WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumers green groups

  1. A target group-specific approach to ''green'' power retailing: students as consumers of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossling, S.; Kunkel, T.; Schumacher, K.; Heck, N.; Birkemeyer, J.; Froese, J.; Naber, N.; Schliermann, E.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive body of literature exists on the obstacles that have to be overcome in green power retailing. In this article, target group-specific marketing is evaluated as a strategy to increase the share of residential customers of green power. A sample of students in the city of Freiburg, Germany was interviewed in order to assess their awareness of environmental issues, their willingness to change to green power products, and to better understand individual hindrances in changing the power supplier. The analysis shows that students are highly positive towards green power products, but for several reasons difficult to reach in marketing campaigns. Aspects to be considered in addressing this consumer-group include the students' particular expectations towards green products, their living-conditions, price sensitivity, and their perception of the relative effort involved in changing the power provider. (author)

  2. Pengaruh Green Marketing Hotel Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Yo Fernandez, Eunike Christe; Tjoanda, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari green marketing hotel terhadap green consumer behavior. Green marketing memiliki 3 dimensi, yaitu green product, green price, dan green promotion. Penelitian ini melibatkan 272 responden masyarakat Surabaya dan menggunakan metode regresi linear berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa green product dan green price berpengaruh secara positif dan signifikan sedangkan green promotion berpengaruh namun tidak signifikan terhadap green con...

  3. Consumer perceptions of green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Parker, P.; Scott, D.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between consumer perceptions of the environmental impact of different energy sources and their willingness to pay a premium for green electricity was examined using the ANOVA analysis of variance and the chi-square test procedures. Since green power producers can include several energy resources in their offerings, it is important to understand the preferences of their customers. A survey sent to 480 residents in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario showed that when asked about purchasing nuclear, large scale hydropower or natural gas out of a choice of 11 energy sources, there was a wide discrepancy between those who stated a willingness to pay a large premium for green power and those who stated a willingness to pay only a small, or no, premium for green power. It was determined that these 3 energy resources were not popular among the most environmentally inclined portion of the consumer market. It was noted however that willingness to pay should be interpreted with caution because peoples' stated intentions to pay a premium for green power do not necessarily translate into action once they have the opportunity to buy power from renewable energy sources. However, marketing strategies could be used to improve the uptake of green power by consumers. The study suggests that landfill gas, is probably preferred to large-scale hydro. It was also suggested that the relative position of biomass, natural gas, garbage and nuclear power should be examined more closely. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  4. A target group-specific approach to ''green'' power retailing: students as consumers of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossling, S. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Service Management; Kunkel, T.; Schumacher, K.; Heck, N.; Birkemeyer, J.; Froese, J.; Naber, N.; Schliermann, E. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Human Geography

    2005-02-01

    An extensive body of literature exists on the obstacles that have to be overcome in green power retailing. In this article, target group-specific marketing is evaluated as a strategy to increase the share of residential customers of green power. A sample of students in the city of Freiburg, Germany was interviewed in order to assess their awareness of environmental issues, their willingness to change to green power products, and to better understand individual hindrances in changing the power supplier. The analysis shows that students are highly positive towards green power products, but for several reasons difficult to reach in marketing campaigns. Aspects to be considered in addressing this consumer-group include the students' particular expectations towards green products, their living-conditions, price sensitivity, and their perception of the relative effort involved in changing the power provider. (author)

  5. Managing consumer disengagement through green advertising strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, E-Jian

    2017-01-01

    A discord is apparent between consumers’ concerns and their actual green behaviour – a surfacing issue that has obstructed effective green messages by advertisers. Four distinct consumer disengagement issues, including consumer backlash, environmental exhaustion, motivational challenges and social pressures were identified. This thesis explored cultural discourses surrounding green marketing and proposes green advertising strategies that address consumer disengagement. Using the Grounded Theo...

  6. True or False: Consumer Perception to Green Consumer Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.

  7. BEHAVIOR OF THE ROMANIAN GREEN GOODS CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela-Cristina VOICU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has put forward for a long time the fact that any activity conducted in an organization should consider an intimate knowledge of the client, and a close look at the green marketing practices used over time shows that eco-friendly products should be positioned in relation to those attributes looked for by the involved consumers. In this context, the following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the Romanian green market and the characteristics of the green consumer behavior together with solutions that marketers can apply to stimulate the consumption of green goods.

  8. CONSTRUCTING THE GREEN CONSUMER: BEYOND THE OBVIOUS

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Burr

    2013-01-01

    Customers, through their purchases, play a central role in sustainable development. As public concern for the environment increases, opportunities emerge for marketers to produce the green products that consumers desire. However, there is growing skepticism about green claims, and despite many consumers being pro-environmental, most do not translate this into purchases. These factors pose problems for organisations, therefore in order to take advantage of the available opportunities, companie...

  9. Preliminary characterization of the Green Antioquian consumer: the case of the consumers from Valle de Aburra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcy Rocío Escobar Moreno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg This research paper aims at identifying the profile of green consumers living in Valle de Aburra, in Antioquia, to identify the specific features and needs of this group as a market segment. At first, this article shows a conceptual framework about terms such as green market, green consumers and green products. Then, a research methodology is described based on a quantitative formulation of a piloting study, through which a measurement instrument having 14 questions divided into different variables product, price, distribution and communication collected key information to get to preliminary conclusions about consumers as its main object of study. Finally, a statistic descriptive analysis was made to get the profile of green consumers living in Valle de Aburra and a proposal describing key elements to set the bases for future investigations about this topic.

  10. Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

  11. Implicit Attitudes Toward Green Consumer Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Vantomme

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of implicit (automatic attitudes to explain the weak attitude-behaviour relationships often found in green consumer behaviour research. Therefore, not only explicit but also implicit attitudes toward green consumer behaviour were measured by means of the Implicit Association Test (IAT. Explicit measures revealed positive attitudes, while the IAT showed more positive attitudes toward the ecological than toward the traditional product (Experiment 1 or no differences in these attitudes (Experiment 2 and follow-up study. When existing products were involved, implicit attitudes related to behavioural intention, even where the explicit attitude measure did not.

  12. Attitudes of Consumers Towards the Green Plastic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Elnecave Kruter

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The demands regarding sustainable production and consumption are growing increasingly, the market is opening doors for companies to innovate in products and processes that present themselves as a solution to social and environmental problems facing society today. To this end, in 2010, a Brazilian company began producing the "green" polyethylene, or green plastic, which differs from conventional polyethylene because it is produced from the ethanol from cane sugar and not from naphtha oil. Because it is a new product on the market and little known, this study aims to understand consumer attitudes towards green plastic. Environmental concerns, ecologically conscious consumer behavior, purchase intention and previous knowledge of green plastic were also assessed. Were conducted initially in-depth interviews, which helped quantitative stage, an online survey, applied to a sample of 300 individuals. Results indicate that surveyed consumers have positive attitudes towards green plastic and intention to purchase products made ​​with this material. Despite exhibiting a high degree of environmental awareness, they show only moderate attitudes in relation to sustainable consumption in practice. We can conclude that there is still much to be done by companies and society so that a greater degree of maturity and respect for the environment can be achieved.

  13. The skeptical green consumer revisited: testing the relationship between green consumerism and skepticism toward advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthes, J.; Wonneberger, A.

    2014-01-01

    This article revisits the widely believed notion of the skeptical green consumer, in other words, that green consumers tend to distrust green advertising. Study 1, a survey of U.S. consumers, found no positive relationship between green consumerism and general ad skepticism. However, green

  14. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  15. Consumers and green electricity : profiling potential purchasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Scott, D.; Parker, P.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity markets around the world are being opened to competition and environmental concerns are prompting consumers to consider buying electricity that has been generated by renewable energy sources such as solar or wind power. This report profiles the potential purchaser of such green electricity. It presents 3 sets of hypotheses, each drawing upon the literature on green product purchasers. It is suggested that those who are willing to pay higher premiums for green electricity are likely to have certain demographic characteristics and social values. This study is based on a case-study of a survey conducted in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario, Canada, the objective of which was to determine what kind of people are potential green electricity purchasers. Results were presented to power managers and marketers. A 158-item survey was sent to 1,110 individuals, between September 2000 and April 2001. A total of 474 questionnaires were answered, for a response rate of 43 per cent. It was noted that although the response rate was high, the survey may not be representative because the respondents were older, better educated, and wealthier than the general population. In addition, the respondents had previously indicated they were willing to pay $25 for a home energy evaluation, suggesting a special interest in issues regarding energy and the environment. It was determined that attitudinal characteristics, such as liberalism and perceived consumer effectiveness, ideally identify the potential green electricity buyer. 34 refs., 5 tabs

  16. Enacting Green Consumers: The Case of the Scandinavian Preppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytic approach that brings the active making and makings of green consumer images to the fore. Efforts to "know" the green consumers have generated multiple representations. Enactments of the green consumer are not innocent but also play a role in shaping how we understand and approach sustainable consumption. Because of this it is important to examine and critically discuss how green consumers are enacted today. This paper develops an approach that allows us to examine how green consumers are enacted and discuss the consequences these constructions might have for sustainability. Theoretically, a performativity approach drawing on theories from Science and Technology Studies (STS and economic sociology is used to discuss the enactment of green consumers. Empirically, focus is on Boomerang � a Swedish fashion retailer, brand, and producer � and its marketing practices. The analysis shows how the marketing work of the Boomerang Company leads to the enactment of the Green Scandinavian Preppy. This specific version of the green consumer is a combination of the knowledgeable green connoisseur - a consumer that knows quality when he/she sees it - and the green hedonist in search of the good life. The Green Scandinavian Preppy wants to enjoy nature, go sailing, and do so wearing fashionable quality clothes. This is a consumer that knows quality, appreciates design, and has the means to pay for both. While this is a version of the green consumer that might be appealing and thus have the potential to pro-mote a version of green consumption, it is also a green consumer image that has lost much of its political power as green consumption is framed as simply another source of pleasure and identity-making.

  17. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  18. THE MEDIATION EFFECTS OF GREEN PERCEIVED CONSUMER SKEPTICISM AND GREEN PERCEIVED RISK IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GREENWASHING AND GREEN TRUST

    OpenAIRE

    LEBLEBİCİ KOÇER, Leyla; DELİCE, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out on the consumers in Kayseri and explores the influenceof greenwashing on green trust and discusses the mediation roles of green perceivedskepticism and green perceived risk. 430 consumers were participate in the research.Structural equation modelling was applied to test the research hypothesis. Thisstudy found that greenwashing has a negative association with green trust. In addition,it found that greenwashing is positively associated with green perceived consumersk...

  19. Green marketing and its impact on consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gajdoš, Michal

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is devoted to green marketing, and how this kind of marketing affects consumer behaviour. Describes in detail what is green marketing and its components, and also describes the negative part of green marketing - greenwashing. It also deals with the topic of corporate social responsibilty and in the last theoretical part with the consumer beahviour. In the practical part was created quantitative research in the form of online survey, which aimed at identifying people's awa...

  20. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  1. Pengaruh Green Practice Terhadap Green Consumer Behavior Di the Kemangi Restaurant, Hotel Santika Pandegiling Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Budiantoro, Anastasia Vianney; Irawan, Andrew; Kristanti, Monika; Aprilia, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh green practice terhadap green consumer behavior di The Kemangi Restaurant. Teknik analisa yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dengan analisa regresi linier berganda. Penulis menggunakan 100 sampel untuk diteliti dengan melakukan survei kepada konsumen The Kemangi Restaurant. Hasil dari penelitian membuktikan bahwa ketiga variabel bebas berpengaruh positif. Namun, hanya variabel green donation yang memiliki pengaruh positif ...

  2. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; van 't Erve, Sanne; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential

  3. Green Product Development with Consumer Heterogeneity under Horizontal Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the pricing and greenness issues of two competitive firms without and with consumer heterogeneity. We derive and compare the optimal solutions and profits employed by firms under different scenarios. Then, we identify the effects of consumer heterogeneity under different competition intensities. The analytical results reveal that if market competition is at a relatively low level, we find that: (i when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is sufficiently small, more consumers have high environmental awareness, and companies easily achieve their environmental goals as well as economic goals; (ii when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is at a medium level, as the fraction of consumers with high environmental awareness increases, and the firm might achieve economic goals at the cost of reducing environmental goals; and (iii when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is at a high level, the fraction of consumers with high environmental awareness increases, but firms might have more difficulty achieving their environmental and economic goals. On the other hand, if the market competition is at a relatively high level, the presence of consumer heterogeneity can help improve environmental goals, but make achievement of economic goals difficult.

  4. Green consumers and public policy: On socially contingent moral motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Howarth, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    'Green' consumers appear to accept individual responsibility for the provision of public goods. The propensity to take such responsibility may depend on beliefs about others' behavior, even for consumers motivated by internalized moral norms, not by social sanctions. This effect can produce multiple equilibria with either high or low demand for 'green' products. Permanent increases in green consumption may be achieved by imposing temporary taxes or subsidies, or through advertising that influences beliefs about others' behavior or about external effects. If a tax is interpreted as taking responsibility away from the individual, however, taxes can reduce the influence of moral motivation. (author)

  5. Making Green Stuff? : Effects of Corporate Greenwashing on Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, Menno D. T.; Harkink, Karen M.; Barth, Susanne

    The marketing success of green products has spawned the phenomenon of greenwashing, but studies on the effects of greenwashing on consumers are still limited. Using a 4 × 2 randomized experimental design, this study examines such effects by determining whether consumers respond differently to

  6. Consumer choices: Going green to be seen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bergh (Bram); V. Griskevicius (Vladas); J.M. Tybur (Joshua)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWhat motivates consumers to buy eco-friendly products? Are people’s choices linked to their concern for the environment and thus to be viewed as expressions of altruism, or are motives fragile and self-serving reflections of concern about social status within the community?

  7. The Green Consumer Is Still Somewhat Pale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitz, David

    1993-01-01

    Calls for consumer initiated education concerning environmentally ethical buying decisions. Presents a historical depiction of American Consumerism associated with food consumption, marketing strategies, fads, the environmental movement, and American buying habits. Discusses government definitions and ensuing ambiguity of product terminology. (MCO)

  8. Consumer decision making regarding a "green" everyday product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Jørgensen, Anne-Katrine; Sandager, Sara

    2012-01-01

    to elevate consumer involvement in the choice of the product. However, there is a lack of research investigating whether adding such a “green” product attribute actually makes any difference to how consumers make choices. Does the way in which consumers make decisions about groceries change when both “green......, it is concluded that, rather than changing the way consumers make decisions when buying this type of product, the availability of a “green” alternative seems to make “green” consumers develop a new, simple choice heuristic that allows them to do their shopping as effortless and time-efficient as consumers buying......” and conventional alternatives are available? Does it make them deliberate more or do they just develop another, simple choice heuristic? Based on observation and follow-up interviews of consumers at the milk counter in two supermarkets which stock both organic (a “green” attribute) and conventional milk...

  9. Utility Green Pricing Programs: Design, Implementation, and Consumer Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.; Aabakken, J.

    2004-02-01

    The term green pricing refers to programs offered by utilities in traditionally regulated electricity markets, which allow customers to support the development of renewable energy sources by paying a small premium on their electric bills. Since the introduction of the concept in the United States, the number of unique utility green pricing programs has expanded from just a few programs in 1993 to more than 90 in 2002. About 10% of U.S. utilities offered a green pricing option to about 26 million consumers by the end of 2002. This report provides: (1) aggregate industry data on consumer response to utility programs, which indicate the collective impact of green pricing on renewable energy development nationally; and (2) market data that can be used by utilities as a benchmark for gauging the relative success of their green pricing programs. Specifically, the paper presents current data and trends in consumer response to green pricing, as measured by renewable energy sales, participants, participation rates, and new renewable energy capacity supported. It presents data on various aspects of program design and implementation, such as product pricing, ownership of supplies, retention rates, marketing costs, the effectiveness of marketing techniques, and methods of enrolling and providing value to customers.

  10. Green girls and bored boys? Adolescents' environmental consumer learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2006-01-01

    An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...... be identified. The method applied in this study was useful for eliciting young consumers' understanding of environmental issues. Moreover, the essays yielded interesting data to be used for highlighting gender differences in the environmental consumer socialisation process.......An untraditional method of data construction - written essays - was used to study consumer socialisation processes related to 'green' consumerism. The study primarily aimed at exploring how adolescents perceive of environmental issues and learn about these issues in a family context. Results show...

  11. The green dilemma: Reflections of a Generation Y consumer cohort on green purchase behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muposhi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Green consumerism has garnered much scholarly interest in recent years. However, research on the influence of the Social Dilemma Theory (SDT on green purchase behaviour has been scarce. Using data generated from sixteen in-depth-interviews, the present study identified perceived efficacy, perceived cost, in-group and self-identity, trust and peer influence as the main antecedents of SDT that influence green purchase behaviour. The findings of the study imply that to promote and institutionalise green purchase behaviour, marketers need to enhance perceived efficacy, trust in green products, reduce perceived cost, align green products with the consumers’ sought image and utilise peer networks when structuring green marketing messages.

  12. Consumer focus can spur group practice turnaround.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M S; Draper, A

    2001-06-01

    Many healthcare organizations have lost money on their employed group practices. The solution to this dilemma is not necessarily divestment of the group practices. Instead, some healthcare organizations should view their physicians as an asset. Healthcare organizations and physicians need to develop a new framework for their relationship to optimize their competitive advantage. Three guiding principles that will help accomplish this objective are to recast the healthcare organization-physician relationship to focus on the consumer, reconfigure the economic model to exceed consumer demands, and restructure the group practice to encourage fiscal and service excellence. In developing a new relationship framework, the stakeholders need to define the group practice's mission, strategic direction, composition, infrastructure, compensation model, and structure.

  13. A Study on Consumer Perspective towards Green Products in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusarla Lakshmi Padmaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trending concept of the 21st century. With an increase in global warming and carbon emissions, green marketing gained importance and subsequently encouraging green products, which can further contribute to sustainable environment. The consumer play a major role in determining the demand for any product and since green products are eco-friendly, they have created niche for those environmental consciousness customers. In this context, a study on consumer perspective and attitude towards green products will be quite useful for marketers, to understand both, consumers and market. This study focus on the consumer awareness, attitude and purchase intention towards green products.

  14. THE ROMANIAN YOUNG GENERATION'S WILLINGNESS TO CONSUME GREEN HOSPITALITY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUȚA ADINA BĂLTESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry generates environmental degradation through the construction of buildings, waste disposal, and water usage. Nowadays, a large number of customers show increased environmental awareness, being willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products/services. In Romania institutional arrangements to generate awareness of the necessity of sustainable development were numerous, exemplifying in this respect the actions carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development for introducing the european eco-label for tourist accommodation services and the camping services, as well as for promoting the use of the eco-label in Romania among interested hotels and guesthouses. Based on these aspects, the article presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted among the young generation from Brașov county. The main objectives of the research consist in identifying the level of information among Romanian young consumers of accommodation services from Brasov county regarding the eco-certification and environmental management systems applied in the Romanian hospitality industry and, also, to identify their intentions to consume the green accommodation products.

  15. Communication about consumption: A family process perspective on "green" consumer practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Family decision-making still constitutes a niche of consumer research. The preference towards using individualist approaches is even more prevalent in research on environmentally oriented consumer behaviour. However, many green consumer practices involve several family members, who may be able......-ridden, day-to-day influences between family members are a common phenomenon, even when it comes to inconspicuous, everyday consumer behaviour....

  16. A Study on Consumer Perspective towards Green Products in Bengaluru City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pusarla Lakshmi Padmaja; Vaddadi Krishna Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is a trending concept of the 21st century. With an increase in global warming and carbon emissions, green marketing gained importance and subsequently encouraging green products, which can further contribute to sustainable environment. The consumer play a major role in determining the demand for any product and since green products are eco-friendly, they have created niche for those environmental consciousness customers. In this context, a study on consumer perspective and atti...

  17. Analysis of the LOHAS consumer segment attitudes with regard to green brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Krupka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, as most markets are saturated with different products and services, brand has become a basis for differentiation and gaining competitive advantage. Although a relatively new phenomenon, both companies and consumers have put greater importance on green brands over the past few years. The most important and the largest set of green brands consumers is the LOHAS segment. For the purposes of this paper, empirical research was conducted among LOHAS consumers in the Republic of Croatia of their attitudes with regard to green brands. Survey results showed that LOHAS consumers not only prefer green brands but that they are willing to pay higher prices for them, even though they do not think that green brands should be higher priced. Also, research has shown that LOHAS consumers feel obliged to buy green brands because of personal values and beliefs. Companies should take advantage of the market situation and adopt green business as a business philosophy. They should learn more about LOHAS consumers and adjust their marketing communication to them as traditional are less effective in this segment. Doing so would increase the loyalty of LOHAS consumers. This is particularly important since they are generally early adopters of green brands and, as such, have an impact on others.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF GREEN MARKETING STRATEGIES TO CONSUMERS ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Yoan Nita

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to investigate the influence of eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, environmental advertisement, green premium pricing, and eco-image to consumers’ environmental behaviour. The result found that in overall all has influence consumers’ environmental behaviour. However, when it came to partial test, only eco-labelling, green packaging and branding, and green premium pricing which contributes to the consumers’ environmental behaviour.

  19. Three Essays Identifying Consumer Behavior by Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Mark Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines consumer behavior in different markets. Six different types of Utah snow skiers, namely, half day, local, multiday, college and K-12 students, and season ticket holders, are analyzed in the first paper to determine their demand response to changes in prices, income, weather, transportation costs, and particular days. A…

  20. The Importance of Consumer Trust for the Emergence of a Market for Green products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer trust is a key prerequisite for establishing a market for credence goods, such as “green” products, especially when they are premium priced. This article reports research on exactly how, and how much, trust influences consumer decisions to buy new green products. It identifies consumer t...... behavior. Implications for policy and future research are discussed....

  1. ADOPTING SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS IN PROFILING GREEN CONSUMERS: A REVIEW OF HYPOTHESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades worldwide environmental consciousness has increased dramatically as well as profiling green consumers have gained tremendous attention in the past. Segmenting and targeting markets base on pro-environmental purchase behavior are essential when companies positioning their green products. Socio-demographic characteristics have gained a lot of attention as the key profiling variables. Such characteristics have been employed by many scholars more frequently for the bases of segmenting and profiling green consumers. However, most existing studies of green consumers’ socio-demographic were US based. The present article attempts to review the common hypotheses of socio-demographic characteristics in profiling green consumers. The present article reviews five general hypotheses relating to socio-demographics and environmental consciousness of green consumers, namely the gender, age, education level, income, and occupation hypotheses, as well as the theoretical explanation for each hypothesis. Most previous studies tend to have the same conclusion in the gender, age, education level, and  income characteristics. Critics to socio-demographic characteristics and a need to conduct green marketing research in Indonesia was also reviewed.Key words: profiling, socio-demographic, green consumer, hypotheses.

  2. Media attention and the market for 'green' consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2006-01-01

    , but also its mere success means that stories framing green businesses in a negative light become newsworthy while positive stories lose their newsworthiness. Therefore, and despite a large and loyal customer base, many green companies now find themselves in a much more hostile environment than a decade ago.......There are signs that a general counter-attack is now being orchestrated against the greens. This paper surveys the evidence regarding an issue-attention cycle in environmental concern in Western Europe and North America. It furthermore discusses the role of the news media in creating the cycle....... It is well documented that the mass media plays an important role in determining which issues receive high or low attention by the general public. However, not only does the media's assessment of what is newsworthy mean that green businesses will eventually lose the current of a rising issue attention cycle...

  3. Media attention and the market for "green" consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Environmental protection has been an issue with remarkable staying power on the public agenda in Europe and North America in the past two to three decades (Dunlap, 2002) and many companies have prospered by seizing the opportunities offered by the growing "green" market. However, now...... of drama, and misconduct in businesses with a "green" image has a taste of hypocrisy, both of which make for highly newsworthy events. Hence, despite a large and loyal customer base, many "green" companies now find themselves in a much more hostile environment than a decade ago....... there are signs of a general "counter attack" being or-chestrated against the "greens." In this paper I survey the evidence regarding an "issue-attention" cycle (Downs, 1972) in environmental concern in Western Europe and North America and discus the role of the news media in creating the cycle. It is well...

  4. Promoting green consumer behavior with eco-labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    As a means to reduce the pollution and resource use following from consumption, attempts are made to motivate consumers to switch to less environmentally harmful and resource consuming products. One of the increasingly popular tools is to label the least harmful products in such a way that consum...... that consumers can distinguish them from others and, hence, are able to choose them. This paper reviews research on the effectiveness of eco-labels as a means to influence behavior and environmental outcomes.......As a means to reduce the pollution and resource use following from consumption, attempts are made to motivate consumers to switch to less environmentally harmful and resource consuming products. One of the increasingly popular tools is to label the least harmful products in such a way...

  5. Green Energy Options for Consumer-Owned Business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Co-opPlus of Western Massachusetts

    2006-05-01

    The goal of this project was to define, test, and prototype a replicable business model for consumer-owned cooperatives. The result is a replicable consumer-owned cooperative business model for the generation, interconnection, and distribution of renewable energy that incorporates energy conservation and efficiency improvements.

  6. Eating green. Consumers' willingness to adopt ecological food consumption behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Green marketing of consumer electronics : Applying Kano's theory of attractive quality on EcoDesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Lotgering, S.; Ruijs, F.

    2007-01-01

    To a consumer a green attribute, such as energy efficiency may be far more important for one product than another. For some products it may be seen as essential, for others as nice to have. Business belief says it may even be negative if consumers perceive it as conflicting with the primary

  8. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal. PMID:28930198

  9. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal.

  10. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2017-09-20

    Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator's joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal.

  11. Consumer Sustainability and Responsibility: Beyond Green and Ethical Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Hosta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Most literature regarding sustainable behavior is based on the assumption that the reduction of consumption is inherently positive (mainly in the form of positive environmental consequences and based on ethical considerations. However, the issue of the social consequences of this reduction and self-interested intentions in consumption is not generally open to debate. This paper aims to identify dimensions of sustainable and responsible consumer behavior, distinguish between the two concepts, and present consumer obstacles to acting responsibly in all aspects that a sustainability agenda would suggest. Design/Methodology/Approach – The paper includes a literature review, proposes a framework of responsible and sustainable consumption (RSCB, and offers a set of propositions to achieve responsible and sustainable consumption. Insights from personal interviews with consumers are added for the sake of additional understanding of the concepts presented. Findings and implications – Through the RSCB framework, we show the potential trade-off decisions consumers have to make in order to implement sustainability and responsibility issues in everyday consumer decision processes. Struggles between doing what is good for them and what is good for the environment and society could be a reason why consumers have difficulties achieving responsible and sustainable consumption. Limitations – Qualitative study based on a small sample of personal interviews does not allow for generalizations. Originality – A research gap in understanding the dimensions of sustainable and responsible consumer actions in terms of their emphasis (environmental and social and intentions (self-interest and other-interest is addressed. By understanding those two dimensions of behavior, managers and consumers can resolve consumer sustainability and responsibility dilemmas that arise from a one-dimensional view in order to move sustainability research and practice

  12. Green marketing today – a mix of trust, consumer participation and life cycle thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewandowska Anna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A transition for a green, circular economy has encouraged companies to use new tools which boost sustainability. The purpose of this article is to discuss the consideration of life cycle thinking in green marketing as realized by companies. This theoretical-conceptual study aims to analyze life cycle assessment (LCA as a useful tool for assessing green marketing goals. We also intend to highlight the importance of creating consumer trust for green business by displaying the green credentials of the products and activities. The article presents t he virtues and shortcomings of the LCA results relative to marketing management. As a result, the literature presents some gaps in terms of addressing life cycle thinking in marketing management and linking with consumer participation and trust.

  13. Citizen versus consumer: challenges in the UK green power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, S.L.; Fleming, P.D.; Urwin, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential advantages and disadvantages of green power products, as opposed to the traditional fossil fuel levy (which was the UK's chosen tax regime), as a means of developing renewable energy in the UK. Willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewables is investigated. Results indicate that willingness to pay varies with social status and income. However results demonstrate that there is a significant minority in full support of some sort of fiscal initiative. Electricity generated from renewables is a concept supported by the majority. However, given the stated willingness to pay it is unlikely that any new renewable capacity will result from green tariff schemes in the near term. It is concluded that the green citizen must continue to co-exist with the green power purchaser if the UK is to make any significant improvement in the contribution of renewable energy to electricity demand. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Irene Lorenzoni and Jane Powell of the Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia; Leicester Energy Efficiency Advice Centre; and Leicester Energy Agency. (author)

  14. Consumer Brand Choice: Individual and Group Analyses of Demand Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; Foxall, Gordon R.; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C.

    2006-01-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast…

  15. Consumer brand choice: individual and group analyses of demand elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M; Foxall, Gordon R; Schrezenmaier, Teresa C

    2006-03-01

    Following the behavior-analytic tradition of analyzing individual behavior, the present research investigated demand elasticity of individual consumers purchasing supermarket products, and compared individual and group analyses of elasticity. Panel data from 80 UK consumers purchasing 9 product categories (i.e., baked beans, biscuits, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine and tea) during a 16-week period were used. Elasticity coefficients were calculated for individual consumers with data from all or only 1 product category (intra-consumer elasticities), and for each product category using all data points from all consumers (overall product elasticity) or 1 average data point per consumer (interconsumer elasticity). In addition to this, split-sample elasticity coefficients were obtained for each individual with data from all product categories purchased during weeks 1 to 8 and 9 to 16. The results suggest that: 1) demand elasticity coefficients calculated for individual consumers purchasing supermarket food products are compatible with predictions from economic theory and behavioral economics; 2) overall product elasticities, typically employed in marketing and econometric research, include effects of interconsumer and intraconsumer elasticities; 3) when comparing demand elasticities of different product categories, group and individual analyses yield similar trends; and 4) individual differences in demand elasticity are relatively consistent across time, but do not seem to be consistent across products. These results demonstrate the theoretical, methodological, and managerial relevance of investigating the behavior of individual consumers.

  16. Consumers' Attitudes Toward Printed Green Advertising : A study of attitudes among Swedish consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Amanda; Gustafsson, Niclas

    2012-01-01

    Introduction With the increased interest and awareness toward environmental issues among Swedish consumers, their demands on what constitutes value in advertisements have also changed. Advertising-in-general is often regarded as a rather unwelcomed intrusion and a source of irritation by consumers and a common reason is that many advertisers have overdramatized or even spread false claims about products, causing great skepticism among consumers. With the increase of environmentally minded con...

  17. Repeat Purchase Intention of Starbucks Consumers in Indonesia: A Green Brand Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Naili Farida; Elia Ardyan

    2015-01-01

    This study develops and tests the repeat purchase intention model (with a green brand approach). The model considers four determinants; perceived image, satisfaction, trust, and attitude. The model is tested using data and a survey of 203 Starbucks customers in Indonesia. The analysis was carried out by employing Structural Equation Modeling. The data was processed with AMOS 21. The results confirm that the company’s green brand image is positively and significantly related to consumer satisf...

  18. A Comparative Study of Green Purchase Intention between Korean and Chinese Consumers: The Moderating Role of Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    You Kyung Lee

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impacts of the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism on the green purchase intention of Korean and Chinese consumers. Although some studies have researched the relationship between cultural influences and green purchase behaviour, a study on the moderating effect of collectivism on the formation of green purchase intention is rarely found. Therefore, based on 357 consumers in Korea and 398 consumers...

  19. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionally and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation leaves little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as precondition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle. (author)

  20. Supporting renewable energy on liberalised markets: green electricity between additionality and consumer sovereignty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The German feed-in regulation has been perhaps the most effective promotional policy for green electricity. However, with the growing momentum of the liberalisation process the current regulation is challenged by structural problems about how to address the demand side. Price regulation lefts only little room for private green electricity market activities. Moreover, the success of the feed-in regulation depends on a strict differentiation of the political segment and the emerging green electricity markets. The question, therefore, is about the role green electricity markets can (or should) perform in general. In order to evaluate green electricity markets the additionality criteria is frequently used, implying that markets are only desirable if they lead to additional environmental effects. The additionality criteria has two implications: First, transformed into individual behaviour, additionality implies that consumers are assumed to act as pure altruists. However, there is evidence from empirical studies that green electricity consumers behave more as impure altruists: they are not so much interested in the objective environmental impact of their behaviour but more objected to receive a private satisfaction from buying an environmental friendly product. Whereas theoretical models in the case of pure altruism suggest that private activities crowd out totally when policy becomes active in supporting the public good, this crowding out disappears in the case of impure altruism. Second, using end-state criteria such as the additionality principle as pre-condition, and neglecting process criteria such as consumer sovereignty, means to prevent establishing competitive market process right at the outset in principle

  1. Repeat Purchase Intention of Starbucks Consumers in Indonesia: A Green Brand Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Farida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study develops and tests the repeat purchase intention model (with a green brand approach. The model considers four determinants; perceived image, satisfaction, trust, and attitude. The model is tested using data and a survey of 203 Starbucks customers in Indonesia. The analysis was carried out by employing Structural Equation Modeling. The data was processed with AMOS 21. The results confirm that the company’s green brand image is positively and significantly related to consumer satisfaction, trust, and attitude. On the other hand, consumer satisfaction and trust are shown to have insignificant influence on repeat purchase intention.

  2. Consumer groups call for ban on internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaise, David

    2004-08-01

    A number of consumer groups have called on the Canadian government to ban internet pharmacies, claiming that the industry is putting the health of Canadians at risk. The groups say that the impact will escalate if the problem is not addressed.

  3. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  4. Peningkatan Ecoliteracy siswa sebagai Green Consumer melalui Pemanfaatan Kemasan Produk Konsumsi dalam Pembelajaran IPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badrud Tamam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan kompetensi ecoliteracy siswa sebagai green consumer, melalui pemanfaatan kemasan produk konsumsi sebagai media dan sumber belajar IPS. Hal tersebut dilatarbelakangi atas kondisi objektif masalah limbah kemasan produk-produk konsumsi, sebagai polutan serius bagi lingkungan, termasuk bagi siswa di lingkungan SMP Negeri 1 Ciruas. Permasalahan lingkungan ini penting dikaji dalam pembelajaran IPS, sebab siswa sering dihadapkan pada fakta lemahnya pemahaman, kesadaran dan keterampilan menjadi konsumen yang ramah lingkungan (green consumer. Pembelajaran di kelaspun nampaknya masih jarang membangkitkan kesadaran, dan prilaku peduli akan lingkungan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian tindakan kelas (clasroom action research, dengan desain penelitian dari Kemmis dan Mc. Taggart yang terdiri dari empat tahapan yakni perencanaan (plan, tindakan (act, observasi (observe dan refleksi (reflect. Dari hasil analisis pencapaian kompetensi ecoliteracy siswa dari siklus satu sampai siklus ketiga, menunjukan peningkatan kemampuan ecoliteracy yang signifikan pada setiap aspeknya. Berdasarkan rekapitulasi pencapaian kompetensi ecoliteracy siswa dari hasil pengamatan disimpulkan bahwa; pembelajaran IPS setelah memanfaatkan kemasan produk konsumsi sebagai media dan sumber belajar, dapat secara efektif meningkatkan kemampuan ecoliteracy siswa sebagai green consumer, pada kelas VIIB di SMP Negeri 1 Ciruas Kabupaten Serang-Banten. Sehingga siswa mampu lebih selektif baik dalam memilih, menggunakan dan membeli produk konsumsi berkemasan, yang berorientasi pada kelestarian lingkungan, terutama dilingkungan sekitar sekolah. Kata Kunci; Ecoliteracy, Green consumer, Kemasan Produk Konsumsi, Pembelajaran IPS

  5. Forming the face of green products : Mood boards and early consumer involvement in ship interior design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murto, P.; Ahola, M.; Person, F.E.O.K.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study mood boards and the process by which they can be used to understand consumer inferences about environmental sustainability in the early stages of green product development. As a component of a research project on sustainable ship design, we created mood boards showcasing

  6. Stimulating diffusion of green products - Co-evolution between firms and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MA; Jager, W

    This paper presents a model-based analysis of the introduction of green products, which are products with low environmental impacts. Both consumers and firms are simulated as populations of agents who differ in their behavioural characteristics. Model experiments illustrate the influence of

  7. Do green tech policies need to pass the consumer test? The case of ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a question sometimes overlooked by policymakers and regulators, namely the need of a robust value proposition for green technologies to successfully enter the market. In particular, results from consumer choice models are used to develop measures of consumer acceptance of ethanol blends and flex-fuel vehicles is studied, a fuel-vehicle system that has received attention in a variety of federal and state policies. The analysis suggests that, under projected fuel prices and given the characteristics of the competing vehicle-fuel systems, consumers are unlikely to substitute ethanol blends for gasoline. The analysis also highlights the need for further research in this area. (author)

  8. Consumer support for environmental policies. An application to purchases of green cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coad, Alex; Woersdorfer, Julia Sophie [Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena (Germany); De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, CHN J73.2, Universitaetstr. 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on how consumer motivation can be tapped in order to encourage the adoption of cleaner technologies. Consumers are heterogeneous - they may be guided by intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation. While information provision policies (such as the energy label for cars) may be effective in encouraging certain consumers to adopt green cars, financial incentive schemes (such as subsidies or fines) may be more persuasive for extrinsically-motivated consumers. We develop a dynamic theory of adoption of environmental innovations, in which information-provision policies are followed by financial incentives (first 'carrot', then 'stick' incentives). Analysis of a survey dataset of Swiss households observes considerable heterogeneity in terms of support of information-provision or financial incentive policies, in line with our conjectures. Our results will be of particular interest to policymakers interested in guiding consumers towards cleaner technologies. (author)

  9. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  10. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon

    2011-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. - Research Highlights: →The study explored the drivers of willingness to pay (WTP) a premium for green electricity. →All the hypothesised drivers of WTP a premium were found to be significant. →Contrary to some former studies, income was found to be a good predictor of WTP and the pledged premium. →The quantum of the premium positively correlates with income levels.

  11. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2013-03-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand.

  12. Connecting plug-in vehicles with green electricity through consumer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    The environmental benefits of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) increase if the vehicles are powered by electricity from ‘green’ sources such as solar, wind or small-scale hydroelectricity. Here, we explore the potential to build a market that pairs consumer purchases of PEVs with purchases of green electricity. We implement a web-based survey with three US samples defined by vehicle purchases: conventional new vehicle buyers (n = 1064), hybrid vehicle buyers (n = 364) and PEV buyers (n = 74). Respondents state their interest in a PEV as their next vehicle, in purchasing green electricity in one of three ways, i.e., monthly subscription, two-year lease or solar panel purchase, and in combining the two products. Although we find that a link between PEVs and green electricity is not presently strong in the consciousness of most consumers, the combination is attractive to some consumers when presented. Across all three respondent segments, pairing a PEV with a green electricity program increased interest in PEVs—with a 23% demand increase among buyers of conventional vehicles. Overall, about one-third of respondents presently value the combination of a PEV with green electricity; the proportion is much higher among previous HEV and PEV buyers. Respondents’ reported motives for interest in both products and their combination include financial savings (particularly among conventional buyers), concerns about air pollution and the environment, and interest in new technology (particularly among PEV buyers). The results provide guidance regarding policy and marketing strategies to advance PEVs and green electricity demand. (letter)

  13. Consumers' preferences for fresh yam: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2017-01-01

    In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.

  14. Consumer Preferences for Cluster Raisins: A Focus Group Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Jon C.; Matt, Garrett R.; Drukin, April; Campeau-McAllister, Kimberly; Campeau-McAllister, Nicole; Solis, Marco; Gipson, Tenisha

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. raisin industry has experienced a decline in acreage and in number of growers in recent years. One firm is trying a novel approach to marketing raisins, namely, by marketing them still attached to the vine. This product is called cluster raisins. In order to explore consumer preferences related to cluster raisins, and to generate new product ideas and preferred marketing methods, two focus group interviews were implemented. Findings included that a young (i.e., 18 - 25 years) market ...

  15. Green Buildings in Denmark – From radical ecology to consumer oriented market approaches?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    Gram-Hanssen and Jensen explore the development of green buildings in Denmark over the last three decades, identifying differences in design philosophies and techniques. They look at four approaches to green buildings: as energy-saving devices, as ecological grassroots alternatives, as subsidised...... large-scale urban projects, and as consumer products in a market approach. Using detailed case descriptions, the chapter asks to what extent it is possible to define some buildings or some approaches as more 'green' than others. The authors suggest that in order to more fully understand sustainable...... buildings we must account for the social structuring of both the identification of environmental problems and their resulting embodiment in built form....

  16. Religiosity As An Antecedent Of Attitude Towards Green Products: An Exploratory Research On Young Malaysian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Teck Chai

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Religion has long been acknowledged as an important social force that influences human behavior but yet in the secular society its influence on consumer behavior appears to be underestimated. Of the sporadic research conducted, findings indicated that religion can be a significant factor in relation to consumption patterns, innovativeness, media usage, family decision-making, purchase risk aversion and selected store patronage behavior. The current research is exploratory in nature and attempts to investigate the influence of religiosity on attitudes towards green products especially among young Malaysian consumers. Religiosity, the independent variable, was measured by the intrinsic/ extrinsic religious orientation scale adopted from Allport and Ross (1967. The dependent variable was derived from a study on attitudes towards green product (Mostafa, 2007. The questionnaires were distributed to students in a large private university located in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Reliability analysis and multiple linear regressions were conducted. The results from the multiple linear regression analysis indicate that intrinsic religiosity has a significant relationship on consumer’s attitude towards green product. However, in the case of extrinsic religiosity, there is no significant relationship on consumer’s attitude towards green product.

  17. Profile of Green Consumers in Romania in Light of Sustainability Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Roman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability and responsible consumption are now the policies of companies interested in preserving a good reputation. If in the past, sustainability was an issue present only in the corporate social responsibility campaigns developed by companies; nowadays, this aspect has become a key element that has been proven to influence the purchasing behavior of consumers. The existence of policies and strategies in the area of sustainability does not necessarily mean their being put into practice as long as people, who make these objectives attainable, are not aware of them. The present paper aims to explore the green consumption of Romanian consumers, which would indicate whether the concern for environmental problems is then translated into an appropriate behavior; in other words, whether “words become facts”. At the same time, this paper analyzes the extent to which the “green trend” has gained popularity in Romania, how involved the Romanian consumers are with environmental issues and the behaviors they adopt in order to mitigate the impact on the ecosystem. However, there are differences between individual opinions on green consumption and the actual behavior adopted in trying to ameliorate this issue.

  18. THE ROLES OF CONSUMER’S KNOWLEDGE AND EMOTION IN ECOLOGICAL ISSUES: An Empirical Study on Green Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Shellyana Junaedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the causal effect of existing relationship amongst green purchasing, which are attitudinal and behavioral approaches, consumer values, ecological affect, ecological knowledge, and green purchase intention. The survey result provides a reasonable support for the validity of the proposed model. Specifically, the finding from structural equation model confirms the influence of consumer values orientation, ecological affect, and ecological knowledge on their attitudes towards green purchase intention. The implication of this research is relevant to Indonesian government and green marketers to fine-tune their environmental programs.

  19. Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Model to Investigate Purchase Intention of Green Products among Thai Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamonthip Maichum; Surakiat Parichatnon; Ke-Chung Peng

    2016-01-01

    Green products are among the widely used products worldwide due to their environmental benefits. However, information on the consumers’ purchase intention towards green products in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. This study aims to investigate Thai consumers who are aged over 18 years, and whose base education is high school, on purchase intention for green products by using an extended framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We derived and examined the model th...

  20. A Comparative Study of Green Purchase Intention between Korean and Chinese Consumers: The Moderating Role of Collectivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Kyung Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the impacts of the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism on the green purchase intention of Korean and Chinese consumers. Although some studies have researched the relationship between cultural influences and green purchase behaviour, a study on the moderating effect of collectivism on the formation of green purchase intention is rarely found. Therefore, based on 357 consumers in Korea and 398 consumers in China, this study proposes a new model of green purchase intention and empirically tests a model using moderated regression analysis (MRA. The results show that the new ecological paradigm, environmental collective efficacy, environmental knowledge, and collectivism are direct antecedents of green purchase intention in China. In particular, collectivism positively moderates the relationship between environmental collective efficacy and green purchase intention in China. However, the results from Korean consumers show that collectivism has neither a direct impact nor moderating impact on green purchase intention. However, it was found that environmental collective efficacy and environmental knowledge have direct impacts on green purchase intention in Korea. Finally, this study discusses the theoretical and managerial implications of these findings.

  1. Green marketing as a key strategy for sustainable development: A case study of Albanian consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gumeni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently efforts have been made in order to achieve sustainable development, which consists of social sustainability, economic sustainability and environmental sustainability in order to reach well-being of present and future generations. In our time the concern for environmental topics and sustainable development has been increasing. Accordingly companies are trying to design new strategies for gaining competitive advantage in the marketplace. Green marketing is one of such strategies used by marketers for reaching sustainable development. Companies need to know consumers' attitude and to adapt new marketing solutions with the focus on determining the expectations and satisfying their needs. In this paper we will attempt to examine the attitude of Albanian consumers toward eco-friendly products. The aim of the survey is to gather information from a consumer standpoint. We will apply various statistical analyses to investigate the demographic variable of consumers who are willing to pay an extra price for eco-friendly products. Findings demonstrate that the profile of consumers with a positive attitude towards eco-friendly products was more likely to be young educated women.

  2. Involvement of Consumer Groups in Tobacco Control: Russia and Belarus Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Yanin

    2017-05-01

    5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.

  3. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvine, Dorian; Wuestenhagen, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  4. The (ineffectiveness of green seals on consumer behavior: a experimental study [doi: 10.21529/RECADM.2017003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Pasquotto Andreoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to analyze consumers' perceptions about green seals, according to how well known these seals are and to their own profile of green consumption. Therefore, a theoretical reference was made on sustainable consumption, as well as on the application of green seals in the perspective of green marketing. The method adopted was a hypothetical-deductive approach, carried out through two experiments (one online and the other face-to-face, both with factorial design 2 (true and well-known green seal versus false seal and nothing known x 2 very sustainable versus low sustainable consumer profile. In view of the results obtained, four main discussions could be made, such as the possibility of greenwashing due to the clear mention of environmental aspects, either in relation to the seal itself or to the statements underlying it, the ineffectiveness of adopting green seals and influence of this ineffectiveness even in consumers who reported having a more sustainable consumption profile.   Keywords Sustainable consumption; Green marketing; Green seals; Experimental research; Greenwashing.

  5. The Green Knowledge and Green Awareness Influences Analysis on Green Behavior and Its Impact on Green Lifestyle of Instant Noodles Consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Hadriana, Hadriana; Hudrasyah, Herry

    2013-01-01

    Changing in the consumer' behavior because of the growing of the people nowadaysin era modernization makes the consumers become more time conscious and want everything to be practical. That is why food such as instant noodles is become more and more popular these days because of its practical. Unfortunately, this instant noodles made by packaging product's plastic material which have many negative impact to the environment. The purpose of this research is to improve the quality of human and e...

  6. Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Model to Investigate Purchase Intention of Green Products among Thai Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonthip Maichum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green products are among the widely used products worldwide due to their environmental benefits. However, information on the consumers’ purchase intention towards green products in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. This study aims to investigate Thai consumers who are aged over 18 years, and whose base education is high school, on purchase intention for green products by using an extended framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB. We derived and examined the model through structural equation modeling in a sample of 483 respondents in Thailand. The findings of this model indicated that consumer attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control have significant positive influences on the purchase intention for green products. Furthermore, our results indicated that environmental concerns have a significant effect on attitude, perceived behavioral control and purchase intention for green products, but subjective norm. Moreover, environmental knowledge had no significant effect on the purchase intention for green products. Instead, it had a distinct indirect effect through attitude towards purchasing green products, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. The findings from this study contribute to improving the understanding of intention to purchase green products, which could play a major role towards sustainable consumption.

  7. Exploring the Consumer Behavior of Intention to Purchase Green Products in Belt and Road Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Cheng Chen; Chien-Wen Chen; Yi-Chun Tung

    2018-01-01

    This study explored the consumer behavior of intention to purchase green products based on a decision-making model that integrates cognitive attributes, affective attributes, and behavioral intentions in Belt and Road countries. The questionnaires were collected from customers who previously purchased green products; this study distributed the questionnaires at the appliance section of the department stores and collected 227 valid responses. Environmental attitude, product attitude, social in...

  8. Characteristic and Preferences of Green Consumer Stratification As Bases to Formulating Marketing Strategies of Ecolabel-Certified Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Wulandari

    2012-06-01

    question. The components used were: satisfaction, safety, socialization, and sustainability, as well as government policies which could open markets. The respondents were 408 potential consumers in Jakarta and its surroundings. The method used was purposive and convenience sampling, in which the survey was conducted at exhibitions and showrooms. Ward Method, Stepwise Discriminant Analysis and Biplot Analysis were used to generate consumer stratifications. Before that, reliability tests were conducted using Crombach Alpha method. In addition, data was explored and reduced using Component Principle Analysis. Preference analysis was performed using the method proposed by Thurston Case V. This study results four stratifications of green consumers. There were similarities and differences in preference on each of the stratification of the component of green marketing strategy as well as the marketing strategies of furniture-certified ecolabel for the targeted consumers.

  9. Consumers, Industrialists and the Political Economy of Green Taxation: CO2 taxation in OECD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Hjøllund, Lene

    2001-01-01

    Economists have traditionally suggested that politicians should simply impose a uniform tax on harmful emissions, as the first-best solution prescribes. However, a detailed analysis of the actual design of green taxes in the OECD reveals that they are differentiated and far from this first......-best optimal design. Public choice theory suggests that an important reason this is so is that industry as a group, in contrast to households, is capable of lobbying against green taxation. The paper presents empirical findings on CO2 taxation within the OECD countries, which confirm this theoretical......) and grandfathered permit markets (in relation to organized interests) should be considered in the search for cost-effective and politically feasible instruments. Udgivelsesdato: MAY...

  10. Green power: marketing departments on the starting blocks -- more and more consumers want to buy green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the increasing efforts being made by Swiss electricity utilities to provide their customers with electricity generated from renewable resources. The article discusses various green power labelling schemes that aim to provide quality assurance and guarantee that customers can buy power produced from renewable resources. Price developments for wind and solar power and market development prospects for green power in general are discussed. The use of green power's positive image in the utilities' marketing strategies is examined

  11. Characteristic and Preferences of Green Consumer Stratification As Bases to Formulating Marketing Strategies of Ecolabel-Certified Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Ririn Wulandari; Budi Suharjo; Agus W. Soehadi; Herry Purnomo

    2012-01-01

    International furniture markets certify ecolabel has been growing, but the domestic market has not yet developed. Unfortunate, because these products have two advantages that ensure environmental sustainability and promote a furniture market. This study was expected to open and developed the domestic market for ecolabel-certified furniture. The aim of this study was to develop marketing strategies for ecolabel-certified furniture on each of green consumer stratifications. Consumer stratificat...

  12. Enrichment of Biscuits with Matcha Green Tea Powder: Its Impact on Consumer Acceptability and Acute Metabolic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjapor Phongnarisorn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Matcha green tea powder (MGTP is made with finely ground green tea leaves that are rich in phytochemicals, most particularly catechins. Shortbread biscuits were enriched with MGTP and evaluated for consumer acceptability and potential functional health properties. Baking decreased the content of total catechins by 19% compared to dough, although epimerization increased the amount of (+-gallocatechin gallate at the expense of other catechins such as (−-epigallocatechin gallate. Consumer acceptability tests using a 9-point hedonic scale showed that consumers preferred enriched biscuits with low content of MGTP (2 g of MGTP 100 g−1 of flour, and an increase of sugar content did not significantly improve the acceptability of MGTP-enriched biscuits. Overall, enrichment of biscuits with MGTP did not significantly affect the postprandial glucose or triglyceride response (area under curve compared to non-enriched biscuits consumed with water or MGTP drink. Enriching biscuits with Matcha green tea is acceptable to consumers, but may not bring significant postprandial effects.

  13. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics.

  14. The Nordic Region - leading in green growth. Report by the Nordic prime ministers' working group for green growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    If green growth is to be a key priority for Nordic co-operation in the next few years, then it is essential to have a joint vision for the work - a vision underpinned by tangible activities, one that enjoys strong political support and sends important signals about political goals and intentions. ''The Nordic Region - leading in green growth'' is a vision based on the joint utilisation of Nordic strengths in energy efficiency, the development of sustainable energy, environmental awareness, investment in innovation and research, and ambitious international targets for the environment and climate. Working together, the Region will carry more weight, earn a bigger market share and make more of a political impact at international level. The working group recommends eight priorities: 1. developing Nordic test centres for green solutions. 2. working together on education, training and research for green growth. 3. promoting flexible consumption of electricity. 4. working together on green-technology norms and standards. 5. working together on green procurement in the public sector. 6. developing techniques and methods for waste treatment. 7. promoting the integration of environmental and climate considerations into development aid. 8. co-ordinating and improving funding for green investment and companies. (LN)

  15. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  16. In vitro neuroprotective properties of some commonly consumed green leafy vegetables in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Nwanna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Green leafy vegetable is one of the major cuisines in Southern Nigeria and they are not only consumed for their palatability, but also for their nutritional and medicinal properties as reported in folklore. Notable among them are afang (Gnetum africanum, editan (Lasianthera africana and utazi (Gongronema latifolium. In this study, we investigated the effect of aqueous extracts from afang, editan and utazi leaves on cholinesterases [acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE] and monoamine oxidase (MAO activities. Fe2+ chelating abilities were also determined as an assessment of their neuroprotective potentials in vitro. We also assayed for their total phenol contents while the constituent phenolics were characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that the extracts inhibited AChE, BChE and MAO activities and also chelated Fe2+ in concentration dependent manner. The HPLC-DAD characterization showed that gallic, caffeic and ellagic acids and rutin were the dominant phenolic compounds in the extracts; nevertheless, utazi had the highest distribution of identified phenolics while afang had the least. The ability of the aqueous extracts of the vegetables to inhibit key enzymes (AChE, BChE and MAO relevant to neurodegeneration, as well chelate metal ion could help suggest their possible neuroprotective properties. These vegetables could be use as dietary intervention in the management of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  17. GREEN MARKETING TO MEET CONSUMER DEMANDS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT-CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Pradeep; Akhilesh Suresh A Kuckian

    2016-01-01

    Green Marketing has evolved special implications in the modern market. Green indicates purity by means of quality, fairprice and worthy in dealings. Green marketing focus to market eco-friendly products to satisfy the needs and wants of customers. It adopts innovative techniques of product modification, dynamic product processes, maintaining sustainability and diversified ways of advertising etc. The vision of Green marketing is doing business along with protecting ecological environment. Pre...

  18. Residential consumers in the Cape Peninsula's willingness to pay for premium priced green electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Henry; Volschenk, Jako; Smit, Eon [University of Stellenbosch Business School, Carl Cronje Drive, Bellville, Western Cape 7535 (South Africa)

    2011-02-15

    A number of studies have explored the willingness (i.e. stated willingness as opposed to actual willingness) of consumers to pay a premium for green electricity in developed countries. However, little is known about how this translates into an emerging economy context. This study investigates the level of willingness of residential households in South Africa's Cape Peninsula to pay a premium for electricity from renewable energy. It methodologically drew on recent contributions in the literature on norm-motivated behaviour used to identify testable factors that could influence residential consumers' willingness to pay (WTP). Interestingly, the study found a significant positive link between household income and WTP for green electricity, contrary to the findings of some previous studies. Not only are higher income households more likely to pay a premium, but typically they are also willing to pay a bigger premium. It was also further established that the view that green electricity is reliable, involvement in the recycling of waste and the belief that everyone should contribute to green electricity generation drive the WTP. (author)

  19. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  20. The effect of state renewable portfolio standards on consumer participation in green pricing programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, James L.

    In the last several years, two mechanisms for increasing the supply of renewable electricity have become increasingly popular: renewable portfolio standards, a state policy of mandating increased production of green power; and green pricing programs, which allow customers to purchase green power through their utilities. These mechanisms have been effective in increasing the adoption of renewable energy; however, it is unclear whether they interact in a way that is mutually beneficial or counterproductive. It is important to understand the effect of renewable portfolio standards on the voluntary market for green energy, especially as Congress considers a nationwide portfolio standard. The effectiveness of a renewable portfolio standard may be undercut if it leads customers to purchase less green power. This study analyzes the relationship between the passage and implementation of a renewable portfolio standard and two measures of enrollment in utility green pricing programs. Using eight years of data for all fifty states, the study utilizes multiple regression analysis with fixed-effects estimation. The results indicate that the passage of a renewable portfolio standard has a positive and statistically significant effect on green pricing enrollment within the state. At the same time, the rate at which states increase the stringency of the renewable portfolio standard is found to have no effect on enrollment. Although further study is needed to determine if additional factors are responsible for the observed increase in green pricing enrollment, this study provides evidence that such programs do not harm, and may in fact encourage, voluntary purchases of green power.

  1. [Vitamin and minerals consumed food group by Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Aguero, Samuel; Reyes García, Susanne; Gaete, María Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The lifestyle changes in college, students go through periods of physical inactivity and irregular meal times, which leads to increased consumption of processed foods and fast food. To calculate vitamins and minerals intakes for groups in the diet of Chilean university students. We studied 654 university students (18 to 24 years, 54% female), a 7-day food frequency questionnaire was used for dietary assessment, the information collected was classified into 12 groups representing each set of food, and then nutrient intake was determined. The main results were: (a) women had lower intake of most micronutrients than men (b) pantothenic acid, vitamin B12 and E, calcium, magnesium and iron are nutrients that showed mean intakes below the daily recommendations, (c) the consumption of bread is essential for the supply of B vitamins, iron, copper and selenium. In the usual diet of college students, bread is a key to the dietary intake of B vitamins, iron, copper and selenium, as well as dairy products for calcium, meat and fish for vitamin B12 and zinc; vegetables for vitamin A and fruits for vitamin C. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. The Power and Promise of Group Work: Consumer Evaluation of Group Work Services in Gauteng, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Shahana; Ross, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In light of the limited research into consumers' experiences of group work services in South Africa, the study evaluated groups offered by a range of social service agencies in Gauteng to determine whether group interventions were perceived by users as developmental and empowering. Methods: Program evaluation was employed to evaluate 47…

  3. Individual preferences revelation mechanism and incentive to choose green electricity: an analysis of the consumer decision process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvine, D.

    2008-01-01

    Marketing opening in the electric sector and green electricity products supply increase opportunity for households to voluntarily support renewable energy production. Despite the general development of committed actions, and in the lack of public intervention on prices, subscription rates are strongly below consumers' interest announcements and stated willingness to pay. This thesis analyses green electricity subscription factors: how to promote subscription in the case of individual sensitive and rather favourable attitude toward green electricity? Is it possible to encourage preference revelation? Answering these questions requires combining economics analysis and psychological concepts. In that aim, we employ the Theory of Planned Behavior, a social psychology model able to articulate theoretical analysis, psychological concepts and an empirical survey carried out in St Gallen (Switzerland). This survey is based on experimental method and commits, firstly, in testing our hypothesis, secondly in providing a method to influence individual beliefs in order to reinforce subscription intention. Finally, the survey is employed as an incentive tool for concretizing the intention and then promoting individual subscription. We determine that even though the premium to be paid may be an obstacle to subscription, other behavioral and attitudinal factors can explain the construction of individual preferences, intention and action. Analysing the various green electricity demand motivations as well as supply determinants enables to introduce the concept of 'certainty of subscription benefit'. The more the consciousness of personal benefit, the less price an obstacle to subscribe. As a result, our work aims firstly at providing analytical explanations to decision makers concerning the origin of the voluntary individual contribution to public goods as the environment, secondly, at developing green electricity preferences revelation mechanism. This kind of analysis is

  4. TOOL FOR VALUE IDENTIFICATION AND CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE GREEN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysler Rogis Flor Bertolini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The value to consumers of environmental issues is an important factor for decision-making organizations. This article aims to present a tool that can identify the value and the willingness of consumers to purchase environmentally friendly products. It is an exploratory research, with an interrogative model. The proposed tool consists of two steps; the first is to check the value and purchasing preference of consumers towards environmentally friendly products. The second step is the simulation of supply environmentally friendly product to consumers. Based on the results, showing whether or not consumers will buy the product eco-organizations will obtain relevant information for decision making.

  5. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - BenMAP Results by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset demonstrates the effect of changes in pollution concentration on local populations in 155 block groups in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The US EPA's...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Ecosystem Services by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset presents environmental benefits of the urban forest in 155 block groups in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Carbon attributes, temperature reduction,...

  7. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Land Cover by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the percentage of each block group that is classified as impervious, forest, and green space. Forest is combination of trees and...

  8. Green Marketing Potential as Assessed from Consumer's Purchasing Behaviors : The Case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adinyra, Noamesi; Gligui, Elliot

    2011-01-01

    Green Marketing has become an important strategy in businesses since the international rise of environmental awareness among countries. With greater awareness rising among the public, especially with reference to the global warming and climate change phenomenon, people have become cautious with regards to their purchases, specifically towards the nature of purchased products. As green marketing continues therefore to evolve not only into a strategy but into a platform across the world, Ghana ...

  9. Consumer-sponsored prepaid group practice: restructuring the health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, G L

    1984-01-01

    The traditional separation of health care delivery and financing systems is breaking down as various new types of health care facilities are established and as payment continues to be a major concern. Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound (GHC) was organized as a prepaid group practice system responsive to consumers. Costs, methods of payment and delivery of care are interrelated and are all influenced by consumer ownership. GHC has been refining its benefit programs since 1945. Strategies for controlling use and costs focus on improved provider management and on flexibility. This article explains how the structure of GHC benefits the consumer.

  10. Too poor to be green consumers? A field experiment on revealed preferences for firewood in rural Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kempen, Luuk; Muradian, Roldan; Sandoval, Cesar; Castaneda, Juan-Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports on a field experiment that investigates whether households in Guatemala are willing to surrender a small material gain in order to buy legal rather than illegal firewood. Given the ineffectiveness of command-and-control policies to curb the problem of illegal logging in Guatemala, the experiment assesses the potential viability of market-oriented solutions. Local consumers in developing countries are generally believed to be too poor to pay a premium for green/ethical products. Therefore, little information has been gathered on willingness-to-pay (WTP) for such products and its determinants in non-affluent consumer markets. While our experiment on firewood consumption in central Guatemala only implies a weak and indirect test of WTP for green products, the results indicate that it is premature, if not unwarranted, to assume that the poor are not ready to make pro-ethical choices in the marketplace. Moreover, we find that information on the legal procedures for firewood extraction significantly affects consumer choice between legal and illegal firewood. (author)

  11. Exploring the Consumer Behavior of Intention to Purchase Green Products in Belt and Road Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the consumer behavior of intention to purchase green products based on a decision-making model that integrates cognitive attributes, affective attributes, and behavioral intentions in Belt and Road countries. The questionnaires were collected from customers who previously purchased green products; this study distributed the questionnaires at the appliance section of the department stores and collected 227 valid responses. Environmental attitude, product attitude, social influence, and perceived monetary value positively affected purchase intention; among these attributes, product attitude most substantially affected purchase intention. Cognitive values (collective and individual significantly and positively affected environmental and product attitudes. Regarding individual environmental literacy, objective knowledge did not significantly affect environmental attitude, whereas subjective knowledge positively and significantly affected product attitude. In addition, both environmental awareness and government role (extrinsic motivating attributes significantly and positively affected environmental and product attitudes for sustainable consumption. Media exposure also exerted a significant positive effect on environmental attitude for reducing, reusing and recycling emissions.

  12. Helping 'light green' consumers walk the talk. Results of a behavioural intervention survey in the Swiss electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvine, Dorian [University of Montpellier 1, LASER-CREDEN, UFR d' Economie, Montpellier (France); Wuestenhagen, Rolf [University of St. Gallen (Switzerland). IWOe-HSG

    2011-01-15

    While many consumer surveys show very positive attitudes towards renewable energy, the share of consumers actually purchasing green electricity is still in the single-digit percent range in most countries. What can be done to help consumers with positive attitudes towards green electricity to 'walk the talk', i.e. to behave consistently with their preferences? We developed a psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to design a large-scale behavioural intervention survey with 1163 Swiss electricity consumers. Our results show that by providing information targeted at the key factors influencing the intention to purchase green electricity, namely attitudes towards purchase, social norms and perceived behavioural control, a significant increase in green electricity market share can be achieved. Our results show that price is not the only barrier to purchasing green electricity, and that information to increase the perceived benefit of buying green electricity as well as targeted communication to overcome inertia among retail electricity consumers are equally important factors. (author)

  13. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wandawi, H. K.; Abdul-Rahman, M. H.; Al-Shaickley, K. A.

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L.,var.Monte carlo) have been Y-irradiated (100-400Krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100,200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hour after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples . on the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and °Brix of tomatoes.

  14. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been γ-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes. (author)

  15. Chemical composition, at consuming ripeness level of tomatoes irradiated at mature green and greenish yellow stages of maturity. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Wandawi, H.K.; Abdul-Rahman, M.H.; Al-Shaickley, K.A. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.)

    1983-01-01

    Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Monte Carlo) have been ..gamma..-irradiated (100 to 400 krad) and left to ripen to consuming ripeness. The results revealed that in fruits irradiated with 100, 200 and 300 krad at mature-green, 48 hours after harvesting and at greenish yellow stages of maturity, 24 hours after harvesting, the levels of ascorbic acid were accounted to 62, 51, 27% and 84, 59, 34% of control samples respectively. In fruits irradiated with 200 krad at mature-green stage and 48 hours after harvesting and in fruits irradiated with 400 krad at greenish yellow stage and 48 hours after harvesting, the levels of lycopene were 279 and 246% of that of control samples; while the lowest levels of lycopene were in fruits irradiated with 400 krad and at mature-green and greenish yellow stages and 48 hours after harvesting where lycopene accounted to 11 and 24% respectively when compared to control samples. On the other hand, radiation had no significant effect on PH, titrable acidity and deg Brix of tomatoes.

  16. Online Environmental Citizenship: Blogs, Green Marketing and consumer sentiment in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Luck, Edwina; Ginanti, Ayu

    2013-01-01

    Consumers’ environmental consciousness is widespread with public acceptance of the global environmental crisis causing shifts in the debates within the environmental movement. The last three decades have seen consumers’ environmental consciousness grow as the environment has become a mainstream issue encouraging individual, government and company rethinking. Our longitudinal, empirical research findings are innovative and contribute by exploring global green blog sites using a content analysi...

  17. Layer potentials, Green's formulae, Kac's problem, and refined Hardy inequality on homogeneous Carnot groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzhansky, Michael; Suragan, Durvudkhan

    2015-01-01

    We propose the analogues of boundary layer potentials for the sub-Laplacian on homogeneous Carnot groups/stratified Lie groups and prove continuity results for them. In particular, we show continuity of the single layer potential and establish the Plemelj type jump relations for the double layer potential. We prove sub-Laplacian adapted versions of the Stokes theorem as well as of Green's first and second formulae on homogeneous Carnot groups. Several applications to boundary value problems a...

  18. Tasting green: An experimental design for investigating consumer perception of organic wine

    OpenAIRE

    Wiedmann, Klaus-Peter; Hennigs, Nadine; Behrens, Stefan Henrik; Klarmann, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: There is empirical evidence that the image of organic products has a stronger effect on consumer perception than the intrinsic characteristics. Against this background, the aim of this paper is twofold; first, to ascertain if the stimulus "organic food", placed by storytelling, influences the perception of wine. Based on this, the study tries to discover wherein a positive perception of organic wine might be reflected (e.g. willingness to pay premium prices, better taste perception)....

  19. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  20. Academic Community Consumer Assessment an Institution of Public Higher Education in Relation to Green it Practices in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is understanding the consumers of the academic community community in a public higher education institution in relation to Green IT practices in organizations. This study aims to confirm the model developed by Lunardi et al. (2011 Lunardi et al. (2014 through the application of multivariate statistical technique of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The survey research was conducted in a public higher education institution, based in the city of Osasco, using structured questionnaire with five point likert scale options and the respondents were: the students and professors from graduate school in Business Administration, in addition to employees administrative technician education. The results confirmed the highly significant and demonstrate that the model is consistent with proper adjustment can be used in future research.

  1. Group-Oriented Services: A Shift towards Consumer-Managed Relationships in the Telecom Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Luka; Bojic, Iva; Podobnik, Vedran; Jezic, Gordan; Kusek, Mario

    Today, telecom operators face a threefold challenge: a social challenge dealing with the evolution of the consumer lifestyle, a technological challenge dealing with ever changing ICT trends and a business challenge dealing with the need for innovative business models. This paper introduces an idea of group-oriented services, a special type of personalized telecom services, as a possible solution for all three of these challenges. A proof-of-concept service, called Agent-Based Mobile Content Brokerage, is presented and elaborated with the aim to demonstrate a shift towards consumer-managed relationships, a novel provisioning paradigm within the telecom industry.

  2. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey...

  3. Chinese consumers' adoption of a "green" innovation - the case of organic food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey...

  4. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  5. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  6. A focus group study of consumer attitudes toward genetic testing and newborn screening for deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sarah K; Withrow, Kara; Arnos, Kathleen S; Kalfoglou, Andrea L; Pandya, Arti

    2006-12-01

    Progress in identifying genes for deafness together with implementation of universal audiologic screening of newborns has provided the opportunity for more widespread use of molecular tests to detect genetic forms of hearing loss. Efforts to assess consumer attitudes toward these advances have lagged behind. Consumer focus groups were held to explore attitudes toward genetic advances and technologies for hearing loss, views about newborn hearing screening, and reactions to the idea of adding molecular screening for hearing loss at birth. Focus group discussions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed. Five focus groups with 44 participants including hearing parents of deaf children, deaf parents and young deaf adults were held. Focus group participants supported the use of genetic tests to identify the etiology of hearing loss but were concerned that genetic information might influence reproductive decisions. Molecular newborn screening was advocated by some; however, others expressed concern about its effectiveness. Documenting the attitudes of parents and other consumers toward genetic technologies establishes the framework for discussions on the appropriateness of molecular newborn screening for hearing loss and informs specialists about potential areas of public education necessary prior to the implementation of such screening.

  7. GREEN CONSUMER: DESKRIPSI TINGKAT KESADARAN DAN KEPEDULIAN MASYARAKAT JOGLOSEMAR TERHADAP KELESTARIAN LINGKUNGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jati Waskito

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan utama dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menilai variabel efek khusus untuk kesadaran lingkungan dan pro-lingkungan perilaku pembelian produk hijau di Jogyakarta, Solo, dan Semarang. Statistik deskriptif variabel menghasilkan perbedaan kesadaran lingkungan dari 156 peserta. Temuan menarik dari studi ini adalah bahwa semua model  penelitian menunjukkan pengaruhsignifikan variabel prediktor secara bersamaan (environmental knowledge, environmental Attitude, recycling behavior, political action terhadap perilaku pembelian produk ramah lingkungan secara umum (general purchasing behavior maupun secara khusus (recycling paper production, not tested on animal, organic fruits & vegetabels, ozone friendly aerosol dan environmental friendly detergentl. Hasil penelitian ini juga menunjukkan masih rendahnya pengetahuan masyarakat untuk menjaga kelestarian lingkungan ini dapat menjadi alasan yang kuat untuk melakukan sosialisasi dan pembelajaran bagi masyarakat tentang pentingnya pelestarian lingkungan.The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of variables specific to environmental consciousness and pro-environmental green product purchasing behavior in Yogyakarta, Solo, and Semarang. Descriptive statistics of variables produce differences in the environmental awareness of the 156 participants. Interesting finding of this study is that all models showed a significant effect at the same predictor variables (environmental knowledge, environmental attitude, recycling behavior, political action on the purchase behavior of environmentally friendly products in general (general purchasing behavior and specifically (recycling paper production , not tested on animal, organic fruits & vegetabels, ozone  friendly aerosol and environmental friendly detergentl. The results also showed low knowledge of the community to preserve the environment can be a good reason for socialization and learning for the public about the importance of environmental

  8. Surveying Data on Consumer Green Purchasing Intention: A Case in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Chin Paya Hsu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many people have expressed their environmental concerns, and agreed that immediate actions should be taken for the environment. However, only few of them would always make their purchasing decision based on their environmental concerns. Grounded in the theory of Planned Behavior, the aim of this research was to examine the discrepancy between New Zealand consumers’ environmental concerns and intentions to purchase energy-saving light bulbs. The study employed a cross-sectional consumer survey (between late 2011 to early 2012 for data collection (N=313, and the structural equation modelling for model testing. Further, the study also took precautions during the questionnaire design stage to minimize potential common method bias, and examined the common method variance in the data before testing the model. All indicators in this research were reflective to their representing constructs. Results of the analysis confirmed that consumers’ attitudinal affections and beliefs towards the purchasing behavior, self-identity, and past purchasing behavior had positive influence on their purchasing intentions.

  9. Knowledge transfer to clinicians and consumers by the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesso, Nancy; Maxwell, Lara; Tugwell, Peter S; Wells, George A; O'connor, Annette M; Judd, Maria; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2006-11-01

    The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG) is one of 50 groups of the Cochrane Collaboration that prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. Once systematic reviews are completed, the next challenge is presenting the results in useful formats to be integrated into the healthcare decisions of clinicians and consumers. The CMSG recommends 3 methods to aid knowledge translation and exchange between clinicians and patients: produce clinical relevance tables, create graphical displays using face figures, and write consumer summaries and patient decision aids. Accordingly, CMSG has developed specific guidelines to help researchers and authors convert the pooled estimates of metaanalyses in the systematic reviews to user-friendly numbers. First, clinical relevance tables are developed that include absolute and relative benefits or harms and the numbers needed to treat. Next, the numbers from the clinical relevance tables are presented graphically using faces. The faces represent a group of 100 people and are shaded according to how many people out of 100 benefited or were harmed by the interventions. The user-friendly numbers are also included in short summaries and decision aids written for patients. The different levels of detail in the summaries and decision aids provide patients with tools to prepare them to discuss treatment options with their clinicians. Methods to improve the effects and usability of systematic reviews by providing results in more clinically relevant formats are essential. Both clinicians and consumers can use these products to use evidence-based information in individual and shared decision-making.

  10. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  11. Green Care: a Conceptual Framework. A Report of the Working Group on the Health Benefits of Green Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berget, B.; Braastad, B.; Burls, A.; Elings, M.; Hadden, Y.; Haigh, R.; Hassink, J.; Haubenhofer, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Green Care’ is a range of activities that promotes physical and mental health and well-being through contact with nature. It utilises farms, gardens and other outdoor spaces as a therapeutic intervention for vulnerable adults and children. Green care includes care farming, therapeutic horticulture,

  12. What do Polish and Dutch consumers think about dried fruit and products with them - creaiwe group discussions as a means of recognittion consumers'perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jesionkowska, K.; Konopacka, D.; P¿ocharski, W.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Zimmermann, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to get insight into consumers' perception towards dried fruit and products with them, thus the exploratory study designed as a group discussion took place. While group discussions association (as one of the projective technique) and Kelly repertory grid were used to

  13. Green Care: a Conceptual Framework. A Report of the Working Group on the Health Benefits of Green Care

    OpenAIRE

    Berget, B.; Braastad, B.; Burls, A.; Elings, M.; Hadden, Y.; Haigh, R.; Hassink, J.; Haubenhofer, D.K.

    2010-01-01

    Green Care’ is a range of activities that promotes physical and mental health and well-being through contact with nature. It utilises farms, gardens and other outdoor spaces as a therapeutic intervention for vulnerable adults and children. Green care includes care farming, therapeutic horticulture, animal assisted therapy and other nature-based approaches. These are now the subject of investigation by researchers from many different countries across the world.

  14. Consumer evaluation and satisfaction with individual versus group parent training for children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubeck, Bernd G; Otte, Thomas A; Lauth, Gerhard W

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training (CBPT) delivered in two formats to parents who have children with hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) with and without medication. Compared individual with group treatment as part of a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Obtained a broad range of evaluations and satisfaction ratings post-treatment and related them to pre-treatment and treatment factors. Attendance rates were high in the individual and slightly less in the group training. Levels of satisfaction were high in both treatment arms with large numbers rating the outcomes, the trainers and the overall training very favourably. Medication showed no effect on parental evaluations. Evaluation of outcomes and satisfaction with the trainer emerged as strong predictors of overall programme satisfaction. The social validity of cognitive-behavioural parent training for hyperkinetic children was supported by high levels of treatment acceptability across a range of indicators and for children with and without medication. Both forms of treatment delivery lead to high rates of consumer satisfaction. Consumer evaluations of CBPT appear independent of medication for HKD. Course satisfaction is clearly associated with two factors that trainers can affect: The parent-trainer relationship and parents' sense of achievement. Far more mothers than fathers attended the trainings. Attitudes may differ in other cultures. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Moderating effect of peer group environment on consumer predisposition towards premium promotions: A study on young urban consumers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhojit Banerjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of peer-group environment as an influencing factor in purchase decisions is well established. This paper broadens the above premise and studies the influence of peer-group environment on an individual's promotional choice in the context of premium promotions or freebies. Two sets of college students with distinctive peer-group settings in terms of their academic pursuit and residential details have been considered for the study. Discriminant analysis shows that higher interaction and educational orientation of group members influence the customer's promotional preference. Students pursuing professionally oriented courses had a distinctively higher preference for premium-promotions that were hedonic.

  16. Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Antonacci, Monia; De Medici, Dario; Fenicia, Lucia

    2012-01-27

    Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks. Clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a diagnosis of botulism and a laboratory confirmation is required. Laboratory confirmation can be performed by demonstrating the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in serum, gastrointestinal contents, liver, wound of sick or dead animals, or by demonstrating the presence of C. botulinum in gastrointestinal contents, liver, and wound. Demonstration of spores in gastrointestinal contents or tissue of animals with clinical signs indicative of botulism reinforces the clinical diagnosis. With the aim of detecting and typing C. botulinum group III organisms, a multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green was developed and in-house validated. Selectivity, limit of detection, relative accuracy, relative specificity, relative sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were investigated. The multiplex real-time PCR SYBR green used showed a 100% selectivity, 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative specificity, 100% relative sensitivity and a limit of detection of 277 and 580 DNA copies for C. botulinum type C and C. botulinum type D, respectively. The method reported here represents a suitable tool for laboratory diagnosis of type C and D botulism and for testing a large number of samples collected during the animal botulism surveillance and prevention activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Absolute risk representation in cardiovascular disease prevention: comprehension and preferences of health care consumers and general practitioners involved in a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Rebecca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communicating risk is part of primary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke, collectively referred to as cardiovascular disease (CVD. In Australia, health organisations have promoted an absolute risk approach, thereby raising the question of suitable standardised formats for risk communication. Methods Sixteen formats of risk representation were prepared including statements, icons, graphical formats, alone or in combination, and with variable use of colours. All presented the same risk, i.e., the absolute risk for a 55 year old woman, 16% risk of CVD in five years. Preferences for a five or ten-year timeframe were explored. Australian GPs and consumers were recruited for participation in focus groups, with the data analysed thematically and preferred formats tallied. Results Three focus groups with health consumers and three with GPs were held, involving 19 consumers and 18 GPs. Consumers and GPs had similar views on which formats were more easily comprehended and which conveyed 16% risk as a high risk. A simple summation of preferences resulted in three graphical formats (thermometers, vertical bar chart and one statement format as the top choices. The use of colour to distinguish risk (red, yellow, green and comparative information (age, sex, smoking status were important ingredients. Consumers found formats which combined information helpful, such as colour, effect of changing behaviour on risk, or comparison with a healthy older person. GPs preferred formats that helped them relate the information about risk of CVD to their patients, and could be used to motivate patients to change behaviour. Several formats were reported as confusing, such as a percentage risk with no contextual information, line graphs, and icons, particularly those with larger numbers. Whilst consumers and GPs shared preferences, the use of one format for all situations was not recommended. Overall, people across groups felt that risk

  18. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  19. Food Prices and Consumer Demand: Differences across Income Levels and Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Objective Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). Design We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Results Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from −0.44 to −1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier ‘energy drinks’, nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups −0.30 (95% CI −0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was −0.26 (95% CI −0.52 to 0.00). Conclusions Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups. PMID:24098408

  20. The Impact of Location and Proximity on Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Green Electricity: The Case of West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, Kofi

    Virginia from renewable and alternative energy sources, and wind is preferred to natural gas. This repeal implies there are few, if any, benefits. Given this repeal, I suggest that a voluntary green pricing program with a focus on wind energy serve as an alternative renewable energy policy in West Virginia. Under such a policy, consumers who are concerned about the environment and are willing to pay a positive premium for renewable electricity would be able to opt into the program. Premiums paid by participants of such a program can be used to increase the renewable energy share in West Virginia's energy portfolio.

  1. Self-expression, group affiliation, pleasure and memory as predictors of consumer product attachment and satisfaction among mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagiso Tlhabano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the post-purchase behaviour of a product, there are challenges with change in the degree of consumer product attachment, and these challenges affect consumer product satisfaction overtime. This study investigated how self-expression, group affiliation, memory, and demographic variables predicted consumer product attachment and satisfaction among mobile phone users in Ibadan. Three hundred students of the University of Ibadan were selected using convenient random selection. Their mean age was 20.7 and standard deviation of 2.52. A structured questionnaire consisting of the socio demographic section, measure of self-expression, group affiliation, memory, pleasure, consumer attachment and product satisfaction was used to collect the data. Using multiple regression analysis, the results showed that self-expression, group affiliation, memories and pleasure jointly predicted consumer attachment among mobile phone users, F (4,299 = 48.47; P<0.05 and they contributed 40% to the variance of consumer attachment. Self-expression (β = 0.26, t = 4.44, P<0.05, memory (β = 0.29, t = 4.97, P<0.05, and pleasure (β = 0.28, t =5.01, P<0.05 independently predicted consumer attachment while group affiliation did not. In addition, self- expression, group affiliation, memories and pleasure jointly predicted product satisfaction, F (4,299 =39.79; P<0.05 and they contributed 35% to the variance of product satisfaction. Pleasure (β=0.596, t =10.35, P<0.05 independently predicted product satisfaction while self-expression, group affiliation and memory did not. Furthermore, age, gender, mobile type, ethnicity and religion did not jointly and independently predict consumer product satisfaction. These findings have implication for mobile phone manufacturers in terms of product improvement and building a strategic marketing channel that would meet the needs of global consumers.

  2. The role of social media for patients and consumer health. Contribution of the IMIA Consumer Health Informatics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A Y S; Siek, K A; Fernandez-Luque, L; Tange, H; Chhanabhai, P; Li, S Y W; Elkin, P L; Arjabi, A; Walczowski, L; Ang, C S; Eysenbach, G

    2011-01-01

    : To provide an overview on social media for consumers and patients in areas of health behaviours and outcomes. A directed review of recent literature. : We discuss the limitations and challenges of social media, ranging from social network sites (SNSs), computer games, mobile applications, to online videos. An overview of current users of social media (Generation Y), and potential users (such as low socioeconomic status and the chronically ill populations) is also presented. Future directions in social media research are also discussed. : We encourage the health informatics community to consider the socioeconomic class, age, culture, and literacy level of their populations, and select an appropriate medium and platform when designing social networked interventions for health. Little is known about the impact of second-hand experiences faciliated by social media, nor the quality and safety of social networks on health. Methodologies and theories from human computer interaction, human factors engineering and psychology may help guide the challenges in designing and evaluating social networked interventions for health. Further, by analysing how people search and navigate social media for health purposes, infodemiology and infoveillance are promising areas of research that should provide valuable insights on present and emergening health behaviours on a population scale.

  3. Green Vehicle Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... label Buy green. Save green. Learn about MPG math Discover fuel-saving tips Promote green ... U.S. consumers who have already purchased new vehicles under the fuel economy & greenhouse gas standard! More about the standards » Check ...

  4. Analysis of consumer behaviour when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Poměnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is consumer behaviour analysis when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics. Analysis proceed from the Czech household marketing research, where 726 households were electronically questioned. As mentioned above, selected factors for the analysis were habit, products‘ characteristics, price and discount actions.Primary aim is to measure the correspondence of selected factors influence on consumer behaviour during purchase decision making process of selected commodity groups. Interpretation is based on two-tier evaluation. First level represents commodity groups distinction by the character of goods and subsequent evaluation of goods characteristics correspondence in accordance with each influencing factor. Second one represents behaviour of commodity group in cross-section of selected factors. For consumer behaviour analysis chi-square test was used. Before its application the data set (responses was divided according to the ten-point scale into three interval’ groups.

  5. Development of a partial least squares-artificial neural network (PLS-ANN) hybrid model for the prediction of consumer liking scores of ready-to-drink green tea beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peigen; Low, Mei Yin; Zhou, Weibiao

    2018-01-01

    In order to develop products that would be preferred by consumers, the effects of the chemical compositions of ready-to-drink green tea beverages on consumer liking were studied through regression analyses. Green tea model systems were prepared by dosing solutions of 0.1% green tea extract with differing concentrations of eight flavour keys deemed to be important for green tea aroma and taste, based on a D-optimal experimental design, before undergoing commercial sterilisation. Sensory evaluation of the green tea model system was carried out using an untrained consumer panel to obtain hedonic liking scores of the samples. Regression models were subsequently trained to objectively predict the consumer liking scores of the green tea model systems. A linear partial least squares (PLS) regression model was developed to describe the effects of the eight flavour keys on consumer liking, with a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) of 0.733, and a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 3.53%. The PLS model was further augmented with an artificial neural network (ANN) to establish a PLS-ANN hybrid model. The established hybrid model was found to give a better prediction of consumer liking scores, based on its R 2 (0.875) and RMSE (2.41%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Green Branding and its Effects on Consumer Attitudes An Empirical Study using the Example of Sustainable Coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Haefke, Juliane

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The objective of this study was to review existing research on environmentally friendly marketing and to gain a more profound understanding of green branding as one possible marketing tool to positively influence consumers’ attitudes. In this respect, different types of green brand messages were assessed against each other and their effects on consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions were tested. Design and Methodology – A conceptual framework was developed based...

  7. ENHANCED WARM H2 EMISSION IN THE COMPACT GROUP MID-INFRARED ''GREEN VALLEY''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluver, M. E.; Ogle, P.; Guillard, P.; Appleton, P. N.; Jarrett, T. H.; Rasmussen, J.; Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Antonucci, R.; Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Boulanger, F.; Egami, E.; Xu, C. K.; Yun, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy study of a sample of 74 galaxies located in 23 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), chosen to be at a dynamically active stage of H I depletion. We find evidence for enhanced warm H 2 emission (i.e., above that associated with UV excitation in star-forming regions) in 14 galaxies (∼20%), with 8 galaxies having extreme values of L(H 2 S(0)-S(3))/L(7.7 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon), in excess of 0.07. Such emission has been seen previously in the compact group HCG 92 (Stephan's Quintet), and was shown to be associated with the dissipation of mechanical energy associated with a large-scale shock caused when one group member collided, at high velocity, with tidal debris in the intragroup medium. Similarly, shock excitation or turbulent heating is likely responsible for the enhanced H 2 emission in the compact group galaxies, since other sources of heating (UV or X-ray excitation from star formation or active galactic nuclei) are insufficient to account for the observed emission. The group galaxies fall predominantly in a region of mid-infrared color-color space identified by previous studies as being connected to rapid transformations in HCG galaxy evolution. Furthermore, the majority of H 2 -enhanced galaxies lie in the optical ''green valley'' between the blue cloud and red sequence, and are primarily early-type disk systems. We suggest that H 2 -enhanced systems may represent a specific phase in the evolution of galaxies in dense environments and provide new insight into mechanisms which transform galaxies onto the optical red sequence.

  8. Evaluation of an advanced physical diagnosis course using consumer preferences methods: the nominal group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Joshua; Castiglioni, Analia; Kraemer, Ryan R; Massie, F Stanford; Morris, Jason L; Rodriguez, Martin; Russell, Stephen W; Shaneyfelt, Terrance; Willett, Lisa L; Estrada, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Current evaluation tools of medical school courses are limited by the scope of questions asked and may not fully engage the student to think on areas to improve. The authors sought to explore whether a technique to study consumer preferences would elicit specific and prioritized information for course evaluation from medical students. Using the nominal group technique (4 sessions), 12 senior medical students prioritized and weighed expectations and topics learned in a 100-hour advanced physical diagnosis course (4-week course; February 2012). Students weighted their top 3 responses (top = 3, middle = 2 and bottom = 1). Before the course, 12 students identified 23 topics they expected to learn; the top 3 were review sensitivity/specificity and high-yield techniques (percentage of total weight, 18.5%), improving diagnosis (13.8%) and reinforce usual and less well-known techniques (13.8%). After the course, students generated 22 topics learned; the top 3 were practice and reinforce advanced maneuvers (25.4%), gaining confidence (22.5%) and learn the evidence (16.9%). The authors observed no differences in the priority of responses before and after the course (P = 0.07). In a physical diagnosis course, medical students elicited specific and prioritized information using the nominal group technique. The course met student expectations regarding education of the evidence-based physical examination, building skills and confidence on the proper techniques and maneuvers and experiential learning. The novel use for curriculum evaluation may be used to evaluate other courses-especially comprehensive and multicomponent courses.

  9. 78 FR 8145 - Sequence 24 Findings of the EISA 436(h) Ad-Hoc Review Group on Green Building Certification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... EISA 436(h) Ad-Hoc Review Group on Green Building Certification Systems AGENCY: Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services Administration. ACTION... Secretary of Energy that identifies a green building certification system(s) most likely to encourage a...

  10. Consumer and Commercial Products, Group IV: Control Techniques Guidelines in Lieu of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has determined that control techniques guidelines (CTGs) will be substantially as effective as regulations in reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in ozone nonattainment areas for certain consumer and commercial product categories.

  11. Behaviorally Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2016-01-01

    of suggestion, inertia, and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive to consumers. In deciding whether to establish green...

  12. Green Tea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer. Green tea is consumed as a beverage. It is also sold in liquid extracts, capsules, and tablets and is sometimes used in topical products (intended to be applied to the skin). How Much Do We Know? Although many studies have been done on green tea and its ...

  13. Consumer demand for green stormwater management technology in an urban setting: The case of Chicago rain barrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Amy W.; Freitas, Luiz P. C.

    2011-12-01

    Hydrological disruption and water pollution from urbanization can be reduced if households in urban areas adopt decentralized storm water controls. We study a citywide municipal subsidized rain-barrel program in the third biggest city in the United States, Chicago, to explore what factors influence whether households purchase this sort of green storm water management technology in an urban setting. Specifically, we regress census-tract level data on the number of rain barrels adopted in different parts of the city on socioeconomic variables, data on local flood frequency, and features of the housing stock. We find that rain-barrel purchases are not correlated with local levels of flooding, even though city residents were told by program managers that rain barrels could alleviate local flooding. Instead, rain barrels are heavily concentrated in places with high-income attitudinally green populations. We do find more rain barrels were adopted in places close to rain-barrel distribution points and near sites of hydrological information campaigns; thus, policy makers might increase green-technology adoption in areas where they can do the most good by reducing transaction costs and providing education programs to those areas. Finally, our results indicate that owner occupancy is positively correlated with green-technology adoption. Low-rise rental housing may have inefficiently low levels of adoption, such that city managers might want to develop programs to encourage storm water management investments by landlords who do not live in their own properties.

  14. Proliferation of group II introns in the chloroplast genome of the green alga Oedocladium carolinianum (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Simon Brouard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The chloroplast genome sustained extensive changes in architecture during the evolution of the Chlorophyceae, a morphologically and ecologically diverse class of green algae belonging to the Chlorophyta; however, the forces driving these changes are poorly understood. The five orders recognized in the Chlorophyceae form two major clades: the CS clade consisting of the Chlamydomonadales and Sphaeropleales, and the OCC clade consisting of the Oedogoniales, Chaetophorales, and Chaetopeltidales. In the OCC clade, considerable variations in chloroplast DNA (cpDNA structure, size, gene order, and intron content have been observed. The large inverted repeat (IR, an ancestral feature characteristic of most green plants, is present in Oedogonium cardiacum (Oedogoniales but is lacking in the examined members of the Chaetophorales and Chaetopeltidales. Remarkably, the Oedogonium 35.5-kb IR houses genes that were putatively acquired through horizontal DNA transfer. To better understand the dynamics of chloroplast genome evolution in the Oedogoniales, we analyzed the cpDNA of a second representative of this order, Oedocladium carolinianum. Methods The Oedocladium cpDNA was sequenced and annotated. The evolutionary distances separating Oedocladium and Oedogonium cpDNAs and two other pairs of chlorophycean cpDNAs were estimated using a 61-gene data set. Phylogenetic analysis of an alignment of group IIA introns from members of the OCC clade was performed. Secondary structures and insertion sites of oedogonialean group IIA introns were analyzed. Results The 204,438-bp Oedocladium genome is 7.9 kb larger than the Oedogonium genome, but its repertoire of conserved genes is remarkably similar and gene order differs by only one reversal. Although the 23.7-kb IR is missing the putative foreign genes found in Oedogonium, it contains sequences coding for a putative phage or bacterial DNA primase and a hypothetical protein. Intergenic sequences are 1.5-fold

  15. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  16. Application of Group-Level Item Response Models in the Evaluation of Consumer Reports about Health Plan Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reise, Steven P.; Meijer, Rob R.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Morales, Leo S.; Hays, Ron D.

    2006-01-01

    Group-level parametric and non-parametric item response theory models were applied to the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS[R]) 2.0 core items in a sample of 35,572 Medicaid recipients nested within 131 health plans. Results indicated that CAHPS responses are dominated by within health plan variation, and only weakly…

  17. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  19. Mexican Children under 2 Years of Age Consume Food Groups High in Energy and Low in Micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Muñoz-Espinosa, Alicia; Rivera, Juan A; González-Castell, Dinorah; González de Cosío, Teresita

    2016-09-01

    Mexico faces malnutrition problems in the child population. Analysis of food consumption in small children allows us to identify and propose strategies focused on feeding to improve their nutritional status. We described the consumption of beverages and food groups in Mexican children ENSANUT (National Health and Nutrition Study). Dietary information was obtained through 24-h recalls. The foods and beverages consumed were divided into 17 groups. Consumption was estimated in grams or milliliters, kilocalories per day, and percentage of energy (PE) per day. The percentage of consumers was calculated for each food group and stratified by age (<6, 6-11, and 12-23 mo) and by breastfeeding status (breastfed or not breastfed). Differences in the consumption of food groups were analyzed by breastfeeding status, area of residence (urban or rural), and socioeconomic status (SES) by using linear regression adjusted for age, breastfeeding status, and survey design. Only 35% of the children consumed breast milk. Infant formula was consumed by 48% in children aged <6 mo and by 33% in children 6-11 mo old. More than 35% of the children aged 6-11 and 12-23 mo and 12% of children <6 mo old consumed nondairy sugar-sweetened beverages. Legumes and seeds and maize-based preparations contributed a higher PE in rural areas (3.4% and 1.9%, respectively) than in urban areas (11.1% and 6.4%, respectively) (P < 0.05). Children from the lowest SES category consumed less PE from cereals other than maize (2.4%) and more from maize-based preparations (10.2%) than did the middle (4.9% from other cereals and 8.0% from maize) and high (6.0% from other cereals and 4.5% from maize) SES categories (P < 0.05). Mexican children <24 mo of age do not consume a diet that meets recommendations, which is consistent with the high prevalence of malnutrition in Mexico. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Researching of green finance management to promote sustainable development in group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Jing

    2014-01-01

    The scientific development of society is the basic idea of a national development in the new period, but also on the management of the enterprise, and the new requirement sproposed by financial management. Financial management should meet the development needs of the times, pay attention to the theory and practice of innovation. In the background of the national sustainable development and environmental protection, setting up the green concept of financial management, the construction of green financial management system, will promote the enterprise development comprehensively, coordinatly, sustainably, and strive to build the core competitiveness of the future to adapt to social development of enterprise. (author)

  1. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Group Decision-Making Approach for Green Supplier Selection in the TFT-LCD Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Tsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The awareness of the need for environmental protection is increasing throughout the world. The focuses of green supplier selection are on considering environmental criteria and strengthening the competitiveness of the entire supply chain. The purpose of this study is to develop a green supplier selection procedure for the thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD industry using polarizer suppliers as an example. First, a decision framework for green supplier selection is developed based on literatures and the supplier audit forms provided by an anonymous flat panel display manufacturer in Taiwan. Then, a hybrid multiple criteria group decision-making (MCGDM method is proposed based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP, entropy, elimination and choice expressing the reality III (ELECTRE III, and the linear assignment method to assist the manufacturer in choosing among four polarizer suppliers. The final ranking results for green supplier selection and different opinions from each department are provided. An improvement report is suggested to enhance suppliers’ performance. For the evaluation procedure, most managers emphasize the importance of current capability and the capability of research and development. Furthermore, we found that the subsidiary supplier should improve quality control competence immediately to be considered as the potential candidate of primary supplier.

  2. Toward a Green, Clean, and Resilient World for All : A World Bank Group Environment Strategy 2012 - 2022

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2012-01-01

    The new environment strategy for the World Bank Group lays out an ambitious action agenda that seeks to respond to calls from our client countries for a new kind of development path, one that supports growth while focusing more on sustainability and ensuring that the environment is a key enabler for green, more-inclusive growth. This strategy recognizes the importance of our convening powe...

  3. GREEN MARKETING AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT – EXPERIENCES FROM REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radnovic Branislav

    2012-12-01

    Green marketing presents important opportunities for industry and economy of the Republic of Serbia. Therefore Serbian companies must re-define the roles of business and products, as well as joint work with government agencies, consumer groups and NGOs. Serbia is becoming aware of environmental issues, but for green marketing businesses, companies, consumers and government still do not pay enough importance.

  4. Availability of Essential B-Group Vitamins to Lactobacillus plantarum in Green Olive Fermentation Brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Barba, J. L.; Jimenez-Diaz, R.

    1995-01-01

    The availability throughout the traditional Spanish-style green olive fermentation of four vitamins that are essential for the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum was studied. It was found that nicotinic and pantothenic acids, biotin, and vitamin B(inf6) were available in the fermentation brines within the first few days of the process, and their levels throughout the fermentative process were well above those required by L. plantarum to grow at its maximum growth rate. In laboratory medium, various yeast strains isolated from the fermentations were found to produce these vitamins in amounts several times that required by L. plantarum. This finding suggests that some yeast species might play a role in encouraging the growth of L. plantarum in Spanish-style green olive fermentation. PMID:16534988

  5. Opinions and attitudes of wine consumers utilizing focus group
    Opiniões e atitudes dos consumidores de vinho utilizando grupo de foco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. MENEZES

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this work was to understand the opinions, attitudes and the perceptions of wine consumers using the focus group technique. 24 wine consumers were selected through a recruitment questionnaire to participate in the focus group. Three focus group sessions were carried out, with eight consumers in each. It was verifi ed that the factors most observed by the consumers at the time of wine purchase were brand (71%, origin (75% and price (75%. In relation to the type of wine, 50% of the participants prefer suave red wine. The factors that infl uence the purchase process and consumer preference are different in relation to the evaluation of consumers and specialists.

  6. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Munch-Andersen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index. Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq and 15 eating a western diet (TAB, age (mean (range; 38, (22–58 yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40 were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l, HbA1c (%, total cholesterol (mmol/l and HDL-C (mmol/l were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Conclusions: Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  7. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B; Søndergaard, Hans; Daugaard, Jens R; Bysted, Anette; Christensen, Dirk L; Saltin, Bengt; Helge, Jørn W

    2012-03-19

    To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22-58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20-40) were subjected to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l), HbA1c (%), total cholesterol (mmol/l) and HDL-C (mmol/l) were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1.34±0.06, for Qaanaaq men: 4.9±0.1, 5.7±0.1, 5.08±0.31, 1.28±0.09, for TAB women: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.22±0.39, 1.86±0.13, for TAB men: 5.1±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 6.23±0.15, 1.60±0.10. No differences were found in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between the groups. There was a more adverse distribution of small dense LDL-C particles and higher total cholesterol and HDL-C concentration in the western diet group. Diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was not found in the Inuit consuming either the western or the traditional diet, and this could, at least partly, be due to the high amount of regular daily physical activity. However, when considering the total cardio vascular risk profile the Inuit consuming a western diet had a less healthy profile than the Inuit consuming a traditional diet.

  8. Dynamic of consumer groups and response of commodity markets by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobi, Ashadun; Alam, Shafiqul; Lee, Jae Woo

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates financial states and group dynamics by applying principal component analysis to the cross-correlation coefficients of the daily returns of commodity futures. The eigenvalues of the cross-correlation matrix in the 6-month timeframe displays similar values during 2010-2011, but decline following 2012. A sharp drop in eigenvalue implies the significant change of the market state. Three commodity sectors, energy, metals and agriculture, are projected into two dimensional spaces consisting of two principal components (PC). We observe that they form three distinct clusters in relation to various sectors. However, commodities with distinct features have intermingled with one another and scattered during severe crises, such as the European sovereign debt crises. We observe the notable change of the position of two dimensional spaces of groups during financial crises. By considering the first principal component (PC1) within the 6-month moving timeframe, we observe that commodities of the same group change states in a similar pattern, and the change of states of one group can be used as a warning for other group.

  9. Green consumerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Groot, Judith I.M.; Schuitema, Geertje; Garson, Carrie Lee

    and biospheric values influence the importance of such ‘green’ product characteristics on purchasing intentions. In two within-subjects full-factorial experimental studies (N = 100 and N = 107), we found that purchase intentions of products were only steered by green characteristics if prices were low...... and the brand was familiar. Green product characteristics did not influence purchase intentions at all when these proself product characteristics were not fulfilled (i.e., high prices and unfamiliar brands). The importance of proself and green product characteristics on purchasing intentions was also......Our presentation will focus on the influence of product characteristics and values on green consumerism. Although generally a majority of consumers support the idea of purchasing green products, we argue, based on social dilemma theory, that proself product characteristics and egoistic...

  10. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  11. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  12. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  13. A Study of Factors Influencing Consumer Adoption of Group-Buying Sites in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Bohara, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Group-buying sites have been the biggest internet phenomena in the recent B2C ecommerce industry. This new development has led to this research’s main objective of identifying factors that influence consumers’ intention to purchase from groupbuying sites, particularly in Malaysia. Using the extended Technology Acceptance Model, the five factors measured against consumers’ behavioral intent to transact are perceived knowledge, perceived benefits of price promotion, personal innovativeness, soc...

  14. Consumer attitudes about opioid addiction treatment: a focus group study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; López, Carolina M; Favaro, Jamie; Cordero, Robert; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2013-01-01

    To develop effective programs for people who are opioid dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial to monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. Six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. The authors report on the main themes related to the study objectives. Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible. There were four main findings. Participants felt the following: 1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using, 2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine, 3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment, and 4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is a cause of treatment-related diversion. Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.

  15. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Imam Santoso; Rengganis Fitriani

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawangg...

  16. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Residents with Potential Window Views of Trees by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the total block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has little access to potential window views of...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Potential Window Views of Water by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset describes the block group population and the percentage of the block group population that has potential views of water bodies. A potential...

  18. Buying Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  19. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Wiwik

    2017-01-01

    This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this rese...

  20. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Thor; Olsen, David B.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index). Study design: Cross sectional study, comparing Inuit...... eating a western diet with Inuit eating a traditional diet. Methods: Two physically active Greenland Inuit groups consuming different diet, 20 eating a traditional diet (Qaanaaq) and 15 eating a western diet (TAB), age (mean (range)); 38, (22–58) yrs, BMI; 28 (20–40) were subjected to an oral glucose...... tolerance test (OGTT), blood sampling, maximal oxygen uptake test, food interview/collection and monitoring of physical activity. Results: All Inuit had a normal OGTT. Fasting glucose (mmol/l), HbA1c (%), total cholesterol (mmol/l) and HDL-C (mmol/l) were for Qaanaaq women: 4.8±0.2, 5.3±0.1, 4.96±0.42, 1...

  1. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Historic Places by Census Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the total number of historic places located within each Census Block Group (CBG). The historic places data were compiled from the...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Green Bay, WI - Greenspace Around Schools by Block Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas data set shows the number of schools in each block group in the EnviroAtlas community boundary as well as the number of schools where less than 25%...

  3. Factors Affecting Consumers' Green Commuting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Chen; Haokai, Liang

    2016-01-01

    As Chinese air pollution and other environmental problems were paid much attention by the public, appeals about reducing private car use and adopting public transport had come into being. In view of this context, the current study extended the theory of planned behavior by including environmental concerns to explore the effect of subjective…

  4. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  5. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  6. The Influence of Environmental Friendliness on Green Trust: The Mediation Effects of Green Satisfaction and Green Perceived Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As global green trends became more prevalent, green marketing also developed into an important issue. Although prior literature explored the main factors affecting green trust, it was inconclusive as to how environmental friendliness could affect the green trust in green marketing. This study aims to focus on the positive influence of environmental friendliness on green trust, and explore the mediation effects of green satisfaction and green perceived quality. This study undertakes an empirical study by means of questionnaire survey. The respondents are consumers who have experience purchasing green products. This study applies structural equation modeling (SEM to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study indicate that (1 environmental friendliness has a significant positive impact on green satisfaction, green perceived quality, and green trust; (2 both green satisfaction and green perceived quality positively affect green trust; and (3 green satisfaction and green perceived quality partially mediate the positive relationship between environmental friendliness and green trust.

  7. Next steps for a Green Economy Working Group in Kazakhstan. Notes from the Astana Green Economy Dialogue, 24-26 November 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospanova, Saule; Wilson, Emma; Bass, Steve

    2013-01-15

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan, national concerns over today’s economic, social and environmental challenges have translated into sustainable development policy and initiatives such as the Astana Green Bridge Initiative. The Government of Kazakhstan has developed the Green Bridge Partnership Programme (GBPP), with the support of international organizations, for possible adoption at the Rio+20 World Sustainable Development Conference in June 2012. This programme offers opportunities for 'greening' the economy, with a focus on aspirations for regional and international technology cooperation and finance. it also offers potential for enhancing public participation in decision-making, and harmonising policies and practices across European, Asian and Pacific regions. A range of other initiatives are also ongoing within Kazakhstan, and it is important for those promoting these initiatives to join forces and engage in dialogue. The Astana Green Economy Dialogue, held from 24th to 26th November 2011, organised by IIED and the Kazakhstan Ministry for the Environment and supported by the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), brought together a range of stakeholders from government, civil society and industry to discuss the notion of the green economy and how it can be applied and developed in Kazakhstan. The dialogue had a particular focus on the energy sector given its relevance. Oil-producing states face a global challenge to play their part in establishing economic systems that reduce climate change and other environmental burdens, and to produce higher societal value from limited natural resources. This short report summarises the key observations and ideas discussed at the workshop, with recommendations for next steps and follow up. It is meant to provide a record of the discussions that took place at this dialogue and provides a foundation for further work.

  8. No greens in the forest? Note on the limited consumption of greens in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Katz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of greens is reported as being very minor among Amazonian Indians. The authors of this article present a new review of this subject, based on fieldwork with Amerindians and other populations in different parts of the Brazilian Amazon and French Guiana. Written sources on Brazilian, Peruvian, Columbian and Venezuelan Amazon were also reviewed. The consumption of cultivated, semi-cultivated and wild species of greens was taken into account here, as the data specific to wild greens is very scarce. It is confirmed that greens are not commonly eaten among native Amazonians and that some ethnic groups do not consume them at all. The consumed species are usually young shoots of weeds or cassava leaves. Common in the Belém region are some specific aromatic plants, which have been diffused to other parts of the Amazon, together with introduced plants such as kale and coriander. Migrants from Northeastern Brazil settled in the Amazon consume some cultivated greens, especially aromatic plants. Maroons are the ones who use more greens in their diet. Native Amazonian people, who supplement agriculture with game and fish, follow a hunter-gatherer pattern, preferring wild fruit and tubers to greens.

  9. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  10. Efficacy of antimicrobials for the disinfection of pathogen contaminated green bell pepper and of consumer cleaning methods for the decontamination of knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Keila L; Lucia, Lisa M; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Castillo, Alejandro; Taylor, T Matthew

    2012-05-01

    While there is strong focus on eliminating pathogens from produce at a commercial level, consumers can employ simple methods to achieve additional pathogen reductions in the domestic kitchen. To determine the ability of antimicrobials to decontaminate peppers, samples of green bell pepper were inoculated with Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then immersed in 3% (v/v) hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), 2.5% (v/v) acetic acid (AA), 70% (v/v) ethyl alcohol (EtOH), or sterile distilled water (SDW). The potential for transfer of pathogens from contaminated peppers to other non-contaminated produce items, and the effect of knife disinfection in preventing this cross contamination, were also tested. Knife disinfection procedures were evaluated by chopping inoculated peppers into 1 cm² pieces with kitchen knives. Experimental knives were then treated by either no treatment (control), wiping with a dry sterile cotton towel, rinsing under running warm water for 5 or 10s, or applying a 1% (v/v) lauryl sulfate-based detergent solution followed by rinsing with warm running water for 10s. Following disinfection treatment, knives were used to slice cucumbers. Exposure to H₂O₂ for 5 min and EtOH for 1 min resulted in reductions of 1.3±0.3 log₁₀ CFU/cm² for both pathogens. A 5 min exposure to AA resulted in a reduction of S. enterica of 1.0±0.7 log₁₀ CFU/cm² and E. coli of 0.7±0.8 log₁₀ CFU/cm². No differences (p ≥ 0.05) were found between numbers of pathogens on knives and numbers of pathogens transferred to cucumber slices, suggesting that organisms remaining on knife surfaces were transferred to cucumbers during slicing. Findings suggest that EtOH and H₂O₂ may be effective antimicrobials for in-home decontamination of peppers, and that use of detergent and warm water is effective for decontamination of implements used during meal preparation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Green Consumerism : an Eco-Friendly Behaviour Form Through The Green Product Consumption and Green Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Handayani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is referred to analyse the influence of consumer attitude of green product towards purchase intention. The consumer attitude of green product is a psychological tendencies that is expressed by evaluating a certain entity with some advantage or disadvantage considerations. The problem of this research is the low of cunsumer awareness to consume green product, because the lack to comprehend the importance of green product usage for health and eco-friendly. The purpose of this research is to test the influence of consumer attitude of green products towards purchase intention. Hypothesis testing using Partial Least Square (PLS. The result of analysis show that there is influence among consumer attitude of green product towards consumer purchase intention significantly.

  12. Designed Green Toolbox as built environment educating method-analytical comparison between two groups of students with different cultural background

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Fiky, U.; Hamdy, I.; Fikry, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evaluating and testing the application process of green architecture design strategies using a tool-box as a built environment educating method and a pre-design reminder. Understanding the suggested green design strategies, testing the tool-box effectiveness,

  13. Perceptions around concordance – focus groups and semi‐structured interviews conducted with consumers, pharmacists and general practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Bajramovic, Jasmina; Emmerton, Lynne; Tett, Susan E.

    2004-01-01

    Background  Achieving concordance by identifying beliefs about illness, treatment and medicine‐taking should impact positively on behaviour and consumer satisfaction with respect to treatment, and health outcomes may be improved.

  14. Metabolic profile in two physically active Inuit groups consuming either a western or a traditional Inuit diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thor Munch; Olsen, David B; Søndergaard, Hans

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index).......To evaluate the effect of regular physical activity on metabolic risk factors and blood pressure in Inuit with high BMI consuming a western diet (high amount of saturated fatty acids and carbohydrates with a high glycemic index)....

  15. The Impact of User Comments on Consumer Brand Attitude : An Empirical Study of Different Facebook User Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Weerd, Jana; Gebhardt, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Social Media has become an increasingly important part of people’s everyday life. With the rise of social networks, brands have discovered ways to use this phenomenon to their advantage. Providing a novel two-way communication between a brand and consumers, Social Media networks are a tremendously powerful tool to build strong and sustainable consumer-brand relationships. With Firm Generated Content (FGC) and User Generated Content (UGC) alike the interaction between these two entities is str...

  16. Fast and Green Microwave-Assisted Conversion of Essential Oil Allylbenzenes into the Corresponding Aldehydes via Alkene Isomerization and Subsequent Potassium Permanganate Promoted Oxidative Alkene Group Cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luu, Thi Xuan Thi; Lam, Trinh To; Le, Thach Ngoc

    2009-01-01

    Essential oil allylbenzenes from have been converted quickly and efficiently into the corresponding benzaldehydes in good yields by a two-step "green" reaction pathway based on a solventless alkene group isomerization by KF/Al2O3 to form the corresponding 1-arylpropene and a subsequent solventles...

  17. Improving Supply Chain Performance through Lean and Green: A study at Volvo group in India and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rajuvadan Premkumar, Harishkumar; Vedapatti Ranganathan, Hariram

    2012-01-01

    In today’s world Lean and Green are becoming essential components of the supply chain. The thesis tries to contribute to a further understanding of the supply chain management, lean, green and their integration. The basic concepts and the research contributions of various authors are briefed in the theoretical framework made for a better understanding to the readers. Having gained the relevant theoretical knowledge, the interview questions are framed and case companies are analyzed for their ...

  18. Healthy Eating Index-2010 and food groups consumed by US adults who meet or exceed fiber intake recommendations NHANES 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla R. McGill

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proportion of the US adult population who meet fiber intake recommendations is very low. Information about food groups consumed and diet quality for the adults who consume recommended amounts of fiber are scarce. Objective: To examine food groups consumed and Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores for US adults meeting the fiber adequate intake (AI based on National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data 2001–2010. Design: A secondary analysis of NHANES data from 2001 to 2010. Participants included adults aged 19 and older (n=24,807 with complete day 1 dietary records. Variables measured were food group sources of fiber and HEI-2010 scores. Sample-weighted data were used to calculate least square means (LSM±standard error of the mean (SEM by fiber intake quartile along with HEI-2010 scores. Significance was set at P<0.05. Results: Major fiber food sources for US adults meeting the AI were grain products, vegetables, legumes, and fruits. The top grain products consumed were grain mixtures, ready-to-eat (RTE cereals, and breads/rolls. The mean HEI-2010 score for adults meeting the AI for fiber was significantly (P<0.001 higher compared with all adult participants. The mean HEI-2010 score increased with increasing fiber intake in both groups. Conclusions: Adults who meet the AI for fiber have a higher quality diet. Fiber may be an important dietary component that predicts diet quality.

  19. Reference Groups, Family, Roles And Status On Young Consumer Bahvior Towards Purchase Intentions Of Luxury Fashion Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Mekel, Peggy Adeline; Kembau, Agung

    2014-01-01

    Today, luxury consumption has become so popular, everyone aspire for luxury, particularly in fashion. Recently young consumers consumption`s pattern is not only to satisfy basic physiological needs but also to create a self and define one€™s role in society. One of the most interesting aspects of consumption is luxury consumption which is not vital for young consumer€™s survival but they are engaging in the consumption of luxury products. This research aims to analyze (1) what is the influenc...

  20. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  1. GREEN PACKAGING, GREEN PRODUCT, GREEN ADVERTISING, PERSEPSI, DAN MINAT BELI KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental problems become one of the strategic issues in achieving global competitiveness. One of the issues is products that are made from environmental friendly materials or known as green product. Furthermore, in green products marketing, the company also uses green packaging and green advertising concept. This study aimed to analyze the effect of green packaging, green products, and green advertising on consumer perception and purchasing intention. The study was conducted in Ketawanggede Village, Lowokwaru Sub-district, Malang City. The sampling method used nonprobability accidential sampling techniques. The numbers of respondents were 113 consumers in study site. Data were collected by interview using questionnaires. The method of analysis used Generalized Structured Component Analysis (GSCA. The analysis showed that the green packaging, green products, and green advertising had positive significant influence on consumer perceptions. Meanwhile, green product and consumer perception had positive significant influence on purchasing interest, but the green packaging and green advertising has not found sufficient evidence in influencing purchasing intention.

  2. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franz, E.; Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green

  3. Diversification of the economic profile and selected aspects of market activity in age groups of young consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Adamczyk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article an influence of the age of young consumers on chosen economic aspects of their market activity was described. It is stated that with the age of young consumers their purchasing fund and sources of its recruiting were increasing. Teenagers (secondary-school people more often demonstrate also a tendency to save money to concrete objectives, e.g. holidays, travels, training, but their current expenses are concentrating mainly around different active or passive forms of spending free time. Older teenagers are also more critical in relation to advertisements, and price and different instruments of sales promotion are factors which are exerting a significant influence on their purchase decisions. With the growth of importance of goods in the hierarchy of satisfying needs, role of determinants of choice besides the price, also a brand of the product are assumed.

  4. Traditional low-alcoholic and non-alcoholic fermented beverages consumed in European countries: a neglected food group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschali, Aristea; Tsakalidou, Effie; Kyriacou, Adamantini; Karavasiloglou, Nena; Matalas, Antonia-Leda

    2017-06-01

    Fermented beverages hold a long tradition and contribution to the nutrition of many societies and cultures worldwide. Traditional fermentation has been empirically developed in ancient times as a process of raw food preservation and at the same time production of new foods with different sensorial characteristics, such as texture, flavour and aroma, as well as nutritional value. Low-alcoholic fermented beverages (LAFB) and non-alcoholic fermented beverages (NAFB) represent a subgroup of fermented beverages that have received rather little attention by consumers and scientists alike, especially with regard to their types and traditional uses in European societies. A literature review was undertaken and research articles, review papers and textbooks were searched in order to retrieve data regarding the dietary role, nutrient composition, health benefits and other relevant aspects of diverse ethnic LAFB and NAFB consumed by European populations. A variety of traditional LAFB and NAFB consumed in European regions, such as kefir, kvass, kombucha and hardaliye, are presented. Milk-based LAFB and NAFB are also available on the market, often characterised as 'functional' foods on the basis of their probiotic culture content. Future research should focus on elucidating the dietary role and nutritional value of traditional and 'functional' LAFB and NAFB, their potential health benefits and consumption trends in European countries. Such data will allow for LAFB and NAFB to be included in national food composition tables.

  5. THE ROLE OF CONSUMERS IN THE TRANSITION TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FOOD SUPPLY. THE CASE OF GRUPPI DI ACQUISTO SOLIDALE (SOLIDARITY PURCHASING GROUPS IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Randelli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the role of ethical consumers in the transition process towards a sustainable food supply. The questions that immediately come to mind are: can the consumers put changes in motion in the established food supply regime? Which are the mechanisms hindering a transition driven by consumers? In order to answer to these questions we analyse the case of Gruppi di Acquisto Solidale (Solidarity Purchasing Groups in Italy, as a support for a broader reflection to the topic. The growing dissatisfaction with the established food supply, dominated by the duopoly supermarket-global food supplier, has driven a few pioneers to search for new solutions. In the case of Italy, consumers have organized themselves into informal networks, in order to purchase quality food together from local farmers. They are motivated by the meeting of social, ethical and environmental needs (providing sustainable food and support local farmers which were not served in the beginning by incumbent firms and they operate in the social economy as community groups.

  6. Perception Gaps on Food Additives among Various Groups in Korea: Food Experts, Teachers, Nutrition Teachers, Nongovernmental Organization Members, and General Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.

  7. The identification of an homogenous critical group using statistical extreme-value theory: application to laverbread consumers and the Windscale effluent discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach, S.

    1974-04-01

    The International Commission of Radiological Protection states that a critical group should be representative of those individuals in the population expected to receive the highest dose. The appropriate dose limit should then be applied to the mean dose of this group. The edible seaweed Porphyra (laverbread) has been identified as the link in the critical exposure pathway limiting discharges of controlled low-level radioactive liquid waste from Windscale. The frequency distributions of the largest values of samples of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 male and female, child and adult consumers of laverbread are determined from the parent distributions by Monte Carlo sampling methods. From these results the extreme-value distribution of adult males of samples of 30 is taken to be a good estimate of the critical group, from which the median consumption rate of laverbread consumed per day is 55 g. The annual collective organ dose delivered to the lower large intestine of the total laverbread consumer group is estimated to be 266 man-rem. (author)

  8. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    to adapt to urban environment. It explores the potential of Sensation of Green in the city. The paper questions whether the Sensation of Green could introduce a new spectrum of greens, beside the real green. It develops the term of metaphysical green – does green have to be green or can it be only...

  9. Determination of the pyrethroid insecticide metabolite 3-PBA in plasma and urine samples from farmer and consumer groups in northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    THIPHOM, SARUNYA; PRAPAMONTOL, TIPPAWAN; CHANTARA, SOMPORN; MANGKLABRUKS, AMPICA; SUPHAVILAI, CHAISUREE; AHN, KI CHANG; GEE, SHIRLEY J.; HAMMOCK, BRUCE D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were modified to detect 3-PBA in plasma (including the adducted form) and urine among a large group of consumers and farmers in an agricultural area. The samples were collected on the same day in the morning from 100 consumers (50 females, 50 males) and 100 farmers (50 females, 50 males) in the Fang district, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. The ELISA was very sensitive having an IC50 value of 26.7 and 15.3 ng/mL, a limit of quantitation of 5 and 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of detection of 1.08 and 1.94 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. These methods had low (< 5%) intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation. The extraction technique satisfactorily eliminated the matrix effect from samples before ELISA analysis, yielding good recoveries (85.9–99.4% and 87.3–98.0%, respectively). For the volunteer study, the detection rate for plasma 3-PBA was 24% in consumers and 42% in farmers, but the median and range values were similar (median 5.87 ng/mL, range 5.16–8.44 ng/mL in consumers and 6.27 ng/mL, range 4.29–9.57 ng/mL in farmers). The rate of detection in the urine was similar (76% and 69%, in consumers and in farmers), yet the median concentration was significantly higher in farmers (8.86 μg/g creatinine in consumers vs 16.1 μg/g creatinine in farmers) and the range also much wider in farmers (1.62–80.5 μg/g creatinine in consumers and 0.80–256.2 μg/g creatinine in farmers). There was no correlation between plasma 3-PBA and urinary 3-PBA concentrations in the study presumably because plasma 3-PBA is a measure of cumulative exposures while urinary 3-PBA reflects acute exposures. In addition, metabolism and excretion of pyrethroids varies by individual. Nevertheless, this study demonstrated that these volunteers were exposed to pyrethroids. To our knowledge, this is the first report that compared plasma 3-PBA and urinary 3-PBA in a large group of volunteers. The ELISA method

  10. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeilpour Majid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we require further investigation in this area in order to increase green purchasing among different group of people. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of the environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concerns and care for green products. This research is an applied research, and correlational-descriptive in terms of data analysis. The research population includes consumers from Bushehr city, sampled based on availability. In this research, 300 questionnaires were distributed among consumers. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The findings of this research showed that the environmental attitude of customers has significant and positive impact on caring for green products and environmental concerns. In addition, environmental concerns and care for green products have a significant and positive impact on green purchasing decision.

  11. The green agenda

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This business guide to Green IT was written to introduce, to a business audience, the opposing groups and the key climate change concepts, to provide an overview of a Green IT strategy and to set out a straightforward, bottom line-orientated Green IT action plan.

  12. The effect of green tea and olive oil on the mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines extracted from common food consumed in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala

    2011-05-01

    The effect of green tea (GT) and green tea with olive oil (GT+OL) as antioxidants on the formation and mutagenic activity of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) extracted from beef shawerma, grilled chicken and fried beef liver was examined. HCAs were extracted by blue rayon, analyzed as spiked and unspiked samples with high-performance liquid chromatography and its mutagenic response was assessed by Sallmonela typhimurium 100 in the Ames test. Surprisingly, GT and GT+OL augmented HCAs measured in beef shawerma and grilled chicken but total HCAs measured in GT+OL were less than GT treatment. Both treatments altered the HCA profile as imidazoquinoline type became the most abundant. In control and GT+OL fried beef liver no HCAs were detected, but Trp-P1 was detected in GT treatment. Generally, the mutagenic response of HCAs measured in GT+OL was less than GT in beef shawerma and grilled chicken. However, the mutagenic response of control and 2% GT+OL fried liver was negative. These data suggest that GT concentrations used in this study may induce free radical formation during the Millared reaction due to its pro-oxidative effect, which augmented the HCAs formed and its mutagenic response. In order to optimize both safety and quality of our diets, more need to be done to fully understand the risk of HCAs in food.

  13. Epilepsy health consumer groups and charities; how representative of patients are they? The results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinton, M; Leavy, Y; Ahern, D; Hughes, F; Duncan, S

    2013-07-01

    In the United Kingdom all health care providers are encouraged to consult with user groups. The submissions of charities and patient advocacy groups to NICE and SIGN are considered reflective of the patient groups they purport to represent, yet little is known about how representative they are. This pilot study was designed to ascertain how many patients attending a hospital based epilepsy clinic were members of such advocacy groups. Patients were asked to complete a brief 9-question questionnaire before they left the clinic. One hundred and twenty-five questionnaires were distributed, of which 101 were returned. Seventeen percent of patients were members of advocacy groups, with several being members of more than one charity/group. Only seven percent of the respondents had ever been contacted by an advocacy group to canvass their opinions. Seventy percent of patients questioned stated they thought a frank discussion with their physician, or specialist nurse was more likely to influence patient services. Patients with long duration of disease and taking multiple anti-epileptic drugs were more likely to be members of charity/advocacy groups. As patient charities in the U.K. are often in receipt of public funds, and actively seek to influence public policy this raises the question of whether they should be required to consult more widely with the people they claim to represent. Copyright © 2012 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  15. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, E; Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; van der Fels-Klerx, H J

    2010-02-01

    Fresh vegetables are increasingly recognized as a source of foodborne outbreaks in many parts of the world. The purpose of this study was to conduct a quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes infection from consumption of leafy green vegetables in salad from salad bars in The Netherlands. Pathogen growth was modeled in Aladin (Agro Logistics Analysis and Design Instrument) using time-temperature profiles in the chilled supply chain and one particular restaurant with a salad bar. A second-order Monte Carlo risk assessment model was constructed (using @Risk) to estimate the public health effects. The temperature in the studied cold chain was well controlled below 5 degrees C. Growth of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella was minimal (17 and 15%, respectively). Growth of L. monocytogenes was considerably greater (194%). Based on first-order Monte Carlo simulations, the average number of cases per year in The Netherlands associated the consumption leafy greens in salads from salad bars was 166, 187, and 0.3 for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. The ranges of the average number of annual cases as estimated by second-order Monte Carlo simulation (with prevalence and number of visitors as uncertain variables) were 42 to 551 for E. coli O157:H7, 81 to 281 for Salmonella, and 0.1 to 0.9 for L. monocytogenes. This study included an integration of modeling pathogen growth in the supply chain of fresh leafy vegetables destined for restaurant salad bars using software designed to model and design logistics and modeling the public health effects using probabilistic risk assessment software.

  16. The green marketing of modern office furniture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凡青

    2015-01-01

    Green marketing is referred to as the mainstream of marketing in the 21st century, it mainly discusses the enterprise how to deal with the growing consumer demand for environmentally friendly products. Green marketing is an extension of the traditional marketing and the development, in the traditional marketing concept, through the coordination of enterprises, customers, competitors to gain maximum profits, and green marketing is more than the ecological environment factors included. Furniture enterprises through to carry out green marketing strategy, sales of green furniture products, the corresponding measures to guide the sustainable consumption and satisfy the consumer, to achieve economic interests, the interests of the consumers, the environment is unified.

  17. A study of fish and shellfish consumers near Sellafield: assessment of the critical groups including consideration of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, D.R.P.; Hunt, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of people's consumption rates in 1981 and 1982, of fish and shellfish caught near the British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Sellafield site is described. Particular emphasis has been given to mollusc eaters and consumption rates of children because of the potentially higher radiation doses they may receive. Appropriate critical groups have been selected for dose assessment purposes using principles recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Methods for consideration of children in critical groups are suggested and a comparison of these methods using the present data shows similar results. Combination of seafood consumption pathways is also considered, and it is shown that a simple additive approach is not excessively conservative. (author)

  18. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  19. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  20. Selling the green dream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the marketing and sales of energy generated from renewable energy sources. To purchase environmental energy in the USA, the consumer need do no more than tick a box on a sheet of paper. But, it is not just households that opt for green energy: businesses are also willing customers. A factor in the success in selling green energy to big business is that the retail price of wind power can be held constant over periods of several years, whereas fossil fuel prices can fluctuate wildly. Details of sources and sales of the top ten companies selling green energy are given

  1. Shyness in consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...

  2. Investigating the impact of environmental attitude on the decision to purchase a green product with the mediating role of environmental concern and care for green products

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilpour Majid; Bahmiary Elahe

    2017-01-01

    The intention to purchase green products is the tendency of a person who prefers to purchase a product with optimal environmental characteristics rather than usual products. Nowadays, the environment is very important and maintaining it is a vital issue for all groups of people, whether in the customer's position or in the distributor’s position. However, in spite of the increased environmental awareness among consumers and encouragements made by producers for them to buy green products, we r...

  3. Automated mapping of mineral groups and green vegetation from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery with an example from the San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data acquired by the ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (TM) sensors are being used to populate an online Geographic Information System (GIS) of the spatial occurrence of mineral groups and green vegetation across the western conterminous United States and Alaska. These geospatial data are supporting U.S. Geological Survey national-scale mineral deposit database development and other mineral resource and geoenvironmental research as a means of characterizing mineral exposures related to mined and unmined hydrothermally altered rocks and mine waste. This report introduces a new methodology for the automated analysis of Landsat TM data that has been applied to more than 180 scenes covering the western United States. A map of mineral groups and green vegetation produced using this new methodology that covers the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado, and the Four Corners Region is presented. The map is provided as a layered GeoPDF and in GIS-ready digital format. TM data analysis results from other well-studied and mineralogically characterized areas with strong hydrothermal alteration and (or) supergene weathering of near-surface sulfide minerals are also shown and compared with results derived from ASTER data analysis.

  4. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  5. Towards green loyalty: the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisjatmiko, K.

    2018-01-01

    The paper aims to present a comprehensive framework for the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty. The paper also seeks to account explicitly for the differences in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty found among green products customers. Data were obtained from 155 green products customers. Structural equation modeling was used in order to test the proposed hypotheses. The findings show that green image, green trust and green satisfaction has positive effects to green loyalty. But green perceived risk has negative effects to green image, green trust and green satisfaction. However, green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction also seems to be a good device to gain green products customers from competitors. The contributions of the paper are, firstly, a more complete framework of the influences of green perceived risk, green image, green trust and green satisfaction to green loyalty analyses simultaneously. Secondly, the study allows a direct comparison of the difference in green perceived risk, green image, green trust, green satisfaction and green loyalty between green products customers.

  6. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  7. Relationship between green marketing strategies and green marketing credibility among Generation Y

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Sandoval, Michelle Haeberli; Manon Padilla, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Since terms like “sustainability” and “consumer consciousness” were introduced, green products began being integrated into consumers’ lifestyles. But due to the greenwashing practices that took place during the 90’s consumers refrain to buy green products because they do not trust the advertising released by marketers. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the relationship between green advertising credibility (dependent variable) and price sensitiveness, and the four proposed green market...

  8. Labelling it green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, S.; Brocklehurst, F. [ETSU, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The first two rounds of contracts awarded through the NFFO will expire in December 1998. These generators will then be looking for new contracts to supply renewable electricity. Since these projects were initiated the renewable energy market has grown steadily, but it is still mainly restricted to the protected market within NFFO. Consumer interest has grown steadily too, fuelled by the emergence of green energy supply companies. Market research has indicated that consumers would like the choice of green electricity, what remains unclear is if they would exercise this choice and to what extent they might pay a premium price for the privilege. From September 1998 the phased introduction of domestic sector franchise de-regulation commences. In principle, consumers can purchase their electricity from any supplier. This provides a golden opportunity for green generation. To make the most of this opportunity generators and suppliers will need to clearly explain to the public what their product is, how it is different and how everyone benefits from its use. A major marketing issue will be to provide assurance to the general public, that for example, they can indeed purchase energy from a windfarm in Wales, despite living in areas other than Wales. The DTI is assisting the expansion of the green market into the domestic sector via funding a project which plans to deliver an accreditation scheme in September 1998. This will provide a means of verifying the green claims of generators/supply companies. (Author)

  9. Direct-to-consumer communication on prescription only medicines via the internet in the Netherlands, a pilot study. Opinion of the pharmaceutical industry, patient associations and support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabius, A Mariette; Cheung, Ka-Chun; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Talsma, Herre

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the current application of direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication on prescription only medicines via the Intemet in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 43 Dutch innovative pharmaceutical industries and 130 Patient Association and Support Groups (PASGs). In this pilot study, the response of the pharmaceutical industry was rather low but the impression is that they were willing to invest in DTC communication. The majority of the websites of PASGs did not link to websites of pharmaceutical companies. The PASGs had no opinion whether patients can make a good distinction between DTC advertising and information on websites of the pharmaceutical industry nor about the quality. PASGs did not think unambiguously about the impact on the patient-doctor relationship. The impact of DTC communication on prescription only medicines via the internet is not yet clear in the Netherlands.

  10. Green Toxicology: a strategy for sustainable chemical and material development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sarah E; Hartung, Thomas; Hollert, Henner; Mathes, Björn; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Studer, Christoph; Krug, Harald F

    2017-01-01

    Green Toxicology refers to the application of predictive toxicology in the sustainable development and production of new less harmful materials and chemicals, subsequently reducing waste and exposure. Built upon the foundation of "Green Chemistry" and "Green Engineering", "Green Toxicology" aims to shape future manufacturing processes and safe synthesis of chemicals in terms of environmental and human health impacts. Being an integral part of Green Chemistry, the principles of Green Toxicology amplify the role of health-related aspects for the benefit of consumers and the environment, in addition to being economical for manufacturing companies. Due to the costly development and preparation of new materials and chemicals for market entry, it is no longer practical to ignore the safety and environmental status of new products during product development stages. However, this is only possible if toxicologists and chemists work together early on in the development of materials and chemicals to utilize safe design strategies and innovative in vitro and in silico tools. This paper discusses some of the most relevant aspects, advances and limitations of the emergence of Green Toxicology from the perspective of different industry and research groups. The integration of new testing methods and strategies in product development, testing and regulation stages are presented with examples of the application of in silico, omics and in vitro methods. Other tools for Green Toxicology, including the reduction of animal testing, alternative test methods, and read-across approaches are also discussed.

  11. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  12. Green Software Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagroep, E.A.

    2017-01-01

    The rising energy consumption of the ICT industry has triggered a quest for more green, energy efficient ICT solutions. The role of software as the true consumer of power and its potential contribution to reach sustainability goals has increasingly been acknowledged. At the same time, it is shown to

  13. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. - Highlights: • We studied uptake of Ra-226 from soil into Buchanania obovata. • The influence of group II metals (Sr, Ba and Ca) on Ra uptake was investigated. • The exchangeable Ra fraction of the soil was not a more reliable predictor of Ra uptake than total soil Ra. • Ca outcompetes group II metals Sr, Ba and Ra for root uptake. • Uptake discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba >> Ra.

  14. Cytoplasmic localization of a functionally active Fanconi anemia group A green fluorescent protein chimera in human 293 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, FAE; Waisfisz, Q; Dijkmans, LM; Hermsen, M.A.; Youssoufian, H; Arwert, F; Joenje, H

    1997-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to cross-linking agents and predisposition to malignancy are characteristic of the genetically heterogeneous inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, Fanconi anemia (FA). The protein encoded by the recently cloned FA complementation group A gene, FAA, has been expected to localize in

  15. Green toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  16. Características de doce em massa de umbu verde e maduro e aceitação pelos consumidores Characteristics of green and ripe umbu marmalades and acceptance by consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Almeida Martins

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar formulações de doces, em massa de umbu verde e maduro, quanto às características físico-químicas e físicas, e quanto à aceitação pelos consumidores residentes no Rio de Janeiro. Quatro formulações de doces foram processadas para polpa de umbu verde: F1, 0,3% de goma xantana; F2, 5% de xarope de glicose e 0,3% de goma xantana; F3, 0,5% de amido modificado; F4, 5% de xarope de glicose e 0,5% de amido modificado; e quatro formulações para polpa de umbu maduro: F1, apenas correção de pH; F2, 0,5% de pectina; F3, 0,3% de goma xantana; F4, 5% de xarope de glicose e 0,5% de amido modificado. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características físico-químicas e físicas: sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, pH, açúcares redutores e não redutores, atividade de água, cor, firmeza e adesividade. Cinqüenta e seis consumidores avaliaram as formulações, por meio de escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos. As formulações F2 apresentaram maior firmeza. Os consumidores atribuíram notas superiores a seis na escala utilizada, para todas as formulações, o que indica aceitação dos produtos.The objective of this work was to evaluate green and ripe umbu marmalade formulations, in relation to physicochemical and physical characteristics, and regarding Rio de Janeiro consumers' acceptance. Four marmalade formulations were processed for green umbu pulp: F1, 0.3% xanthan gum; F2, 5% glucose syrup and 0.3% xanthan gum; F3, 0.5% modified starch; F4, 5% glucose syrup and 0.5% modified starch; and four formulations for ripe umbu pulp: F1, only pH correction; F2, 0.5% pectin; F3, 0.3% xanthan gum; F4, 5% glucose syrup and 0.5% modified starch. The physicochemical and physical characteristics evaluated were: soluble solids, titrable acidity, pH, reducing and nonreducing sugars, water activity, color, firmness and adhesiveness. Fifty-six consumers evaluated the formulations, using nine-point structured hedonic

  17. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2008-01-01

    States are developed in carbonate rocks and karst areas. These aquifers and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique biological habitats. Commonly, there is competition for the water resources of karst aquifers, and urban development in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers. The concept for developing a Karst Interest Group evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division. As a result, the Karst Interest Group was formed in 2000. The Karst Interest Group is a loose-knit grass-roots organization of USGS employees devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst hydrology studies. The mission of the Karst Interest Group is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among USGS scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the Karst Interest Group encourages cooperative studies between the different disciplines of the USGS and other Department of Interior agencies and university researchers or research institutes. The first Karst Interest Group workshop was held in St. Petersburg, Florida, February 13-16, 2001, in the vicinity of karst features of the Floridan aquifer system. The proceedings of that first meeting, Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011 are available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/ The second Karst Interest Group workshop was held August 20-22, 2002, in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, in close proximity to the carbonate aquifers of the northern Shenandoah Valley. The proceedings of the second workshop were published in Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4174, which is available online at the previously mentioned website. The third workshop of the Karst Interest Group was held September, 12-15, 2005, in Rapid City, South Dakota, which is in close proximity to karst features

  18. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  19. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A green non-acid-catalyzed process for direct N=N-C group formation: comprehensive study, modeling, and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakyzadeh, Vahid; Zolfigol, Mohammad Ali; Derakhshan-Panah, Fatemeh; Jafarian, Majid; Miri, Mir Vahid; Gilandoust, Maryam

    2018-01-04

    The aim of this work is to introduce, model, and optimize a new non-acid-catalyzed system for a direct N[Formula: see text]N-C bond formation. By reacting naphthols or phenol with anilines in the presence of the sodium nitrite as nitrosonium ([Formula: see text] source and triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), a N[Formula: see text]N-C group can be formed in non-acid media. Modeling and optimization of the reaction conditions were investigated by response surface method. Sodium nitrite, TEAA, and water were chosen as variables, and reaction yield was also monitored. Analysis of variance indicates that a second-order polynomial model with F value of 35.7, a P value of 0.0001, and regression coefficient of 0.93 is able to predict the response. Based on the model, the optimum process conditions were introduced as 2.2 mmol sodium nitrite, 2.2 mL of TEAA, and 0.5 mL [Formula: see text] at room temperature. A quadratic (second-order) polynomial model, by analysis of variance, was able to predict the response for a direct N=N-C group formation. Predicted response values were in good agreement with the experimental values. Electrochemistry studies were done to introduce new Michael acceptor moieties. Broad scope, high yields, short reaction time, and mild conditions are some advantages of the presented method.

  1. Flavonoid content in ethanolic extracts of selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous foods consumed by vulnerable groups of Kenya: antioxidant and type II diabetes-related functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-08-01

    The present study evaluated the flavonoid content, antioxidant as well as type II diabetes-related enzyme inhibition activities of ethanolic extract of certain raw and traditionally processed indigenous food ingredients including cereals, legumes, oil seeds, tubers, vegetables and leafy vegetables, which are commonly consumed by vulnerable groups in Kenya. The vegetables exhibited higher flavonoid content (50-703 mg/100 g) when compared with the grains (47-343 mg/100 g). The ethanolic extract of presently studied food ingredients revealed 33-93% DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 486-6,389 mmol Fe(II)/g reducing power, 19-43% α-amylase inhibition activity and 14-68% α-glucosidase inhibition activity. Among the different food-stuffs, the drumstick and amaranth leaves exhibited significantly higher flavonoid content with excellent functional properties. Roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be suitable processing methods in preserving the functional properties. Hence, such viable processing techniques for respective food samples will be considered in the formulation of functional supplementary foods for vulnerable groups in Kenya.

  2. Moving beyond green: exploring the relationship of environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on emotional well-being following group walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselle, Melissa R; Irvine, Katherine N; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea; Warber, Sara L

    2014-12-23

    Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127) of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009) within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research.

  3. Moving beyond Green: Exploring the Relationship of Environment Type and Indicators of Perceived Environmental Quality on Emotional Well-Being following Group Walks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R. Marselle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127 of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009 within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research.

  4. Moving beyond Green: Exploring the Relationship of Environment Type and Indicators of Perceived Environmental Quality on Emotional Well-Being following Group Walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marselle, Melissa R.; Irvine, Katherine N.; Lorenzo-Arribas, Altea; Warber, Sara L.

    2014-01-01

    Against the backdrop of increasing interest in the relationship between Nature and health, this study examined the effect of perceived environment type and indicators of perceived environmental quality on short-term emotional well-being following outdoor group walks. Participants (n = 127) of a national group walk program completed pre- and post-walk questionnaires for each walk attended (n = 1009) within a 13-week study period. Multilevel linear modelling was used to examine the main and moderation effects. To isolate the environmental from the physical activity elements, analyses controlled for walk duration and perceived intensity. Analyses revealed that perceived restorativeness and perceived walk intensity predicted greater positive affect and happiness following an outdoor group walk. Perceived restorativeness and perceived bird biodiversity predicted post-walk negative affect. Perceived restorativeness moderated the relationship between perceived naturalness and positive affect. Results suggest that restorative quality of an environment may be an important element for enhancing well-being, and that perceived restorativeness and naturalness of an environment may interact to amplify positive affect. These findings highlight the importance of further research on the contribution of environment type and quality on well-being, and the need to control for effects of physical activity in green exercise research. PMID:25546275

  5. Consumer Behavior towards Decision Making and Loyalty to Particular Brands

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Adunola Oluremi; Kamolshotiros, Parinda; Popoola, Oluwamayowa Yewande; Ajagbe, Musibau Akintunde; Olujobi, Olusola Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Currently, consumers pay more attention to their health; there is a growing awareness of health benefits of healthy drinks such as the green tea. Green tea is a popular healthy drink that helps prevent many deadly diseases. There are increasing numbers of green tea manufacturers around the world especially in Thailand. This industry has overwhelmingly expanded due to high consumers demand and purchases. Previous studies show that the market of green tea beverage in Thailand is worth nearly 9,...

  6. Stuck between a ROC and a hard place? Barriers to the take up of green energy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the UK mechanisms for ensuring future investment in renewable energy through consumer adoption of green energy tariffs and the Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) system. Using a national survey and focus groups the stated willingness by UK customers to pay a premium for renewable or green energy and actual take up of such tariffs is assessed. Substantial differences between willingness to pay for and the adoption of green energy tariffs are reported. This disparity is linked to a range of factors including consumer confusion, lack of supply, complexities of constructing 'green source' tariffs under the ROC system and a lack of customer trust. It is concluded that the re-definition of the green energy market in favour of 'green source' tariffs, greater direct compliance with the Renewable Obligation by addressing supply constraints, and efforts in providing clearer information and choices for consumers via a compulsory green energy accreditation scheme are required if willing consumers' are to contribute to investment in renewable energy

  7. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Dahlin; Verena Halbherr; Peter Kurz; Michael Nelles; Carsten Herbes

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE), presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to gen...

  8. Companies in search of the green consumer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, Natapol; Spaargaren, Gert; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Thailand, as an emerging economy, has developed sustainable consumption and production (SCP) policies and strategies to a considerable extent. While the first phase of SCP policy development has primarily focused on upstream actors and production processes, the second

  9. Marketing Green Fertilizers: Insights into Consumer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Dahlin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to support the long-term viability of the bioenergy industry through an end market for digestate, we investigated purchasing preferences for fertilizer product features in the home gardening market. We conducted a discrete choice experiment (DCE, presenting 504 respondents with a total of 6048 product attribute choices in a simulated context that replicated the tradeoff decisions made in the real marketplace. We analyzed the choice data using a hierarchical Bayes estimate to generate part-worth utilities for fertilizer product attributes. We then conducted a latent class analysis to identify market segments that could be expected to respond to differentiated product design strategies. We were able to quantify both purchasing preferences for fertilizer product attributes as well as the importance of each attribute to the perceived utility of a product. We were further able to identify five distinct market segments that make clear the potential for differentiated strategies in the home gardening market. We found both negative and positive price sensitivities, with sociodemographically distinct subgroups that favored low-, mid-, and high-priced products. We also found purchasing preferences for brand status, product labeling and nutrient values. Our results provide insights that should help product managers in the biogas industry develop marketing strategies to integrate digestate into a sustainable energy production system.

  10. Using Focus Groups in the Consumer Research Phase of a Social Marketing Program to Promote Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity and Walking Trail Use in Sumter County, South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer researc...

  11. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in leafy green vegetables consumed at salad bars, based on modeling supply chain logistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, S O; Rijgersberg, H; Franz, E

    2010-10-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference between simulating supply chain logistics (MOD) and assuming fixed storage times (FIX) in microbial risk estimation for the supply chain of fresh-cut leafy green vegetables destined for working-canteen salad bars. The results of the FIX model were previously published (E. Franz, S. O. Tromp, H. Rijgersberg, and H. J. van der Fels-Klerx, J. Food Prot. 73:274-285, 2010). Pathogen growth was modeled using stochastic discrete-event simulation of the applied logistics concept. The public health effects were assessed by conducting an exposure assessment and risk characterization. The relative growths of Escherichia coli O157 (17%) and Salmonella enterica (15%) were identical in the MOD and FIX models. In contrast, the relative growth of Listeria monocytogenes was considerably higher in the MOD model (1,156%) than in the FIX model (194%). The probability of L. monocytogenes infection in The Netherlands was higher in the MOD model (5.18×10(-8)) than in the FIX model (1.23×10(-8)). The risk of listeriosis-induced fetal mortality in the perinatal population increased from 1.24×10(-4) (FIX) to 1.66×10(-4) (MOD). Modeling the probabilistic nature of supply chain logistics is of additional value for microbial risk assessments regarding psychrotrophic pathogens in food products for which time and temperature are the postharvest preventive measures in guaranteeing food safety.

  12. Green Science: Green Beauty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2010-01-01

    The ingredient lists of your shampoo, makeup, and moisturizer are likely to include a dizzying number of unknown ingredients. What these ingredients are and do is a mystery to most consumers. However, many cosmetics contain ingredients that are linked to health problems and environmental concerns. While examining every ingredient in your beauty…

  13. Preference Mapping of Soymilk with Different U.S. Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2016-02-01

    This study determined and compared drivers of liking for unflavored soymilk with different U.S. consumer groups. A highly trained panel documented appearance, mouthfeel and flavor attributes of 26 commercial soymilks. Twelve representative soymilks were then selected for evaluation by consumers from 3 age/cultural categories (n = 75 each category; Caucasian/African American females aged 18 to 30 y; Asian females aged 18 to 30 y; Caucasian/African American females aged 40 to 64 y). Consumers evaluated overall liking and liking and intensity of specific attributes. Results were evaluated by analysis of variance, followed by internal and external preference mapping. Age had no effect on overall liking, while ethnicity did (Caucasian/African American compared with Asian; P consumer clusters were identified. Sweet taste with vanilla/vanillin and sweet aromatic flavors and higher viscosity were preferred by most consumers and differences between consumer clusters were primarily in drivers of dislike. Drivers of dislike were not identified for Cluster 1 consumers while Clusters 2 and 3 consumers (n = 84, n = 80) disliked beany, green/grassy and meaty/brothy flavors and astringency. Cluster 3 (n = 80) consumers scored all soymilks higher in liking (P consumers, and were willing to overlook disliked attributes with the addition of sweet taste, whereas the Cluster 2 consumers were not. These findings can be utilized to produce soymilks with attributes that are well liked by target consumers and to tailor attributes for segments of the population that have not yet been accommodated. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Green Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Green tourism is defined as environmentally friendly tourism activities with various focuses and meanings. In a broad term, green tourism is about being an environmentally friendly tourist or providing environmentally friendly tourist services. The green tourism concept would be highly appealing to tourism enterprises and operators owing to increasing governmental pressure to improve environmental performance by adopting effective and tangible environmental management techniques. Green to...

  15. Metaphysical green

    OpenAIRE

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    “Sensation of Green is about the mental process like touching, seeing, hearing, or smelling, resulting from the immediate stimulation of landscape forms, plants, trees, wind and water. Sensation of Green triggers a feeling of scale, cheerfulness, calmness and peace. The spatial performance of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from th...

  16. Explaining purchases of organic meat by Dutch consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, PC

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of economic and marketing variables ( quality, price, and distribution), emotions ( fear, empathy, and guilt), social norms, and environment-related variables ( environmental concern, green behaviour, and perceived consumer effectiveness) on Dutch consumers'

  17. Green chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, John C.; Cannon, Amy S.; Dye, Kevin M.

    2004-01-01

    A grand challenge facing government, industry, and academia in the relationship of our technological society to the environment is reinventing the use of materials. To address this challenge, collaboration from an interdisciplinary group of stakeholders will be necessary. Traditionally, the approach to risk management of materials and chemicals has been through inerventions intended to reduce exposure to materials that are hazardous to health and the environment. In 1990, the Pollution Prevention Act encouraged a new tact-elimination of hazards at the source. An emerging approach to this grand challenge seeks to embed the diverse set of environmental perspectives and interests in the everyday practice of the people most responsible for using and creating new materials--chemists. The approach, which has come to be known as Green Chemistry, intends to eliminate intrinsic hazard itself, rather than focusing on reducing risk by minimizing exposure. This chapter addresses the representation of downstream environmental stakeholder interests in the upstream everyday practice that is reinventing chemistry and its material inputs, products, and waste as described in the '12 Principles of Green Chemistry'

  18. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  19. Are green caterers more likely to serve healthy meals than non-green caterers? Results from a quantitative study in Danish worksite catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Be; Bruselius-Jensen, M; Andersen, Js; Lassen, A

    2006-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether organic conversion in catering has positive effects on the nutritional quality of menus offered. The methodology was based on a self-administered questionnaire. The self-declared priority given to the use of organic foods was measured as the basis for assigning catering managers to one of two groups: 'green' or 'non-green' caterers. These groups were then compared with regard to the relative nutritional quality of the menu options offered to customers. The study was carried out among randomly selected Danish worksite catering outlets. The subjects participating in the study comprised 526 Danish worksite catering managers. The results showed a strong correlation between caterers' 'green-ness' and the nutritional quality of the menu options offered. Green caters had more healthy options in their menus than non-green caters, which is likely to result in improved nutritional quality of the diets of end consumers. The reason for this may partly be the increased service training efforts that green caterers practise in order to be able to implement organic foods successfully. It may also be associated with the fact that the price premiums and availability of the organic products forces caterers to serve menus with higher amounts of root and non-green leafy vegetables, pulses and seasonal vegetables. The present findings suggest that organic conversion of public canteens may be a good opportunity to promote healthier eating in public catering.

  20. The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of children in a highly polluted urban region and a windfarm-green energy island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Caglar, Esber; Aslan, Seda; Durmusoglu, Ertan; Karademir, Aykan; Sandalli, Nuket

    2009-05-01

    Children's developing teeth may be sensitive to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. The term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) was introduced to describe the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are associated frequently with affected incisors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalance of MIH in children from the most industrialized and polluted region and the most green-energy island of Turkey. In September 2007, a retrospective study was initiated in two elementary schools: one, a group of children (N = 153) who fitted the criteria from Tavsancil, Kocaeli (N = 109) and the other from Bozcaada island, Canakkale (N = 44). The soil samples were collected from selected regions in order to determine the contamination levels in a heavily industrialized area and a non-industrialized area. Prevalance of MIH in children in Bozcaada island was 9.1%, while prevalance of MIH was 9.2% in Tavsancil. The PCDD/F levels in soil samples collected from Bozcaada and Tavsancil were determined as 1,12 and 8,4 I-TEQ ng/kg dry soil, respectively (P MIH did not seem to be associated with the levels of PCDD/Fs in the environment.

  1. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...

  2. Are green caterers more likely to serve healthy meals than non-green caterers? Results from a quantitative study in Danish worksite catering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria Louisa; Andersen, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    was measured as the basis for assigning catering managers to one of two groups: 'green' or 'non-green' caterers. These groups were then compared with regard to the relative nutritional quality of the menu options offered to customers. Setting: The study was carried out among randomly selected Danish worksite...... than non-green caters, which is likely to result in improved nutritional quality of the diets of end consumers. The reason for this may partly be the increased service training efforts that green caterers practise in order to be able to implement organic foods successfully. It may also be associated......Objective: The present study aimed to investigate whether organic conversion in catering has positive effects on the nutritional quality of menus offered. Design: The methodology was based on a self-administered questionnaire. The self-declared priority given to the use of organic foods...

  3. Green Consumption Behavior Antecedents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagiaslis, Anastasios; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    The present study adds to the evolving literature on green consumer behavior by examining through statistically robust methods the effect and interrelationships of the key constructs of environmental concern, consumer environmental knowledge, beliefs about biofuels, and behavioral intention (i...... for the environment has a positive and direct impact on environmental knowledge, beliefs, and behavioral intention. Also, demographics determine levels of concern for the environment and environmental knowledge. All constructs associate positively with one another delineating that the interdependencies between them...... are important when accounting for environmental behavior. Future research should validate present results with the use of cross-cultural samples and investigate whether environmental concern increases due to social desirability response bias....

  4. Going Retail CITIC Bank is ready for an ambitious,consumer-oriented business expan sion after receiving an enormous capital infusion from its parent group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Late last November, the CITIC Industrial Bank, a Beijing-based lender, stepped up its internal restructuring process after being given the green light from the China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC), the nation's banking watchdog, to change its name to China CITIC Bank. The "Industrial"

  5. Usage pattern and exposure assessment of food colours in different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, S; Purshottam, S K; Gupta, S K; Khanna, S K; Das, M

    2010-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the nature and levels of colours in food items and to undertake risk assessment vis-a-vis intake among different age groups of consumers in the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 478 edible foodstuffs were analysed, and of six permitted colours, Sunset Yellow FCF (SSYFCF) and Tartrazine were most popular, and two non-permitted colours, namely Metanil Yellow and Rhodamine B, were encountered. The study showed a marked improvement in the trend of use of non-permitted colours over previous surveys, with 90% foods now resorting to approved food colours. However, 59% of foods employing permitted colours exceeded the maximum allowable limit, with average quantities crossing the threshold of 100 mg kg(-1) in most food commodities. The intake of SSYFCF exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for children and adolescents by 88% and 39%, respectively, and was statistically significant when analysed by error bars and distribution curves. In adults, SSYFCF saturated 59% of the ADI. For Carmoisine, Tartrazine and Ponceau 4R, saturation of ADI ranged from 27.4% to 90.3% in children and adolescents and from 10.8% to 47.6% in adult subjects. These results indicate that children and adolescents are more vulnerable to higher intakes of food colours compared with the adult population. Allowing a uniform level of all colours in foods under Indian rules, notwithstanding wide variations of 250-fold in their allocated ADIs, could be one reason for the higher intake and hence only technological need-based levels of individual colours are desired to be prescribed.

  6. Metaphysical green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    example is a tiny Danish summer house from 1918 . The second example is ‘House before House’ , in Tokyo. The third example is a prefabricated house ‘CHU’ . The analysis evaluates the characteristics of diverse tones of green – from green image to green sensation. The analysis is based on the original...... of Sensation of Green is created by a physical interaction between the language of space and the language of nature” The notion of Sensation of Green was developed through a previous study ‘Learning from the Summer House’ investigating the unique architectural characteristics of the Danish summer houses...... the Sensation of Green? Three existing examples are agents to this discussion. The first example is a Danish summer house. The other two are international urban examples. While the summer house articulates the original meaning of Sensation of Green, the urban examples illustrate its urban context. The first...

  7. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...

  8. Trading green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.

    1997-01-01

    A study has been carried out into the feasibility of developing an electricity trading mechanism which would allow consumers to purchase electricity which has been derived from renewable energy resources. This study was part funded by the European Commission (ALTENER), the Department of Trade and Industry and a number of private sector companies. The trading mechanism is known as the Green Pool. As a result of the findings of this study discussions are being held with potential generators and suppliers to establish a Green Pool plc. The aim is to encourage the development of new renewable energy projects outside the NFFO and SRO schemes. The Green Pool plc will be owned by the generators and its main objective will be to market the electricity produced by its members. (Author)

  9. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  10. Consumers’ attitudes towards green food in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a Value-Attitude model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and technology....... The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and attitudes towards green food is the strongest one. Collectivism also influences attitudes towards technology, which in turn influence attitudes towards green food. However, the lack of significant relationship between individualism...... and attitudes towards technology points towards the belief of Chinese people that technology is a positive determinant of food safety, and that interest in technology steams from altruistic predispositions....

  11. Application of a novel PROMETHEE-based method for construction of a group compromise ranking to prioritization of green suppliers in food supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Kadziński, Miłosz; Sivakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    green supply chain management (GSCM) elements is essential for utilizing the food supply chain in an environmentally benign way. As a solution to the above challenge, the economic and green characteristics for supplier selection in green purchasing are studied in this paper. For an organization......, the evaluation and selection of the green supplier is a vital issue due to several tangible and intangible criteria involved. Accordingly, we apply multiple criteria decision aiding techniques.We propose a hybrid approach that combines the revised Simos procedure, PROMETHEE methods, algorithms for constructing......The food sector has a prodigious focus and is constantly gaining in importance in today's global economic marketplace. Due to an increasing global population, society faces a greater challenge for sustainable food production, quality, distribution, and food safety in the food supply chain. Adopting...

  12. GREEN MARKETING AND GLOBAL SCENARIOS‎

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Jessy George; R. Jith

    2017-01-01

    Green Marketing must satisfy two objectives Improved Environmental Quality and Customer Satisfaction. Although no consumer product has a zero impact on the environment, in business, the terms "green product" and "environmental product" are used commonly to describe those that strive to protect or enhance the natural environment by conserving energy and/or resources and reducing or eliminating use of toxic agents, pollution, and waste. The present study has made an attempt to describe why the ...

  13. E-WOM Review Adoption: Consumers’ Demographic Profile Influence on Green Purchase Intention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Roslin Abdul; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Arif, Mohd Shoki Mohd; Hamid, Mohd Hakim Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays, green products are getting popular in their acceptance by the Malaysian consumers. Due to the advancement of the Internet technologies and the wide spread of electronic word of mouth (E-WOM), consumers seem to be more influenced in purchasing the green products. In this study, consumers’ demographic profiles, such as age, gender, income, education background, and occupation are being explored to investigate their influences on consumers’ green product purchase intention. The purpose of this paper is to showcase the results of the differences between several demographic profile groups on green product purchase intention using descriptive analysis, ANOVA and independent sample T-Test. T-test results showed that there is a statistically significant difference between gender on consumers’ green product purchase intention. Meanwhile, the results generated by ANOVA indicated that there are no significant differences between age, income, education background and occupation on consumers’ green product purchase intention. These results shed light on the potential market segment that should be targeted by marketers and producers of green products in Malaysia.

  14. Green petroleum, green coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Z, Carlos

    2000-01-01

    The author refers to the differences every bigger day between the rich countries and the poor countries where every morning we receive the citizens of the world the news of a new coalition of big companies to form an even bigger one to diminish the costs and the number of competitors in the planet, under the watchword of being able to sell more, to consume more; Equally, it grows the environmental deterioration unceasingly, in good part explained by the voracious consumption and the wastes of the most opulent societies while in the other side of the world the poverty forces to extract of the ecosystems until the last encouragement of life. These and other topics are treated in the paper

  15. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  16. Green roofs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available , beetles and spiders); and the number of birds that nest in vegetated roofs (including kestrels, swallows, and wagtails). Objective The primary objective of a green roof is to create a living habitat in an otherwise barren environment, hence the use... the negative environmental impacts including plant and insect specie loss. Thus at a philosophical level green roofs support the notion “replace what you displace”. Key ecological issues that can be addressed through green roofs include: Negative effects...

  17. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  18. Organic labbeling systems and consumer confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    A research analysis suggests that a state certification and labelling system creates confidence in organic labelling systems and consequently green consumerism. Danish consumers have higher levels of confidence in the labelling system than consumers in countries where the state plays a minor role in labelling and certification.

  19. Baiting of bacteria with hyphae of common soil fungi revealed a diverse group of potentially mycophagous secondary consumers in the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.; van Veen, J.A.; de Boer, W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fungi and bacteria are primary consumers of plant-derived organic compounds and therefore considered as basal members of soil food webs. Trophic interactions among these microorganisms could, however, induce shifts in food web energy flows. Given increasing evidence for a prominent role of

  20. Consumer attention to product health cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five...... different dairy products) were varied within subjects and the viewing task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, purchase likelihood evaluation) was varied between subjects. As a follow-up, three more studies were carried out using verbal response measures to assess perceived product...... healthfulness and purchase likelihood. Study 2 used a 3x2x2 group mixed design manipulating product images (control images, health-related images, exercise-related images), brand (control brand, health association brand), and color scheme (control color scheme, green health-association color scheme). Study 3...

  1. Effect of Eight Weeks of Aerobic Training and Green Tea Supplementation on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Inactive Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fathei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Physical activities, as well as diet, are known as the truest scientific methods to reduce the signs of the cardio-vascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 8–week aerobic trainings and green tea supplementation on some of the cardio-vascular risk factors in the obese inactive women. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 40 obese inactive women, who were residents of Mashhad Township, were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via purposeful available sampling method, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group. The groups were green tea, aerobic training, aerobic training and green tea supplementation, and control groups. 8-week training program consisted of three 45- to 60-minute sessions per week. Green tea was consumed by green tea group three times a day after each meal. The composed group underwent both interventions, while control group underwent no intervention. Data was analyzed by SPSS 15 software using correlated T test and one-way ANOVA. Findings: Mean total cholesterol level was significantly changed in green tea, aerobic training, and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean triglyceride level was significantly changed in green tea and aerobic training groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean low density lipoprotein was significantly changed in green tea and composed groups in the posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. Mean high-density lipoprotein was significantly changed only in aerobic group in posttest stage compared to the pretest stage (p<0.05. In addition, mean concentration of C-reactive protein was significantly reduced in aerobic training (p=0.01 and composed (p=0.04 groups. Conclusion: 8 weeks aerobic training, green tea consumption, and their composition reduce the cardiovascular risk factors in inactive obese women in a relatively similar manner.

  2. Green thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank Woolsey, III

    Many people around the world have observed green light apparently emanating from severe thunderstorms, but until recently there has been no scientific study of the phenomenon. Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm suggest that they are some kind of illusion. The existence of green thunderstorms has been objectively demonstrated by recording spectra of light from thunderstorms using a handheld spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 and the spring of 1996 numerous storms were observed and spectra of the light emanating from these storms were recorded. Observations were made both at the ground and aboard research aircraft. Furthermore, time series of spectra were recorded as the observed color of some storms changed from dark blue to a bluish-green. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the occurrence of green light in connection with severe storms. Fankhauser gave some observational support to the belief that green light from thunderstorms is possible and believed that the source of the light is from the blue sky penetrating thin regions in the clouds. Fraser believes that light from the setting sun, in combination with the process of scattering by atmospheric molecules, creates the green light associated with severe weather and the thunderstorm acts only as a black backdrop. Unfortunately, no cloud illuminated by the sun is black and the green airlight produced by the Fraser theory is in reality overwhelmed by light reflected by the cloud. Often the unusual coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflection of light from foliage on the ground. The quantitative measurements made during the observation period fail to support these assumptions. We have observed thunderstorms to be green over ground that was not green and we have observed blue thunderstorms over ground that was green

  3. Green Chemistry Challenge: 2017 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Chemistry Challenge 2017 award winner, Professor Schelter, developed a new, targeted approach for separating mixtures of rare earth metals obtained from consumer waste streams comprising mixtures of Nd/Dy and Eu/Y

  4. Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge: 2016 Academic Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge 2016 award winner, Professor Chirik, discovered a class of catalysts used to produce silicones for consumer goods without using hard-to-mine platinum (less mining, reduces costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and waste).

  5. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  6. One size does not fit all: how the tobacco industry has altered cigarette design to target consumer groups with specific psychological and psychosocial needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin Lê; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Keithly, Lois; Connolly, Gregory

    2003-11-01

    To identify whether the tobacco industry has targeted cigarette product design towards individuals with varying psychological/psychosocial needs. Internal industry documents were identified through searches of an online archival document research tool database using relevancy criteria of consumer segmentation and needs assessment. The industry segmented consumer markets based on psychological needs (stress relief, behavioral arousal, performance enhancement, obesity reduction) and psychosocial needs (social acceptance, personal image). Associations between these segments and smoking behaviors, brand and design preferences were used to create cigarette brands targeting individuals with these needs. Cigarette brands created to address the psychological/psychosocial needs of smokers may increase the likelihood of smoking initiation and addiction. Awareness of targeted product development will improve smoking cessation and prevention efforts.

  7. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: Recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, David M.; Lance, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption impacts the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed. PMID:18935880

  8. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption in different lifestyle groups: recommendations for program development based on behavioral research and consumer media data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della, Lindsay J; DeJoy, David M; Lance, Charles E

    2008-01-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption affects the etiology of cardiovascular disease as well as many different types of cancers. Still, Americans' consumption of fruit and vegetables is low. This article builds on initial research that assessed the validity of using a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation in tandem with the theory of planned behavior to explain differences among individuals' consumption of fruit and vegetables. In this article, we integrate the findings from our initial analyses with media and purchase data from each audience segment. We then propose distinct, tailored program suggestions for reinventing social marketing programs focused on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in each segment. Finally, we discuss the implications of utilizing a consumer-based psychographic audience segmentation versus a more traditional readiness-to-change social marketing segmentation. Differences between these two segmentation strategies, such as the ability to access media usage and purchase data, are highlighted and discussed.

  9. Important motivators for buying green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  10. Electricity: the green wave of 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes stock on the green energy purchase. It offers to the producers a new source of income and to the consumers a possibility of to follow their energy choice. Three french societies, delivering green certificates, are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Ritsuko; Sevastyanova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    What makes consumers adopt energy-sustainable innovations? The uptake of such products and technologies is of importance, particularly at a time when climate change, diminishing energy resources and energy security are urgent issues. This paper reports on a case study of consumer adoption of hybrid vehicles, a green innovation that has been in the market since the late 1990s. The study is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted in 2009 in collaboration with Toyota GB, to investigate the dimensions that constitute motivations to purchase the Prius and to examine how policy can encourage hybrid adoption. The survey yielded 1484 responses, 1263 of which were used for the analysis; the results of the exploratory factor analyses provide information on consumer purchase motivations. The financial benefits related to transport policy are an important factor in consumer hybrid purchase motivations, and social norms and consumers' willingness to comply with the norms of their groups influence the purchase decision. We also find that various meanings are attached to hybrid vehicle ownership, and practical, experiential and affective values need to be communicated to consumers in terms of value added.

  12. Green commercial building insurance in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu Xin Ou; Chew, Boon Cheong; Loo, Heoy Shin; Tan, Lay Hong

    2017-03-01

    Green building construction is growing tremendously globally even in Malaysia. Currently, there are approximate 636 buildings have registered and to be certified with Green Building Index. Among these buildings, 45 buildings have already fulfilled the requirements and fully certified. The other buildings still under provisional certification stage. Malaysia had adopted Green Building Index in 2009 to support a move to promote green building concept. Malaysia starts to move towards green building because Malaysian construction and building industry realizes that both energy consumed and waste produced are reduced without irreversible impacts to ecosystems. Consequently, insurance companies such as Fireman's Fund from America has started the green building insurance policies for their green building in the year of 2006, while Malaysia still remain the coverage for green buildings using conventional property insurance. There are lacks of efforts to be seen from insurance companies to propose green building insurance for these green buildings. There are a few factors which can take into consideration for insurance companies to start the very first green building insurance in Malaysia. Although there are challenges, some efficient strategies have been identified to overcome the problems. The methods used in this research topic is qualitative research. The results obtained shows that green commercial building insurance has a huge business opportunity in Malaysia because the number of green commercial buildings are increasing tremendously in Malaysia. It is a favor to implement green building insurance in Malaysia. Furthermore, insurance companies can consider to add in extra coverage in standard building policy to provide extra protection for non-certified green buildings which have the intention to rebuilt in green when damage happens. Generally, it is very important to introduce green commercial buildings insurance into Malaysia so that all of the green commercial

  13. Going out of the green entrepreneurial dilemma-Analysis from the perspective of the three-party static games between entrepreneur, consumer and government%走出绿色创业的困境--基于创业者、消费者与政府三方博弈的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧; 崔祥民

    2014-01-01

    绿色创业企业发展、生态环境的改善是个系统工程,需要绿色产品的供应方(绿色创业企业)、需求方(消费者)以及监管方(政府)的相互协同,共同发挥作用才能获得良性发展。而三方作为独立的利益主体,又有着各自的利益考量,需要建立创业企业、消费者与政府三方博弈模型,分析三方参与绿色活动的概率,探讨促进绿色创业良性发展的实现路径。%The development of green enterprises and improvement of the ecological environment is a systematic en-gineering,which needs mutual cooperation and function from the green product suppliers (green enterprises),the demand sides (consumers)and the regulatory sides (government)for better development.The three parties as an independent subject of interest have their own interests.Therefore,a game model of the three-party static games is needed to be established to analyze the probability of three party participation in green activities and to find out the path to promote healthy development of green business.

  14. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  15. The trashing of Big Green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felten, E.

    1990-01-01

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature

  16. Game Analysis and Countermeasures Discussion on Green Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of making certain assumption on the game situation of carrying out green marketing, this paper conducts game analysis on the green marketing choice among enterprises, the green marketing choice between enterprises and consumers, and the green marketing choice of consumers. Then this paper expounds the necessity of implementing green marketing as follows: the green marketing is the inevitable requirements of sustainable development of economy; the green marketing is the inevitable choice of green consumption mode; the green marketing is the inevitable results of legalization of environmental problems. The problems faced by the implementation of green marketing are analyzed as follows: first, the concept of green marketing has not yet been established; second, the sociality of green demand has not yet taken shape; third, production characteristic of green products has not yet formed. The countermeasures of implementing green marketing as follows: pay attention to the propaganda and education of modern marketing concept; regulate the competition in the market of green products; strengthen transparency of green market information; reinforce the legislation work of food safety.

  17. Studi Tentang Efek Green Advertising Pada Intensi Membeli Dengan Perilaku Peduli Lingkungan Sebagai Moderasi

    OpenAIRE

    Dwinita Laksmidewi

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to examine whether green advertising has positive effect on consumer behavior. The study uses an experimental method that consists of two studies. Study 1 results show that green advertising have positive effect on purchase intention, through the mediation of brand attitude and attitude toward advertising. Green behavior has a moderation role; green advertising has direct effect on purchase intention when consumers have a high green behavior. Study 2 shows that brand attitude ...

  18. Using focus groups in the consumer research phase of a social marketing program to promote moderate-intensity physical activity and walking trail use in Sumter County, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, Ericka; Peck, Lara E; Sharpe, Patricia A; Granner, Michelle L; Bryant, Carol A; Fields, Regina

    2006-01-01

    The use of social marketing approaches in public health practice is increasing. Using marketing concepts such as the "four Ps" (product, price, place, and promotion), social marketing borrows from the principles of commercial marketing but promotes beneficial health behaviors. Consumer research is used to segment the population and develop a strategy based on those marketing concepts. In a community-based participatory research study, 17 focus groups were used in consumer research to develop a social marketing program to promote walking and other moderate-intensity physical activities. Two phases of focus groups were conducted. Phase 1 groups, which included both men and women, were asked to respond to questions that would guide the development of a social marketing program based on social marketing concepts. Phase 1 also determined the intervention's target audience, which was irregularly active women aged 35 to 54. Phase 2 groups, composed of members of the target audience, were asked to further define the product and discuss specific promotion strategies. Phase 1 participants determined that the program product, or target behavior, should be walking. In addition, they identified price, place, and promotion strategies. Phase 2 participants determined that moderate-intensity physical activity is best promoted using the term exercise and offered suggestions for marketing walking, or exercise, to the target audience. There have been few published studies of social marketing campaigns to promote physical activity. In this study, focus groups were key to understanding the target audience in a way that would not have been accomplished with quantitative data alone. The group discussions generated important insights into values and motivations that affect consumers' decisions to adopt a product or behavior. The focus group results guided the development of a social marketing program to promote physical activity in the target audience in Sumter County, South Carolina.

  19. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  20. Green Roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  1. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.

  2. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naushad Ali Toolsee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P<0.1 while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P<0.1 and 5.1% (P<0.1. The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143.

  3. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  4. Green Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Nicholas; Eickers, Stephanie; Geene, Leonie; Todorovic, Marijana; Villmow, Annika; Forschungsstelle für Umweltpolitik (FFU), Freie Universität Berlin

    2018-01-01

    Traditional environmental policy instruments have not always proven successful in fostering environmentally friendly behaviour. The question remains: how can policymakers tackle the attitude-behaviour gap when it comes to pro-environmental choices and sustainable lifestyles? One solution that has emerged is green nudging, a new and potentially promising policy tool born of behavioural economics and experimental psychology. This paper contributes to the current discussion surrounding green nud...

  5. Fiscal greening. An outline of fiscal options to relieve the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    Dutch environmental taxes belong to the most environment-friendly taxes in Europe. In the last 15 year a large number of measures is implemented to stimulate positive behavioral changes and to finance environmental policy. The contribution of those so-called green taxes is 14% of the total tax income with positive effects on energy consumption, water use and waste disposal.l. In order to maintain the lead in this respect, the working group Greening of the fiscal system II recommends several new measures. Also, the working group studied energy taxes for large consumers, taxes for parking, and how the presentation of regulating effects of the greening measures can be improved. In total, the working group studied circa 80 fiscal options to deburden the environment

  6. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrie Prasetyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product.  The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%.  The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation

  7. Frobenius Green functors

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    These notes provide an informal introduction to a type of Mackey functor that arises naturally in algebraic topology in connection with Morava $K$-theory of classifying spaces of finite groups. The main aim is to identify key algebraic aspects of the Green functor structure obtained by applying a Morava $K$-theory to such classifying spaces.

  8. Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Bass

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...

  9. The Influence of Green Marketing on Green Satisfaction Mediated By Perceived Quality and Its Impact to Green Trust in Injection Motorcycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelvy Kurniawan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, motorcycle manufacturers are increasingly motivated to replace their motorcycle into fuel injection products. The growing concern from the consumers to the environment and the regulations of emission standards, that is Euro 3, for motorcycle industry is being finalized in the Ministry of Environment in order to be implemented in Indonesia. Through this research, the writer will examine the effect of green marketing on perceived quality, green satisfaction, and green trust, the effect of perceived quality on green satisfaction, and the effect of green satisfaction on green trust. Those effects needs to be investigated in order to know how far the effects of green marketing and to ensure whether green marketing is well accepted or not by the market in motorcycle industry. Scope of this research is also limited to the user of fuel injection motorcycle in Jakarta for Honda and Yamaha who involved as decision maker when the motorcycle is purchased. Sampling technique used in this research is quota sampling and the analysis method is structural equation modeling (SEM. The findings of this research are: green marketing has a significant direct effect on perceived quality, perceived quality has a significant direct effect on green satisfaction, green satisfaction has a significant direct effect on green trust, green marketing has a significant direct and indirect effect on green satisfaction, and green marketing has a significant direct and indirect effect on green trust. All of those effects are found to be positive effects.

  10. The Effects of the Introduction of Prepayment Meters on the Energy Usage Behaviour of Different Housing Consumer Groups in Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Malama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on research conducted in Kitwe, Zambia on the effects of the introduction of prepayment meters on the energy usage behaviour of domestic consumers in the Low, Medium and High Income categories. The research was motivated by the fact that there is very little information that exists on the subject not just in Zambia but world-wide. The paper has identified some key issue vis-a-viz: behavioral change as a result of the introduction of the prepayment meters, debt recovery and reduction of pilferage, disconnection of consumers and alternative energy sources and feedback. The data was collected in Kwacha (Low Income, Ndeke (Medium Income and Parklands (High Income. This was both quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data was collected through structured questionnaires of which 151 were collected in total as follows: 59 (Kwacha; 50 (Ndeke and 42 (Parklands. The qualitative data was collected through detailed interviews conducted with four households in each of the three household categories.The major findings are that there is general satisfaction from the households on the introduction of the prepayment meters citing control over expenditure and no disputes on bills as the main reasons. Many of the households also reported an improvement in their budgeting for electricity and there seems to have been a drop in the numbers of households with historical debt. Many households in Ndeke and Kwacha reported spending less on electricity after the introduction of the prepayment meters which has been attributed to the fact that they are no longer on flat tariffs and also they are now able to conserve electricity as they are more conscious about expenditure on the same. Many households in Ndeke and Kwacha also reported being disconnected because they run out of credit due to lack of money. Rationing was also reported to be actively being used by households in Ndeke and Kwacha as a way of extending their credit in times when they

  11. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  12. Systematics of the Ceracis furcifer Species-Group (Coleoptera: Ciidae): The Specialized Consumers of the Blood-Red Bracket Fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecci-Maddalena, Italo S. C.; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    The Ceracis furcifer species-group (Coleoptera: Ciidae) originally comprised nine species names: Ceracis cornifer (Mellié, 1849); C. cylindricus (Brèthes, 1922); C. furcifer Mellié, 1849; C. hastifer (Mellié, 1849); C. monocerus Lawrence, 1967; C. ruficornis Pic, 1916; C. simplicicornis (Pic, 1916); C. semipallidus Pic, 1922 and C. unicornis Gorham, 1898. Ceracis semipallidus was synonymised with C. furcifer and then no further changes were made to the composition of the group. Here, we provide a taxonomic revision of the Ceracis furcifer species-group and new data on the geographic distribution and host fungi of the included species. Lectotypes are designated for C. cornifer, C. furcifer, C. hastifer, C. ruficornis, C. semipallidus and C. unicornis. As results we: (i) synonymise C. cylindricus, C. monocerus, C. simplicicornis, C. unicornis with C. cornifer; (ii) confirm the synonymy of C. semipallidus with C. furcifer; (iii) redescribe C. cornifer, C. hastifer, C. furcifer and C. ruficornis; and (iv) provide an identification key for species in the furcifer group. The frontoclypeal horn and body coloration showed great intraspecific variation. We show that species in the furcifer group have distributions wider than previously known and use mainly Pycnoporus sanguineus as host fungus. Species of the furcifer group are the only animals specialized in feeding on basidiomes of P. sanguineus. PMID:28714939

  13. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  14. Green times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, W.D.; Hasenclever, C.

    1982-01-01

    The authors, founding members of the ''Green Party'' have in mind to make a very personal contribution to a better understanding of the present political situation which, although it seems to have reached a deadlock, still offers positive chances and prospects. New approaches in policy are mentioned which may help to overcome the present state of resignation of many adolescents and adults. Among other things, they describe themselves setting out for new pathways, the ''Greens'' in Parliament, prospect for the future, opportunities of the ecologically oriented economic policy. Finally, they call upon the reader to think and develop further under the motto ''What we all can do''. (HSCH) [de

  15. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in Leafy Green Vegetables Consumed at Salad Bars, Based on Modeling Supply Chain Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, S.O.; Rijgersberg, H.; Franz, E.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative microbial risk assessments do not usually account for the planning and ordering mechanisms (logistics) of a food supply chain. These mechanisms and consumer demand determine the storage and delay times of products. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the difference

  16. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  17. EFFECTS OF GREEN COFFEE BEAN EXTRACT IN SOME BIOMARKERS OF ADULT BRAZILIAN SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Adriana de Assis JÁCOME

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the present study was to analyze the acute effects of the green coffee extracts consumption in some biomarkers of adult Brazilian subjects. Twenty healthy adult subjects between 18 and 35 years old of different sex and ethnic groups took part in the present study. All participants were submitted a 12 hours overnight fast before experiments. Plasma and serum biochemical parameters were measured in distinct intervals after a breakfast standard ingestion and 0.6 L of green coffee been extract consumption. No statistically differences (Wilcoxon test on serum lipid profi le and plasmatic homocysteine concentration were noted after green coffee beverage intake. Caffeine has been associated with increase of the glycaemia in roasted coffee consumers. In the present study, a signifi cant increase (p= 0.03 in glycaemia was observed thirty minutes after the green coffee beverage ingestion and, then, there was a tendency of glycaemia maintenance. The low amount of free caffeine found in green coffee matrix could explain the quick stabilization of the glycaemia. The ingestion of green coffee beverage also signifi cantly reduced uricaemia (p= 0.03 (Wilcoxon test. It is possible that the polyphenols, present in high amounts in this beverage, could act inhibiting the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Therefore, the consumption of green coffee has to stabilize blood glucose 30 minutes after ingestion of test meal, and reduction of uricaemia.

  18. Modeling for Green Supply Chain Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Falatoonitoosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green supply chain management (GSCM has become a practical approach to develop environmental performance. Under strict regulations and stakeholder pressures, enterprises need to enhance and improve GSCM practices, which are influenced by both traditional and green factors. This study developed a causal evaluation model to guide selection of qualified suppliers by prioritizing various criteria and mapping causal relationships to find effective criteria to improve green supply chain. The aim of the case study was to model and examine the influential and important main GSCM practices, namely, green logistics, organizational performance, green organizational activities, environmental protection, and green supplier evaluation. In the case study, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory technique is applied to test the developed model. The result of the case study shows only “green supplier evaluation” and “green organizational activities” criteria of the model are in the cause group and the other criteria are in the effect group.

  19. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  20. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  1. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  2. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  3. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  4. Going Green

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and provides information on how to recycle, re-use, and restore. It also covers the benefits of “Going Green" on the environment, health, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  5. Purchasing green to become greener: Factors influence consumers’ green purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Vazifehdoust

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an integrated model that combines the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA and two categories of variables, personal and marketing, to investigate the attitudinal and behavioral decision factors to purchase green products. The model derived and tested via structural equation modeling on a sample of 374 consumers from the Guilan province in Iran. The results show that attitude is explained by consumers’ environmental concern, quality of green products, green advertising and green labeling. The results of the structural equation analysis indicate that attitude positively influences intention to purchase green products. Green purchasing intention also influences on green purchasing behavior. This paper also discusses the implications of the results for marketers and researchers.

  6. The identification of critical groups and its application to fish and shellfish consumers in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Hewett, C.J.; Shepherd, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Control of radioactive waste disposal to the environment, based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), necessitates an identification of the critical group of members of the public exposed from a given practice. Criteria for identification of critical groups based mainly on ICRP recommendations are discussed. Methods existing up to 1974 are briefly reviewed in the light of these criteria. Two more recent methods are described and compared on the basis of previous data; these methods, which are complementary, are based on homogeneity considerations and satisfy the criteria generally rather better than do the earlier methods. The application of the newer techniques to recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea is described, in relation to discharges from the Windscale reprocessing plant. The results of this survey are presented, and estimates are given of the effective dose equivalent to members of these critical groups in recent years, to show the effect of liquid discharges from Windscale in terms of public radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Perspectives for hydropower in Switzerland - The chances offered by Green Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreng, D.; Wuestenhagen, R.; Truffer, B.

    2001-01-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the question if the marketing of 'green' power, i.e. by marketing power on the basis of its environment-friendly production method, could be a viable way for owners of hydropower plant to assert themselves in a liberalised electricity market. The results of the studies made so far concerning the size of the market for 'green power' are discussed and the various types of customer are looked at, such as environmentally conscious and environmentally active consumers for example. The report presents the results of 11 'focus groups' held in Berne, Zurich and Stuttgart which looked at the consumers' general opinion on green power and their readiness to pay a surcharge for it. The report examines not only the situation in households but also in trade and industry, where the purchase of green power can play a role in environmental certification or be used as part of a company's marketing strategy. Also, the issuing of 'green shares' (sustainable investments) is discussed, which could improve the financial conditions for hydropower companies seeking credit and loans

  8. Communicating Sustainable Shoes to Mainstream Consumers : The Impact of Advertisement Design on Buying Intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.C.; Gattol, V.; Van der Helm, R.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, marketing of sustainable products addresses green buyers, thus missing out on the mainstream consumers and volume necessary to cover the potentially higher cost of more sustainable materials. However, how to effectively communicate more sustainable products to mainstream consumers and

  9. The green highway forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  10. Enhancing Sustainable Communities With Green Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication aims to help local governments, water utilities, nonprofit organizations, neighborhood groups, and other stakeholders integrate green infrastructure strategies into plans that can transform their communities.

  11. Green Purchasing Behavior Analysis of Government Policy About Paid Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khoiruman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research will be conducted to know: 1 The influence of green perceived value to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 2 The influence of green perceived risk to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 3 The effect of green trust on green purchase behavior of consumers to use plastic bags after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. The study was conducted in modern retail stores (Alfamart, Indomart and Superindo in Surakarta using 200 respondents who shop at the modern retail store. A model that can be used to measure green purchasing behavior in the use of paid plastic bags using four interrelated variables: green perceived value, green perceived risk, green trust and green purchasing. Data analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of analysis and discussion showed that green perceived value have positive and significant effect to green trust, green trust has positive effect on green purchasing, but green perceived risk has no significant effect to green trust.

  12. Green Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is all about using computers in a smarter and eco-friendly way. It is the environmentally responsible use of computers and related resources which includes the implementation of energy-efficient central processing units, servers and peripherals as well as reduced resource consumption and proper disposal of electronic waste .Computers certainly make up a large part of many people lives and traditionally are extremely damaging to the environment. Manufacturers of computer and its parts have been espousing the green cause to help protect environment from computers and electronic waste in any way.Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as Possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

  13. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  14. Green Gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamandra Martinez, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to offer a general panoramic of the processes or experiences pilot that are carried out in the Project Green Gold, as strategy of environmental sustainability and organizational invigoration in Choco, especially in the 12 communities of the municipalities of Tado and Condoto. It is also sought to offer a minimum of information on the techniques of handmade production and to show the possibilities to carry out in a rational way the use and use of the natural resources. The Project Green Gold is carried out by the Corporation Green Gold (COV) and co-financed with resources of international and national character, the intervention of the financial resources it achievement mainly for the use of clean processes in the extraction stages and metals benefit. The project is centered primarily in the absence of use of products or toxic substances as the mercury, fair trade, organizational invigoration, execution of 11 approaches and certification of the metals Gold and Platinum. The COV, it has come executing the proposal from the year 2001 with the premise of contributing to the balance between the rational exploitation of the natural resources and the conservation of the environment in the Choco. In the project they are used technical handmade characteristic of the region framed inside the mining activity and production activities are diversified in the productive family units. Those producing with the support of entities of juridical character, specify the necessary game rules for the extraction and products commercialization

  15. Consumer views on a new holistic screening tool for supportive and palliative-care needs: Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC): a survey of self-help support groups in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Philippa; Ahmed, Nisar; Winslow, Michelle; Walters, Stephen J; Collins, Karen; Noble, Bill

    2015-08-01

    Sheffield Profile for Assessment and Referral for Care (SPARC) was developed in response to concerns that palliative care may not be reaching all people who could benefit from it. Acceptability of the tool is an important step in developing its future use. To elicit the views of a wide variety of members of consumer and self-help support groups concerned with health care on the relevance, acceptability and the overall perception of using SPARC as an early holistic needs assessment tool in supportive and palliative care. This study was conducted in South Yorkshire and North Derbyshire (UK). Ninety-nine consumer and self-help groups were identified from information in the public domain. Thirty-eight groups participated. Packs containing study information and self-complete postal questionnaires were distributed to groups, and they were asked to circulate these to their members. Completed questionnaires were returned in pre-paid envelopes to the research team. 135 questionnaires and feedback forms were returned. The majority of respondents found SPARC easy to understand (93% (120/129; 95% Confidence Interval 87% to 96%) and complete (94% (125/133; 95% CI: 88% to 97%). A minority, 12.2% (16/131), of respondents found questions on SPARC 'too sensitive'. Overall, respondents considered SPARC an acceptable and relevant tool for clinical assessment of supportive and palliative-care needs. Whilst a small minority of people found SPARC difficult to understand (i.e. patients with cognitive impairments), most categories of service user found it relevant. Clinical studies are necessary to establish the clinical utility of SPARC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  17. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Background: The purpose of our study was to understand consumers' risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods: One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20–50 years were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results: Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion: A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved

  18. Green lights program in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu [Beijing Energy Efficiency Center (China)

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  19. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  20. Green Driver: Travel Behaviors Revisited on Fuel Saving and Less Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayah Muslim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Road transportation is the main energy consumer and major contributor of ever-increasing hazardous emissions. Transportation professionals have raised the idea of applying the green concept in various areas of transportation, including green highways, green vehicles and transit-oriented designs, to tackle the negative impact of road transportation. This research generated a new dimension called the green driver to remediate urgently the existing driving assessment models that have intensified emissions and energy consumption. In this regard, this study aimed to establish the green driver’s behaviors related to fuel saving and emission reduction. The study has two phases. Phase one involves investigating the driving behaviors influencing fuel saving and emission reduction through a systematic literature review and content analysis, which identified twenty-one variables classified into four clusters. These clusters included the following: (i FEf1, which is driving style; (ii FEf2, which is driving behavior associated with vehicle transmission; (iii FEf3, which is driving behavior associated with road design and traffic rules; and (iv FEf4, which is driving behavior associated with vehicle operational characteristics. The second phase involves validating phase one findings by applying the Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM method. The results of GGDM have established seventeen green driving behaviors. The study conducted the Green Value (GV analysis for each green behavior on fuel saving and emission reduction. The study found that aggressive driving (GV = 0.16 interferes with the association between fuel consumption, emission and driver’s personalities. The research concludes that driver’s personalities (including physical, psychological and psychosocial characteristics have to be integrated for advanced in-vehicle driver assistance system and particularly, for green driving accreditation.

  1. Intelligence in the power grid and services to the consumers. Issue paper - working group 4; Denmark. Smart Grid Network; Intelligens i el-nettet og serviceydelser til forbrugerne. Issue paper, arbejdsgruppe 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsen, B.O. (Solar Danmark A/S, Vejen (Denmark)); Hauge, B. (IT-Branchen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Strunge, C. (Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark)) (and others)

    2011-07-01

    The Smart Grid Network was established in 2010 by the Danish climate and energy minister tasked with developing recommendations for future actions and initiatives that make it possible to handle up to 50% electricity from wind energy in the power system in 2020. The task of working group 4 was to investigate what it takes to involve consumers in smart grid and how to create good conditions for new services related to smart grid. Against this background, the working group agreed the following recommendations: 1) Enhance consumer engagement. A prerequisite for electricity customers becoming involved in smart grid is that they have awareness and knowledge about the smart grid and their own possibilities for action in relation thereto. Therefore it is important that concepts such as smart grid and flexible electricity consumption gradually become popular among electric customers; 2) Minimize the risk. In order to promote electric customers' and other stakeholders' participation in the smart grid, the risk of this participation must be minimized. It is therefore recommended to enhance the skills of the professionals and to establish a common framework for security; 3) Make it easier to create new services. Part of the potential of smart grid can be realized through new services such as delivery of flexible electricity consumption for electric cars and heat pumps and the resale of local power generation at the customer. To facilitate the conditions for these services, the working group recommends that better access to relevant data is created, that the interoperability of smart grid solutions is strengthened, that requirements for buildings are made, that it is made easier to be an aggregator, and that test and inspiration laboratories for small and medium enterprises in the smart grid area are established. (LN)

  2. Consuming insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Nanna; van Huis, A.

    2017-01-01

    as a part of a varied diet. They also have the potential to provide bioactive compounds that have health benefits beyond simple nutritional values, as is the case for other food groups such as fruits and vegetables. Various recent studies have indicated such bioactivity in different insect species....... The enormous number of edible insect species may be a source of novel bioactive compounds with health benefits addressing global health challenges. However, any identified health benefits need to be confirmed in human studies or in standardised assays accepted in health research prior to making health claims....

  3. A market for green certificates may cause less green electricity to be produced

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugneland, Petter

    2004-01-01

    The Norwegian government wants to establish in 2006 a market for trading with green certificates which will be issued to producers of new renewable electricity. These certificates will be sold to the consumers, which will be instructed to by a certain amount of green electricity. In 2005 a market will be established for trading with emission quotas of greenhouse gases; in this market, power producers and other industry that emits greenhouse gases must buy emission permits. Some experts, however, say that a market for trading with green certificates may at worst give less production of green electricity, counter to the intention. But a quota system may indirectly increase the production of green electricity, and at the same time one avoids many of the inconveniences involved in a green certificate market

  4. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  5. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  6. Green urbanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Fikfak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.

  7. Does willingness to pay for green energy differ by source?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchers, Allison M.; Duke, Joshua M.; Parsons, George R.

    2007-01-01

    We present the findings of a choice experiment designed to estimate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for voluntary participation in green energy electricity programs. Our model estimates WTP for a generic 'green energy' source and compares it to WTP for green energy from specific sources, including wind, solar, farm methane, and biomass. Our results show that there exists a positive WTP for green energy electricity. Further, individuals have a preference for solar over a generic green and wind. Biomass and farm methane are found to be the least preferred sources

  8. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  9. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  10. Profile of organic food consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranjac Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prove that profile of organic food consumers is dependent on their socio-demographic characteristics as well as to shape universal organic food consumer profile. The survey included 398 consumers in Serbia. Results indicate existence of typical consumer's profile. The findings could be generalized proving that socio-demographic profiles in a larger population are strictly related to the decision to utilize organic food. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes can help all of them to play more active role in this supply chain. It should stimulate the personalized approach to the particular groups of consumers based on socio-demographic characteristics in order to intensify consumption of organic food and to create different marketing plans dependent on the particular countries or areas.

  11. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  12. Complex group-I introns in nuclear SSU rDNA of red and green algae: evidence of homing-endonuclease pseudogenes in the Bangiophyceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, P; Huss, V A; Nielsen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    on the complementary strand. A comparison between related group-I introns in the Bangiophyceae revealed homing-endonuclease-like pseudogenes due to frame-shifts and deletions in Porphyra and Bangia. The Scenedesmus and Porphyra introns provide new insights into the evolution and possible novel functions of nuclear...

  13. Marketing strategies - consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.

    1985-01-01

    As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice

  14. Consumer Economics and Consumer Mathematics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…

  15. Online Consumer Ethnocentrism of Danish Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...

  16. The Kubo-Greenwood spin-dependent electrical conductivity of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides and group-IV materials: A Green's function study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    The spin-dependent electrical conductivity of counterparts of graphene, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and group-IV nanosheets, have investigated by a magnetic exchange field (MEF)-induction to gain the electronic transport properties of charge carriers. We have implemented a k.p Hamiltonian model through the Kubo-Greenwood formalism in order to address the dynamical behavior of correlated Dirac fermions. Tuning the MEF enables one to control the effective mass of carriers in group-IV and TMDs, differently. We have found the Dirac-like points in a new quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state at strong MEFs for both structures. For both cases, a broad peak in electrical conductivity originated from the scattering rate and entropy is observed. Spin degeneracy at some critical MEFs is another remarkable point. We have found that in the limit of zero or uniform MEFs with respect to the spin-orbit interaction, the large resulting electrical conductivity depends on the spin sub-bands in group-IV and MLDs. Featuring spin-dependent electronic transport properties, one can provide a new scenario for future possible applications.

  17. A concept mapping study on organic food consumers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasimu, Huliyeti; Marchesini, Sergio; Canavari, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the "Brand concept mapping" method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a "technology advanced" product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  19. Green tea polyphenols provide photoprotection, increase microcirculation, and modulate skin properties of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Ulrike; Moore, Carolyn E; De Spirt, Silke; Tronnier, Hagen; Stahl, Wilhelm

    2011-06-01

    Dietary constituents including polyphenols and carotenoids contribute to endogenous photoprotection and modulate skin characteristics related to structure and function of the tissue. Animal and in-vitro studies indicate that green tea polyphenols affect skin properties. In a 12-wk, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 female volunteers were randomized to an intervention or control group. Participants consumed either a beverage with green tea polyphenols providing 1402 mg total catechins/d or a control beverage. Skin photoprotection, structure, and function were measured at baseline (wk 0), wk 6, and wk 12. Following exposure of the skin areas to 1.25 minimal erythemal dose of radiation from a solar simulator, UV-induced erythema decreased significantly in the intervention group by 16 and 25% after 6 and 12 wk, respectively. Skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density, and water homeostasis. Intake of the green tea polyphenol beverage for 12 wk increased blood flow and oxygen delivery to the skin. Likewise, in a separate, randomized, double-blind, single-dose (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g) study of green tea polyphenols, blood flow was maximized at 30 min after ingestion. In summary, green tea polyphenols delivered in a beverage were shown to protect skin against harmful UV radiation and helped to improve overall skin quality of women.

  20. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  1. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green mindfulness, green self-efficacy, and green performance. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the positive relationship between green transformational leadership and green performance is partially mediated by the two mediators: green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. It means that green transformational leadership can not only directly affect green performance positively but also indirectly affect it positively through green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Therefore, firms need to raise their green transformational leadership, green mindfulness, and green self-efficacy to increase their green performance.

  2. Green shopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    Findings suggesting that consumers buy “green” products, such as organic foods, for selfish reasons are usually accepted at face value. In this article, the author argues that the evidence backing this claim is questionable and that it reflects post hoc rationalizations and self-presentation bias...... at least start to buy these products for unselfish reasons (the common good). However, after having done so, they seem to bolster their beliefs about private benefits to preserve a self-image of being a competent and rational person....

  3. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptance of 140 high-quality extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Popp, Martin; Bongartz, Annette

    2014-08-01

    Sensory analysis is a crucial tool for evaluating the quality of extra virgin olive oils. One aim of such an investigation is to verify if the sensory attributes themselves - which are strictly related to volatile and phenolic compounds - may permit the discrimination of high-quality products obtained by olives of different cultivars and/or grown in various regions. Moreover, a crucial topic is to investigate the interdependency between relevant parameters determining consumer acceptance and objective sensory characteristics evaluated by the panel test. By statistically analysing the sensory results, a grouping - but not discriminatory - effect was shown for some cultivars and some producing areas. The preference map shows that the most appreciated samples by consumers were situated in the direction of the 'ripe fruity' and 'sweet' axis and opposite to the 'bitter' and 'other attributes' (pungent, green fruity, freshly cut grass, green tomato, harmony, persistency) axis. Extra virgin olive oils produced from olives of the same cultivars and grown in the same areas shared similar sensorial attributes. Some differences in terms of expectation and interpretation of sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oils might be present for consumers and panellists: most of the consumers appear unfamiliar with positive sensorial attributes, such as bitterness and pungency. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Green channel cargo inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yuanping; Yu Jingsheng; Sun Hongqiang; Hao Pu; Cai Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    A radiation detection device was installed in the lanes of a highway toll station, radioactive rays which was collimated emitted through the measured, and arrived the detector. The average density of the fresh agricultural products belonged to Green channel and other prohibited items vary greatly, the absorption of radiation are different between the Green Channel Cargo and other substances. Prior to the experimental group, different standard samples which represent different models and goods were measured, the different standard samples were stored in a computer database. When the trucks get through the Green Channel, the detector will detect the radiation signal and bring to the computer, the computer will process the measured data, and make a conclusion whether the goods are Green Channel cargo. (authors)

  5. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Wustenhagen, R.; Aabakken, J.

    2002-04-01

    Green power marketing--the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources--has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. This report reviews green power marketing activity abroad to gain additional perspective on consumer demand and to discern key factors or policies that affect the development of green power markets. The objective is to draw lessons from experience in other countries that could be applicable to the U.S. market.

  6. U-Pb (SHRIMP) and Sm-Nd geochronology of basaltic green schists of the Aracuai orogen: implications for the age of the Macaubas group; Geocronologia U-Pb (SHRIMP) e Sm-Nd de xistos verdes basalticos do orogeno Aracuai: implicacoes para a idade do grupo Macaubas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babinski, Marly [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas]. E-mail: babinski@usp.br; Gradim, Rafael Jaude; Alkmim, Fernando Flecha de [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mails: rafaelgradim@gmail.com; alkmim@degeo.ufop.br; Pedrosa-Soares, Antonio Carlos; Noce, Carlos Mauricio [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Liu, Dunyi [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing (China). Beijing SHRIMP Lab.

    2005-12-15

    The age and stratigraphic position of the basaltic green schists of the Rio Preto valley, located in the western part of the Aracuai Belt (ca. 60 km north of Diamantina, Minas Gerais) were a matter of controversy in the geologic literature, because several authors correlated them to the Neo proterozoic Macaubas Group but others to the lower Espinhaco Supergroup (ca. 1.7 Ga). However, detailed studies demonstrate that these green schists represent an interplay of submarine basaltic volcanism, volcanoclastic sedimentation and fire fountaining, and that they belong to the Chapada Acaua Formation of the Macaubas Group (Gradim et al., 2005). Geochemical studies indicate that the green schist protoliths evolved in a continental intra plate environment. Zircon crystals were separated from a green schist sample and analyzed by the U-Pb SHRIMP method. A Sm-Nd whole-rock isotopic analysis was obtained from the same sample. The Sm- Nd model age of ca. 1.52 Ga suggests that the green schist protoliths are younger than the magmatism of the Espinhaco rift. Most analyzed zircon crystals show features of detrital grains. The older ages indicate zircon grains inherited from the Archean- Paleoproterozoic basement and from magmatic rocks of the Espinhaco rift. The younger U-Pb values constrain the maximum age of the green schist protoliths at ca. 1,16 Ga. (author)

  7. Tactical/Operational Decision Making for Designing Green Logistics Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Mallidis (Ioannis); R. Dekker (Rommert); D. Vlachos (Dimitrios)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractCap and trade regulations along with an increasing consumer and company demand for green products and services constitute two major drivers for motivating corporations to adopt green practices. However, the adoption of such practices usually increases their operational costs. Therefore,

  8. Predicting women purchase intention for green food products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Sudiyanti, Sudiyanti

    2009-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2009 This study investigated the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior in predicting women consumers on their intention towards purchasing green food products among 406 participants. Using linear regression, five independent variables had been examined: attitude towards green food products, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and perceived difficulty in predicting purchase intention. The ...

  9. Reduction of greening in potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, R.V.; Thomas, A.C.; Brodrick, H.T.

    1976-01-01

    Potatoes which are exposed to light gradually turn green at the surface due to the formation of chlorophyll. Since these potatoes are unattractive to the consumer, various methods have been used to delay the rate of greening. This paper describes a method whereby potatoes were irradiated within one week of harvest and then exposed to continuous fluorescent light

  10. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  11. Made with Renewable Energy: How and Why Companies are Labeling Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker Brannan, D.; Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-03-01

    Green marketing--a marketing strategy highlighting the environmental attributes of a product, often through the use of labels or logos--dates back to the 1970s. It did not proliferate until the 1990s, however, when extensive market research identified a rapidly growing group of consumers with a heightened concern for the environment. This group expressed not only a preference for green products but also a willingness to pay a premium for such products. The response was a surge in green marketing that lasted through the early 1990s. This report discusses the experience of companies that communicate to consumers that their products are 'made with renewable energy.' For this report, representatives from 20 companies were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences marketing products produced using renewable energy. The first half of this report provides an overview of the type of companies that have labeled products or advertised them as being made with renewable energy. It also highlights the avenues companies use to describe their use of renewable energy. The second half of the report focuses on the motivations for making on-product claims about the use of renewable energy and the challenges in doing so.

  12. Cellulose bearing Schiff base and carboxylic acid chelating groups: a low cost and green adsorbent for heavy metal ion removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, R; Ravikumar, L

    2016-10-01

    Chemically modified cellulose bearing metal binding sites like Schiff base and carboxylic acid groups was synthesized and characterized through Fourier transform infrared and solid state 13 C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The chemically modified cellulose (Cell-PA) adsorbent was examined for its metal ion uptake ability for Cu(II) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out under optimum conditions. Pseudo-second-order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm fit well with the experimental data. Thermodynamic studies were also performed along with adsorption regeneration performance studies. The adsorbent (Cell-PA) shows high potential for the removal of Cu(II) and Pb(II) metal ions, and it shows antibacterial activity towards selected microorganisms.

  13. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  14. Green tea and its major polyphenol EGCG increase the activity of oral peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narotzki, Baruch; Levy, Yishai; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-01-01

    Oral peroxidases (OPO) consist mainly of salivary peroxidase and myeloperoxidase and are involved in oral defense mechanisms. Salivary peroxidase is synthesized and secreted by salivary glands, whereas myeloperoxidase is found in polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which migrate into the oral cavity at gingival crevices. Green tea is the world's second most popular drink after water. Polyphenols are the most biologically active group of tea components. The purpose of our study was to elucidate the interaction between green tea & EGCG (Epigallocatechin 3-gallate), its main polyphenol and OPO. In previous studies we have shown that elderly trained people who drink green tea for 3 months, have a higher level of OPO activity compared to non-drinkers. Thus, we decided to extend our project in order to understand the above observations by studying the interaction of green tea and OPO both in vitro and in vivo. Addition of green tea and black tea infusions (50 μl/ml) and EGCG (50 μM) to saliva, resulted in a sharp rise of OPO activity +280% (p = 0.009), 54% (p = 0.04) and 42% (p = 0.009), respectively. The elevation of OPO activity due to addition of green tea and EGCG was in a dose dependent manner: r = 0.91 (p = 0.001) and r = 0.637 (p = 0.019), respectively. Also, following green tea infusion mouth rinsing, a rise of OPO activity was observed: +268% (p = 0.159). These results may be of great clinical importance, as tea consumer's oral epithelium may have better protection against the deleterious effects of hydroxyl radicals, produced by not removed hydrogen peroxides in the presence of metal ions. Higher OPO activity upon green tea drinking may provide an extra protection against oxidative stress in the oral cavity.

  15. The green building envelope : Vertical greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottelé, M.

    2011-01-01

    Planting on roofs and façades is one of the most innovative and fastest developing fields of green technologies with respect to the built environment and horticulture. This thesis is focused on vertical greening of structures and to the multi-scale benefits of vegetation. Vertical green can improve

  16. Green brand awareness and customer purchase intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Braimah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Green environmental issues have been of topical interest to both researchers and industrialists for some time now. Research on green brands is relatively limited, especially in developing countries, such as Ghana. This study is therefore designed to determine the relationship between customer awareness of green brand issues and their everyday purchase intentions. Using quantitative techniques, the study interviewed 316 people, conveniently selected from various shopping points in Accra. The study found that, the overwhelming majority of respondents though familiar with green issues did not concern themselves with green issues in their everyday purchase decisions. Again, majority of respondents (54% familiar with environmental issues confirmed they would not switch from their preferred brands to less fancied brands even if the less fancied brands were more environmentally friendly. It was also confirmed in the study that price, brand name and convenience, performed better than customer concerns for green issues, in influencing respondents’ purchase decisions. It would therefore be strategically significance if advocates, policy makers and business leaders reduce the cost of green products to the final consumer, intensive public education campaigns, coupled with strategic brand building efforts to enhance the level of green brand consumption.

  17. How Green is 'Green' Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Luke; Wilman, Elspeth N; Laurance, William F

    2017-12-01

    Renewable energy is an important piece of the puzzle in meeting growing energy demands and mitigating climate change, but the potentially adverse effects of such technologies are often overlooked. Given that climate and ecology are inextricably linked, assessing the effects of energy technologies requires one to consider their full suite of global environmental concerns. We review here the ecological impacts of three major types of renewable energy - hydro, solar, and wind energy - and highlight some strategies for mitigating their negative effects. All three types can have significant environmental consequences in certain contexts. Wind power has the fewest and most easily mitigated impacts; solar energy is comparably benign if designed and managed carefully. Hydropower clearly has the greatest risks, particularly in certain ecological and geographical settings. More research is needed to assess the environmental impacts of these 'green' energy technologies, given that all are rapidly expanding globally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Monitoring of PAEMs and beta-agonists in urine for a small group of experimental subjects and PAEs and beta-agonists in drinking water consumed by the same subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yang, Gordon C C; Wang, Chih-Lung; Chiu, Yu-Han

    2014-07-30

    This 5-month study contains two parts: (1) to monitor the concentrations of 11 phthalate esters metabolites (PAEMs) and two beta-agonists in human urine samples collected from a small group of consented participants including 16 females and five males; and (2) to analyze the residues of phthalate esters (PAEs) and beta-agonists in various categories of drinking water consumed by the same group of subjects. Each category of human urine and drinking water had 183 samples of its own. The analytical results showed that nine PAEMs were detected in human urine and eight PAEs were detected in drinking water samples. It was found that average concentrations of PAEMs increased as the age increased, but no significant difference between sexes. Further, using the principal component analysis, the loadings of age effect were found to be two times greater than that of gender effect in terms of four DEHP metabolites. Regarding beta-agonists of concern (i.e., ractopamine and salbutamol), they were neither detected in human urine nor drinking water samples in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis the Effect of Enviromental Concern and Green Advertising to Green Purchasing in Palembang City

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Zakaria; Tama, Rio Adistia; Shihab, Muchsin Saggaf; Widad, Achmad; Nofiawaty, Nofiawaty; Diah, Yuliansyah M

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of environmental concern and green advertising to consumer behavior in purchasing green products (environmentally friendly bag). The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to 200 respondents which already have purchase and know about new government regulations that require to buy a plastic bag that used in large retail. This study conducted in some major retail in Palembang (Hypermart, Diamond, and Carrefour). This study uses Structural Equa...

  20. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  1. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  2. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  3. Going Green in Business - A Study on the Eco-friendly Initiatives towards Sustainable Development in India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep M. D

    2017-01-01

    Increasing awareness on the various environmental problems has led to a shift in consumer behaviour. There has been a change in consumer attitude towards a green lifestyle. Thus green Marketing has evolved special implications in the modern market. Green indicates purity through quality, fairness in price and worthy in dealings. Green marketing focuses on marketing eco-friendly products to satisfy the needs and wants of the customers. It adopts innovative techniques of product modification, d...

  4. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  5. No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

  6. Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansla, Andre; Gamble, Amelie; Juliusson, Asgeir; Gaerling, Tommy [Department of Psychology, Goeteborg University, P.O. Box 500, SE-40530 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2008-02-15

    The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcendent value types. (author)

  7. Psychological determinants of attitude towards and willingness to pay for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansla, Andre; Gamble, Amelie; Juliusson, Asgeir; Gaerling, Tommy

    2008-01-01

    The results of a mail survey of 855 Swedish household consumers showed that willingness to pay for green electricity increased with a positive attitude towards green electricity and decreased with electricity costs. Attitude towards green electricity was in turn related to awareness of consequences of environmental problems for oneself, others, and the biosphere, concerns for these consequences, and self-transcedent value types

  8. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  9. Consumer segmentation based on the level of environmental responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ham

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Doubtless, there is an environmentally responsible segment of consumers in the market. However, with an increasing number of suppliers entering the green market, it is no longer sufficient to be aware of this fact. What is needed now are complex strategies of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The aim of this paper was to provide a theoretical framework for understanding the key concepts related to the green consumer segment and to help create a clearer picture of Croatia’s green consumers by gathering secondary data from the available literature, previous research and primary data from own research. Primary research was conducted by means of a structured questionnaire on a sample of 552 respondents. The questionnaire was divided into three parts, each measuring, respectively, attitudes, knowledge and activities undertaken. After the segmentation (three segments: green, neutral and brown consumers, a chi-square test was used in an attempt to prove statistically significant differences when comparing the given segment structure with the respondents’ demographic characteristics. The results of this research describe the average green consumer in the Republic of Croatia as a person who is 55 and older, with higher or university education, who is married, who responds to the advertising claims about eco-friendliness of products and is influenced by those claims, who occasionally or frequently makes purchasing decisions and shows readiness to pay a 20 percent mark-up for an environmentally friendly product.

  10. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  11. Online Consumer Trust: Trends in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Bauman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the literature review of studies published in 2004-2014 (Web 2.0 period in the area of consumer online trust. Based on the content analysis of 138 papers, this study highlights three major research themes: (1 trust models, (2 technological, and (3 social factors impacting online trust. It also explores topics in each major theme found in direct studies of online consumer trust. Since this literature review uses the concept-centric approach, it points out not only the major trends in research but also three understudied areas: (1 green trust, (2 trust recovery, and (3 the role of ethics in developing online trust.

  12. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... staff relies on its expert judgment about consumer behavior, perceptions, and similar information... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION [Docket No. CPSC-2010-0046] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus Groups AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...

  13. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  14. Do green products make us better people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar, Nina; Zhong, Chen-Bo

    2010-04-01

    Consumer choices reflect not only price and quality preferences but also social and moral values, as witnessed in the remarkable growth of the global market for organic and environmentally friendly products. Building on recent research on behavioral priming and moral regulation, we found that mere exposure to green products and the purchase of such products lead to markedly different behavioral consequences. In line with the halo associated with green consumerism, results showed that people act more altruistically after mere exposure to green products than after mere exposure to conventional products. However, people act less altruistically and are more likely to cheat and steal after purchasing green products than after purchasing conventional products. Together, our studies show that consumption is connected to social and ethical behaviors more broadly across domains than previously thought.

  15. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  16. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kaiser, Marshall [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  17. Green industrial policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2014-01-01

    Green growth requires green technologies: production techniques that economize on exhaustible resources and emit fewer greenhouse gases. The availability of green technologies both lowers social costs in the transition to a green growth path and helps achieve a satisfactory rate of material progress under that path. The theoretical case in favour of using industrial policy to facilitate green growth is quite strong. Economists’ traditional scepticism on industrial policy is grounded instead o...

  18. Green paper with green electricity? Greening strategies of Nordic pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkanen, Jyrki

    2003-01-01

    The article studies the opinions of paper producers in Finland and Norway and Finnish power producers about the eco-labelling of electricity and its possible effects on pulp and paper industry. The point of departure in the study is how large industrial consumers mediate concerns of environmental issues to the producers. Based on interviews of environmental, energy/power and marketing sector representatives of the companies the article analyses different views related to the criteria of green labelling, green electricity and papermaking, energy sources as image sources, environmental image of papermaking and the threats and opportunities the companies face in the changing international context. The analysis of the interviews is contextualised in the endogenous market based regulation framework of electricity market regulation

  19. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balde, K.; Boelens, A.; Brinksma, E.; Edens, B.; Hiethaar, S.; Klein, P.; Schenau, S.

    2011-04-01

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  20. Green chemistry at work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frost, J. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The 1.7 billion pounds of benzene produced each year in the US provide one measure of its utility. At the same time, there are a number of environmental reasons for avoiding the use of benzene in chemical manufacture. Perhaps most compelling: benzene is a potent carcinogen. Scrutiny of many of the chemicals derived from benzene reveals that each molecule contains at least one oxygen atom while benzene completely lacks oxygen atoms. Introduction of oxygen to make up for this lack can require processes that are environmentally problematic. One of the steps used to introduce oxygen atoms during manufacture of adipic acid, a component of Nylon 66, is responsible for 10% of the annual global increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. This by-product is a causative agent of atmospheric ozone depletion and has been implicated in global warming. With support from EPA and the National Science Foundation, alternative manufacturing processes are being explored. By these new methods, chemicals usually created from benzene are made instead from nontoxic glucose, a component of table sugar. Unlike benzene, glucose is obtained from such renewable resources as plant starch and cellulose. ``Green`` manufacturing routes ideally should lead to chemicals that are economically competitive with chemicals produced by traditional methods. For two chemicals of roughly comparable cost, the consumer or producer can then be realistically expected to choose in favor of the chemical produced by a ``green`` process. Projections indicate that catechol and hydroquinone can be biocatalytically produced from glucose at a cost competitive with current market prices. Synthesis of chemicals from glucose using biocatalysis offers the premise of achieving fundamental environmental improvement while increasing the demand for agricultural products. In the final analysis, what is good for the environment can also be good for American agriculture.

  1. Consumers’ Attitudes towards Green Food production in China: A test of the values-attitudes hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G.; Krystallis, Athanasios; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Green food is perceived by Chinese consumers as environmentally friendly and safe to consume. Through a hierarchical values-attitudes model, the paper examines the degree to which attitudes towards green food is determined by consumers’ values and their general attitudes towards environment and nature and technological progress. The link between collectivism, attitudes towards environment and nature, and attitudes towards green food is the strongest link of the hierarchical model. However, co...

  2. Sailing green : a protection motivation analysis of green consumption choices in China

    OpenAIRE

    Hellen, Sondre; Falkner, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Masteroppgave(MSc) in Master of Science in Strategic Marketing Management - Handelshøyskolen BI, 2017 Many Chinese consumers experience environmental problems like air and water pollution first-hand - does that lead them to making greener consumption choices? We aim to show the suitability of Protection Motivation Theory for such environmental research and to increase the understanding of how Chinese consumers perceive green product attributes. In particular, this research exam...

  3. Cheat Electricity? The Political Economy of Green Electricity Delivery on the Dutch Market for Households and Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. M. Hufen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission’s renewable energy directive introduced a market-based Guarantees of Origin (GO-trade system that gives consumers the choice of buying “real” green energy. This has been successful, as the market share of Dutch households that buy green energy grew to 64% in 2015. However, societal organizations are dissatisfied with the green energy offered, categorizing it as “cheat” electricity. This article aims to solve this riddle of a successful product created under the GO-trade system but also heavily criticized. Research reveals a lively marketplace with buyers eager to buy green energy and energy producers offering a wide range of labels. Marketplace mechanisms are strongly influenced by political choices, and financial support for energy suppliers makes green energy a credible option. Societal groups, however, argue that the information provided is incomplete and misleading, that buying green energy does not impact positively on greenhouse gas reduction, and that better information and structural reform are required. The GO-trade system is strongly influenced by member states’ national energy politics. Societal organizations have helped to optimize the implementation of the GO-trade system in the Netherlands, but they are not expected to be able to support the creation of a level playing field in which an optimal GO-trade system will flourish.

  4. Analisis Pengaruh Green Product dan Green Advertising terhadap Keterlibatan Konsumen dan Dampaknya pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen Laksmie Florist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjung Desy Nursanti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Marketing-oriented concept of community not only relies on community needs, but also can bring prosperity through environmental responsibility around; in this case the product and the marketing are more environmentally friendly. Application of green products and green advertising might attract widespread public sympathy, and even requirements for operational permits, production and ease of obtaining bank credit facility or tax relief may be considered by the government that is now more incentive to campaign for the concept and implementation of policies and regulations of corporate social responsibility. The objectives of this study was to determine whether there is influence of green product and green advertising toward consumer involvement and also its impact on consumer purchasing decisions Laksmi florist company. A survey with analysis of individual consumer of Lakmi florist is conducted, while path analysis is used to determine the effect among variables. The results showed that green advertising as well as green product provide a positive and significant influence on consumer involvement that have an impact on consumer purchasing decisions of Laksmi Florist company. 

  5. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R. (LBL); Fang, J.; Porter, K.; Houston, A. (NREL)

    1999-02-26

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted.

  6. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Porter; Ryan Wiser

    1999-01-01

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted

  7. Comparative analysis of nanotechnology awareness in consumers and experts in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Gyeonggi, South Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: This study examined the need for public communication about nanotechnologies and nanoparticles by providing a comparative analysis of the differences in risk awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles between consumers and experts. Methods: A total of 1,007 consumers and 150 experts participated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared examining their awareness of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials and their view of the necessity for information and education about the latest nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Results: Our results indicated that the expert group recognized that they knew more than consumers about nanotechnology and that there was a need for relevant education in nanotechnology and nanomaterials among consumers. We found that the consumer group had a more positive attitude toward nanotechnology, even though they did not know much about it. Moreover, the consumer group was inconclusive about the type of information on nanotechnology deemed necessary for the public, as well as the suitable party to be responsible for education

  8. Green Care Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone R. de Bruin PhD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the value of day services at green care farms (GCFs in terms of social participation for people with dementia. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with people with dementia who attended day services at a GCF (GCF group, n = 21, were on a waiting list (WL for day services at a GCF (WL group, n = 12, or attended day services in a regular day care facility (RDCF group, n = 17 and with their family caregivers. Results: People with dementia in the GCF and WL group were primarily males, with an average age of 71 and 76 years, respectively, who almost all had a spousal caregiver. People with dementia in the RDCF group were mostly females with an average age of 85 years, most of whom had a non-spousal caregiver. For both the GCF and RDCF groups, it was indicated that day services made people with dementia feel part of society. The most important domains of social participation addressed by RDCFs were social interactions and recreational activities. GCFs additionally addressed the domains “paid employment” and “volunteer work.” Conclusion: GCFs are valuable in terms of social participation for a particular group of people with dementia. Matching characteristics of adult day services (ADS centers to the preferences and capacities of people with dementia is of importance. Diversity in ADS centers is therefore desirable.

  9. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other

  10. Green corridors basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagakos, George

    2016-01-01

    SuperGreen project, which aimed at advancing the green corridor concept through a benchmarking exercise involving Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). The chapter discusses the available definitions of green corridors and identifies the characteristics that distinguish a green corridor from any other...... efficient surface transportation corridor. After providing examples of green corridor projects in Europe, it focuses on the KPIs that have been proposed by various projects for monitoring the performance of a freight corridor. Emphasis is given to the SuperGreen KPIs, covering the economic, technical...

  11. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  12. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  13. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  14. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Youths’ Green Information and Communications Technology Acceptance and Implications for the Innovation Decision Process

    OpenAIRE

    Thongmak, Mathupayas

    2016-01-01

    ‘Green’ is the trendy word that people pay attention to it. Green ICT is currently highlighted to be an important strategic technology due to its various benefits in terms of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, lowering electricity costs, nurturing corporate images, etc. However, the adoption of green ICT products or services is not prevalent, especially in developing countries. Green consumers, particularly young people, are the key to build the success of the green ICT adoption. Thus, applyi...

  16. A Behavioral Approach to Understanding Green Consumerism Using Latent Class Choice Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo

    on individuals' environmental attitudes and values. Consumer involvement and environmental attitudes contribute significantly toward explaining sustainable choices, suggesting that greater consumer involvement may be targeted by policy makers and firms to more effectively nudge consumers toward green consumerism......To better understand motivations of consumers making choices among sustainability-labeled food products, this paper analyzes drivers of stated choices for a dietary staple labeled with carbon and water foodprints. Latent class modeling of survey responses reveals distinct consumer segments based...

  17. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  18. Impulsive consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...

  19. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  20. Consumer Directed Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    John Goodman

    2006-01-01

    Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...

  1. Antidepressant-like effects of young green barley leaf (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the mouse forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Nakayama, Noriyuki; Shimada, Maki; Bi, Yuanyuan; Fukata, Hideki; Ueno, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Young green barley leaf is one of the richest sources of antioxidants and has been widely consumed for health management in Japan. In this study, we examined whether oral administration of young green barley leaf has an antidepressant effect on the forced swimming test in mice. Mice were individually forced to swim in an open cylindrical container, one hour after oral administration of young green barley leaf (400 or 1000 mg / kg) or imipramine (100 mg / kg). Expression of mRNA for nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and glucocorticoid receptor in the brain was analyzed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was a significant antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test; both 400 and 1000 mg / kg young green barley leaves, as well as the positive control imipramine (100 mg / kg), reduced the immobility duration compared to the vehicle group. The expression of mRNA for NGF detected in the hippocampus immediately after the last swimming test was higher than that in the non-swimming group (Nil). Oral administration of imipramine suppressed this increase to the level of the Nil group. Young green barley leaf (400 and 1000 mg / kg) also showed a moderate decrease in the expression of mRNA for NGF, in a dose-dependent manner. Oral administration of young green barley leaf is able to produce an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test. Consequently it is possible that the antidepressant-like effects of the young green barley leaf are, at least in part, mediated by an inhibition of the increase in the hippocampus levels of NGF.

  2. Informing Consumers About Themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Bar-Gill (Oren)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws

  3. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  4. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  5. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  6. Antibodies 'green' against aflatoxins for consumer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capodicasa, Cristina; Catellani, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Among the natural toxins that can contaminate products food or feed intended for animal, a particular concern is aroused by mycotoxins. They are toxic substances produced as secondary metabolites, in appropriate conditions micro climate, mainly by members of fungi the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. The attention paid to these contaminants is justified from the serious effects (teratogenic, carcinogenic, estrogen, neurotoxic and immunosuppression) on health of humans and animals resulting from their intake through food. The Laboratory of Biotechnology Biotechnology Division and agro-industry, at the Research Center Casaccia, has been engaged for years in antibody production in alternative systems to animal cells, such as plants for various applications, the biomedical field to the food industry. Me.Di.T.A. the project under (Methodologies Diagnostic and Advanced Technologies for the quality and the safety of food of the South of Italy), in particular, they have been isolated antibody to develop a diagnostic assay for quantification of aflatoxins in food matrices. [it

  7. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  8. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  9. Analysis The Effect Of Enviromental Concern And Green Advertising To Green Purchasing In Palembang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Wahab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of environmental concern and green advertising to consumer behavior in purchasing green products (environmentally friendly bag. The study was conducted by distributing questionnaires to 200 respondents which already have purchase and know about new government regulations that require to buy a plastic bag that used in large retail. This study conducted in some major retail in Palembang (Hypermart, Diamond, and Carrefour. This study uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with AMOS program to analyze the data. The results showed that green advertising significantly influence behavior change and environmental concerns significantly influence purchase decisions with the effect of changes in consumer behavior on purchasing decisions by 74.0 % and the balance of 26.0 % is the influence of other factors not examined in this research.

  10. Learning in Advance Selling with Heterogeneous Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Loginova; X. Henry Wang; Chenhang Zeng

    2012-01-01

    The advance selling strategy is implemented when a firm offers consumers the opportunity to order its product in advance of the regular selling season. Advance selling reduces uncertainty for both the firm and the buyer and enables the firm to update its forecast of future demand. The distinctive feature of the present study of advance selling is that we divide consumers into two groups, experienced and inexperienced. Experienced consumers know their valuations of the product in advance, whil...

  11. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  12. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  13. Tribal Green Building Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Toolkit (Toolkit) is designed to help tribal officials, community members, planners, developers, and architects develop and adopt building codes to support green building practices. Anyone can use this toolkit!

  14. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  15. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  16. Blue-Green Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taking a specific blue-green algae product (Super Blue-Green Algae, Cell Tech, Klamath Falls, OR) ... system. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Depression. Digestion. Heart disease. Memory. Wound healing. Other conditions. More evidence is needed ...

  17. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  18. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  19. Green power marketing in retail competition: an early assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.; Porter, K.; Fang, J.

    1999-01-01

    With retail competition being introduced throughout the United States, green power marketing offers the promise of customer-driven markets for renewable energy. This paper summarizes early experience with green marketing under full retail competition. We conclude that (1) niche markets exist today among residential and non-residential consumers for green power; (2) green demand may ultimately offer an important strategic market for renewable technologies, but the market is currently rather small and the long-term prospects remain uncertain; (3) the success of green markets will depend critically on the regulatory rules established at the onset of restructuring; and (4) the biomass industry will be forced to better communicate the environmental benefits of its technology in order to play a strong role within the green market. This paper is based on a more detailed NREL Topical Issues Brief, which is available on the Internet. (author)

  20. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  1. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  2. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  3. Show Me the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  4. Green roof Malta

    OpenAIRE

    Gatt, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In Malta, buildings cover one third of the Island, leaving greenery in the dirt track. Green roofs are one way to bring plants back to urban areas with loads of benefits. Antoine Gatt, who manages the LifeMedGreenRoof project at the University of Malta, tells us more. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/green-roof-malta/

  5. EPA's Green Roof Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  6. In the Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  7. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  9. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuexian; Zheng, Haidong

    2017-12-13

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower). The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator's profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator's environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator's environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm's green investment.

  10. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexian Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents’ behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower. The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator’s profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator’s environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator’s environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm’s green investment.

  11. Green Transformational Leadership and Green Performance: The Mediation Effects of Green Mindfulness and Green Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Shan Chen; Ching-Hsun Chang; Yu-Hsien Lin

    2014-01-01

    No prior literature explores the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance, thus, this study develops a novel research framework to fill the research gap. This study investigates the influence of green transformational leadership on green performance and discusses the mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). The results indicate that green transformational leadership positively influences green min...

  12. Perspectives for hydropower in Switzerland - The chances offered by Green Power; Perspektiven fuer die Wasserkraftwerke in der Schweiz. Die Chancen des Oekostrommarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreng, D.; Wuestenhagen, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Truffer, B. [Eidgenoessische Anstalt fuer Wasserversorgung, Abwasserreinigung und Gewaesserschutz (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the question if the marketing of 'green' power, i.e. by marketing power on the basis of its environment-friendly production method, could be a viable way for owners of hydropower plant to assert themselves in a liberalised electricity market. The results of the studies made so far concerning the size of the market for 'green power' are discussed and the various types of customer are looked at, such as environmentally conscious and environmentally active consumers for example. The report presents the results of 11 'focus groups' held in Berne, Zurich and Stuttgart which looked at the consumers' general opinion on green power and their readiness to pay a surcharge for it. The report examines not only the situation in households but also in trade and industry, where the purchase of green power can play a role in environmental certification or be used as part of a company's marketing strategy. Also, the issuing of 'green shares' (sustainable investments) is discussed, which could improve the financial conditions for hydropower companies seeking credit and loans.

  13. Brazilian Consumer views on food irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Landgraf, M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the consumer attitude to food irradiation in São Paulo, Brazil, through a qualitative research perspective. Three focus groups were conducted with 30 consumers, responsible for food choices and purchases. Both irradiated and nonirradiated food samples were served in the

  14. Consumer Demand for Healthy Diet: New Evidence from the Healthy Eating Index

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Zhifeng; Yu, Xiaohua; Lee, Jonq-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A large volume of literature has been focusing on the measure of diet quality and consumer demand for food. However, little has estimated consumer demand for diet quality. In this article, we systematically estimate consumer demand for diet quality using the healthy eating index (HEI) developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The Results show that consumers have insufficient consumption of the food containing dark green, orange vegetable, legumes and total grain. Age and education have...

  15. Green Thunderstorms Observed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Frank W., III; Beasley, William H.; Bohren, Craig F.

    1996-12-01

    Green thunderstorms have been observed from time to time in association with deep convection or severe weather events. Often the green coloration has been attributed to hail or to reflections of light from green foliage on the ground. Some skeptics who have not personally observed a green thunderstorm do not believe that green thunderstorms exist. They suggest that the green storms may be fabrications by excited observers. The authors have demonstrated the existence of green thunderstorms objectively using a spectrophotometer. During the spring and summer of 1995 the authors observed numerous storms and recorded hundreds of spectra of the light emanating corn these storms. It was found that the subjective judgment of colors can vary somewhat between observers, but the variation is usually in the shade of green. The authors recorded spectra of green and nongreen thunderstorms and recorded spectral measurements as a storm changed its appearance from dark blue to a bluish green. The change in color is gradual when observed from a stationary position. Also, as the light from a storm becomes greener, the luminance decreases. The authors also observed and recorded the spectrum of a thunderstorm during a period of several hours as they flew in an aircraft close to a supercell that appeared somewhat green. The authors' observations refute the ground reflection hypothesis and raise questions about explanations that require the presence of hail.

  16. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  17. Consumers' perceptions of preconception health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squiers, Linda; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Levis, Denise M; Lynch, Molly; Dolina, Suzanne; Margolis, Marjorie; Scales, Monica; Kish-Doto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    To inform the development of a preconception health (PCH) social marketing plan, we conducted qualitative research with prospective consumers. We present formative findings based on the four Ps of social marketing: product, price, promotion, and place. We conducted focus groups with 10 groups of women in Atlanta, Georgia, in fall 2010. We classified women aged 18 to 44 into five groups based on their pregnancy plans, and then further segmented the groups based on socioeconomic status for a total of 10 groups. The focus group guide was designed to elicit participants' responses about the product, price, promotion, and placement of PCH. We used NVivo 9 software to analyze focus group data. Women planning a pregnancy in the future had different perspectives on PCH as a product than women not planning a pregnancy. Barriers to PCH included lack of social support, addiction, and lack of awareness about PCH. Participants preferred to think of PCH behaviors as "promoting" a healthy baby rather than preventing an unhealthy birth outcome. Many women in the focus groups preferred to hear PCH messages from a health care provider, among other channels. The results from this research will inform the development of a social marketing plan for PCH and the development of concepts that will be tested with consumers to determine their viability for use in a national campaign.

  18. Green LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulteberg, Christian; Brandin, Jan; Leveau, Andreas (Biofuel-Solution AB, Limhamn (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The use of energy gases with renewable origins will become important with diminishing fossil resources. This as the infrastructure of the gaseous fuels is well built out and the distribution networks already exist. LPG is one of the most versatile fuels around, perfect for rural areas and in many other applications. The fossil origin of the fuel will, in today's climate and environmental debate, however position it as a thing of the past and not part of the future energy supply. The technology and development performed under this and previous programs with the Swedish Gas Centre will however suggest a way to bridge this conception and make LPG a part of the future energy mix. This report constitutes the results from the development performed under the SGC program 210 and is aimed at verifying the results from the previous SGC program 198, proving the concept for producing propane from renewable glycerol. Attractive and potentially profitable LPG premium segments that can be reached by producing bio-propane would be the autogas market. Another attractive segment to target is the outdoor and camping segment, where there already exist awareness for nature and the environment. A third interesting segment is in small-scale heat or combined heat and power generation, where a premium price can be reaped for renewable energy as well as the addition of LPG to biogas. Another important aspect of the renewable LPG is that it motivates external stakeholders, such as local, regional, national and international governments as well as environmental and other lobby groups to consider LPG a part of the future energy mix and not a thing of the past. A good starting point for two and three carbon energy gases is glycerine, with its three carbon backbone. The reason for focusing on glycerine is its benign chemical nature, it is: - Harmless from a toxic standpoint; - Chemically inert; - Non-corrosive; - Relatively high energy density; - Zero carbon dioxide emissions. It is also

  19. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  20. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  1. Nuclear lobby group launches television ad campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power is the green wave of the future, according to a television advertising campaign launched by Canada's nuclear industry and designed to help counter the anti-nuclear messages delivered by groups such as Green peace and Energy Probe

  2. Going green with eco-friendly dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avinash, Bhagyalakshmi; Avinash, B S; Shivalinga, B M; Jyothikiran, S; Padmini, M N

    2013-07-01

    Eco-friendly dentistry is currently transforming the medical and dental field to decrease its affect on our natural environment and reduce the amount of waste being produced. Eco-friendly dentistry uses a sustainable approach to encourage dentists to implement new strategies to try and reduce the energy being consumed and the large amount of waste being produced by the industry. Many reasonable, practical and easy alternatives do exist which would reduce the environmental footprint of a dental office were it to follow the 'green' recommendations. Dentist should take a leading role in the society by implementing 'green' initiatives to lessen their impact on the environment. This article provides a series of 'green' recommendations that dentists around the world can implement to become a leading Stewards of the environment.

  3. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  4. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  5. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  6. The Influence of Green Viral Communications on Green Purchase Intentions: The Mediating Role of Consumers’ Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsiung Chang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to incorporate the diffusion of innovation theory and conformity theory to explain consumers’ green purchase intentions. To this end, a conceptual model has been proposed and subjected to empirical verification with the use of a survey method. Using a sample of Taiwanese consumers who had the actual purchase experience of green detergents, this study employed structural equation modeling to verify the hypothesis proposed. The empirical results suggested that green viral communication was positively related to normative interpersonal influence, informational interpersonal influence and green purchase intention. Informational interpersonal influence also had a positive impact on green purchase intention. However, the relationship between consumer’s normative interpersonal influence and green purchase intention was not supported. Thus, this study concludes that green marketers must strengthen their green viral communications skills to enhance consumers’ purchase intentions. In addition, this study also contributes to the literature by stating that consumers’ susceptibility to informational interpersonal relationships is an important mediator in the green viral communication and green purchase intentions relationship. This study discusses implications of the findings and research limitations at the end of the paper.

  7. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  8. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  9. Modeling of a green certificate market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, O.V.

    2008-01-01

    The paper considers one of the economic mechanisms, stimulating the introduction of renewable energy sources (RES) - a green certificate market. A mathematical model was developed to describe a supply and demand balance in the electricity and green certificate markets simultaneously. The sellers of certificates are RES owners, who obtain certificates for each unit of electricity produced, and the buyers are consumers, who are obliged by law to buy a certain share of this electricity. Equilibrium structures of the power system including RES with stochastic operation conditions are calculated. The prices of electricity and certificates, as well as the total economic effect of the system are determined taking into account external costs (environmental damages). The paper shows that a mechanism of green certificates is not an ideal means for minimizing the impact of energy on the environment: the economic effect turns out to be smaller than the maximum possible one. However, this deviation is relatively small, therefore the green certificate market allows the external effects to be partially taken into account. Such a market creates incentives for investors, electricity producers and consumers to make power sources mix, modes of electricity production and consumption closer to the optimum ones in terms of the economy as a whole. (author)

  10. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Cardinal, K.

    2004-09-01

    Utilities first began offering consumers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the early 1990s. Since then, the number of U.S. utilities offering green pricing programs has steadily grown. Today, more than 500 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or about 16% of all utilities nationally--offer their customers green power options. Because some of these utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other public power entities, the number of distinct programs is slightly more than 100. Through these programs, more than 33 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs, or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers must pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2003 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data provided in this report can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN TO ATTITUDE TOWARDS GREEN PRODUCTS: EVIDENCES FROM INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Danish Kirmani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of environmental concern of consumers with their attitude towards green products and also to identify the predictors of environmental concern. The data was generated from a researcher controlled sample of graduate and post-graduate students enrolled in educational institutions located in the national capital of India (New Delhi and surrounding areas popularly known as National Capital Region (NCR. The data generated was analysed employing Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. The study findings indicate that environmental concern has a significant and positive influence on attitude towards green products. Collectivism and eco-literacy emerged as predictors of the environmental concern of consumers. The findings of this study are expected to enhance the understanding of marketers of the role played by variables such as religiosity, collectivism, eco-literacy, and environmental concern in formation of attitude of consumers towards green products.

  12. GREEN MANAGEMENT: THE REALITY OF BEING GREEN IN BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Ben

    2009-01-01

    Green management and going green are not as clear cut and easy as hyped by the general media. While going ecologically green is indeed beneficial and appropriate, the process and procedure of becoming green is anything but easy. Firstly, turning green is largely not a legal requirement, but a voluntary process. Thus, even though LEED (which is by far the more publicly known green certification standard) governs the certification of the green management effort, it is not a compulsory condition...

  13. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  14. A green hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Woodrow W.; Rifkin, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand

  15. Green Marketing fot Information Technology: Perceptions of it Professionals’ Attitudes and Behaviours and Actions to Increase Green Marketing in this Sector.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Roberto Viana Castro; Luiz Rodrigo Cunha Moura; Nina Rosa da Silveira Cunha; Ruth Rebello Pires

    2016-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness has been deeply affecting consumer behaviour and increasing green marketing importance for organizations. The aim of this study is to analyze the IT professionals (Information Technology) perception about actions related to green marketing (considering environmental issues in all product marketing stages, since production, through the use and disposal by the consumer) and propose socially planned changes so they can maintain or enhance practices related to gr...

  16. Green Economy – A New Dimension of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Mihalcioiu

    2013-01-01

    The “Green Economy” has been recognized by the international community (United Nations) as a key strategic tool for sustainable development. The transition to a green economy must be a task for all countries - for developing but also for developed countries. Economy and consumers should therefore be able to accelerate the economic transformation for their own interests. In developing this concept representatives of business, trade unions and environmental organizations are involved to ensure ...

  17. Green energy in Europe: selling green energy with green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouillet, L.

    2002-01-01

    Sales of green power products are booming in Europe: 50,000 customers in the United Kingdom, 775,000 in the Netherlands and 300,000 in Germany. Laws of physics are however formal: the way in which electricity flows within the grid does not allow suppliers to assure customers that they are directly receiving electricity produced exclusively from renewable energy sources. What are marketers selling their customers then? Laetitia Ouillet, Greenprices, takes a closer look and focuses on the potential of selling green energy in the forms of renewable energy certificates. (Author)

  18. Creating green consumer loyalty; How to strategically market CSR and obtain consumer preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, de M.A.; Zimmermann, K.L.; Danse, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability is an important social theme that is taking on increasing significance in many areas, including the supermarket sector. This report presents the findings of a literature study looking at the opportunities available to supermarkets to gain a preferential position in the eyes of

  19. Consumers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…

  20. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  1. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  2. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  3. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  4. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  5. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  6. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  7. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  8. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    1999-08-18

    For the first time in many decades, consumers are being given a choice of who supplies their electric power and how that power is generated. One of these choices is to support electricity generation from more environmentally beneficial energy sources. The term ''green power'' generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources. By some estimates, nearly one-quarter of all US consumers will have the option to purchase green power by the end of 1999, either from their regulated utility provider or in competitive markets. As of July 1999, consumers can choose to purchase competitively marketed green power in California, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. As competition spreads in the electric power industry, more consumers will have this choice. The purpose of this Information Brief is to provide electric industry analysts with information on green power market trends. Descriptive information on green power marketing activities in both competitive and regulated market settings, as well as other pertinent data and information, are included.

  9. Green power marketing in Canada: the state of the industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogterom, J.J.; McCulloch, M.; Pape-Salmon, A.

    2002-12-01

    The introduction of low-impact renewable energy in Canada's electricity supply is being accomplished using a relatively new, market-based initiative called green power marketing. Consumers now have the option of choosing their electricity supplier in two provinces, as a result of electricity market restructuring in those provinces. In some jurisdictions, green power is being offered at a premium price. Green power options are also available in other jurisdictions through the existing vertically integrated power companies. Green power programs are available to residential and commercial sector consumers in Alberta by ENMAX Energy and EPCOR Energy Services Inc. Prince Edward Island (Maritime Electric Company Ltd.) and Saskatchewan (SaskPower) both offer green power programs. The basis for those programs is specific amounts of electricity purchased. The success of the various programs was examined by the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, based on installed capacity of green power, consumer enrolment, product design, and environmental benefits. This report presented the results of this evaluation. For the purpose of this report, only those programs in place by the end of 2001 were considered. The environmental impacts of new generation technologies that were implemented as a result of green power marketing programs were analyzed. Historical emission data of the primary generation sources was used as a basis for the investigation and the quantification of the benefits in each province, since different types of power generation are used in the provinces. Greenhouse gases, acid deposition precursors, ground-level ozone precursors, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide are the significant emissions avoided through the use of green power. Included in the emissions reduction analysis in each province considered were life cycle emissions from conventional power sources and green power sources. Alberta, Saskatchewan and Prince Edward Island were the provinces

  10. Determinants of green electricity tariff uptake in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, Ronnie; Lange, Ian

    2013-01-01

    A number of countries offer domestic consumers the option of buying their electricity supply through a ‘green tariff’, whereby the supplier typically guarantees that all or part of the supply has been generated using renewable energy sources. Previous studies that have sought to identify variables predicting why consumers choose to purchase a green tariff have utilized surveys specifically about the topic. This study builds on previous work by reviewing the UK market using data from the Understanding Society Survey, a general survey of households which should be free from framing or focalism concerns. In addition, this data includes variables that – to the authors’ knowledge – have not been tested through other work. Results find that individuals in the highest income quartile, those with higher qualifications, those supporting the Green political party, and those exhibiting strong environmental behaviour were all more likely to have purchased green tariffs. Significant to a lesser degree were strong environmental attitudes and those households with some form of renewable energy technology installed. -- Highlights: •Model consumer determinants of the uptake of green tariffs. •Utilize behavioural as well as demographic variables to explain outcome. •Highest income quartile and green behaviours most correlated with outcome

  11. Green growth in fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Ravensbeck, Lars; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    harming the environment. Fishery is an environment-dependent sector and it has been argued that there is no potential for green growth in the sector owing to global overexploitation, leaving no scope for production growth. The purpose of this paper is to explain what green growth is and to develop......Climate change and economic growth have gained a substantial amount of attention over the last decade. Hence, in order to unite the two fields of interest, the concept of green growth has evolved. The concept of green growth focuses on how to achieve growth in environment-dependent sectors, without...... a conceptual framework. Furthermore, the aim is to show that a large green growth potential actually exists in fisheries and to show how this potential can be achieved. The potential green growth appears as value-added instead of production growth. The potential can be achieved by reducing overcapacity...

  12. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  13. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  14. Green electricity buyer's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, B.; Klein, S.; Olivastri, B.

    2002-06-01

    The electricity produced in whole or in large part from renewable energy sources like wind, small hydro electricity and solar energy, is generally referred to as green electricity. The authors designed this buyer's guide to assist customers in their understanding of green electricity, as the customers can now choose their electricity supplier. The considerations and steps involved in the purchasse of green electricity are identified, and advice is provided on ways to maximize the benefits from the purchase of green electricity. In Alberta and Ontario, customers have access to a competitive electricity market. The emphasis when developing this guide was placed firmly on the large buyers, as they can have enormous positive influence on the new market for green electricity. The first chapter of the document provides general information on green electricity. In chapter two, the authors explore the opportunity for environmental leadership. Chapter three reviews the basics of green electricity, which provides the link to chapter four dealing with the creation of a policy. Purchasing green electricity is dealt with in Chapter five, and maximizing the benefits of green electricity are examined in Chapter Six. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  15. The Hybrid Consumer: Exploring the Drivers of a New Consumer Behaviour Type

    OpenAIRE

    Grönroos, Christian; Leppänen, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    A dramatically different consumption pattern seems to be emerging among a vast group of consumers. This may mean that conventional consumer stereotypes and segmentation theory are becoming outdated. The so called hybrid consumers seem to increasingly opt for both premium and budget alternatives in various product and service categories while mid-priced alternatives are losing share in their consumption basket. Although this type of polarisation, or dispersion, is already recognized as an impo...

  16. An alternative green screen keying method for film visual effects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi, Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on a green screen keying method developed especially for film visual effects. There are a series of ways of using existing tools for creating mattes from green or blue screen plates. However, it is still a time-consuming process, and the results vary especially when it comes to retaining tiny details, such as hair and fur. This paper introduces an alternative concept and method for retaining edge details of characters on a green screen plate, also, a number of connected mat...

  17. Consumer Health Informatics Aspects of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Stephen, Remya; Terrill, Bronwyn; Wilson, Brenda; Middleton, Anna; Tytherleigh, Rigan; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Savard, Jacqueline; Hickerton, Chriselle; Newson, Ainsley; Metcalfe, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses consumer health informatics as a framework to explore whether and how direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing can be regarded as a form of information which assists consumers to manage their health. It presents findings from qualitative content analysis of web sites that offer testing services, and of transcripts from focus groups conducted as part a study of the Australian public's expectations of personal genomics. Content analysis showed that service offerings have some features of consumer health information but lack consistency. Focus group participants were mostly unfamiliar with the specifics of test reports and related information services. Some of their ideas about aids to knowledge were in line with the benefits described on provider web sites, but some expectations were inflated. People were ambivalent about whether these services would address consumers' health needs, interests and contexts and whether they would support consumers' health self-management decisions and outcomes. There is scope for consumer health informatics approaches to refine the usage and the utility of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Further research may focus on how uptake is affected by consumers' health literacy or by services' engagement with consumers about what they really want.

  18. Consumer identification with store brands: Differences between consumers according to their brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rubio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retail management of store brands (SBs has focused on achieving positioning in value and creating associations of smart or expert shopping. The result is that value-conscious consumers and market mavens are the main targets of these brands. This study proposes and contrasts empirically a theoretical model of the effect of market mavenism and value consciousness on consumer identification with SBs. We also perform a multi-group analysis based on the consumer tendency to be loyal to the brands he or she buys. Consumers who are loyal to brands are very attractive segments for firms, due to the potential benefits these consumers represent in the long term, whereas consumers with little loyalty to brands can be an attractive segment for potential benefits in the short term. The results obtained in this study show differences between these two groups. For consumers who are loyal to brands, the results stress strong identification with the SB among the most value-conscious consumers, due fundamentally to their greater disagreement with the greater functional risk of these brands as compared to manufacturer brands and due to their greater conviction of the better price-quality ratio of SBs. In consumers with little brand loyalty, we find identification with the SB among the consumers with the greatest market mavenism, as a result of their greater perception of smart or expert shopping for these brands. Significant implications for management are derived from this study.

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.