WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumer safety bill

  1. Consumer Inattention and Bill-Shock Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Grubb

    2015-01-01

    For many goods and services such as electricity, health care, cellular phone service, debit-card transactions, or those sold with loyalty discounts, the price of the next unit of service depends on past usage. As a result, consumers who are inattentive to their past usage but are aware of contract terms may remain uncertain about the price of the next unit. I develop a model of inattentive consumption, derive equilibrium pricing when consumers are inattentive, and evaluate bill-shock regulati...

  2. An assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assesses the perception of billing consumers via analogue meter in Kano Electricity Distribution Plc, Nigeria. Questionnaire survey was used to collect data from the consumers, frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze the generated data. The result of the study revealed that 38% of the Analogue ...

  3. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015: (Lack of) Rights of the Consumer to Terminate Sale Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2015-01-01

    Consumer protection law rests on the foundations of contract law and the law of sale of goods. A consumer law has to conceptually express this foundation and the modifications it is bringing about in these laws. Without this, the law would become unclear, conflicting and confusing. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015 is not secured in its foundation and needs revision. The paper reviews the rights of the consumer to terminate the contract and makes suggestions for revision. The suggestions, wi...

  4. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  5. E-Retailing and the Consumer Protection Bill, 2015: Drawing from the European Union Consumer Directives

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2015-01-01

    E-retailing has exponentially grown in the past decade. Alongside, consumer grievances have also started surfacing. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015 addresses this by giving the right to the consumer to cancel a consumer contract within 30 days. This is called ‘cooling-off’. The provision applies to a sale contract as well as a contract of service. The provision, in its current form, is skeletal, only declaring the right. The right needs to be detailed for it to be functional and effective....

  6. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... communities have frequently bemoaned negative consumer attitudes towards some food technologies, such as genetic engineering, while failing to consider the origins of these consumer attitudes. The behaviour of consumers in relation to food safety issues can only be properly understood if there is systematic...

  7. 77 FR 30915 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... ineffective to prevent cramming and make clear the need for additional protection for consumers. DATES... consumers of this option on their bills, Web sites, and at the point of sale; (2) wireline telephone... carriers and from non-carrier third parties on the payment page of bills. For consumers who do not receive...

  8. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...... for political consumption - rather, food safety calls for reversed political consumption....

  9. an assessment of billing electricity consumers via analogue meters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Electricity supply came into Kano in 1930, with the ... This power station supplied power up to 1968 when Kainji dam ... amount of electric energy supplied to consumers. The ..... projects, invest in transmission capacity building and improve on ...

  10. Safety Hazards of Toy Guns. Hearing on H.R. 3433 and H.R. 4732: Bills To Require Manufacturers of Toy Firearms to Distinctively Mark Them as "Toys," To Ban Realistic Toy Guns from Commerce, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    A hearing was held to review problems posed by realistic toy guns and consider a bill to require manufacturers of toy firearms to distinctively mark the toy firearms as toys and a bill to ban realistic toy guns from commerce. A consumer advocate compared real and toy versions of several guns to demonstrate the difficulty of distinguishing one from…

  11. Consumer Reaction to Beef Safety Scares

    OpenAIRE

    Saghaian, Sayed H.; Reed, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of two beef safety scares on retail-level meat per capita consumption and prices in Japan. The objective is to investigate the Japanese consumer reactions to the news of FMD and BSE discoveries, as reflected in the quantity and price changes in the immediate neighborhood of each event. Better understanding of consumer reactions to beef safety scares helps the beef industry restore consumer confidence after food safety crises and provides opportunities for nation...

  12. Consumer perception of meat quality and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... difficulty in evaluating meat quality, resulting in uncertainty and dissatisfaction, and reveal a need for educating consumers about evaluating eating quality during shopping....

  13. Food safety practices among Norwegian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Lavik, Randi; Ueland, Øydis; Jacobsen, Eivind; Hagtvedt, Therese; Langsrud, Solveig

    2013-11-01

    An informed consumer can compensate for several potential food safety violations or contaminations that may occur earlier in the food production chain. However, a consumer can also destroy the work of others in the chain by poor food handling practices, e.g., by storing chilled ready-to-eat foods at abusive temperatures. To target risk-reducing strategies, consumer groups with high-risk behavior should be identified. The aim of this study was to identify demographic characteristics associated with high-risk food handling practices among Norwegian consumers. More than 2,000 randomly selected Norwegian consumers were surveyed, and the results were analyzed with a risk-based grading system, awarding demerit points for self-reported food safety violations. The violations were categorized into groups, and an ordinary multiple linear regression analysis was run on the summarized demerit score for each group and for the entire survey group as a whole. Young and elderly men were identified as the least informed consumer groups with the most unsafe practices regarding food safety. Single persons reported poorer practices than those in a relationship. People with higher education reported poorer practices than those with lower or no education, and those living in the capital of Norway (Oslo) reported following more unsafe food practices than people living elsewhere in Norway. Men reported poorer food safety practices than women in all categories with two exceptions: parboiling raw vegetables before consumption and knowledge of refrigerator temperature. These findings suggest that risk-reducing measures should target men, and a strategy is needed to change their behavior and attitudes.

  14. Business’ General Responsibility for Consumer Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Corcione

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Businesses obligations towards consumers differ on account of whether it is a quality related problem or a defective or unsafe product one. Once it is determined that a product is unsafe or defective, businesses have the duty to implement a series of actions and to inform the Product Safety Agency, in order to prevent damages to the life, health and/or integrity of consumers. This paper examines measures taken by businesses once they are aware of the risks a defective or unsafe product raises, the consequences of their omission, and the reach of the information duty before the administrative authority in charge of protecting consumer’s rights.

  15. All-Terrain Vehicle Safety. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress. Second Session on H.R. 3991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    Witnesses testified on the merits of the All Terrain Vehicle (ATV) User Safety and Equity Act, a bill that would declare three-wheel ATVs to be banned as hazardous products under the Consumer Product Safety Act, and would direct the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to promulgate consumer product safety rules for ATVs. This act prohibits…

  16. Consumer perceptions of safety in hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Brian J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies investigating adverse events have traditionally been principally undertaken from a medical perspective. The impact that experience of an adverse event has on consumer confidence in health care is largely unknown. The objectives of the study were to seek public opinion on 1 the rate and severity of adverse events experienced in hospitals; and 2 the perception of safety in hospitals, so that predictors of lack of safety could be identified. Methods A multistage, clustered survey of persons residing in South Australia (2001, using household interviews (weighted n = 2,884. Results A total of 67% of respondents aged over forty years reported having at least one member of their household hospitalised in the past five years; with the average being two hospital admissions in five years. Respondents stated that 7.0% (95%CI: 6.2% to 7.9% of those hospital admissions were associated with an adverse event; 59.7% of respondents (95% CI: 51.4% to 67.5% rated the adverse event as really serious and 48.5% (95% CI: 40.4% to 56.8% stated prolonged hospitalisation was required as a consequence of the adverse event. Perception of safety in hospitals was largely affected by the experience of an adverse event; really serious events were the most significant predictor of lack of safety in those aged 40 years and over (RR 2.38; p Conclusion The experience of adverse events negatively impacted on public confidence in hospitals. The consumer-reported adverse event rate in hospitals (7.0% is similar to that identified using medical record review. Based on estimates from other studies, self-reported claims of adverse events in hospital by consumers appear credible, and should be considered when developing appropriate treatment regimes.

  17. Consumers' awareness of food safety from shopping to eating

    OpenAIRE

    Hlebec, Valentina; Raspor, Peter; Jevšnik, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of food safety among consumers has various dimensions. Due to a number of food-related incidents and reported outbreaks worldwide, consumer confidence has begun to vacillate. The objective of this quantitative survey (n = 1030) was to determine Slovenian consumersć food safety knowledge and practices during purchase, transportation and storage of food, as well as foodhandling practices at home. The study highlighted gaps in food safety knowledge and some critical safety violations r...

  18. Food safety, consumer trust in livestock farmers and purchase likelihood

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Wallace Man Shek

    2002-01-01

    Food safety is an important issue facing consumers, the food industry and the government. Since consumers cannot themselves easily assess food safety risks, their perception of food safety is in part a matter of trust in the food chain. This study focuses on livestock farmers and investigates the causal relationship between the factors which determine consumer trust regarding food safety and in turn their purchase likelihood. The main research questions are: 1) What are the key...

  19. Consumer Knowledge and Perceptions Towards Food Safety Practices: Implications for Consumer Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Food safety knowledge and perceptions of consumers are important factors in preventing incidence of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this study was to determine consumers’ knowledge and perceptions towards food safety and practices. In particular, this study assessed knowledge level of consumers related to key food safety practices and determined the perceptions of consumers regarding food safety practices in foodservice operations. Additionally, it determined consumers’ ability to observe food safety practices in foodservice operations. Results revealed that, in general, consumers were knowledgeable about food safety but did not understand certain basic processes of food safety, such as handwashing and preventing food safety hazards. This study also found that respondents were concerned about food safety and adhered to foodservice operations’ food safety practices. Implications and recommendations for Extension programming were drawn from study results.

  20. Consumer's Guide to Food Safety: Severe Storms and Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer's Guide to Food Safety: Severe Storms and Hurricanes Note: This text-only version of the Guide ... Contacts for Areas Affected by Severe Storms and Hurricanes FOOD SAFETY DURING AN EMERGENCY Did you know ...

  1. A monitor for consumer confidence in the safety of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that in the developed countries food safety standards are higher than ever, food safety incidents continue to occur frequently. The accumulation of food safety incidents might affect general consumer confidence in the safety of food. Therefore, in this thesis, the concept of general

  2. [Consumer expectations for livestock farming and food safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchers, C B

    2003-08-01

    Food safety optimization measures neglect the consumers' psychological requirements. To avoid guilt--delight-discords, problems of livestock farming are not registered in the first place. Food checks at the purchase are felt to be a matter of the consumer's own competence, using his five senses and primarily seen as a tasting test. Market mechanisms supply additional safety in the background. Consumer behavior in acute crises must be seen from the point of protective magie. Governmental pre-tests raise doubts on the consumer's shopping competence, they are felt to be insulting and unreliable. Certificates and quality seals only stand a chance as complimentary service to the consumer's own competence.

  3. Consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Frewer, Lynn J.

    2006-01-01

    and behaviour. Second, this chapter aims at presenting selected cases about consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain. Topical cases include discussions on microbiological risk (food poisoning), on chemical risk (Coca-Cola), physical risk (GM food), BSE and the role of traceability and labelling......Introduction: The aim of this section is to describe the scope and objectives of this chapter on consumer perception of safety in the agri-food chain. Furthermore, the rationale for taking consumer behavioural issues into account in agri-food safety debates is provided. In order to shed some light...... consumer research. To this end, consumer motivation for food choice and a classical model of consumer decision-making with related information processing concepts and influencing factors are set forth. Particular attention is paid to the potential role of risk perception in shaping consumer attitudes...

  4. Is embedding entailed in consumer valuation of food safety characteristics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Christensen, Tove; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Consumers' preferences for food safety characteristics are investigated with a particular focus on the existence of an embedding effect. Embedding exists if consumer valuation of food safety is insensitive to scope. We conduct between-attribute external tests for embedding in two choice experiments...... concerning the value of food safety attributes in minced pork and chicken breasts. We find no evidence of embedding neither when using food safety attributes that are not close substitutes and which exhibit both private and public good characteristics, nor when using food safety attributes that are closer...

  5. Food quality and safety: Consumer perception and demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    Research on consumer quality perception is reviewed using the Total Food Quality Model as a structuring device. The relationship between food safety and quality is addressed, and is discussed in the context of research on consumer risk perception. Quality and safety perception is linked to food...... choice and consumer demand, addressing questions of price perception and the validity of willingness-to-pay measurements. It is concluded that food quality and safety are central issues in today's food economics, though many research questions remain to be addressed. Udgivelsesdato: SEP 1...

  6. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  7. Acetaminophen (Tylenol): Johnson & Johnson and consumer safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinkhaus, J; Nathan, J; Beane, L; Meltzer, B

    1997-01-01

    Considers, against backdrop of Johnson & Johnson's handling of the Tylenol poisonings of the 1980s, Johnson & Johnson's response to product safety concerns raised about acetaminophen by studies suggesting links to hepatotoxicity and end-stage renal disease.

  8. Global Food Safety?International Consumers? Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Malik Altaf

    2013-01-01

    Your submissions to this Special Issue “Food Microbiology and Safety” of Foods—a new open access journal—are welcome. We understand there are no foodborne illness-free zones in the world. Therefore, a proper understanding of foodborne pathogens and the factors that impact their growth, survival and pathogenesis would equip us with tools to ensure global food safety. This Special Issue publishes articles on different aspects of food microbiology and safety.

  9. Promoting employee acceptance of a consumer bill of rights in a complex medical care organization: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, P D; Leifer, B H

    1982-01-01

    To develop strong health education programs, health educators working in complex medical care organizations must often secure professional cooperation across disciplines, coordination of services, and orientation of policies, procedures, and personnel toward patient preferences and needs. Frequently, they undertake these tasks against the tide, within a problematic organizational structure. The present case study illustrates the difficulties posed by introducing change in medical care organizations in the context of an education program to acquaint employees of a large HMO with a consumer bill of rights mandated by the consumer Board of Trustees. The underlying assumption was that in a bureaucratic institution, an employee-centered and modest system reform strategy would be effective in bringing about client-centered outcomes-in this case, increased recognition of client rights. The case analysis and results of a post-intervention, cross-sectional survey suggest that in units where a threshold level of participation was reached, there were improvements in knowledge about the Bill and employee attitudes. The program was less successful with hospital nurses whose feelings about physicians were not taken into account fully, and with physicians whose relative lack of integration into the policy and managerial domains made them harder to reach.

  10. Food safety perceptions and behaviors of Kentucky consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary; Kurzynske, Janet

    2006-06-01

    In several areas, Kentuckians practice more risky health behaviors than most of the rest of the nation. The Health Belief Model states that individuals with lower perceived risks practice less healthy behaviors. This study sought to determine if this was true for food safety by assessing food safety perceptions and behaviors of Kentucky consumers. Data were collected through a telephone questionnaire based on a survey by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration; 728 respondents participated. Food safety perceptions were analyzed by examining participants' responses to confidence in the safety of the food supply, perception of likelihood of people becoming sick because of foodborne illness, and perception of where food safety problems are most likely to occur. Significant differences were found in food safety perceptions for age, gender, household income, education, and employment in the food industry. Analysis of food safety behaviors revealed differences in food handling behaviors for gender, education level, household income, race, and households with a member aged 65 years or older. Significant relationships were found between respondents' food safety perceptions and behaviors. In general, Kentucky consumers who perceived higher risks exhibited safer food handling behaviors. Strategies to increase the understanding of real and perceived food safety risks in the home combined with strategies that target specific demographic groups may be the most effective approach to improve food handling practices. A better understanding of consumers' food safety risk perceptions and behaviors could lead to more effective food safety education materials and messages.

  11. Constrained consumer practices and food safety concerns in Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O.; Vellema, S.; Spaargaren, G.

    2014-01-01

    Food safety is a widely recognized concern in Vietnam. Public officials, companies and consumers find different ways to address risks of pesticide residues and bacterial contamination related to the use of fresh vegetables in daily diets. The response of the government to these food safety risks

  12. Relevant Results of Fish Consumer Benefits and Food Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused upon the assessment of current consumer behavior as empirical arguments for designing and implementation of fish feeding and processing innovative biotechnologies which highly meet the exigencies of food safety and security. Recent studies on food consumer behavior are observing the rising awareness of food safety and the reinforcement of the preoccupation about the consequences of healthy diet in terms of prevention and cure as characteristics of life quality. The implications of these changes urge the reconsideration of communication strategy upon food chain in terms of completeness, correctness and continuity of consumer information.

  13. Consumer attitudes and the governance of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).

  14. Food safety concerns of fast food consumers in urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omari, Rose; Frempong, Godfred

    2016-03-01

    In Ghana, out-of-home ready-to-eat foods including fast food generally have been associated with food safety problems. Notwithstanding, fast food production and consumption are increasing in Ghana and therefore this study sought to determine the food safety issues of importance to consumers and the extent to which they worry about them. First, through three focus group discussions on consumers' personal opinions about food safety issues, some emergent themes were obtained, which were used to construct an open-ended questionnaire administered face-to-face to 425 respondents systematically sampled from 20 fast food restaurants in Accra. Findings showed that most fast food consumers were concerned about food hazards such as pesticide residue in vegetables, excessive use of artificial flavour enhancers and colouring substances, bacterial contamination, migrated harmful substances from plastic packages, and general unhygienic conditions under which food is prepared and sold. Consumers also raised concerns about foodborne diseases such as cholera, typhoid, food poisoning, diarrhoea, bird flu and swine flu. The logistic regression model showed that being male increased the likelihood of worrying about general food safety issues and excessive use of flavour enhancers than in females while being youthful increased the likelihood of being worried about typhoid fever than in older consumers. These findings imply that consumers in urban Ghana are aware and concerned about current trends of food safety and foodborne disease challenges in the country. Therefore, efforts targeted at improving food safety and reducing incidences of foodborne diseases should not only focus on public awareness creation but should also design more comprehensive programmes to ensure the making of food safety rules and guidelines and enforcing compliance to facilitate availability and consumers' choice of safe foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer food safety perceptions and practices in a Turkish community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorba, Nükhet Nilüfer Demirel; Kaptan, Meltem

    2011-11-01

    Research has shown that most reported foodborne outbreaks are caused by food prepared and consumed at home, thus emphasizing the importance of consumer food safety knowledge. In this study, 2,000 randomly selected residents from Çanakkale, Turkey, participated in face-to-face interviews to assess their food safety perceptions and practices. Questions covered the attention given to expiration dates, safety certificates, and food additives during shopping; consumption of high-risk foods; safe food handling; storage knowledge; and their source of food safety knowledge. Statistical analyses were done to clarify the differences according to three main aspects: gender, age, and educational level. Results showed that women and middle-aged respondents were significantly more careful during shopping and more interested in food safety issues than men and younger individuals. A significant relationship was found between gender and consumption of high-risk foods, with men consuming more of these foods than women. Furthermore, high-risk foods were more frequently consumed by young participants than by older participants, with more highly educated consumers shopping more consciously. Although most respondents appeared to know proper food handling and storage practices, almost all participants lacked some information on some issues. In order to remove these deficiencies, a brochure was prepared and distributed to people in various parts of the city. In addition, public seminars were organized. However, to ensure that this information results in positive attitude and behavioral changes, seminars should be repeated at specific intervals, and education procedures and processes should be controlled regularly.

  16. Food Labeling and Consumer Associations with Health, Safety, and Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal

    2016-12-01

    The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.

  17. Canadian Consumer Food Safety Practices and Knowledge: Foodbook Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Regan; Glass-Kaastra, Shiona; Gardhouse, Christine; Marshall, Barbara; Ciampa, Nadia; Franklin, Kristyn; Hurst, Matt; Thomas, M Kate; Nesbitt, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    Understanding consumers' food safety practices and knowledge supports food safety education for the prevention of foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to describe Canadian consumer food safety practices and knowledge. This study identifies demographic groups for targeted food safety education messaging and establishes a baseline measurement to assess the effectiveness of food safety interventions over time. Questions regarding consumer food safety practices and knowledge were included in a population-based telephone survey, Foodbook, conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The results were analyzed nationally by age group and by gender. The results showed that approximately 90% of Canadians reported taking the recommended cleaning and separating precautions when handling raw meat to prevent foodborne illness. Only 29% of respondents reported using a food thermometer when cooking any meat, and even fewer (12%) reported using a food thermometer for small cuts of meat such as chicken pieces. The majority (>80%) of Canadians were aware of the foodborne illness risks related to chicken and hamburger, but fewer (food safety education in Canada should focus on increasing people's awareness of high-risk foods, specifically foods for which the awareness of risk found in this study was low; targeting messaging to demographic groups as appropriate; and promoting the use of food thermometers when cooking meat and poultry.

  18. Development of the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire: A Measure of Consumer Perceptions and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairnduff, Victoria; Dean, Moira; Koidis, Anastasios

    2016-09-01

    Food preparation and storage behaviors in the home deviating from the "best practice" food safety recommendations may result in foodborne illnesses. Currently, there are limited tools available to fully evaluate the consumer knowledge, perceptions, and behavior in the area of refrigerator safety. The current study aimed to develop a valid and reliable tool in the form of a questionnaire, the Consumer Refrigerator Safety Questionnaire (CRSQ), for assessing systematically all these aspects. Items relating to refrigerator safety knowledge (n =17), perceptions (n =46), and reported behavior (n =30) were developed and pilot tested by an expert reference group and various consumer groups to assess face and content validity (n =20), item difficulty and consistency (n =55), and construct validity (n =23). The findings showed that the CRSQ has acceptable face and content validity with acceptable levels of item difficulty. Item consistency was observed for 12 of 15 in refrigerator safety knowledge. Further, all 5 of the subscales of consumer perceptions of refrigerator safety practices relating to risk of developing foodborne disease showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α value > 0.8). Construct validity of the CRSQ was shown to be very good (P = 0.022). The CRSQ exhibited acceptable test-retest reliability at 14 days with the majority of knowledge items (93.3%) and reported behavior items (96.4%) having correlation coefficients of greater than 0.70. Overall, the CRSQ was deemed valid and reliable in assessing refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior; therefore, it has the potential for future use in identifying groups of individuals at increased risk of deviating from recommended refrigerator safety practices, as well as the assessment of refrigerator safety knowledge and behavior for use before and after an intervention.

  19. Understanding Consumer Rationalities: Consumer Involvement in European Food Safety Governance of Avian Influenza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krom, de M.P.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Avian influenza is one more of the recent food scares inciting shifts in European food safety governance, away from a predominantly science-based approach towards one involving scientists, policymakers, actors in the food-supply chain and consumers. While these shifts are increasingly receiving

  20. Exploring relationships between hospital patient safety culture and Consumer Reports safety scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott Alan; Yount, Naomi; Sorra, Joann

    2017-02-16

    A number of private and public companies calculate and publish proprietary hospital patient safety scores based on publicly available quality measures initially reported by the U.S. federal government. This study examines whether patient safety culture perceptions of U.S. hospital staff in a large national survey are related to publicly reported patient safety ratings of hospitals. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (Hospital SOPS) assesses provider and staff perceptions of hospital patient safety culture. Consumer Reports (CR), a U.S. based non-profit organization, calculates and shares with its subscribers a Hospital Safety Score calculated annually from patient experience survey data and outcomes data gathered from federal databases. Linking data collected during similar time periods, we analyzed relationships between staff perceptions of patient safety culture composites and the CR Hospital Safety Score and its five components using multiple multivariate linear regressions. We analyzed data from 164 hospitals, with patient safety culture survey responses from 140,316 providers and staff, with an average of 856 completed surveys per hospital and an average response rate per hospital of 56%. Higher overall Hospital SOPS composite average scores were significantly associated with higher overall CR Hospital Safety Scores (β = 0.24, p safety culture scores were associated with higher CR patient experience scores on communication about medications and discharge. This study found a relationship between hospital staff perceptions of patient safety culture and the Consumer Reports Hospital Safety Score, which is a composite of patient experience and outcomes data from federal databases. As hospital managers allocate resources to improve patient safety culture within their organizations, their efforts may also indirectly improve consumer-focused, publicly reported hospital rating scores like the Consumer

  1. Microbiologically, wine is a low food safety risk consumer producta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies indicate wine does not support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as Clostridium botulinum, Bacillus cereus, and Clostridium perfringens. Studies also show wine has anti- microbial properties due to its high acidity, polyphenol content, alcohol content, low redox potential, and preservative content. As a result, wine has been recognized as a consumer product with a low microbiological safety risk, and governments have issued guidance and employed proportionate regulatory frameworks from a food safety standpoint. Building complex food safety regulatory schemes which must be administered with scarce government resources is unnecessary for a product like wine, with a low microbial risk profile as identified by the general principles of risk management endorsed by the WHO and other international advisory bodies. Notwithstanding the inherent microbiological food safety of wine, at least from a bacterial standpoint, it remains essential that wine should be manufactured under appropriate good manufacturing practices.

  2. CONSUMERS HEALTH AND SAFETY ON THE INTERNET BASED MEDICAL CONSULTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the internet-based medical consultation has opened not only opportunities for consumers easily obtaining medical services but also put them at risk for mistreatment, misunderstanding or taking a wrong medication to be anticipated. This research concerns on how the internet-based medical consultation affects to the health and safety of the consumers. There are several identified legal issues have to be paid attention as follow: (i the benefit and shortcoming of using internet-based medical consultation, (ii inter-related and overlapped interest of the parties, (iii consumer health and safety, (iv consumer rights, and (v dispute settlement. Pertumbuhan konsultasi pengobatan berbasis internet telah membuka peluang tidak hanya bagi konsumen. Kemudahan mendapatkan pelayanan medis tetapi juga menempatkan mereka pada risiko kesalahan perawatan, kesalahpahaman atau kesalahan dalam pemberian obat sehingga hal ini harus diantisipasi. Penelitian ini menjelaskan mengenai konsultasi pengobatan berbasis internet yang mempengaruhi kesehatan dan keselamatan konsumen. Ada beberapa masalah hukum yang harus diperhatikan dan diidentifikasi menjadi sebagai berikut, yakni: (i manfaat dan kelemahan menggunakan konsultasi pengobatan berbasis internet, (ii hubungan dan tumpang tindih kepentingan para pihak, (iii kesehatan dan keselamatan konsumen, (iv hak-hak konsumen, dan (v penyelesaian sengketa.

  3. CONSUMERS HEALTH AND SAFETY ON THE INTERNET BASED MEDICAL CONSULTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rise of the internet-based medical consultation has opened not only opportunities for consumers easily obtaining medical services but also put them at risk for mistreatment, misunderstanding or taking a wrong medication to be anticipated. This research concerns on how the internet-based medical consultation affects to the health and safety of the consumers. There are several identified legal issues have to be paid attention as follow: (i the benefit and shortcoming of using internet-based medical consultation, (ii inter-related and overlapped interest of the parties, (iii consumer health and safety, (iv consumer rights, and (v dispute settlement.   Pertumbuhan konsultasi pengobatan berbasis internet telah membuka peluang tidak hanya bagi konsumen. Kemudahan mendapatkan pelayanan medis tetapi juga menempatkan mereka pada risiko kesalahan perawatan, kesalahpahaman atau kesalahan dalam pemberian obat sehingga hal ini harus diantisipasi. Penelitian ini menjelaskan mengenai konsultasi pengobatan berbasis internet yang mempengaruhi kesehatan dan keselamatan konsumen. Ada beberapa masalah hukum yang harus diperhatikan dan diidentifikasi menjadi sebagai berikut, yakni: (i manfaat dan kelemahan menggunakan konsultasi pengobatan berbasis internet, (ii hubungan dan tumpang tindih kepentingan para pihak, (iii kesehatan dan keselamatan konsumen, (iv hak-hak konsumen, dan (v penyelesaian sengketa.

  4. Household food safety awareness of selected urban consumers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter G; Jackson, Jose C; Bain, Brendan; Eldemire-Shearer, Denise

    2003-07-01

    Home interviews of 110 randomly selected householders representing three distinct socio-economic groups in North Central St Andrew, an urban community in Jamaica, were conducted during January-March 1999. Respondents were interviewed about their awareness of safe food handling, risk perception, food handling practices and attitude to food safety issues. The majority of respondents reported a fairly high knowledge of safe food handling practices; however, more than one-half were unfamiliar with the correct procedure for freezing and thawing of foods. Householders were very concerned about the food they purchased for preparation at home, displayed strong concerns about sanitation of food handling establishments, food handlers practices, and the appearance of foods purchased. The majority of respondents had never contacted their local Health Department or the Ministry of Health regarding food safety concerns. Diarrhea, stomach pain, vomiting and nausea were reported as the major symptoms of food-borne illness, while animal foods including dairy, beef, chicken, pork and fish/shellfish were implicated as the main source of food borne illnesses. There were no significant differences (Pfood and shopping options, respectively. These findings raise concerns about consumer food safety knowledge and practices in Jamaica. It is suggested that a national knowledge, awareness and practices survey should be conducted, followed by a properly designed food safety public education campaign, to enhance household food safety awareness in Jamaica.

  5. Food safety at home: knowledge and practices of consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langiano, Elisa; Ferrara, Maria; Lanni, Liana; Viscardi, Viviana; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; De Vito, Elisabetta

    2012-02-01

    AIM: To define food safety and risk perception of foodborne diseases in the private home setting and identify specific behaviours during food purchase, storage and preparation in a large survey study. SUBJECT AND METHODS: A large sample of individuals (n = 1,000) living in the area of Cassino, Italy, volunteered to participate in the study. All participants were randomly recruited and underwent a questionnaire-based interview at their home regarding food-safety measures. Logistic regression analyses were used to test for correlations between demographic characteristics and knowledge/behaviours of food diseases. Risks of hazardous practices in the home were calculated according to educational, physical, occupational and marital status. All analyses were performed using the EPIINFO 3.5 statistical program. RESULTS: Our data showed that there was an insufficient amount of knowledge regarding foodborne diseases and pathogens. In most families, we found that there was a lack of correct adherence to food hygiene, mainly due to errors during both food preparation and storage. There was a higher risk for food safety errors in families with children, older persons and pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the home environment represents an important site for the spread of pathogens responsible for foodborne diseases. In order to adopt good hygiene practices in the home setting, consumers need to be informed about safety procedures of domestic food handling, storage and preparation.

  6. Consumer Confidence in the Safety of Food and Newspaper Coverage of Food Safety Issues: A Longitudinal Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a longitudinal perspective on consumer confidence in the safety of food to explore if, how, and why consumer confidence changes over time. In the first study, a theory-based monitoring instrument for consumer confidence in the safety of food was developed and validated. The

  7. Analysing Consumer Responses to Food Safety Results of a Survey in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dagevos, Hans; Hansman, Harrie

    2004-01-01

    Consumer confidence in food safety appears to be under pressure as a result of several food scandals and food scares in recent years. Regaining the trust of food consumers in food production and food products is talk of the town in both government buildings and agribusiness offices. Instead of talking about consumers, this article is first and foremost about what consumers themselves think and feel about food safety. The foundation of this research is a survey among nearly 1100 Dutch consumer...

  8. Food risk management quality: Consumer evaluations of past and emerging food safety incidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Ueland, O.; Theodoridis, G.; Rowe, G.; Pfenning, U.; Houghton, J.R.; Dijk, van H.; Chryssochoidis, G.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    In European countries, there has been growing consumer distrust regarding the motives of food safety regulators and other actors in the food chain, partly as a result of recent food safety incidents. If consumer confidence in food safety is to be improved, a systematic understanding of what

  9. Digital Content and the Definition Dilemma Under the Sale of Goods Act 1979: Will the Consumer Rights Bill 2013 Remedy the Malady?

    OpenAIRE

    Marsoof, Althaf

    2014-01-01

    The Sale of Goods Act 1979 (“SGA”) that is in force in the United Kingdom (UK) is ill suited for the Twenty First Century. Since the term “goods” defined in the SGA does not extend to the sale of digital content, buyers of digital content are robbed of the protection guaranteed by the implied terms found therein. This analysis considers the recent Consumer Rights Bill 2013 that was presented in Parliament by the UK’s Government and evaluates its suitability in overcoming the deficie...

  10. Consumer confidence in the safety of food and newspaper coverage of food safety issues: a longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Janneke; Van Trijp, Hans; Renes, Reint Jan; Frewer, Lynn J

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a longitudinal perspective on consumer confidence in the safety of food to explore if, how, and why consumer confidence changes over time. In the first study, a theory-based monitoring instrument for consumer confidence in the safety of food was developed and validated. The monitoring instrument assesses consumer confidence together with its determinants. Model and measurement invariance were validated rigorously before developments in consumer confidence in the safety of food and its determinants were investigated over time. The results from the longitudinal analysis show that across four waves of annual data collection (2003-2006), the framework was stable and that the relative importance of the determinants of confidence was, generally, constant over time. Some changes were observed regarding the mean ratings on the latent constructs. The second study explored how newspaper coverage of food safety related issues affects consumer confidence in the safety of food through subjective consumer recall of food safety incidents. The results show that the newspaper coverage on food safety issues is positively associated with consumer recall of food safety incidents, both in terms of intensity and recency of media coverage.

  11. Food Safety Knowledge of Consumers and the Microbiological and Temperature Status of Their Refrigerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, J; Jackson, V; Blair, I.S; McDowell, D.A; Cowan, C; Bolton, D.J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine domestic food safety knowledge levels of consumers, establish the levels and incidence of bacterial contamination and operational temperatures in domestic...

  12. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    ... pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices...

  13. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-01-01

    .... The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices...

  14. Consumer bill of rights and responsibilities: report to the President of the United States. Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    President Clinton appointed a 34-member Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Healthcare Industry in 1997, and the group has adopted a statement of consumers' rights and responsibilities. The document addresses eight areas, including information disclosure on health plans, benefits, and qualifications of healthcare providers, choice of providers and plans, access to emergency services, patients' rights to participate in treatment decisions, mutual respect and nondiscrimination, confidentiality of health and personal information, complaints and the appeals process, and the responsibilities of consumers.

  15. A Bill to Amend the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 to Improve . . . Strengthening of State and Local Offices of Consumer Protection. H.R. 2198. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2198), to be cited, if enacted, as the Intergovernmental Consumer Assistance Act, would add a new title to the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968: Title VII-Intergovernmental Cooperation with Respect to Consumer Assistance and Protection. The objective is to establish greater cooperation among…

  16. 75 FR 76831 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... to the causes and prevention of death, injury, and illness associated with consumer products. The... voluntary recall of a consumer product taken by a manufacturer in consultation with the Commission. No... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III Consumer Product...

  17. Understanding Consumer Confidence in the Safety of Food: Its Two-Dimensional Structure and Determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the determinants of consumer confidence in the safety of food is important if effective risk management and communication are to be developed. In the research reported here, we attempt to understand the roles of consumer trust in actors in the food chain and regulators, consumer

  18. Social Media in health. What are the safety concerns for healthcare consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Annie; Gabarrón, Elia; Fernández-Luque, Luis; Armayones Ruiz, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identifi ed: (a) harmful health m...

  19. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard... ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to section 106 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will become a mandatory...

  20. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Yahanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safety aviation in Indonesia and Malaysia from the Consumer Protection Law and the Aviation Law. As a result of the research shows that safety standard passenger for air transportation in airport covers information and safety facility in the shape of availability of the emergency safety tools (fires, accidents and natural disasters; information, area and health facility; and healthcare workers. Moreover, safety standards for passenger in an aircraft include information and safety facility in the shape of availability information and the emergency safety tools for passenger in an aircraft. The protection for consumer rights for safety flight in Indonesia as follows: aviation industry has obligation to fulfill minimum standard of safety and security; consumers must be safety from false information which raises concern; aircraft operation which endanger of the passenger; and consumer protection in operating the electronic device which endanger flight. On the other hand, the law of consumer rights in Malaysia relating to aviation are ruled under the Aviation Law as a result of the Warsaw Convention 1929. In conclusion, the verdict of consumer rights related to security aviation begins when the passenger enter to an aircraft, in the aircraft, and by the time they get off the plane.

  1. Biotechnology and food safety in China: Consumers' acceptance or resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.; Vermeer, E.B.; Zhao, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although China is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of genetically modified (GM) crops and derived food products, little is known about the level of Chinese consumer awareness, understanding and acceptance of GM food. Initially, China pursued relatively aggressive policies for

  2. Biotechnology and food safety in China : Consumers' acceptance or resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P; Vermeer, EB; Zhao, JH

    Although China is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of genetically modified (GM) crops and derived food products, little is known about the level of Chinese consumer awareness, understanding and acceptance of GM food. Initially, China pursued relatively aggressive policies for

  3. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers' food concern...... rankings. The aim of this contribution is to provide a better understanding to food risk analysts of why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information. This paper presents some cases of seemingly irrational and inconsistent consumer behaviour with respect to food safety...... and risk information and provides explanations for these behaviours based on the nature of the risk and individual psychological processes. Potential solutions for rebuilding consumer confidence in food safety and bridging between lay and expert opinions towards food risks are reviewed. These include...

  4. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...

  5. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China's Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, III, James A

    2008-01-01

    China's central government's response to the current challenge of consumer product safety in the food and drug arena could be a determining factor in its ability to sustain robust economic growth over the next decade...

  6. Consumer Food Safety Risk Perceptions and Attitudes: Impacts on Beef Consumption across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Utilizing data from a total of 4,005 consumers in the United States, Canada,

  7. Why consumers behave as they do with respect to food safety and risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.; Frewer, L.J.; Scholderer, J.; Brabander, de H.F.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it seems that consumers are generally uncertain about the safety and quality of their food and their risk perception differs substantially from that of experts. Hormone and veterinary drug residues in meat persist to occupy a high position in European consumers¿ food concern

  8. Consumer purchase habits and views on food safety: A Brazilian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, J.H.; Barcellos, M.N.; Frewer, L.J.; Nunes, T.P.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the attitudes towards food safety among consumers in the city of São Paulo, the major consumer market in Brazil. Focus group sessions were conducted with 30 adults responsible for food choices and purchases. Results indicated a preference for supermarkets over street

  9. Consumer perceptions of food quality and safety and their relation to traceability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The research presented here aims to gain understanding of consumers¿ perceptions of the concepts of food quality and safety, two concepts that play an important role in how consumers perceive food, and that are used in decision making. Design/methodology/approach - Qualitative

  10. Toward Rational Regulation of Marijuana in the United States: FDA's Role in Consumer Choice and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Edelson, Christopher P.

    1995-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration is an agency dedicated to maintaining the health and safety of the American public. For as long as people have been purchasing and consuming foods and drugs there have been the problems of adulteration and imperfect consumer information. In some cases, FDA acts to protect the consumer against dangers he or she cannot protect him or herself from by prohibiting access to food containing invisible pathogens or drugs intended for specific maladies beyond lay diagn...

  11. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the

  12. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  13. Social media in health--what are the safety concerns for health consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  14. Social Media in Health - What are the Safety Concerns for Health Consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Gabarron, Elia; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Armayones, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    Recent literature has discussed the unintended consequences of clinical information technologies (IT) on patient safety, yet there has been little discussion about the safety concerns in the area of consumer health IT. This paper presents a range of safety concerns for consumers in social media, with a case study on YouTube. We conducted a scan of abstracts on 'quality criteria' related to YouTube. Five areas regarding the safety of YouTube for consumers were identified: (a) harmful health material targeted at consumers (such as inappropriate marketing of tobacco or direct-to-consumer drug advertising); (b) public display of unhealthy behaviour (such as people displaying self-injury behaviours or hurting others); (c) tainted public health messages (i.e. the rise of negative voices against public health messages); (d) psychological impact from accessing inappropriate, offensive or biased social media content; and (e) using social media to distort policy and research funding agendas. The examples presented should contribute to a better understanding about how to promote a safe consumption and production of social media for consumers, and an evidence-based approach to designing social media interventions for health. The potential harm associated with the use of unsafe social media content on the Internet is a major concern. More empirical and theoretical studies are needed to examine how social media influences consumer health decisions, behaviours and outcomes, and devise ways to deter the dissemination of harmful influences in social media.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Ridgely, M Susan; Schneider, Eric C

    2017-08-01

    No methodologically robust system exists for capturing consumer-generated patient safety reports. To address this challenge, we developed and pilot-tested a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety, the Health Care Safety Hotline. Mixed methods evaluation. The Hotline was implemented in two US healthcare systems from 1 February 2014 through 30 June 2015. Patients, family members and caregivers associated with two US healthcare systems. A consumer-oriented incident reporting system for telephone or web-based administration was developed to elicit medical mistakes and care-related injuries. Key informant interviews, measurement of website traffic and analysis of completed reports. Key informants indicated that Hotline participation was motivated by senior leaders' support and alignment with existing quality and safety initiatives. During the measurement period from 1 October 2014 through 30 June 2015, the home page had 1530 visitors with a unique IP address. During its 17 months of operation, the Hotline received 37 completed reports including 20 mistakes without harm and 15 mistakes with injury. The largest category of mistake concerned problems with diagnosis or advice from a health practitioner. Hotline reports prompted quality reviews, an education intervention, and patient follow-ups. While generating fewer reports than its capacity to manage, the Health Care Safety Hotline demonstrated the feasibility of consumer-oriented patient safety reporting. Further research is needed to understand how to increase consumers' use of these systems.

  16. How important is vehicle safety for older consumers in the vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Clark, Belinda; Hoareau, Effie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart V

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the importance of vehicle safety to older consumers in the vehicle purchase process. Older (n = 102), middle-aged (n = 791), and younger (n = 109) participants throughout the eastern Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland who had recently purchased a new or used vehicle completed an online questionnaire about their vehicle purchase process. When asked to list the 3 most important considerations in the vehicle purchase process (in an open-ended format), older consumers were mostly likely to list price as their most important consideration (43%). Similarly, when presented with a list of vehicle factors (such as price, design, Australasian New Car Assessment Program [ANCAP] rating), older consumers were most likely to identify price as the most important vehicle factor (36%). When presented with a list of vehicle features (such as automatic transmission, braking, air bags), older consumers in the current study were most likely to identify an antilock braking system (41%) as the most important vehicle feature, and 50 percent of older consumers identified a safety-related vehicle feature as the highest priority vehicle feature (50%). When asked to list up to 3 factors that make a vehicle safe, older consumers in the current study were most likely to list braking systems (35%), air bags (22%), and the driver's behavior or skill (11%). When asked about the influence of safety in the new vehicle purchase process, one third of older consumers reported that all new vehicles are safe (33%) and almost half of the older consumers rated their vehicle as safer than average (49%). A logistic regression model was developed to predict the profile of older consumers more likely to assign a higher priority to safety features in the vehicle purchasing process. The model predicted that the importance of safety-related features was influenced by several variables, including older consumers' beliefs that they could protect themselves

  17. Analysis of Media Agenda-Setting Effects on Consumer Confidence in the Safety of the U.S. Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Bharad, Abhishek Bhagwat; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis J.; Ferreira, Gustavo F.C.

    2010-01-01

    Results from continuous tracking of consumer confidence and media coverage of food safety events over a 67 week period between May 2008 and August 2009 are reported. An ordered probit model is used to test the hypothesis that media coverage of food safety events affects consumer confidence in the safety of the U.S. food system. The results show that media coverage significantly and negatively affected consumer confidence in the safety of nation’s food supply during the sample period. Socioeco...

  18. Billing Trends

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Billing Trends. Internet access: Bandwidth becoming analogous to electric power. Only maximum capacity (load) is fixed; Charges based on usage (units). Leased line bandwidth: Billing analogous to phone calls. But bandwidth is variable.

  19. Mapping Sources of Food Safety Information for U.S. Consumers: Findings From a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoli; Verrill, Linda; Kim, Jarim

    2017-03-01

    This research examines the sources from which U.S. consumers obtain their food safety information. It seeks to determine differences in the types of information sources used by U.S. consumers of different sociodemographic background, as well as the relationships between the types of information sources used and food safety risk perceptions. Analyzing the 2010 Food Safety Survey (N = 4,568) conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, we found that age, gender, education, and race predicted the use of different sources for food safety information. Additionally, use of several information sources predicted perceived susceptibility to foodborne illnesses and severity of food contamination. Implications of the findings for food safety risk communication are discussed.

  20. Consumer food handling in the home: a review of food safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological data from Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand indicate that a substantial proportion of foodborne disease is attributable to improper food preparation practices in consumers' homes. International concern about consumer food safety has prompted considerable research to evaluate domestic food-handling practices. The majority of consumer food safety studies in the last decade have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland (48%) and in the United States (42%). Surveys (questionnaires and interviews), the most frequent means of data collection, were used in 75% of the reviewed studies. Focus groups and observational studies have also been used. One consumer food safety study examined the relationship between pathogenic microbial contamination from raw chicken and observed food-handling behaviors, and the results of this study indicated extensive Campylobacter cross-contamination during food preparation sessions. Limited information about consumers' attitudes and intentions with regard to safe food-handling behaviors has been obtained, although a substantial amount of information about consumer knowledge and self-reported practices is available. Observation studies suggest that substantial numbers of consumers frequently implement unsafe food-handling practices. Knowledge, attitudes, intentions, and self-reported practices did not correspond to observed behaviors, suggesting that observational studies provide a more realistic indication of the food hygiene actions actually used in domestic food preparation. An improvement in consumer food-handling behavior is likely to reduce the risk and incidence of foodborne disease. The need for the development and implementation of food safety education strategies to improve specific food safety behaviors is reviewed in this paper.

  1. Empowering consumers as contributors for health product safety: lessons from the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan-Go, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Empowering consumers to contribute to adverse drug reaction reporting seems a sensible innovation, particularly when traditional reports emanating from healthcare professionals are neither increasing nor improving. This work, inspired by an EU-FP7-funded project, describes an attempt by the Philippines to introduce a consumer reporting system through education and an online platform for reporting, and the lessons that were captured in the process. While participating consumers did not contribute to the adverse drug reporting process in the traditional sense as originally expected, the reports received by the drug regulatory agency revealed consumers' concerns regarding health product legitimacy, quality and market claims, as well as the lack of available and accessible information. These reports led regulators to take action. Initial insights on consumer behavior are proposed for regulators and industry to consider in greater depth and how this may impact on consumers providing valued information that will promote other aspects of product safety.

  2. AWARENESS AND ATTITUDES OF CONSUMERS TOWARDS FOOD SAFETY IN THOOTHUKUDI DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anantha Laxmi

    2016-01-01

    The issue of consumer preferences for food safety has proved to be somewhat of a conundrum. Research on this subject has yielded conflicting results and the empirical data are scarce. There are a number of studies that has identified the need for continued efforts towards educating consumers on the hazards of improper food handling. Common mistakes identified in food handling include serving contaminated raw food, cooking or heating food inadequately, having infected persons handle implicated...

  3. Identification of unique food handling practices that could represent food safety risks for minority consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Shauna C; Stein, Susan E; Quinlan, Jennifer J

    2012-11-01

    Foodborne illness caused by Salmonella and Campylobacter is a concern for consumers, and there is evidence that minority racial-ethnic populations experience greater rates of illness because of these pathogens. The limited body of research concerning food safety knowledge and practices among minority consumers has focused more on general food safety knowledge than on culturally specific food handling practices. The purpose of the research reported here was to explore food handling behaviors of minority racial-ethnic consumers through in-depth discussions in focus group settings. In this way, we hoped to identify potential unique, previously unidentified food handling practices among these consumers. Nine focus groups were held in Philadelphia, PA. Three focus groups were conducted with African American consumers, three with Hispanic consumers, and three with Asian consumers. In all, 56 consumers participated. Data were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for unique and potentially unsafe food handling behaviors. Potentially unsafe food handling practices identified among all three groups included extended time to transport food from retail to home and washing of raw poultry. Culturally unique behaviors within groups included (i) using hot water (Asian, Hispanic) or acidic solutions (African American, Hispanic) to clean raw poultry, (ii) purchasing live poultry (Asian, Hispanic), (iii) cooking poultry overnight (African American), and (iv) preparing bite-size pieces of meat prior to cooking (Asian, Hispanic). To have focus groups include a limited number of participants and nonrandom sampling means that these themes and trends cannot be extrapolated to represent food mishandling among these populations in general. Results presented here allow modification of an existing food safety survey to identify the prevalence of these food handling practices among consumers of different demographics.

  4. Safety of consumer handling of fresh produce from the time of purchase to the plate: a comprehensive consumer survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Cohen, Amy E; Bruhn, Christine M

    2002-08-01

    A national mail survey focusing on consumer handling of fresh fruits and vegetables was conducted among 2,000 randomly selected households in the United States. The objective was to quantify consumer practices relating to the purchase, transport, storage, and preparation of fresh produce, with emphasis on practices that affect safety. Following an additional mailing procedure, a response rate of 33% was obtained. Six percent of the consumers responded that they seldom or never wash fresh produce, and more than 35% indicated that they do not wash their melons before preparation. Twenty-three percent of the respondents indicated placing their meat, poultry, and fish on a refrigerator shelf above other foods, and 9% do not place their produce at any specific location in the refrigerator. Almost half of the respondents indicated not always washing their hands before handling fresh produce. Ninety-seven percent of respondents reported that they always wash their food preparation surfaces after contact with meat products, yet 5% and 24% dry wipe or wash with water only, respectively. The results from this study suggest that women, lower-income households, people 65 years and older, and non-college graduates practice safer food handling methods than men, higher-income households, people younger than 65 years, and college or postcollege graduates. The survey findings suggest that consumer education materials should emphasize safe handling practices from purchase through consumption. Educational outreach should target specific subpopulations, men, college graduates, higher-income households, and people younger than 65 years because of their higher frequency of unsafe handling and washing practices.

  5. 78 FR 76443 - Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... seven different intended uses for these products: (1) Antimicrobial soap; (2) health care personnel... care personnel hand antiseptics, surgical hand scrubs, and patient preoperative skin preparations. In... Parts 310 and 333 Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products...

  6. Consumer Food Safety Risk Attitudes and Perceptions Over Time: The Case of BSE Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Ittersum, van K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that by decoupling the risk response behaviour of consumers into the separate components of risk perception and risk attitude, a more robust conceptualization and prediction of consumers’ reactions to food safety issues is possible. Furthermore, it has been argued that the

  7. Developing and Testing the Health Care Safety Hotline: A Prototype Consumer Reporting System for Patient Safety Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eric C; Ridgely, M Susan; Quigley, Denise D; Hunter, Lauren E; Leuschner, Kristin J; Weingart, Saul N; Weissman, Joel S; Zimmer, Karen P; Giannini, Robert C

    2017-06-01

    This article describes the design, development, and testing of the Health Care Safety Hotline, a prototype consumer reporting system for patient safety events. The prototype was designed and developed with ongoing review by a technical expert panel and feedback obtained during a public comment period. Two health care delivery organizations in one metropolitan area collaborated with the researchers to demonstrate and evaluate the system. The prototype was deployed and elicited information from patients, family members, and caregivers through a website or an 800 phone number. The reports were considered useful and had little overlap with information received by the health care organizations through their usual risk management, customer service, and patient safety monitoring systems. However, the frequency of reporting was lower than anticipated, suggesting that further refinements, including efforts to raise awareness by actively soliciting reports from subjects, might be necessary to substantially increase the volume of useful reports. It is possible that a single technology platform could be built to meet a variety of different patient safety objectives, but it may not be possible to achieve several objectives simultaneously through a single consumer reporting system while also establishing trust with patients, caregivers, and providers.

  8. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007. In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012. Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full picture of the consumer contribution to food contamination (REDMOND and GRIFFITH, 2003. This study aimed to assess the risks of food contamination in the home. A questionnaire containing 140 questions concerning food safety knowledge, handling practices, personal hygiene and basic health care, covering the stages when the food is under the control of the consumer, was developed and used to gather data for analysis. Appropriate scores were attributed to the questions (consequences to food safety and answers (likelihood of food contamination. A risk estimate algorithm and an appropriate risk ranking scale were used to assess the results. From August 2011 to March 2012, survey questionnaires were collected from 2,775 consumers in Brazil across 19 out of 27 state capitals. The study found risky practices with the potential to lead to food poisoning occurrences in the domestic environment in the following handling steps: food transportation, food preparation, cooking and the handling of leftovers. The personal hygiene, age, formal education, family income and basic health care habits represented the factors most related to the risky practices of consumers, which could orientate food safety educational campaigns for the Brazilian population.

  9. Consumer's Fresh Produce Food Safety Practices: Outcomes of a Fresh Produce Safety Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Amanda R.; Pope, Paul E.; Thompson, Britta M.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that there are 76 million cases of foodborne disease annually. Foodborne disease is usually associated with beef, poultry, and seafood. However, there is an increasing number of foodborne disease cases related to fresh produce. Consumers may not associate fresh produce with foodborne disease…

  10. Preferences for food safety and animal welare - a choice experiment study comparing organic and conventional consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid

    Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...

  11. Children's sleepwear: relaxation of the Consumer Product Safety Commission's flammability standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, J M; Grant, E J; Kucan, J O

    1997-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission voted on April 30, 1996, to relax the existing children's sleepwear flammability standard under the Flammable Fabrics Act. The new amendments will permit the sale of tight-fitting children's sleepwear and sleepwear for infants aged 9 months or younger-even if the garments do not meet the flammability standards ordinarily applicable to such sleepwear. The relaxed standards became effective January 1, 1997. These changes have the potential to increase the number of childhood injuries and deaths resulting from burns associated with children's sleepwear. Burn care practitioners and fire prevention educators must understand the significance of these changes and their associated impact. It is essential that this information be disseminated throughout communities to make the public aware of the potential hazards emanating from these changes. Furthermore, organized and systematic data gathering and appropriate pressure should be exerted on the Commissioners of the Consumer Product Safety Commission to force a reversal of the newly amended regulations.

  12. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  13. Supporting 'Good Habits' through User-Led Design of Food Safety Applications - Findings from a Survey of Red Meat Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Bamgboje-Ayodele, Adeola; Ellis, Leonie; Turner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mitigating consumer health risks and reducing food wastage has stimulated research into mechanisms for improving consumers' food safety knowledge and food management practice. Many studies report success, but differences in methodology and in the type and range of foods and consumers involved has made comparison and transferability of results challenging. While most studies advocate for the importance of information in consumer education, few provide detailed insight into what 'good' informat...

  14. Consumer Perceptions of the Safety of Ready-to-Eat Foods in Retail Food Store Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Katrina; Yavelak, Mary; Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Chapman, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    To better understand how consumers perceive food safety risks in retail food store settings, a survey was administered to 1,041 nationally representative participants who evaluated possible food safety risks depicted in selected photographs and self-reported their perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors. Participants were shown 12 photographs taken at retail stores portraying either commonly perceived or actual food safety contributing factors, such as cross-contamination, product and equipment temperatures, worker hygiene, and/or store sanitation practices. Participants were then asked to specifically identify what they saw, comment as to whether what they saw was safe or unsafe, and articulate what actions they would take in response to these situations. In addition to the survey, focus groups were employed to supplement survey findings with qualitative data. Survey respondents identified risk factors for six of nine actual contributing factor photographs >50% of the time: poor produce storage sanitation (86%, n = 899), cross-contamination during meat slicing (72%, n = 750), bare-hand contact of ready-to-eat food in the deli area (67%, n = 698), separation of raw and ready-to-eat food in the seafood case (63%, n = 660), cross-contamination from serving utensils in the deli case (62%, n = 644), and incorrect product storage temperature (51%, n = 528). On a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 was very unsafe and 5 was very safe, a significant difference was found between average risk perception scores for photographs of actual contributing factors (score of ca. 2.5) and scores for photographs of perceived contributing factors (score of ca. 2.0). Themes from the focus groups supported the results of the survey and provided additional insight into consumer food safety risk perceptions. The results of this study inform communication interventions for consumers and retail food safety professionals aimed at improving hazard identification.

  15. Consumer Knowledge of Fresh Produce Safety and the Food Safety Modernization Act

    OpenAIRE

    Schrier, Stevie

    2014-01-01

    Between 1976 and 2012, there has been an increase in fresh fruit consumption from around 31 kg. (68 lbs.) of fruit per capita to around 136 kg. (300 lbs.) per capita and consumption of fresh vegetables has increased from around 45 kg. (100 lbs.) per capita to around 181 kg. (400 lbs.) per capita (Tables 2 and 3) (Cook, 2013). Most of the fresh produce is consumed raw. In the United States there are approximately 48 million cases of food borne illnesses reported every year resulting in 3,000 d...

  16. Consumer food handling recommendations: is thawing of turkey a food safety issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Bonnie Jeannette; Li, Kelly Wing Man; Powell, Douglas Alan

    2003-01-01

    While it is important that dietitians and other health or food professionals provide consistent messages to the public about food safety, it is equally important that the information be evidence-based. Conflicting recommendations are evident when reviewing consumer publications from food safety advisory groups and the scientific literature. In addition, caveats are attached to the various food-handling methods. Pathogens, spoilage microorganisms, and contamination of the work area are the major concerns in thawing turkey. While several methods, including thawing on the counter at ambient temperatures, can be employed for thawing turkey, cooking to an adequate internal temperature, validated with a meat thermometer, is the more critical step. The findings indicate that providing clients or consumers with clear, consistent, evidence-based messages is difficult for food and health professionals. Further research is required to corroborate best practices in a kitchen setting. This paper is of interest to professionals who counsel clients at high risk for foodborne illness, or who counsel consumers about safe preparation of foods such as turkey.

  17. Bill Maurer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Tooker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Professor Bill Maurer is a renowned cultural anthropologist who conducts research on law, property, money and finance, focusing on the technological infrastructures and social relations of exchange and payment. Professor Maurer graduated from Stanford University in 1994 with a PhD in Anthropology. He moved to UC Irvine in 1996 as Assistant Professor, going on to become Chair of UC Irvine’s Department of Anthropology (2005-2011 and Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies in the Social Sciences (2011-2013. In July 2013 he assumed his current role as Dean of UC Irvine’s School of Social Sciences. Professor Maurer has published on topics ranging from offshore financial services to mobile phone-enabled money transfers, Islamic finance, alternative currencies, and the future of money. He is founding director of the Institute for Money, Technology and Financial Inclusion, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and was the founding co-director of the Intel Science and Technology Center in Social Computing. He is the editor of six collections, as well as the author of Recharting the Caribbean: Land, Law and Citizenship in the British Virgin Islands (1997, Pious Property: Islamic Mortgages in the United States (2006, and Mutual Life, Limited: Islamic Banking, Alternative Currencies, Lateral Reason (2005. The latter received the Victor Turner Prize in 2005. Professor Maurer visited the University of Warwick in September 2014 under the auspices of Warwick’s Global Governance GRP.

  18. Consumer perception versus scientific evidence about health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Sioen, Isabelle; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Van Camp, John; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the gap between consumer perception and scientific evidence related to health benefits and safety risks from fish consumption. Consumer perceptions from a cross-sectional survey in March 2003 in Belgium were compared with scientific evidence based on a literature review. A quota sampling procedure was used with age as quota control variable. Subjects completed a self-administered questionnaire including health benefit beliefs from fish, fish content and effect beliefs for nutrients and harmful substances. Adults (n=429), who were the main person responsible for food purchasing in the household (284 women; 145 men), aged 18-83 years, from different regional, education, family size and income groups. Fish is predominantly perceived as a healthy food that reduces risk for coronary heart disease, which corroborates scientific evidence. This perception is stronger among women than among men. In contrast with scientific evidence, 46% of the consumers believe that fish contains dietary fibre, whereas less than one-third is aware that fish contains omega-3 fatty acids and that this nutrient has a positive impact on human health. The gap between perception and evidence is larger among consumers with lower education. In general, consumers are better aware of the content and effect of harmful substances than of nutrients in fish. Despite conclusive evidence about the content and positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish, related consumer awareness and beliefs are poor and often wrong. This study exemplifies the need for nutrition education and more effective communication about the health benefits of fish consumption.

  19. Effectiveness of pads and enclosures as safety interventions on consumer trampolines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, David; Scarrott, Carl; Sushinsky, George

    2010-01-01

    Background Trampolines continue to be a major source of childhood injury. Objective To examine available data on trampoline injuries in order to determine the effectiveness of padding and enclosures. Design Trampoline injuries from the NEISS database from 2002 to 2007 were reclassified into five cause-categories, to examine evidence for injury trends. Setting The ASTM trampoline standard recommendations for safety padding were upgraded in 1999 and enclosures were introduced in 1997. This is the first study to examine the impact of these changes. Patients The sampling frame comprises patients with NEISS product code ‘consumer trampolines’ (1233). A systematic sample of 360 patients each year is taken. Interventions The prominent interventions recommended by the ASTM are netting enclosures to prevent falling off and safety padding to cover frames and springs. Main outcome measures Proportion of injuries within each cause-category and trend estimates. Results There was no evidence for a decline within the injury cause-categories that should be prevented by these interventions from 2002 to 2007. Conclusions If these interventions were effective the associated injury causes would be in decline. Instead they remain close to half of all trampoline injuries with no significant change over the period of the study. Follow-up studies are proposed to determine the reasons. Given the number of injuries involved it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure these safety interventions or their equivalents are in place, work properly and remain effective for the life of consumer trampolines. PMID:20570986

  20. Effectiveness of pads and enclosures as safety interventions on consumer trampolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Keith; Eager, David; Scarrott, Carl; Sushinsky, George

    2010-06-01

    Trampolines continue to be a major source of childhood injury. To examine available data on trampoline injuries in order to determine the effectiveness of padding and enclosures. Trampoline injuries from the NEISS database from 2002 to 2007 were reclassified into five cause-categories, to examine evidence for injury trends. The ASTM trampoline standard recommendations for safety padding were upgraded in 1999 and enclosures were introduced in 1997. This is the first study to examine the impact of these changes. The sampling frame comprises patients with NEISS product code 'consumer trampolines' (1233). A systematic sample of 360 patients each year is taken. The prominent interventions recommended by the ASTM are netting enclosures to prevent falling off and safety padding to cover frames and springs. Proportion of injuries within each cause-category and trend estimates. There was no evidence for a decline within the injury cause-categories that should be prevented by these interventions from 2002 to 2007. If these interventions were effective the associated injury causes would be in decline. Instead they remain close to half of all trampoline injuries with no significant change over the period of the study. Follow-up studies are proposed to determine the reasons. Given the number of injuries involved it is recommended that steps be taken to ensure these safety interventions or their equivalents are in place, work properly and remain effective for the life of consumer trampolines.

  1. Consumer confidence in the safety of food in Canada and the Netherlands: The validation of a generic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Goddard, E.; Frewer, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    A thorough understanding of consumer confidence in the safety of food and the factors by which this is influenced is necessary for the development of adequate and effective risk management and communication regarding food safety issues. As food chains become globalized, risk management and

  2. Food safety and health: a survey of rural and urban household consumer practices, knowledge to food safety and food related illnesses in Ogun State.

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwawemimo Adebowale; Kassim, Ibrahim O

    2017-01-01

    Background: Consumers’ knowledge on food safety and related practices play central role in reducing foodborne diseases, which represents significant concerns to public health. Objectives: To evaluate rural and urban household consumers knowledge of food safety and related practices in Ogun state, Nigeria. Also, awareness of foodborne illnesses, and  association between respondents’ demographic characteristics and food safety knowledge were investigated. Methods: A crossectional study...

  3. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  4. Musculoskeletal Injuries Resulting from Use of Hoverboards: Safety Concerns With an Unregulated Consumer Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Horn, B David; Lin, Ines C; Chang, Benjamin; Carrigan, Robert B; Shah, Apurva

    2018-01-01

    Hoverboards were recently introduced to the US consumer market and experienced rapid popularity. Given the high frequency of musculoskeletal injury with other wheeled recreation devices, we sought to analyze hoverboard injuries in children. A retrospective review of patients with musculoskeletal injury related to hoverboard use was performed at a tertiary care children's hospital. From November 2015 to January 2016, 2.3% of all fractures were related to hoverboards. Common injury mechanisms were fall (79%) and finger entrapment between wheel and wheel-well (10%). The most frequently fractured sites included the distal radius (43%) and phalanx (17%). Common surgical procedures were nailbed repair and pinning for Seymour fracture and percutaneous pinning for distal radius fracture. There exists high risk for distal radius fractures from falls and phalanx fractures from finger entrapment between the wheel and wheel-well. Hoverboard safety can be improved with regular use of wrist guards and improved wheel-well design.

  5. 49 CFR 375.807 - What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my freight bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... upon my freight bill? 375.807 Section 375.807 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Collection of Charges § 375.807 What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my...

  6. A food recall case study in Australia – Towards the development of food safety applications for consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeola Bamgboje-Ayodele

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumer attitudes, behaviours and purchasing preferences towards different types of food highlight the increased demand for better quality information on safety, quality and provenance of food products and on sustainability of food production processes. These changes offer both new opportunities and risks for food producers who require mechanisms to better understand and respond to changing consumers’ decision-making trends on food.  In the area of food safety, investigation of consumer and producer responses during recall incidents provide an opportunity to holistically understand existing information flows and elicit user requirements necessary for the development of more effective consumer food safety applications.This paper reports on a case study conducted with an Australian premium manufacturing company that experienced a food recall in 2014. The investigation confirms that current Australian food recall response mechanisms do not guarantee a closed loop of communication with all purchasers of a recalled product. It also highlights that producers still face difficulties in understanding how best to effectively understand and respond to different types of consumers. It emerges that recovery from a food incident relies on many factors including pre-existing brand reputation, effective information management, control mechanisms and supply chain partner response. From a consumer perspective, it is evident that consumers’ responses are influenced by various factors that require sensitivity around the choice of information modality and information platform adopted to enhance communications during food recall. The paper highlights the need for further research into understanding consumer food safety behaviours post-purchase to improve the development of consumer food safety applications.

  7. Consumer rights and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In March 1998, the Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry issued its final report, which included the Consumer Bill of Rights and Responsibilities. The Commission was appointed ...

  8. Food safety and health: a survey of rural and urban household consumer practices, knowledge to food safety and food related illnesses in Ogun State.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwawemimo Adebowale

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumers’ knowledge on food safety and related practices play central role in reducing foodborne diseases, which represents significant concerns to public health. Objectives: To evaluate rural and urban household consumers knowledge of food safety and related practices in Ogun state, Nigeria. Also, awareness of foodborne illnesses, and  association between respondents’ demographic characteristics and food safety knowledge were investigated. Methods: A crossectional study, which involved a questionnaire based interview of a group of 120 volunteers from four different local government areas (LGA in Ogun State was conducted. Pearson chi-square analysis was used to test the association between consumers’ demographic parameters and knowledge of food safety. Results: Overall,  eighteen (15.8%, 95% Cl, 10.0 – 23.7 male, and ninety-six (82.2%, 95% Cl, 76.3 – 89.9 female within the age range 16 – 60 years took part in the study. Our data showed that there was poor knowledge regarding food safety practices and food borne illnesses among rural and urban consumers surveyed. However, there was a significant difference in the awareness of rural and urban household consumers to foodborne illnesses and associated complications, (p <0.05. Also, Respondents’ marital status were significantly associated with knowledge of food safety (p <0.000. Conclusion: Poor consumer knowledge of food safety, and food related illnesses  were reported, informing the urgent need to improve on  food safety education such as food handling, preparation, storage and general hygiene practices in homes in Nigeria.

  9. The use of non-animal alternatives in the safety evaluations of cosmetics ingredients by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinardell, M P

    2015-03-01

    In Europe, the safety evaluation of cosmetics is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient. Article 3 of the Cosmetics Regulation specifies that a cosmetic product made available on the market is to be safe for human health when used normally or under reasonably foreseeable conditions. For substances that cause some concern with respect to human health (e.g., colourants, preservatives, UV-filters), safety is evaluated at the Commission level by a scientific committee, presently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulations, in the EU, the marketing of cosmetics products and their ingredients that have been tested on animals for most of their human health effects, including acute toxicity, is prohibited. Nevertheless, any study dating from before this prohibition took effect is accepted for the safety assessment of cosmetics ingredients. The in vitro methods reported in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS are here evaluated from the published reports issued by the scientific committee of the Directorate General of Health and Consumers (DG SANCO); responsible for the safety of cosmetics ingredients. The number of studies submitted to the SCCS that do not involve animals is still low and in general the safety of cosmetics ingredients is based on in vivo studies performed before the prohibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. National Telecommunications and Information Administration Authorization. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on HR 5497, a Bill to Authorize Appropriations for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration for Fiscal Years of 1985 and 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This report on a hearing on legislation to authorize an increased appropriation for the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) for fiscal years 1985 and 1986 contains an introductory statement by Timothy E. Wirth, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance; the text of the bill;…

  11. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKET SEGMENTATION FOR WORKPLACE SAFETY CONSULTANTS OF SMALL BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to use marketing principles to address the proper techniques that can be usefully applied by security consultant’s work for small businesses. In turn, this research can be classified as qualitative, descriptive where were analyzed information’s contained the Work Accident Statistical Year book also can be characterized how descriptive, since it describes  the marketing activities to be used with small businesses, and is a cross-sectional study involving several cases in which data were collected in a single chronological step. The literature was developed using marketing authors and Work safety. The data were analyzed using the factors that influence consumer behavior Chisnall (1995, the model of the buying decision process described by Kotler (1967, stages of growth proposed by Churchill and Lewis (1983 business, strategic and specific definitions for small businesses described by Rodrigues (2012. It was identified that small businesses have characteristics that are centered around the owner. As a marketing strategy, personal selling can be effective.

  12. Quick Tips for Buying Medicines Over the Internet: A Consumer Safety Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Protecting Yourself Counterfeit Medicine Medication Health Fraud For Consumers For Health Professionals Page Last Updated: ... Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content ...

  13. The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentem, Julia; Chamberlain, Mark; Sangster, Bart

    2004-12-01

    At present, we are unable to use much of the data derived from alternative (non-animal) tests for human health risk assessment. This brief Comment outlines why it is plausible that new paradigms could be developed to enable risk assessment to support consumer safety decisions, without the need to generate data in animal tests. The availability of technologies that did not exist 10 years ago makes this new approach possible. The approach is based on the concept that data and information derived from applying existing and new technologies to non-animal models can be interpreted in terms of harm and disease in man. A prerequisite is that similar data and information generated in a clinical setting are available to permit this "translation". The incorporation of this additional translation step should make it possible to use data and information generated in non-animal models as inputs to risk assessment. The new technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. Their application to in vitro and human "models" enables large amounts of data to be generated very quickly. The processing, interpretation and translation of these data need to be supported by powerful informatics capabilities and statistical tools. The use of integrated "systems biology" approaches will further support the interpretation by providing better understanding of the underlying biological complexity and mechanisms of toxicity. Clinical medicine is using the opportunities offered by the new "omics" technologies to advance the understanding of disease. The application of these technologies in clinical medicine will generate massive amounts of data that will need processing and interpretation to allow clinicians to better diagnose disease and understand the patients' responses to therapeutic interventions. Support from clinical epidemiology will be essential. If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit

  14. Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun [Hallym University, Kangwon (Korea); Lee, Cherl Ho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Jung Hee [Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to beefs (0-5 kGy) and porks (0-30 kGy) for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity and four-week oral toxicity. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. In the study of rat hepatocarcinogenesis, the consumption of gamma irradiated beef and pork not only does not affect the formation of lipid peroxide and membrane stability but also has a possibility to inhibit hepatocarcinogenesis. Also, the consumption of {gamma} - irradiated beef and pork does not affect antioxidative defense system. In the study of the biological safety of korean red pepper, no difference was found on microbial growth between pepper extract alone or irradiated pepper extract. In the preservation study of korean traditional rice-cake(garedok), irradiation dose below 10kGy had no influence on typical sensory characteristics. The shelf-life in rice-cakes with different conditions was the longest on 10kGy treatment than 5kGy. In investigation of the consumer attitude toward irradiated foods, the main reason for the concern about irradiated foods is that compounds in the products formed by irradiation. Therefore, regulatory authorities must be encouraged to permit the sale of irradiated items when wholesomeness is established. (author). 94 refs.,31 figs., 62 tabs.

  15. CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR SAFETY LABELS IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF POTASSIUM BROMATE IN BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Oni

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analysed consumer willingness to pay for safety labels in Nigeria by a case study of potassium bromate in bread” in Benin City, Edo State. It specifi cally investigates factors that promote willingness to pay for label among consumers of bread in Benin City, Edo State. Data used for the study were obtained through a well-structured questionnaire from 200 respondents. Both descriptive analytical methods and probit regression models were used for the analysis. The study revealed that 73% of the respondents are in their active working age with 50 percent of the respondent being male and female respectively. 67 percent of the respondents are married with 55 percent having an average of 5 members per household. 99 percent of the respondents are educated i.e. they have the capability of being able to read and write. Respondents purchased bread mainly from hawkers (60% with about 60% of them being aware of the presence of bromate in bread. 40% of the consumers used labeling as a way of identifying bromate free bread. Other methods reported deal with differences in price of bread with same weight, aroma and taste. Result also revealed that 60% of the respondents got to know about the negative effect of bromate from news (both print and mass media. Econometric results show that variables like education, gender, income, prior knowledge of bromate and perception held by respondents of negative implications of bromate signifi cantly infl uence the willingness to pay for safety labels. Education, gender, income and prior knowledge of bromate positively infl uence the probability of consumers’ decision to pay for safety label, while price of bread and confi dence and perception held by respondents of negative implications of bromate on human health infl uence consumers willingness to pay more for safety labels. The study, thus, suggests a defi ned market for bread purchases, community based awareness programme and extension of National Agency

  16. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    of the beef chain: primary production (adjusting cattle feed), slaughtering (decontaminating cattle hides) and processing (applying treatments). This paper presents original findings from a quantitative study with beef consumers (n ¼ 2520) from five European countries (France, Germany, Poland, Spain...

  17. Consumer contribution to food contamination in Brazil: modelling the food safety risk in the home

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Paulo Olinto da Motta; Steve Flint; Paul Perry; Alasdair Noble

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are among the most widespread public health issues, killing about 2.2 million people annually, and costing hundreds of billions of US dollars for governments, companies, families and consumers (WHO, 2007). In Brazil, foodborne diseases acquired in the home account for 55% of notified outbreaks (BRASIL, 2012). Several studies have investigated aspects of consumer behaviour concerning food poisoning, mapping practices in the home, but it remains a challenge to obtain a full p...

  18. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Emanuele Biondo

    Full Text Available We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  19. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  20. Consumer willingness to pay for food safety: the case of mycotoxins in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins contamination in food is a serious source of health risks. This paper evaluates the Italian consumers’ perception of the mycotoxins’ risk through their willingness to pay (WTP for a hypothetical bottle of milk obtained by cows fed with, inter alia, maize certified for the “good practices” (GPs that reduce this risk. Therefore, a web-based stated choice experiment (SCE has been carried out involving a representative sample of 973 Italian consumers and the WTP has been measured using the panel data version of a Random Parameters Logit (RPL model. Results show that Italian consumers are willing to pay a 29% average price premium for “reduced-mycotoxins” milk. This premium increases for consumers between 44 and 54 years of age, who are students, have completed tertiary education, are economically well-off and shop fairly infrequently.

  1. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Biondo, A E; Pluchino, A; Rapisarda, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  2. Identification and classification of consumer food-handling behaviors for food safety education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, L C; Kendall, P; Hillers, V; Chen, G; DiMascola, S

    2001-11-01

    To identify key behaviors associated with major food safety pathogen control factors. World Wide Web-based descriptive study with 4 tasks: compile a list of food-handling behaviors from the literature; use Delphi process to build consensus, rank order, and edit lists of behaviors; assess content and construct validity; and review results of Delphi process at a summit meeting of selected experts to make final recommendations for a food safety behavior list. A convenience sample of 10 epidemiologists, 11 food microbiologists, 10 food safety educators, and 10 food safety policy makers was recruited from lists of nationally known experts. Twenty-four experts completed 4 rounds of surveys presented to them via a Web site. Six experts attended a face-to-face meeting to finalize behavior lists. Statistical analyses performed Descriptive statistics and sum of observation data were used to determine rank order and validity. Twenty-nine key food-handling behaviors for maintaining the safety of food and reducing the number of cases and outbreaks of foodborne illness were identified. These were rank-ordered within 5 pathogen control factors: practice personal hygiene, cook foods adequately, avoid cross-contamination, keep foods at safe temperatures, and avoid foods from unsafe sources. This list of rank-ordered behaviors grouped by pathogen control factor should help dietitians and educators confidently teach food safety guidance that will be most effective in preventing illness.

  3. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 97-102, p. 14 (May 15, 1981); House Report No. 97-158, p. 11 (June 19, 1981); H. Conf. Rep. No. 97... obligation to safeguard the American consumer. v. There are certain factors the agency considers before it...—death—to one of the most vulnerable segments of our population—infants and young children. While the...

  4. Understanding your hospital bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... understand, call your insurance company. Check Your Charges Errors on your medical bill can cost you money. So it is ... what you were told. If you find an error and do not feel you are getting the help you need, consider hiring a medical-billing advocate. Advocates charge an hourly fee or ...

  5. Food safety-related refrigeration and freezer practices and attitudes of consumers in Peoria and surrounding counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ruth E; Cullen, Robert W; Memken, Jean A; Nnakwe, Nweze E

    2006-07-01

    Government agencies have recently emphasized the importance of food safety. Reducing the risk of foodborne illnesses within the home requires American consumers to put government refrigeration and freezer recommendations into practice; however, little research has been conducted regarding the use of proper refrigeration and freezer storage practices by consumers. A random sample survey was conducted to examine attitudes and practices of proper refrigeration and storage techniques of consumers in Peoria County, Illinois, and to determine whether gender, age, education, and income level have an effect on these variables. Eighty-one of 500 random sample surveys mailed were returned between 10 January and 15 February 2005. The majority of the participants were female (56, 69.1%), were 50 to 59 years old (18, 22.2%), had a bachelor's degree (33, 40.7%), and had a reported total household income of 60,000 dollars or greater (39, 91.4%). Average attitudinal scores indicated that participants thought it was important to take proper steps to prevent foodborne illnesses in the home; however, 68.8% of participants scored poorly on the practice portion of the survey. Only 12.3% of participants stated that they had a thermometer in their freezer, and 24.7% had one in their refrigerator. Eighty-four percent of respondents did not store eggs correctly in the refrigerator. No significant relationships (P < 0.05) were found within this sample population. These results suggest that further evaluation of consumer practices and attitudes is needed to better understand consumers so that they can be effectively educated about the prevention of foodborne illnesses at home.

  6. Consumer food safety knowledge, practices, and demographic differences: findings from a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sumeet R; Cates, Sheryl; Morales, Roberta

    2005-09-01

    Risk communication and consumer education to promote safer handling of food can be the best way of managing the risk of foodborne illness at the consumer end of the food chain. Thus, an understanding of the overall status of food handling knowledge and practices is needed. Although traditional qualitative reviews can be used for combining information from several studies on specific food handling behaviors, a structured approach of meta-analysis can be more advantageous in a holistic assessment. We combined findings from 20 studies using meta-analysis methods to estimate percentages of consumers engaging in risky behaviors, such as consumption of raw food, poor hygiene, and cross-contamination, separated by various demographic categories. We estimated standard errors to reflect sampling error and between-study random variation. Then we evaluated the statistical significance of differences in behaviors across demographic categories and across behavioral measures. There were considerable differences in behaviors across demographic categories, possibly because of socioeconomic and cultural differences. For example, compared with women, men reported greater consumption of raw or undercooked foods, poorer hygiene, poorer practices to prevent cross-contamination, and less safe defrosting practices. Mid-age adults consumed more raw food (except milk) than did young adults and seniors. High-income individuals reported greater consumption of raw foods, less knowledge of hygiene, and poorer cross-contamination practices. The highest raw ground beef and egg consumption and the poorest hygiene and cross-contamination practices were found in the U.S. Mountain region. Meta-analysis was useful for identifying important data gaps and demographic groups with risky behaviors, and this information can be used to prioritize further research.

  7. The persuasiveness of online safety cues: The impact of prevention focus compatibility of web content on consumer risk perceptions, attitudes and intentions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, Guda; Kerkhof, Peter; Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Safety cues are frequently used in online stores to relieve consumers' risk perceptions concerning online purchases. This paper uses regulatory focus theory (RFT) to predict the persuasiveness of online safety cues. According to RFT (Higgins, 1997), people process information differently depending

  8. The persuasiveness of online safety cues: The impact of prevention focus compatibility of Web content on consumers' risk perceptions, attitudes, and intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kerkhof, P.; Fennis, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Safety cues are frequently used in online stores to relieve consumers' risk perceptions concerning online purchases. This paper uses regulatory focus theory (RFT) to predict the persuasiveness of online safety cues. According to RFT (Higgins, 1997), people process information differently depending

  9. The changing nature of clinical decision support systems: a focus on consumers, genomics, public health and decision safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, E; Lau, A Y S; Tsafnat, G; Sintchenko, V; Magrabi, F

    2009-01-01

    To review the recent research literature in clinical decision support systems (CDSS). A review of recent literature was undertaken, focussing on CDSS evaluation, consumers and public health, the impact of translational bioinformatics on CDSS design, and CDSS safety. In recent years, researchers have concentrated much less on the development of decision technologies, and have focussed more on the impact of CDSS in the clinical world. Recent work highlights that traditional process measures of CDSS effectiveness, such as document relevance are poor proxy measures for decision outcomes. Measuring the dynamics of decision making, for example via decision velocity, may produce a more accurate picture of effectiveness. Another trend is the broadening of user base for CDSS beyond front line clinicians. Consumers are now a major focus for biomedical informatics, as are public health officials, tasked with detecting and managing disease outbreaks at a health system, rather than individual patient level. Bioinformatics is also changing the nature of CDSS. Apart from personalisation of therapy recommendations, translational bioinformatics is creating new challenges in the interpretation of the meaning of genetic data. Finally, there is much recent interest in the safety and effectiveness of computerised physician order entry (CPOE) systems, given that prescribing and administration errors are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Of note, there is still much controversy surrounding the contention that poorly designed, implemented or used CDSS may actually lead to harm. CDSS research remains an active and evolving area of research, as CDSS penetrate more widely beyond their traditional domain into consumer decision support, and as decisions become more complex, for example by involving sequence level genetic data.

  10. Reactive Energy Billing in Operator Tariffs in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Bućko; Artur Wilczyński

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the current method of reactive energy billing in the tariffs of distribution grid operators in Poland. The current solutions are subject to critical assessment. Issues related to the motivation effect of the current solutions on consumers are analysed. Problems that occur in relation with connecting distributed generators to the distribution grid and challenges related to prosumer billing are indicated.

  11. An electricity billing model | Adetona | Journal of Applied Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linear regression analysis has been employed to develop a model for predicting accurately the electricity billing for commercial consumers in Ogun State (Nigeria) at faster rate. The electricity billing model was implement-ed, executed and tested using embedded MATLAB function blocks. The correlations between the ...

  12. Consumer interest in environmental impact, safety, health and animal welfare aspects of modern pig production: Results of a cross-national choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, K G; Sonntag, W I; Glanz-Chanos, V; Forum, S

    2017-11-21

    Are consumers interested in aspects of pig production and do they take these into account in their buying decisions when such information is available? Samples of consumers in Germany and Poland selected the two - for them - most important out of a list of ten production characteristics, relating to animal welfare, health and safety, and environmental issues. In a subsequent choice experiment, the relative weight these characteristics had in consumers' choices was estimated. Relative importance of production characteristics varied between consumer segments, with the production interested segment being bigger in Germany than in Poland. With the exception of one animal welfare related criterion in Germany, those production characteristics that consumers perceive as most important relate to health and safety aspects rather than to animal welfare and environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Workplace health and safety issues among community nurses: a study regarding the impact on providing care to rural consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Daniel; Lê, Quynh; Nguyen, Uyen; Hoang, Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the types of workplace health and safety issues rural community nurses encounter and the impact these issues have on providing care to rural consumers. Methods The study undertook a narrative inquiry underpinned by a phenomenological approach. Community nursing staff who worked exclusively in rural areas and employed in a permanent capacity were contacted among 13 of the 16 consenting healthcare services. All community nurses who expressed a desire to participate were interviewed. Data were collected using semistructured interviews with 15 community nurses in rural and remote communities. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interview data. Results The role, function and structures of community nursing services varied greatly from site to site and were developed and centred on meeting the needs of individual communities. In addition, a number of workplace health and safety challenges were identified and were centred on the geographical, physical and organisational environment that community nurses work across. The workplace health and safety challenges within these environments included driving large distances between client’s homes and their office which lead to working in isolation for long periods and without adequate communication. In addition, other issues included encountering, managing and developing strategies to deal with poor client and carer behaviour; working within and negotiating working environments such as the poor condition of patient homes and clients smoking; navigating animals in the workplace; vertical and horizontal violence; and issues around workload, burnout and work-related stress. Conclusions Many nurses achieved good outcomes to meet the needs of rural community health consumers. Managers were vital to ensure that service objectives were met. Despite the positive outcomes, many processes were considered unsafe by community nurses. It was identified that greater training and

  14. Investigating Changes in Canadian Consumers' Food Safety Concerns, 2003 and 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michele M.; Li, Yu

    2007-01-01

    Building on the results of an initial analysis of risk ranking data collected from a representative group of some 850 Canadian respondents in early 2003, this study assesses a similar set of risk ranking questions applied to a somewhat larger representative group of some 1500 Canadians in late 2005. We also compare the 2003 and 2005 risk rankings. In both surveys, risk rankings for eight food safety issues (bacteria contamination, pesticide residuals, use of hormones in food production, use o...

  15. Food Safety: Recommendations for Determining Doneness in Consumer Egg Dish Recipes and Measurement of Endpoint Temperatures When Recipes Are Followed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandria Godwin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking egg dishes, such as pies, quiches, and casseroles, potentially leading to foodborne illnesses such as Salmonellosis. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA recommends cooking egg mixtures until the center reaches 71 °C (160 °F. The objectives of this study were to determine what endpoint temperature information consumers receive from egg dish recipes, and if recipes would lead to safe temperatures when followed. Egg dish recipes (n = 226 from 65 websites, 50 cookbooks, and nine magazine titles (multiple issues of each were analyzed. Time was the most frequently used indicator, given in 92% of the recipes, with 15% using only time. Other indicators included: set (89, browned (76, clean toothpick/knife (60, puffed (27, and jiggled (13. Only two recipes indicated final endpoint temperatures. Three recipes (a pie, a quiche, and an egg casserole were chosen and prepared in triplicate to see if they would reach recommended temperatures. The pie and quiche were still liquid at 71 °C, and were well over the recommended temperature when cooked according to instructions, but the egg casserole was not consistently above 71 °C, when the recipe instructions indicated it was done and the center was light brown and “jiggled” This research indicates that consumers are not receiving information on endpoint temperatures in egg recipes, but the likelihood of foodborne illness is low since most dishes probably be cooked past the recommended temperature before the consumer considers them done unless there are many inclusions that may absorb liquid and reduce the appearance of liquid in the dish.

  16. Bill Clinton v Estonii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide endise presidendi Bill Clintoni külaskäigust Eestisse, ka tema kohtumisest Arnold Rüütliga. Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje (2002) 11. juuni, lk. 3, pealk.: "Klinton priznal uspehi Estonii"

  17. Effect of Household Coffee Processing on Pesticide Residues as a Means of Ensuring Consumers' Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-09-30

    Coffee is a highly consumed and popular beverage all over the world; however, coffee beans used for daily consumption may contain pesticide residues that may cause adverse health effects to consumers. In this monitoring study, the effect of household coffee processing on pesticide residues in coffee beans was investigated. Twelve pesticides, including metabolites and isomers (endosulfan α, endosulfan β, cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, heptachlor epoxide, hexachlorobenzene, p'p-DDE, p'p-DDD, o'p-DDT, and p'p-DDT) were spiked in coffee beans collected from a local market in southwestern Ethiopia. The subsequent household coffee processing conditions (washing, roasting, and brewing) were established as closely as possible to the traditional household coffee processing in Ethiopia. Washing of coffee beans showed 14.63-57.69 percent reduction, while the roasting process reduced up to 99.8 percent. Chlorpyrifos ethyl, permethrin, cypermethrin, endosulfan α and β in roasting and all of the 12 pesticides in the coffee brewing processes were not detected. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the reduction of pesticide residues by washing is significantly different from roasting and brewing (P 0.05). The processing factor (PF) was less than one (PF < 1), which indicates reduction of pesticides under study during processing of the coffee beans. The cumulative effect of the three processing methods has a paramount importance in evaluating the risks associated with ingestion of pesticide residues, particularly in coffee beans.

  18. Social media for arthritis-related comparative effectiveness and safety research and the impact of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeffrey R; Chen, Lang; Higginbotham, Phillip; Nowell, W Benjamin; Gal-Levy, Ronit; Willig, James; Safford, Monika; Coe, Joseph; O'Hara, Kaitlin; Sa'adon, Roee

    2017-03-07

    Social media may complement traditional data sources to answer comparative effectiveness/safety questions after medication licensure. The Treato platform was used to analyze all publicly available social media data including Facebook, blogs, and discussion boards for posts mentioning inflammatory arthritis (e.g. rheumatoid, psoriatic). Safety events were self-reported by patients and mapped to medical ontologies, resolving synonyms. Disease and symptom-related treatment indications were manually redacted. The units of analysis were unique terms in posts. Pre-specified conditions (e.g. herpes zoster (HZ)) were selected based upon safety signals from clinical trials and reported as pairwise odds ratios (ORs); drugs were compared with Fisher's exact test. Empirically identified events were analyzed using disproportionality analysis and reported as relative reporting ratios (RRRs). The accuracy of a natural language processing (NLP) classifier to identify cases of shingles associated with arthritis medications was assessed. As of October 2015, there were 785,656 arthritis-related posts. Posts were predominantly US posts (75%) from patient authors (87%) under 40 years of age (61%). For HZ posts (n = 1815), ORs were significantly increased with tofacitinib versus other rheumatoid arthritis therapies. ORs for mentions of perforated bowel (n = 13) were higher with tocilizumab versus other therapies. RRRs associated with tofacitinib were highest in conditions related to baldness and hair regrowth, infections and cancer. The NLP classifier had a positive predictive value of 91% to identify HZ. There was a threefold increase in posts following television direct-to-consumer advertisement (p = 0.04); posts expressing medication safety concerns were significantly more frequent than favorable posts. Social media is a challenging yet promising data source that may complement traditional approaches for comparative effectiveness research for new medications.

  19. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities.

  20. Safety assessment of a novel active ingredient, acetyl aspartic acid, according to the EU Cosmetics Regulation and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P; Moran, G

    2015-10-01

    Acetyl aspartic acid (A-A-A) was proposed as a new novel active ingredient for use in cosmetics. The safety of A-A-A was assessed by following an in-house-developed 'New Ingredient Testing Strategy', which was designed in accordance with the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) notes of guidance and the requirements of Annex I of the EU Cosmetics Regulation. The aim of the project was to determine whether A-A-A was safe for use in cosmetics and to determine a maximum permitted safe level in the formulations. A literature review was conducted, consulting over 40 different information sources. This highlighted a number of gaps which required testing data. A-A-A was tested for phototoxicity according to OECD test guideline 432, skin irritation according to OECD test guideline 439 and eye irritation according to OECD test guideline 437. Dermal absorption of A-A-A was measured according to OECD test guideline 428 and was used to calculate the margin of safety (MoS). Finally, A-A-A was tested in a human repeat insult patch test (HRIPT) and a 14-day in-use tolerance study. A-A-A was non-phototoxic and was non-irritating to skin and eyes in in vitro testing. Dermal absorption was calculated to be 5%. The MoS for A-A-A was 351, at a level of 5%, for all cosmetic product types, indicating no systemic safety toxicity concern. A-A-A at 5% under occlusive patch on a panel of 50 adult volunteers induced no skin irritation or allergic reaction in the HRIPT study. Finally, repeated application of A-A-A to the periocular area, twice per day for 14 days, in 21 female volunteers, demonstrated that 1% A-A-A was well tolerated following dermatological and ophthalmological assessment in a cosmetic formulation. A-A-A was assessed as safe by the cosmetic safety assessor for use in cosmetics at a level of 5% in all cosmetic product types, in line with the requirements of the EU Cosmetics Regulation and in accordance with the SCCS notes of guidance. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic

  1. Package leaflets of the most consumed medicines in Portugal: safety and regulatory compliance issues. A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    Package leaflets are necessary for safe use of medicines. The aims of the present study were: 1) to assess the compliance between the content of the package leaflets and the specifications of the pharmaceutical regulations; and 2) to identify potential safety issues for patients. Qualitative descriptive study, involving all the package leaflets of branded medicines from the three most consumed therapeutic groups in Portugal, analyzed in the Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon. A checklist validated through an expert consensus process was used to gather the data. The content of each package leaflet in the sample was classified as compliant or non-compliant with compulsory regulatory issues (i.e. stated dosage and descriptions of adverse reactions) and optional regulatory issues (i.e. adverse reaction frequency, symptoms and procedures in cases of overdose). A total of 651 package leaflets were identified. Overall, the package leaflets were found to be compliant with the compulsory regulatory issues. However, the optional regulatory issues were only addressed in around half of the sample of package leaflets, which made it possible to identify some situations of potentially compromised drug safety. Ideally, the methodologies for package leaflet approval should be reviewed and optimized as a way of ensuring the inclusion of the minimum essential information for safe use of medicines.

  2. Package leaflets of the most consumed medicines in Portugal: safety and regulatory compliance issues. A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Pires

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVES: Package leaflets are necessary for safe use of medicines. The aims of the present study were: 1 to assess the compliance between the content of the package leaflets and the specifications of the pharmaceutical regulations; and 2 to identify potential safety issues for patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Qualitative descriptive study, involving all the package leaflets of branded medicines from the three most consumed therapeutic groups in Portugal, analyzed in the Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, School of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon. METHODS: A checklist validated through an expert consensus process was used to gather the data. The content of each package leaflet in the sample was classified as compliant or non-compliant with compulsory regulatory issues (i.e. stated dosage and descriptions of adverse reactions and optional regulatory issues (i.e. adverse reaction frequency, symptoms and procedures in cases of overdose. RESULTS: A total of 651 package leaflets were identified. Overall, the package leaflets were found to be compliant with the compulsory regulatory issues. However, the optional regulatory issues were only addressed in around half of the sample of package leaflets, which made it possible to identify some situations of potentially compromised drug safety. CONCLUSION: Ideally, the methodologies for package leaflet approval should be reviewed and optimized as a way of ensuring the inclusion of the minimum essential information for safe use of medicines.

  3. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the process Phoenix - ESPS, used to recycle post-consumer PET into food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2014-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the recycling process Phoenix – ESPS process (EU register No RECYC035). The input to the process is hot caustic washed and dried poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) flakes originating from collected post-consumer PET containers, mainly bottles and containing no more than 5 % of PET from non-food consumer applications. In this process, washed and drie...

  4. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Ekhator

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014–1.37, Cd (0.00–0.00017, Hg (0.00–0.00014, Sb (0.00–0.021, Mn (0.00–0.012, and Al (0.00–0.22. All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E-04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E-06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  5. Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhator, O C; Udowelle, N A; Igbiri, S; Asomugha, R N; Igweze, Z N; Orisakwe, O E

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should be considered. This study has investigated the level of potential toxic metal (Pb, Cd, Hg, Sb, Mn, and Al) contamination among street-vended foods in Benin City and Umunede. Methods. Twenty street food samples were purchased from vendors at bus stops. Metals were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The methods developed by the US EPA were employed to evaluate the potential health risk of toxic metals. Results. The concentrations of the toxic metals in mg/kg were in the range of Pb (0.014-1.37), Cd (0.00-0.00017), Hg (0.00-0.00014), Sb (0.00-0.021), Mn (0.00-0.012), and Al (0.00-0.22). All the toxic metals except Pb were below permissible limit set by WHO, EU, and USEPA. The daily intake, hazard quotient, and hazard index of all toxic metals except for Pb in some street foods were below the tolerable daily intake and threshold value of 1, indicating an insignificant health risk. Total cancer risk was within the priority risk level of 1.0E - 04 but higher than the acceptable risk level of 1E - 06. Conclusion. Consumption of some of these street foods is of public health concern.

  6. Relationship between consumer food safety knowledge and reported behavior among students from health sciences in one region of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garayoa, Roncesvalles; Córdoba, María; García-Jalón, Isabel; Sanchez-Villegas, Almudena; Vitas, Ana Isabel

    2005-12-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the relationship between knowledge about food safety and actual food handling practices among Spanish university students (mainly from the health sciences disciplines) who usually prepare meals at home. Based on level of education in food safety topics, students were divided in three groups: high, which included students from Food Science and Nutrition; medium, which included students from other health sciences; and low, which included students from non-health-related studies. More than two thirds of the 562 people selected had an accurate knowledge of the eight foodborne pathogens included in the survey, but only 5.2% were able to identify Staphylococcus aureus as a foodborne pathogen. Significant differences in responses were found depending on educational level concerning the food safety topic. For food handling, up to 60% of the responses reflected accurate knowledge of proper storage of prepared meals and washing of hands and materials to avoid cross-contamination. However, with the exception of questions related to storage temperature, there was considerable difference between knowledge and reported behavior. Although 98.6% of the participants recognized the importance of hand washing before and during food preparation, only one quarter (24.4%) affirmed that they washed their hands with soap and water. On questions concerning food practices, more accurate answers were given by the older students. Women answered questions regarding cross-contamination more accurately, whereas men were more accurate in response to questions concerning temperature and food preservation. In general, students with more knowledge of food hygiene had better reported practices, but even these students reported some high-risk behaviors. These results confirm the need to improve educational programs, ensuring that the acquired knowledge actually modifies consumer behavior.

  7. How much Baltic salmon can be consumed without exceeding the tolerable safety limit ?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, H.R. [Mobile Nutrients Ltd. (Denmark)

    2004-09-15

    Because Baltic salmon is a top predator preying on sprat, herring and tobis, it is very vulnerable to contamination with dioxin and PCBs. The EU safety limit (SL) for fish is 4 picogram (pg) WHOTEQ g{sup -1} fresh fish. In April 2004, Danish commercial salmon fishing was banned to in the Baltic sea around Bornholm and Gotland (mainly ICES areas 25, 26), because the Food Administration reported dioxin levels exceeding the intervention level of 3 pg g{sup -1} fresh salmon. Their report was based on data from 10 individual salmon, and 3 pooled samples, each with 10 salmon. Since dioxins are widespread in the environment, the human population face a trade off to produce sufficient food that is safe to eat and avoid eating contaminated food. The world population is increasing, and the demand for healthy food is steadily increasing. Consequently, there is a need for risk assessments, where the consequences of eating foods with different grades of contamination is evaluated. The evaluation must be based on data of high quality, and because dioxin accumulation is a slow proces, the risk assessments should consider long time periods of months and years instead of days and weeks. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the statistical variation of dioxin data from Baltic herring and salmon. The data are used to calculate the quantity of herring and salmon, that humans of different body weight can eat without exceeding the tolerable daily intake (TDI). (In dietary recommendations exposure from dairy products etc. must also be taken into account). A PCDD/F box model is proposed that subtract losses during cooking and postprandially.

  8. Analysis of Consumer Perceptions on Quality and Food Safety in the Spanish Beef Market: A Future Application in New Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    de Carlos, Pilar; Garcia Martinez, Marian; Felipe, Isabel de; Briz, Julian; Morais, Federico

    2005-01-01

    During the last years, the research of food quality perception and food safety have been issue of greater attention due to the intense existing debate on aspects related to ethical considerations relative to the new agricultural production techniques, animal welfare concerns, food scares and crises and their impact in consumer's confidence, that have brought numerous questions about quality and food safety. With the Total Food Quality Model as a point of departure, this study proposes an anal...

  9. Sutherland, Prof. Bill

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fellow Profile. Elected: 2000 Honorary. Sutherland, Prof. Bill. Date of birth: 1942. Address: Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E Rm 201, Salt Lake City, UT 8412-0830, U.S.A.. Contact: Office: (+1-801) 581 6424. Residence: (+1-801) 355 8342. Fax: (+1-801) 581 4801. Email: suther@physics.utah.edu, ...

  10. Fundred Dollar Bill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Fundred Dollar Bill Project which is an innovative artwork made of millions of drawings. This creative collective action is intended to support Operation Paydirt, an extraordinary art/science project uniting three million children with educators, scientists, healthcare professionals, designers, urban planners, engineers,…

  11. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  12. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer safety (SCCS) - Opinion on the safety of the use of Methylisothiazolinone (MI) (P94), in cosmetic products (sensitisation only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez-Arnau, A M

    2016-04-01

    The information provided does not support the safe use of MI as a preservative in rinse-off cosmetic products up to a concentration limit of 100 ppm from the view of induction of contact allergy. For rinse-off cosmetic products, a concentration of 15 ppm (0.0015%) MI is considered safe for the consumer from the point of view of induction of contact allergy. The information provided does not support the safe use of MI as a preservative in leave-on hair cosmetic products up to a concentration limit of 100 ppm from the point of view of induction of contact allergy. The concerns and opinions raised in SCCS Opinion SCCS/1521/13 (12 December 2013 with revision 27 March 2014) remain. The results of the recent Scandinavian study do not support safety of MI in rinse-off products at either 100 ppm or at 50 ppm for elicitation or induction. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States government. Website Feedback Connect with Us: Facebook Instagram YouTube Twitter Blog SlideShare GooglePlus Flickr Report an Unsafe Product Subscribe to CPSC News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government ...

  14. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be left anytime Website Feedback Connect with Us: Facebook Instagram YouTube Twitter Blog SlideShare GooglePlus Flickr Report an Unsafe Product Subscribe to CPSC News and Information Sitemap RSS E-mail Accessibility Privacy Policy Budget & Performance Open Government ...

  15. Fisheries and aquaculture industries involvement to control product health and quality safety to satisfy consumer-driven objectives on retail markets in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Eva [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany); Rosenthal, Harald [University of South Denmark, Department of Environmental and Business Economics, Niels Bohrs vej 9, DK-6700 Esbjerg (Denmark); Institute for Marine Research, University Kiel, Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past years the export of agricultural and fishery products from developing countries has substantially increased to markets within the OECD. Retailers and importers are expanding their international operations to meet consumer demands for year-round delivery of products. Moreover, consumers have become increasingly concerned about the safety of food, including those derived from aquatic resources [FAO/NACA/WHO Joint Study Group, 1999. Report food safety issues associated with products from aquaculture. WHO Technical Report Series No 883: VII, pp. 1-55]. Governments and leading businesses are responding by imposing new safety regulations and standards to the international food system (e.g. HACCP, EUREP-GAP), product liability and labeling [Reilly, A., Howgate, P., Kaeferstein, F., 1997. Safety hazards and the application of HACCP in aquaculture. In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Fish Inspection and Quality Control: A Global Focus, Arlington, VA, 19-24 May 1996. Technomic Publishing, Lancaster, PA, pp. 353-373]. Initial concerns for imports of aquacultural products from developing to industrialized countries focussed on bacterial contamination [Buras, N. 1993. Microbial safety of produce from wastewater-fed aquaculture. In: Pullin, R.V.C., Rosenthal, H., MacLean, J.L.(Eds.), Proceedings of ICLARM Conferences, vol. 31, pp. 285-295]. Today, if trade opportunities are to be maintained, these countries must adapt to a full array of regulations and standards. This paper describes four scenarios in aquaculture and fishing product trade between developing countries and countries in the European Union.

  16. Home Safe Home: Appliances, Tools, and Small Equipment. Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety in the Home, III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    Many accidents in the home are caused by faulty, defective or improperly designed tools, appliances, and equipment. Government, non-governmental organizations, and industries cooperate to develop and implement standards for the safe design and manufacture of consumer products. This booklet provides information to help consumers select products,…

  17. The consumer of therapy in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, J S

    1978-11-01

    The current emphasis on consumer advocacy and accountability in health care has implications for the practice of occupational therapy in mental health. The consumer movement that gained national attention during the 1960s was marked by the passage in 1962 of a congressional bill that affirmed the consumer's right to safety, the right to be informed, the right to choose, and the right to be heard. These four rights, as well as the concept of client self-determination (seen as an additional right of the client to determine his or her own participation in the evaluation and treatment process), can be applied to occupational therapy practice. Occupational therapists must begin to address the aspects of accountability to the consumer by understanding both the concept and the principles of consumerism and the consequences of focusing on the patient or client as consumer. Therapists must then attempt to apply these principles to practice. Principles of consumerism can be incorporated into practice in clinical, administrative, and educational settings.

  18. A point-of-sale communications campaign to provide consumers safety information on drug-dietary supplement interactions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Adam I; Lebow, David G; Raphael, Karen; Ali, Ather; Simmons, Leigh Ann

    2013-01-01

    Concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals has become increasingly common, and with this trend, so has the incidence of adverse drug-supplement interactions. In the current market, consumers have no way to distinguish between safe and potentially harmful supplements. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that messages designed to increase consumers' awareness of potential health risks of concurrent use of dietary supplements with over-the-counter and prescription pharmaceuticals would promote further consideration and action, as evidenced by (a) seeking additional information from an authoritative source or qualified health care professional and (b) changing dietary supplement usage patterns. To test this hypothesis, an innovative consumer information delivery system, referred to as the Buyer Information Network (BuyIN), was utilized. BuyIN uses currently available, Web-enabled point-of-sale (POS) technology to provide up-to-date, evidence-based, health- and safety-related messages to consumers at the retail checkout counter. Results showed that more than one-fourth (27.1%) of consumers (n = 199) who purchased targeted items reported they were aware of the messages. Of this subgroup of aware consumers, 11.2% reported that they sought additional information from a physician or pharmacist, 11.5% reported that they visited the website listed on the coupon, and 10.5% indicated that they changed their dietary supplement usage patterns as a result of the messages. Future research should include a large-scale study of a fully implemented and capable system at multiple test sites around the country, including investigating the utility of BuyIN in different retail settings.

  19. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer safety (SCCS)--Opinion on the safety of the use of α-arbutin in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sccs; Degen, Gisela H

    2016-02-01

    The SCCS considers the use of α-Arbutin safe for consumers in cosmetic products in a concentration up to 2% in face creams and up to 0.5% in body lotions. A potential combined use of α-Arbutin and other hydroquinone releasing substances in cosmetic products has not been evaluated in this Opinion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Consumer assessment of safety and date labeling statements on ready-to-eat meat and poultry products designed to minimize risk of listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Jenna; Kendall, Patricia; Medeiros, Lydia; Doorn, Jessica; Schroeder, Mary; Sofos, John

    2008-01-01

    Point-of-purchase safety-based labeling guidance on the proper storage and handling of refrigerated ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products could help reduce the risk of listeriosis. Seniors and pregnant women are two population groups at increased risk of listeriosis due to suppressed or compromised immune systems. We conducted 11 focus groups with senior-aged women and women of childbearing age in Colorado and Ohio to assess consumer awareness of Listeria, storage practices of RTE meat products, perceptions regarding the acceptability and usefulness of common date and potential food safety labeling statements on RTE meat and poultry products, and food safety information needs. Storage times for opened and unopened RTE products varied widely, with opened products often being stored longer than recommended. Women in both age groups paid attention to date labels on packages but varied highly in their interpretation of the statements. "Use by" statements were considered clearer and more helpful than "Sell by" or "Best if used by" labels. Proposed food safety-based labeling statements listing "antilisterial" agents used in RTE products were not well received. However, labels giving consumers instructions on how long they could keep RTE products and when to discard them after opening were considered helpful and well received. Participants indicated the need for further information about Listeria and its control. Educational information at point-of-purchase and where seniors and pregnant women congregate are suggested. Manufacturers are encouraged to provide more complete information on the safe storage and use of ready-to-eat meat and poultry products on package labels.

  1. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375...

  2. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)--Opinion on the safety of the use of β-arbutin in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Gisela H

    2015-12-01

    The SCCS considers the use of β-arbutin to be safe for consumers in cosmetic products in a concentration up to 7% in face creams provided that the contamination of hydroquinone in the cosmetic formulations remain below 1 ppm. A potential combined use of β-arbutin and other hydroquinone releasing substances in cosmetic products has not been evaluated in this Opinion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Consumer concerns: motivating to action.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruhn, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologic safety is consumers' most frequently volunteered food safety concern. An increase in the level of concern in recent years suggests that consumers are more receptive to educational information. However, changing lifestyles have lessened the awareness of foodborne illness, especially among younger consumers. Failure to fully recognize the symptoms or sources of foodborne disease prevents consumers from taking corrective action. Consumer education messages should include the ubiqui...

  4. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  5. Toy Safety Act. Hearings before the Subcommittee on the Consumer of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on S.2650 (June 8 and July 2, 1984).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    Passage of the Toy Safety Act of 1984 (S.2650) would allow the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) to order the immediate recall of toys and children's articles that create a substantial risk of injury to children. The CPSC would no longer be required to issue a final rule banning a hazardous toy or article before it may begin a recall…

  6. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Final version of the opinion on Eco G+ in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degen, Gisela H

    2016-12-01

    Safety assessment is based on the release of silver ion from the packaging material. SCCS considers the release of silver ions from "EcoG+" as a component in packaging material safe for use as preservative with a concentration of maximum 2.0% in the cosmetic packaging material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Analysis of Food Safety Events on Consumers’ Confidence and Consumers Attitude towards Preparedness of U.S. Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jessica I.; Bharad, Abhishek Bhagwat; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    Every year hundreds of food recalls are made due to contamination. The main focus of this paper is to examine the effects of specific food events on consumers’ confidence in food safety as well as their preparedness regarding the United States food system. The food events studied in this are major food-borne illnesses outbreaks and recalls that have occurred since May 2008. The three events chosen included: the salmonella outbreak in jalapeno and Serrano peppers occurring in 2008, the salmone...

  8. Development of a drug safety ePlatform for physicians, pharmacists, and consumers based on post-marketing adverse events

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Keith B.; Overstreet, Brian M.; P. Murali Doraiswamy

    2013-01-01

    Rigorous clinical trials under the watchful eye of regulators remain the cornerstone of drug safety. However, the emergence of serious and life-threatening Adverse Events (AEs) across best-selling drug classes [sometimes many years after winning Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval] underscores the limitations of current clinical trial processes and reinforces the need for careful post-approval pharmacovigilance. The FDA’s sizeable repository of patient case reports linking AEs to appr...

  9. European Union's consumer policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Maja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EU's consumer protection legislation concerns product safety measures (general product safety and liability for defective products, as well as protection of the economic interests of consumers (misleading and comparative advertising, distance contracts, unfair terms in consumer contracts, etc.. In the future, EU's consumer policy will face various challenges due to the factors such as globalization of markets and technological developments, which have had a profound effect on products, services and in marketing. In order to respond to these challenges, more flexible approach will be needed.

  10. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  11. Public submissions on the Uganda national biotechnology and biosafety bill, 2012 reveal consensus for Uganda legislators to pass the bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clet Wandui Masiga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity is an internationally binding instrument addressing issues of biosafety. Biosafety refers to the need to protect human health and the environment from the possible adverse effects of the products of modern biotechnology. Accordingly all countries to the convention are required to put in place regulatory mechanisms to enhance the safety of biotechnology in the context of the Convention’s overall goal of reducing all potential threats to biological diversity, while taking into account the risks to human health. Therefore each country party to the convention has its own procedures to enact laws to guide the safe use of biotechnology. In Uganda the process involves the drafting of the bill by the first parliamentary counsel, approval by cabinet, first reading at the parliament, committal to the responsible parliamentary sessional committee, tabling of the bill for public hearing, consultations, and final approval. In Uganda, the Committee on Science and Technology is responsible for the Biosafety Bill. In March 2013, the Committee tabled the bill for public hearing and submissions from public institutions. There were comments supporting the passage of the Bill and comments in objection.The reasons for objection are mainly due to precaution, speculation, lack of knowledge about biotechnology and biosafety, and alleged influence from biosafety entrepreneurs. This article reviews these public views, revealing controversy and possible consensus to pass the bill.

  12. Leveraging corporate social responsibility to improve consumer safety of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anvita; Huerto, Ryan; Roberto, Christina A; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-03-01

    The potential dangers associated with dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building are well documented and increasingly garnering the attention of the media, public, and government leaders. Public health professionals have an opportunity to improve population health in the context of dietary supplement use by translating scientific evidence into action. In this commentary, we discuss the potential to motivate corporate social responsibility (CSR) among manufacturers and retailers of dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building. We examine levers available to public health professionals for generating voluntary corporate self-regulation by reviewing examples from successful CSR initiatives in other domains of public health and offering recommendations highlighting effective advocacy strategies. We encourage public health professionals to use one or multiple advocacy strategies to improve consumer protections for dietary supplements sold for weight loss and muscle building.

  13. Consumer Justice: A Symbol of Economic Prosperity and Social Progressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Kumar Roy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognized fact that consumer confidence and trust in a well functioning market for financial services promotes financial stability, growth efficiency and innovation over the long term. So protection of the interest of consumers is not merely an ethical or humanitarian issue rather it is also an issue of economy. Consumer protection demands for setting of minimum quality specification and safety standards for goods and services to curb unfair trade practices. So far the international norms are concerned it effectively contains the Bill of Rights of Consumers which help them across the globe to effectively protect their interests. Keeping in consideration about the poor bargaining position of the consumers and with an aim to ensure consumers to access non-hazardous products United Nation issued Guidelines for Consumer Protection, 1985, expanded again in 1999. The consumer justice is a facet of socio-economic justice and emanates from the basic philosophy of the Indian constitution i.e. to do justice and to strengthen the standard and status of the people of this country. It has been discussed in this article in an elaborate way about the various provisions of the Constitution and all the legislations which addresses the issues of consumers and resolve to protect their interests. But still the exploitation of Indian consumers by the dishonest traders and service providers become a routine matter and this article also scanned the reasons for the same and also provides suggestions to ameliorate the conditions of consumers. This paper is based on qualitative analysis of the information mainly obtained from secondary sources such as different books and journals as referred over here, Policy documents, existing laws, reports of United Nations, important judgments and observations of Judiciary etc.

  14. National Technical Information Service. Hearing on H.R. 4417. A Bill To Authorize Appropriations to the Secretary of Commerce for the Programs of the National Bureau of Standards for Fiscal Year 1989, and for Other Purposes, before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Consumer Protection, and Competitiveness of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This committee hearing reports a bill, H.R. 4417, which is a measure designed to improve the federal government's ability to collect scientific and technical data and to give these functions, which are currently being performed by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), to a new governmentally owned corporation. The bill provides for…

  15. Parity for Minorities in the Media. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications, Consumer Protection, and Finance of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1155. A Bill to Amend the Communications Act of 1934 to Provide for Greater Participation of Minorities in Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    This transcript of a hearing on minority participation in telecommunications includes the text of the bill, H.R. 155; a summary of the bill from the Congressional Record; and testimony and statements from both individuals and representatives of several organizations. Testimony was presented by: (1) Karen English, Chicago, Illinois; (2) Janice…

  16. Chemical safety, health care costs and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Goldman, Lynn R

    2014-01-01

    On May 22, 2013, the late Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ), Senator David Vitter (R-LA) and 19 of their colleagues introduced bipartisan chemical safety legislation in the US Senate, "The Chemical Safety Improvement Act of 2013." The bill's purpose is to protect human health and the environment against the hazards of toxic chemicals, by requiring the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to examine the safety of all chemicals in consumer products. The bill is currently before the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, chaired by Senator Barbara Boxer (D-CA). This legislation is critically important for physicians and healthcare organizations because it creates significant new opportunities to prevent disease and cut healthcare costs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  18. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...

  19. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  20. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  1. Corner Office: Polaris's Bill Schickling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkoff, Francine; Hadro, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Bill Schickling has spent a good chunk of his professional life at what is now Polaris Library Systems, shaping both the older Galaxy system and the newer Polaris integrated library system (ILS). When he joined the company as a programmer in 1987, it was still part of Gaylord, known mostly for its furniture and supplies division. Schickling was…

  2. Bill Gates eyes healthcare market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, C

    1995-02-01

    The entrepreneurial spirit is still top in Bill Gates' mind as he look toward healthcare and other growth industries. Microsoft's CEO has not intention of going the way of other large technology companies that became obsolete before they could compete today.

  3. Measuring public understanding on Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) electricity bills using ordered probit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, WNRA; Ramli, NA

    2017-09-01

    In 2016, Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) had introduced an upgrade in its Billing and Customer Relationship Management (BCRM) as part of its long-term initiative to provide its customers with greater access to billing information. This includes information on real and suggested power consumption by the customers and further details in their billing charges. This information is useful to help TNB customers to gain better understanding on their electricity usage patterns and items involved in their billing charges. Up to date, there are not many studies done to measure public understanding on current electricity bills and whether this understanding could contribute towards positive impacts. The purpose of this paper is to measure public understanding on current TNB electricity bills and whether their satisfaction towards energy-related services, electricity utility services, and their awareness on the amount of electricity consumed by various appliances and equipment in their home could improve this understanding on the electricity bills. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are used to achieve these objectives. A total of 160 respondents from local universities in Malaysia participated in a survey used to collect relevant information. Using Ordered Probit model, this paper finds respondents that are highly satisfied with the electricity utility services tend to understand their electricity bills better. The electric utility services include management of electricity bills and the information obtained from utility or non-utility supplier to help consumers manage their energy usage or bills. Based on the results, this paper concludes that the probability to understand the components in the monthly electricity bill increases as respondents are more satisfied with their electric utility services and are more capable to value the energy-related services.

  4. Bill Viola : repertorio de pasiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayo Aznar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto estudia las obras de Bill Viola unidas en la serie llamada “Las Pasiones” que el artista expuso por primera vez en la National Gallery de Londres en el 2003, analizando la evolución de las pasiones (sobre todo del miedo y de la esperanza desde la fundación del Estado Moderno, y sus consecuencias sobre el control de la sociedad contemporánea.The text studies the Bill Viola’s work of art called “The Passions”, that the artist showed in the National Gallery on London in 2003 for the first time, analyzing the development of the passions (overcoat the fear and the hope and its consequences in the contemporary society.

  5. 7 CFR 91.42 - Billing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the month. The applicant will be billed by the National Finance Center (NFC) using the Foundation..., National Finance Center Billings and Collection Branch, (Mail: P.O. Box 60075), 13800 Old Gentilly Road...

  6. Bill Clinton kaotas tuumakoodikaardi / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Oma mälestusteraamatus kirjutab president Bill Clintoni ametiajal staabiülemate ühendkomiteed juhtinud kindral Hugh Shelton, et ühel hetkel olid president Bill Clintonil tuumakohvri kasutamiseks vajalikud koodid mitu kuud kadunud

  7. Bill Gates vil redde Folkeskolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejerskov, Adam Moe

    2014-01-01

    Det amerikanske uddannelsessystem bliver for tiden udsat for hård kritik, ledt an af Microsoft stifteren Bill Gates. Gates har indtil videre brugt 3 mia. kroner på at skabe opbakning til tiltag som præstationslønning af lærere og strømlining af pensum på tværs af alle skoler i landet...

  8. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christine

    This individualized course in consumer education is comprised of eight units of instruction: (1) Get a Grip on Your Money, (2) Banking and You, (3) A Place to Live, (4) Wheels, (5) Car Insurance, (6) The Marketplace, (7) Your Insurance Dollar, and (8) Consumer's Bill of Rights. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives…

  9. Energy management systems : utility billing information management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandekar, S. [Ameresco Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    This presentation discussed utility billing administration; its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT). Recommendations on the management of a utility billing system were presented: control of utility bills, sound auditing process and adequate reporting through analysis reports, summary reports, trend reports, benchmark reports, savings reports, and bill analysis reports. Several examples of the various types of reports were presented in graphical format. The importance of collecting and providing adequate information to enable sound decision making for economic reasons was noted. tabs., figs.

  10. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  11. Safety for Older Consumers: Home Safety Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ground fault circuit interrupters, or GFCIs, in potentially damp locations such as the kitchen, bathroom, garage, near ... ground fault circuit interrupters, or GFCIs, in potentially damp loca- tions such as the kitchen, bathroom, garage, ...

  12. Consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  13. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits and also the maximum residue limits (MRL regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015. MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice. This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. Methods These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Results Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets and 99% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets and 100% (supermarkets for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets and 97% (supermarkets for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets and 35% (supermarkets for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets and 55% (supermarkets for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets and 49% (supermarkets for the morning glory. Discussion These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold

  14. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in a few central provinces of Thailand

  15. Governor signs bill seeking prompter access to antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-15

    California Governor Gray Davis signed legislation providing for more timely access to antiretroviral medications through the State's AIDS drug assistance program (ADAP). The bill requires that the State Department of Health Services make any HIV treatment antiretroviral drug approved for marketing by the Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA) available within 30 days of the time the State Office of AIDS receives notice of FDA approval. The bill requires that the drug be validated for treatment by the State Office of AIDS and that enough money is budgeted by the agency to pay for the new medication. Consumer protection items are included, such as requiring prescriptions be filled within 24 hours of submission and providing information at appropriate literacy levels in English, Spanish, Mandarin/Cantonese, Tagalog and other languages.

  16. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  18. Product Failures in Respirators and Consumables: Analysis of Field Safety Notices of 2005-2013 Publicized by the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, Jürgen; Siekmeier, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The current European system governed by the three EC directives 93/42/EEC (Medical Device Directive), 98/79/EC (In-Vitro Diagnostic Directive) and 90/385/EEC (Active Implantable Medical Device Directive) regulates marketing and post-market surveillance of medical devices in the European Economic Area (EEA). In cases of incidents raising the field safety corrective actions (FSCA), manufacturers have to inform the responsible Competent Authority (CA; in Germany this is the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, BfArM) and the public by field safety notices (FSN). In this study we analyzed FSN of respirators and consumables directly required for their function, whereas devices for anesthesia and gas delivery were excluded. FSCA and FSN of 2005-2013 publicized by BfArM for the included products were analyzed with respect to the MEDDEV 2.12-1 rev. 8. In total, 60 FSCA were publicized. German and English FSN were found in 59/53 cases, respectively. FSN were clearly characterized as FSN in 44/38 cases and declaration of the type of action in 45/44 cases, respectively. Product names were provided in all cases. Lot numbers or other information for product characterization were available in 7/7 and 43/40 cases, respectively. Detailed information regarding FSCA and product malfunction was found in all cases. Information on product related risks with previous use of affected devices was provided in 42/38 cases. In 53/53 cases manufacturers provided information to mitigate product related risks. Requests to pass FSN to persons needing awareness in the organization were found in 27/24 cases. Contact data were provided in 53/48 cases, respectively. Confirmation that a CA was informed was found in 28/26 cases and in 19/15 cases a customer confirmation was included. The identified risks were: total loss of function (19/16), short circuit (1/1) and burn (3/3), and inhalation of foreign particles (1/1) which might cause severe risk to patients and users. The most frequent

  19. 75 FR 72773 - Empowering Consumers to Avoid Bill Shock; Consumer Information and Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... monitor usage history. The Commission seeks additional information about the methods available for... categories of ``Paging'' and ``Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications.'' Under the present and prior... category of Cellular and Other Wireless Telecommunications, data for 2002 show that there were 1,397 firms...

  20. Using in vitro/in silico data for consumer safety assessment of feed flavoring additives e A feasibility study using piperine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiel, A.; Etheve, S.; Fabian, E.; Leeman, W.R.; Plautz, J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Consumer health risk assessment for feed additives is based on the estimated human exposure to the additive that may occur in livestock edible tissues compared to its hazard.We present an approach using alternative methods for consumer health risk assessment. The aim was to use the fewest possible

  1. The Voluntary Euthanasia (Legalization) Bill (1936) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helme, T

    1991-01-01

    In view of the continuing debate on euthanasia, the restrictions and safeguards which were introduced into the Voluntary Euthanasia (Legislation) Bill 1936 are discussed. Proposals for a new Terminal Care and Euthanasia Bill are suggested, based on some of the principles of the Mental Health Act 1983. PMID:2033626

  2. Bill Boyd and the Australian Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Don

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a short account of Bill Boyd's contribution to Australian research and practice in educational administration and education policymaking. The author has sought the views and recollections of some of the colleagues who worked closely with Bill. He has chosen to quote them at length rather than attempt to summarize…

  3. Accountability Issues in Ohio's Education Reform Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    Issues related to the Education Reform Bill of Ohio are discussed. Administration of norm-referenced achievement tests in reading, mathematics, language, and related school-ability tests is required for grades 4, 6, and 8 (effective by 1990) and grade 10 (effective by 1991). The reform bill specifies rewards and sanctions in addition to statewide…

  4. 25 CFR 171.515 - Who will BIA bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who will BIA bill? 171.515 Section 171.515 Indians BUREAU... Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing, and Collections § 171.515 Who will BIA bill? (a) We will bill the landowner, unless: (1) The land is leased under a lease approved by us, in which case we will bill the...

  5. 49 CFR 373.101 - Motor carrier bills of lading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BILLS Motor Carrier Receipts and Bills § 373.101 Motor carrier bills of lading. Every motor common carrier shall issue a receipt or bill of lading for property tendered for transportation in interstate or... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carrier bills of lading. 373.101 Section 373...

  6. 47 CFR 64.2401 - Truth-in-Billing Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truth-in-Billing Requirements. 64.2401 Section... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Truth-in-Billing Requirements for Common Carriers § 64.2401 Truth-in-Billing Requirements. (a) Bill organization. Telephone bills shall be clearly...

  7. Consumer concerns: motivating to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiologic safety is consumers' most frequently volunteered food safety concern. An increase in the level of concern in recent years suggests that consumers are more receptive to educational information. However, changing lifestyles have lessened the awareness of foodborne illness, especially among younger consumers. Failure to fully recognize the symptoms or sources of foodborne disease prevents consumers from taking corrective action. Consumer education messages should include the ubiquity of microorganisms, a comprehensive description of foodborne illnesses, and prevention strategies. Product labels should contain food-handling information and warnings for special populations, and foods processed by newer safety-enhancing technologies should be more widely available. Knowledge of the consequences of unsafe practices can enhance motivation and adherence to safety guidelines. When consumers mishandle food during preparation, the health community, food industry, regulators, and the media are ultimately responsible. Whether inappropriate temperature control, poor hygiene, or another factor, the error occurs because consumers have not been informed about how to handle food and protect themselves. The food safety message has not been delivered effectively. PMID:9366604

  8. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  9. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and o...

  10. Bill McSweeney: a remembrance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdon, W.E.

    1999-03-01

    Pediatric radiologists (both SPR and ESPR) are a family growing in numbers. When founders such as John Caffey, Ed Neuhauser and Jacques Le Febvre died, we grieved while remembering them fondly. The death of Bill McSweeney from acute airway obstruction in August 1998 came as a shock. Yet Bill had been ill for many years. His once promising effects of been cut short by the inexorable; devastating effects of Parkinson disease and the complications of this therapy. Most current SPR and ESPR members never knew Bill McSweeney. These remembrances are designed to correct that. With 3 figs.

  11. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Heilman Bell

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP. This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy. Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs.

  12. THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE UGANDA COPYRIGHT AND NEIGHBOURING RIGHTS BILL, 2002: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES TO THE INFORMATION PROFESSIONALS. Isaac MN Kigongo-Bukenya. Abstract. The paper discusses the concept and philosophy of copyright. It also discusses copyright infringement with special reference to ICT.

  13. Reading and Calculating Billing Through Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alexandra Moreno

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article broadly describes the analysis, design and development of the system utilitarian, called “Reading and billing calculation site through mobile devices.” The application is oriented Public Services Companies, first water services, to perform part of the billing process “in place” through phones or any mobile devices compatible with Android. Will enable you to take readings of service consumption, recording new gauging, online update and control the information for users and turnover. This technology is considered as such one site billing method as through Internet is connected with the database of the company, sending and receiving date information, which makes the calculation of the billing for the reading period, bringing benefits to the client and the service generating company.

  14. Why a Domestic Workers Bill of Rights?

    OpenAIRE

    Appelbaum, Lauren D

    2010-01-01

    In August 2010, the California State Legislature passed a Resolution for a Domestic Workers Bill of Rights. This resolution highlights the work done by domestic workers in the state and the labor violations faced by these workers. The resolution calls for the fair treatment of these workers, noting that domestic workers have a right to be treated with respect and dignity. On November 29, 2010, New York State enacted a new Domestic Workers Bill of Rights, which guarantees basic work standards ...

  15. Looking a Gift Horse in the Mouth: 2014 Farm Bill Insect and Disease Restoration Provision -- True Gift or False Hope?

    OpenAIRE

    Holmstead, Jamilee E.

    2015-01-01

    Congress passed a revised Farm Bill in 2014 that amended the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) to, hopefully, increase the speed with which natural resource issues could be addressed. Federal land management has often been condemned for being time-consuming and burdensome, chiefly in situations that require rapid response, such as insect disease and fire. The amendment in the 2014 Farm Bill is meant to address this concern. The amendment would allow for the insect and disease restorati...

  16. Animal Cloning and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Animal Cloning and Food Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... on clones of livestock animals to evaluate the safety of food from these animals. The resulting report, called a ...

  17. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  18. The Associations between the Milk Mothers Drink and the Milk Consumed by Their School-Aged Children. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel K.; Panely, Celeste V.; Wang, Min Qi

    2001-01-01

    A national survey identified predictors of school-age children's and adolescents' amount and type of milk intake. Findings indicated that geographic region, child's gender, and amount of milk mothers consumed predicted the children's milk consumption. Predictors of child milk type included the children's age, gender, race, geographic region,…

  19. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated in the organ......What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated...... in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological......) theories of the fetish to organizational sensemaking. Second, we describe a distinctive process of organizational market sensemaking that is sensuous, magical, and analogical. Third, we offer a subtle critique of commercial ethnography, a popular research practice that aims to bring ‘real’ consumers...

  20. Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Castillo-Martinez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several research studies were tackled for establishing consumer trends and behavior patterns. Furthermore, a survey and data collection were conducted to obtain updated values to validate information obtained from previous studies. The result are two water labels that establish six different levels to graphically show the efficiency, and they also include a comparison with the average consumption by customers of the same province. To ensure that the benefits of this evaluation are available to citizens, its inclusion on the water bill is proposed.

  1. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production syste...

  2. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  3. Consumer Demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    1996-01-01

    Consumers are farmers, land users in general private as well as public and citizens overall. The concept centralized biogas plants has been developed in Denmark. At present 16 plants are in operation with capacities ranging from 50-500 tons of biomass per day. The biomass consists of approximately...

  4. Physicians' balance billing, supplemental insurance and access to health care

    OpenAIRE

    Jelovac, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Some countries allow physicians to balance bill patients, that is, to bill a fee above the one that is negotiated with, and reimbursed by the health authorities. Balance billing is known for restricting access to physicians' services while supplemental insurance against balance billing amounts is supposed to alleviate the access problem. This paper analyzes in a theoretical setting the consequences of balance billing on the fees setting and on the inequality of access among the users of physi...

  5. Utopian dream: a new farm bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 2011, I taught a graduate food studies course at New York University devoted to the farm bill, a massive and massively opaque piece of legislation passed most recently in 2008 and up for renewal in 2012. The farm bill supports farmers, of course, but also specifies how the United States deals with such matters as conservation, forestry, energy policy, organic food production, international food aid, and domestic food assistance. My students came from programs in nutrition, food studies, public health, public policy, and law, all united in the belief that a smaller scale, more regionalized, and more sustainable food system would be healthier for people and the planet.

  6. Bayesian Learning of Consumer Preferences for Residential Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Goubko, Mikhail V.; Kuznetsov, Sergey O.; Neznanov, Alexey A.; Ignatov, Dmitry I.

    2017-01-01

    In coming years residential consumers will face real-time electricity tariffs with energy prices varying day to day, and effective energy saving will require automation - a recommender system, which learns consumer's preferences from her actions. A consumer chooses a scenario of home appliance use to balance her comfort level and the energy bill. We propose a Bayesian learning algorithm to estimate the comfort level function from the history of appliance use. In numeric experiments with datas...

  7. Beyond the game: the legacy of Bill Masterton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfield, Christopher M; Kondziolka, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Bill Masterton is the only man to die of injuries sustained in a National Hockey League (NHL) game. He remains the last fatality in any professional team sport involving a direct in-game injury in North America. While Masterton was originally thought to have suffered a fatal brain injury while being checked on the ice, later analysis of the case revealed evidence of second-impact syndrome and the effects of prior concussions. Masterton's death sparked both an immediate debate in the NHL on whether helmets should be compulsory and the NHL's first vote on mandatory helmet use. Although the subject of mandated helmet use met with resistance in the 10 years after Masterton's death, especially from hockey owners and coaches, the NHL finally legislated helmet use by all players entering the league beginning in the 1979-1980 season. Several awards, including one recognizing the NHL player who best exemplifies the qualities of perseverance, sportsmanship, and dedication to hockey, have been created in memory of Masterton. However, his legacy extends far beyond the awards that bear his name. His death was the seminal event bringing head safety to the forefront of a game that was both unready and unwilling to accept change. An increase in mainstream media attention in recent years has led to unprecedented public awareness of brain injury and concussion in hockey and other sports. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of head injury in sports have occurred recently, the impetus for which started over 45 years ago, when Bill Masterton died.

  8. Cut Next Winter's Heating Bill Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Presents specific steps that help make schools energy efficient and cut costs. Four basic strategies are suggested that include creating a database of energy usage that can also catch the occasional billing error, investigating less obvious ways of cutting energy use, such as applying cellulose commercial spray as an insulation choice, and…

  9. California enacts drug pricing trasparency bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Mercury News is reporting that California governor Jerry Brown signed a bill Monday making drug pricing more transparent. The legislation requires pharmaceutical companies to notify health insurers and government health plans at least 60 days before making price hikes and explain the reason for the increase. The pharmaceutical industry had lobbied hard against the measure, worried that it could become a national model and the first big step toward price controls. “The essence of this bill is pretty simple,” Brown told a room filled with supporters of Senate Bill 17. “Californians have a right to know why their medical costs are out of control, especially when the pharmaceutical profits are soaring. That’s the take-away message.” “It is disappointing that Gov. Brown has decided to sign a bill that is based on misleading rhetoric instead of what’s in the best interest of patients,” said Priscilla VanderVeer, spokeswoman for the Washington …

  10. 41 CFR 101-26.607 - Billings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Billings. 101-26.607 Section 101-26.607 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.6...

  11. Inventory and Billing Systems for Multiple Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Lavon

    Washington State University developed a comprehensive supplies inventory system and a generalized billing system with multiple users in mind. The supplies inventory control system developed for Central Stores, a self-sustaining service center that purchases and warehouses office, laboratory, and hardware supplies, was called AIMS, An Inventory…

  12. "Buffalo Bill" and the Siouan Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    The popular art of William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody--lithographic posters advertising his Wild West Show and depicting the Indians who performed in it--created the visual image of the American Indian that we have come to know as the Siouan stereotype. By contrast the artists' images of the American Indian were inaccessible to the general…

  13. Organic food consumer in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei-Cosmin DUMEA; Andreia Gabriela ANDREI

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption patterns are rapidly changing nowadays as a result of environmental issues, concern about the nutritional value of food and health issues. Issues such as quality and safety in food attract consumer interest in organic food that is free from pesticides and chemical residues (Childs and Polyzees, 1997; Zotos et al., 1999; Baltas, 2001; Fotopoulos and Krystallis, 2002). This study is attempted to gain knowledge about organic food consumer demographic chara...

  14. Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Bass

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...

  15. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firenzuoli, Fabio; Gori, Luigi; Roberti di Sarsina, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    European Medicines Agency (EMEA) and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500-1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107) and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107) to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance.

  16. Black Cohosh Hepatic Safety: Follow-Up of 107 Patients Consuming a Special Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome Herbal Extract and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Firenzuoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available European Medicines Agency (EMEA and the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC on July 2006 have released an alert to get European sanitary authorities aware of 42 cases of suspected hepatotoxic reactions in patients consuming Cimicifuga racemosa rhizome. In the public statement EMEA itself considered reliable as hepatotoxic reactions only four cases, on the base of RUCAM score: two were considered possible and two probable. Lacking in almost all of them a precise description of cases, especially a botanical-chemical analysis of the suspected substance, we think there is no real proof of supposed C. racemosa rhizome hepatotoxicity. In our department we administer from about 10 years C. racemosa as special herbal dry extract as single substance or mixed with other medicinal plants at the dose of 500–1000 mg daily, for treatment of menopause related disorders without any reported adverse effect. After EMEA's official signal we have contacted all our patients using a C. racemosa rhizome herbal extract continuously from more than 12 months to verify possible hepatotoxic effects. We followed-up 107 women, and asked them by telephone (33/107 and/or after anamnesis and clinical examination (74/107 to undergo a blood sample examination. In all the patients there was no sign of hepatic disease, or worsening of already altered but stable parameters. We think on the base of these data and current literature C. racemosa rhizome extract should not be considered a potential hepatotoxic substance.

  17. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on the safety of the use of Silica, Hydrated Silica, and Silica Surface Modified with Alkyl Silylates (nano form) in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sccs; Hoet, P H M

    2016-02-01

    The SCCS has concluded that the evidence, both provided in the submission and that available in scientific literature, is inadequate and insufficient to allow drawing any firm conclusion either for or against the safety of any of the individual SAS material, or any of the SAS categories that are intended for use in cosmetic products. As the SCCS has not been able to conclude on the safety of the synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) materials included in the current submission, the Applicant is advised to follow the SCCS Guidance on Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials (SCCS/1484/12). A brief summary is provided to enable/facilitate future evaluation of the SAS materials in cosmetic products. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Max Bill e a \\"Unidade Tripartida

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Calixto

    2016-01-01

    Esta pesquisa trata do artista suíço Max Bill e sua obra Unidade Tripartida, ganhadora do prêmio de escultura na Primeira Bienal de São Paulo, em 1951. Analisa arquivos referentes a curadorias de exposições em museus, aliados a informações sobre o percurso nacional e internacional da escultura tridimensional Unidade Tripartida e do artista Max Bill. Sua trajetória, desde o entendimento de sua produção até a sua formação, com participação na escola Bauhaus e a formação da Escola de Ulm, em que...

  19. Ilmumised ja mediteerimised / Bill Viola ; interv. Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viola, Bill

    1998-01-01

    Bill Viola videoretrospektiiv Stedelijk Museumis, Rijksmuseumis, New Metropolises jm. Amsterdamis 29. novembrini. H. Liivrand Bill Violast ja tema loomingust. B. Viola oma videokunstist praegu ja 25 aastat tagasi, mil tema alustas, mõjutustest loomingule.

  20. Digitalization of incoming mail and incoming bills

    OpenAIRE

    Huč, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to provide an overview of the processes involved in the digitalization of materials and having consideration of legal regulations, restrictions and recommendations, make the digitalization process of incoming mail and incoming bills as a cloud-based service. Having an efficient document management system has a significantly positive effect on an organization. In order for documents to be managed more easily and efficiently, they must be converted into an electron...

  1. Bill: PM responds to Jayalalitha's plea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-27

    This paper reports on a response by the Prime Minister (PM), Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee, to an appeal made by the AIADMK general secretary, Ms. J. Jayalalitha, to get the Women's Reservation Bill passed soon. The PM appealed to his friends to cooperate in the passage of the legislation. Some political parties, the PM claimed, holding up its passage for reasons that are totally unrelated to the purpose for which the law for affirmative action is intended. A delay in implementing the bill would put at stake the very credibility of the entire political establishment in the eyes of Indian women. The proposed bill is intended to empower all women because females are victims of discrimination and deprivation. This is the reason that AIADMK raised their voices and demanded speedy passage and implementation of the legislation. It is a practical reality that the better women are treated, the higher indices of welfare rise. Unless women are allowed to have their voice, Indian parties will not have the chance to be democratic.

  2. Opinion of the scientific committee on consumer safety (SCCS)--2nd Revision of the safety of the use of poly(hexamethylene) biguanide hydrochloride or polyaminopropyl biguanide (PHMB) in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion of the opinion: On the basis of the data available, the SCCS concludes that Polyaminopropyl Biguanide (PHMB) is not safe for consumers when used as a preservative in cosmetic spray formulations and in all cosmetic products up to the maximum concentration of 0.3%. The safe use could be based on a lower use concentration and/or restrictions with regard to cosmetic products' categories. Dermal absorption studies on additional representative cosmetic formulations are needed. PHMB is used in a variety of applications other than cosmetics. General exposure data from sources others than cosmetics should be submitted for the assessment of the aggregate exposure of PHMB. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Seasonal dimorphism in the horny bills of sparrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill shape and size are often viewed as species-specific adaptations for feeding, but they sometimes vary between sexes, suggesting that sexual selection or inter-sexual competition may also be important. Hypotheses to explain sexual bill size dimorphism in birds avian bill size...

  4. 9 CFR 590.130 - Basis of billing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis of billing plants. 590.130... of Service § 590.130 Basis of billing plants. Overtime and/or holiday services shall be billed to the official plant on the basis of each 15 minutes of overtime and/or holiday service performed by each...

  5. The Traditional Courts Bill: Controversy around process, substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article introduces the Traditional Courts Bill (B15-2008). The Bill has caused controversy, and drawn criticism from rural communities and civil society. Key to the concerns raised was the flawed consultative process that the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development followed in bringing the Bill before ...

  6. Validation of the standardized and simplified cutting bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; D. Earl Kline; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble

    2008-01-01

    This research validated the framework for the standardized and simplified cutting bill presented in an earlier paper. The cutting bill validation was carried out in two ways. First, all 20 of the cutting bill's part groups were examined to determine if significant yield influences resulted from changing specific part sizes within the boundaries of a given part...

  7. Leveraging HIPAA to support consumer empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, P; Priest, S L; Pivnicny, V C; Ruffino, B C

    2000-01-01

    The consumer empowerment movement needs to provide consumers with more access and control of their healthcare records. The premise of this article is that there is a fundamental market shift towards consumer empowerment--and technology is the driving force. We contend the results will satisfy the intent of the HIPAA mandate. Two restrictions impede the market from moving toward real consumer empowerment. First, managing one's own health history record is difficult because the complete record is segmented in disparate systems that are difficult to integrate. This is because unique identifiers and consistent coding are nonexistent. Second, security and control of patient identifiable health information is still evolving. There is no consensus among providers for Internet security, as we can see by all the legislative privacy bills trying to address the issue. HIPAA is both a legislative mandate and an enabler of the next healthcare paradigm. Providers must comply with the HIPAA mandates for electronic data interchange (EDI) code sets, administrative simplification, and privacy and confidentiality protocols. By recognizing HIPAA as part of a consumer-driven movement, organizations can incorporate empowerment strategies into a planning process that creates consumer options in healthcare and leverages HIPAA compliance to benefit both providers and consumers. This article suggests methods for meeting HIPAA compliance through innovative consumer empowerment methods.

  8. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda...... as being 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. and for that purpose to amend the Electoral Act 1992, Presidential Elections Act 1993, Referendum Act 1994, European Parliament Elections Act 1997, the Local Government Act 2001 and to provide for related matters....

  9. Women and minorities science bill becomes law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton has signed into law a measure to establish a commission to identify and address problems associated with the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering fields."Today, we have taken a positive step forward to strengthen and expand our high-tech workforce by ensuring that women, minorities, and persons with disabilities have the skills necessary to compete in the Information Age," said U.S. Rep. Connie Morella (R.-Md.), who introduced the measure.

  10. Factors Impacting Food Safety Risk Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    We developed and applied a model of consumer risk perceptions of beef food safety to better understand the underlying drivers of consumer demand for food safety. We show how consumer demographics, country-of-residence, as well as reliance on, and trust in, alternative food safety information sources

  11. Better Enforcement of Online Copyright Would Help, Not Harm, Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Legislation introduced in Congress last month (the "Combating Online Infringement and Counterfeits Act") would take an aggressive and needed stand against online piracy, a growing problem that hurts American consumers and costs Americans jobs. Critics of the legislation argue that this bill would hurt free speech, encourage censorship in foreign…

  12. Bill Barbour : mõned ideed kasvavatele firmadele / Bill Barbour ; interv. Taivo Paju

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barbour, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia üks kogenumaid ärikonsultante firmade ärikasvumudelist, mis aitab ettevõttel järgmisesse etappi üle minna. Mida peaks ettevõtja enne äri alustamist läbi mõtlema ning millised eesmärgid ja ülesanded enda jaoks paika panema. Lisad: Bill Barbour; Universaalne kriisimudel

  13. Threats to the consumer market of region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavriil Aleksandrovich Agarkov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This papers reviews the main threats to the today's consumer market and offers a historic tour of their existence. The results of a comprehensive diagnostics technique of economic safety of the consumer market in the region taking into account the impact of threats are presented. In the basis of the procedure is an indicative method of analysis, in which diagnosis is carried out on a set of criterial parameters. Along with a comprehensive assessment, the paper offers a detailed analysis of one of the method's modules - evaluation of consumer protection as the most vulnerable category of participants in the consumer market. A classification of prejudice of consumers in accordance with international studies is considered. The conducted study showed that, in general, there is a positive trend of economic safety of the consumer market in the region for the period from 2003 to 2010, but, according to some modules (evaluation of consumer protection, the situation has worsened for the majority of the subjects discussed during the reviewed period. The results of economic safety diagnostics of the consumer market actors can be used in the formation of program-target events to neutralize the negative trends in the consumer market

  14. Consumer perceptions of best practice in food risk communication and management: implications for risk analysis policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cope, S.F.; Frewer, L.J.; Houghton, J.R.; Rowe, G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Jonge, de J.

    2010-01-01

    As a consequence of recent food safety incidents, consumer trust in European food safety management has diminished. A risk governance framework that formally institutes stakeholder (including consumer) consultation and dialogue through a transparent and accountable process has been proposed, with

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.85 - What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... as a receipt of goods and documentary evidence of title. (c) Use a bill of lading for Government... between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading? 102-117.85 Section 102-117.85 Public... Services § 102-117.85 What is the difference between a Government bill of lading (GBL) and a bill of lading...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.155 - How does my agency handle supplemental billings from the TSP after payment of the original bill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... handle supplemental billings from the TSP after payment of the original bill? 102-118.155 Section 102-118... TSP after payment of the original bill? Your agency must process, review, and verify supplemental billings using the same procedures as on an original billing. If the TSP disputes the findings, your agency...

  17. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... on its expert judgment about consumer behavior, perceptions, and similar information related to... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

  18. The Controversy of Anti Pornography and Pornoaction Bill In Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    IDRIS, NUR ISDAH

    2015-01-01

    -- The controversy over the pornography bill has revealed that various groups in society are involved in a struggle for domination over public morality. Sexuality, the human body and moral values are being negotiated, and thus can be better understood, within the context of power relations. The pornoactions ban (which may now be dropped by the Bill???s supporters) would prohibit people from public displays of affection (such as kissing and holding hands), or exposing ???sensitive??? bod...

  19. Constitutionality of the Plachimada Tribunal Bill, 2011: An Assessment - Comment

    OpenAIRE

    Sujith Koonan

    2011-01-01

    The Plachimada Coca-Cola Victims Relief and Compensation Claims Special Tribunal Bill, 2011 was passed by the Kerala Legislative Assembly on 24 February 2011. The Bill provides for the establishment of a special tribunal to settle disputes between the local residents and the Hindustan Coca Cola Company in Plachimada for recovery of compensation for damages caused to individuals, property and the environment by the company. The Bill is reserved for the assent of the President of India. In the ...

  20. A physician's due: measuring physician billing performance, benchmarking results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Elizabeth W; Browne, Robert C; Jenkins, Jennifer L

    2008-07-01

    A 2008 study focused on four key performance indicators (KPIs) and staffing levels to benchmark the FYO7 performance of physician group billing operations. A comparison of the change in the KPIs from FYO3 to FYO7 for a number of these billing operations disclosed across-the-board improvements. Billing operations did not show significant changes in staffing levels during this time, pointing to the existence of obstacles that prevent staff reductions in this area.

  1. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS...

  2. The Effects of Bill 4330/2004 on Union Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Prata Mendes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze in which way the bill 4330/2004 affects the union representativeness of outsourced workers. In order to accomplish the settled purpose, it is necessary firstly to frame the outsourcing phenomena in the context of the evolution of capitalism. In relation to the main problem of the work, it’s necessary to investigate if the bill 4330/2004 implies an offense to the union representativeness of outsourced workers. The conclusions obtained show that bill 4330/2004 compounds the representativeness trouble, since this bill proposes the agglutination of workers pertained to very different realities, what stunts the collective protection of interests.

  3. Draft Surrogacy (Regulation Bill 2016: Rhetoric or Surrogate-centric?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Bhattacharyya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chaired by honourable Prime Minister, Mr. Narendra Damodar Modi, the Union Cabinet on 24 August 2016 introduced and approved the draft bill on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART in India, known popularly as the Surrogacy (Regulation Bill, 2016. The bill aims at regulating the ever-proliferating unregulated surrogacy industry interalia banning commercial surrogacy services for single parents, homosexuals, cohabiting partners in addition to foreigners and overseas citizens of India. The key aim of this commentary is to make a nuanced examination of the draft bill aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of the practice of surrogacy and address gaps (if any that require interventions.

  4. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal will consider research from within the fields of consumer studies, consumer science, home economics, family studies, consumer education, consumer rights and consumer behaviour. We also consider household and/or individual food security to be a facet of food consumerism and hence those working in this ...

  5. Consumer Education in Eighth Grade Core and Mathematics 1970. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, June; And Others

    This curriculum guide outlines a one-to-two week consumer education unit for eighth grade students. It was written in response to Illinois Senate Bill 977 which required that all students in grades 8-12 be given instruction in consumer education. The lessons were developed to involve the students in stating problems, writing definitions,…

  6. Corporate Consumer Contact API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The data in the Corporate Consumer Contact API is based on the content you can find in the Corporate Consumer Contact listing in the Consumer Action Handbook (PDF)....

  7. 76 FR 52625 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... marketing? Are options to block third-party charges, if any, clearly and conspicuously disclosed to... that restrict accurate commercial speech.'' See, e.g., New York State Restaurant Association v. New... requiring restaurants to post calorie content information on their menus and menu boards) (citing Zauderer v...

  8. 77 FR 30972 - Empowering Consumers to Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...-cramming rules for Commercial Mobile Radio Service (CMRS) and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) service... carrier's customer service representative or while using online sign-up procedures? Should notification of... Mobile Radio (SMR) telephony services. An estimated 261 of these firms have 1,500 or fewer employees and...

  9. 76 FR 74017 - Empowering Consumers to Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-30

    ... importance of the issues in this proceeding. DATES: Reply comments are due on or before December 5, 2011... document DA 11-1860 may also be downloaded at http://www.fcc.gov . To request materials in accessible... by hand or messenger delivery, by commercial overnight courier, or by first class or overnight U.S...

  10. 77 FR 41955 - Empowering Consumers To Prevent and Detect Billing for Unauthorized Charges (“Cramming...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    .... The extension will facilitate the development of a full record given the importance of the issues in..._Releases/Daily_Business/2012/db0629/DA-12-1039A1.doc . To request materials in accessible formats for... sent by hand or messenger delivery, by commercial overnight courier, or by first class or overnight U.S...

  11. Session 6: Infant nutrition: future research developments in Europe EARNEST, the early nutrition programming project: EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, M S

    2007-08-01

    Increasing evidence from lifetime experimental studies in animals and observational and experimental studies in human subjects suggests that pre- and postnatal nutrition programme long-term health. However, key unanswered questions remain on the extent of early-life programming in contemporary European populations, relevant nutritional exposures, critical time periods, mechanisms and the effectiveness of interventions to prevent or reverse programming effects. The EARly Nutrition programming - long-term Efficacy and Safety Trials and integrated epidemiological, genetic, animal, consumer and economic research (EARNEST) consortium brings together a multi-disciplinary team of scientists from European research institutions in an integrated programme of work that includes experimental studies in human subjects, modern prospective observational studies and mechanistic animal work including physiological studies, cell-culture models and molecular techniques. Theme 1 tests early nutritional programming of disease in human subjects, measuring disease markers in childhood and early adulthood in nineteen randomised controlled trials of nutritional interventions in pregnancy and infancy. Theme 2 examines associations between early nutrition and later outcomes in large modern European population-based prospective studies, with detailed measures of diet in pregnancy and early life. Theme 3 uses animal, cellular and molecular techniques to study lifetime effects of early nutrition. Biomedical studies are complemented by studies of the social and economic importance of programming (themes 4 and 5), and themes encouraging integration, communication, training and wealth creation. The project aims to: help formulate policies on the composition and testing of infant foods; improve the nutritional value of infant formulas; identify interventions to prevent and reverse adverse early nutritional programming. In addition, it has the potential to develop new products through industrial

  12. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  13. An Overview Of The Nigerian National Health Bill | Saka | Savannah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National Health Bill was developed in 2004 as an instrument for correcting the gaps in the 1999 constitution of Federal Republic of Nigeria as it relates to the health sector. Since the first draft in 2004, the Bill was subjected to scrutiny and refinement by the respective Health Committees of the Senate and House of ...

  14. 31 CFR 206.3 - Billing policy and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE MANAGEMENT OF FEDERAL AGENCY RECEIPTS, DISBURSEMENTS, AND OPERATION OF THE CASH MANAGEMENT IMPROVEMENTS FUND § 206.3 Billing policy and procedures. The billing process is considered an integral part of an effective cash management collection program. In...

  15. Nigeria's freedom of information bill and national development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper revealed the genesis of Freedom of Information (FOI) Bill in Nigeria and the organizations instrumental to its enactment. The Bill is to ensure free flow of information and to protect Public Officers for giving out information in their possession. It also mandates organizations to preserve its information in such manner ...

  16. 76 FR 77365 - Bill of Rights Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8766 of December 8, 2011 Bill of Rights Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On December 15, 1791, the United States adopted the Bill of... speak our minds and worship as we please to the guarantee of equal justice under the law. For 220 years...

  17. An Investigation of Telecom Mobile Data Billing Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bing Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, mobile operators have provided many billing alternatives such as limited and unlimited billing plans, and shared and non-shared data plans for the users with different needs. A non-shared data plan is designed for a single user with a limited monthly data allowance. On the other hand, the monthly data allowance of a shared data plan is shared by a group of users with multiple devices. The mobile operators often conduct the primary price study to compare their billing plans, which shows the relationship between the prices of the billing plans against the fixed amounts of data usage. Although the primary price study can easily and quickly draw the conclusions, it only provides rough billing plan suggestions. In reality, the amounts of data usage are not fixed, and therefore should be measured from commercial mobile networks to reflect the user behaviors on data usage. This paper proposes an analytical approach by using the measured data of Chunghwa Telecom Co., Ltd. (CHT, the largest telecommunications company in Taiwan, to derive the expected payments of various billing plans. The results of the analytical model are more accurate than those of the primary price study, and therefore provide better suggestions for billing plan selection. Other mobile operators can easily use our model to analyze the billing alternatives with their measured data.

  18. Human-Centered Design Bill of Rights for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, William A.

    This paper presents a potential solution to encourage technology adoption and integration within schools by proposing a human-centered technology "bill of rights" for educators. The intention of this bill of rights it to influence educators' beliefs towards technology and to enable educators to confront with confidence the seemingly…

  19. 42 CFR 71.11 - Bills of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bills of health. 71.11 Section 71.11 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES QUARANTINE, INSPECTION, LICENSING FOREIGN QUARANTINE Measures at Foreign Ports § 71.11 Bills of health. A carrier at any foreign port clearing or...

  20. 29 CFR 1205.2 - Employees' Bill of Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees' Bill of Rights. 1205.2 Section 1205.2 Labor... Employees' Bill of Rights. The provisions of the third, fourth, and fifth paragraphs of section 2 are by law... provisions the employees are guaranteed the right to organize without interference of management, the right...

  1. An Analysis of the Tuition Advance Fund Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC. National Inst. of Independent Colleges and Universities.

    The Tuition Advance Fund (TAF) bill is analyzed on theoretical economic grounds, and forecasts of the net costs of the proposed program up to 1990 are offered. The TAF bill proposes the establishment of a new system of college loans as an addition to existing programs to allow students to borrow tuition plus an allowance for other costs. Novel…

  2. 19 CFR 142.14 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.14 Section 142.14 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Customs bills. The following procedure shall be followed if an importer is substantially or...

  3. 19 CFR 142.26 - Delinquent payment of Customs bills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delinquent payment of Customs bills. 142.26 Section 142.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Delinquent payment of Customs bills. The following procedures shall be followed if an importer is...

  4. Die Civil Union Act, Draft Domestic Partnership Bill en moontlike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Civil Union Act, Draft Domestic Partnership Bill and possible deregulation of marriage: The Civil Union Act 17/2006 is compared to the Marriage Act 25/1961 to determine whether similar life partnerships should be regulated by more than one act. Thereafter the Draft Domestic Partnership Bill is investigated to determine the ...

  5. Design of a Robust Prepaid Energy Metering and Billing System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... detector(GBTD) which detects abnormalities and sends sms alert to power utility for on site visit or investigation. A prior billing is bound to do away with the problems of unpaid bills and human error in meter readings, thereby ensuring justified revenue for the utility. Keywords: SMS, GSM, microcontroller, energy meter, ...

  6. Food irradiation and the consumer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Thomas, P.

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival.

  7. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    to systematic biases and heuristics, and are strongly dependent on the context of the decision. In this article, we briefly review the transition of research from neoclassical economics to behavioural economics, and discuss how the latter has influenced research in consumer behaviour and consumer policy...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...

  8. The receipt of electric power bills as a marketing instrument; O recebimento de contas de energia eletrica como instrumento de marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Bosco Gomes da [PROCONSEL, Projetos e Consultoria Eletrica (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Instead of the traditional banking payment of electric power bills, the Phone-marketing System of Payment in fully inserted in modern techniques of marketing. At the same time, it reaches the consumer satisfaction and simplify the enterprises actions, reducing costs and improve efficiency. 1 fig., 5 refs.

  9. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of lading...

  10. 3rd May 2009 - Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, visiting ATLAS experimental area, LHC tunnel and CERN Control Centre with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and Beams Department Head P. Collier.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    090506101-08: signature of the guest book and exchange of gifts; 090506109 + 46-64: Japanese Ambassador to the United Nations Office S. Kitajima, Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Non Member-State relations Adviser J. Ellis and ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1; 090506110-11 + 28-45: Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda and his delegation visiting ATLAS experimental area with CERN Japanese users and Management; 090506112 + 86-94: Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Japanese users in front of an LHC superconducting magnet; sLHC Project Leader also present. 090506113-19: Arrival of Japanese Min...

  11. Traceability perception of beef: a comparison between Spanish and Italian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina MORA; Menozzi, Davide; Faioli, Giusi; de Carlos, Pilar; Briz, Julian; Felipe, Isabel de

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays, the increasing demand by customers and consumers for information on food quality and safety determines, to a certain degree, the structure of the food chain. Traceability is considered as a tool to reach and keep consumers' confidence, which became a central issue to restore consumers' confidence in beef safety after the BSE crisis that strongly affected the EU market. Numerous researches have been carried out to determine consumers' preferences related to quality and food safety. H...

  12. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  13. Plümtoonia Bill - nagu orkester / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2008-01-01

    19.-23. nov. toimuvast animafilmide festivalist "Animated Dreams". Pikemalt USA tuntuimast sõltumatust animaatorist Bill Plymtonist, kes näitab festivalil oma täispikka joonisfilmi "Idioodid ja inglid" ("Idiots and Angels")

  14. Soul / Randy Becker, Bill Evans, Evelin Samuel ; interv. Sven Sapelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Becker, Randy

    2007-01-01

    The Soulbop Bandi rajajad Randy Becker ja Bill Evans ning meie Evelin Samuel gospeli ja rhytmblues'i juurtega soulist. Lk. 72-73 Inessa Josingu ja Ande Kaalepi souliteemaline fotolavastusega ruumikujundus

  15. THE NIGERIA DATA PROTECTION BILL: APPRAISAL, ISSUES, AND CHALLENGES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abubakar Sanni Aliyu

    2016-01-01

    .... It is in this regard that the Data Protection Bill was sponsored by Hon. Yakubu Dogara, member of the Federal House of Representatives, representing Bogoro/Dass/Tafawa Balewa Bauchi State, Nigeria...

  16. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - oxygen safety; Chronic obstructive airways disease - oxygen safety; Emphysema - oxygen safety; Heart failure - oxygen-safety; Palliative care - oxygen safety; Hospice - oxygen safety

  17. On the Government of Electronic Bills of Lading : An appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Kamlang, Issanee

    2008-01-01

    This thesis assesses the situation and potential success in legal practice of one major invention in the maritime industry, namely, the electronic bill of lading by taking into consideration developments of the relevant regulatory frameworks through time by some few important institutions involved including CMI (Comité Maritime International), Bolero (Bills of Lading Electronic Registry Organisation) and UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law). The thesis focuses on an...

  18. Hackers ring up big phone bills for hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, E

    1992-11-02

    A big telephone bill--possibly in six figures--can be a painful way for a hospital to find out its phone system isn't secure. When unusually large long-distance bills start to show up, chances are a professional telephone hacker has broken in. According to experts, one in 15 businesses has been victimized by long-distance toll fraud, and loss estimates range from $900 million to $4 billion a year.

  19. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  20. Food safety

    OpenAIRE

    VRABCOVÁ, Kateřina

    2012-01-01

    In the diploma thesis I was dealing with the issue of food safety in the Czech Republic and labeling of meat products. In the practical part were carried out two surveys, public opinion poll and survey of proper labeling of meat products. Opinion polls were attended by 462 consumers and analysis of proper labelling was subjected to 489 meat products in select retail chains in Prague. Survey results of labeling of meat products were not very positive, but can be expected to improve, as well as...

  1. Comparison groups on bills: Automated, personalized energy information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili; Kempton, Willett; Payne, Christopher

    2006-07-01

    A program called ``Innovative Billing?? has been developed to provide individualized energy information for a mass audience?the entireresidential customer base of an electric or gas utility. Customers receive a graph on the bill that compares that customer?s consumption with othersimilar customers for the same month. The program aims to stimulate customers to make ef?ciency improvements. To group as many as severalmillion customers into small ``comparison groups??, an automated method must be developed drawing solely from the data available to the utility.This paper develops and applies methods to compare the quality of resulting comparison groups.A data base of 114,000 customers from a utility billing system was used to evaluate Innovative Billing comparison groups, comparing fouralternative criteria: house characteristics (?oor area, housing type, and heating fuel); street; meter read route; billing cycle. Also, customers wereinterviewed to see what forms of comparison graphs made most sense and led to fewest errors of interpretation. We ?nd that good qualitycomparison groups result from using street name, meter book, or multiple house characteristics. Other criteria we tested, such as entire cycle, entiremeter book, or single house characteristics such as ?oor area, resulted in poor quality comparison groups. This analysis provides a basis forchoosing comparison groups based on extensive user testing and statistical analysis. The result is a practical set of guidelines that can be used toimplement realistic, inexpensive innovative billing for the entire customer base of an electric or gas utility.

  2. Senate Republican leadership releases revised ACA repeal and replace bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore NS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. Today, the Senate Republican leadership released a revised version of a bill to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act (ACA. The new bill draft includes an amendment sponsored by Sen. Cruz (R-TX that permits insurers to offer health insurance plans on the ACA exchanges that do not cover the ACA’s 10 essential health benefits (EHB as long as they offer at least one other plan that provides full coverage of EHB’s. The bill also includes more funding for opioid addiction and for state initiatives to reduce insurance premiums and additionally, some flexibility for state Medicaid funding in the event of a public health crisis. The bill must still receive a cost estimate from the Congressional Budget Office (CBO, which will include the impact of the bill on insurance coverage levels, expected out Monday. The ATS remains deeply concerned about the bill because under the Cruz proposal, insurance coverage costs …

  3. THE NIGERIA DATA PROTECTION BILL: APPRAISAL, ISSUES, AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Sanni Aliyu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria has absolutely no privacy and personal information laws. This lacuna is even more material in an internet world where information published on the web is open to a global audience. It is in this regard that the Data Protection Bill was sponsored by Hon. Yakubu Dogara, member of the Federal House of Representatives, representing Bogoro/Dass/Tafawa Balewa Bauchi State, Nigeria. This paper has two key aims, firstly to find out the major issues address by the proposed Data Protection Bill 2010, secondly, to determine the significance and the challenges of the Bill to Nigeria environment. The study utilized secondary source of data from the Data Protection Bill, 2010 and other documentary sources for analysis. The study finds out that the Bill protect parties in regard to publication of market survey details and information, ensure that unauthorised processing of personal information is reduce, and use of personal data and information without the prior consent of the data is subjected to scrutiny. The paper recommends that the Federal Government of Nigeria and the policy makers should hasten the process of passing the Bill into law in order to strengthen the activities of ecommerce in Nigeria through the following benefits: Improved customer relations; Improved ability to market lawfully; Improved data quality; Improved data security among others.

  4. Omnibus Science R&D Bill passes House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In a largely symbolic action that presages other initiatives in the management of federal science programs, the U.S. House of Representatives has passed H.R. 2405, the Omnibus Civilian Science Authorization Act of 1995. The immediate future of the bill remains clouded, as the Senate has not yet taken up the measure, and President Bill Clinton has threatened a veto.In a largely partisan vote—248 to 161— on October 13, the House formally adopted the bill sponsored by Rep. Robert Walker (R-Pa.) and the leadership of the House Science Committee. H.R. 2405 bundles seven traditionally separate authorization bills for research funding into one broad package. Each of the constituent parts of the omnibus bill has been passed in the House, and those individual authorizations will apply to current science appropriations under consideration by Congress. Those bills establish spending levels for the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, the Department of Energy (DOE), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

  5. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  6. Self-consuming materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, Steven G.; Grubelich, Mark C; Celina, Mathias C.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-05-23

    A self-consuming structure is disclosed that is formed from a self-consuming composition based on an epoxy or polyurethane having fuel and/or oxidizer molecularly dispersed and/or as particulates in the epoxy or polyurethane. The composition may be used to form self-consuming structural components.

  7. Informing Consumers About Themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Bar-Gill (Oren)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws

  8. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  9. Kaiser/Harvard National Survey of Americans' views on consumer protection in managed care. Kaiser Family Foundation and Harvard University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    As the debate over regulation of the health care market takes shape, a new survey by the Kaiser Family Foundation and Harvard University finds that significant majorities of Americans favor the key measures intended to protect consumers in the President's Consumer Bill of Rights and in legislative proposals before the Congress.

  10. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  11. Energy consumption behavior in the commercial sector: An ethnographic analysis of utility bill information and customer comprehension in the workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher Todd

    The commercial and industrial sectors of the United States compose roughly one-third of total United States energy consumption. Many studies have suggested that significant cost-effective energy savings opportunities exist in this sector, but there is a gap between predictions of potential and actual investment in energy-efficient technologies. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the decision-making environment of the business sector. In particular, there is essentially no information about how small-business decision-makers make choices about energy consumption. My research is intended to begin the process of understanding this important arena of energy consumption behavior. Using semi-structured interview techniques, I interviewed forty-four businesses in ten states. The focus of the interviews was the business decision-maker's handling and use of the utility bill---the main (often sole) piece of information that links energy consumption to cost. Through the interviews, I collected information about how utility bills are understood and misunderstood, what components of the bill are seen as useful or confusing, and how energy consumption was seen in the context of larger business decision-making. In addition, I collected data on two forms of energy consumption feedback: historic consumption feedback, in which informants compared their current energy use to patterns of their own energy consumption over time; and group comparison consumption feedback, in which informants compared their energy consumption to the consumption of a group of similar energy consumers. Finally, I collected data on sources of information to which decision-makers turned when they wanted to seek more information about energy consumption alternatives. Overall, my findings suggest that the current utility bill format is often misunderstood. In many cases, particularly in the small-business and medium-size-business categories, the link between energy consumption and energy cost is

  12. Bridging the gap between farmers and consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoin, Florence; Kristensen, Troels; Noe, Egon

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how different quality dimensions (safety, aesthetics, ethics and rooted ness) are created in food networks; how these qualities are transferred until the consumers; and how this process is supported by the organisation of the food network. Our postulate is th...

  13. Consumers' knowledge about and attitudes towards lucerne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine consumer knowledge in different demographic groups and to investigate the role of health benefits, food safety risks, sensory qualities and synonyms on attitudes. Purposive sampling was employed, recruiting male and female respondents (n = 384) from Bloemfontein City, ...

  14. Consumer reporting of adverse events following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Hazel J; Selvaraj, Gowri; Easton, Mee Lee; Lewis, Georgina; Crawford, Nigel W; Buttery, Jim P

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance of adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) is an essential component of vaccine safety monitoring. The most commonly utilized passive surveillance systems rely predominantly on reporting by health care providers (HCP). We reviewed adverse event reports received in Victoria, Australia since surveillance commencement in July 2007, to June 2013 (6 years) to ascertain the contribution of consumer (vaccinee or their parent/guardian) reporting to vaccine safety monitoring and to inform future surveillance system development directions. Categorical data included were: reporter type; serious and non-serious AEFI category; and, vaccinee age group. Chi-square test and 2-sample test of proportions were used to compare categories; trend changes were assessed using linear regression. Consumer reporting increased over the 6 years, reaching 21% of reports received in 2013 (Pattendance (Psystems to implement efficient consumer AEFI reporting, but may be justified for their potential impact on signal detection sensitivity.

  15. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  16. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  17. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  18. Get paid for what you do: dictation patterns and impact on billing accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorwarth, William T

    2005-08-01

    No one would knowingly invest in a business whose principal executives knew little or nothing about the key components determining reimbursement for the services provided. Superimpose on that lack of knowledge a regulatory environment in that business sector that places owners and key employees at risk for accusations of fraud and abuse as well as in jeopardy of large fines and potential exclusion from the marketplace for the largest consumer of a company's product if billing is done incorrectly. Yet this is exactly the case in many radiology practices today. A significant number of radiologists who provide excellent quality medical care produce dictated reports that demonstrate complete ignorance of the parameters used by their billing personnel to generate accurately coded claims, thus losing significant legitimate clinical practice revenues while placing themselves and their practices in jeopardy. This article does not outline ways to game the system or inappropriately augment practice revenues. Rather, it describes many of the basic elements needed in the dictated reports produced by radiologists in their daily work, calculates examples of the financial impact of medically correct but poorly documented reports, and provides dictation guidelines for radiology residents and radiologists in practice that, if adopted, should ensure that you get paid properly for what you do.

  19. Innovative Agro-Food Technologies to Minimize Consumer Detriment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianita BLEOJU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to offer a solution for accelerating the implementation of new biotechnologies designated to prevent consumer detriment. Designing an intervention mechanism along current inefficient chain of consumer feed- back information is a must. Upon different interconnected knowledge area of expertise, both on consumer detriment and biotechnologies for human food safety and security, we propose our approach relying upon relevant experiences on innovational biotechnologies as response to consumer fragilities data from recent validated agro food market research. We target the rising awareness regarding the translation from consumer preferences, to perceived detriment.

  20. 78 FR 66655 - Consumer Information; Uniform Tire Quality Grading Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Tire Quality Grading Standards AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... Tire Quality Grading Standards (UTQGS) contain detailed testing procedures for generating consumer.... Regulatory Analyses and Notices I. UTQGS and the Treadwear Test Course The Uniform Tire Quality Grading...

  1. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  2. You!!! The Consumer. Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Charles

    The guide for a course in consumerism contains objectives, directions for use, and seven minilessons. The lesson outlines are designed for 45 to 90 minute instructional segments and deal briefly with the following subjects: credit, insurance, budgeting, car buying, food buying, housing, and consumer rights and responsibilities. Each lesson…

  3. The ethics of advertising, billing, and finances in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Samuel; Vandecreek, Leon

    2008-05-01

    Psychotherapists must deal with practical business matters such as advertising, billing, collecting fees, and other practice management topics. We review the enforceable standards of the American Psychological Association's (2002) Ethics Code that deal with advertising, fees, billing, and related business matters in psychotherapy. Using a principle-based perspective, we link each of the standards to overarching ethical values and illustrate the concerns with case vignettes. We argue that understanding the moral foundations of ethical standards helps psychotherapists to implement with greater integrity the spirit and the letter of the standards with regard to advertising and business practices.

  4. How sailfish use their bills to capture schooling prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, P.; Wilson, A.D.M.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The istiophorid family of billfishes is characterized by an extended rostrum or ‘bill’. While various functions (e.g. foraging and hydrodynamic benefits) have been proposed for this structure, until now no study has directly investigated the mechanisms by which billfishes use their rostrum to fee...... and rapid motion make the sailfish bill an extremely effective feeding adaptation for capturing schooling prey....... an evasive response and (ii) subsequently use their bill to either tap on individual prey targets or to slash through the school with powerful lateral motions characterized by one of the highest accelerations ever recorded in an aquatic vertebrate. Our results demonstrate that the combination of stealth...

  5. Digital Library Billing Management System Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Ying

    Based on the database of SQL Server, a new automated billing and management system was designed using a range of forms, menus and control room provided by VB. In this new design, WINDOWS registry and API functions ware used, as well DAO and ADO data access and other advanced means. A good interactive interface was available and users could obtain a fresh and different feeling. Demonstrated by the application, the system provided accurate and reliable function and satisfied the needs of modern managements. The system is suitable for automatic billing of colleges and internet cafes management.

  6. Jamaica National Net-Billing Pilot Program Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stout, Sherry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Kimberly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-18

    This technical report discusses the effectiveness of the Jamaica Public Service Company Limited Net-Billing Pilot Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collected and analyzed data from a wide range of stakeholders, conducted in-country research, and compared program elements to common interconnection practices to form programmatic recommendations for the Jamaica context. NREL finds that the net-billing pilot program has successfully contributed to the support of the emerging solar market in Jamaica with the interconnection of 80 systems under the program for a total of 1.38 megawatts (MW) at the time of original analysis.

  7. European perspectives of food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánáti, Diána

    2014-08-01

    Food safety has been a growing concern among European Union (EU) citizens over the last decades. Despite the fact that food has never been safer, consumers are considerably uncertain and increasingly critical about the safety of their food. The introduction of new principles, such as the primary responsibility of producers, traceability, risk analysis, the separation of risk assessment and risk management provided a more transparent, science-based system in Europe, which can help to restore consumers' lost confidence. The present EU integrated approach to food safety 'from farm to fork' aims to assure a high level of food safety within the EU. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Chinese consumers' attitude towards different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Yanfeng, Z.

    2008-01-01

    . A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six Chinese cities and 473 valid questionnaires were obtained. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where traditional pig breeds are raised, over large-scale and small family farms. Farms with maximum attention...... to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred compared to farms that have less focus on food safety. Chinese consumers also rejected imported pig breeds and tasty but variable meat....

  9. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  10. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  11. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  12. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  13. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  14. Adult Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cecelia

    A Consumer Education course was held for parents of students who had previously taken the course. Classes , held for three hours on 14 Sundays, were attended by 12 mothers of students. The course included instruction in the following: clothing, food, family living, and housing, with consumer education stressed in all these areas. Students were…

  15. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  16. Consumer credit contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In compliance with European Directives, Romanian authorities have established some principles for consumer credit, minimum standards for authorizing, regulating and monitoring credit institutions. These measures were required by the increase in imports due to consumer credit, while the national bank tempered this increase. Therefore, banks, together with the big shops, perfect their techniques to attract customers.

  17. Advancing consumer neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidts, A.; Hsu, M.; Sanfey, A.G.; Boksem, M.A.S.; Ebstein, R.P.; Huettel, S.A.; Kable, J.W.; Karmarkar, U.R.; Kitayama, S.; Knutson, B.; Liberzon, I.; Lohrenz, T.; Stallen, M.; Yoon, C.

    2014-01-01

    In the first decade of consumer neuroscience, strong progress has been made in understanding how neuroscience can inform consumer decision making. Here, we sketch the development of this discipline and compare it to that of the adjacent field of neuroeconomics. We describe three new frontiers for

  18. [Application of supply chain integration management of medical consumables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the background, the content, the information management system of material supply chain integration management and the consumables management process. The system helps to expand the selection of hospital supplies varieties, to reduce consumables management costs, to improve the efficiency of supplies, to ensure supplies safety, reliability and traceability.

  19. Consumer evalulations of food risk management in Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popova, K.; Frewer, L.J.; Jonge, de J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Kleef, van E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – Consumer perceptions regarding what constitutes best food risk management (FRM) practice may vary as a consequence of cross-cultural differences in consumer perceptions, cultural contexts, and historical differences in governance practices and occurrence of food safety incidents. The

  20. Consumer Justice: A Symbol of Economic Prosperity and Social Progressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Kumar Roy

    2016-01-01

    It is well recognized fact that consumer confidence and trust in a well functioning market for financial services promotes financial stability, growth efficiency and innovation over the long term. So protection of the interest of consumers is not merely an ethical or humanitarian issue rather it is also an issue of economy. Consumer protection demands for setting of minimum quality specification and safety standards for goods and services to curb unfair trade practices. So far the internation...

  1. Consumer Confidence in the Food System, Media Coverage and Stock Prices of Food Companies: A Regression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Fuentes, Pablo A.; Ferreira, Gustavo F.C.; Harrison, R. Wes; Kinsey, Jean D.; Degeneffe, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    A series of recent and serious food safety incidents have generated a national debate over the significant costs that they impose on various stakeholders - consumers, industry, or the government. This paper examines the impact of media coverage of food safety and defense issues on consumer confidence in food safety, and measures the response of stock prices of food companies to changes in consumer confidence. Results show that, increases in media coverage have a negative impact on consumer co...

  2. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  3. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  4. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...... on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour....

  5. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    is rapidly becoming a reality. On the other hand, still many consumers are in favour of local production, resulting in fierce competition between the multinational suppliers and the local producers of food. Under these market conditions, the importance of skills relating to hoe to study consumers' perception...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish....

  6. 78 FR 73502 - Multistakeholder Process To Develop Consumer Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Facial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Facial Recognition Technology AGENCY: National... enforceable codes of conduct that specify how the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights applies in specific business... developed a code of conduct to provide transparency in how companies providing applications and interactive...

  7. 78 FR 19461 - Multistakeholder Meetings To Develop Consumer Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Mobile Application Transparency AGENCY: National... enforceable codes of conduct that specify how the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights applies in specific business... develop a code of conduct to provide transparency in how companies providing applications and interactive...

  8. 77 FR 38597 - Multistakeholder Process To Develop Consumer Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Data Privacy Code of Conduct Concerning Mobile Application Transparency AGENCY: National... develop legally enforceable codes of conduct that specify how the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights applies... multistakeholder process is to develop a code of conduct to provide transparency in how companies providing...

  9. Transition in Food and Agricultural Policy: Key Stakeholder--Domestic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Jean

    Assurance of an adequate and safe supply of food at a reasonable price is consumers' primary stake in the outcome of 1995 farm bill deliberations and related food and agricultural policies. Farm programs have provided an economically stable environment wherein farmers produce an abundance of food. The declining portion of household budgets…

  10. FOOD SAFETY AT HOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Griglio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers nowadays play a critical role in the prevention of food poisoning. For this reason, the present research was planned to collect data on how aware about food safety consumers are. A questionnaire considering food labelling, hygiene, transport, storage, preparation and kitchen hygiene was designed and submitted to consumers (health district ASL TO5. After questionnaire analysis, a training course was prepared to address specific problems. Kitchens of consentient participants were visited and data on hygiene (check-lists, samples from equipment and fridge surfaces, and fridge temperatures were collected. Questionnaires showed a lack of knowledge on correct food storage, handling, and kitchen hygiene. Households visits showed fridge temperatures above 4°C, highly contaminated washing sponges, and the presence of Listeria spp. in a fridge of a high risk consumer. These results evidence the role of consumer training in reducing foodborne diseases incidence.

  11. APPLIED FARM FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Ender, Judit; Mikaczo, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Recently there have been more and more foodborne illnesses being associated with fresh vegetable produce. In response to this, consumer confidence has been lowered with the safety of the vegetable industry. So, many retailers have recently announced programs requiring growers to have independent third-party inspections. The goal with this essay is to introduce a vegetable farm and reveal its food safety procedures from the seeding through shipping,. reviewing, evaluating, and strengthening cu...

  12. Senate health bill lacks 50 votes needed to proceed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore NS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Yesterday (7/17, two additional Senators – Sen. Roberts (R-KS and Sen. Lee (R-NE joined Senators Paul (R-KY and Collins (R-ME in announcing their intention to vote “no” on the motion to proceed on considering the Senate ACA repeal and replace legislation – effectively blocking Senate consideration of the current Senate Republican health care bill. Senators Paul, Lee and Roberts opposed the bill for not going far enough, while Senator Collins expressed her concern the bill goes too far. With the 4 publicly announced NO votes – Senator Majority Leader Mitch McConnell does not have the 50 votes needed to begin debate on the bill, let alone assure final passage. Speculation now turns to what happens next. President Trump has tweeted his preference to let Obamacare fail as a way to force Democrats to negotiate new legislation. Senator McConnell has suggested a series of symbolic votes on full repeal with multi-year delay to work …

  13. BILLING IS A DEVELOPING MEANS OF BRANDS PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Polyakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a concept of the billing as a developing means of marketing promotion. Examples of comparative analysis for a rating are considered. The author presents technology of two-factor rating of trade marks on the basis of expert and comparative analysis.

  14. 77 FR 75355 - Bill of Rights Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... reinforce human rights at home and around the globe, we reaffirm our belief that government of the people, by the people, and for the people inspires the stability and individual opportunity that serve as a basis for peace in our world. In adopting the 10 Constitutional Amendments that make up the Bill of...

  15. Roost site selection by ring-billed and herring gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel E.; DeStefano, Stephen; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Whitney, Jillian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gulls (Larus spp.) commonly roost in large numbers on inland and coastal waters, yet there is little information on how or where gulls choose sites for roosting. Roost site selection can lead to water quality degradation or aviation hazards when roosts are formed on water supply reservoirs or are close to airports. Harassment programs are frequently initiated to move or relocate roosting gulls but often have mixed results because gulls are reluctant to leave or keep returning. As such, knowledge of gull roost site selection and roosting ecology has applied and ecological importance. We used satellite telemetry and an information-theoretic approach to model seasonal roost selection of ring-billed (L. delawarensis) and herring gulls (L. argentatus) in Massachusetts, USA. Our results indicated that ring-billed gulls preferred freshwater roosts and will use a variety of rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Herring gulls regularly roosted on fresh water but used salt water roosts more often than ring-billed gulls and also roosted on a variety of land habitats. Roost modeling showed that herring and ring-billed gulls selected inland fresh water roosts based on size of the water body and proximity to their last daytime location; they selected the largest roost closest to where they ended the day. Management strategies to reduce or eliminate roosting gulls could identify and try to eliminate other habitat variables (e.g., close-by foraging sites) that are attracting gulls before attempting to relocate or redistribute (e.g., through hazing programs) roosting birds.

  16. Size & Flow: Adult Education Issues in the Senate Immigration Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Garrett; Spangenberg, Gail

    2014-01-01

    In this essay Garrett Murphy and Gail Spangenberg report on the need for understanding better than in the past, the number of undocumented immigrants likely to need adult education services under provisions of Senate Immigration Bill S.744. The essay looks at why the issues of "size and flow" are important for planners, providers, and…

  17. Bill Gates : Miljardärist nohik / Martin Hanson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanson, Martin, 1984-

    2008-01-01

    Bill Gates loobub Microsofti juhi kohast ning jätkab vaid nõustajana. Vt. samas: Elulugu; Tasub teada; Miljardär, kes hoiab oma eraelu kiivalt saladuses. Kommenteerivad Microsoft Eesti esinduse juht Rain Laane ja IBM Eesti juht Valdo Randpere

  18. Aspects of the Breeding Biology of Blue-Billed Weaver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Some aspects of the breeding biology of the Blue-billed Weaver Spermophaga haematina were examined for two consecutive years (i.e. 1999 and 2000). ... The long breeding period showed the efficiency with which the species may have utilized different food resources and hence occupy broad feeding niches.

  19. 78 FR 76719 - Bill of Rights Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... experimentation and national debate, the Bill of Rights came into force, touching off a long journey to carve... and constitutions, but laws and constitutions must go hand in hand with the progress of the human mind.'' Our liberties opened heated debate over the questions of citizenship and human rights, driving...

  20. Creating a standardized and simplified cutting bill using group technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; R., Jr. Noble; D. Earl Kline

    2008-01-01

    From an analytical viewpoint, the relationship between rough mill cutting bill part requirements and lumber yield is highly complex. Part requirements can have almost any length, width, and quantity distribution within the boundaries set by physical limitations, such as maximum length and width of parts. This complexity makes it difficult to understand the specific...

  1. 42 CFR 424.540 - Deactivation of Medicare billing privileges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... does not report a change to the information supplied on the enrollment application within 90 calendar days of when the change occurred. Changes that must be reported include, but are not limited to, a change in practice location, a change of any managing employee, and a change in billing services. A...

  2. The Interpretation of Dreams: Ladson-Billings, Freud, and Derrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwalt, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This study provides a critical and close reading of "The Dreamkeepers" (1994), by Gloria Ladson-Billings. The paper focuses primarily on the gendered nature of "being a teacher" and "being a student" as revealed in the dreamkeeper text, while maintaining its engagement with race and culture as it is manifested in the United States context. It…

  3. Search efforts for ivory-billed woodpecker in South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Moskwik; Theresa Thom; Laurel M. Barnhill; Craig Watson; Jennifer Koches; John Kilgo; Bill Hulslander; Colette Degarady; Gary. Peters

    2013-01-01

    Following the reported rediscovery of Campephilus principalis (Ivory-billed Woodpecker) in Arkansas, we initiated searches in South Carolina in February 2006, with additional searches in the winter and spring of 2006–2007 and 2007–2008, concentrating in the Congaree, Santee, and Pee Dee river basins. We accrued a cumulative total of 8893 survey hours...

  4. Estimating population size of Saddle-billed Storks Ephippiorhynchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Counting Saddle-billed Storks in a study area the size of the Kruger National Park, at 2.2 million ha, is difficult because the birds are long-lived, sparse in the landscape and have large home ranges. Aerial surveys conducted to date provide an estimate with no measure of data dispersion, thence precision. The aim of this ...

  5. Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers. Resource Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Lois; Kelso, Richard

    This high school resource package for the public television series "Healing and the Mind with Bill Moyers" includes: (1) a teacher's guide that provides complete lesson plans for each program in the series; (2) a glossary that features definitions of the terms used in the series; (3) a bibliography containing books of interest to both…

  6. The Bill of Rights Poster Series. A Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    This document is a teacher's guide to a series of mass transit advertisement posters illustrating Bill of Rights topics. The five posters in the series are discussed in five separate sections. Each section is divided into three units, each consisting of a learning activity, one for the secondary level, one for the middle school level, and one…

  7. US Congress considers bill to relieve helium shortage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-04-01

    A bill to alleviate the threat of a significant shortage of helium was set to be debated in the US House of Representatives as Physics World went to press with the House's Natural Resources Committee putting the finished touches to the motion.

  8. Freedom of Movement (Common Travel Area) (Travel Documentation) Bill 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Flanagan, Terence

    2014-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to reinforce the Common Travel Area by providing for passport-free travel for persons who are entitled to travel within the Common Travel Area without a passport...

  9. Do Organic Consumers Oppose Genetically Modified Food Stronger than Others? Results of a Consumer Research in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Wirthgen, Antje

    2007-01-01

    The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi-cation of food. Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety regulations. Thus, even organic production, which is ...

  10. Sustainable Development of Food Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabech, B.; Georgsson, F.; Gry, Jørn

    to food safety - Strengthen efforts against zoonoses and pathogenic microorganisms - Strengthen safe food handling and food production in industry and with consumers - Restrict the occurrence of chemical contaminants and ensure that only well-examined production aids, food additives and flavours are used...... - Strengthen scientific knowledge of food safety - Strengthen consumer knowledge The goals for sustainable development of food safety are listed from farm to fork". All of the steps and areas are important for food safety and consumer protection. Initiatives are needed in all areas. Many of the goals...... in other areas. It should be emphasized that an indicator will be an excellent tool to assess the efficacy of initiatives started to achieve a goal. Conclusions from the project are: - Sustainable development in food safety is important for humanity - Focus on the crucial goals would optimize the efforts...

  11. Large Eddy Simulation of Engineering Flows: A Bill Reynolds Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Parviz

    2004-11-01

    The term, Large eddy simulation, LES, was coined by Bill Reynolds, thirty years ago when he and his colleagues pioneered the introduction of LES in the engineering community. Bill's legacy in LES features his insistence on having a proper mathematical definition of the large scale field independent of the numerical method used, and his vision for using numerical simulation output as data for research in turbulence physics and modeling, just as one would think of using experimental data. However, as an engineer, Bill was pre-dominantly interested in the predictive capability of computational fluid dynamics and in particular LES. In this talk I will present the state of the art in large eddy simulation of complex engineering flows. Most of this technology has been developed in the Department of Energy's ASCI Program at Stanford which was led by Bill in the last years of his distinguished career. At the core of this technology is a fully implicit non-dissipative LES code which uses unstructured grids with arbitrary elements. A hybrid Eulerian/ Largangian approach is used for multi-phase flows, and chemical reactions are introduced through dynamic equations for mixture fraction and reaction progress variable in conjunction with flamelet tables. The predictive capability of LES is demonstrated in several validation studies in flows with complex physics and complex geometry including flow in the combustor of a modern aircraft engine. LES in such a complex application is only possible through efficient utilization of modern parallel super-computers which was recognized and emphasized by Bill from the beginning. The presentation will include a brief mention of computer science efforts for efficient implementation of LES.

  12. Senate working on reauthorization of water resources development bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Although the details are not even written for forthcoming legislation to reauthorize the U.S. federal Water Resources Development Act (WRDA), three broad themes emerged during a 20 September hearing by the U.S. Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works (EPW). First, passage of the WRDA bill, which would authorize water projects around the country, already appears to have bipartisan support, as well as support from conservation, industry, and labor groups. WRDA was last reauthorized in 2007 when the Senate voted 79-14 in broad bipartisan support to override President George W. Bush's veto of the $23 billion bill. Second, although the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers—which manages, operates, and maintains a vast water resources infrastructure including more than 600 dams, 926 harbors, and 12,000 miles of commercial inland navigation channels—received some praise for its projects, it was also criticized as being a bureaucracy in need of repair. Third, WRDA legislation is operating under different ground rules than in the past. EPW committee chair Barbara Boxer (D-Calif.) said that she has been working with Republicans on WRDA legislation and that she hopes to move forward with a bill later this year—possibly bringing it up for a markup during Congress's lame duck session following the national election in November. She said that would be a way to set a marker for leadership on both sides of the congressional aisle to move forward with the bill. Boxer said she would "get my dream bill in place" and then provide it to committee ranking member James Inhofe (R-Okla.) and other Republicans for their comments.

  13. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation......This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  14. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  15. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...... become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community...

  16. Effect of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage on health-related biomarkers and safety parameters in Caucasian subjects with elevated levels of blood pressure and liver function biomarkers: a 4-week, open-label, non-comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Tomoyuki; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Watanabe, Osamu; Goto, Kazuhisa; Boelsma, Esther; Ishikawa, Fumiyasu; Suda, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    An open-label study with one treatment arm was conducted to investigate changes in health-related biomarkers (blood pressure and liver enzyme activity) and the safety of 4 weeks of consuming a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage in Caucasian subjects. Twenty healthy adults, 18-70 years of age, with a body mass index >25 kg/m(2), elevated blood pressure and elevated levels of liver function biomarkers consumed two cartons of purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage (125 ml, including 117 mg anthocyanin per carton) daily for 4 weeks. Hematology, serum clinical profile, dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure were determined before consumption, at 2 and 4 weeks of consumption and after a 2-week washout period. A trend was found toward lowering systolic blood pressure during the treatment period (p=0.0590). No significant changes were found in diastolic blood pressure throughout the study period. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower after 4 weeks of consumption compared with before consumption (p=0.0125) and was significantly higher after the 2-week washout period compared with after consumption (p=0.0496). The serum alanine aminotransferase level significantly increased over time, but aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase levels stayed within the normal range of reference values. Safety parameters of the blood and urine showed no clinically relevant changes. The consumption of a purple-fleshed sweet potato beverage for 4 weeks resulted in no clinically relevant changes in safety parameters of the blood and urine and showed a trend toward lowering systolic blood pressure.

  17. Keeping Order: Motor-Car Regulation and the Defeat of Victoria's 1905 Motor-Car Bill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Clapton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the twentieth century some upper-class Victorians became motorists; consequently, for the first time ever, regulation and policing intersected with this class of society. By 1905 so many concerns had been raised about compromised public order and safety that the Victorian State Government attempted to implement a Motor Car Bill based on its English predecessor (1903. Wealthy motorists possessed power and influence, however, which contributed to the postponement of legislation until 1910. Additionally, parliamentarians were drawn from the same social class as motorists, and, in creating regulation, they were potentially regulating their peers, colleagues and friends. The private motor-car also brought with it new issues of civil liberty and responsibility. Finding a balance between the two continued to be a problem, as private transport gradually became affordable for middle- and working-class people, and both the number of regulations and the power of the motoring lobby increased.

  18. Kill Bill! Ugandan human rights organizations' attempts to influence the media's coverage of the Anti-Homosexuality Bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2011-09-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local and international media. Particularly contentious was its proposal to impose the death penalty for acts of 'aggravated homosexuality'. Through a quantitative content analysis of 176 items from two main daily newspapers, the government-owned New Vision and the privately-owned Daily Monitor, over the period October 2009-June 2010, combined with qualitative interviews with human rights defenders in Uganda, this study explores attempts made by local human rights advocates to influence the media's coverage of the Bill and the extent to which these attempts were successful. The study finds that while there are significant differences between the frequency of reporting on the Bill in the two newspapers, both papers devoted little editorial space to the public health and human rights concerns put forward by local human rights organizations. Despite Uganda's recent and often lauded history of openly addressing HIV/AIDS, human right organizations' attempts to highlight the Bill's potentially adverse effects on the country's ability to tackle the epidemic effectively were only partially successful and, interestingly, awarded much less attention than the potential human rights implications of the proposed change in legislation.

  19. 76 FR 64110 - Safety and Health Management Programs for Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ...: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Mine..., combustible materials, health hazards). Improved compliance. Improved communication. Increased productivity.... Dated: October 7, 2011. Joseph A. Main, Assistant Secretary of Labor for Mine Safety and Health. BILLING...

  20. Ways of implementation of fatf recommendations on combating criminal incomes at bills market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Іванович Гулей

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article the measures directed on counteraction to laundering of criminal incomes are considered about the financial transaction with using bills of exchange and promissory notes. A study and analysis of the development process of bills of exchange and promissory notes in different countries of the world, the nature of bills as payment document, securities, commercial and bank credit, and process of immobilization of bills. Also, the problems of the legal framework relating to bill circulation in Ukraine are investigated and some recommendations for reduce the risks of bill circulation are given

  1. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  2. Organizations` responsibility to consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between organizations and consumers have a contradictory nature, because they are built on a base of imbalance between them, but can become, in a functioning market economy, partnerships, through which to resolve their interests, opposed as tendency, including conflict situations so that everyone ultimately gets what he wants, in the given historical conditions: organizations, the maximum possible profits and consumers, a higher degree of satisfaction of their needs. Market economies have as an existential fundament the competition, but the aspirations of a nation are founded on cooperation, on partnership. An economic system that divides people into winners and losers shouldn’t be promoted. For this reason, organizations must be more sensitive to the needs of society, as they are expressed through the values of the social human being (consumer compared to the values of the economic human being (producer, hence the need to increase their responsibilities to the consumer.

  3. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  4. Оn the issue of setting priorities in the organization of risk-based supervision over the safety of consumer products traded on the common economic space of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Yu. Popova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered, based on the account of the product use, consumer contingent specificity, known types of hazards, results of inspection and enforcement activities. It was found that the priority products exported by EASE member countries on the common market and forming potentially the greatest risk of harm to the health of consumers may include: dairy products; bird eggs (FEACN group 04; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; waxes of animal or vegetable origin (FEACN group 15; sugar and sugar confectionery (FEACN group 17; meat, fish or crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates (FEACN group 16; alcoholic and soft drinks and so on. (FEACN group 22; vegetables, roots and tubers (FEACN group 07; toys, games and sports equipment (FEACN group 95. In relation to these groups of products the priority study of the risk profile required, as well as the development of algorithms and regulations of the supervisory and control measures and improvement of laboratory support methods.

  5. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc....

  6. Release of nanomaterials from consumer products and implications for consumer exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga

    and the uncertainties associated with the risks they may pose is raising concerns about consumer safety. During the use of nano-enabled products there is a potential for NM release, which can consequently lead to consumer and/or environmental exposure. Consumer exposure testing has only recently started to receive some...... to around 6 µg/L and 40 000 particles/mL), but the amounts were magnitudes below the permitted Ag exposure limits set by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and World Health Organization (WHO). The TiO2 release was tested for five types of textiles that did not openly disclose TiO2 content. The fabrics...... attention, and the data currently available in the literature is scarce. Most studies are addressing only a narrow range of product categories and a few NM types, having experimental setups that are rarely comparable from study to study. Moreover, the analytical techniques applied for release testing...

  7. Non-breeding Ethology of Spot-billed Pelican ( Pelecanus philippensis at Adyar Eco-Park, Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Bandyopadhyay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spot-billed Pelican is a Near Threatened species according to UCN red list. There are very limited studies regarding the non-breeding behavior of the Spot-billed Pelican, where behavioural study is very important to understand the species and ecosystem to which they belong. Studying ethology is an important stepping stone for the conservation of the species and its ecosystem. With this aspect an ethological study was carried out at Adyar Eco-park Chennai during the non-breeding season of Spot-billed Pelican for a period of thirteen days continuously. An Ad libitum study was adapted to document their behaviour. The observation was conducted over a period of 7 different time schedules. From the observation 14 individual behaviours and 4 conspecific and group behaviours were recorded. The four most time consuming activities are Alert (193.13 min, 31.15%, Preening (92.36 min, 14.89%, Resting (81.13 min, 13.09% and Looking around (71 min, 11.45%. The mean population density in the study area showed a declining trend from dawn to noon (2.04-0.55 individuals per 100 sq. m. and increasing from noon to evening (0.55-3.81 individuals per 100 sq. m.. During the observation it was found that this area is a non-breeding roosting site for the bird and they show some typical pattern as the day progresses. The present study can be helpful to build a comprehensive conservation programme for the Spot-billed Pelican and management plan for Adyar Eco-park can be developed if carried out for a longer period of time.

  8. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Zhou, Y.

    2013-01-01

    In many countries consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers’ attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on Western con...... of rural and environmental development, quality aspects, and food safety measures are challenges that must be met by the stakeholders of pig production systems in China....

  9. Oregon's Senate Bill 560: practical policy lessons for nurse advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson Sistrom, Maria

    2010-02-01

    In response to striking rates of childhood obesity in Oregon, advocates led by a nurse lobbyist proposed legislation in 2005 to regulate junk foods in public schools. Several theories propose to explain the policy-making process, yet Senate Bill 560 (SB 560) followed a twisted course through rule making, legislative and political processes that are not well articulated in policy theory. Three overlapping mechanisms were identified in content analysis of documents and interviews with participants in the SB 560 policy process. Strategically placed legislative "banana peels," proponents' amateur advocacy, and legislative outflanking by professional lobbyists more fully characterize this policy process and better account for the failure of SB 560. Subsequent passage of the Oregon Healthy School Foods bill in the more politically conducive 2007 legislature suggest that advocacy and incremental change frameworks are less predictive of successful passage than is the ability to take advantage of political opportunities to change public health policy.

  10. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    quality; 4) marinating by submerging aiming for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement and restructuring through enzyme binding; 6) shock wave treatment and 7) thermal processing. Participants' attitudes towards beef, their innovativeness and risk aversion were also assessed. In total, 65......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able......The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...

  11. Yellow-billed loon populations on the Colville River Delta, arctic Alaska: Supplemental project report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the yellow-billed loon populations on the Colville river delta in the Arctic Alaska. The estimates sizes of the 1982 and 1984 yellow-billed look...

  12. Endine FBI agent õpetab eestlasi allilma imbuma / Bill Moschella ; interv. Rasmus Kagge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Moschella, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Föderaalse Juurdlusbüroo (FBI) endine eriagent Bill Moschella hakkab treenima siinseid kriminaalpolitseinikke, õpetab, kuidas paremini tööd organiseerida ja kurjategijate paljastamiseks varioperatsioone korraldada. Lisa: Bill Moschella

  13. Max Bill in Italia . Lo spazio logico dell'architettura

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbri, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    I Max Bill is an intense giornata of a big fresco. An analysis of the main social, artistic and cultural events throughout the twentieth century is needed in order to trace his career through his masterpieces and architectures. Some of the faces of this hypothetical mural painting are, among others, Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, Ernesto Nathan Rogers, Kandinskij, Klee, Mondrian, Vatongerloo, Ignazio Silone, while the backcloth is given by artistic avant-gardes, Bauhaus, International Ex...

  14. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  15. Bill Lang's many contributions to international standardization in acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Roger

    2005-09-01

    Over the past 40 years, Bill Lang has been a major force in Intl. Standards, not only as ongoing leader of the U.S. delegation, but in a personal capacity as project leader for the development of the pivotal group of standards on methods of determining sound power level. As Convenor of the previous Working Group 6 of Sub-Committee 1, Noise, of ISO Tech. Committee 43, Acoust., he oversaw the production of the ISO 3740 series of standards during the 1970s and early 1980s. A revision of this same series was made starting in the late 1980s, once more under Bill's supervision in the current Working Group 28. At the same time, this Group compiled the new series of ISO 11200 standards on determination of emission sound pressure levels, on declaration and verification of noise emission levels and on guidelines for writing noise test codes. As if this was not enough, the same group is now in the throes of another major short-term revision of all the documents and has plans for further more radical revisions in the future. This paper outlines Bill's contributions to this major international combined effort, which even after such sustained activity goes from strength to strength, gathering participation from a new generation of acousticians around the world.

  16. Promotion of health through consumer protection: Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demehin, P A

    1981-01-01

    This paper investigates the attitudes of Nigerian health consumers towards modern health care facilities. It examines both the traditional beliefs and customs which stand in the way of accepting modern health care, and the modern health care facilities themselves which discourage patients through their red tape, lack of interpersonal communication and mass production atmosphere. The paper attempts to explain the communication gap between patients and modern medical practitioners in Nigeria by examining the historical development of medical science in the country. It concludes that there is no continuity between the traditional and modern practitioners and that modern health care is totally derived from the Western world without consideration for the social and cultural background of the population. Special training in interpersonal relationship of all medical and paramedical personnel including the observation of psychological methods used by the traditional healers, as well as "a patient's bill of right" aimed at promoting health consumer awareness of the part he has to play in the proper delivery of health care are proposed.

  17. CSR Practices and Consumer Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Öberseder, Magdalena; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.; Murphy, Patrick E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and companies are paying increasing attention to corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs and the reaction to them by consumers. But despite such corporate efforts and an expanding literature exploring consumers' response to CSR, it remains unclear how consumers perceive CSR and which "Gestalt" consumers have in mind when considering CSR. Moreover, academics and managers lack a tool for measuring consumers' perceptions of CSR. This research explores consumers' perceptions of...

  18. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  19. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  20. Evolution of consumer cooperativism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez Charterina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The origins of modern cooperativism can be found in the consumer cooperative. Many changes have taken place over time, some of which have been profound and rapid, affecting the way consumer cooperatives work and their very existence. They have evolved to give more complete service and keep their original purpose. The case of the Eroski cooperative is studied in depth. Eroski originated in the Basque Country and expanded its business activities to become one of the big distributors following a new model. A local neighbourhood cooperative, the Park Slope Food Coop in Brooklyn, is studied as an alternative to the former case. In both cases, consumers, their awareness and protection of their rights are of utmost importance.Received: 16.06.11Accepted: 05.07.11

  1. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  2. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelmadine, Brian; Cooke, Matt; Buford, Thomas; Hudson, Geoffrey; Redd, Liz; Leutholtz, Brian; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2009-08-05

    This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun(R), on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 x 10-RM) 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL) or NO-Shotgun(R) (NO) 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA and t-tests (p 0.05). When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-Shotgun(R) is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers. Rather, NO-Shotgun(R) effectively increases muscle strength and mass, myofibrillar protein content, and increases the content of markers indicative of satellite cell activation.

  3. Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center: Creative Ideas for Promoting Food Safety and Food Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukel, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne illness has a significant impact on public health and consumer confidence in the U.S. The Southwest Border Food Safety and Defense Center was established to provide educational programs, trainings, and workshops to address the health and well-being of consumers as it relates to food safety and food protection. A partnership between New…

  4. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  5. 16 CFR 1500.230 - Guidance for lead (Pb) in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... addition to an agreement to discontinue the use of lead in future production. The Commission believes that... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guidance for lead (Pb) in consumer products... § 1500.230 Guidance for lead (Pb) in consumer products. (a) Summary. (1) The U.S. Consumer Product Safety...

  6. 75 FR 7550 - Requirements for Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1130 Requirements for Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products... toddler products to establish and maintain a system for consumers to register their products with the...

  7. 75 FR 5248 - Requirements and Procedures for Consumer Assistance To Recycle and Save Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... for Consumer Assistance To Recycle and Save Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... the regulations implementing the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save (CARS) program, published on... implementing the Consumer Assistance to Recycle and Save (CARS) program, published on July 29, 2009 in the...

  8. DOI: 10.18697/ajfand.80.16345 12916 CONSUMERS' VIEWS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lifestyle, age, dietary and safety concerns have been the contributing factors to nutritional awareness by consumers. ... labels to which the consumers responded were brand, nutritional profile and mass of product in relation to the .... gap about consumers' awareness, knowledge and behaviour in relation to food labelling.

  9. New approaches to food safety economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Unnevehr, L.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2002-01-01

    Food-safety economics is a new research field, which needs a solid framework of concepts, procedures and data to support the decision-making process in food-safety improvement. Food safety is a theme that plays at many levels in the community: at the consumer level, at the farm or business level, at

  10. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  11. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    , as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  12. Maximizing Consumer Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Karl-Ludwig J.

    A discussion of the use of readily-available consumer videotape recorders and recordings that second language students can either respond to or dub with their own soundtracks emphasizes the usefulness of authentic recordings not tailored for instructional use. The recordings either originate abroad or are produced by the students. The playback…

  13. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  14. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results indica...

  15. Exploring Consumer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Virginia; Sumrall, William; Mott, Michael; Mitchell, Elizabeth; Theobald, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Methods for facilitating students' standards-based consumer literacy are addressed via the use of problem solving with food and product labels. Fifth graders will be able to: (1) provide detailed analysis of food and product labels; (2) understand large themes, including production, distribution, and consumption; and (3) explore consumer…

  16. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  17. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  18. THE SPARTA Model: An Econometric Analysis of Consumer Behaviour under Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzocchi, Mario; Lobb, Alexandra E.; Traill, W. Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the role of trust in food safety information in determining consumer choice in relation to socio-demographic effects and other determinants. The complexity of factors influencing the way a consumer processes food safety information makes it difficult to develop adequate risk communication strategies. This is, however, a priority for current European policy and this paper tries to answer some key questions: (1) can the consumer be segmented into socio-demographic groups in ...

  19. Consumers' Acceptability and Rejection of Food Traceability Systems, a French-German Cross-Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Halawany, Rafia; Bauer, Caroline; Giraud, Georges; Schaer, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    Food traceability is mandatory since 1st January 2005 in the EU. Traceability of products and activities in the food supply chain is a new factor of competitiveness in agribusiness that connects producers to consumers and is deemed to be an important criterion of perception of food product quality and safety for consumers. Within the food industry, traceability is absolutely essential to provide consumer assurance about the sources and safety of food, to allow identification of the source of ...

  20. Consumer satisfaction - an unattainable ideal?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    influence of the product on the consumer's emotions. Congruence between the product image and the consumer's self-concept represents this dimension of consumer satisfaction. Aspects such as style, price, technology and trade or brand name often serve as symbols that make the consumer feel proud of his or.

  1. Incremental analysis of the reengineering of an outpatient billing process: an empirical study in a public hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A smartcard is an integrated circuit card that provides identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. Among other functions, smartcards can serve as credit and ATM cards and can be used to pay various invoices using a ‘reader’. This study looks at the unit cost and activity time of both a traditional cash billing service and a newly introduced smartcard billing service in an outpatient department in a hospital in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods The activity time required in using the cash billing service was determined via a time and motion study. A cost analysis was used to compare the unit costs of the two services. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the effect of smartcard use and number of cashier windows on incremental cost and waiting time. Results Overall, the smartcard system had a higher unit cost because of the additional service fees and business tax, but it reduced patient waiting time by at least 8 minutes. Thus, it is a convenient service for patients. In addition, if half of all outpatients used smartcards to pay their invoices, along with four cashier windows for cash payments, then the waiting time of cash service users could be reduced by approximately 3 minutes and the incremental cost would be close to breaking even (even though it has a higher overall unit cost that the traditional service). Conclusions Traditional cash billing services are time consuming and require patients to carry large sums of money. Smartcard services enable patients to pay their bill immediately in the outpatient clinic and offer greater security and convenience. The idle time of nurses could also be reduced as they help to process smartcard payments. A reduction in idle time reduces hospital costs. However, the cost of the smartcard service is higher than the cash service and, as such, hospital administrators must weigh the costs and benefits of introducing a smartcard service. In addition to the obvious benefits

  2. Food safety and organic meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  3. Audit and account billing process in a private general hospital: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silva Bicalho Zunta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to map, describe and, validate the audit, account billing and billing reports processes in a large, private general hospital.  An exploratory, descriptive, case report study. We conducted non-participatory observation moments in Internal Audit Sectors and  Billing Reports from the hospital, aiming to map the processes which were the study objects. The data obtained was validated by internal and external audit specialists in hospital bills. The described and illustrated processes in three flow-charts favor professionals to rationalize their activities and the time spent in hospital billing, avoiding or minimizing the occurrence of flaws and, generating more effective financial results. The mapping, the description and the audit validation process and billing and, the billing reports propitiated more visibility and legitimacy to actions developed by auditor nurses.

  4. Severe bill deformity of an American Kestrel wintering in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iko, William M.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    During a recent survey for West Nile virus in wild birds around the Sonny Bono Salton Sea National Wildlife Refuge, Imperial County, California (Dusek et al. 2010), we captured a female American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) with a severe bill deformity (Figure 1). The kestrel was captured on 9 March 2006, at 08:45, approximately 0.25 km south of the intersection of Wiest and Lindsey roads (33°  08' 42' N, 115° 26' 59' W) and 6 km east-northeast of Calipatria. It was caught on a bal-chatri trap baited with a domestic mouse (Berger and Mueller 1959), as were all the 208 kestrels captured during this study. The bird was initially perched on a high transmission line running along Wiest Road and was caught within 10 minutes of our setting the trap. In examining the bird, we observed that the maxilla beyond the cere was missing. The upper bill structure from the palatine process, which included part of the maxilla, the entire premaxilla, and the external rhamphotheca (the hardened keratin layer cover­ ing the premaxilla) was missing rostral to the bird's cere and nares (Threlfall 1968, Lucas and Stettenheim 1972, Proctor and Lynch 1993). The epidermal layer of the cere appeared to have fused over the remaining area between the nares where the upper bill normally would have been. The deformation did not appear to be recent or related to our trapping, as there were no obvious abrasions or open wounds in the region surrounding the nares and oropharynx or signs of recent trauma surrounding the oropharynx area. Both nares were clearly defined, and the tongue protruded from the open oropharynx area. After completing the physical examination, measurements, and obtaining a blood sample for testing for West Nile virus, we released the kestrel at the location of capture. After its release, we monitored the kestrel's behavior for approximately 30 minutes but did not observe any additional hunting.

  5. Validation of infant immunization billing codes in administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kevin L; Tu, Karen; Wing, Laura; Campitelli, Michael A; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Deeks, Shelley L; Wilson, Sarah E; Wilson, Kumanan; Gemmill, Ian; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2015-01-01

    Ontario has a single payer provincial health insurance program. Administrative data may provide a potentially robust source of information for post-marketing vaccine studies. Vaccine-specific immunization billing codes were introduced in 2011. Our objective was to validate Ontario's universal health care administrative datasets to assess infant immunization status. Electronic medical record data from the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD) was used as the reference standard to calculate performance characteristics of the Ontario Health Insurance Plan (OHIP) database vaccine-specific and general immunization codes for 4 primary infant immunizations: diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio, Haemophilus influenzae type B (DTaP-IPV-Hib) combination vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, and meningococcal conjugate serogroup C vaccine. OHIP billing claims had specificity ranging from 81% to 92%, sensitivity 70% to 83%, positive predictive value (PPV) 97% to 99%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 13% to 46% for identifying the various specific vaccines in administrative data. For cohorts vaccinated in the new code introduction phase, using both the vaccine-specific and general codes had higher sensitivity than the vaccine-specific codes alone. In conclusion, immunization billing claims from administrative data in Ontario had high specificity and PPV, moderate sensitivity, and low NPV. This study identifies some of the applications of utilizing administrative data for post-marketing vaccine studies. However, limitations of these data decrease their utility for measuring vaccine coverage and effectiveness. Therefore, the establishment of a comprehensive and linkable immunization registry should be a provincial priority.

  6. Use of nanosilver in consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, K W; Choudhury, A; Lakhani, A A; Kuyate, P; Haw, J R; Lee, D S; Iqbal, Z; Brumlik, C J

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP; many other names such as nanosilver and colloidal silver) have already been used in everyday consumer products requiring broad spectrum antibiotic performance because of their enormous surface area and reactivity. Faunce and Watal [1] recently have critically analyzed the international regulatory issues for medical and domestic use in USA, EU, UK, and Australia. They found that in spite of the fact numerous studies have been made in the past decades, but many scientists are still uncertain of its safety. Very recently, Powers mentioned in her dissertation that her results showed positive that Ag+ and AgNP are developmental neurotoxicants in vitro and in vivo [2]. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a study to identify a global landscape of AgNPs and their products, and their manufacturers. A market- based intellectual property (IP) study has been conducted to examine the current global patent landscape of companies using AgNP in their consumer product development and production from 1980 to 2010. Detailed information in the compositions and formulations is extracted using a "two-stage" stage-gate process from the IP activity in the use of nanosilver. The first stage is in commercial products and the second stage is in consumer products. In the first stage for AgNP and AgNP-based commercial products, there were 7,422 patent families from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010. In the second stage for AgNP-based consumer products, 932 patent families from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010 were found. Korea, China and USA were found to be the major players in AgNP and AgNP-based commercial and consumer products. However, the recent patenting downturn was observed probably due to rising price in silver metal, regulatory uncertainty, public perception, and health safety & environmental (HS&E) issues.

  7. Growing trend of identity theft poses safety and billing loss threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Identity theft is more than just a legal issue. Patients with improper identification are at risk for receiving potentially harmful treatment. Have registration department require photo identification from all patients. Ask additional questions, such as the patient's date of birth. Ask staff members to be the "eyes and ears" of registration and security, and ask them to report anything suspicious.

  8. Consumer Privacy and Marketing Avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Il-Horn Hann; Kai-Lung Hui; Sang-Yong Tom Lee; Ivan Png

    2005-01-01

    We introduce consumer avoidance into analytical marketing research. We show that consumer efforts to conceal themselves and to deflect marketing have a crucial impact on sellers¡¯ marketing strategy. Under reasonable conditions, seller marketing is a strategic complement with consumer concealment. Hence, consumer measures to conceal themselves from marketing will increase its cost-effectiveness and lead sellers to market more. Policies that encourage consumers to conceal their identities woul...

  9. THE BILL OF EXCHANGE AS A MEANS OF PAYMENT AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojo Belovski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The bill of exchange is a kind of paper in order that its holder shall entitle the debtor named in the document to pay a certain amount of payments. The bill of exchange represents a means of payment and an instrument of providing the payment. It is an unconditional order given by the drawer to the drawee to pay a certain amount to the payee listed on the bill of exchange. The bill of exchange is generally a paper on the orders but it can be issued as value paper to a name. It is such promissory notes where the issuer becomes a clause not by order. The bill of exchange though it appears as a means of payment and an instrument for securing the payment it also appears as a means of international payment, because the bill of exchange can become a modern instrument of crediting and payment. With the development of the credit market and the bill of exchange becomes a means for the drawer and the drawee. This means that instead of the bill of exchange to be paid after the expiry of a certain deadline for submission of the bill of exchange the holder may sell or discount, or to pay before the deadline for submission. With this the bill of exchange becomes a toll for discount. Based on this we can conclude that the bill of exchange has the following roles: -bill of exchange serves as a means of credit; -bill of exchange serves as means of payment; -bill of exchange serves as a means for discount by.

  10. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate (OPP), in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707-65-8 as preservatives are regulated in Annex V/7 of the Cosmetics Regulation (EC) n. 1223/2009 at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). In February 2013, the Commission received a risk assessment submitted by the French Agency ANSM (Agence nationale de sécurité des médicaments et des produits de santé) which rose concerns about the use of o-Phenylphenol as preservatives in cosmetic products. In the context of the ANSM report (Evaluation du risque lié à l'utilisation de l'orthophénylphénol CAS n. 90-43-7 dans les produits cosmétiques) o-Phenylphenol has been identified as likely to be an endocrine disruptor. The report concludes that the maximum authorised concentration (currently of 0.2%) of o-Phenylphenol for use as a preservative should be revised due to low margin of safety. In January 2014, in response to a call for data on o-Phenylphenol by the Commission, Industry submitted a safety dossier in order to defend the current use of o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707- 65-8 as preservatives in cosmetic formulations at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in leave-on cosmetic products is not safe. Also, in view of further exposures including noncosmetic uses (see Anses, 2014), the maximum concentration of o-Phenylphenol in leave-on cosmetic products should be lowered. However, the proposed maximum use concentration of up to 0.15% by the applicant can be considered safe. The use of o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in rinse-off cosmetic products is considered safe. Based on the information provided, no conclusions of safe use can be drawn for Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate. In vitro data indicate an absent or very weak binding affinity of OPP to the oestrogen

  11. WWII GI Bill and Its Effect on Low Education Levels: Did the World War II GI Bill Have an Effect on High School Completion, Poverty, and Employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Megan D.

    2017-01-01

    Did the World War II (WWII) GI Bill increase the probability of completing high school and further affect the probability of poverty and employment for the cohorts for whom it benefited? This paper studies whether the GI Bill, one of the largest public financial aid policies for education, affected low education levels in addition to its…

  12. Mobile Phone and Internet Consumers Rights Compliance in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorela Iacovoiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the extent to which rights of mobile phone and internet consumers are respected by the most important operators in Romania, namely Orange, Vodafone and Cosmote, in the context of accelerated technological changes on a highly competitive market. The research is focused on the analysis of regulations and contractual grievance procedures, number, distribution and motivation of consumer complaints, administrative quality indicators of data services and main consumer complaints. Among the documents under analysis we can mention contractual agreements, applicable procedures, as well as relevant empirical data provided by NAPC, NAMRC, economic operators and a site for online complaints, namely ReclamatieOnline.ro. The analyses emphasize that consumer complaints are mainly due to problems arising from contracts with service providers, billing services and defects of electronic terminals under warranty. The main cause for all this is the insufficient information users are provided with and, therefore, consumers’ decreased ability in the decision making process involved in the purchase of mobile technology and internet services. To better inform consumers, at the end of the study we propose a series of measures that could be adopted by mobile and internet service providers and regulatory, supervision and control institutions, as well as future directions of research in the field.

  13. Can consumers cure healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, David

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. healthcare delivery system is in crises. Costs are too high and increasingly becoming unaffordable to federal and state governments, employers and consumers. Americans are dissatisfied with the current system and believe it should be fundamentally altered or rebuilt. A solution needs to be found, and it is not the single-payer system espoused by many in Washington and elsewhere. We believe consumers can cure healthcare if (a) professionals, providers and policy experts shift their mindset from treating diseases and conditions to taking a holistic approach to the caring of people, particularly Baby Boomers and their parents; (b) technology becomes widely available to increase engagement, personalize healthcare, share experiences, make better choices and embrace convenience and (c) a cost-effective and reimbursed primary care navigator (coordinator and/or health manager), consistent with the medical home concept espoused by the American Association of Family Practitioners (AAFP) becomes a central component of public policy.

  14. Managing consumer credit risk

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Burns; Anne Stanley

    2001-01-01

    On July 31, 2001, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia hosted a workshop that examined current credit risk management practices in the consumer credit industry. The session was led by Jeffrey Bower, senior manager in KPMG Consulting’s financial services practice. Bower discussed "best practices" in the credit risk management field, including credit scoring, loss forecasting, and portfolio management. ; In addition, he provided an overview of developing new meth...

  15. Essays on consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Aaron A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals' consumption decisions constitute a key foundational block of economics. Although some intrinsic factors behind consumer decisions can be evaluated in a controlled setting, learning about the role of preferences and availability of information in other decisions requires changes by outside actors. The first chapter of my dissertation uses wagering choices made by individuals for an uncertain gamble to measure their attitudes toward risk. The second chapter looks at how characteris...

  16. Consumer behavior towards telemarketing

    OpenAIRE

    Kharaishvili, Tinatin

    2014-01-01

    Telemarketing has become a big industry and convenient way of successfully managing business affairs with low costs. The aim of the thesis is to present telemarketing services from the customers point of view; analyzing what are consumer behavior towards telemarketing in Georgia and the Czech Republic, and also what are the perceptional and attitudinal causing factors of these behaviors. This is the comparative study and the research is mainly based on the primary data. For the research accom...

  17. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  18. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  19. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise and consuming a commercially available pre-workout supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers in males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leutholtz Brian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study determined the effects of 28 days of heavy resistance exercise combined with the nutritional supplement, NO-Shotgun®, on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of satellite cell activation, and clinical safety markers. Methods Eighteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program (3 × 10-RM 4 times/wk for 28 days while also ingesting 27 g/day of placebo (PL or NO-Shotgun® (NO 30 min prior to exercise. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 ANOVA and t-tests (p Results Total body mass was increased in both groups (p = 0.001, but without any significant increases in total body water (p = 0.77. No significant changes occurred with fat mass (p = 0.62; however fat-free mass did increase with training (p = 0.001, and NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.001. Bench press strength for NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.003. Myofibrillar protein increased with training (p = 0.001, with NO being significantly greater than PL (p = 0.019. Serum IGF-1 (p = 0.046 and HGF (p = 0.06 were significantly increased with training and for NO HGF was greater than PL (p = 0.002. Muscle phosphorylated c-met was increased with training for both groups (p = 0.019. Total DNA was increased in both groups (p = 0.006, while NO was significantly greater than PL (p = 0.038. For DNA/protein, PL was decreased and NO was not changed (p = 0.014. All of the myogenic regulatory factors were increased with training; however, NO was shown to be significantly greater than PL for Myo-D (p = 0.008 and MRF-4 (p = 0.022. No significant differences were located for any of the whole blood and serum clinical chemistry markers (p > 0.05. Conclusion When combined with heavy resistance training for 28 days, NO-Shotgun® is not associated with any negative side effects, nor does it abnormally impact any of the clinical chemistry markers. Rather, NO-Shotgun® effectively increases muscle strength and mass

  20. Information for Consumers (Drugs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Popular Topics Approved Drugs Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Heart Attack and Stroke Dietary Supplements Generic ... View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination Products Advisory ... Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News ...

  1. Generating PubMed Chemical Queries for Consumer Health Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Loo, Jeffery; Chang, Hua Florence; Hochstein, Colette; Sun, Ying

    2005-01-01

    Two popular NLM resources that provide information for consumers about chemicals and their safety are the Household Products Database and Haz-Map. Search queries to PubMed via web links were generated from these databases. The query retrieves consumer health-oriented literature about adverse effects of chemicals. The retrieval was limited to a manageable set of 20 to 60 citations, achieved by successively applying increasing limits to the search until the desired number of r...

  2. Consumer-pharmacist interactions around complementary medicines: agreement between pharmacist and consumer expectations, satisfaction and pharmacist influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Sophia; Calabretto, Jean-Pierre; Sorich, Michael

    2013-12-01

    To explore pharmacist-consumer interactions around the use of complementary medicines (CMs), with specific focus on consumer expectations, perceptions and satisfaction. Twenty pharmacists and 20 healthcare consumers were recruited across 16 metropolitan community pharmacies in Adelaide, Australia, from June to August 2011. Semi-structured interviews containing comparable questions for both study groups were used. Data was transcribed and analysed with the aid of AutoMap®. There was high consumer satisfaction with pharmacists as CM providers, which was in agreement with pharmacist's perceptions of consumer satisfaction. However, this was against a background of low consumer expectations and pharmacists' dissatisfaction with their own role in the interaction. Consumers often perceived pharmacy-stocked CMs to be more effective and safer compared to those in supermarkets or health food shops, but this perception was not shared by pharmacists. Pharmacists believed they had significant influence around recommendation and use of CMs, whereas consumers perceived a more limited influence. Both pharmacists and consumers shared similar perceptions of CM safety and similar expectations regarding business influence and professional pressures on information provision. Behind a perception of high satisfaction, consumers have low expectations of pharmacists around provision of CM-related information. Further work is required to improve pharmacists' knowledge and confidence around CM use and to address barriers such as the tension between potentially competing business pressures and professional responsibilities. © 2013 The Authors. IJPP © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. MTP Amendment Bill, 2014: towards re-imagining abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    In India, the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, while allowing abortions under a broad range of circumstances, can be considered a conservative law from a feminist perspective. The Act allows healthcare providers rather than women seeking abortion to have the final say on abortion, and creates an environment within which women are made dependent on their healthcare providers. On October 29, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare released a draft of the MTP (Amendment) Bill 2014, which proposes changes that could initiate a shift in the focus of the Indian abortion discourse from healthcare providers to women. Such a shift would decrease the vulnerability of women within the clinical setting and free them from subjective interpretations of the law. The Bill also expands the base of healthcare providers by including mid-level and non-allopathic healthcare providers. While the medical community has resisted this inclusion, the author is in favour of it, arguing that in the face of the high rates of unsafe abortion, such a step is both ethical and necessary. Additionally, the clause extending the gestational limit could trigger ethical debates on eugenic abortions and sex-selective abortions. This paper argues that neither of these should be used to limit access to late-trimester termination, and should, instead, be dealt with separately and in a way that enquires into why such pregnancies are considered unwanted.

  4. Burn Safety Awareness on Playgrounds: Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Awareness on Playgrounds Thermal Burns from Playground Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC wants ... of the risk of thermal burns from playground equipment. You may remember the metal slides of your ...

  5. Drug Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over-the-counter drug. The FDA evaluates the safety of a drug by looking at Side effects ... clinical trials The FDA also monitors a drug's safety after approval. For you, drug safety means buying ...

  6. Consumer beliefs regarding farmed versus wild fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Anna; Guerrero, Luis; Ginés, Rafael; Grau, Amàlia; Hernández, M Dolores; Aguirre, Enaitz; Peleteiro, José Benito; Fernández-Pato, Carlos; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carmen

    2014-08-01

    Aquaculture is a food-producing activity, alternative to traditional extractive fishing, which still acts as a reference for most consumers. The main objective of the present paper was to study which consumer beliefs, regarding farmed versus wild fish, hinder the potential development of the aquaculture sector. To achieve this purpose the study was organized into two complementary steps: a qualitative approach (focus groups) aimed at assessing consumer perception about wild and farmed fish and to identify the salient beliefs that differentiate them; and a quantitative approach (survey by means of a questionnaire) to validate the results obtained in the focus group discussions over a representative sample of participants (n = 919). Results showed that participants perceive clear differences between farmed and wild fish. Although no significant differences between both kinds of fish were detected on safety, in general farmed fish was perceived to be less affected by marine pollution, heavy metals and parasites. In the contrary, wild fish was considered to have healthier feeding, to contain fewer antibiotics and to be fresher, healthier, less handled and more natural. Beliefs related to quality were in favour of wild fish, while those related to availability and price were in favour of farmed fish. Significant differences were observed in the perception of both kinds of fish depending on the consumers' objective knowledge about fish, on the level of education, age and gender and on the three segments of consumers identified: "Traditional/Conservative", "Connoisseur", "Open to aquaculture". The results provided could play an important role when planning and designing efficient marketing strategies for promoting farmed fish by adapting the information provided to the perception of each segment of consumers identified by the present study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumables data base workbook: Formulation of consumables management models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Activity consumables data specifications and data applications are presented. The data are structured in a series of "Consumable Data Worksheets" for each activity that includes a profile of its operations and the rate of each consumable required to support the given activity. The data worksheets provide for the uniform specification of consumables data, allows for the ready identification of the consumables affected by a given activity, and facilitates the updating process. An activity is defined and the data that must be included in the data worksheets are specified. An example of its use and application is given, i.e. consumables data requirements for the performance of the EVA. The consumables data for the activities currently identified for the shuttle spacecraft are included. The consumables data sources are identified and information to facilitate the maintenance process is detailed.

  8. Heat loss may explain bill size differences between birds occupying different habitats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Greenberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on variation in bill morphology has focused on the role of diet. Bills have other functions, however, including a role in heat and water balance. The role of the bill in heat loss may be particularly important in birds where water is limiting. Song sparrows localized in coastal dunes and salt marsh edge (Melospiza melodia atlantica are similar in size to, but have bills with a 17% greater surface area than, those that live in mesic habitats (M. m. melodia, a pattern shared with other coastal sparrows. We tested the hypotheses that sparrows can use their bills to dissipate "dry" heat, and that heat loss from the bill is higher in M. m. atlantica than M. m. melodia, which would indicate a role of heat loss and water conservation in selection for bill size. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bill, tarsus, and body surface temperatures were measured using thermal imaging of sparrows exposed to temperatures from 15-37°C and combined with surface area and physical modeling to estimate the contribution of each body part to total heat loss. Song sparrow bills averaged 5-10°C hotter than ambient. The bill of M. m atlantica dissipated up to 33% more heat and 38% greater proportion of total heat than that of M. m. melodia. This could potentially reduce water loss requirements by approximately 7.7%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This >30% higher heat loss in the bill of M. m. atlantica is independent of evaporative water loss and thus could play an important role in the water balance of sparrows occupying the hot and exposed dune/salt marsh environments during the summer. Heat loss capacity and water conservation could play an important role in the selection for bill size differences between bird populations and should be considered along with trophic adaptations when studying variation in bill size.

  9. Consumer empowerment versus consumer populism in healthcare IT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simborg, Donald W

    2010-01-01

    Institutions, providers, and informaticians now encourage healthcare consumers to take greater control of their own healthcare needs through improved health and wellness activities, internet-based education and support groups, and personal health records. The author believes that "untethering" all of these activities from provider-based record systems has introduced a form of unhealthy consumer populism. Conversely, integrating these activities in a coordinated manner can sustain both consumer empowerment and consumer well-being.

  10. Performance Analysis of Secure and Private Billing Protocols for Smart Metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Eccles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional utility metering is to be replaced by smart metering. Smart metering enables fine-grained utility consumption measurements. These fine-grained measurements raise privacy concerns due to the lifestyle information which can be inferred from the precise time at which utilities were consumed. This paper outlines and compares two privacy-respecting time of use billing protocols for smart metering and investigates their performance on a variety of hardware. These protocols protect the privacy of customers by never transmitting the fine-grained utility readings outside of the customer’s home network. One protocol favors complexity on the trusted smart meter hardware while the other uses homomorphic commitments to offload computation to a third device. Both protocols are designed to operate on top of existing cryptographic secure channel protocols in place on smart meters. Proof of concept software implementations of these protocols have been written and their suitability for real world application to low-performance smart meter hardware is discussed. These protocols may also have application to other privacy conscious aggregation systems, such as electronic voting.

  11. Consuming the Fashion Tattoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....

  12. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... to mobility and its social context. Such an understanding can be approached through representations, as distance is being represented in various ways, most noticeably in maps and through the notions of space and Otherness. The question this talk subsequently asks is whether these representations of distance...

  13. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...

  14. A Critique of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution critically reflects on the proposed amendments to the Unemployment Insurance Act Act 63 of 2001 (the UIA / the Act, introduced via the provisions of the Unemployment Insurance Amendment Bill of 2015 (B25-2015. Several shortcomings and deficiencies are addressed and improvements introduced by the proposed amending legislation, including the extension of coverage to a wider range of beneficiaries, the extension of the period of benefits (to a maximum of 365 days, the increase of the rate of maternity benefits of a (female contributor's earnings, the adjustment of the accrual rate of a contributor's duration of benefits from 1 day for every 6 days of employment to 1 day for every 5 days of employment, and some attempt to provide for employment retention and the re-entry of unemployed contributors into the labour market. And yet, despite these important contributions to the development of unemployment insurance in South Africa, several matters appearing from the Bill point towards inconsistent, inadequate and inappropriate treatment of core elements of the unemployment insurance system. Recommendations have been made to address these matters, which among others relate to: •\tThe insufficient alignment of the UIA with ILO, UN and SADC standards in key areas of concern; •\tUnclear or absent provisions in relation to the coverage and/or application of the UIA in relation to public servants, migrant workers, and the self- and informally employed; •\tInadequate provision for employment promotion, the prevention, combating and reduction of unemployment, and reintegration into employment; •\tInappropriate provisions relating to benefit rates and periods, among others concerning the Minister's power to set/amend the Income Replacement Rate and to vary the benefit period by regulation; •\tInconsistent and discriminatory provisions requiring a 13-week qualifying period for accessing maternity benefits; •\tInappropriate provisions

  15. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  16. 78 FR 19442 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau Seeks To Refresh the Record Regarding Options for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 20 Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau Seeks To Refresh the Record Regarding... Commission's (Commission) Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau (PSHSB) seeks to refresh the record.... David S. Turetsky, Chief, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau. BILLING CODE 6712-01-P ...

  17. SELF-BILL, A NEW APPLICATION OF COMMERCIAL INVOICE AS A RESULT OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin YARBAŞI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of the world economy in the last decades brought the deletion of the small and medium sized enterprises and the rise of the bigger ones in order to satisfy the consumers as much as possible. These businesses face another giant problem which is to hold enough capital, that means the merchant who has to buy big quantities of many types of goods would need an enourmous capital and the problem of the producer is having to sell his products to as many as possible retailers. The solution of these problems appear to be sending on consignement or collection on sale - so no- body would have capital insufficiency pressure. The next problem on behalf of the producer is to watch the sale of the goods for inventory control and also for cash inflow expectation. The last solution here becomes the Self-Billing in English or Autofacturation in French or Selbstfakturierung in German which means the buyer issues bill of the goods sold himself on behalf of the producer and send one copy to the producer. this application is not valid in turkey yet but we believe it will take its place among rules and legislations soon.

  18. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau). The...

  19. Scale Development for Consumer Confusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schweizer, Markus; Kotouc, Alexander J.; Wagner, Tillmann

    2006-01-01

    The article focuses on consumer confusion related to the wide array of choices in modern society among diverse name brand products. The article focuses on research into how consumers make choices among competing brands and different types of products and services. While some business leaders and economists have termed the large number of choices "consumer democracy," others have identified the problem of "consumer confusion." The article presents research into both the number of choices consu...

  20. A bill of rights for patients with obstetric fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis

    2014-12-01

    According to the seven categories of vulnerability proposed by Kipnis (cognitive, juridical, deferential, medical, allocational, social, and infrastructural), and the four generally accepted principles of biomedical ethics (respect, beneficence, non-maleficence, and fairness), women with obstetric fistulas are an exceptionally vulnerable population. Therefore, they merit special consideration in both clinical care and research settings. Adoption of a formal bill of rights for patients with fistula similar to the one proposed in the present report should be encouraged at all facilities where these women are treated. Acknowledgment of their rights would help to improve their care and end the abuses they are exposed to in institutional settings. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Colored reflections from the black-billed magpie feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneron, Jean Pol; Lousse, Virginie

    2006-08-01

    The structural origin of the weak iridescence on some of the dark feathers of the black-billed magpie, Pica pica (Corvidae), is found in the structure of the ribbon-shaped barbules. The cortex of these barbules contains cylindrical holes distributed as the nodes of an hexagonal lattice in the hard layer cross-section. The cortex optical properties are described starting from a photonic-crystal film theory. The yellowish-green coloration of the bird's tail can be explained by the appearance of a reflection band related to the photonic-crystal lowest-lying gap. The bluish reflections from the wings are produced by a more complicated mechanism, involving the presence of a cortex "second gap".

  2. The children's interaction in the do-of-bill games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Duarte

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an experience of supervised apprenticeship is discussed, starting from the participant observation, of the practice of registrations and of the elaboration of intervention proposals with the children and professionals of a regular day care of net of public education of the municipal district of Florianópolis. He is born of an evaluation of the eighth phase of the Course of Pedagogy, tends for objective to analyze the children's interactions in the do-of-bill games. Where did this theme appear from? He leaves of the discussed focus and chosen together among academic, teacher-advisor and the professionals of infantile education of the institution where he/she felt the apprenticeship, “the interactions in the moments of park and feeding”, starting from him, we cut out a more little to give visibility to the games and it do-of-counts him/it on these moments.

  3. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  4. Approaches to Consumer Economic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Richard A.

    1979-01-01

    Explains how students in high school social studies should benefit from participation in an economic education program. Presents objectives relating to the consumer in society, consumer rights and responsibilities, and consumer law. A directory of materials and resources concludes the article. (Author/DB)

  5. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ...] Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule, staff... requirements of Regulation M, which implements the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the CLA by increasing...

  6. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  7. Georgia 4-H Consumer Judging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Mary Ellen; Hall, Doris N.

    Materials are provided for a consumer education activity designed to help teenagers make knowledgeable, rational decisions when purchasing goods and services. A student manual describes how the activity--a consumer judging contest--works. Information is provided on how consumers make decisions. Topics include: needs versus wants; sources of…

  8. The Health and Social Care Bill: value for money or service improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstadt, Lyn

    Over the past couple of weeks, I have found myself yet again examining the proposed new Health and Social Care Bill. Although the Bill has cleared the House of Commons for now, it is being scrutinized in the House of Lords, who have had plenty of critical and uncomplimentary things to say. My concern regarding the progress of the Bill and the negative response surrounding it prompted me to revisit the legislation.

  9. Bill of Lading Contracts Under European National Laws: Civil Law Approaches to Explaining the Legal Position of the Consignee Under Bills of Lading

    OpenAIRE

    Smeele, Frank

    2016-01-01

    textabstract1 INTRODUCTION 1. It is often said that a bill of lading issued under a voyage charter constitutes “a mere receipt” as long as it remains in the hands of the charterer. This implies that as between the parties to a contract of affreightment the terms of the voyage charter will prevail over those of the bill of lading. Although a bill of lading in the hands of the charterer may still be used as prima facie evidence, its primary role in between the parties to the voyage charter is t...

  10. Analyzing the Operations with Bills by Means of the Table Processor LIBRE CALC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlotov Yevhen O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article conducts an analysis of the existing methodological framework for assessment of bill, which is one of the most complicated categories of securities. This arises from the variety of functions that a bill can perform during the process of treatment. In this publication, bill refers to securities based on statutory form and containing an unconditional obligation to pay a specified sum within a stipulated time frame, it is also specified that the Ukrainian exchange law is still in a formative stage. Simulations of calculations of bills, which differ in agreements and payers, are considered. The focus of the work is given to simulation of calculations related to common operations with bills, as well as to technology of automation of bills' accounting computation in the Libre Calc environment, using the built-in functions: ACCRINTM(, PRICEDISC(, YIELDDISC(, DISC(, INTRATE(, RECEIVED(. An electronic worksheet in the environment of the table processor LibreOffice Calc has been developed, which is a tool to automate the analysis of accounting operations with bills and may be supplemented and adapted to the analysis of operations in more complex terms. Thus, the analyzed methodological framework of bills and the developed electronic worksheet provide to analyze accounting operations with bills, and to develop a program for their analysis in a high-level language that is useful both in practice and in the educational process

  11. Flexible motor adjustment of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows but not in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The dextrous foraging skills of primates, including humans, are underpinned by flexible vision-guided control of the arms/hands and even tools as body-part extensions. This capacity involves a visuomotor conversion process that transfers the locations of the hands/arms and a target in retinal coordinates into body coordinates to generate a reaching/grasping movement and to correct online. Similar capacities have evolved in birds, such as tool use in corvids and finches, which represents the flexible motor control of extended body parts. However, the flexibility of avian head-reaching and bill-grasping with body-part extensions remains poorly understood. This study comparatively investigated the flexibility of pecking with an artificially extended bill in crows and pigeons. Pecking performance and kinematics were examined when the bill extension was attached, and after its removal. The bill extension deteriorated pecking in pigeons in both performance and kinematics over 10 days. After the bill removal, pigeons started bill-grasping earlier, indicating motor adaptation to the bill extension. Contrastingly, pecking in crows was deteriorated transiently with the bill extension, but was recovered by adjusting pecking at closer distances, suggesting a quick adjustment to the bill extension. These results indicate flexible visuomotor control to extended body parts in crows but not in pigeons. PMID:28386435

  12. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Kwon, Hyo Jin; An, Seong Soo A; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Pie, Jae-Eun; Yoon, Myoung; Kim, Ja Hei; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to understand consumers' risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20-50 years) were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved with nanomaterials to address consumer expectations and concerns. Further, a safety evaluation system must be set up, the results of which should be processed by a reliable expert group so they can be disseminated to the public.

  14. Using physician billing claims from the Ontario Health Insurance Plan to determine individual influenza vaccination status: an updated validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kevin L; Jembere, Nathaniel; Campitelli, Michael A; Buchan, Sarah A; Chung, Hannah; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the absence of a vaccination registry in Ontario, administrative data are currently the best available source to determine population-based individual-level influenza vaccination status. Our objective was to validate physician billing claims for influenza vaccination in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database against the Canadian Community Health Survey. We used self-reported seasonal influenza vaccination status of Ontario residents surveyed between 2007 and 2009 as the reference standard. The survey responses were linked to physician claims database records to validate billing codes for influenza vaccination. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We stratified the data by several covariates and comorbidities to determine stratum-specific performance characteristics. We used these estimates to adjust an estimate of influenza vaccine effectiveness for the 2010/11 influenza season. For the 47 301 patients included in the analysis, the sensitivity for the billing codes was 49.8% (95% CI 49.0%-50.5%), specificity was 95.7% (95% CI 95.5%-96.0%), positive predictive value was 88.4% (95% CI 87.8%-89.0%) and negative predictive value was 74.5% (95% CI 74.0%-74.9%). Performance measures were optimized in patients aged 65 years and older, particularly those with comorbidities. Although administrative data have limitations for determining influenza vaccination status, owing to the high positive predictive value, they are well suited for self-controlled study designs that are often used to assess vaccine safety. For studies of coverage and effectiveness, restricting the cohort to patients aged 65 years and older will minimize misclassification bias. Performance characteristics from this study can be used to mitigate misclassification bias.

  15. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  16. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  17. Communicating information about "what not to do" to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa, John S

    2013-01-01

    screening tests were released in 2013 in an article readers reported as one of the most heavily read articles in the magazine's recent history. Telling consumers that more is not better is not a popular or easy message to deliver. The message is most likely to be "sticky" but is best received if it comes from trusted sources (e.g., physicians), focuses on safety when justified, is communicated in plain language, and uses both mass media and individual consumer approaches. Changing the culture of health care in an era of health reform is an essential part of the transformation needed if we are to allocate finite resources fairly in hopefully fair markets while assuring that better quality products and services at lower prices dominate.

  18. State laws related to billing third parties for healthcare services at public STD clinics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Loosier, Penny S; Krasner, Andee; Kawatu, Jennifer

    2018-02-07

    Health departments (HDs) cite state laws as barriers to billing third parties for sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, but the association between legal/policy barriers and third party HD billing has not been examined. This study investigates the relationship between laws that may limit HDs' ability to bill, clinic perceptions of billing barriers, and billing practices. Two surveys (1) clinic managers [N=246], 2) STD program managers [N=63]) conducted via a multi-regional needs assessment of federally funded HD clinics' capacity to bill for STD services, billing/reimbursement practices, and perceived barriers were combined with an analysis of state laws regarding third party billing for STD services. Statistical analyses examined relationships between laws that may limit HDs' ability to bill, clinic perceptions, and billing practices. Clinic managers reported clinics were less likely to bill Medicaid and other third parties in jurisdictions with a state law limiting their ability to bill compared to respondents who billed neither or one payer (OR=0.31, CI=0.10,0.97) and cited practical concerns as a primary barrier to billing (OR=2.83 CI=1.50,5.37). STD program managers' reports that staff believed STD services should be free (OR=0.34, CI=0.13, 0.90) was associated with not billing (not sure versus no resistance to billing); confidentiality concerns was not a reported barrier to billing among either sample. Practical concerns and clinic staff beliefs that STD services should be free emerged as possible barriers to billing, and laws less so. Attempts to initiate HD billing for STD services may benefit from staff education as well as addressing perceived legal barriers and staff concerns.

  19. SAFE HANDLING LABELS AND CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN THE SOUTHERN US

    OpenAIRE

    Adu-Nyako, Kofi; Kunda, Danny; Ralston, Katherine L.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of safe handling labels on food handling practices is assesed using a two step procedure to adjust for sample selection bias in the label use decision. A significant positive influence of labels on safe handling practices is found. Food safety knowledge, consumer risk perception, and illness experience impacted handling practices positively.

  20. Consumer Value perceptions of food products from emerging processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    in the eyes of consumers, in two culturally variant contexts, namely a Western society where technology is often met with skepticism (i.e., the UK); and a non-Western society where technology plays a reassuring role regarding concerns about food safety and quality (i.e., China). Results reveal that the most...

  1. Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern Iranian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Food safety in home kitchens: a synthesis of the literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Berning, Jacqueline; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Quick, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    ...; however, many consumers do not believe the home to be a risky place. Health care professionals need to be aware of consumers' food safety attitudes and behaviors in the home and deliver tailored food safety interventions that are theory-based...

  3. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.

  4. Managing uncertainty about food risks - Consumer use of food labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkin, Emma; Coveney, John; Meyer, Samantha B; Wilson, Annabelle M; Webb, Trevor

    2016-12-01

    General consumer knowledge of and engagement with the production of food has declined resulting in increasing consumer uncertainty about, and sensitivity to, food risks. Emphasis is therefore placed on providing information for consumers to reduce information asymmetry regarding food risks, particularly through food labelling. This study examines the role of food labelling in influencing consumer perceptions of food risks. In-depth, 1-h interviews were conducted with 24 Australian consumers. Participants were recruited based on an a priori defined food safety risk scale, and to achieve a diversity of demographic characteristics. The methodological approach used, adaptive theory, was chosen to enable a constant interweaving of theoretical understandings and empirical data throughout the study. Participants discussed perceiving both traditional (food spoilage/microbial contamination) and modern (social issues, pesticide and 'chemical' contamination) risks as present in the food system. Food labelling was a symbol of the food system having managed traditional risks, and a tool for consumers to personally manage perceived modern risks. However, labelling also raised awareness of modern risks not previously considered. The consumer framing of risk presented demonstrates the need for more meaningful consumer engagement in policy decision making to ensure risk communication and management meet public expectations. This research innovatively identifies food labelling as both a symbol of, and a tool for, the management of perceived risks for consumers. Therefore it is imperative that food system actors ensure the authenticity and trustworthiness of all aspects of food labelling, not only those related to food safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Leveraging Psychological Insights to Encourage the Responsible Use of Consumer Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershfield, Hal E; Sussman, Abigail B; O'Brien, Rourke L; Bryan, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    U.S. consumers currently hold $880 billion in revolving debt, with a mean household credit card balance of approximately $6,000. Although economic factors play a role in this societal issue, it is clear that psychological forces also affect consumers' decisions to take on and maintain unmanageable debt balances. We examine three psychological barriers to the responsible use of credit and debt. We discuss the tendency for consumers to (a) make erroneous predictions about future spending habits, (b) rely too heavily on values presented on billing statements, and (c) categorize debt and saving into separate mental accounts. To overcome these obstacles, we urge policymakers to implement methods that facilitate better budgeting of future expenses, modify existing credit card statement disclosures, and allow consumers to easily apply government transfers (such as tax credits) to debt repayment. In doing so, we highlight minimal and inexpensive ways to remedy the debt problem. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  7. Table Egg Production and Consumers Safety: A Review | Usman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which may accumulate in the egg and cause public health hazards. Microbial contamination of eggs in the process of production, handling and marketing has also been of a major public health concern. This paper reviews some of the ways table eggs can get contaminated and become unsafe for human consumption, ...

  8. The consumer and the perception of food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lijklema, S.

    2006-01-01

    Food in the Netherlands is safer than ever before, but the Dutch eat too much and the wrong types of food. This causes a substantial health loss and shortens life-expectancy with on average 2 years. These are some important conclusions from a report that was originally written in Dutch, entitled

  9. Consumer confidence in Food Safety and the 2010 egg recall

    OpenAIRE

    Pouliot, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Iowa egg producers recalled nearly 500 million eggs in August 2010. The typical effect of a recall is to cause a decline in the demand for the affected product, yielding a decrease in the price. In the case of August 2010 egg recall, the price of eggs increased in the following weeks. This essay investigates the market effects of the egg recall. I estimate a system of simultaneous equations that includes supply and demand equations for the two main segments of the US industry. This essay offe...

  10. 75 FR 29155 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-24

    ... also described the CPSC's plans for a public awareness campaign to promote the database, and contained... Commission. This description could include the name (including the brand name) of the product. Other...

  11. Seafood Safety: Seriousness of Problems and Efforts to Protect Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    8217 mentioned stuidies (ite i’(u and lIt’l as principal contributors to cancer risk in fish. according to t his exp~ert, ( veil (daily (oflslu lpt ion of...rellt(5ir ll g aI wihh elu’ h h’i r l hll Iht flor 1i)ii ;ill iol inte(li istainc i r sil ilSthllii’ hati h llt I llhl ill(( hI lhMll(4 ’ hul’ t f 50ip

  12. 76 FR 59265 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ...; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012; Correction... Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2012'' that appeared in the... Nursing Facility (SNF) Prospective Payment System (PPS) final rule (76 FR 48486, 48540) inadvertently...

  13. The capture of a large number of Red-billed Oxpeckers Buphagus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capture of a large number of Red-billed Oxpeckers Buphagus erythrorhynchus and their subsequent maintenance and behaviour. ... Included are aviary design, diet plan, host incorporation, management and behaviour of captive Red-billed Oxpeckers B. erythrorhynchus. It is hoped that the protocol described will assist ...

  14. Organizing a Grassroots Lobbying Effort: Working a Bill from Beginning to End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This article provides information related to organizing a grassroots lobbying effort within a state association and working for the passage of a bill. This information resulted from experience working for the successful passage of the pay parity bill for nationally certified school psychologists in West Virginia during the 2008 legislative…

  15. 20 CFR 10.336 - What are the time frames for submitting bills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the time frames for submitting bills? 10.336 Section 10.336 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF...' COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Medical and Related Benefits Medical Bills § 10.336 What are the time frames for...

  16. Update on the Post-9/11 GI Bill. Report 09-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Mallory

    2009-01-01

    The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008, or Post-9/11 GI Bill, becomes effective August 1, 2009. The bill covers in-state graduate and undergraduate fees and vocational and technical training for veterans who served after September 10, 2001. Benefits are available for up to 36 months--equivalent to four academic years--and…

  17. A Critical Discussion of "The Ethical Presuppositions behind the Library Bill of Rights."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Library Bill of Rights focuses on paternalism and the dangers of Internet filtering, in response to a previous article that advocated revision of the Bill of Rights. Topics include ethical presuppositions; censorship; philosophical foundations; access; social contract theory; and utilitarianism. (LRW)

  18. Towards an inter-domain billing system to support dynamic service provisioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le, V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Today, billing is a big challenge for service providers. With a growing number of rich services such as music, mobile TV, Video-on-Demand and eHealth delivered to the mass market, service providers are missing business opportunities because current billing solutions are not fully capable. In

  19. 19 CFR 24.3a - CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. 24.3a Section 24.3a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION....3a CBP bills; interest assessment; delinquency; notice to principal and surety. (a) Due date of CBP...

  20. 42 CFR 424.64 - Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has not been paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has not... Made in Special Situations § 424.64 Payment after beneficiary's death: Bill has not been paid. (a... payment were, in fact, furnished; and (iii) Agrees in writing to accept the reasonable charge as the full...