its influence on social and economic trends. In addition, "Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment" was enforced in April, 2013. It aims at protecting living environment and healthy development of the national economy by appropriate treatment of waste materials and effective use of resources. For my lessons on "food, clothing and shelter in relation to consumption behavior and environmental problems", I took up "the recycling of small waste home appliances" as the teaching materials to raise awareness on resources recycling. The purpose of the lessons is three-fold: (1) to make students aware of environmental load; (2) to deepen the understanding of the influence which excessive consumption has on developing countries; (3) to encourage the students to think positively toward the solution of the problems. I am currently practicing the lessons, and I have shown below the summary of the instruction. Lesson 1: Give a quiz based on the database on environmental label from Ministry of the Environment website. Then show a film on whereabouts of the hi-tech industrial waste (e-waste). After the film, show some everyday products for which mineral resources are used in order to impress the idea of "urban mine". Lesson 2: Show a

  5. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  6. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  7. European Union's consumer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's consumer protection legislation concerns product safety measures (general product safety and liability for defective products, as well as protection of the economic interests of consumers (misleading and comparative advertising, distance contracts, unfair terms in consumer contracts, etc.. In the future, EU's consumer policy will face various challenges due to the factors such as globalization of markets and technological developments, which have had a profound effect on products, services and in marketing. In order to respond to these challenges, more flexible approach will be needed.

  8. Management of class II malocclusion in an adolescent patient with “The Poosh Appliance”: An in office fabricated fixed functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam K Manik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusions with mandibular retrognathism are best managed with functional orthopedic appliances. Patients reporting before peak pubertal growth are treated with removable functional appliances. Young adults or Class II patients in late adolescence have been treated most effectively using fixed functional appliances (FFAs in combination with fixed orthodontic appliance. In such patients, some skeletal changes but largely dentoalveolar changes account for the treatment results. Most of the readily available FFAs have high cost or require laboratory fabrication. Both mandibular protraction appliance (MPA and churro jumper appliance are in-office-fabricated FFAs. The Poosh appliance is a newly designed in-office-fabricated FFA. It is a modification of the popular churro jumper appliance. This article presents the design, fabrication, and use of Poosh appliance in a 15-year-old male patient to manage Class II malocclusion successfully.

  9. Perceived Effectiveness, Self-Efficacy, And Social Support For Oral Appliance Therapy Among Older Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Nancy J.; Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Mitchell, Michael N.; Hays, Ron D.; Col, Nananda; Patterson, Emily S.; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen; Fung, Constance H.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder among older adults. Oral appliances are increasingly prescribed as therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Adherence to oral appliance therapy is highly variable. Based on value-expectancy theory and other social-psychological theories, adherence to oral appliance therapy may be influenced by patients' perceived effectiveness of the therapy, self-efficacy, and availability of social support. We examined these perceptions among older adults wi...

  10. Treatment effects of various prescriptions and techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-09-01

    Although several prescriptions and techniques exist for comprehensive fixed appliance treatment, their treatment effects have not yet been adequately assessed in an evidence-based manner. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the therapeutic and adverse effects of various prescriptions or techniques for orthodontic appliances from randomized clinical trials on human patients. Eight databases were searched up to July 2016 for randomized trials assessing any orthodontic prescriptions or techniques in human patients. After elimination of duplicate studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random effects meta-analyses with mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. Compared to Roth preadjusted appliances, both Begg and modified Begg appliances were associated with statistically significantly worse occlusal outcome assessed with Peer Assessment Review (PAR) scores (1 trial, MD 3.1 points, 95% CI 1.9-4.3 points and 1 trial, MD 2.4 points, 95% CI 1.2-3.6 points, respectively) with low quality of evidence, due to bias and imprecision. Compared to a partially programmed fixed orthodontic appliance, a fully programmed appliance was associated with a statistically significant, but clinically irrelevant increase in treatment duration (1 trial, MD 2.4 months, 95% CI 0.6-4.2 months), supported by high quality of evidence. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of these results as only a limited number of small trials with methodological issues were available. Based on existing trials, there is limited evidence to support any robust clinical recommendation regarding the prescriptions or techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42016042727). None.

  11. Effect of material variation on the biomechanical behaviour of orthodontic fixed appliances: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Keilig, Ludger; Hasan, Istabrak; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Biomechanical analysis of orthodontic tooth movement is complex, as many different tissues and appliance components are involved. The aim of this finite element study was to assess the relative effect of material alteration of the various components of the orthodontic appliance on the biomechanical behaviour of tooth movement. A three-dimensional finite element solid model was constructed. The model consisted of a canine, a first, and a second premolar, including the surrounding tooth-supporting structures and fixed appliances. The materials of the orthodontic appliances were alternated between: (1) composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement for the adhesive, (2) steel, titanium, ceramic, or plastic for the bracket, and (3) β-titanium or steel for the wire. After vertical activation of the first premolar by 0.5mm in occlusal direction, stress and strain calculations were performed at the periodontal ligament and the orthodontic appliance. The finite element analysis indicated that strains developed at the periodontal ligament were mainly influenced by the orthodontic wire (up to +63 per cent), followed by the bracket (up to +44 per cent) and the adhesive (up to +4 per cent). As far as developed stresses at the orthodontic appliance are concerned, wire material had the greatest influence (up to +155 per cent), followed by bracket material (up to +148 per cent) and adhesive material (up to +8 per cent). The results of this in silico study need to be validated by in vivo studies before they can be extrapolated to clinical practice. According to the results of this finite element study, all components of the orthodontic fixed appliance, including wire, bracket, and adhesive, seem to influence, to some extent, the biomechanics of tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Controlled, Rapid Uprighting of Molars: A surprisingly Simple Solution The Pivot Arm Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warise, Timothy R; Galella, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    In orthodontic cases where the regional anatomy provides limited room for eruption, there is etiologically a higher occurrence of tipped/impacted second molars. Although second molar extraction with third molar replacement is a useful option, the "Pivot Arm Appliance" encourages the uprighting of the second molar as a preferred treatment. The most unique and important attribute of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" is the rotating tube. In cases of access limitation, the disto-occlusal surface of the molar presents as one area that is accessible. Other features of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" include: The position of the rotator tube delivers optimal rotational force through the pivoting action of the tube/arm complex. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" takes advantage of the efficiency and simplicity of a Class I lever system. The anatomical fulcrum being the dense cortical bone located anterior to the ascending ramus. The vertical spring system is compact, reliable and delivers gentle controlled force in rotational direction. The lingual location of the "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not hinder the function of the tongue, impinge on the soft tissue or interfere with normal masticatory function. The ease of placement of the rotator tube and subsequent insertion of the spring. It is well to note the uprighting appliance provides a very useful and practical approach to the unique problem of severely tipped second molars with limited buccal access. The "Pivot Arm Appliance" does not function only in these situations but can be used in all cases of second molar uprighting of a moderate to severe nature.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating intraoral orthopedic appliances for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James; Look, John O; Wright, Edward; Alencar, Francisco G P; Chen, Hong; Lang, Maureen; Ouyang, Wei; Velly, Ana Miriam

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed the efficacy of intraoral orthopedic appliances to reduce pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders affecting muscle and joint (TMJD) compared to subjects receiving placebo control, no treatment, or other treatments. A search strategy of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane CENTRAL Register, and manual search identified all English language publications of RCTs for intraoral appliance treatment of TMJD pain during the years of January 1966 to March 2006. Two additional studies from 2006 were added during the review process. Selection criteria included RCTs assessing the efficacy of hard and soft stabilization appliances, anterior positioning appliances, anterior bite appliances, and other appliance types for TMJD pain. Pain relief outcome measures were used in the meta-analyses, and the QUORUM criteria for data abstraction were used. A quality analysis of the methods of each RCT was conducted using the CONSORT criteria. The review findings were expressed both as a qualitative review and, where possible, as a mathematical synthesis using meta-analysis of results. A total of 47 publications citing 44 RCTs with 2,218 subjects were included. Ten RCTs were included in two meta-analyses. In the first meta-analysis of seven studies with 385 patients, a hard stabilization appliance was found to improve TMJD pain compared to non-occluding appliance. The overall odds ratio (OR) of 2.46 was statistically significant (P = .001), with a 95% confidence interval of 1.56 to 3.67. In the second meta-analysis of three studies including 216 patients, a hard stabilization appliance was found to improve TMJD pain compared to no-treatment controls. The overall OR of 2.15 was positive but not statistically significant, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.80 to 5.75. The quality (0 to 1) of the studies was moderate, with a mean of 55% of quality criteria being met

  14. Perceived Effectiveness, Self-efficacy, and Social Support for Oral Appliance Therapy Among Older Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Nancy J; Alessi, Cathy A; Martin, Jennifer L; Mitchell, Michael N; Hays, Ron D; Col, Nananda; Patterson, Emily S; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen; Fung, Constance H

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder among older adults. Oral appliances are increasingly prescribed as therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Adherence to oral appliance therapy is highly variable. Based on value-expectancy theory and other social-psychological theories, adherence to oral appliance therapy may be influenced by patients' perceived effectiveness of the therapy, self-efficacy, and availability of social support. We examined these perceptions among older adults with obstructive sleep apnea who were prescribed oral appliance therapy. We mailed surveys to all patients aged ≥65 years who had been prescribed oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea over the prior 36 months at a Veterans Affairs medical center. We examined frequencies of responses to items that assessed perceived effectiveness, self-efficacy, and social support for nightly use of oral appliances from friends, family, or health care staff. Thirty-nine individuals responded (response rate, 30%; mean [SD] age 71.4 [SD 6.3] years; 97% male). Thirty-six percent of the respondents perceived regular use of oral appliance therapy to be effective in managing obstructive sleep apnea; 39% agreed that they felt confident about using oral appliances regularly; 41% felt supported by people in their life in using oral appliance therapy; and 38% agreed that health care staff would help them to use their oral appliance regularly. These rates represented less than half of respondents despite the finding that 65% of patients believed that they would use their oral appliance regularly. Although oral appliance therapy is increasingly prescribed for obstructive sleep apnea, only about one third of older adults prescribed it perceived it to be an effective treatment, were confident about oral appliance use, and/or believed that they would receive needed support. Future research is needed to better understand older adults' perceptions so that interventions can be designed to improve the

  15. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  16. Procool - eco-efficient cold appliances for the commercial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeppi, Bernd; Ritter, Herbert; Barthel, Claus; Hermann, Laurenz; Streif, Oswald

    2005-01-01

    Pro-Cool is an EU-wide demonstration project which supports the development and market penetration of eco-efficient plug-in cold appliances for the commercial use. These products should be both highly energy efficient, free of HFC-containing refrigerants and -foaming agents and eco-efficient in a general sense. Thus the project corresponds with the EU Integrated Product Policy which aims at improving products by considering the ecological impact along the product life cycle. Besides ecological criteria, which are central for the project, other aspects relevant for purchasers like warranty and functionality are taken into account to guarantee the acceptance of the products by the demand side target groups. The so called 'voice of the customer' has been considered in the development of the criteria To achieve the necessary stimulation of the supply and demand side market a combined competition and procurement approach is developed addressing both manufacturers and buyers respectively users of the products. The central measure of the project is a European competition for suppliers what offers leading manufacturers of the market the opportunity to present themselves as innovative companies which provide eco-efficient equipment. Eight leading manufacturers which have a high market share in the selected product categories are taking part in the competition. Furthermore three large companies representing the demand side branches of super market chains and drinks industry already have signed a general agreement to support the project and to consider the products resulting from the competition in their procurement activities. Thus major supply and demand side target groups which are capable to support market transformation have joined the project. The competition terminates by December 2005 and the award of the winning products takes place in spring 2006 at an international fair or conference event. The paper presents the objectives and the concept of the project. Relevant

  17. Estimating future generation of obsolete household appliances in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Yuan, Zengwei; Bi, Jun; Huang, Lei

    2012-11-01

    The estimate of future obsolete streams is one of the crucial issues for the establishment of an efficient waste collection and recycling system in China. Due to low availability of reliable data, information on discarded household appliances (HAs) is deficient in China. This study adopts a stocks-based prediction model based on material flow analysis. The model firstly models the lifetime distribution of HAs, and then the future stocks of HAs are extrapolated. By determining the initial year of calculation, the model makes a prediction of future obsolete HAs in China in the time period from 2010-2030. The results show that the discarded amount of the five major kinds of HAs will increase from 130 million units in 2010 to 216 to 221 million units by 2020, and 259 to 282 million units by 2030. A total of 4370 to 4528 million units (149 to 155 million tonnes) of obsolete HAs will be generated in China over the next 20 years. Urban households will generate significantly more obsolete HAs (about 2619 to 2723 million units) than rural households, mainly due to the difference in their HAs possession levels. Thus recycling capacity must increase if the rising quantity of domestic obsolete HAs is to be handled properly. The results of this study can help to develop the collection and recycling systems and facilities needed for the obsolete HAs generated in the future. From a methodological perspective, the stock-based model provides a suitable tool to predict the generation of discarded HAs in the future.

  18. Causes and consequences of backdrafting of vented gas appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagda, N L; Koontz, M D; Billick, I H; Leslie, N P; Behrens, D W

    1996-09-01

    House depressurization occurs when household equipment such as a kitchen or bathroom fan or a fireplace exhausts air from the house and lowers the pressure indoors with respect to the outside. The operation of air handlers for forced-air heating or cooling systems also can have a depressurization effect. This depressurization can hinder the natural draft from vented combustion appliances and lead to backdrafting, which in turn can result in combustion gases spilling into the indoor airspace. Extensive spillage can cause elevated indoor levels of combustion products such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor, as well as contaminants such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The focus of this paper is to review studies on depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage from gas-fired, drafthood equipped furnaces and domestic hot water heaters. Qualitative and quantitative techniques that were used in depressurization and backdrafting studies conducted in Canada, Europe, and the United States are analyzed. These studies have shown that exhaust fans operated simultaneously with fireplaces depressurize houses by 3 to 8 Pa on average. The CO indoor concentrations due to spillage, as reported in these studies, generally have been lower than 5 ppm. However, such low CO concentrations do not necessarily imply that a potential problem associated with backdrafting does not exist. Other combustion products, such as NO2, rarely have been measured in prior backdrafting studies. It can be concluded from the literature review that causes of house depressurization are well understood. However, more comprehensive research is needed to better understand the frequency, duration, and severity of depressurization-induced spillage in a broad cross section of houses. Efforts in this direction have begun recently in the United States through a workshop to define research issues, pilot studies to develop comprehensive measurement protocols, and consensus standard

  19. Plaque Index in Multi-Bracket Fixed Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Z.H.; Shaikh, S.; Razak, F.A.

    2014-01-01

    To compare the plaque index in patients receiving multi-bracket fixed orthodontic treatment for various factors like age, gender, socio-economic status, brushing practices, meal habits, types of brackets, types of ligations, use of mouthwash and duration of treatment. Study Design: Cross-sectional analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Orthodontics Clinic, The Aga Khan University Hospital, from September to November 2011. Methodology: Socio-demographic and clinical modalities were defined and recorded for 131 patients having multi-bracket fixed appliances. The plaque index of subjects were recorded according to the Silness and Loe plaque index method. Independent sample t-test was used to see difference in plaque index in factors having two variables. One way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey tests were used to see difference in plaque index in factors having three variables. Kappa statistics was used to assess inter examiner reliability. P-value 0.05 was taken to be significant. Results: The sample comprised of 37% males (n = 48) and 63% females (n = 83). The plaque index had statistically significant association with practice of brushing i.e., timing of brushing (p=0.001), method of brushing (p=0.08), type of ligatures (p=0.05) and frequency of visits (p=0.01). Conclusion: The plaque accumulation is significantly decreased in subjects who brush the teeth twice or more than twice a day and those who brush their teeth after breakfast. The use of interdental brush and stainless steel ligatures had significantly low plaque. Subjects presenting with more frequent appointments of short-period had significantly less plaque. (author)

  20. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  1. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    ' in risk perception research covering structure, process, and the social dynamics of risk debates. After that I will present results from a recently completed research project. In this project, we specifically looked into consumers' perceptions of gene technology applied to brewing, and how...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....

  2. Consumers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…

  3. The Consumer Rights Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.A.; Mak, V.; Hartkamp, A.S.; Sieburgh, C.H.; Keus, L.A.D.; Kortmann, J.S.; Wissink, M.H.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution discusses the impact of the CRD on Dutch private law. How will the new directive influence consumer rights and how does this fit with existing law? Considering the background of the directive and its importance for European consumer law, however, we discuss these questions in the

  4. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  5. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  6. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field. Thro...

  7. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  8. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  9. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  10. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    is rapidly becoming a reality. On the other hand, still many consumers are in favour of local production, resulting in fierce competition between the multinational suppliers and the local producers of food. Under these market conditions, the importance of skills relating to hoe to study consumers' perception...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish....

  11. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  12. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  13. Changes in the oral environment after placement of lingual and labial orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Luca; Ortan, Yildiz Öztürk; Gorgun, Özge; Panza, Chiara; Scuzzo, Giuseppe; Siciliani, Giuseppe

    2013-09-11

    This study compared the oral hygiene and caries risk of patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances throughout a prospective evaluation of the status of the oral environment before and after bracket placement. A total of 20 orthodontic patients aged 19 to 23 years were included in the study and were divided into two groups: 10 patients wore Roth labial appliance (American Orthodontics, Sheboygan, WI, USA) and 10 patients wore STb lingual appliance (Ormco Corporation, Glendora, CA, USA). Plaque index (PI), gingival bleeding index (GBI), salivary flow rate, saliva buffer capacity, salivary pH, and Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts in saliva were determined at three time points: before orthodontic appliance placement (T0), 4 weeks after bonding (T1), and 8 weeks after bonding (T2). After appliance placement, all patients were periodically educated to the oral hygiene procedures. Wilcoxon rank and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to determine intragroup and intergroup differences as regards qualitative data. To compare quantitative data between the groups, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were undertaken, while intragroup differences were tested with McNemar test. The level of statistical significance was set at pappliance. The GBI value increased significantly between T0 and T1 but decreased significantly between T1 and T2 (pappliance. S. mutans counts increased significantly between T0 and T2 in the saliva samples of patients treated with lingual appliance. No statistically significant differences were found between S. mutans and Lactobacillus counts at the three terms of saliva collection in patients treated with labial appliance. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups at the three time points as regards the salivary flow rate and saliva buffer capacity. Lingual and labial orthodontic appliances showed a different potential in modifying the investigated clinical parameters: patients wearing STb

  14. The impact of natural gas on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreut, J.

    1997-01-01

    Centra Gas B.C. Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Westcoast Energy Inc., delivers gas to 54,000 residential and commercial customers and seven large market pulp mills in British Columbia. Over the next few years, Centra Gas expects their throughput capacity to double from 100 million cubic feet of gas/day to about 200 million cubic feet/day. Currently, there is about 2,500 km of distribution mains in place and new mains are being added at the rate of 200 km/year. The distribution system includes 565 km of pipeline for Vancouver Island. The B.C. government has announced plans to build two cogeneration plants on the Island which will have major positive economic and environmental impacts. Consumer benefits include not only one of the cleanest, most reliable, efficient and versatile energy sources available today, but also significant reductions in particulate and carbon dioxide emissions, high efficiency and instant response of natural gas appliances, as well as stability for existing industry and jobs, and the opportunity to expand, or to attract new industry and additional employment

  15. Efficiency of serial extraction and late premolar extraction cases treated with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Kevin W; Koroluk, Lorne D; Phillips, Ceib; Kennedy, David B

    2011-04-01

    Severe crowding can be treated with serial extraction (SE) in the mixed dentition or with late premolar extraction (LPE) in the permanent dentition. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of orthodontic treatment in SE patients and LPE patients. Retrospective chart review identified 51 SE patients and 49 LPE patients treated with fixed appliances. Number of appointments, length of time, and estimated total chair time were determined prior to the placement of fixed appliances and during fixed appliance treatment. Peer assessment rating (PAR) scores were obtained at T1 (start of fixed appliances) and T2 (removal of fixed appliances) for both groups, and at T0 (prior to extraction of the first premolars) for the SE group. The mean T1 PAR score for SE patients was significantly lower than LPE patients (P <0.001); mean T2 PAR scores were not significantly different (P = 0.27). Active treatment time (T1 to T2) was significantly (P <0.001) less for SE patients than LPE patients. Total time (T0 to T2) and total number of appointments were significantly greater for the SE group compared with the LPEgroup (P <0.001). SE and LPEresulted in similar final occlusal outcomes. SEs might reduce active treatment time, but significant observation time precedes active treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of temporomandibular disorders in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliances. The sample of 75 patients included 25 patients with no previous orthodontic treatment, 25 Class I patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and without extractions, and 25 patients with dentoskeletal Class III disharmonies treated with MCH and fixed appliances. The Helkimo index was used to test the prevalence of TMD symptoms in the 3 groups. The prevalence rates of the Helkimo index in the 3 groups were compared with the z score on proportions. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence rates of the Helkimo index scores in the 3 groups were found (P = .367). Most subjects in the 3 groups had an Helkimo index of zero (66.7%). Subjects with Class III malocclusions treated with MCH and fixed appliances do not have greater prevalence of TMD symptoms than do Class I subjects treated with fixed appliances or untreated subjects.

  17. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  18. Selection of response criteria affects the success rate of oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tsuiki, Satoru; Kobayashi, Mina; Nakayama, Hideaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-03-01

    In oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), treatment success is arbitrarily defined. We investigated if the selection of response criteria affected the success rate of oral appliance treatment. The effects of an oral appliance on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nadir percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) were investigated in 224 OSA patients. Treatment success was defined as a reduction in AHI to 50% reduction in baseline AHI (criterion 1), a follow-up AHI of 50% reduction in baseline AHI (criterion 2), a >50% reduction in baseline AHI alone (criterion 3), or a >50% reduction in baseline AHI with the nadir SpO2 above 90% (criterion 4). The baseline AHI was reduced with an oral appliance in place compared with the follow-up value (23 ± 11-8.5 ± 8.7 events/h; Poral appliance treatment. To avoid adverse health outcomes, an adjunct definition of treatment success using SpO2 may be effective for patients who have more severe OSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery and separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvelas, D.E.; Jody, B.J.; Poykala, J.A. Jr.; Daniels, E.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Arman, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.]|[Praxair, Inc., Tarrytown, NY (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop a cost- effective and environmentally acceptable process for the separation of high-value plastics from discarded household appliances. The process under development has separated individual high purity (greater than 99.5%) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and high- impact polystyrene (HIPS) from commingled plastics generated by appliance-shredding and metal-recovery operations. The process consists of size-reduction steps for the commingled plastics, followed by a series of gravity-separation techniques to separate plastic materials of different densities. Individual plastics of similar densities, such as ABS and HIPS, are further separated by using a chemical solution. By controlling the surface tension, the density, and the temperature of the chemical solution we are able to selectively float/separate plastics that have different surface energies. This separation technique has proven to be highly effective in recovering high-purity plastics materials from discarded household appliances. A conceptual design of a continuous process to recover high-value plastics from discarded appliances is also discussed. In addition to plastics separation research, Argonne National Laboratory is conducting research to develop cost-effective techniques for improving the mechanical properties of plastics recovered from appliances.

  20. Dentoalveolar and skeletal changes associated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Fernanda; Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Fuziy, Acácio

    2006-04-01

    This prospective clinical study analyzed the distalization of maxillary molars achieved by the pendulum appliance and its effect on the anchorage teeth during and after fixed orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms of 22 adolescents (15 girls, 7 boys) taken pretreatment, after distalization, after leveling and aligning, and after fixed orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The initial mean age was 14.5 years (SD = 1.80). The mean time for distalization of the maxillary molars was 5.85 months (SD = 1.82), and the total treatment time was 3.61 years (SD = 1.83). The pendulum appliance moved the maxillary molars distally, but with significant distal inclination, protrusion of the anterior teeth, and increase in lower anterior facial height (LAFH) due to the clockwise mandibular rotation. After fixed orthodontic treatment, the maxillary incisors and the maxillary first premolars and first molars were returned to their pretreatment anteroposterior positions. Thus, at postdistalization, there was 2.1 mm of protrusion of the maxillary first molars, despite the anchorage reinforcement (Nance button and cervical headgear worn at night during fixed appliance therapy). However, at the end of treatment, all patients had Class I molar relationships. The pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic treatment corrected the Class II sagittal relationship, especially due to the dentoalveolar changes secondary to the spontaneous mandibular growth in the anterior direction during fixed appliance treatment.

  1. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  2. Effects of orthodontic appliances on the diagnostic quality of magnetic resonance images of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhylich, Dzmitry; Krishnan, Pradeep; Muthusami, Prakash; Rayner, Tammy; Shroff, Manohar; Doria, Andrea; Tompson, Bryan; Lou, Wendy; Suri, Sunjay

    2017-03-01

    The influence of 4 commonly used fixed orthodontic appliances on artifact formation and diagnostic quality of magnetic resonance (MR) images of the head produced by a 3-T MR scanner was studied. Stainless steel brackets, ceramic brackets, combination of ceramic brackets and steel molar tubes, and multistranded steel mandibular lingual retainers were embedded into custom-made trays for each of 10 adult subjects. Head MR scans of 9 regions were acquired for each subject wearing these trays. Sagittal T1-weighted, axial T2-weighted, axial gradient-recalled, axial diffusion-weighted, noncontrast axial MR angiography, and axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR sequences were included. Two neuroradiologists evaluated image distortions and diagnostic qualities of the 1314 acquired images (13860 image slices). The images were affected by appliance, head region, and MR sequence. Stainless steel brackets and molar tubes affected the images the most, and ceramic brackets caused minimal image distortion. Head MR images are differentially affected by orthodontic appliances. The appliance, region imaged, and MR sequence should be considered before imaging patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the Consumer Behavior of Intention to Purchase Green Products in Belt and Road Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Cheng Chen; Chien-Wen Chen; Yi-Chun Tung

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the consumer behavior of intention to purchase green products based on a decision-making model that integrates cognitive attributes, affective attributes, and behavioral intentions in Belt and Road countries. The questionnaires were collected from customers who previously purchased green products; this study distributed the questionnaires at the appliance section of the department stores and collected 227 valid responses. Environmental attitude, product attitude, social in...

  4. Burns and injuries from non-electric-appliance fires in low- and middle-income countries Part II. A strategy for intervention using the Haddon Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Michael D; Kruger, Gerebreg E; van der Merwe, Anna E; Godakumbura, Wijaya; Oen, Irma M M; Swart, Dehran; Ahuja, Rajeev B

    2008-05-01

    A large proportion of burns in developing countries are related to the nature of domestic appliances used for cooking, heating, and lighting. Our overview of the problem elucidated the need for better surveillance with epidemiologic studies, which will more accurately assess the true incidence in vulnerable populations. This paper will create a framework for envisaging new approaches to the problem and begin to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of proposed interventions. We used the Haddon Matrix to accumulate proposed interventions that encompass a pre-event, event, and post-event timeline. We propose an initial strategic outline plan for interventions based on values that are suited to the problem and the setting, are culturally appropriate, and can be employed in a reasonable period of time for a sustained period to ensure success. Recommended action steps include promoting the use of alternative energy sources, encouraging an integrated approach to finding interdisciplinary solutions, devising a better system of kerosene containerization, re-engineering appliance designs, legislating for enforcement of health and safety standards, taking a holistic approach through government inter-departmental collaboration, formally discouraging corruption, encouraging ventilation of cooking or living areas, implementing building codes, educating consumers, and training caregivers and health and emergency workers.

  5. Consumer Sleep Technologies: A Review of the Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ping-Ru T; Kientz, Julie A; Choe, Eun Kyoung; Kay, Matthew; Landis, Carol A; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-12-15

    To review sleep related consumer technologies, including mobile electronic device "apps," wearable devices, and other technologies. Validation and methodological transparency, the effect on clinical sleep medicine, and various social, legal, and ethical issues are discussed. We reviewed publications from the digital libraries of the Association for Computing Machinery, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, and PubMed; publications from consumer technology websites; and mobile device app marketplaces. Search terms included "sleep technology," "sleep app," and "sleep monitoring." Consumer sleep technologies are categorized by delivery platform including mobile device apps (integrated with a mobile operating system and utilizing mobile device functions such as the camera or microphone), wearable devices (on the body or attached to clothing), embedded devices (integrated into furniture or other fixtures in the native sleep environment), accessory appliances, and conventional desktop/website resources. Their primary goals include facilitation of sleep induction or wakening, self-guided sleep assessment, entertainment, social connection, information sharing, and sleep education. Consumer sleep technologies are changing the landscape of sleep health and clinical sleep medicine. These technologies have the potential to both improve and impair collective and individual sleep health depending on method of implementation. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  6. Evaluation of Invisalign treatment effectiveness and efficiency compared with conventional fixed appliances using the Peer Assessment Rating index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiafeng; Tang, Jack Shengyu; Skulski, Brennan; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Deguchi, Toru

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to compare the treatment effectiveness and efficiency of the Invisalign system with conventional fixed appliances in treating orthodontic patients with mild to moderate malocclusion in a graduate orthodontic clinic. Using the peer assessment rating (PAR) index, we evaluated pretreatment and posttreatment records of 48 Invisalign patients and 48 fixed appliances patients. The 2 groups of patients were controlled for general characteristics and initial severity of malocclusion. We analyzed treatment outcome, duration, and improvement between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups. The average pretreatment PAR scores (United Kingdom weighting) were 20.81 for Invisalign and 22.79 for fixed appliances (P = 1.0000). Posttreatment weighted PAR scores between Invisalign and fixed appliances were not statistically different (P = 0.7420). On average, the Invisalign patients finished 5.7 months faster than did those with fixed appliances (P = 0.0040). The weighted PAR score reduction with treatment was not statistically different between the Invisalign and fixed appliances groups (P = 0.4573). All patients in both groups had more than a 30% reduction in the PAR scores. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the Invisalign group were 0.329 times the odds of achieving "great improvement" in the fixed appliances group after controlling for age (P = 0.0150). Our data showed that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were able to improve the malocclusion. Invisalign patients finished treatment faster than did those with fixed appliances. However, it appears that Invisalign may not be as effective as fixed appliances in achieving "great improvement" in a malocclusion. This study might help clinicians to determine appropriate patients for Invisalign treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming......Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...

  8. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  9. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  10. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  11. Environmental emission mitigation potential of efficient electrical appliances in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Shrestha, R. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers` Association, Colombo (Slovakia)

    1998-08-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic potential of selected efficient demand-side appliances to mitigate emission of air pollutants from the power sector of Sri Lanka. The study shows that through the use of the selected efficient appliances a total of about 38 646 GWh (i.e. 18.5% of total electricity generation) and about 25.6% (29 541,000 tons), 34.2% (293,000 tons) and 34.6% (374,000 tons) of the total COsub(2), SOsub(2) and NOsub(x) emission respectively could be avoided during 1997-2015 with the use of the efficient appliances from the technical and national economic perspectives. (author)

  12. Anterior crossbite correction with a series of clear removable appliances: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    The Clear Aligner can be used to correct tooth movement without involving extraction, surgery, and other adjunct orthopedic appliances. The Clear Aligner is a procedure that can be performed by either an orthodontist or a general dentist without computer simulation/calculation. Since the Clear Aligner is fabricated from the stone model for new appliance at each or every other appointment, it is readily available to change the treatment sequence throughout the course of the treatment. The patient can receive any necessary dental procedures with ease during the course of the treatment. The treatment can also be easily resumed even if the patient has not worn the aligners for a period of time. The purpose of this article is to report dental anterior crossbite correction with a series of Clear Aligners. The Clear Aligner could be used as an alternative in appropriate cases for those who are reluctant with conventional appliances.

  13. Application of smart technology in monitoring and control of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abdulrazaq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inherent dependency of home appliances on human for monitoring and control has been found to be mainly responsible for power wastage, and increase in the rate of wear and tear, which invariably implies additional spending on the part of owners. The smart technology provides a way out. This paper presents an automated system which is based on arduino and android device for monitoring and controlling appliances to prevent the wastage of power. The system design is based on the Microcontroller MIKRO-C software, active sensors and wireless internet services which is used in different monitoring and control processes of fan, air-conditioner, light and heater. The system when tested performs efficiently in monitoring and controlling through switching the appliances in the room based on human presence and environmental changes due to light intensity and temperature variation.

  14. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  15. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  16. ChainConsumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel R.

    2016-08-01

    ChainConsumer is a python package written to consume the output chains of Monte-Carlo processes and fitting algorithms, such as the results of MCMC. ChainConsumer's main function is to produce plots of the likelihood surface inferred from the supplied chain. In addition to showing the two-dimensional marginalised likelihood surfaces, marginalised parameter distributions are given, and maximum-likelihood statistics are used to present parameter constraints. In addition to this, parameter constraints can be output in the form of a LaTeX table. Finally, ChainConsumer also provides the functionality to plot the chains as a series of walks in parameter values, which provides an easy visual check on chain mixing and chain convergence.

  17. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back About Us Overview The Bureau Budget & Strategy Payments to Harmed Consumers Recent Updates Blog Newsroom Events ... to help you reach your goals. Paying for College Owning a Home Planning for Retirement Standing up ...

  18. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  19. Commonly Consumed Food Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonly consumed foods are those ingested for their nutrient properties. Food commodities can be either raw agricultural commodities or processed commodities, provided that they are the forms that are sold or distributed for human consumption. Learn more.

  20. Using smart meter to monitor the energy consumption of home appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, M.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    A smart meter provides the foundation for the smart grid, which represent the future electric system in terms of communications, sensors and automation to improve the flexibility, reliability and efficiency of power systems. Smart meters are installed at the utility-customer interface point to provide real-time power usage and price data to each electricity user. The purpose is to create customer awareness on electricity consumption and help users to conserve energy. Smart meters are being deployed throughout North America to replace most traditional meters. However, this paper discussed a major technical gap of the smart meter. Existing smart meters do not provide households with enough feedback needed to achieve effective energy saving. In order to support the energy conservation effort of a customer, the whole house energy data must be displayed on minute or second basis, and it must also be broken down into individual appliance levels. The data of an appliance's energy usage is the most useful information for users to modify their actions and conserve energy. This paper proposed to make the smart meter capable of reporting the overall consumption of a household, as well as monitoring how individual appliances use electricity. It presented a method on using different appliance signatures to identify appliances and make energy estimations on their respective consumptions. Paired with time-of-use or other real time pricing mechanisms, the method enables customers to save energy. This paper also demonstrated how to implement an algorithm on the smart meter platform. Future work will focus on making the algorithm more accurate and faster, and on integrating the smart meter with an appliance energy monitoring system. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea patients using oral appliances: Our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljuš Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. It is recognized as a serious risk factor for car and workplace accidents due to daytime sleepiness, and factor for coronary heart diseases and stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of oral appliances for mandibular advance in treating mild to moderate OSA. Methods. A total of 15 patients were included in this study, all diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA. Oral appliances were custom made for each patient in protrusive position at 50% of maximum mandibular advancement. The patients were given instructions not to sleep on their backs and avoid alcohol consumption during the study as these are the factors that can contribute to symptoms progression. Results. Complete and partial treatment success was achieve in 14 of the patients. Apnea-hypopnea index values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 at the end of a 6-month observation period compared to those at the treatment beginning. A great improvement in symptoms was observed, with daytime sleepiness index values significantly reduced already within the first month of the treatment. Conclusion. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances has proven successful. Patients were comfortable using oral appliances and were ready to wear them for prolonged period of time. Use of oral appliances is very common in the world and should not be discarded. They are also very comfortable, practical and affordable comparing to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP apparatus, not to mention surgery. Use of oral appliances is safe and very well tolerated, and ought to be offered to patients with OSA.

  2. Modelling the effects of U.S. ENERGY STARR appliance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Shel; Hoefgen, Lynn; Wilson-Wright, Lisa; Li, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Numerous U.S. utilities and market transformation organizations have invested heavily in the ENERGY STAR program, designed to increase market penetration of energy-efficient products (e.g., home appliances, lighting products, windows). Major activities involve stimulating production and promotion of qualifying models, as well as stocking, sales support and financial incentives to customers-all of which entail considerable investments of public funds. Several studies have shown that customer awareness of ENERGY STAR has increased across the country, particularly where energy-efficiency programs have been most active. Furthermore, studies in regions with aggressive programs have shown that the market penetration of qualifying products has increased rapidly. Until recently, however, policy makers have lacked reliable studies that compare changes in market penetration across regions with and without programs while factoring out effects of demographic and other background factors (e.g., education, income, and climate). Also lacking have been attempts to assess whether heavy promotion of the ENERGY STAR brand with some appliances (e.g., clothes washers) has affected the market penetration of less-promoted qualifying appliances. In this paper, the authors address these issues, using a database of the market penetration of four major home appliances at national retailers in each of the individual states over a multi-year period, based on multivariate statistical models. Results include both analyses of the overall trend of market penetration (1998-2002) for the appliances considered and the incremental effects of the 2003 program. The results lead to recommendations regarding the design of programs supporting ENERGY STAR compliant appliances and the key components of those programs

  3. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  4. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Low level laser intensity improves propulsive appliance effects on condylar cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Augusto C. R.; dos Santos, Fernanda C. A.; Capeletti, Lucas R.; Galdino, Marcos V. B.; Araújo, Renan V.; Marques, Mara R.

    2012-01-01

    Mandibular propulsive appliance (MPA) stimulates cell proliferation and gene expression on mandible condylar cartilage (Marques et al., 2008). However, its association with low level laser therapy (LLLT) is unknown. This study evaluated the effects of LLLT associated to MPA on mandibular condyle. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I received any treatment. Group II was bilaterally irradiated on temporomandibular joint with 10 J/cm2 low level laser (780nm, 40mW and 10s) on alternate days. Group III used the propulsive appliance for ten hours daily and Group IV used the appliance daily and was irradiated on alternate days. After 15 days the animals were killed by lethal doses of anesthetics. The condyles were fixed in Methacarn solution and decalcified in 4.13% EDTA solution for 30 days. Seriate saggital 5 μm-thick sections were stained by the hematoxilin-eosin method. Morphological and morphometric analyses were performed to measure the length and the height of the mandibular condyle, the thickness of the condilar cartilage and the bone mass. Results were expressed as mean +/- standard deviation (one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post-test.) The appliance increased all measures compared to the control group, except bone mass. Alone, LLLT had no effects on all measures, however, the association of the appliance with the LLLT increased condylar cartilage and bone mass significantly compared to the others groups. These results suggest that LLLT improves the effects of mandibular propulsive appliance in the condylar cartilage growth and formation of bone mass.

  6. Consumer rationality in choice

    OpenAIRE

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and demonstrated empirically to be incompatible with actual consumer choices. In particular the complexity of the choice situation, and its various components, are found to be major determinants of the ch...

  7. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  8. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  9. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  10. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  11. Modified quad helix appliance for thumb sucking and cross bite correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Vinay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Digit sucking habit is a learned pattern of behavior commonly seen in children of preschool age. Prolonged digit sucking beyond the preschool age, lead to the development of malocclusion such as anterior open bite, maxillary constriction and posterior crossbite. Treatment strategies include interception of habit and correction of the malocclusion. The present case report describes a modified quad helix appliance used successfully in a 9-year-old child to intercept thumb sucking habit and simultaneous correction of posterior crossbite. The appliance has the advantage of easy fabrication, being versatile and more patients compliant.

  12. Mini-screws, a viable adjunct along with Incognito lingual appliance: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invisible orthodontics have been around for too long, and with the advent of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology appliances such as Incognito TM has made the whole treatment experience more pleasant and aesthetic. However, even in lingual orthodontics, biomechanics play the most important role, and the use of temporary anchorage devices (TADs has made the whole treatment more effective and efficient. This article focuses on cases where TADs in lingual appliances play a critical role in the treatment of various malocclusions.

  13. An experiment with spectral analysis of emotional speech affected by orthodontic appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Ďuračková, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The contribution describes the effect of the fixed and removable orthodontic appliances on spectral properties of emotional speech. Spectral changes were analyzed and evaluated by spectrograms and mean Welch’s periodograms. This alternative approach to the standard listening test enables to obtain objective comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. Obtained results of analysis performed on short sentences of a female speaker in four emotional states (joyous, sad, angry, and neutral) show that, first of all, the removable orthodontic appliance affects the spectrograms of produced speech.

  14. A fixed partial appliance approach towards treatment of anterior single tooth crossbite: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gawthaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossbite can be treated using both removable and fixed appliances. This paper describes the report of two cases by a method of treating anterior single tooth in crossbite which is locked out of arch form with a simple fixed partial appliance. Orthodontic treatment was initiated by creating space for the locked out incisor using open coil spring and further corrected using MBT brackets and nitinol archwire for alignment. Treatment goals were achieved, and esthetics and occlusion were maintained postoperatively. Treatment objectives were obtained within a short duration using this technique, and there was an improvement in patients' smile.

  15. Oral Appliance Versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome : A 2-Year Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, Michiel H. J.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Oral appliance therapy has emerged as an important alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study we report about the subjective and objective treatment outcome of oral appliance therapy and

  16. A randomized clinical trial of a new orthodontic appliance to improve upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchenau, Wolfgang; Urschitz, Michael S; Sautermeister, Judit; Bacher, Margit; Herberts, Tina; Arand, Joerg; Poets, Christian F

    2007-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that a new orthodontic appliance with a velar extension that shifts the tongue anteriorly would reduce upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence (PRS). Eleven infants with PRS (median age, 3 days) and an apnea index (AI) >3 were studied. The effect of the new appliance on the AI was compared with that of a conventional appliance without a velar extension by using a crossover study design with random allocation. Compared with baseline (mean AI, 13.8), there was a significant decrease in the AI with the new appliance (3.9; P value appliance (14.8; P = .842). Thus, the relative change in AI was -71% (95% CI, -84--49) for the new appliance and +8% (95% CI, -52-142) for the conventional appliance, which was significantly different (P = .004). No severe adverse effects were observed. This new orthodontic appliance appears to be safe and effective in reducing upper airway obstruction in infants with PRS.

  17. A retrospective cephalometric study of the effects of the Harvold appliance in the treatment of 20 patients with a Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the Harvold appliance on the dentoalveolar and skeletal structures and note the changes produced. The primary impact of the Harvold appliance as shown in this study was dentoalveolar.

  18. Consumer induction cooking systems: electromagnetism and electronics in the kitchen; Les systemes de cuisson par induction ''grand public'' ou l'electromagnetisme et l'electronique dans nos cuisines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, F.; Montloup, D. [Montpellier-2 Univ., LEM, 34 (France); Gaspard, J.Y. [Societe Magtech, Centre Scientifique, A. Moiroux, 69 - Ecully (France)

    2004-05-01

    Consumer cooking hobs include an inductor-recipient unit, a static converter needed for injection of AC into the inductor (F > 20 kHz) to generate the magnetic field, and a control system. As this kind of appliance increases in popularity, we can expect technological advances such as an inverter bridge for two plates and a multi-inductor system. (author)

  19. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-04-27

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  20. Consumers as co-developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.

    firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development......, Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction, Learning, Consumer Innovation, Community, User-toolkits. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...

  1. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when......The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  2. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  3. Evolution of consumer cooperativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez Charterina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of modern cooperativism can be found in the consumer cooperative. Many changes have taken place over time, some of which have been profound and rapid, affecting the way consumer cooperatives work and their very existence. They have evolved to give more complete service and keep their original purpose. The case of the Eroski cooperative is studied in depth. Eroski originated in the Basque Country and expanded its business activities to become one of the big distributors following a new model. A local neighbourhood cooperative, the Park Slope Food Coop in Brooklyn, is studied as an alternative to the former case. In both cases, consumers, their awareness and protection of their rights are of utmost importance.Received: 16.06.11Accepted: 05.07.11

  4. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  5. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  6. Influence of Cervitec gel on periodontal health of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Özdemir

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present data suggested that brushing with Cervitec gel once a day has the potential to reduce bacterial accumulation around teeth and fixed appliances in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. However, within the limits of this study, Cervitec seems to have no significant effect on total bacteria, P.g., and T.d. levels of subgingival dental plaque.

  7. Experimental determination of demand side management potential of wet appliances in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M. R.; de Boer-Meulman, P. D M; van Sark, W. G J H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2017-01-01

    The potential of demand side management (DSM) of wet appliances (washing machine, dishwasher and tumble dryer) in households with photovoltaic (PV) systems is studied experimentally focusing on evening peak demand reduction and increase in PV self-consumption. In a sample of 100 Dutch households the

  8. Magnetic-field flux density and spectral characteristics of motor-driven personal appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B W; Hansen, N H; Davis, K C

    1994-01-01

    Flux density and spectral measurements were carried out on magnetic fields generated by several types of motor-driven personal appliances used near the body. Among the units tested were several for which the average flux densities, as determined at the surfaces of the appliance, exceeded 0.4 mT. Time-rates-of-change (dB/dt) for several units exceeded 1000 T/s, and several units exhibited high-frequency components in the low-MHz range. Use of such appliances, although normally of short duration, can represent exposure to magnetic fields of relatively high flux density, which may also have high-frequency components. Compared to other household and commercial sources of magnetic fields, those generated by certain motor-driven personal appliances may represent a significant contribution to time-weighted average exposure and may represent an important source of local induced currents in the body. Furthermore, high-frequency transients that represent only a minor contribution to time-weighted average exposure may generate significant instantaneous induced currents.

  9. Greening consumption at the retail outlet: the case of the Thai appliance industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.; Spaargaren, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the decades, the Thai appliance industry has developed into a strong and export-oriented industry with rigorous strategies to improve the environmental performance of products and production. Leading producers have recently begun to develop greening strategies targeting the consumption behavior

  10. 76 FR 62364 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ..., packing, electronics, house appliance, hardware and plastics, and furniture business which have been..., hardware and plastics, and furniture business). Hence, the grants are de jure specific under section 771(5A... conferred during the POR. Both Wireking and NKS purchased electricity and provided monthly usage and payment...

  11. 76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy... water heaters, and televisions.\\4\\ The Rule requires manufacturers to attach yellow EnergyGuide labels... Department of Energy efficiency standard for the regions where it will be installed. The Commission seeks...

  12. 77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy... equipment meets applicable new Department of Energy (``DOE'') efficiency standards for specific regions. The... disclosures and the DOE plan, the American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy requested that the FTC...

  13. Maxillary protraction at early ages. The revolution of new bone anchorage appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Mendoza, B; Iglesias-Linares, A; Yañez-Vico, R M; Mendoza-Mendoza, A; Alió-Sanz, J J; Solano-Reina, E

    2012-01-01

    An update is provided on the different types of early treatment for class III malocclusions of maxillary origin. There is an increasing tendency to prescribe maxillary orthopedic treatment with skeletal anchorage, with the purpose of enhancing the skeletal and reducing the dentoalveolar effects--offering a management option for children with important deformations that otherwise would have to wait until adult age to receive surgical treatment. A literature review has been made of maxillary bone orthopedic traction appliances in growing children with class III malocclusions. A Medline (PubMed) search was made using the following MeSH terms: Cephalometric, Child, Malocclusion class III/therapy, Extraoral traction appliances, Palatal expansion, Bone plates, Skeletal anchorage, Orthodontic anchorage. Many articles show that the greatest maxillary advances are obtained at very early ages, though with a greater tendency towards relapse. However skeletal anchorage has been seen to afford a lesser relapse rate and greater dentofacial orthopedic efficiency due to its low dentoalveolar impact. In any case, further randomized clinical studies are needed to firmly establish the quantifiable differences in terms of maxillary advance, optimum traction age, optimum traction appliance and potential side effects. At present, the incorporation of surgically inserted bone anchorage appliances (miniplates and miniscrews) offers a purely orthopedic approach to treatment, with minimization of the undesirable side effects of traditional dentofacial orthopedic compensation based on dentoalveolar anchorage. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to consolidate the supporting scientific evidence in this field.

  14. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHWARTZ, João Paulo; RAVELI, Taísa Boamorte; ALMEIDA, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; SCHWARTZ-FILHO, Humberto Osvaldo; RAVELI, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance. PMID:26537718

  15. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  16. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Journal of Surgical Technique and Case Report | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 7. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with. Cleft Palate Using Safe Dental Putty‑Gauze Hybrid Impression. Technique for Maxillary Impression. Manu Rathee. INTRODUCTION. Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one ...

  17. Treatment of an impacted supernumerary tooth using limited fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Tai, Kiyoshi; Kanao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A 42-year and 9-month-old female with an impacted supernumerary tooth was treated with limited fixed orthodontic appliances. As seen in this case, it is possible to successfully treat impacted teeth in adults even though the most common time to treat impactions is during adolescence.

  18. 77 FR 33337 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... eight appliance categories: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, dishwashers, water heaters... Council (NRDC) and other Organizations ( 00004) (the other organizations include Alliance to Save Energy... appears on EnergyGuide labels for other covered products such as dishwashers and televisions. Unlike those...

  19. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  20. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  1. [Recommended times for wearing removable appliances--the results of a survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, E; Bartsch, A; Sahm, G

    1992-04-01

    Since prescribed wear times of removable appliances are, in combination with comfort, relevant to compliance, a questionnaire on the prevalence, the nature and the differentiation of such prescriptions in active orthodontic treatment was sent to 300 orthodontists selected at random among the members of the German Orthodontic Society. On the basis of 172 responses (response rate 57.5%), the following results were obtained: In eight to 16-years olds "active" treatment is administered with Schwartz plates in an average of 43.7%, and with functional orthopaedic appliances in an average of 37.6% of the cases, the classical activator (61.1%) and the bionator (58.7%) being used most frequently. Particular times of day or night are prescribed as wear times by some 60% of responders, while others prescribe merely a certain number of hours of daily wear. Identical prescriptions are given to the majority of patients by 86.6%, and are unchanged throughout the course of active treatment by 73.8%. Wear times actually prescribed average 15 (functional appliances) and 16 hours (plates) daily, while the minimum wear time considered necessary for successful treatment averages 12.8 for functional appliances and 13.9 for plates.

  2. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Raveli, Taísa Boamorte; Almeida, Kélei Cristina de Mathias; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT). The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates' correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders. CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  3. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into

  4. Periodontal pathogen levels in adolescents before, during, and after fixed orthodontic appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Michelle J; Riolo, Christopher S; Bayirli, Burcu; Riolo, Michael L; Van Tubergen, Elizabeth A; Kulbersh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to document and investigate changes in periodontal pathogen levels before, during, and after orthodontic treatment in adolescents. DNA gene probe analysis was used to quantify the levels of 8 periodontal pathogens before, during, and after treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances in 190 concurrently treated adolescent orthodontic patients. The 8 pathogens examined were Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (AA), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), Prevotella intermedia (PI), Tannerella forsythia (TF), Eikenella corrodens (EC), Fusobacterium nucleatum (FN), Treponema denticola (TD), and Campylobacter rectus (CR). Chi-square tests were used to determine whether the percentages of subjects with high counts significantly changed over time. Logistic regression analyses were also performed to derive the relative risk of higher counts of pathogenic bacteria with fixed appliances at the various time intervals studied. For 6 (PI, TF, EC, FN, TD, CR) of the 8 pathogens, the percentages of subjects with high pathogen counts increased significantly after 6 months of fixed appliance treatment, but these returned to pretreatment levels by 12 months of orthodontic treatment. No pathogen level was significantly higher after 12 months of orthodontic treatment, and orthodontic treatment was found to be significantly protective for half of the pathogens (EC, FN, TD, CR) posttreatment. Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances does not increase the risk of high levels of these periodontal pathogens.

  5. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner

  6. Efficacy of the Nance appliance as an anchorage-reinforcement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A; Garvey, Therese M; Alhag, Mohamed; Claffey, Noel M; O'Connell, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The Nance appliance is widely considered to be an efficient method of anchorage reinforcement; however, much of the perceived advantage is based on clinical judgment. The aim of this study was to assess the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement associated with the Nance appliance. The mandibular arches of 7 beagle dogs were used. The first and third premolars were extracted. Reference miniscrews were placed at the first premolar sites as stable references to measure the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement. Four beagles were fitted with custom-made Nance appliances on the fourth premolars and orthodontic bands on the second premolars (Nance group). Three beagles were fitted with orthodontic bands on the second and fourth premolars with no anchorage reinforcement (control group). The second premolars were retracted over 15 weeks in both groups. The amounts of second premolar movement (desired tooth movement) and fourth premolar movement (anchorage loss) were recorded at 5, 10, and 15 weeks. The percentages of desired tooth movement and anchorage loss to the total space closure were calculated. The mean desired tooth movement was significantly more in the Nance group than in the control group at 10 weeks (P appliance did not provide absolute anchorage, but there was significantly less anchorage loss with it than in the control group. The majority of anchorage loss occurred during the first 10 weeks in the Nance group. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping chemical elements on the surface of orthodontic appliance by SEM-EDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Czopor, Wojciech; Berniczei-Royko, Adam; Vegh, Andras; Gedrange, Thomas

    2014-05-25

    During orthodontic treatment, the various elements that constitute the fixed appliance undergo different processes. As a result of a change of the surface, elution/coverage of metals on the surface can be observed in the process of corrosion/passivation. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the composition of stainless steel elements of orthodontic fixed appliances (before and after orthodontic treatment), to obtain the composition of the surface of the elements. The analyzed elements were: brackets (Victory Series APC PLUS 022, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); wires (0.017×0.025, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); and bands (37+, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). The results showed a decrease of chromium and iron contribution to the surface, with increase of oxygen content in used vs. new elements of the appliance. Our results confirm the formation of oxides (passivation layer) on the surface of stainless steel as a result of the presence of the orthodontic appliance in patients' oral cavities.

  8. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagkiolidou, A.; Ludwig, B.; Pazera, P.; Gkantidis, N.; Pandis, N.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and

  9. Pre-directional appliance: A new approach to correct shifted premaxilla in bilateral cleft cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Daigavane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of bilateral cleft lip and palate cases is a challenging task, and if the premaxilla is shifted to either side, it poses a problem for the surgeon to operate and also for the orthodontist to do the orthodontic alignment. The aim of this study was to reposition the shifted premaxilla for better retraction with presurgical infant orthopedics, thus reducing the tissue tension and further scarring which have detrimental effects on maxillary growth. The innovative technique with pre-directional (PD appliance is easy to fabricate and use and works in this direction. Acrylic, springs, permasoft liner, elastics, retentive tapes. Previous approach for the shifted premaxilla was more focused on the surgical correction. In adults, surgery with osteotomy is the only option, with its own limitations and disadvantages, in repositioning the shifted premaxilla. Thus, PD appliance aids to correct the shifted premaxilla in presurgical molding stage. The premaxilla was thus shifted 5.5 mm to the left side, with premaxilla in facial symmetry, with the PD appliance. Presurgical orthopedics with PD appliance is worth in infants with shifted premaxilla in bilateral clefts cases.

  10. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months : a controlled observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maret, Delphine; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Hamel, Olivier; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Van Der Sluis, Lucas; Sixou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study.

  11. Cone beam computed tomography study of apical root resorption induced by Herbst appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo SCHWARTZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the frequency of root resorption during the orthodontic treatment with Herbst appliance by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods The sample comprised 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean ages 15.76±1.75 years with Class II division 1 malocclusion, treated with Herbst appliance. CBCT was obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. All the dental roots, except third molars, were evaluated, and apical root resorption was determined using the axial guided navigation method. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon T Test were used to compare the dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Chi-Square Test with Yates’ correction was used to evaluate the relationship between apical root resorption and gender. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%.Results Apical resorption was detected by CBCT in 57.96% of 980 roots that underwent Herbst appliance treatment. All patients had minimal resorption and there was no statistical significance between the genders.Conclusion CBCT three-dimensional evaluation showed association between Herbst appliance and minimal apical root resorption, mostly in the anchoring teeth, without clinical significance.

  12. Effects of the Herbst appliance in growing orthodontic patients with different underlying vertical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Emily; Woods, Michael G

    2015-05-01

    The present study involved an assessment of the effects of the Herbst appliance used for Class II correction in subjects with different vertical facial patterns. Pre- and post-treatment lateral cephalograms of 91 growing Class II patients were divided into three vertical facial groups on the basis of mandibular plane angulation. All received a Herbst appliance and dental and skeletal changes were assessed in relation to pretreatment incisal overbite, overjet and the stage of cervical maturity. Herbst appliance treatment was accompanied by changes in the angulation of the upper and lower incisors, overjet reduction and an increase in mandibular length. In general, the rotational facial changes occurring during treatment were minimal, so that dolichofacial patterns remained long and brachyfacial patterns remained short. Herbst appliance treatment can be expected to result in considerable Class II dental correction. It is unlikely, however, that its use will be associated with clinically significant forward rotation in dolichofacial subjects. Since dolichofacial patterns are likely to remain long-faced, even after considerable Class II dental correction, orthognathic surgery may still be a consideration if normal facial proportions, without excessive facial convexity and lip strain, are treatment aims.

  13. Rapid orthodontic extrusion using an interocclusal appliance for the reestablishment of biologic width: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Tramontina, Vinicius Augusto; Papalexiou, Vula; Luczyszyn, Sônia Mara; Grassi, Maria Bibiana; de Fatima Scarpim, Maria; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2011-03-01

    A multidisciplinary treatment of a case of subgingival fracture in a maxillary anterior tooth is presented. This case report describes a simple method involving an interocclusal appliance and an elastic band for rapid orthodontic extrusion to reestablish biologic width. In addition, a simple technique for surgical recontouring following the coronal displacement of the gingival margin prior to restoration of fractured tooth is explained.

  14. Caries outcomes after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: do lingual brackets make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.H.; Attin, R.; Schwestka-Polly, R.; Wiechmann, D.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is considered a risk factor for the development of white spot caries lesions (WSL). Traditionally, brackets are bonded to the buccal surfaces. Lingual brackets are developing rapidly and have become more readily available. Buccal surfaces are considered to

  15. The value of a mandibular repositioning appliance for the treatment of nonapneic snoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.C.; Rovers, M.M.; Heijden, G.J. van der; Grolman, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors addressed the following clinical question: What is the effect of a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) in patients with nonapneic snoring on the snoring loudness, partners' sleep disturbance, and quality of life? The authors retrieved relevant

  16. Application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene in waste-appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Kyung Ho; Kim, Moon Saeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Polypropylene is mechanically recycled from waste-appliances. → Recycled polypropylene (RPP) is impact enhanced polypropylene with ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR). → Performance evaluation shows that RPP is applicable to refrigerator plastics. -- Abstract: For the application to refrigerator plastics by mechanical recycling from polypropylene (PP) in waste-appliances, it needs to identify the degradation and heterogeneity of recycled polypropylene (RPP). It is applicable the thermal analysis such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), spectroscopic analysis such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and morphological analysis such as scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The analysis results show that RPP from waste-appliances is the polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) copolymer enhanced impact property (Impact-PP) and it is possible to apply refrigerator plastics with good impact property at low temperature. Finally, the performance evaluation of RPP is estimated by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) analysis and is performed by the various mechanical and physical testing methods. It shows that RPP has relatively high molecular weight and balanced properties with strength and toughness. It is expected that RPP by the mechanical recycling from waste-appliances will have about 50% cost-merit.

  17. The complex role of a salesperson in an appliance sales context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complex role of a salesperson in an appliance sales context. AC Erasmus, AJ Gothan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Research and Development of Natural Draft Ultra-Low Emissions Burners for Gas Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sholes, Darren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Combustion systems used in residential and commercial cooking appliances must be robust and easy to use while meeting air quality standards. Current air quality standards for cooking appliances are far greater than other stationary combustion equipment. By developing an advanced low emission combustion system for cooking appliances, the air quality impacts from these devices can be reduced. This project adapted the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Ring-Stabilizer Burner combustion technology for residential and commercial natural gas fired cooking appliances (such as ovens, ranges, and cooktops). LBNL originally developed the Ring-Stabilizer Burner for a NASA funded microgravity experiment. This natural draft combustion technology reduces NOx emissions significantly below current SCAQMD emissions standards without post combustion treatment. Additionally, the Ring-Stabilizer Burner technology does not require the assistance of a blower to achieve an ultra-low emission lean premix flame. The research team evaluated the Ring-Stabilizer Burner and fabricated the most promising designs based on their emissions and turndown.

  19. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro‑nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient.

  20. The effect of life-cycle cost disclosure on consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Matthias

    For more than 20 years, analysts have reported on the so-called "energy paradox" or the "energy efficiency gap", referring to the fact that economic agents could in principle lower their total cost at current prices by using more energy-efficient technology but, nevertheless, often decide not to do so. Theory suggests that providing information in a simplified way could potentially reduce this "efficiency gap". Such simplification may be achieved by providing the estimated monetary operating cost and life-cycle cost (LCC) of a given appliance---which has been a recurring theme within the energy policy and efficiency labeling community. Yet, little is known so far about the causal effects of LCC disclosure on consumer action because of the gap between the acquisition of efficiency information and consumer purchasing behavior in the real marketplace. This dissertation bridges the gap by experimentally integrating LCC disclosure into two major German commercial websites---a price comparison engine for cooling appliances, and an online shop for washing machines. Internet users arriving on these websites were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, and the groups were exposed to different visual stimuli. The control group received regular product price information, whereas the treatment group was, in addition, offered information about operating cost and total LCC. Click-stream data of consumers' shopping behavior was evaluated with multiple regression analysis by controlling for several product characteristics. This dissertation finds that LCC disclosure reduces the mean energy use of chosen cooling appliances by 2.5% (pinformation formats for LCC disclosure.

  1. Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kunishige; Zhou, Weisheng

    Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap resources. Although, Japanese consumers may have some opposition to exporting end-of-pipe home appliance wastes to foreign countries. From the results of the path-analysis from the questionnaire to Japanese consumers, it became clear that their reluctance came from anxiety about illegal dumping, the labor environment at the import country and the destruction of the ecosystem. Through conjoint analysis, willingness to pay the recycling fee decreases - 1,625 yen (equal to 34% of the current recycling fee of 4,630 yen) when choosing global recycling as opposed to domestic recycling, hypothesizing that consumers would rather recycle domestically instead of globally.

  2. Influence of orthodontic appliance-derived artifacts on 3-T MRI movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ozawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been used to study configurations of speech organs in the resting state. However, MRI is sensitive to metals, and numerous types of metallic appliances, most of which have a large magnetic susceptibility, are used in orthodontic treatment and may cause severe artifacts on MRI. We have developed techniques for obtaining MRI movies of the oral region, to evaluate articulatory changes, especially movement of the tongue, palate, and teeth, pre- and post-orthodontic/orthognathic treatment. We evaluated the influence of artifacts caused by orthodontic appliances, including fixed retainers, metal brackets, and wires, on measurements in 3-T MRI movies. Methods Sixteen healthy young adults (nine males, seven females; average age, 27 years with normal occlusion were recruited. Four types of customized maxillary and mandibular plates were prepared by incorporating one of the following into the plate: (a nothing, (b a fixed canine-to-canine retainer, (c metal brackets for the anterior and molar teeth, or (d clear brackets for the anterior teeth and metal brackets for molars. A 3-T MRI movie, in segmented cine mode, was generated for each plate condition while participants pronounced a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/. The size of the artifact due to the metallic brackets was measured. The face size and orthodontically important anatomical structures, such as the velum, the hard palate, and the laryngeal ventricle, were also measured. Results A large artifact was observed over the entire oral region around orthodontic appliances, altering regional visibility. The velopharyngeal height was measured as significantly longer in the presence of metal brackets. The maximum artifact size due to a metallic bracket was > 8 cm. Our results show that even if it is possible to obtain the measurements of palate length, nasion to sella, and nasion to basion in individuals wearing metal brackets for molars

  3. Influence of orthodontic appliance-derived artifacts on 3-T MRI movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Erika; Honda, Ei-Ichi; Parakonthun, Kulthida Nunthayanon; Ohmori, Hiroko; Shimazaki, Kazuo; Kurabayashi, Tohru; Ono, Takashi

    2018-02-19

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to study configurations of speech organs in the resting state. However, MRI is sensitive to metals, and numerous types of metallic appliances, most of which have a large magnetic susceptibility, are used in orthodontic treatment and may cause severe artifacts on MRI. We have developed techniques for obtaining MRI movies of the oral region, to evaluate articulatory changes, especially movement of the tongue, palate, and teeth, pre- and post-orthodontic/orthognathic treatment. We evaluated the influence of artifacts caused by orthodontic appliances, including fixed retainers, metal brackets, and wires, on measurements in 3-T MRI movies. Sixteen healthy young adults (nine males, seven females; average age, 27 years) with normal occlusion were recruited. Four types of customized maxillary and mandibular plates were prepared by incorporating one of the following into the plate: (a) nothing, (b) a fixed canine-to-canine retainer, (c) metal brackets for the anterior and molar teeth, or (d) clear brackets for the anterior teeth and metal brackets for molars. A 3-T MRI movie, in segmented cine mode, was generated for each plate condition while participants pronounced a vowel-consonant-vowel syllable (/asa/). The size of the artifact due to the metallic brackets was measured. The face size and orthodontically important anatomical structures, such as the velum, the hard palate, and the laryngeal ventricle, were also measured. A large artifact was observed over the entire oral region around orthodontic appliances, altering regional visibility. The velopharyngeal height was measured as significantly longer in the presence of metal brackets. The maximum artifact size due to a metallic bracket was > 8 cm. Our results show that even if it is possible to obtain the measurements of palate length, nasion to sella, and nasion to basion in individuals wearing metal brackets for molars, the measurements might be affected due to the

  4. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives: To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. Search Methods: An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. Selection Criteria: To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. Data Collection and Analysis: The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. Results: The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). Conclusions: The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies

  5. Stability of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy--a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Niko C; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    To systematically search for scientific evidence concerning the stability of treatment (Tx) results achieved by means of Class II fixed functional appliance therapy and to assess possible differences between appliances. An electronic search of databases and orthodontic journals was carried out (until December 2013), with supplemental hand searching. In addition to the names of all identified appliances, the term fixed functional was used in combination with each of the following search terms: long-term, post-Tx, relapse, retention, stability. To be included in the review, the articles had to contain clear data on: Class II Tx with a fixed functional appliance (>5 patients), post-Tx period ≥ 1 year, assessment of ANB angle, Wits appraisal, molar relationship, soft-tissue profile convexity excluding the nose, overjet and/or overbite. The literature search revealed 20 scientific investigations which corresponded to only two of the 76 identified appliances (Herbst and Twin Force Bite Corrector). As only one publication was found for the Twin Force Bite Corrector, a meta-analysis could only be performed for Herbst Tx. The data were extracted, pooled and weighted according to the number of patients in each study. The mean values for post-Tx relapse (percentages relative to the Tx changes) were: ANB angle 0.2 degrees (12.4 per cent), Wits appraisal 0.5mm (19.5 per cent), sagittal molar relationship 1.2mm/0.1 cusp widths (21.8 per cent /6.5 per cent); soft-tissue profile convexity excluding nose less than 0.1 degrees (1.0 per cent), overjet 1.8mm (26.2 per cent), overbite Class II:1 1.4mm (44.7 per cent), overbite Class II:2 1.0mm (22.2 per cent). The scientific evidence concerning the stability of Tx results is inexistent for most fixed functional appliances for Class II correction except for Herbst appliance Tx. Even if the evidence level of most included studies is rather low, good dentoskeletal stability without clinically relevant changes was found for most

  6. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  7. The geography teacher's set of appliances - `GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' - Self improved school equipment used in teaching geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajtok-Tari, I.

    2009-04-01

    The multimedia application and the use of Internet are becoming more and more common at schools and at homes due to the widespread of computers. The multimedia programs offer a great help for geography teachers because with their use all the visual aids are not needed in the classroom. They mix the advantages of blacboards, slides, displays, overhead projectors and VCR-s. At the same time offering other opportunities which could not be provided by the aids mentioned above because of their limits. Using a projector connected to a computer students can see the visual aids prepared by the teacher projected. Their use is justified because student's books cannot contain all the increasing amount of knowledge. Success is guaranteed because students are sensitive to new approaches. Digitalizing the material and finding it on the internet that way preparing a colourful, varied geography lesson is a time-consuming process. Being the methodologist and didactic information technologist at the Geography Department of Eszterházy Károly College I have been working for years on facilitating the work of my students, colleagues and my own activity using varied visual aids and types of equipment as preparation for the geography lesson. I have created an electronic set of appliances using the Dreamweaver MX program (‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT', from the 1st September 2006 on the Internet), it can be a real help for the teacher in each teaching situation. The ‘GEOGRAPHY nEtQUIPMENT' is a multimedia, Internet service which can be loaded free, the teacher gets into a virtual office clicking to the different pieces (drawer, shelf, wall map, globe, laptop, Tv set etc.) the teacher can continue with the necessary school equipment. Such equipment like: lesson plans for the lessons using digital technology, photos, video clips, animation, illustrations, pieces of music, maps, collection of minerals, database, diagrams, charts, bibliography, student's books, geography lexicons, magazines

  8. The relationship between consumer insight and provider-consumer agreement regarding consumer's quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Roe, David; Kravetz, Shlomo; Levy-Frank, Itamar; Meir, Taly

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between insight and mental health consumers and providers agreement regarding consumers rated quality of life (QoL). Seventy mental health consumers and their 23 care providers filled-out parallel questionnaires designed to measure consumer QoL. Consumers' insight was also assessed. For most QoL domains, agreement between consumers and providers was higher for persons with high insight. For the Psychological well being dimension a negative correlation was uncovered for persons with low insight indicating disagreement between consumer and provider. These findings are discussed within the context of the literature on insight and agreement between consumer and provider as related to the therapeutic alliance.

  9. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  10. Essays on consumer welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, P.

    2017-01-01

    The fast-changing retail industry (with its numerous new product developments and new marketing channels) has policy makers worried about possible detrimental effects of these changes for consumer welfare. Despite the interest of policy makers, only few marketing studies have considered the impact

  11. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  12. Hermeneutics and Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen J; Fischer, Eileen

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of hermeneutic philosophy and the assumptions and features of a textual interpretation consistent with this perspective. The relationship of hermeneutic philosophy to the interpretive and critical theory traditions in consumer research is also discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.

  13. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...... into disruptive emergence of product service systems, where quantitative user analyses rely on historical continuation....

  14. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    ). The consumer survey was conducted in four countries (Germany, Poland, Sweden, and United States) with approximately 1,000 respondents per country. The purpose of the survey was to explore consumption and psychological differences across markets and cultures. The collected data represents the empirical...

  15. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....

  16. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  17. Understanding the Child Consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Juliet B.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology…

  18. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  19. Consuming a Machinic Servicescape

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example. 

  20. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  1. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of different types of fixed orthodontic appliance on the growth and adherence of microorganisms (in vitro study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloom, Hayder F; Mohammed-Salih, Harraa S; Rasheed, Shaymaa F

    2013-02-01

    Orthodontic appliances serve as different impact zones and modify microbial adherence and colonization, acting as foreign reserves and possible sources of infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different types of fixed orthodontic appliances on the growth and adherence of microorganisms in oral flora which are Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans. Sixty-four of four different fixed orthodontic appliance-samples were used, divided into four groups of sixteen. Type I: Sapphire brackets- Coated wires, type II: Sapphire brackets- Stainless steel wires, type III: Stainless steel brackets- Coated wires and type IV: Stainless steel brackets- Stainless steel wires. Oral strains of S. mutans and Candida albicans were studied in the present study using biochemical test then microbial suspensions were prepared to do the tests of each microorganism including the antimicrobial effects of different appliance-samples on the growth of microorganisms and their adhesion tests. The results showed significant differences between the different appliances in terms of inhibition zone formation (PAppliance with high esthetic appearance, sapphire brackets and coated arch wire, showed the least adherence of S. mutans and Candida albicans in comparison to other appliances with less esthetic and more metal components. Key words:Orthodontic appliance, Adherence, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans.

  5. Impact of metal and ceramic fixed orthodontic appliances on judgments of beauty and other face-related attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Lílian Martins; Araújo, Telma Martins de; Santos, Aline Rôde; Faber, Jorge

    2014-02-01

    Physical attributes, behavior, and personal ornaments exert a direct influence on how a person's beauty and personality are judged. The aim of this study was to investigate how people who wear a fixed orthodontic appliance see themselves and are seen by others in social settings. A total of 60 adults evaluated their own smiling faces in 3 different scenarios: without a fixed orthodontic appliance, wearing a metal fixed orthodontic appliance, and wearing an esthetic fixed orthodontic appliance. Furthermore, 15 adult raters randomly assessed the same faces in standardized front-view facial photographs. Both the subjects and the raters answered a questionnaire in which they evaluated criteria on a numbered scale ranging from 0 to 10. The models judged their own beauty, and the raters assigned scores to beauty, age, intelligence, ridiculousness, extroversion, and success. The self-evaluations showed decreased beauty scores (P orthodontic appliance, especially a metal one, was being worn. There was no statistically significant difference between the 3 situations in the 6 criteria analyzed. A fixed orthodontic appliance did not affect how personal attributes are assessed. However, fixed orthodontic appliances apparently changed the subjects' self-perceptions when they looked in the mirror. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Journal of Consumer Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Authors who have in the past submitted articles to the Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences are reminded that the name of this journal has changed to the Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS). Guidelines for Submission to the Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS). Contributions to the Journal of Consumer ...

  7. Teacher's Kit for Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide on Consumer Education, designed for high school seniors, was developed to help students become aware of and knowledgeable about their role as consumers in today's society. The following key concepts for study are emphasized: general principles of consumer purchasing; consumer credit; general principles of fraud, quackery,…

  8. The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage.

  9. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non......-advancement appliance (MNA); and (c) no intervention. The appliances were custom made, in one piece. The MAAs had a mean protrusion of the mandible of 74% (range 64-85%). Outcome measures, assessed after continuous use for 4 weeks, were AHI (polysomnography), daytime sleepiness (Epworth) and quality of life (SF-36...

  10. Esthetic perception and economic value of orthodontic appliances by lay Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Feu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the esthetic perception of different appliances by Brazilian lay adults and its influence in the attributed value of orthodontic treatment, considering evaluators' socioeconomic status, age and gender. METHODS: Eight different combinations of orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners were placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile. Standardized frontal photographs were captured and incorporated into a research album. A sample of adults (n = 252, median = 26 years old were asked to rate each image for (1 its attractiveness on a visual analog scale and (2 the willingness to pay (WTP for a cosmetic appliance when compared to a standard metalic appliance and a clear tray aligner. Comparisons between the appliances' attractiveness were performed using the Friedman's test and Dann's post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances' attributed value, socioeconomic status, age, gender, and esthetic perception was assessed using Spearman's correlation analysis. RESULTS: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied significantly in the following hierarchy: Clear aligners>sapphire brackets>self-ligating/conventional stainless steel brackets>and golden metal appliances. The correlation between WTP and esthetic perception was week. However, for individuals with better socioeconomic status and aged between 17-26 years old significantly, a significantly higher WTP was found. CONCLUSION: Clear aligners and sapphire brackets with esthetic archwire were considered better esthetic options in this sample. Nevertheless, patients were not willing to pay more money for appliances they deemed more esthetic, however, they were significantly influenced by their socioeconomic level and age.OBJETIVO: avaliar a percepção de brasileiros adultos leigos para diferentes aparelhos ortodônticos e sua influência na valorização econômica do tratamento, considerando o nível socioeconômico, idade e sexo dos avaliadores. M

  11. FIXED OR REMOVABLE APPLIANCE FOR EARLY ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT OF FUNCTIONAL ANTERIOR CROSSBITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedel, Anna-Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Anterior crossbite with functional shift also called pseudo Class III is a malocclusion in which the incisal edges of one or more maxillary incisors occlude with the incisal edges of the mandibular incisors in centric relationship: the mandible and mandibular incisors are then guided anteriorly in central occlusion resulting in an anterior crossbite. Early correction, at the mixed dentition stage, is recommended, in order to avoid a compromising dentofacial condition which could result in the development of a true Class III malocclusion and temporomandibular symptoms. Various treatment options are available. The method of choice for orthodontic correction of this condition should not only be clinically effective, with long-term stability, but also cost-effective and have high patient acceptance, i.e. minimal perceived pain and discomfort. At the mixed dentition stage, the condition may be treated by fixed (FA) or removable appliance (RA). To date there is insufficient evidence to determine the preferred method. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to compare and evaluate the use of FA and RA for correcting anterior crossbite with functional shift in the mixed dentition, with special reference to clinical effectiveness, stability, cost-effectiveness and patient perceptions. Evidence-based, randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology was used, in order to generate a high level of evidence. The thesis is based on the following studies: The material comprised 64 patients, consecutively recruited from the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden and from one Public Dental Health Service Clinic in Malmö, Skane County Council, Sweden. The patients were no syndrome and no cleft patients. The following inclusion criteria were applied: early to late mixed dentition, anterior crossbite affecting one or more incisors with functional shift, moderate space deficiency in the maxilla, no inherent skeletal Class III discrepancy, ANB

  12. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  13. The effect of e-learning on the quality of orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorn-Borgmann S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Schorn-Borgmann,1 Carsten Lippold,2 Dirk Wiechmann,3 Thomas Stamm2 1Private Practice, Nordkirchen, Germany; 2Department of Orthodontics, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany Purpose: The effect of e-learning on practical skills in medicine has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Today’s multimedia learning environment and access to e-books provide students with more knowledge than ever before. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of online demonstrations concerning the quality of orthodontic appliances manufactured by undergraduate dental students. Materials and methods: The study design was a parallel-group randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: 1 conventional lectures, 2 conventional lectures plus written online material, and 3 access to resources of groups one and two plus access to online video material. Three orthodontic appliances (Schwarz Plate, U-Bow Activator, and Fränkel Regulator were manufactured during the course and scored by two independent raters blinded to the participants. A 15-point scale index was used to evaluate the outcome quality of the appliances. Results: In general, no significant differences were found between the groups. Concerning the appliances, the Schwarz Plate obtained the highest scores, whereas the Fränkel Regulator had the lowest scores; however, these results were independent of the groups. Females showed better outcome scores than males in groups two and three, but the difference was insignificant. Age of the participants also had no significant effect. Conclusion: The offer that students could use additional time and course-independent e-learning resources did not increase the outcome quality of the orthodontic appliances. The advantages of e-learning observed in the theoretical fields of medicine were not achieved in the educational

  14. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  15. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  16. Consumer motivations for creating and consumer responses to consumer generated advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Colin Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Three papers are presented on the emerging phenomenon of consumer generated advertising. These papers provide knowledge and build theory related to both how consumers choose to create such advertisements and also how consumers respond to them. The first details a qualitative exploration of the motives of consumers that create advertisements. The paper draws on literature related to brand relationships, intrinsic motivation, and consumer creation to help inform and direct an investigation of 6...

  17. 46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be of either natural or synthetic fibers suitable for marine usage. The end of the line intended to... directions for loading and firing the appliance in service use shall be permanently engraved in plastic and...

  18. Oral appliances and maxillomandibular advancement surgery : An alternative treatment protocol for the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; de Lange, J; Stegenga, B; de Bont, LGM

    Purpose: The present study comprises a retrospective evaluation of the potential application of mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) therapy preceding maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery in the treatment of the Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). Our initial experiences

  19. Mollenhauer Aligning Auxiliary for Bodily Alignment of Blocked-out Lateral Incisors in Preadjusted Edgewise Appliance Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekrishnan B Nair

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Mollenhauer aligning auxiliary can be effectively used for the bodily alignment of lingually placed lateral incisors in preadjusted edgewise appliance therapy as an alternative to torquing with rectangular wires.

  20. A randomized, controlled trial of positional therapy versus oral appliance therapy for position-dependent sleep apnea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benoist, Linda; de Ruiter, Maurits; de Lange, Jan; de Vries, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of positional therapy (PT) with the sleep position trainer (SPT) to oral appliance therapy (OAT) in patients with mild-to-moderate positional obstructive sleep apnea (POSA). Methods: Multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients with

  1. Removable orthodontic appliance with nickel-titanium spring to reposition the upper incisors in an autistic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kan; Jang, Insan; Kubota, Kazumi; Hoshino, Tomonori; Hotokezaka, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Noriaki; Fujiwara, Taku

    2013-01-01

    A newly designed removable appliance with a shape-memory wire was used for the orthodontic treatment of the anterior teeth in an 11-year-old child who had autism and intellectual disability. The device was designed to reduce the lateral incisor crossbite and the central incisors' labial rotation. The child was treated for 1 year with this removable appliance. Tooth movement was analyzed using cephalograms and surface data were derived from study models. This device proved to be very durable. The lateral incisor crossbite was corrected, and the inclination of the upper central incisors and the interincisal angle were improved. This appliance exerts light and continuous orthodontic force, without requiring any adjustments of the spring wire. The appliance also facilitated orthodontic treatment in a child with intellectual disability in whom treatment with a standard orthodontic device would be unsuitable. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Long-term oral-appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea : A cephalometric study of craniofacial changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Hoekema, A.; Pruim, G. J.; Slater, J. J. R. Huddleston; Stegenga, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized controlled study was to cephalometrically assess possible changes in craniofacial morphology associated with long term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep

  3. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  4. Maxillary molar distalization or mandibular enhancement: a cephalometric comparison of comprehensive orthodontic treatment including the pendulum and the Herbst appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Donald R; McNamara, James A; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2003-02-01

    Several methods of Class II treatment that do not rely on significant patient compliance have become popular during the last decade, including several versions of the Herbst appliance and the pendulum or Pendex molar-distalization appliances. Yet, these 2 general approaches theoretically have opposite treatment effects, one presumably enhancing mandibular growth, and the other moving the maxillary teeth posteriorly. This study examined the treatment effects produced by 2 types of the Herbst appliance (acrylic splint and stainless-steel crown) followed by fixed appliances, and the pendulum appliance followed by fixed appliances. For each of the 3 treatment groups, lateral cephalograms were analyzed before the start of treatment (T1) and after the second phase of treatment (T2). Patients were matched according to age and sex. The comprehensive treatment time for the pendulum group was 31.6 months, and the acrylic and crowned Herbst groups were treated for 29.5 months and 28.0 months, respectively. Overall from T1 to T2, there were no statistically significant differences in mandibular growth among the 3 groups. Skeletal changes accounted for a larger portion of molar correction in the Herbst treatment groups than in the pendulum group. Patients in the pendulum group had an increase in the mandibular plane angle. Conversely, the mandibular plane angle in patients treated with either Herbst appliance closed slightly from T1 to T2. At T2, the chin points (pogonion) of patients in both Herbst groups, however, were located slightly more anteriorly than were the chin points of the pendulum patients. It is likely that the slight downward and backward rotation of the mandible occurring during treatment in the pendulum patients accounted for much of this difference. The treatment effects produced by the 2 types of Herbst appliance were similar at T2, in spite of their differences in design. It is important not to generalize the findings of this comparison beyond the appliance

  5. Impacted incisors associated with supernumerary teeth treated with a modified Haas appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Marquezan, Mariana; Sant'Anna, Claudia Franzotti

    2012-12-01

    Tooth impaction involves factors such as lack of space in the alveolar process, trauma, ankylosis, and mechanical barriers such as abnormal frenum, supernumerary teeth, tumors, and local cysts. When impaction occurs in the anterior region, esthetics are compromised. This report describes the successful approach to treatment for a young boy who had 2 supernumerary teeth associated with impaction of the left central and lateral permanent incisors. Treatment consisted of extracting the supernumerary teeth and performing maxillary expansion with a modified Haas appliance to guide the left central incisor into its appropriate position. The teeth erupted spontaneously after maxillary expansion and an increase in space. A fixed edgewise appliance was placed incrementally to correct the maxillary anterior tooth positions and finish the treatment. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AN ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF APPLIANCE SERVER PROTOTYPE IN MIDDLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gede Saindra Santyadiputra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an initial research about development of appliance server prototype for middle industry. The main objective of this study is to analyze and design an alternative server as a solution to providing server device on a small industry. The prorotype used by small industry to implement their information system applications. This study uses ADDIE development method. ADDIE phase that has been used is analysis, design, and some evaluation of them (ADE. The result of analyze is user needs analysis, hardware requirements analysis and software requirement analysis. The result of design is network topology design, hardware architecture design, validation test instrument, feasibility testing instrument, performance testing instrument, evaluation of prototype feasibility instrument and evaluation of server performance instrument. In the future, the result of this study can be used as reference for development and implementation of appliance server in middle industry.

  7. Aparelho Herbst: protocolos de tratamento precoce e tardio The Herbst appliance: early and late treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Até que ponto o crescimento mandibular pode ser realmente influenciado pelos aparelhos ortopédicos de reposicionamento anterior, ainda permanece indecifrável. Mas a lógica leva a crer que se existe alguma chance de potencializar o deslocamento anterior da mandíbula, ela será mais certa quando se utiliza aparelhos de avanço contínuo. O presente artigo discorre sobre os protocolos de tratamento precoce e tardio para a correção da deficiência mandibular com o aparelho Herbst.The question as to what extent mandibular growth may be influenced by orthopedic appliances remains unanswered. However, it seems reasonable to believe that the use of continuous forces potentialize the anterior displacement of the mandible. The current paper describes the early and late protocols of treatment of the mandibular deficiency with the Herbst appliance.

  8. Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

    The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

  9. Correction of Skeletal Class II Malocclusion using Functional-Fixed Appliance Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Surana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-phase treatment started during late mixed dentition using functional followed by fixed appliance therapy has proven to be the most effective approach to achieve correction of Class II malocclusion. This case report demonstrates the use of this treatment approach in an 11-year-old girl with skeletal and dental Class II malocclusion, large overjet, deep overbite, increased incisor exposure and a gummy smile. She was given a functional appliance for 1 year which was immediately followed by fixed mechanotherapy for final finishing and detailing of the occlusion. The magnitude of skeletal and dental correction achieved, along with the dramatic improvement in facial appearance of the patient, provides a strong case for establishing the efficacy of this treatment modality.

  10. Effect of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld-Larsson, Kerstin; Sollenius, Ola; Karlsson, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodont....... Conclusion. Daily intake of fluoridated milk may aid remineralization of white spot lesions adjacent to fixed orthodontic appliances.......Abstract Objective. To investigate the effect of daily intake of fluoridated milk on enamel demineralization adjacent to fixed orthodontic brackets assessed with quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). Materials and methods. Sixty-four healthy adolescents (13-18 years) undergoing orthodontic...... treatment with fixed appliances were enrolled and randomly allocated to a randomized controlled trial with two parallel groups. The intervention group was instructed to drink one glass of milk (~ 200 ml) supplemented with fluoride (5 ppm) once daily and the subjects of the control group to drink the same...

  11. Evaluation of Spectral and Prosodic Features of Speech Affected by Orthodontic Appliances Using the Gmm Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Ďuračkoá, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes our experiment with using the Gaussian mixture models (GMM) for classification of speech uttered by a person wearing orthodontic appliances. For the GMM classification, the input feature vectors comprise the basic and the complementary spectral properties as well as the supra-segmental parameters. Dependence of classification correctness on the number of the parameters in the input feature vector and on the computation complexity is also evaluated. In addition, an influence of the initial setting of the parameters for GMM training process was analyzed. Obtained recognition results are compared visually in the form of graphs as well as numerically in the form of tables and confusion matrices for tested sentences uttered using three configurations of orthodontic appliances.

  12. Mechanical evaluation of quad-helix appliance made of low-nickel stainless steel wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference between stainless steel and low-nickel stainless steel wires as regards mechanical behavior. Force, resilience, and elastic modulus produced by Quad-helix appliances made of 0.032-inch and 0.036-inch wires were evaluated. Sixty Quad-helix appliances were made, thirty for each type of alloy, being fifteen for each wire thickness, 0.032-in and 0.036-in. All the archwires were submitted to mechanical compression test using an EMIC DL-10000 machine simulating activations of 4, 6, 9, and 12 mm. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p steel alloy had force, resilience, and elastic modulus similar to those made of stainless steel alloy.

  13. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

  14. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Victor L.; Delmas, Magali A.; Kaiser, William J.; Locke, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses high-frequency appliance-level electricity consumption data for 124 apartments over 24 months to provide a better understanding of appliance-level electricity consumption behavior. We conduct our analysis in a standardized set of apartments with similar appliances, which allows us to identify behavioral differences in electricity use. The Results show that households' estimations of appliance-level consumption are inaccurate and that they overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate plug-load use by 29%. We find that similar households using the same major appliances exhibit substantial variation in appliance-level electricity consumption. For example, households in the 75th percentile of HVAC usage use over four times as much electricity as a user in the 25th percentile. Additionally, we show that behavior accounts for 25–58% of this variation. Lastly, we find that replacing the existing refrigerator with a more energy-efficient model leads to overall energy savings of approximately 11%. This is equivalent to results from behavioral interventions targeting all appliances but might not be as cost effective. Our findings have important implications for behavior-based energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Hourly electricity usage was collected from 124 comparable apartments for 24 months. • Households overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate HVAC usage by 29%. • Households using the same appliances show substantial variations in electricity use. • Plug load accounts for the largest share of electricity use at all hours of the day. • Savings of 11% were achieved by replacing old refrigerators

  15. Treatment of a Patient with Class I Malocclusion and Severe Tooth Crowding Using Invisalign and Fixed Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    OGURA Yumiko:筆頭著者; YANAGISAWA Wakana; SUGIURA Mami; FUJITA Yuko; YAMAGUCHI Tetsutaro; MAKI Koutaro

    2014-01-01

    The Invisalign system is widely used to treat mild to moderate tooth crowding. Recently, Invisalign appliances have been used in orthodontic patients with increasingly complex malocclusions. When using an Invisalign appliance to correct severe tooth crowding, root positions must be carefully controlled during extraction space closure. We report our treatment of a 34-year-old man who presented with a Class I relationship, a midline deviation, severe overjet, and severe tooth crowding in the ma...

  16. Oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doff, Michiel H J; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Wijkstra, Peter J; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Huddleston Slater, James J R; de Bont, Lambert G M; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2013-09-01

    Oral appliance therapy has emerged as an important alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study we report about the subjective and objective treatment outcome of oral appliance therapy and CPAP in patients with OSAS. Cohort study of a previously conducted randomized clinical trial. University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands. One hundred three patients with OSAS. CPAP and oral appliance therapy (Thornton Adjustable Positioner type-1, Airway Management, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA). Objective (polysomnography) and subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) parameters were assessed after 1 and 2 years of treatment. Treatment was considered successful when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was oral appliance therapy and CPAP in treating mild to severe OSAS in a 2-year follow-up. More patients (not significant) dropped out under oral appliance therapy (47%) compared with CPAP (33%). Both therapies showed substantial improvements in polysomnographic and neurobehavioral outcomes. However, CPAP was more effective in lowering the AHI and showed higher oxyhemoglobin saturation levels compared to oral appliance therapy (P Oral appliance therapy should be considered as a viable treatment alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In patients with severe OSAS, CPAP remains the treatment of first choice. The original randomized clinical trial, of which this study is a 2-year follow-up, is registered at ISRCTN.org; identifier: ISRCTN18174167; trial name: Management of the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure therapy; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN18174167.

  17. Do you do Damon®? What is the current evidence base underlying the philosophy of this appliance system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Natasha; Modarai, Faranak; Cobourne, Martyn T; Dibiase, Andrew T

    2011-09-01

    Self-ligating bracket systems are increasing in popularity amongst orthodontists. This reflects their high quality engineering, improved reliability and relative ease of use. However, it might also be related to claims of superior function made by the manufacturers of these appliances. In particular, the Damon(®) appliance system claims to offer significant advantages to both orthodontist and patient over conventional-ligation and other forms of self-ligated appliances. We have reviewed current literature relating to use of the Damon(®) appliance system. There is some evidence to suggest this appliance may lead to reductions in chairside time for the orthodontist, particularly those experienced with this system, in comparison to conventional-ligation. However, evidence that pain experience is reduced for the patient when using Damon(®) brackets is not conclusive. In the presence of identical archwire sequences, there is no evidence that Damon(®) brackets can align teeth faster or in a qualitatively differently manner, when compared with conventional-ligation. There is no high quality evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance takes place more rapidly or leads to a superior occlusal or aesthetic result. Indeed, the best available evidence would suggest there is no difference in treatment outcome or time, at least in extraction cases. There is no evidence that treatment with the Damon(®) appliance is more stable. Claims relating to improved clinical performance of the Damon(®) appliance system are currently being made to orthodontists and patients that are not substantiated in the scientific literature.

  18. To explore preferences and willingness to pay for attributes regarding stoma appliances amongst patients in the UK, France and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Beenish; Lloyd, Andrew; Elkin, Eric; Porret, Terri

    2015-04-01

    To explore patient preferences regarding stoma appliances in the UK, France and Germany and to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of stoma appliances. A discrete choice (DCE) survey was developed based on published literature, attributes of current available appliances and qualitative interviews with patients from the UK (N = 3), France (N = 2) and Germany (N = 2). Members from a patient panel in the UK, France and Germany were asked to participate in the DCE survey and to fill out two quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model whereby the coefficients obtained from the model provided an estimate of the (log) odds ratios (ORs) of preference for attributes. WTP was estimated for each level of a given identified attribute. Seven key attributes were identified for the DCE survey: comfort and elastic flexibility, skin problems, early detection of leakage, leakage, filter performance, service/help after hospital discharge and out-of-pocket cost. A total of 415 participants (166 patients in UK, 99 in France, and 150 in Germany) completed the questionnaires. All attributes were significant predictors of choice. The two most important drivers of preference were the attributes comfort and elastic flexibility and skin problems which resulted in high WTP values. Appliances which were able to detect episodes of leakage were also of high importance to participants' appliances. The results show the importance of different attributes of stoma appliances for patients. Improving comfort and elastic flexibility, and risk of skin problems were the most important aspects of appliances. The WTP values indicate the value people place on improvement in each attribute of appliances.

  19. 78 FR 41387 - Petition for Waiver and Notice of Granting the Application for Interim Waiver of ASKO Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...: Mr. Michael Wasson, ASKO Appliances, Inc., P.O. Box 940609, Plano, TX 75094-0609. All submissions... Appliances, Inc. Street Address: 4001 E. Plano Pkwy Ste. 100 Plano, TX 75074 972-941-1900 Fax 972-941-1901 www.askousa.com Mailing Address: P.O. Box 940609 Plano, TX 75094-0609 [FR Doc. 2013-16566 Filed 7-9-13...

  20. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.

    2008-01-01

    -advancement appliance (MNA); and (c) no intervention. The appliances were custom made, in one piece. The MAAs had a mean protrusion of the mandible of 74% (range 64-85%). Outcome measures, assessed after continuous use for 4 weeks, were AHI (polysomnography), daytime sleepiness (Epworth) and quality of life (SF-36......). Eighty-one patients (87%) completed the trial. The MAA group achieved mean AHI and Epworth scores significantly lower (P