WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumer protection policies

  1. In the Name of Effective Consumer Protection and Public Policy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Jull

    2016-01-01

    I. The CJEU has established that under certain circumstances national courts have an obligation, ex officio, to apply specific consumer protection provisions. This article presents a model derived from the argumentation for this obligation in CJEU case law. The model consists of four steps...... that include the specific ideas behind consumer protection provisions as well as the interaction between the principle of effectiveness and principle of equivalence. It is found that the principle of effectiveness is stretched very long and is often not set aside by the “rule of reason”. It is also found...... that the CJEU is open to the idea of regarding consumer protection provisions as (EU) public policy rules which seems to challenge the traditional principle of equivalence. Based on the findings, the author elaborates on the concept of an European public policy doctrine....

  2. 14 CFR 298.30 - Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public disclosure of policy on consumer protection. 298.30 Section 298.30 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Limitations and Conditions on Exemptions and Operations § 298.30 Public disclosure of policy on consumer...

  3. The Development of Consumer Protection Policies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fazli Sabri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government envisions Malaysia as an inclusive and sustainable high-income nation by 2020. The definition of “high income” is per capita income of USD15, 000 or MYR48, 000, based on the World Bank’s current definition of “high income”. The objective is not merely a quantitative target; it is also about Malaysia being an advanced and developed nation with an economy having the characteristics of developed nations. Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT and globalization have resulted in the evolution of a more complex and challenging marketplace. As today’s consumers are constantly faced with a bewildering array of goods and services in the market, consumers must be equipped with an elevated level of consumerism knowledge and skills. Malaysian consumers thus need to be kept in touch with developments in the market, enabling them to act and decide effectively, to ensure that they develop as more empowered, savvy and resilient consumers now and after Malaysia transforms into a developed nation. However, without the government’s intervention to protect consumers through adequate legislations and enforcement, the aim of creating “empowered consumers” will not be realized. This paper aims to discuss the development of consumer protection policies in Malaysia.

  4. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  5. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  6. [Complaints by private health insurance policy-holders to the Consumer Protection Bureau in Argentina, 2000-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga, María José; Spinelli, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    This paper analyzes problems experienced by policy-holders of voluntary private health insurance plans in Argentina when insurance companies fail to comply with the Consumer Protection Code. The sample consisted of consumer complaints filed with the Consumer Protection Bureau and rulings by the Bureau from 2000 to 2008. One striking issue was recurrent non-compliance with services included in the Mandatory Medical Program and the companies' attempts to blame policy-holders. According to the study, the lack of an information system hinders scientific studies to adequately address the problem. Thus, a comparison with studies on health insurance in other Latin American countries highlighted the importance of such research, the relationship to health systems, constraints on use and denial of citizens' rights to healthcare, and the increasing judicialization of healthcare provision.

  7. Relating Economic Ideology to Consumer Protection: A Suggested Unit in Consumer Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Robert O.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a suggested unit in consumer education designed to give students insight into the controversy about consumer protection policy and proposals, and compares the basic views of three economic belief systems: neoclassical, managerial, and liberal-Galbraithian. (MF)

  8. Consumer Protection and Behavioral Economics: To BE or Not to BE?

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Beales

    2008-01-01

    The foundation of consumer protection policy is respect for consumer choice. Modern consumer protection recognizes the need to preserve information markets and to carefully structure interventions to ensure compatibility with how consumers actually process information.

  9. 77 FR 66935 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket No. 02-278; FCC 12-21] Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction...: Karen Johnson, Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Consumer Policy Division, at (202) 418- 7706 or...

  10. The role of regulatory council in the energy sector from the aspect of consumers' protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovac, E.; Pavlovic, D.; Boljesic, K.

    2003-01-01

    The consumers' protection legal base, with few factors of new legislative consumers' protection legislation in European Union, in the Law on Consumers' Protection, and in the set of the Croatian Energy Laws is shown in this paper. Special attention in this paper is paid on five factors of regulatory body's orientation to the consumers' protection field, which energy regulatory body's policy should be included. The model of consumers' protection in the energy sector is shown, with the scheme of Three-component interactive subsystems: basic legislation which is determined consumers' protection policy, planning activities for consumers' protection (short and long time plans), and performing activities for consumers' protection. Furthermore, the approach of consumers' protection in the energy sectors in European Union are described. The paper gives the model of consumers' protection in the Croatian energy sector, and Croatian Energy Regulatory Council' approach to this issue. The table, with the data of specific consumers' protection problems in practice, those the Croatian Energy Regulatory Council as a regulatory body have been settled, is shown.(author)

  11. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  12. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  13. Recycling of consumer waste: A behavioural science approach to environmental protection policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    1994-01-01

    Evaluations of programs whose purpose is to increase recycling in Denmark through changing consumer waste handling practices are reviewed on the results discussed in a behavioural science framework Denmark is one of the fastest-moving European cou with regard to policies targeting consumer waste...

  14. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  15. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  16. [Legal development of consumer protection from the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety standpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püster, M

    2010-06-01

    Ten years after publication of the White Paper on Food Safety, health consumer protection has made significant progress and, today, is a key field in politics at both the European and German levels. In addition to the protection of health and security of consumers, consumer information has become a core element of consumer protection for the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz and Lebensmittelsicherheit, BVL). State authorities are provided with new means of communication and interaction with consumers.

  17. Consumers` Attitude towards Consumer Protection in the Digital Single Market, as Reflected by European Barometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market is an ongoing project that will continue to further develop and adapt to changing realities. Traditional economic activities, and the administrative rules governing them, face the challenge of adapting to developments that blur the dividing lines, for example, between shop and online sales or between traditional media and Internet communication. Convergence of this type will lead to a European Digital Single Market. A genuine Digital Single Market would generate new types of growth and also sustainable economic and social benefits for all European citizens. There are still a number of barriers which impose obstacles for the development of the digital market in Europe. Obstacles which can be identified include national differences regarding data protection rules, e-commerce rules, consumer protection rules and other legislation pertaining to information flows. The paper brings in discussion the advantages of a Digital Single Market, the obstacles in developing it in connection with e-commerce regulations, consumer protection and information flows legislation and also the premises for implementing a Digital Single Market. Consumers’ trust in on-line commerce results as one of the driving factors in implementing a Digital Single Market. These are some of the main obstacles for the boosting consumers’ confidence in the European Single Market. Improving consumer confidence in cross-border shopping online by taking appropriate policy action could provide a major boost to economic growth in Europe. Empowered and confident consumers can drive forward the European economy. Starting from the results of the Flash Euro-barometer survey „Consumer attitudes towards cross-border trade and consumer protection this study analyzes consumer`s readiness for the European Digital Single Market

  18. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  19. 75 FR 13471 - Telephone Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) that would harmonize those rules with the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's... Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) that would harmonize those rules with the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's...] Telephone Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In...

  20. Fundamental Consumer Rights Under the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: A Critical Overview and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R van Niekerk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was in need of a comprehensive framework of legislation, policies and government authorities to regulate consumer-supplier interaction. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008, which was signed by the President of the Republic of South Africa on 29 April 2009 and published in the Government Gazette on 29 April 2009, now provides an extensive framework for consumer protection and aims to develop, enhance and protect the rights of consumers and to eliminate unethical suppliers and improper business practices. Certain areas of the common law regarding consumer rights have been codified by the Act and certain unfair business practices that were previously unregulated are now governed by the Act. The Act has a wide field of application. It applies to every transaction occurring within South Africa for the supply of goods or services or the promotion of goods or services and the goods or services themselves, unless the transaction is exempted from the application of the Act. The Act also specifically regulates aspects of franchise agreements. In terms of the Act, consumers obtain several new rights and some existing rights are broadened and reinforced. These rights are: the right to equality in the consumer market; privacy; choice; disclosure and information; fair and responsible marketing; fair and honest dealing; fair, just and reasonable terms and conditions; and fair value, good quality and safety. The last right in terms of the Act deals with a supplier's accountability to consumers. The authors critically analyse and discuss these rights. It is clear that the Act is written in favour of the consumer.

  1. Choisen problems of the consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    HUML, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main aim is to determine consumers' awareness of their rights in the area of consumer protection. Secondary targets are to explored the reason of ignorance of law, determine consumer satisfaction with consumer protection and design measures to improve the situation.

  2. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    OpenAIRE

    Bartels, Andreas; Pleșea, Doru Alexandru; Studeny, Michael; Just, Vanessa

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and ...

  3. Can regulatory agencies protect consumers. Stigler-Cohen debate revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feingold, A.

    1983-01-01

    Stigler-Cohen debate, organized by the American Enterprise Institute, took place twelve years ago. Since then, the movement now known as consumerism has rapidly grown and its impact on public opinion and on political decision makers is of greatest importance to business - it cannot be simply wished away, it must be dealt with rationally and effectively. The paper recognizes the changed reality of the marketplace resulting in growing consumer impotence and a very real need for protection going beyond the general rules governing commercial transactions. At the same time, the author points out that regulation is not costless, that the cure is often worse than the disease. Public policy must be assessed in the light of its overall effects, it must not be based simply on a response to a single-minded call for redress however loudly articulated. There is a great inconsistency in piecemeal attempts at protecting the consumer from himself, while government-supplied goods and services, and government-controlled monopoly pricing afford little consumer protection. Finally, the paper reminds us that freedom itself is our most valuable possession and must not be thoughtlessly traded for perceived temporary advantages.

  4. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  5. Consumer Protection in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This critical essay introduces the problem of discrimination enabled through the use of transaction-generated-information derived from the analysis of user behaviors within the network environment. The essay begins by describing how segments of the population that are already vulnerable become further victimized through the strategic use of discriminatory algorithms in support of identification, classification, segmentation, and targeting. In response, it evaluates a set of policy options that might be used to limit the harm and compensate the victims of these inherently dangerous technologies. Traditional approaches that stress the protection of privacy through restrictions on the collection and use of personal information are compared with alternatives based on individual and class actions under tort law, as well as more traditional regulatory approaches developed in the area of consumer products safety and environmental regulation.

  6. PROBLEMS OF CONSUMER PROTECTION IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Ionela Butnaru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The actuality of the topic, its extent and importance, were strong arguments for writing this paper - Problems of consumer protection in tourism. To this, also the convergence of the fields that focus on the description of a image in deep of the topic is added, we are talking about economic, legal social features or features that belong to the specifics of tourism and of products and services consumed within it. The multiple dimensions of the approached topic transform it into an exciting topic which proves its usefulness when it is known since each individual can acquire the quality of a consumer, and his rights as a consumer are nothing else but the human rights of which every individual has to be aware. A process of education and information of the citizens regarding the rights they possess as consumers could reduce a part of the problems appearing in the process of consume of tourism products and services but it would contribute to the optimization of the protection of rights and interests of the consumers. In economic terms, democracy also implies ensuring the rights of the consumers and thus their protection, therefore the concept of protection of rights and interests of consumers exists.

  7. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  8. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  9. Consumer energy - conservation policy: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described, and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programs. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy (economic stability and economic security) are goals well worth pursuing. 13 references, 2 tables.

  10. Informing consumers: Protection from deceptive advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.

  11. Consumer protection in energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Krom, H.; Van Leeuwen, E.T.W.M.; Schaap, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the protection that energy consumers are entitled to in the framework of the energy law. First we provide an overview of the parties operating in the energy market that consumers deal with directly or indirectly. Next the supply permit is addressed, which provides an important safeguard for consumers against unreliable suppliers. In part 4 we address the protection of the consumer prior to and while closing an agreement. Part 5 addresses the supplier's obligations. Part 6 discusses the judicial processes that are available to the consumer in case of (partial) non-observance of the agreement. We also pay attention to the compensation schemes and emergency supply in case a supplier is permanently unable to fulfill his obligations. Finally, we address the termination of the agreement. [nl

  12. Issue Papers To Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    This document is intended to present background information on the basic consumer protection issues in postsecondary education. Topics discussed are: (1) recruitment practices of postsecondary schools; (2) the role of a state agency in consumer protection; (3) consumer rights, responsibilities and redress of consumer protection; (4) advertising…

  13. Consumer Protection--Who Protects You? How Can You Protect Yourself? Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety In the Home, I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    The enormous and rapidly-increasing number of goods on the market makes it difficult to ensure that all consumer products are safe to use. Public concern about product safety has caused the enactment of a wide range of consumer protection laws. The result of this legislation has been that many agencies have been established to protect the public.…

  14. 16 CFR 0.17 - Bureau of Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section... ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts or..., and international agencies and organizations in consumer protection enforcement and regulatory matters...

  15. A History of Drug Advertising: The Evolving Roles of Consumers and Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the United States is controversial. Underlying the debate are disagreements over the role of consumers in medical decision making, the appropriateness of consumers engaging in self-diagnosis, and the ethics of an industry promoting potentially dangerous drugs. Drug advertising and federal policy governing drug advertising have both responded to and reinforced changes in the consumer's role in health care and in the doctor-patient relationship over time. This article discusses the history of DTCA in the context of social movements to secure rights for health care patients and consumers, the modern trend toward consumer-oriented medicine, and the implications of DTCA and consumer-oriented medicine for contemporary health policy debates about improving the health care system. PMID:17096638

  16. A history of drug advertising: the evolving roles of consumers and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Julie

    2006-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the United States is controversial. Underlying the debate are disagreements over the role of consumers in medical decision making, the appropriateness of consumers engaging in self-diagnosis, and the ethics of an industry promoting potentially dangerous drugs. Drug advertising and federal policy governing drug advertising have both responded to and reinforced changes in the consumer's role in health care and in the doctor-patient relationship over time. This article discusses the history of DTCA in the context of social movements to secure rights for health care patients and consumers, the modern trend toward consumer-oriented medicine, and the implications of DTCA and consumer-oriented medicine for contemporary health policy debates about improving the health care system.

  17. Consumer attitudes toward health policy and knowledge about health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, E; Taylor, J A

    1978-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward key issues affecting health policy decisions in the local community have been ignored both by local health policy makers and by medical sociologists. The authors report an empirical analysis of: (1) consumer attitudes towards federal intervention in health care; (2) consumer perceptions of the free market philosophy of health providers; (3) consumer perceptions of their involvement in health policy making; (4) consumer confidence in present systems of health services delivery; and (5) consumer awareness of recent major health legislation. It was found that consumers are poorly informed about recent health care legislation. The authors compared the attitudes of consumers with those held by local hospital board members toward health policy issues. The differences for all comparisons were statistically significant. The authors argue that hospital board members attribute problems in health services delivery to demand dysfunctions while consumers perceive the problems to be a result of supply dysfunctions. Thus, failure to include consumers on health policy boards guarantees the absence of a solution-oriented dialogue and promotes the continuing predominance of a provider-biased ideology.

  18. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  19. 78 FR 71706 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection (ACACP) and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's...

  20. 77 FR 43135 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... second meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The second meeting of... Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. By notice dated June 13...

  1. 77 FR 53961 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... third meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The third meeting of...)), established the Advisory Committee on Aviation Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as...

  2. 77 FR 35465 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... first meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The first meeting of... recommendations to the Secretary for improving existing aviation consumer protection programs and for establishing...

  3. 78 FR 55327 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of... fifth meeting of the Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection. DATES: The fifth meeting of... Consumer Protection and announced those persons appointed as members. The committee's charter, drafted in...

  4. Federal consumer protection regulation: disclosures and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Furletti

    2005-01-01

    On June 10, 2005, the Payment Cards Center hosted a symposium entitled “Federal Consumer Protection Regulation: Disclosures and Beyond.” The symposium brought together credit card industry leaders, legal scholars, consumer advocates, economists, and federal regulators to discuss standardized credit card disclosures and other means of protecting credit card consumers. This paper summarizes the day’s discussion and details the recommendations of symposium participants. In general, these recomme...

  5. Impact of a smoke-free hospital campus policy on employee and consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J Gary; Pulley, LeaVonne; Felix, Holly C; Bursac, Zoran; Siddiqui, Nadia J; Stewart, M Kathryn; Mays, Glen P; Gauss, C Heath

    2007-01-01

    Although smoke-free hospital campuses can provide a strong health message and protect patients, they are few in number due to employee retention and public relations concerns. We evaluated the effects of implementing a clean air policy on employee attitudes, recruitment, and retention; hospital utilization; and consumer satisfaction in 2003 through 2005. We conducted research at a university hospital campus with supplemental data from an affiliated hospital campus. Our evaluation included (1) measurement of employee attitudes during the year before and year after policy implementation using a cross-sectional, anonymous survey; (2) focus group discussions held with supervisors and security personnel; and (3) key informant interviews conducted with administrators. Secondary analysis included review of employment records and exit interviews, and monitoring of hospital utilization and patient satisfaction data. Employee attitudes toward the policy were supportive (83.3%) at both institutions and increased significantly (89.8%) at post-test at the university hospital campus. Qualitatively, administrator and supervisor attitudes were similarly favorable. There was no evidence on either campus of an increase in employee separations or a decrease in new hiring after the policy was implemented. On neither campus was there a change in bed occupancy or mean daily census. Standard measures of consumer satisfaction were also unchanged at both sites. A campus-wide smoke-free policy had no detrimental effect on measures of employee or consumer attitudes or behaviors.

  6. 40 CFR 51.368 - Public information and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public information and consumer.../Maintenance Program Requirements § 51.368 Public information and consumer protection. (a) Public awareness... the test that were failed. (b) Consumer protection. The oversight agency shall institute procedures...

  7. Protection for the Consumer; Business Education: 6463.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finora, Daniel

    This course is designed to acquaint the student with the functions, criticisms, costs, and consumer analysis of advertising; Federal and State regulations of industry operation and advertising; Federal, State, and city agencies for consumer protection; private and business-sponsored organizations for consumer protection; and rights and…

  8. Electronic Contracts and the Personal data Protection of the Consumer: Sources Dialogue Between the Consumer Protection Code and the Internet Civil Mark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Leal Da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the personal data protection of the consumer and your vulnerability in interactive electronic contracts, aiming to point means of defense. For this, uses the deductive approach and starts of the electronic contracting to discuss the legal protection of the consumer in light of the capturing and processing of personal data by the furnisher. Considering the absence of law about personal data, concludes that electronic contracting expands the consumer vulnerability, which requires the principles application of the Consumer Protection Code, adding the Internet Civil Mark in relation to the privacy protection.

  9. A MARKETING VIEW OVER THE ROLE OF THE PUBLIC AUTHORITIES IN THE PROTECTION OF THE CONSUMERS PRIVATE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of privacy, seen in connection with the consumer's private space, and defined in terms of the rights the consumer have to disclose or not, respectively to have protected their personal data has gained an increasing importance, as a result of the organizations extended and more and more aggressive attempts, within their marketing efforts, to capture, process and use the consumers personal data. Privacy protection has become an important but, in the same time, extremely sensitive and challenging topic to be taken into consideration by all the stakeholders involved in the processing and employment of the consumers personal data. A key role in this respect is played by the public authorities acting as data controllers the Data Protection Authorities, that have to adopt a more proactive and efficient attitude in adopting and implementing policies and processes aiming to ensure a more effective protection of the personal data and private space, conduct privacy impact assessments and continuously improve the specific activities. Paper presents the opinions of the consumers through the results of an exploratory study regarding the importance given to the protection of the personal data, the area of protection of the specific laws, the need for laws regulating the personal data protection, the balance between the public and private entities in providing a proper protection of the personal data, and the relationship between the domestic, European, and international levels in ensuring the protection of the consumers personal data. Results regarding the role of the public authorities in the protection of the consumers personal data and private space in terms of the most appropriate institution to act as a data controller, the rights consumers consider important in relationship with the protection of their personal data and the risks faced in the context of a less effective protection are also presented.

  10. Protecting consumer interests in Alberta's deregulated electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains why the province of Alberta decided to deregulate its electricity sector. In the early 1990s, electricity rates were reasonable in Alberta, there was no utility debt, and electricity costs were low. In 1994 California's open access transmission system suggested that open markets would result in lower electricity rates and attract new economic activity. The government of Alberta also believed that competitive markets would set prices with no need for economic regulation. In the initial transition to competition, regulated electricity rates were offered to customers who were not ready to switch to the new competitive market. The RRO rate was set by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The rates included the forecasted cost of purchasing energy from markets, cost of system access, and retail service costs. The end of the RRO rate was scheduled for 2005 when the market was expected be well developed. This paper also describes other protection mechanisms for consumers. Alberta's new electricity policy (NEP) eliminates generator participant costs related to transmission. EUB's zonal interconnection charges are also overruled along with the EUB-approved 50/50 division of transmission costs. Under the NEP, the ISO is to build transmission in anticipation of new generation. Consumers will fund the total cost to build new transmission capacity for exports and imports. This new transmission policy is a complete change from the original government policy which allocated some transmission costs to generators. The sudden change in policy was due to pressure from oil sands producers and oil sands co-generation developers. The claimed benefit to Albertans is a 25 per cent reduction in pool price and greater system reliability. However, the author cautioned that government interference with competitive electricity markets will cripple the electric power industry in the foreseeable future because it interferes with market prices

  11. Disclosure of electricity products--lessons from consumer research as guidance for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Holt, Edward

    2003-01-01

    In this article we compare recent findings from focus group research on electricity information disclosure in Switzerland with consumer research in the US. On the basis of the results, we provide an overview of disclosure schemes in the US and in Europe. Our aim is to summarize the key issues of electricity disclosure from a residential customer's point of view and to underline the potential of consumer research for energy policy making. The results are as follows: Consumer preferences for electricity disclosure are very similar in Switzerland and the US. There is a basic demand for trustworthy information and market transparency. Consumers want to compare electricity products with regard to price, generation sources, and environmental and contractual attributes. Thus, the disclosure of critical information is important to improve competition by increasing consumer confidence in their ability to choose among electricity offerings. Even more, electricity disclosure is a key element of consumer protection in general, and is a useful educational tool in regulated electricity markets

  12. Consumer Protection Strategies: A Literature Review and Synthesis. Improving the Consumer Protection Function in Postsecondary Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, Carolyn B.; Jung, Steven M.

    Summarized are the findings of an American Institutes for Research (AIR) project to field test a data capture and dissemination system that would provide information for improving consumer protection in postsecondary education. Presented is a discussion of the methodology used, examples of consumer abuses cited in the literature, an analysis of…

  13. Increased Transparency and Consumer Protections for 2016 Marketplace Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-LaSure, Chiquita

    2015-12-01

    The open enrollment period that ends in December 2015 for coverage begin­ning January 2016 marks the third year of the health care exchanges or marketplaces and of coverage through new qualified health plans. This issue brief investigates several key changes to the qualified health plans, with a focus on increased transparency and consumer protections. A new out-of-pocket costs calculator, requirements regarding provider networks, and prescription drug cost-sharing requirements should serve to better inform and improve consumer selection. In addition, several policy changes will help individuals with more severe health needs. These include: improved prescription drug coverage for HIV/ AIDS and other conditions, allowing prescription drugs that are obtained through the "exceptions" process to count toward the out-of-pocket spending cap, more comprehensive and consistent habilitative coverage, and an individual out-of-pocket spending cap within the family out-of-pocket maximum.

  14. Counseling Directory and Consumer's Guide: Implementing Professional Disclosure and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, John L.

    1979-01-01

    The publication of a "counseling directory" and "consumer's guide" is a new approach that can be used to respond to the current professional issues of professional disclosure and consumer protection. Reviews the purposes, format, and content of both the directory and guide. (Author)

  15. Assessment of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Policy in Korea Based on Consumer Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gicheol

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, Korea permitted direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) on 42 genes. However, both the market and industry have not yet been fully activated. Considering the aforementioned context, this study provides important insights. The Korean DTC-GT policy assessment is based on consumer preference analysis using a discrete choice experiment. In August 2016, a web-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,200 respondents. The estimation results show that consumers prefer a DTC-GT product that is cheap, tests various items or genes, offers accurate test results, and guarantees the confidentiality of all information. However, consumers are not entirely satisfied by current DTC-GT products due to the existence of insufficient and/or inadequate policies. First, the permitted testing of 42 genes is insufficient to satisfy consumers' curiosity regarding their genes. Second, the accuracy of the DTC-GT products has not been fully verified, assessed, and communicated to consumers. Finally, regulatory loopholes that allow information leaks in the DTC-GT process can occur. These findings imply that DTC-GT requires an improvement in government policy-making criteria and the implementation of practical measures to guarantee test accuracy and genetic information. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 77 FR 32901 - State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... enforce certain consumer protection provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) and related... bring civil actions in the U.S. district courts to enforce the consumer protection provisions that apply..., 386, and 387 State Enforcement of Household Goods Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier...

  17. Historical study regarding the protection of consumers within the electric energy and natural gas markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Pîrvu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The supply of electric energy and natural gas is a service of general interest, with a vital importance in satisfying the consumer’s basic needs. The conducted research is descriptive and its main focus is on the study of the field literature, aiming at aspects such as identifying the historic evolution of the electric energy and natural gas markets in Romania, the behaviour of companies operating on these markets and their impact on the consumers’ rights. The research methodology has been established starting from a synthetic analysis of the most recent published studies on the observation of the European policy in the energy field and EU’s efforts to build up a single, competitive market, including two sectors that not long ago were dominated by monopolistic national actors: electric energy and gas. The research methods imply study monitoring and reports as well as forecast analyses regarding the capacity of the Three Energy Packages, once implemented, to support the creation of competitive, transparent and uniformly regulated energy markets within the EU countries, in order to ensure the protection of the consumers of these general interest services. The research has a dual approach, combining quantitative and qualitative elements as well as conducting the analysis of the correlations between the efforts and effects registered in the field of consumer protection. The first section of the article offers conceptual clarifications regarding both the European policy in the energy field and the consumers of general economic services. The second section gives an insight into the energy and gas markets in Romania as well as the main obstacles in the way of their liberalization. The third section presents the efforts made with respect to consumer protection in the field of energy, analyzing the European Directives’ fundamental ideas regarding the protection of consumers and the phase of their embedment into our legislation in order to achieve

  18. A Consumer Protection Model for Regulating Lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfie, Deborah M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and critiques the "discipline model" of lawyer regulation from a consumer point of view and outlines an alternative model for regulating lawyers that is grounded in consumer protection principles. (JOW)

  19. The DCFR and consumer protection: an economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luth, H.A.; Cseres, K.; Larouche, P.; Chirico, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss consumer protection in the DCFR. It will screen the DCFR and its model of consumer protection through the lens of economic analysis. The assessment will examine the general role of mandatory rules, which justification grounds they are based on and how this general model is

  20. Free medical care and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aniket Deepak; Banerjee, Arunabha

    2011-01-01

    This paper will examine the question of whether patients, who receive free medical care, whether from private charitable or governmental hospitals, can claim rights as 'consumers' under the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. The issue will be discussed from a constitutional perspective as well as that of the law of torts.

  1. Accreditation and Student Consumer Protection. An Occasional Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Steven M.

    The role of postsecondary accreditation and its relation to student consumer protection are discussed in this monograph. The importance of this concept is examined in light of increased marketing efforts on the part of higher education institutions. It is emphasized that students are consumers and their rights should be protected. Possible areas…

  2. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015: (Lack of) Rights of the Consumer to Terminate Sale Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Pathak, Akhileshwar

    2015-01-01

    Consumer protection law rests on the foundations of contract law and the law of sale of goods. A consumer law has to conceptually express this foundation and the modifications it is bringing about in these laws. Without this, the law would become unclear, conflicting and confusing. The Consumer Protection Bill, 2015 is not secured in its foundation and needs revision. The paper reviews the rights of the consumer to terminate the contract and makes suggestions for revision. The suggestions, wi...

  3. Consumer Protection in the Electronic Market Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders

    1999-01-01

    This paper identifies the most important areas for regulation of consumer protection in relation to electronic commerce, such as marketing, contractual issues and privacy. Furthermore, different approaches for regulation of these issues in a global market is discussed......This paper identifies the most important areas for regulation of consumer protection in relation to electronic commerce, such as marketing, contractual issues and privacy. Furthermore, different approaches for regulation of these issues in a global market is discussed...

  4. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  5. The Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsma, Charles

    This guide for secondary teachers is designed to identify and illustrate specified illegal practices identified in the Michigan Consumer Protection Act of 1976. The guide also explains procedures that a consumer or law-enforcement agency can take to enforce the provisions of this law. Since the act is a broad one, students learn not only about…

  6. A garland for consumers: Will the Garland case provide safeguards for vulnerable consumers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, H.

    2000-01-01

    In Garland versus Consumer Gas, the Supreme Court of Canada in October 1998 ruled that the late payment penalties (LPP) charged by Consumer Gas constitute a criminal interest rate, contrary to Section 347 of the Criminal Code. The decision was unexpected in as much as the LPP had been continuously approved by the Ontario Energy Board since its adoption in 1975. This case is used here as an illustration of how consumers, who possess little bargaining power, may be protected from usurious penalties and charges for late payment. An examination of the legislative history surrounding the adoption of Section 347 of the Criminal Code, and a review of relevant Canadian case law with emphasis on the Supreme Court's reasoning with respect to the LPP in the Garland case, is followed by a comparison of Canadian experience with consumer protection in the United States and the United Kingdom. Policy implications of the Garland case from a consumer perspective are examined in general, and in terms of various industries as may be found in policy statements of specific companies. Recommendations are offered suggesting actions that may be taken to further protect consumers from exploitative credit arrangements.48 refs

  7. Australian Consumers' Concerns and Preferences for Food Policy Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Umberger, Wendy J.; Scott, Emily M.; Stringer, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Results from a 2007 Australian consumer survey conducted at a large farmers market are used to explore the hypothesis that consumers who are more concerned about certain types of food labeling information, particularly information related to food production attributes, are more likely to support policies which help develop farmers markets and support mandatory labeling policies. Product information and attributes such as Country-of-Origin, No Growth Hormones Used, Free Range and Animals Treat...

  8. The Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and the Quest for Consumer Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. Willis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure that consumers understand financial products’ “costs, benefits, and risks,” the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau has been redesigning mandated disclosures, primarily through iterative lab testing. But no matter how well these disclosures perform in experiments, firms will run circles around the disclosures when studies end and marketing begins. To meet the challenge of the dynamic twenty-first-century consumer financial marketplace, the bureau should require firms to demonstrate that a good proportion of their customers understand key pertinent facts about the financial products they buy. Comprehension rules would induce firms to inform consumers and simplify products, tasks that firms are better equipped than the bureau to perform.

  9. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent harm to nutritional supplement users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriels, Gary; Lambert, Mike; Smith, Pete; Hiss, Donavon

    2011-07-25

    BACKGROUND. There is no clear distinction between the regulation of food, supplements and medicines in South Africa. Consequently, grey areas exist in implementing the legislation, particularly in the supplement industry. The increase in supplement sales in South Africa can be attributed to aggressive marketing by manufacturers whose claims are not always supported by published peer-reviewed evidence. Such claims often go unchecked, resulting in consumers being mislead about the role of supplements. As a result of poor regulation, contaminants or adulterants in supplements may also cause insidious effects unrelated to the listed ingredients. AIM. To assess the regulations, legislation, and claims associated with nutritional supplement products in South Africa. METHOD. Peer-reviewed literature and the relevant South African statutes were consulted. RESULTS. The National Health Act incorporates the Medicine Control Council, which is charged with ensuring the safety, quality and effectiveness of medicines, and related matters, including complementary/alternative medicines. The South African Institute for Drug-Free Sport and Amendment Act provides for testing athletes for using banned substances, but currently does not concern itself with monitoring nutritional supplements for contaminants or adulterants that may cause a positive drug test, which has implications for sports participants and also the health of the general population. The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) could protect consumer rights if it is administered and resourced appropriately. CONCLUSION. The CPA should promote greater levels of policy development, regulatory enforcement, and consumer education of South Africa's supplement industry.

  10. Students as Consumers: The Implications of the Consumer Protection Act for Higher Education Institutions in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) lays the basis for the protection of consumer rights in South Africa and comprehensively sets out obligations for "suppliers". There have been differing views expressed as to whether a student should be seen as a consumer. It is clear, however, that this Act applies to HEIs. This article, firstly,…

  11. 75 FR 29386 - Consumer Protections for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Consumer Protections for Depository...: Consumer Protection for Depository Institution Sales of Insurance. OMB Number: 1550-0106. Regulation..., Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, and Office of Thrift Supervision to prescribe joint consumer...

  12. Consumer energy management: policy implications of research. 2 Vols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1982-12-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the practical implications of consumer energy conservation research in Canada. A review of such research was undertaken to determine its implications for increasing the effectiveness of Canadian conservation policies and programs. The major conclusions and recommendations were as follows. Conservation has been acknowledged as the single most important element in solving Canada's petroleum shortfall in the 1980s. An analytic approach to the formulation of energy policies and the design of conservation programs will be essential if meaningful energy savings in the consumer sector are to be realized. Prior to designing any conservation program, it is essential that the components of consumer energy policy be understood. In order to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts, it is necessary to assign relative priorities to the criteria of probable energy savings, cost effectiveness, impact by fuel type, impact on consumers, enforceability, and institutional considerations. Conservation efforts aimed at consumers must be based on understanding the basic processes which underlie how they perceive and respond to various types of conservation initiatives. This understanding is gained through consumer impact analysis and program research. The latter action attempts to analyze the effectiveness and acceptability of programs involving information, financial incentives, energy standards, and energy usage restrictions. Conservation programs must ensure that barriers to adoption, such as lack of time and knowledge, financial resources, and lifestyle impacts, will be minimized. 93 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Arbitrability limitation in consumer (B2C disputes? : Consumers´ protection as legal and economic phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Bělohlávek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Protection of consumers became a phenomenon of many governmental politics. Retrieval of a balance between privat autonomy and protection of a weaker party is very sensitive. The particular degree of consumers protection through limitation of contractual autonomy (in B2C contracts as well as procedural autonomy (regarding B2C dispute resolution mechanisms, as chosen by particular governments, has both legal and economic effects, in positive and negative sense. The European Court of Human Rights adjudicated repeatedly that traditional court litigation is not capable to grant effective protection to contractual claims in many countries. Arbitration is therefore one of possible tools for B2C dispute resolution, even if many countries and obviously the EU Commission followe rather an opposite strategy (keeping down arbitrability of B2C disputes in the opposite to US trends. Arbitration is not a cure-all and definitely not a method suitable for the resolution of any and all types of disputes. It has its proponents as well as opponents. Indeed, it is hard to claim that a particular type (class of disputes is a priori fit to be resolved in arbitration, rather than litigation, or vice versa. This also applies to consumer disputes (disputes from consumer contracts. It is fairly undisputable that consumers deserve a certain degree of specific protection in cases in which they are forced to enter into a particular contract and have no other option than to accept the conditions stipulated by the other party (the professional. But we cannot principally claim that the resolution of these disputes in court would be more suitable than arbitration or any other, the so-called alternative, dispute resolution method (ADR. Despite the basically undisputed importance of and the need for special consumer protection (whether provided by special laws, typically in Europe, or on the basis of general legal principles and the application of general contract law, like in the

  14. Consumer-Oriented Policy towards Diffusion of Electric Vehicles: City-Level Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Public policy is crucial for the diffusion of green innovation, and debates exist about the effects of different policies. This paper explores appropriate types of policy instruments by explaining the quick rise in sales of electric vehicles (EVs in China. Based on a three-year longitudinal dataset across 88 cities, the study shows that consumer-oriented policies are able to significantly promote EV diffusion. Consumer-oriented policies target consumers to facilitate their usage of cars and lower the lifecycle cost, and typical examples include electricity charging and traffic management. This paper contributes to the literature of clean technology policy in two ways. Firstly, it reveals and empirically tests the importance of consumer-oriented policy instruments for the deployment of green innovation. Secondly, it is one of very few scholarly works offering a detailed review of city-level policies in China’s EV industry, which will be useful for scholars who are also interested in similar topics.

  15. Consumer returns policies with endogenous deadline and supply chain coordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lei; Li, Yongjian; Govindan, Kannan

    2015-01-01

    on consumers' behavior and the pricing and inventory policies of the retailer are systematically investigated. Moreover, based on the analysis of consumer return behavior on a traditional buy-back contract, we present a new differentiated buy-back contract, contingent on return deadline, to coordinate a supply......This paper considers returns policies under which consumers' valuation depends on the refund amount they receive and the length of time theymustwait after the item is returned. Consumers face an uncertain valuation before purchase, and the realization of that purchase's value occurs only after...... chain consisting of an upstream manufacturer and a downstream retailer. Finally, extensions on some specific behavioral factors such as moral hazard, inertia return, and external effect are investigated....

  16. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Consumer Protection in the Lower Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues of consumer rights and consumer welfare are increasingly important, especially in the current economic climate in which the ability to make informed choices represents a real advantage in consumers’ daily life. In order to make their purchases with confidence, both in their country and abroad, consumers need easy access to precise information and to professional advice. Taking into account the fact that education and training are a strategic factor for a sustainable development through contribution to human capital development, within the Romania–Bulgaria Cross-Border Cooperation Program 2007–2013, the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svisthov, Bulgaria decided to collaborate in the field “Cooperation on human resources development – joint development of skills and knowledge”, through the development of cross-border liaisons and exchanges between the two universities. Our objective is to bring up new methods of training in the field of consumer protection in order to train and to supply the labour market with specialized experts in this field in charge with various issues regarding consumers in enterprises, in organizations in charge with elaborating consumer protection policies and in organizations in charge with market supervision and control and also in consumers’ associations. We consider that in this way we meet both consumers’ and employers’ needs because economic agents need professionals in the field as well, in order to advise them in their quest to protect the rights and interests of consumers. Also, Meglena Kuneva, the European Commissioner for Consumer Protection, noted that studies conducted at European level revealed that there is a high level of interest for recruiting qualified experts in the field of consumer protection shown by large companies, national governments, small and medium enterprises and consumers’ associations. In order to

  17. Factoring consumers' perspectives into policy decisions for nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jean B; Lee, N Genell

    2006-08-01

    Health care delivery competence and accountability have typically been defined from providers' perspectives, rather than those of consumers as purchasers of services. In 1999, in the face of broad public concern about nursing competence the Alabama Board of Nursing developed an accountability model that established consumers at the center of the model and placed accountability for competent nursing practice at all levels of providers including regulatory agencies, health care organizations, educators, and licensees. The Board then authorized two research projects involving first, consumers perceptions on nursing competence and regulation, and second, comparing their perceptions with those of licensees, nurse educators, and organizational leaders (N = 1,127). Comparative data evidenced significant differences between consumers' and other participants' perceptions. This article highlights how policy implications derived from research resulted in regulatory changes for nursing competence. Five years of progress in policy changes made in the interest of public safety are summarized.

  18. Consumer protection on the drinking water market

    OpenAIRE

    Kosová, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor thesis is marketing research on consumer preferences and knowledge in the field of drinking water and also analyze and compare the price of tap water and bottled water. The theoretical part describes how the consumer market with drinking water is protected in the Czech Republic. They compared the advantages and disadvantages of both types of drinking water.

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 343 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... POLICY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 343, App. A Appendix A to Part 343—Consumer... Consumer Protection (DSC), Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, at the following address: 550 17th Street... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part...

  20. Consumer support for environmental policies. An application to purchases of green cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coad, Alex; Woersdorfer, Julia Sophie [Max Planck Institute of Economics, Evolutionary Economics Group, Kahlaische Strasse 10, 07745 Jena (Germany); De Haan, Peter [ETH Zurich, Institute for Environmental Decisions, CHN J73.2, Universitaetstr. 22, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2009-05-15

    This paper focuses on how consumer motivation can be tapped in order to encourage the adoption of cleaner technologies. Consumers are heterogeneous - they may be guided by intrinsic motivation or extrinsic motivation. While information provision policies (such as the energy label for cars) may be effective in encouraging certain consumers to adopt green cars, financial incentive schemes (such as subsidies or fines) may be more persuasive for extrinsically-motivated consumers. We develop a dynamic theory of adoption of environmental innovations, in which information-provision policies are followed by financial incentives (first 'carrot', then 'stick' incentives). Analysis of a survey dataset of Swiss households observes considerable heterogeneity in terms of support of information-provision or financial incentive policies, in line with our conjectures. Our results will be of particular interest to policymakers interested in guiding consumers towards cleaner technologies. (author)

  1. 77 FR 41699 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... regulations to require HHG brokers to comply with certain consumer protection requirements. As a part of that... that rule, if an individual shipper elects to waive physical receipt of the consumer protection... receipts documenting an individual shipper's waiver of physical receipt of the consumer protection...

  2. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... protection to consumers. Such determinations shall be published in the Federal Register and shall operate...

  3. Consumer energy-conservation policy in Canada: behavioural and institutional obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G. (Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, Ontario); Mank, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper posits that if consumer energy-conservation policy is to succeed in Canada, both behavioral and institutional obstacles must be identified and overcome. The behavioral barriers, identified through a national household survey, include consumer resistance to policies that affect their lifestyles. The institutional barriers obtained from a series of interviews with government officials, include weak federal-provincial relations. Viewed from a federal perspective, these obstacles are discussed and then linked to policy types. A prior understanding of the obstacles that a particular program type is likely to face should allow more-effective execution of the program and enhance the probability of success. 11 references, 7 tables.

  4. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  5. Engaging Consumer Voices in Health Care Policy: Lessons for Social Work Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Kristi Lohmeier; Saunders, A

    2016-02-01

    Community health centers provide comprehensive public health care in some of the most disadvantaged communities in the United States. To ensure that health centers meet the needs of their consumers, they uniquely engage them in their organizational decision-making and policy-development processes by requiring that their boards of directors encompass a 51 percent consumer majority. To understand the quality of board members' experiences, a critical ethnography was conducted using Arnstein's ladder of citizen participation and the socioecological model as a framework. The analysis identified multiple influences on the quality of participation among consumer members. Findings also confirm other research that has found that knowledge of the economic, political, and cultural factors surrounding the context of the individual health center is important to understanding meaningful participation. The experience is important to understand given the shift driven by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 in health care, which emphasizes a patient-entered model of care. Social work practitioners and others in the public health arena interested in empowering consumers to have a role in the provision of services need to understand the impact of each of these areas'and the experience of this unique sample of health center board members.

  6. Consumer cost effectiveness of CO2 mitigation policies in restructured electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Jared; Apt, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We examine the cost of carbon dioxide mitigation to consumers in restructured USA markets under two policy instruments, a carbon price and a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To estimate the effect of policies on market clearing prices, we constructed hourly economic dispatch models of the generators in PJM and in ERCOT. We find that the cost effectiveness of policies for consumers is strongly dependent on the price of natural gas and on the characteristics of the generators in the dispatch stack. If gas prices are low (∼$4/MMBTU), a technology-agnostic, rational consumer seeking to minimize costs would prefer a carbon price over an RPS in both regions. Expensive gas (∼$7/MMBTU) requires a high carbon price to induce fuel switching and this leads to wealth transfers from consumers to low carbon producers. The RPS may be more cost effective for consumers because the added energy supply lowers market clearing prices and reduces CO 2 emissions. We find that both policies have consequences in capacity markets and that the RPS can be more cost effective than a carbon price under certain circumstances: continued excess supply of capacity, retention of nuclear generators, and high natural gas prices. (letter)

  7. Consumers' inflation expectations and monetary policy in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of monetary policy decisions on inflation expectations of European consumers. Using a novel approach that does not assume unbiasedness of expectations, which makes use of survey data on expected future as well as perceived past price developments and allows for non-normal peakedness and asymmetry, we convert qualitative survey responses of consumers in various European countries into quantitative time series of inflation expectations. After checking the rationa...

  8. Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education: A National Invitational Conference. Program Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Frank N.; And Others

    Twelve preconference papers and background articles that identify issues in consumer protection in postsecondary education are presented. The papers and articles include "Recruitment Practices of Postsecondary Schools" (Frank N. Albanese); "The Role of a State Agency in Consumer Protection" (Philip F. Ashler); "The Three R's of Postsecondary…

  9. 77 FR 63240 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... organizations, companies with whom consumers have an established business relationship, and calls to persons... Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission announces that the Office of Management...

  10. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  11. Adding A2K Principles to the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adding A2K Principles to the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection ... of standards for good practices in consumer protection, particularly for developing countries. ... IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management.

  12. Consumer preference not to choose: Methodological and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four US states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to industrial and commercial customers, with residential prices based on those in nominally competitive wholesale markets

  13. 3 CFR 8347 - Proclamation 8347 of February 27, 2009. National Consumer Protection Week, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Protection Week, “Nuts & Bolts: Tools for Today’s Economy,” focuses on the basic information consumers need... Consumer Protection Week, 2009 8347 Proclamation 8347 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8347 of February 27, 2009 Proc. 8347 National Consumer Protection Week, 2009By the President of the...

  14. 77 FR 51706 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... waiver of receipt of printed copies of consumer protection materials. The direct final rule harmonized... receipt of the consumer protection publications ``Your Rights and Responsibilities When You Move,'' and... No. FMCSA-2011-0313] RIN 2126-AB41 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer...

  15. 77 FR 36932 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... use of energy. List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 375 Advertising, Arbitration, Consumer protection...--TRANSPORTATION OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE; CONSUMER PROTECTION REGULATIONS 0 1. The authority... No. FMCSA-2012-0119] RIN 2126-AB52 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer...

  16. Ethical Issues for Direct-to-Consumer Digital Psychotherapy Apps: Addressing Accountability, Data Protection, and Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Martin, Nicole; Kreitmair, Karola

    2018-04-23

    This paper focuses on the ethical challenges presented by direct-to-consumer (DTC) digital psychotherapy services that do not involve oversight by a professional mental health provider. DTC digital psychotherapy services can potentially assist in improving access to mental health care for the many people who would otherwise not have the resources or ability to connect with a therapist. However, the lack of adequate regulation in this area exacerbates concerns over how safety, privacy, accountability, and other ethical obligations to protect an individual in therapy are addressed within these services. In the traditional therapeutic relationship, there are ethical obligations that serve to protect the interests of the client and provide warnings. In contrast, in a DTC therapy app, there are no clear lines of accountability or associated ethical obligations to protect the user seeking mental health services. The types of DTC services that present ethical challenges include apps that use a digital platform to connect users to minimally trained nonprofessional counselors, as well as services that provide counseling steered by artificial intelligence and conversational agents. There is a need for adequate oversight of DTC nonprofessional psychotherapy services and additional empirical research to inform policy that will provide protection to the consumer. ©Nicole Martinez-Martin, Karola Kreitmair. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 23.04.2018.

  17. 78 FR 26101 - Advisory Committee for Aviation Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    .... Attendance is open to the public up to the room's capacity; however, since access to the FAA headquarters...) 894-6529, Centra Technology, Inc., [email protected] . For other information please contact... and enforcement initiatives affecting consumer protection in air travel. The meeting will also address...

  18. The Role of Accreditation in Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, W. Keith; Andersen, Kay J.

    1982-01-01

    Upper-level college administrators in the Western accreditation region were surveyed about how well the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC) served its constituency. Questions concerned consumer protection as an objective of accreditation, emphasis on disseminating information about the accreditation process, and potential policy…

  19. 14 CFR 374.3 - Compliance with the Consumer Credit Protection Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of the Consumer Credit Protection Act, 15 U.S.C. 1601-1693r. Any violation of the following... PROTECTION ACT WITH RESPECT TO AIR CARRIERS AND FOREIGN AIR CARRIERS § 374.3 Compliance with the Consumer... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with the Consumer Credit...

  20. Policy of air protection in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaczun, Z.M.

    1995-01-01

    The changed political situation and recognition of the acute destruction of the natural environment in Poland have caused a series of actions aimed at preventing further deterioration of Polish environment. One of the most important events which took place in the last few years was the enactment by the Polish Parliament in May 1991 of the Act on the National Ecological Policy. The basic assumption of the new environmental policy is a declaration that sustainable development will in future direct economic development in Poland. The aim of the presented paper is to introduce existing policy of air protection and instruments which have been implemented to protect the air. Special attention is paid to legislation instruments, introduction and enforcement of proper economic mechanisms strengthening air protection and foreign policy aiming at increasing foreign assistance for this objective. Pollutants involved include sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide and particulates from industry and coal-fired power plants. 9 refs

  1. PROTECTION OF ENERGY CONSUMERS IN THE ECONOMIES OF EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ȘTEȚ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper realizes an analyze of the position of the energy consumers and presents some ways of influencing the behaviour of the energy consumers. The paper dealt also with the issue of the protection of domestic electricity and gas consumer which aims, in particular, its rights to receive energy at any time, in safe conditions and at affordable prices.

  2. LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CONSUMER OF UNLICENCED VAPOR FROM DRUG AND FOOD SUPERVISORY AGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedhi Bima Samudra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This research begins with the number of liquid vapor that is not licensed BPOM spread in Indonesia, and there is no clear law for liquid vapor, so there is no clarity from legal protection against liquid vapor consumers who are not licensed from  BPOM. Therefore, in this research, there is the formulation of the problem as follows: Is there a legal protection against liquid vapor consumers who are not licensed from BPOM?. The purpose of this research to determine whether there is legal protection against liquid vapor consumers who are not licensed BPOM. So this research can be useful for subsequent research that has the same theme and beneficial to researchers, liquid vapor consumers and also for the government. The research method used is the normative method. Normative research methods using statute approach. The result of the research shows that there is legal protection for liquid vapor consumer who is not licensed by BPOM, which is reviewed from the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 36 Year on concerning the health of Article 113 paragraph (1 and Article 114, Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 8 Year 1999 on Consumer protection Article 8 paragraph (1 c and paragraph (1 i, Regulation of the Head of the Food and Drug Supervisory Agency of the Republic of Indonesia Number 4 Year 2017 on the Supervision of the Importation of Drugs into the Territory of Indonesia Article 4 paragraph (1. Keywords: Legal Protection, Consumer, Liquid-Vapor

  3. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  4. Environmental policy and the energy efficiency of vertically differentiated consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzeskot, Magdalena; Haupt, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyse optimal environmental policies in a market that is vertically differentiated in terms of the energy efficiency of products. Considering energy taxes, subsidies to firms for investment in more eco-friendly products, and product standards, we are particularly interested in how distributional goals in addition to environmental goals shape the choice of policy instruments. We find that an industry-friendly government levies an energy tax to supplement a lax product standard, but shies away from subsidies to firms. By contrast, a consumer-friendly government relies heavily on a strict product standard and additionally implements a moderate subsidy to firms, but avoids energy taxes. - Highlights: ► We analyse how distributional goals shape environmental policy. ► Firms invest in the energy efficiency of their products and compete in prices. ► An industry-friendly government implements an energy tax and a lax product standard. ► A consumer-friendly government chooses a subsidy to firms instead of an energy tax. ► A consumer-friendly government implements a strict energy efficiency standard

  5. APPLICATION OF THE HOWARD'S MODEL ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR IN BUYING INSURANCE POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Martje Paais; Semuel Souhoka

    2017-01-01

    This research intends to predict factors that drive consumer to buy insurance policy, based on consumer behavior model by Howard. In main variable used is buying decision. In addition, this study also includes information, brand image, confidence and attitude as the control variables. The analysis units are exclusive policy insured in Malang region. The data was collected using questionnaire. The t-test in simple regression models are used to test hypotheses. The research finds about: first, ...

  6. From micronutrient recommendations to policy: consumer and stakeholder involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timotijevic, L; Raats, M M; Barnett, J; Brown, K; Shepherd, R; Fernandez, L; Dömölki, L; Ruprich, J; Sonne, A-M; Hermoso, M; Koletzko, B; Frost-Andersen, L; Timmer, A

    2010-06-01

    To achieve the nutritional goals stipulated by micronutrient recommendations, greater attention must be paid to the behavioural routes to such nutritional outcomes. Coopting stakeholders and consumers into decisions regarding micronutrient recommendations is an important step towards achieving a greater link between micronutrient recommendations and behaviour. This study aims to examine the rationale and processes associated with consumer and stakeholder involvement in setting micronutrient recommendations across Europe. Using the contacts established through the Eurreca network of excellence (commissioned by the European Commission), the research involved in-depth desk research of key documents and communication channels linked to the process of setting micronutrient recommendations across seven countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, the Czech Republic and Hungary. Stakeholder engagement is recognized by most countries as an important aspect of the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and their translation into policy, although there is notable variation in the extent to which this has been achieved across the seven countries and its effect on final decisions. Stakeholders were not involved at the outset of the process ('framing' of the problem) in any of the countries, and there was no evidence of consumer involvement and open public fora. Some of the key explanatory factors for diversity in the degree of involvement include historical sociopolitical context; the extent to which food and nutrition are key policy agenda; and the relative power of stakeholders in influencing food and nutrition policy.

  7. The protection of a consumer during the providing of banking services in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Haasová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor's thesis describes and analyses the protection of a bank client. In the beginning I discuss the necessity of the institution of consumer's protection define the basic terms and describe the structure of the system of consumer's protection. Then, I depict the basic elements of the consumer's protection, the requirements to banks, the duty to provide information, the protection of personal data, the bank secret and the deposit insurance. After these I concentrate on the analysis of...

  8. 77 FR 74625 - Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0046] Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to...

  9. 77 FR 37616 - Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... Protection Bureau, at (202) 435-7700. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. Credit Card Policy... disclosure of data from consumer complaints about financial products and services other than credit cards... Statement'') describing its plans to disclose consumer credit card complaint data. The present notice (the...

  10. INTERNATIONAL PRACTICE OF INSURANCE SERVICES CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina P. Khominitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the current compensationand guarantee mechanisms of policyholders’protection in the context of reforms inregulation and supervision of insurancecompanies. Models and fi nancing sourcesof insurance services consumer protectionfunds, their features in different countries as well as order and size of compensationpayments are identified in this article.

  11. 77 FR 48460 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ..., direct final rule concerning household goods consumer protection. The direct final rule amended the... No. FMCSA-2012-0119] RIN 2126-AB52 Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final...

  12. Energy policy in the consumer interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struempel, B

    1983-01-01

    How does the energy problem faced by Western societies affect the consumer 10 years after the oil embargo. The steep increase in the energy bill has led to severe strains on the social fabric in terms of maldistribution, social conflict, and probably also of unemployment. This is so because by and large the hard, supply-oriented path of merely substituting domestic energies and nuclear power for imported oil was chosen, and the task of conservation was left to the price mechanism. The fact that up to now the soft path has been largely neglected, is traced to three factors: to the inertia of institutions, first the energy industry, second the political system at large, and third to an ''ideological lag'' in popular beliefs abouth the economy. The implications for policy are drawn. Rather than only an individual economic choice via information and motivation, consumer research and action in the energy field ought to focus on collective choice as well.

  13. Financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction. A relationship study by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marimuthu SELVAKUMAR

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to make an attempt to study the relationship between the financial consumer protection and customer satisfaction by using factor analysis and discriminant analysis. The main objectives of the study are to analyze the financial consumer protection in commercial banks, to examine the customer satisfaction of commercial banks and to identify the factors of financial consumer protection lead customer satisfaction. There are many research work carried out on financial consumer protection in financial literacy, but the identification of factors which lead the financial consumer protection and the relationship between financial consumer protection and the customer satisfaction is very important, Particularly for banks to improve its quality and increase the customer satisfaction. Therefore this study is carried out with the aim of identifying the factors of financial consumer protection and its influence on customer satisfaction. This study is both descriptive and analytical in nature. It covers both primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected from the customers of commercial banks using pre-tested interview schedule and the secondary data has been collected from standard books, journals, magazines, websites and so on.

  14. Approaches to Risk and Consumer Policy in Financial Service Regulation in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lunt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The financial service and communication sectors in the UK have been subject to radical re-organisation, involving the formation of sector-wide regulatory bodies (FSA and Ofcom with wide-ranging powers and statutory obligations. Although both have responsibilities for assessment and management of risk, their remits go beyond traditional approaches to regulation. Hence, although primarily oriented to economic policy, both regulators address questions of corporate responsibility, balance of stakeholder interests, the public good, consumer representation and public participation. Accordingly, they are undertaking a range of activities, including consumer education and research, public consultation and the involvement of stakeholders in policy review. Focusing on the case of financial services, this paper presents an analysis of two early speeches by FSA directors, one focused on the approach to risk adopted by the regulator and the other on consumer policy. The second part of the paper considers the conceptual issues regarding different modes of risk management in the new regulators, requiring an account of the various levels and forms of involvement by stakeholders and publics in the identification and management of risk. It follows on from the analysis of the speeches to examine the relationship between risk and consumer policy in the practices of the FSA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601323

  15. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta; Dhingra, Chandan; Anand, Richa

    2013-12-01

    The study aimed to assess the awareness of the Consumer Protection Act among dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out on dental health professionals in dental schools of Ghaziabad, India. A total of 348 dental health professionals (170 males and 178 females) were surveyed, out of which 116 were MDS faculty, 45 were BDS faculty and 187 were pursuing post graduation. The questionnaire comprised of 24 questions about the awareness of consumer protection act. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test, student's t test and ANOVA. A total of 84.8% (n=295) reported to be aware of consumer protection act. Amongst them, MDS faculty showed more awareness as compared to BDS faculty and those pursuing post-graduation. Considering the present scenario, MDS faculty dental professionals have more awareness of consumer protection act compared to other dental professionals. So, we must upgrade our knowledge on consumer protection act at all levels of our profession and change our attitude by inculcating a practice to spread the message of consumer protection act for delivering quality dental care.

  16. The impact of the Consumer Protection Act on pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, K; van Eeden, E

    2014-11-01

    The Consumer Protection Act of 2008 has had far-reaching consequences for suppliers of goods and services in South Africa. The implementation of the Act has important implications for all suppliers who enter into 'consumer transactions.' This article aims to stimulate awareness of the legal consequences of the Act arising from day-to-day situations occurring in the pharmacy, and to highlight the compliance obligations that the Act creates for pharmacists.

  17. Radiation protection, public policies and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Simone F.; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Barreto, Alberto A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to inform about the aspects of radiation protection public policies concerning the public spheres and the ordinary population. It is known that information has been considered a very important good in several knowledge areas. However, the efficiency of their transmission mechanisms should be periodically evaluated, checking existing critical and stagnation points. Nuclear area can be mentioned as a historically typical case, where the public policies assume relevant importance as tool for promotion, control and education of the population in general. Considering the polemic nature of such subject, it is clear that there is a need for conducting the construction of educational contents taking in account the educator training necessities. The addressing of radiation protection aspects applied to nuclear techniques conducts, for example, to the awareness on the benefits of radiation and its industrial and medical applications, which are established considering the worldwide adopted basic principles of radiation protection. Such questions, concerned with (or related to) public policies, establish a link between radiation protection and education, themes explored in this article to provide a better view of the current Brazilian scenario. (author)

  18. 76 FR 12817 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ..., from buying a home or car to paying off a loan or using a credit card. Consumer education is vital to... Week has encouraged Americans to make better-informed decisions about saving, buying, borrowing, and... information, families can both strengthen the economy and protect themselves from fraudulent behavior. For...

  19. EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, A; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Holzhauser, T

    2014-01-01

    production. There is an urgent requirement for effective communication between health care professionals, patient organizations, food industry representatives and regulators to develop a better approach to protecting consumers with food allergies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....... and expectations of the food allergic consumer in that context. There is a general duty of care on the food industry and obligations in European Union legislation to reduce and manage the presence of allergens alongside other food hazards. Current evidence enables quantification of allergen reference doses used...

  20. Consumer perceptions of smart grid development: Results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Vleuten, Johannes Marinus van der; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Consumers have a major role to play in smart grid technologies which can be instrumental in addressing climate change and energy challenges. However, little is known about how consumers perceive, and how they might respond to the opportunities that smart grid technologies offer. This paper reports the results from a Hong Kong survey (n=505). It contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the perceptions and behaviour of electricity consumers about the possible deployment of smart grids. Our results indicate that Hong Kong consumers generally welcomed smart grid technologies and had a preference for energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy while they showed a high level of opposition to nuclear power. They displayed an interest in playing a much more informed and active role in energy decision-making, but they were sensitive to tariff increases. Motivations and barriers for consumers to support smart grid developments are also discussed. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for effective consumer engagement. More policy attention is needed on demand-side measures, introducing institutional and regulatory changes, and modifying relationships between consumers, the government and utilities. - Highlights: ► Consumers have a major role in smart grid technologies. ► This paper reports findings of a Hong Kong survey on how consumers perceive and respond. ► Hong Kong consumers are interested in being informed and playing an active role in energy decision-making. ► Motivations and barriers are discussed. ► Policy recommendations for effective consumer engagement are suggested.

  1. The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 and procedural fairness in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    fair. In a South African context, procedural fairness and substantive fairness are therefore of equal importance. 5. The Consumer Protection Act and procedural fairness. In the discussion below, the special ..... actually read the terms, but standardisation in presentation may make it slightly easier for a consumer to understand ...

  2. 46 CFR 308.207 - War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. 308... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.207 War risk protection and indemnity insurance policy. The standard form of war risk protection and indemnity insurance policy, Form MA...

  3. Consumer Food Security and Labeling Intervention on Food Products through Public Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct understanding of consumers’ food labeling knowledge and perceptions is a prerequisite to develop and implement coherent and appropriate food safety policies. One objective of the paper was to discover how often consumers access and use specific food label information. Another objective was to explore stakeholders’ preferences for several public policy options relevant for food safety. In this respect, a survey on a sample of 312 Romanian consumers and the evaluation of several public policy options by four stakeholder groups (food producers and sellers, doctors, fitness trainers, and consumers were carried out. The results revealed that the most frequently read types of information on the label were “expiration date” and “price”, closely followed by “quantity” and “brand”. Among tested public policies, those related to the traffic light labels and to the social interest messages with health claims were rewarded with high scores by investigated stakeholders. Although nutrition has a decisive impact on health state, nutrition information was not frequently read by people, thus justifying the implementation of a public policy meant to enhance consumers’ interest in and reading frequency of nutrition information on food label.

  4. Law Enforcement of Consumer Protection for Safe Food Packaging in The Decisions of Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.

    2017-04-01

    The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.

  5. Your Credit Rights: An Instructional Unit on Consumer Credit Protection. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Barbara J.; And Others

    This instructional guide adds two new sections to the original guide published in May 1982. The guide was designed to assist educators in teaching the topics of consumer credit and consumer credit protection to secondary and postsecondary students in various economics and business courses, as well as in adult and community education courses. The…

  6. Trademarks, consumer protection and domain names on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Kelblová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with current problems of the conflict of domain names on the Internet with trade marks in relation to the consumer protection. The aim of the article is to refer to ways and means of protection against of the speculative registration of a domain name. In the Czech legal order these means represent legal regulation of the unfair competition in Commercial Code, regulation of liability for damage together with the Trademarks Act.

  7. Competition and Consumer Behavior in the Context of the Digital Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena-Mădălina Vătămănescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to investigate the relation between competition and online purchasing decision-making, integrating consumer protection awareness and the corresponding consumer behavior as mediators. The focus is on both subjective and objective measures related to the level of consumer awareness and action in a fast-growing competition, potentiated by the digital economy. In order to investigate the relations between the aforementioned concepts, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted, using a sample of 257 students from three top Romanian universities. Based upon the theoretical directions presented in the literature review, a conceptual model was elaborated and tested by employing a partial least squares structural equation modeling technique. As the examination of the structural model indicated, online purchasing decision-making is indirectly influenced by the high competition in the digital economy, by means of consumer protection awareness and consumer protection behavior. At this level, the analyzed factors, namely the competition in the digital economy, the consumer protection awareness and the consumer behavior with respect to the consumer protection policies, explain over 16% in the variance of the online purchasing decision-making.

  8. Health Data Sharing Preferences of Consumers: Public Policy and Legal Implications of Consumer-Mediated Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    An individual's choice to share or have control of the sharing or withholding of their personal health information is one of the most significant public policy challenges associated with electronic information exchange. There were four aims of this study. First, to describe predictors of health data sharing preferences of consumers. Second, to…

  9. Unravelling the concept of consumer preference: implications for health policy and optimal planning in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele M; Earl, Peter E; Haines, Terry P; Mitchell, Geoffrey K

    2010-10-01

    Accounting for consumer preference in health policy and delivery system design makes good economic sense since this is linked to outcomes, quality of care and cost control. Probability trade-off methods are commonly used in policy evaluation, marketing and economics. Increasingly applied to health matters, the trade-off preference model has indicated that consumers of health care discriminate between different attributes of care. However, the complexities of the health decision-making environment raise questions about the inherent assumptions concerning choice and decision-making behavior which frame this view of consumer preference. In this article, we use the example of primary care in Australia as a vehicle to examine the concept of 'consumer preference' from different perspectives within economics and discuss the significance of how we model preferences for health policy makers. In doing so, we question whether mainstream thinking, namely that consumers are capable of deliberating between rival strategies and are willing to make trade-offs, is a reliable way of thinking about preferences given the complexities of the health decision-making environment. Alternative perspectives on preference can assist health policy makers and health providers by generating more precise information about the important attributes of care that are likely to enhance consumer engagement and optimise acceptability of health care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Yahanan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safety aviation in Indonesia and Malaysia from the Consumer Protection Law and the Aviation Law. As a result of the research shows that safety standard passenger for air transportation in airport covers information and safety facility in the shape of availability of the emergency safety tools (fires, accidents and natural disasters; information, area and health facility; and healthcare workers. Moreover, safety standards for passenger in an aircraft include information and safety facility in the shape of availability information and the emergency safety tools for passenger in an aircraft. The protection for consumer rights for safety flight in Indonesia as follows: aviation industry has obligation to fulfill minimum standard of safety and security; consumers must be safety from false information which raises concern; aircraft operation which endanger of the passenger; and consumer protection in operating the electronic device which endanger flight. On the other hand, the law of consumer rights in Malaysia relating to aviation are ruled under the Aviation Law as a result of the Warsaw Convention 1929. In conclusion, the verdict of consumer rights related to security aviation begins when the passenger enter to an aircraft, in the aircraft, and by the time they get off the plane.

  11. 75 FR 36395 - Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ..., officers, and employees. 12 CFR 563.33. Given the key role of senior executives in managing the overall..., Chief, Policy and Program Development, Division of Supervision and Consumer Protection, (202) 898-7221... Consumer Protection, (202) 898-6649. OTS: Rich Gaffin, Financial Analyst, Risk Modeling and Analysis, (202...

  12. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...

  13. 75 FR 52512 - Acceptance of Public Submissions on the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... and Consumer Protection Act and the Rulemakings That Will Be Proposed by the Commission AGENCY...-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act'') was enacted on July 21, 2010... Consumer Protection Act (``Dodd-Frank Act''), Public Law 111-203, was enacted. The Dodd-Frank Act will...

  14. 75 FR 51429 - Definitions Contained in Title VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... VII of Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... comments. SUMMARY: The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the ``Dodd-Frank Act... requirements. \\1\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Public Law No. 111-203, 124 Stat...

  15. The Draft Directive on Consumer Rights: Choices Made and Arguments Used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem H. van Boom

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights (hereinafter: the Draft aims at reorganizing the acquis of four specific European directives on consumer protection into a more coherent codification of consumer rights. Specifically, it contains rules on precontractual information duties, on withdrawal rights for distance and off-premises contracts, on consumer sales and on general contract terms in consumer contracts. In replacing the four directives with a minimum harmonization character, the Draft marks a further step towards full harmonization of consumer contract law in Europe. This is an unsettling step because the level of protection offered to consumers in the Draft hardly exceeds the level of protection offered by the four directives mentioned earlier. Instead, it diminishes this protection in some regards. In light of all this, the question arises whether the policy choices underlying the Draft are, in fact, convincingly underpinned by solid argumentation. This article addresses this issue by first analyzing the Draft's use of the generic concept of “contracts between consumers and traders”. It is argued that full harmonization of a badly delineated territory is ill-advised. Subsequently, the argumentative power of the policy considerations forwarded by the European Commission in its Regulatory Assessment Study is tested. The article concludes that the Commission’s assessment of expected costs and benefits of the Draft is waver-thin and geared towards persuading the reader of the aptness of choices already made. In some respects, the evidence presented by the Commission is outright unconvincing. At certain points, the Draft even fuels the reader’s suspicion of foregone conclusions. Overall, the need for reduction of the level of protection offered by the current minimum harmonization directives is poorly argued by the Commission and appears, in a number of important ways, not to reflect the socio-economic relationships that

  16. Consumer Protection in Managed Care: A Third-Generation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses three generations of consumer protection issues related to managed care: (1) individual treatment decisions--individuals wanting treatment their plan does not cover or deems unnecessary; (2) insurance practices and risk selection--impact of health management organizations on the rest of the health insurance system; and (3) health plan…

  17. Information Requirements and Consumer Protection in Future M-Commerce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; Henschel, Rene Franz

    2007-01-01

      The aim of this article is to discuss information requirements and consumer protection in mobile commerce. On the basis of a brief introduction to the characteristics of mobile commerce and the regulatory framework that governs mobile commerce in the European Union today, the article presents...... that the solution may be relaxed enforcement of the regulatory framework and/or self-regulation, e.g. by codes of conduct. However, the article argues that other possible solutions should be considered, e.g. the use of specific symbols and sounds that - like road traffic rules - could help the consumer to navigate...

  18. Transition in Food and Agricultural Policy: Key Stakeholder--Domestic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Jean

    Assurance of an adequate and safe supply of food at a reasonable price is consumers' primary stake in the outcome of 1995 farm bill deliberations and related food and agricultural policies. Farm programs have provided an economically stable environment wherein farmers produce an abundance of food. The declining portion of household budgets…

  19. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  20. The Dutch risk management policy and its impact for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, Rob; Bosnjakovic, Branko; Jongh, Paul de

    1989-01-01

    Since 1985 the environmental policy in the Netherlands is based on a quantitative risk management policy. This policy was developed for reasons of external safety and for the management of chemical substances in the environment. The experiences with this quantitative risk management policy are positive. An extension of the risk policy is currently in preparation: the risks of other aspects than the death of human beings will be included. For example, the risk of damage to the environmental production function of soils and water will be taken into account. Meanwhile, a policy whitebook on radiation protection standards is in preparation. In this whitebook the occupational and environmental aspects of radiation protection will be dealt with. The whitebook will be sent to Parliament in 1989. in the radiation protection policy to be developed there will be a strong relation between the quantitative risk management of the environmental policy and the system of radiation protection standards to be developed. In the paper some basic presumptions as well as the international context of changes in standard setting will be discussed. (author)

  1. THREE DECADES OF CONSUMER PROTECTION OF RIGHTS ACT: RURAL INDIA NEEDS FOCUSED ATTENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Amrit Patel

    2017-01-01

    India has been observing December 24 each year since 1986 as “National Consumer Rights Day”, when the Consumer Protection Act [CPA], 1986 came into force on this day. Despite the implementation of the CPA has completed three decades in the country, the rural India has yet to understand the meaning of consumer’s rights & the procedure to protect the right enshrined in the CPA,1986. This has its significance because according to the National Council of Applied Economic Research survey report th...

  2. International Commission on Radiological Protection. History, policies, procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo; Dunster, H.J.; Valentin, Jack; )

    2000-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the history, mode of operation, concepts, and current policies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It touches upon the objectives of the Commission's recommendations, the quantities used, the biological basis of the Commission's policy, the quantitative basis for its risk estimates, the structure of the system of protection, some problems of interpretation and application in that system, and the need for stability, consistency, and clarity in the Commission's recommendations. (author)

  3. Policy offers protection from harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Marcia

    We face a number of legal and ethical issues in our work as scientists and as AGU members. To uphold the highest ethical standards in our professional activities, the Council has adopted policies on free access to published material, ethics in publishing, and misconduct in science. But what about guidelines to govern the personal behavior that constitutes harassment, sexual or otherwise?For years the AGU headquarters staff has had a policy that offers protection from harassment and rules for dealing with it, but the membership went without one until 1994. That year the Council adopted a policy that extends to the membership as well as to the staff and the vendors they encounter at meetings. The law only requires a policy to prevent harassment in the workplace, but the Council felt that a harassment policy was particularly important for members because the subtle behavior that can constitute harassment is most likely to occur at events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and training seminars that AGU members attend.

  4. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published its draft reflections on the system's evolution, and has opened discussions with the radiological protection community in order to seek a broad range of stakeholder input. This open dialogue will help bring about a common level of understanding of the issues at stake and contribute to the evolution of new ICRP recommendations. These proceedings present a significant block of stakeholder input, comprising the views of policy makers, regulators, radiological protection professionals, industry and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations. (author)

  5. Effective methods of consumer protection in Brazil. An analysis in the context of property development contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Alcici Salomão

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines consumer protection in arbitration, especially under the example of property development contract disputes in Brazil. This is a very current issue in light of the presidential veto of consumer arbitration on May 26, 2015. The article discusses the arbitrability of these disputes based on Brazilian legislation and relevant case law. It also analyzes of the advantages, disadvantages and trends of consumer arbitration in the context of real estate contracts. The paper concludes by providing suggestions specific to consumer protection in arbitration based on this analysis.

  6. AGREEMENT ON THE SALE AND PURCHASE OF HOUSES TO BE BUILT IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In residential buying agreements, contracts governing default are usually common. Default is stated by expressing negligence in two respects, whether it is negligence in payment of instalment or negligence in the delay of settlement of house construction which will be delivered to the consumer. The developer's responsibility is usually related to the delay of the house construction and delivery to the consumer. In the execution of the sale and purchase transaction of the house to be built, consumers rarely gain consumer protection rights as regulated and mentioned in the article on consumer rights and business actor obligations contained in Article 4 and 7 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection. Furthermore, field practice reality shows that consumers and developers do not have the same bargaining position, where the consumer are usually required to follow the agreement that has been standardized by developers who are legally contrary to Article 18 of Law no. 8 of 1999 on Consumer Protection.

  7. Unpacking the right to plain and understandable language in the consumer protection act 68 of 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Philip N; Chürr, Chrizell

    2013-01-01

    The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and gener...

  8. The Consumer Protection Clinical Course at UCLA School of Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The Consumer Protection clinical course, in which case supervision is provided by government agency personnel, is described. Implications are considered regarding the necessity and emphasis of a seminar component, and the usefulness of clinical courses in teaching substantive law as well as lawyering skills. (LBH)

  9. From government to market and from producer to consumer: Transition of policy mix towards clean mobility in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lei; Su, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new typology that classifies innovation policy instruments into two dimensions: government-selection versus market-selection, and producer-orientation versus consumer-orientation. Such a typology articulates the importance of consumer behavior in the policy design for a transition, and the relevance for the market to select target subjects of policy during the deployment stage of clean technology innovation. We apply this typology to policy instruments of China's new energy vehicle (NEV) industry between 1991 and 2015 in order to explain the industry's rapid growth. The focus of China's policy mix has transited from government-selection to market-selection, and from producer-orientation to consumer-orientation. Other than the new typology, this paper traces the entire history of policy transition within China's NEV industry, and finds the transition to be a result of policy learning, thus contributing to future empirical studies of this industry. - Highlights: •This paper shows the change of China's innovation policy mix for the new energy vehicle industry. •We design a new typology of innovation policy instruments. •China's policy mix has undergone a transition according to the new typology. •The transition explains why new energy vehicles have recently diffused quickly in China. •Rationale and background of such a transition is provided.

  10. Environmental protection and competition policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrlaender, H.

    1993-01-01

    The area 'Environmental protection and competition policy' follows the introductory guideline by Sir Leon Brittan, vice-president of the EC-Commission: 'We must seek the most market driven, dynamic approach to solutions, such that competition and technological advance bring the maximum economic and environmental benefits'. From this concrete measures are derived. (HSCH) [de

  11. Analysing the components of attitude in a function of improving consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Maja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are the starting point and the focus of all activities of companies that want to survive in the long term and do business profitably on the market. However, even in the most developed economies in the world do not have all the companies awareness about the importance of social responsible business and ethical marketing. Therefore there is a need for institutional protection of consumers from unfer and unethical business of companies, on the one hand, but on the other hand, they have to encourage themselves to be more involved in the protection of their rights. The purpose of this paper is the analysis of the components of consumer attitude about the degree of protection of consumer rights in the Republic of Serbia in order to conclude on which way consumers can be encouraged to participate more actively in the exercise of rights. The aim of this study is to determine whether the cognitive, affective and behavioral component of the attitude are intercorelated and to what extent, and whether cognitive or affective component has dominant influence on forming behavioral component of the consumer attitude. Based on the results of the research about the corelation and influence of the analyzed components of the attitude we draw conclusions on which way it can be possible to affect on the consumer intention to be more engaged in its rights protection as well as on which way it can be possible to improve the consumer protection in the Republic of Serbia, generally speaking.

  12. LA PROTECCIÓN DE LOS CONSUMIDORES FINANCIEROS. THE PROTECTION OF FINANCIAL CONSUMERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayda Soraya Marín Galeano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone contrastar las diferentes legislaciones de protección a los consumidores financieros, observando el panorama colombiano con relación a otros países. El estudio se desarrolla en cuatro fases: en la primera, se expondrá un panorama general de los derechos de los consumidores financieros; en la segunda, se presentarán los indicadores construidos; la tercera, constará de la medición y comparación de la protección del consumidor financiero en los cinco países seleccionados (Chile, Colombia, Reino Unido, España y Estados Unidos; y finalmente, se propondrán hipótesis causales que expliquen la protección del consumidor financiero. Abstract: This article intends to contrast the different laws of protection to financial consumers, in which the Colombian view is being compared with the one from other countries. This study is developed in four stages: in the first one, a comprehensive overview of the financial consumer rights will be set out; in the second one, the built indicators will be shown; in the third one, the measurement and comparison of the financial consumer protection will be carried out in the five following selected countries: Chile, Colombia, United Kingdom, Spain, and The United States; and in the last one, causal hypotheses explaining the financial consumer protection will be proposed.

  13. Agri‐environmental Policies to Meet Consumer Preferences in Japan: An Economic‐Biophysical Model Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Uetake

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Promoting environmentally friendly farming products is crucial to meeting consumer demand. Although governments implement policy measures to improve the environmental performance of the agriculture sector, theirimpacts are difficult to assess. This study analyses the performance of agri‐environmental policies in Japan, by using the OECD’s policy impact model and reference level framework. In particular, it identifies the environmental impacts of three simulated agri‐environmental policies based on farms’ characteristics. The results suggest that a policy mix of regulation and an incentive payment would reduce environmental impacts, suggesting that targeted approaches could improve the cost‐effectiveness of agri‐environmental policies.

  14. Current Trends in providing the Toys Security and Consumer Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiela Magdalena Csorba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goods and services market is not in equilibrium. This affects continuously the consumers under multiple aspects: economic, educational, health insurance and security, and so on. Not even the toys market outlets or the toys trading market aren’t trouble free. Because publications in the toys consumer protection field are seldom (legislation is the starting point in analyzing this area, the checks carried out at national level which showed the marketed toys insecurity and the abuses of the economic agents in this sector determined us to analyze the degree in which people knows the toy-related injuries and the danger to which they expose their own children when purchasing dangerous toys. That’s why a quantitative research was conducted, using the method of questionnaire, distributed through the Romanian consumers, with the aim to check the empirically awareness and the seriousness with which they relate the risks concerning the toys consume.

  15. Consumer protection issues in energy: a guide for attorneys general. Insulation, solar, automobile device, home devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Harry I.; Hulse, William S.; Jones, Robert R.; Langer, Robert M.; Petrucelli, Paul J.; Schroeder, Robert J.

    1979-11-01

    The guide attempts to bring together two important and current issues: energy and consumer protection. Perhaps the most basic consumer-protection issue in the energy area is assuring adequate supplies at adequate prices. It is anticipated, though, that consumers will want to consider new ways to lower enegy consumption and cost, and will thus be susceptible to fraudulent energy claims. Information is prepared on insulation, solar, energy-saving devices for the home, and energy-saving devices for the automobile.

  16. Consumer preference and willingness to pay for a renewable fuel standard (RFS) policy: Focusing on ex-ante market analysis and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Hwang, Won-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Total energy consumption of oil in 2050 is expected to increase to 1.6 times its level in 2005, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector will be second only to the electricity sector. In order to reduce GHG emissions in transportation, leading countries have started to implement renewable fuel standard (RFS) policies. Other countries such as Korea have recently started implementing RFS policies in order to comply with the proposed global GHG reduction target. However, previous research did not consider the impact of RFS policy on consumer acceptance levels. Therefore, this study analyzes consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RFS. To provide detailed policy strategies, this study conducts additional analysis using market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that consumers generally accept the cost of implementing an RFS policy if the cost falls between KRW 101.78/liter (USD 0.33/gal) and KRW 187.26/liter (USD 0.60/gal). In addition, consumer WTP for implementing an RFS policy changes when the income exceeds KRW 5 million (USD 4229.1) in driver group, and relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies. Based on the results of this study, we can suggest proper pricing policies for each income group and a public relations strategy to improve the level of policy acceptance. - Highlights: • We analyze consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for Korea's RFS policy. • We also conduct market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. • Korean consumers will accept the cost between KRW 101.78/liter and KRW 187.26/liter. • Preference structure for RFS policy is changed when income exceeds KRW 5 million. • Relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies.

  17. Health care policies and resisting consumers in a prototypical welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2011-01-01

    policies. The paper is based on qualitative methods comprising observations and interviews in two hearing clinics. The paper shows that rather than a „withdrawal‟ of the state there has been a process of reform with governing at distance. The data suggests that a distinguishing mark of the consumer role...

  18. Claims settlement in insurance contracts from a consumer protection perspective in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Fuah Kwanga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Everyone in the society is faced with the possibility of one or more hazards that are part of life will sooner or later befall him and may occasion some loss. This misfortune is uncertain as to the time and period when it will occur and this amongst others include: fire outbreak, accident, and even death. This necessitates the need for people to go for insurance policies which suit their various needs in order to permit compensation in case of loss. Most consumers of insurance products are “short changed” in the process because very few take the trouble to read through their insurance policies in order to ascertain and understand the terms and conditions. The result is that most often when a claim arises and it is discovered that the loss is not covered by the terms of the insurance contract, there is the tendency of blaming the insurance companies. This paper posits that: there are of course some “bad eggs” in the industry who manipulate consumers. However, the paper holds that this unpleasant quagmire is often due to lack of understanding of the terms of insurance contracts in general and consumer apathy in particular. The essence of this study is to re-iterate the need to communicate the rules of the insurance game, thereby minimizing some of the misunderstanding and problems faced by consumers.

  19. Planetary protection policy overview and application to future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John D.

    1989-01-01

    The current status of planetary protection (quarantine) policy within NASA is discussed, together with the issues of planetary protection and back-contamination as related to future missions. The policy adopted by COSPAR in 1984 (and recently reaffirmed by the NASA Administrator) for application to all unmanned missions to other solar system bodies and all manned and unmanned sample return missions is examined. Special attention is given to the implementation of the policy and to the specific quarantine-related constraints on spacecraft involved in solar system exploration that depend on the nature of the mission and the identity of the target body.

  20. Consumer information or direct product experience? Alternative information policies and their effects on consumer acceptance of GM foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    an informed purchase decision. Unfortunately, things are not that simple. Previous research has shown that Europeans already hold firm negative attitudes to GM foods. These attitudes are not based on risk-benefit evaluations of particular products. Rather, they seem to be a function of consumers? general......) consumers can be given the opportunity to evaluate GM products on the basis of direct experience, i.e. after the products have been launched. The first approach represents the transparency/precaution policy that was actually adopted in Europe, whilst the second one was dismissed after confrontations arose...... between different stakeholder groups in connection with Nestle's "Butterfinger" launch in 1998. Both approaches would have to compete against a strong network of pre-existing consumer attitudes, but surprisingly, neither of them has ever been experimentally tested on a broad scale. Two experiments...

  1. Regulations as a Tool to Increase Consumer Protection on the European Retail Payment Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Harasim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/purpose - The purpose of the paper is to identify the main areas of customers' threats concerning using financial services and the in-depth review of European industry- -specific consumer regulations concerning current accounts and payments. Design/methodology/approach - Desk research including in-depth analysis of industry- specific consumer regulations referring to current accounts and payment services having the character of EU directives and regulations, European Commission reports, and documents. Findings - The paper shows that consumers' interests are threatened even when they use basic financial services as current account and combined payment instruments. The analysis based on of desk resources has revealed that the regulations give effect to customer protection only if they strictly correspond to defined areas of threats and particular types of risks. Research implications/limitations - The experience of the recent financial crisis proved that the asymmetry of knowledge and information was one of the crucial reasons disrupting customers' position on financial markets. Research findings will help to identify gaps in regulations and develop the quality of further initiatives aimed on informing customers about the implementation of regulations and improving their financial literacy level. Originality/value/contribution - The payment products are rarely discussed in the literature in the context of consumers' protection and financial regulations. This paper contributes to the debate by providing an overview of financial consumer protection issues concerning retail payments.(original abstract

  2. Public Policy and Protection from Exclusion - Phase III | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public Policy and Protection from Exclusion - Phase III ... and decision-makers active in the promotion of equitable health policies, with a view to promoting the emergence of an observatory of health systems in the ... Policy in Focus publishes a special issue profiling evidence to empower women in the labour market.

  3. Policy support on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of activities related to policy support on radiation protection is: (1) to support and advise the Belgian authorities on specific problems concerning existing and potential hazards from exposure to ionizing radiation in normal and accidental situations,;(2) to improve and support nuclear emergency-response decisions in industrial areas from an economical point of view. The main achievements for 1997 are described

  4. The Consumer Protection Act: No-fault liability of health care providers

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as suppliers' or retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision...

  5. Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Burim Gashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.

  6. Intentions to consume omega-3 fatty acids: a comparison of protection motivation theory and ordered protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Samuel Christian; Davidson, Graham R; Ho, Robert

    2011-06-01

    There has been limited research to date into methods for increasing people's intentions to use omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which have been linked with decreased risk of suffering from numerous major diseases. The present study employed a cross-sectional design with 380 university students, employees, and visitors to investigate the efficacy of the protection motivation (PM) theory and the ordered protection motivation (OPM) theory, to predict behavioral intention to consume omega-3 rich foods and dietary supplements. Analysis of model fit indicated that both the PM model and the OPM model adequately represented the structural relationships between the cognitive variables and intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Further evaluation of relative fit of the two competing models suggested that the PM model might provide a better representation of decision-making following evaluation of the health threat of n-3 PUFA deficiency. Path analysis indicated that the component of coping appraisal was significantly associated with the behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA. Threat appraisal was found to be significantly associated with behavioral intention to consume n-3 PUFA only for the OPM model. Overall, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the roles that cognitive appraisal processes play in young and healthy individuals' protective health decision-making regarding consumption of n-3 PUFA. Implications of the findings and recommendations, which include (a) encouraging the consumption of n-3 PUFA as an effective barrier against the incidence of disease, and (b) effective health messaging that focuses on beliefs about the effectiveness of n-3 PUFA in reducing health risks, are discussed.

  7. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    At least judged by its outcome, it seems that consumers in the rich parts of the world make less of an effort at changing their lifestyle in a sustainable direction than is desired by society and than is in their own collective long-term interest. Part of the explanations is that individual......'s striving for sustainability. The relevant external conditions are an extremely diverse set of factors, perhaps their only commonality being that, unless making an organized effort, consumers can do nothing about them. Because external conditions influence all or many consumers, making them more...... facilitating for sustainable consumption can be much more effective than anything an individual consumer can do. Many of the external constraints facing consumers who want to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle are of a relative nature and their impact depends on the individual's resources. For instance...

  8. Consumer opinion on social policy approaches to promoting positive body image: Airbrushed media images and disclaimer labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskeva, Nicole; Lewis-Smith, Helena; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2017-02-01

    Disclaimer labels on airbrushed media images have generated political attention and advocacy as a social policy approach to promoting positive body image. Experimental research suggests that labelling is ineffective and consumers' viewpoints have been overlooked. A mixed-method study explored British consumers' ( N = 1555, aged 11-78 years) opinions on body image and social policy approaches. Thematic analysis indicated scepticism about the effectiveness of labelling images. Quantitatively, adults, although not adolescents, reported that labelling was unlikely to improve body image. Appearance diversity in media and reorienting social norms from appearance to function and health were perceived as effective strategies. Social policy and research implications are discussed.

  9. A Survey of Sun Protection Policy and Education in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Buller, Mary Klein; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2006-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued recommendations for school programs to reduce skin cancer. Objective Personnel at U.S. secondary schools were surveyed to describe sun protection policy and education prior to these recommendations. Methods School principals or other personnel at 484 secondary schools in 27 cities responded to a telephone survey in January and February 2002 (response rate = 31%). Results A sun protection policy was reported at 10% of the schools but sun protection education occurred at nearly all schools (96%). Policies were more prevalent in regions with high ultraviolet radiation (pprotection was a low policy priority for U.S. schools. Sun safety education was prevalent but written materials were used infrequently. A substantial proportion of school personnel were receptive to the CDC’s advice. PMID:16488293

  10. Social Protection as Development Policy: A New International Agenda for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Merrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium, social protection became a new priority for both states of the global South and international development policy more generally. As, in the past, social protection policies were considered unsuitable for development countries, the elevation of social protection to the level of a preferred instrument of development marks a fundamental paradigm shift. This shift began in the late 1990s, driven by disenchantment with the results of economic adjustment programmes, the 1997 Asian economic crisis, and a heightened awareness of the negative effects of global poverty. Social protection thus became a preferred instrument of the Millennium Development Goals, while the World Bank promoted social protection as a key component of international poverty reduction strategies (social risk management. The Department for International Development (DfID in the United Kingdom, along with other organisations, promoted a development model centred on the rights of the poor. Successful social protection programmes developed in the Global South – such as Brazilian and South African social pension schemes and conditional cash transfers (CCT established in Mexico and Brazil – were adopted as model programmes at the global level. The purpose of this article is to analyse the emergence of social protection in development policies. From this perspective, it examines the various types of programmes promoted by the international community, with a specific focus on CCT. It concludes with an assessment of the relative appropriateness of social protection policies for developing countries.

  11. Awareness of Consumer Protection Act among Doctors in Udaipur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K; Shetty, S; Bhat, N; Sharda, A; Agrawal, A; Chaudhary, H

    2010-01-01

    To compare the awareness of provisions of consumer protection act among dental and medical professionals in Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India. In a cross sectional study, a total of 448 professionals (253 males, 195 females) belonging to dental (222) and medical (226) categories were surveyed using a self administered structured questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of 22 questions about the awareness of consumer protection art (CPA) and whether these professionals were following the recommendations of CPA. The student's t-test, ANOVA test, and Scheffe's test were used as tests of significance. The awareness scores were significantly higher for medical professionals compared with those of dental professionals. Similarly, postgraduates showed more awareness in both the professions and it was found that private practitioners significantly have more awareness than the academic sector. Though medical professionals have more awareness of CPA compared to dental professionals, considering the present scenario, better knowledge of CPA is necessary for both professionals in order to be on the safer side.

  12. Switch on the competition. Causes, consequences and policy implications of consumer switching costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomp, M.; Shestalova, V.; Rangel, L.

    2005-09-01

    The success or failure of reforms aimed at liberalising markets depends to an important degree on consumer behaviour. If consumers do not base their choices on differences in prices and quality, competition between firms may be weak and the benefits of liberalisation to consumers may be small. One possible reason why consumers may respond only weakly to differences in price and quality is high costs of switching to another firm. This report presents a framework for analysing markets with switching costs and applies the framework in two empirical case studies. The first case study analyses the residential energy market, the second focuses on the market for social health insurance. In both markets, there are indications that switching costs are substantial. The report discusses policy options for reducing switching costs and for alleviating the consequences of switching costs

  13. Switch on the competition. Causes, consequences and policy implications of consumer switching costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomp, M.; Shestalova, V.; Rangel, L.

    2005-09-15

    The success or failure of reforms aimed at liberalising markets depends to an important degree on consumer behaviour. If consumers do not base their choices on differences in prices and quality, competition between firms may be weak and the benefits of liberalisation to consumers may be small. One possible reason why consumers may respond only weakly to differences in price and quality is high costs of switching to another firm. This report presents a framework for analysing markets with switching costs and applies the framework in two empirical case studies. The first case study analyses the residential energy market, the second focuses on the market for social health insurance. In both markets, there are indications that switching costs are substantial. The report discusses policy options for reducing switching costs and for alleviating the consequences of switching costs.

  14. 77 FR 25371 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Released Rates Order. FMCSA redesignates old paragraphs (g) and (h) as new paragraphs (h) and (i... CFR Part 375 Advertising, Arbitration, Consumer protection, Freight, Highways and roads, Insurance...

  15. Convergence of service, policy, and science toward consumer-driven mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher D; Manderscheid, Ronald W; Daniels, Allen S; Compagni, Amelia

    2006-12-01

    A common theme is emerging in sentinel reports on the United States health care system. Consumer relevance and demands on service systems and practices are influencing how mental health care is delivered and how systems will be shaped in the future. The present report seeks to assemble a confluence of consumer-driven themes from noteworthy reports on the state of the mental health system in the U.S. It also explores innovative efforts, promising practices, collaborative efforts, as well as identification of barriers to consumer-directed care, with possible solutions. The report reviews the relevant public mental health policy and data used in published work. The findings indicate an increasing public and private interest in promoting consumer-driven care, even though historical systems of care predominate, and often create, barriers to wide-spread redesign of a consumer-centered mental health care system. Innovative consumer-driven practices are increasing as quality, choice, and self-determination become integral parts of a redesigned U.S. mental health care system. The use of consumer-driven approaches in mental health is limited at best. These programs challenge industry norms and traditional practices. Limitations include the need for additional and thorough evaluations of effectiveness (cost and clinical) and replicability of consumer-directed programs. Consumer-driven services indicate that mental health consumers are expecting to be more participative in their mental health care. This expectation will influence how traditional mental health services and providers become more consumer-centric and meet the demand. Public and private interest in consumer-driven health care range from creating cost-conscious consumers to individualized control of recovery. The health care sector should seek to invest more resources in the provision of consumer-driven health care programs. The results of this study have implications and are informative for other countries where

  16. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  17. Environmetal protection within the law relating to regional policy. Anchoring the climatic protection und the protection of biodiversity within the law relating to regional policy; Umweltschutz im Planungsrecht. Die Verankerung des Klimaschutzes und des Schutzes der biologischen Vielfalt im raumbezogenen Planungsrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Gerold; Albrecht, Juliane [Leibniz-Institut fuer oekologische Raumentwicklung e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The report is concerned with the anchoring of the climate protection within the law relating to regional policy. The report covers the following topics: (1) Fundamentals of planning policy: the regional planning legislation, municipal planning authority, constitutional provisos, environmental protection as constitutional principle; (2) climate protection laws: legal instruments; legal planning relevance of climate protection instruments deficiencies and protective effect; (3) biodiversity protection: laws concerning biodiversity, legal planning relevance of biodiversity protection instruments: deficiencies and protective effects.

  18. Federal Republic of Nigeria Diagnostic Review of Financial Consumer Protection : Key Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    While only 44 percent of adults in Nigeria have an account at a formal financial institution, and only 2.5 percent have a mobile account, there are rapid innovations in both traditional and digital financial services that promote financial inclusion but also add complexity and risks for inexperienced consumers. Strengthening financial consumer protection (FCP) in Nigeria is therefore criti...

  19. Climate protection policy. On Germany's pioneer role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuebler, Knut

    2014-01-01

    After a downward trend of many years Germany's energy-related CO 2 emissions have risen again slightly over the past two years. This increase has prompted the federal government to initiate a new climate protection action campaign. After almost 30 years of experience in the field of climate protection policy there is every reason for Germany to be more consistent in using its political scope to act on the unrestrained increase in global greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Radiological protection of the environment: the path forward to a new policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. During the revision process, particular attention is being given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment in addition to that of human beings. In order to support the ongoing discussions of the international community of radiological protection experts, these proceedings try to answer the questions: Is there an international rationale behind the wish to protect the environment from radiation? Do we have enough scientific information to develop and define a broadly accepted policy? What are the socio-political dynamics, beyond science, that will influence policy on radiological protection of the environment? What are the characteristics of the process for developing a system of radiological protection of the environment? These proceedings comprise the views of a broad range of invited speakers, including policy makers, regulators, radiological protection and environmental protection professionals, industry, social scientists and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations. (author)

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Consumer Protection, Considering the Globalisation and Technological Changes, within Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Viorel Braşoveanu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent globalization and technological changes have produced significant changes in consumption patterns, shopping online becoming increasingly more important. Under these conditions, in this article we analyze the most important issues relating to the level and quality of consumer protection in the European Union countries for the period 2008-2012 . In this article we aimed to analyze the most important issues related to the level and quality of consumer protection in European Union 27 countries in the period 2008-2012. For this scope, we have chosen the most important five consumer indicators, which are the components of the Consumer Conditions Index, which provide information on both the level and the quality of consumer protection: the protection perceived by consumers (feeling protected as a consumer, illicit commercial practices, the product safety, the consumer complaints, and the redress measures. Initial data were collected from the European Commission for each Member State of the European Union 27, for the last five years, from 2008 to 2012. We have used statistical and econometric methods. For the year 2012, using the selected indicators, we have presented the descriptive statistics in order to observe their caracteristics, we have analysed the correlation matrix and we have determined the structure of four clusters, which reveals common features of countries in each cluster. In order to capture the impact of the variables illegal commercial practices and redress measures on the dependent variable protection perceived by the consumers, we have realized panel regressions with cross-section fixed effects, using data for the period 2008-2012. Also for this period, comparative statistical analyzes were performed (average, minimum, maximum, trend between Member States. The results reflect the correlations between the analyzed indicators during the period 2008-2012, and a comprehensive scan of how these indicators developed in territorial

  2. Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations: Rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parag, Yael; Darby, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The UK residential (household) sector is responsible for approximately 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions and is often seen as the most promising in terms of early reductions. As most direct household emissions come from only two fuel sources, this paper critically examines how existing emissions reduction policies for the sector shape - and are shaped by - relations between the three main groups of actor in this policy domain: central government, gas and electricity suppliers, and energy users. Focusing on relations between three dyads (government-suppliers, suppliers-consumers and consumers-government) enables us to examine aspects of demand reduction that have often been overlooked to date. By 'relations' we refer to services, power relationships and flows of capital and information, as well as less easily defined elements such as loyalty, trust and accountability. The paper argues that the chosen government policy path to deliver demand reduction, which heavily emphasises the suppliers' role, suffers from principal-agent problems, fails to align consumers and supplier interests toward emissions reduction, and does not yet portray a lower-carbon future in positive terms. It suggests that more attention should be paid to government-consumer relations, recognising that energy consumers are also citizens.

  3. Public policies, private choices: Consumer desire and the practice of energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deumling, Reuben Alexander

    Refrigerator energy consumption has been the subject of regulatory attention in the US for some thirty years. Federal product standards, energy labels, and a variety of programs to get consumers to discard their existing refrigerators sooner and buy new, more energy efficient ones have transformed the refrigerator landscape and changed how many of us think about refrigerators. The results of these policies are celebrated as a successful model for how to combine regulatory objectives and consumer preferences in pursuit of environmental outcomes where everyone wins. Yet per capita refrigerator energy consumption today remains (much) higher in the US than anywhere else, in part because energy efficiency overlooks the ways behavior, habit, emulation, social norms, advertising, and energy efficiency policies themselves shape energy consumption patterns. To understand these dynamics I investigate how people replacing their refrigerators through a state-sponsored energy efficiency program make sense of the choices facing them, and how various types of information designed to aid in this process (Consumer Reports tests, Energy Guide labels, rebate programs) frame the issue of responsible refrigerator consumption. Using interviews and archival research I examine how this information is used to script the choice of a refrigerator, whose priorities shape the form and content of these cues, and what the social meanings generated by and through encounters with refrigerators and energy efficiency are. I also helped build a model for estimating historic refrigerator energy consumption in the US, to measure the repercussions of refrigerator energy inefficiency. My focus in this dissertation is on the ways the pursuit of energy efficiency improvements for domestic refrigerators intersects with and sometimes reinforces escalating demand for energy. My research suggests that the practice of pursuing energy efficiency improvements in refrigerators subordinates the issue of

  4. The Misunderstood Problem of Consumer Protection in Japan: The Roles of Lawyers and the Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Michael Peter

    1995-01-01

    Introduces the role of law and government in consumer protection in Japan. Suggests that recognition of cultural differences between U.S. and Japanese societies can provide insights that will stimulate the U.S. consumer movement to confront the anticonsumer structures in Japan while respecting their internal values. (Author/JOW)

  5. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1990's, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) launched a process for establishing new recommendations, which are expected to serve as guidelines for national systems of radiological protection. Currently the ICRP's proposed recommendations are being subjected to extensive stakeholder comment and modifications. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been actively involved in this process. Part of the Committee's work has been to undertake collaborative efforts with the ICRP through, for example, the organisation of broad stakeholder fora. The first of these, held in Taormina, Italy in 2002, focused on the development of a policy basis for the radiological protection of the environment. The second forum, held in Lanzarote, Spain in April 2003, addressed the latest concepts and approaches in the ICRP proposed recommendations for a system of radiological protection. During this meeting, the ICRP listened to the views of various stakeholder groups, including radiological protection regulators, environmental protection ministries, the nuclear power industry and NGOs. As a result, the ICRP modified its proposals to better reflect stakeholder needs and wishes. This report presents the outcomes of the discussions, examining what the ICRP proposed and how its proposals have been affected and modified as a result of stakeholder input. (author)

  6. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  7. Researching the Gap between Foodstuff’s Attractiveness and Real Nutritional Profile – Prerequisite for Strengthening Nutrition Education and Consumer Rights Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristian Onete

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumer`s health protection has become a major concern of global public policies, given that overweight and obesity have alarmingly increased, particularly among children and teens. The paper addresses one of the current problems caused by globalization, namely the obvious tendency of young people to choose food products based on organoleptic features and to disregard nutritional quality, with negative consequences on health. An exploratory marketing research was conducted among students for identifying the perceived importance of the sensorial dimension of food products and understanding key dimensions of buying decision process among youth. SAIN–LIM method was used to determine the nutritional profile of foodstuffs with special organoleptic features. Research results clearly show that in industrial foodstuff there is a gap between product attractiveness, which is based on exceptional sensorial properties, perceived by young consumers and real nutritional value of foods, which frequently translates into unbalanced nutritional profiles. To have a balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle, young consumers need to be informed that a tasty and good looking foodstuff is not necessarily healthy. Youth need to be properly educated in order to understand the close relationship between diet, weight and health and to develop a responsible food consumption behavior.

  8. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  9. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  10. 78 FR 1306 - Transition Period Under Section 716 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the Currency [Docket ID OCC-2013-0001] Transition Period Under Section 716 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act AGENCY... Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) prohibits providing Federal...

  11. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  12. Economic growth and mortality: do social protection policies matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Usama; Cooper, Richard; Abreu, Francis; Nau, Claudia; Franco, Manuel; Glass, Thomas A

    2017-08-01

    In the 20th century, periods of macroeconomic growth have been associated with increases in population mortality. Factors that cause or mitigate this association are not well understood. Evidence suggests that social policy may buffer the deleterious impact of economic growth. We sought to explore associations between changing unemployment (as a proxy for economic change) and trends in mortality over 30 years in the context of varying social protection expenditures. We model change in all-cause mortality in 21 OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries from 1980 to 2010. Data from the Comparative Welfare States Data Set and the WHO Mortality Database were used. A decrease in the unemployment rate was used as a proxy for economic growth and age-adjusted mortality rates as the outcome. Social protection expenditure was measured as percentage of gross domestic product expended. A 1% decrease in unemployment (i.e. the proxy for economic growth) was associated with a 0.24% increase in the overall mortality rate (95% confidence interval: 0.07;0.42) in countries with no changes in social protection. Reductions in social protection expenditure strengthened this association between unemployment and mortality. The magnitude of the association was diminished over time. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that social protection policies that accompany economic growth can mitigate its potential deleterious effects on health. Further research should identify specific policies that are most effective. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  13. Drilling through Conservation Policy: Oil Exploration in Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina A MacKenzie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2.5 billion barrels of commercially-viable oil, worth $2 billion in annual revenue for 20 years, were discovered under the Ugandan portion of the Albertine Rift in 2006. The region also contains seven of Uganda's protected areas and a growing ecotourism industry. We conducted interviews and focus groups in and around Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda's largest, oldest, and most visited protected area, to assess the interaction of oil exploration with the three primary conservation policies employed by Uganda Wildlife Authority: protectionism, neoliberal capital accumulation, and community-based conservation. We find that oil extraction is legally permitted inside protected areas in Uganda, like many other African countries, and that the wildlife authority and oil companies are adapting to co-exist inside a protected area. Our primary argument is that neoliberal capital accumulation as a conservation policy actually makes protected areas more vulnerable to industrial exploitation because nature is commodified, allowing economic value and profitability of land uses to determine how nature is exploited. Our secondary argument is that the conditional nature of protected area access inherent within the protectionist policy permits oil extraction within Murchison Falls Protected Area. Finally, we argue that community-based conservation, as operationalized in Uganda, has no role in defending protected areas against oil industrialisation.

  14. Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations. Rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parag, Yael; Darby, Sarah [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OUCE, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The UK residential (household) sector is responsible for approximately 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions and is often seen as the most promising in terms of early reductions. As most direct household emissions come from only two fuel sources, this paper critically examines how existing emissions reduction policies for the sector shape - and are shaped by - relations between the three main groups of actor in this policy domain: central government, gas and electricity suppliers, and energy users. Focusing on relations between three dyads (government-suppliers, suppliers-consumers and consumers-government) enables us to examine aspects of demand reduction that have often been overlooked to date. By 'relations' we refer to services, power relationships and flows of capital and information, as well as less easily defined elements such as loyalty, trust and accountability. The paper argues that the chosen government policy path to deliver demand reduction, which heavily emphasises the suppliers' role, suffers from principal-agent problems, fails to align consumers and supplier interests toward emissions reduction, and does not yet portray a lower-carbon future in positive terms. It suggests that more attention should be paid to government-consumer relations, recognising that energy consumers are also citizens. (author)

  15. Consumer-supplier-government triangular relations: Rethinking the UK policy path for carbon emissions reduction from the UK residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parag, Yael [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OUCE, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: yael.parag@ouce.ox.ac.uk; Darby, Sarah [Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, OUCE, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    The UK residential (household) sector is responsible for approximately 30% of total carbon dioxide emissions and is often seen as the most promising in terms of early reductions. As most direct household emissions come from only two fuel sources, this paper critically examines how existing emissions reduction policies for the sector shape - and are shaped by - relations between the three main groups of actor in this policy domain: central government, gas and electricity suppliers, and energy users. Focusing on relations between three dyads (government-suppliers, suppliers-consumers and consumers-government) enables us to examine aspects of demand reduction that have often been overlooked to date. By 'relations' we refer to services, power relationships and flows of capital and information, as well as less easily defined elements such as loyalty, trust and accountability. The paper argues that the chosen government policy path to deliver demand reduction, which heavily emphasises the suppliers' role, suffers from principal-agent problems, fails to align consumers and supplier interests toward emissions reduction, and does not yet portray a lower-carbon future in positive terms. It suggests that more attention should be paid to government-consumer relations, recognising that energy consumers are also citizens.

  16. When health policy and empirical evidence collide: the case of cigarette package warning labels and economic consumer surplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V; Brown, Paul; Glantz, Stanton A

    2014-02-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost "pleasure" smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost "consumer surplus." Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health.

  17. The legal aspects of fetal protection policies in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, D.E.; Scott, E.K.

    1991-01-01

    The concerns of working women have received increasing attention from lawmakers, employers and women themselves as more and more American women enter the workforce. Fetal protection policies evidence a growing awareness by employers that their workplace poses special hazards to the unborn children of women workers. Yet, the fetal protection area is fraught with tension between legitimate competing concerns. Women expect equal employment opportunities, and employers are legally bound to provide equal treatment; however, these interests are challenged by women's desire to deliver healthy babies and employers' desire to avoid causing fetal defects or to be sued for naturally occurring genetic defects. Title 7 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and various state laws on fair employment practice embodies societal concerns for fairness in employment as it relates to fetal protection. Fetal protection policies are one example in which discriminatory practices are implicated since under such policies employers may refuse to hire or segregate previously hired pregnant women or women of child bearing age on the grounds that such exclusion or segregation is necessary to protect fetal health or the reproductive capacity of the female employee. A dilemma is presented to the employer of any nuclear workforce which includes women since the permissible dose for a man or woman is many times larger than the dose for a fetus

  18. Celebration of 40 Years of the Journal of Consumer Policy and What the Next 40 Might Look Like

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathios, Alan; Micklitz, Hans-W.; Reisch, Lucia A.

    2017-01-01

    on the consumer in the marketplace. In its early years, it became clear that the interplay of research in the social sciences and the study of law would lead to significant insights that could shape consumer well-being and be a guide to those that develop regulations, laws, and policy to serve the consumer...

  19. A Case Against First Amendment Protections for Commercial Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Kent R.

    Although extending constitutional protection to commercial expression might benefit the consumer, the First Amendment is the wrong instrument for carrying out what are basically economic policies. While in most First Amendment cases the nature of the content determines whether it is constitutionally protected, advertising is distinct in that it…

  20. Do green tech policies need to pass the consumer test? The case of ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a question sometimes overlooked by policymakers and regulators, namely the need of a robust value proposition for green technologies to successfully enter the market. In particular, results from consumer choice models are used to develop measures of consumer acceptance of ethanol blends and flex-fuel vehicles is studied, a fuel-vehicle system that has received attention in a variety of federal and state policies. The analysis suggests that, under projected fuel prices and given the characteristics of the competing vehicle-fuel systems, consumers are unlikely to substitute ethanol blends for gasoline. The analysis also highlights the need for further research in this area. (author)

  1. 76 FR 43237 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... have a choice of health plans to fit their needs. Exchanges will give individuals and small businesses... Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Program... implement the Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) program, which provides loans to foster the...

  2. 互联网金融消费者权益保护问题研究%The Research on Internet Financial Consumer Rights and Interests Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锋

    2015-01-01

    如何在支持互联网金融创新发展的同时,有效保护互联网金融消费者的合法权益,是一个亟待研究的重要课题。本文在总结互联网金融概念、模式的基础上,深入分析了互联网金融消费者权益受侵害的表现形式和当前互联网金融消费者权益保护面临的困境,提出了完善互联网金融消费者权益保护的政策建议。%It is an important subject to be studied how to support the development of Internet financial innovation, and at the same time, protect the lawful rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers effectively. The paper, on the basis of summarizing the concept and mode of the Internet finance, deeply analyzes the forms of the infraction of the Internet financial consumers’ rights and interests and the current plight of the Internet financial consumers' rights and interests protection. Finally, the paper proposes the policy suggestions on perfecting the protection of the rights and interests of the Internet financial consumers.

  3. The Essences of Halal Labeling of the Consumer Protection within Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijrah Lahaling

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Halal labeling is not simply a means of meeting the bodily needs. Simultaneously, it serves to satisfy the spiritual needs. Both Halal and haram foods are easy to identify when still in its fresh state. But as it underwent processing, it might be difficult to determine its halal status. The objectives of this paper are to determine the aspects of legal protection available for the consumers to be able to conveniently trade any food product they desired, to illustrate the MUI Authority as the competent authority with sole power to issue a fatwa to decide halal or haram status of food products around Indonesia; and finally to identify the extent of control held by the Government, LPKSM, and society as the parties playing important roles in monitoring the products or goods on the market. The results showed that the legal protection for the consumers remains weak. Furthermore, there is no maximum supervision carried out by the government, LPKSM, or through society. The presence of JPH Law No. 33 of 2014 still incites polemic, one of which related to the monopoly of authority by MUI.

  4. When Health Policy and Empirical Evidence Collide: The Case of Cigarette Package Warning Labels and Economic Consumer Surplus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Anna V.; Brown, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In its graphic warning label regulations on cigarette packages, the Food and Drug Administration severely discounts the benefits of reduced smoking because of the lost “pleasure” smokers experience when they stop smoking; this is quantified as lost “consumer surplus.” Consumer surplus is grounded in rational choice theory. However, empirical evidence from psychological cognitive science and behavioral economics demonstrates that the assumptions of rational choice are inconsistent with complex multidimensional decisions, particularly smoking. Rational choice does not account for the roles of emotions, misperceptions, optimistic bias, regret, and cognitive inefficiency that are germane to smoking, particularly because most smokers begin smoking in their youth. Continued application of a consumer surplus discount will undermine sensible policies to reduce tobacco use and other policies to promote public health. PMID:24328661

  5. The Influence of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller's common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the ...

  6. The role of advisory organizations in ionizing radiation protection science and policy: A proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossman, Kenneth L.

    2003-01-01

    Funding for radiation protection science and policy has been in decline for more than a decade. Agencies that set policies and standards for radiation protection depend on external expert groups for advice, and unless the funding situation is stabilized, the ability of these advisory organizations to provide timely advice will be compromised. This paper examines the history of radiation protection policy in the United States, reviews the funding patterns of international and national radiation protection advisory bodies, and suggests recommendations for assuring that radiological and radiation protection science remains an important part of the nation's public health policy agenda. Five major advisory organizations are the focus of this paper--ICRP, ICRU, NCRP, National Research Council BEIR Committees, and UNSCEAR. The recommendations developed in this paper address the following issues: (1) the need to coordinate activities among national and international advisory bodies in order to minimize overlap of work scope and ensure comprehensive coverage of major radiation protection issues; (2) the need to reevaluate activities and operations of advisory groups in the context of an ever-changing radiation protection landscape; and (3) the need to establish the NCRP as the major federal advisory organization for radiation protection in the United States and to stabilize funding through Congressional appropriations

  7. THE PROTECTION OF CONSUMER RIGHTS FOR AVIATION SAFETY AND SECURITY IN INDONESIA AND MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Annalisa Yahanan; Febrian Febrian; Rohani Abdul Rahim

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safet...

  8. The Protection of Consumer Rights for Aviation Safety and Security in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Yahanan, Annalisa; Febrian, Febrian; Rahim, Rohani Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia and Malaysia have a good potency for cooperation in aviation industry. It can be seen in the establishing two aviation companies namely PT. Indonesia Air Asia and Malindo which both are low-cost carrier. These aviation industries are categorized as low-cost carrier, however safety and security are absolute factors because these are rights for consumers. This article will describe further about safety and security standard; protecting the rights for consumers in connection with safet...

  9. Unscientific health practice and disciplinary and consumer protection litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based health care is expected of their practitioners by contemporary health professions. This requires health care to have a foundation in scholarly literature and to have a scientifically valid methodology. However, there are many instances of registered and unregistered practitioners either providing assessment and treatment that does not conform to such requirements or making representations about likely efficacy that are unjustifiable by reference to peer-reviewed clinical knowledge. Sometimes such conduct is predatory and deliberately exploitative; other times it is simply misconceived on the part of practitioners who regard themselves as medical pioneers. This editorial situates such conduct within unscientific and unorthodox health practice. It surveys recent consumer protection and disciplinary decisions to evaluate the role of the law in regulating such conduct. It argues in favour of an assertive legal response to protect vulnerable patients or potential patients against forms of treatment and promises of outcomes that are unscientific and deceptive.

  10. The relationship between sun protection policies and practices in schools with primary-age students: the role of school demographics, policy comprehensiveness and SunSmart membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dono, J; Ettridge, K A; Sharplin, G R; Wilson, C J

    2014-02-01

    Schools can implement evidence-based sun protection policies that guide practices to help protect children from harmful sun exposure. This national study assessed the relationship between the existence and comprehensiveness of written policies and the comprehensiveness of sun protection practices. The impact of school demographics on the strength of the relationship was also examined, as was the possibility that 'SunSmart' membership would have an additional impact on practices, beyond having any formal policy. In 2011-12, staff members of 1573 schools catering to primary-age students completed a self-administered survey about sun protection policies and practices (response rate of 57%). Results showed that schools with a written policy had more comprehensive practices than schools without a written policy. The relationship between having a written policy and sun protection practices was stronger for remote schools compared with metropolitan and regional schools, and for schools catering to both primary and secondary students compared with primary students only. In addition, policy comprehensiveness was associated with practice comprehensiveness, and SunSmart membership was indirectly related to practice comprehensiveness via policy comprehensiveness. These results indicate that written policies relate to practice comprehensiveness, but the strength of the association can vary according to the characteristics of the organization.

  11. The Report of the Second National Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education. Report No. 64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    The second National Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education was a series of seminars on specific issues. The topics under discussion were (1) protecting the student financial interest; (2) student information needs and systems; (3) postsecondary education institutional responses; (4) regulations and safeguards; and (5) full…

  12. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 [3084-AB15] Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule) AGENCY: Federal Trade...'') in 1979,\\1\\ pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA).\\2\\ The Rule requires...

  13. A three-dimensional model of residential energy consumer archetypes for local energy policy design in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Siebers, Peer-Olaf; Aickelin, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews major studies in three traditional lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, i.e., economic/infrastructure, behaviour, and load profiling. Based on the review the paper proposes a three-dimensional model for archetyping residential energy consumers in the UK by considering property energy efficiency levels, the greenness of household behaviour of using energy, and the duration of property daytime occupancy. With the proposed model, eight archetypes of residential energy consumers in the UK have been identified. They are: pioneer greens, follower greens, concerned greens, home stayers, unconscientious wasters, regular wasters, daytime wasters, and disengaged wasters. Using a case study, these archetypes of residential energy consumers demonstrate the robustness of the 3-D model in aiding local energy policy/intervention design in the UK. - Highlights: ► This paper reviews the three traditional lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK. ► Based on the literature review, the paper proposes a 3-D conceptual model for archetyping UK residential energy consumers. ► The 3-D archetype model can aid local energy policy/intervention design in the UK.

  14. Poison politics: a contentious history of consumer protection against dangerous household chemicals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marian Moser; Benrubi, Isidore Daniel

    2013-05-01

    The history of consumer protection against household poisons presents a key case study of the uniquely American struggle to balance public health and safety with the interests of business. By the late 19th century, package designs, warning labels, and state statutes had formed an uneven patchwork of protective mechanisms against accidental poisonings. As household chemicals proliferated in the early 20th century, physicians concerned with childhood poisonings pressured the federal government to enact legislation mandating warning labels on packaging for these substances. Manufacturers of household chemicals agreed to labeling requirements for caustic poisons but resisted broader regulation. Accidental poisonings of children continued to increase until the enactment of broad labeling and packaging legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. This history suggests that voluntary agreements between government agencies and manufacturers are inadequate to protect consumers against household poisonings and that, in the United States, protective household chemical regulation proceeds in a reactive rather than a precautionary manner.

  15. CONSUMER PROTECTION: Federal Actions Are Needed to Improve Oversight of the Household Goods Moving Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... The Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999 directed that we assess the effectiveness of the Department of Transportation s consumer protection activities for the interstate household goods...

  16. Report on Workshop 'Radiation protection of the 'consumer' of medical irradiation applications'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geus, W.W.A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Main division Radioactivity and Applications of Radiation of the Dutch Department of Welfare, Public Health and Culture has organized a 'workshop' on the protection of the patient ( or consumer) in medical applications of radiation. The EG guideline of september 3rd 1984 'In behalf of assessment of fundamental measures with regard to radiation protection of persons who are examined or treated medically' and the advice of the National Council for Public Health brought out thereabout in april 1988, served as background of the contributions and discussions presented in this collection. (H.W.). Refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. The role of consumer protection in ensuring quality in the hotel services market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacșu Andreea Nicoleta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, tourism is an attractive sector with high potential, but unfortunately not exploited enough, so it is not yet a source of attraction for investors and foreign tourists. Most tourists are not satisfied with the quality of the hotel services in Romania and complain about it. The existence of adequate legislation on the protection of the consumer of tourist services could lead to the provision of quality services on this market and to a higher degree of tourists’ satisfaction.In the first part, this paper presents the public organizations dealing with the protection of the consumer on the hotel services market in Romania. The second part of the paper analyzes the quality of hotel services in Romania from the tourists’ point of view. In this respect, the author made a quantitative marketing research. The results featured the opinions and attitudes of tourists regarding the quality of hotel services in Romania.

  18. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  19. The capacity of the consumer to process information and make informed choices in the digital internal market (Deliverable 5.4)

    OpenAIRE

    Sybe de Vries; Marie-Pierre Granger; Silvia Adamo; Andrea Bianculli; Anne-Marie van den Bossche

    2016-01-01

    If we assume that market integration serves the interest of citizens in their capacity as consumers and optimizes consumer welfare, then the EU rules on free movement and competition could, according to Weatherill, be seen as a form of consumer policy.[1] Since national consumer protection law may impede free movement, which in itself is thus designed to advance the consumer interest, the European Court of Justice (hereafter: ECJ or Court), has developed its own notion of consumer interest.[2...

  20. Electro smog. Health risks, limiting values, consumer protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karus, M.; Ebert, L.; Schneider, W.; Koehnecke, W.; Loefflad, H.; Plotzke, O.; Niessen, P.

    1994-01-01

    At first, the popular book describes physical facts. All terms and units being necessary for the comprehension of electro smog are presented and referred to practice: Which electric and magnetic fields of natural and technical origin appear in everyday life? The main part of the book occupies physical effects. The current scientific state of the research is presented: Are electric and magnetic fields a physical risk factor? In the chapter 'limiting values', the valid limiting values and their conceptional and political basis are discussed. The last part of the book addresses consumer protection: How can the own load be reduced through electric and magnetic fields of electric devices and installations, computers and mobile telephones without renouncing of electric comfort. (VHE) [de

  1. CONSUMER PROTECTION: Federal Actions Are Needed to Improve Oversight of the Household Goods Moving Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The ICC Termination Act of 1995 transferred federal responsibilities for protecting consumers who move their household goods across state lines using commercial moving companies to the Department of Transportation...

  2. An Overview: Consumer Protection in Higher Education. Why? For Whom? How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Sandra L.

    The protection of the student and prospective student at the postsecondary level is examined. Twenty-five possible educational abuses and concerns, such as discriminatory refund policies and misrepresentation, identified by the Federal Interagency on Education are listed. Ten issues selected as the thrust of the first National Conference on…

  3. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: perceptions, problems, and policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy; McGuire, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has attracted a great amount of attention from policy makers, the scientific community, professional groups, and the media. Although it is unclear what the public demand is for these services, there does appear to be public interest in personal genetic risk information. As a result, many commentators have raised a variety of social, ethical, and regulatory issues associated with this emerging industry, including privacy issues, ensuring that DTC companies provide accurate information about the risks and limitations of their services, the possible adverse impact of DTC genetic testing on healthcare systems, and concern about how individuals may interpret and react to genetic risk information.

  4. 12 CFR 332.16 - Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 332.16 Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. Nothing in this part shall be construed to modify, limit, or... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of Fair Credit Reporting Act. 332.16...

  5. The efficiency cost of protective measures in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Garcia-Muros, Xaquin; Cazcarro, Ignacio; Arto, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    Despite recent achievements towards a global climate agreement, climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions remains quite heterogeneous across countries. Energy-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries in industrialized countries are concerned on stringent domestic emission pricing that puts them at a competitive disadvantage against producers of similar goods in other countries with more lenient emission regulation. This paper focuses on climate policy design in the United States of America (US) and compares the economic implications of four alternative protective measures for US EITE industries: (i) output-based rebates, (ii) exemptions from emission pricing, (iii) energy intensity standards, and (iv) carbon intensity standards. Using a large-scale computable general equilibrium model we quantify how these protective measures affect competitiveness of US EITE industries. We find that protective measures can improve common trade-related competitiveness indicators such as revealed comparative advantage or relative world trade shares but at the same time may lead to a decline in the output value for EITE industries because of negative income effects. The economy-wide cost of emission abatement under protective measures increase as compared to uniform emission pricing stand-alone such that the gains of protective measures for EITE exports may be more than compensated through losses in domestic EITE demand. - Highlights: • We assess impacts for US emission-intensive and trade-exposed (EITE) industries. • EITE impacts are quantified via competitiveness metrics and production output. • Protective measures reduce adverse competitiveness impacts but can depress output. • Output losses are due to negative income effects that reduce domestic EITE demand. • Protective measures run the risk of making US climate policy much more costly.

  6. Marginal Propensity to Consume in Hungary: The long-term versus Short-term Challenges to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Write

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study uses Hungarian quarterly data from the International Monetary Fund to estimate a distributed lag model whose coefficients allow derivation of the short-run and long-run marginal propensities to consume.  MPCs are main factors determining the consumption, investment, government spending, and export and import multipliers of the economy.  Hungary's economy has stagnated and its policy makers are exploring new ways to manage its economy.  Our model reveals that the numerical value of Hungarian short-run marginal propensity to consume (MPC is 0.4081181655 and the long-run MPC is 0.9458619.  These results are consistent with the corresponding figures in emerging and advanced economies.  These derived MPCs suggest that Hungarian economic policy makers should use fiscal instruments to bring these macroeconomic variables back to their long-term trend effectively

  7. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...

  8. Consumer energy research review. A compendium of selected studies and their implications for policy formulation and program design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, J.R.B.; McDougall, G.H.G. (comps.)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography covers studies of consumers of energy, their attitudes and patterns of consumption. Annotations are given in outline form with respect to the study's objectives, major findings, and implications for consumer energy policy and research. If the study was a survey, the location and nature of sample are given. Literature from Canada and the U.S.A. is included.

  9. NEA international peer reviews of post-accident protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has offered international peer reviews of national, high-level radioactive waste management policies and approaches. Until recently, this service had not been requested in the area of radiological protection. However, the 3. International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-3, 2005-2006) addressed post-accident consequence management for the first time in a broad, international sense, and helped generate significant national reflections in this area. In particular, in 2005 the French government began an extensive programme of post-emergency consequence management planning, resulting in a draft national policy to address such situations. The Finnish government used the INEX-3 exercise as a vehicle to discuss post-emergency consequence management with a broad group of governmental and private stakeholders, and also began to develop national policy in this area. In order to further refine national efforts, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) invited the NEA to perform in April 2011 its first international peer review in the radiological protection area focusing on its post-emergency consequence management policy under development. Finnish experts participated in this peer review team, and as a result, subsequently invited the NEA to perform an international peer review of its developing policy in this area in September 2011. These draft national policies and their international peer reviews are briefly presented in this paper. Feedback from both the French ASN and the Finnish STUK suggests that the detailed, external input provided by the international peer review teams have been extremely valuable in refining the content of the guides so that they are more clear, concise, understandable and implementable. It should be recalled that both national policy documents reviewed are far more detailed and extensive than described here. The intent of this article was not to provide a review of the national policies themselves, but rather to give an

  10. Introduction of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs in Canada: an opinion survey on regulatory policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Barer, Morris; Lexchin, Joel; Bassett, Ken L

    2005-06-01

    Canada is strongly influenced by US cross-border direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) and has held consultations to discuss introduction of DTCA since 1996. This article describes a survey of Canadian drug policy experts carried out in 2001, during one such legislative review. The survey results are compared to more recent DTCA policy developments. We recruited key informants on pharmaceutical policy to complete a faxed questionnaire that queried their opinions on DTCA information quality, effects on drug and health care use, and regulatory issues. Respondents were asked about the evidence they had used to back their opinions. Analysis was descriptive. Of 79 identified potential participants, 60 (76%) participated, 40% of whom were from federal and provincial government; 3% were private insurers; 18%, 15%, and 8% were from health professional groups, consumer groups, and patient groups, respectively; 8% and 7% were from pharmaceutical and advertising industries, respectively. Opinions were highly polarized on the effects of DTCA on drug and health care use. Advertising and pharmaceutical industry respondents were generally positive, public sector, health professional and consumer groups generally negative. Over 80% believed DTCA leads to higher private and public drug costs and more frequent physician visits. Fewer judged billboards or television to be appropriate media for DTCA than magazines or the Internet, and most believed that children and adolescents should not be targeted. Given the polarization observed within this survey, we examined how DTCA policy has evolved in Canada since 2001. The federal government has legislative authority over DTCA, but bears few of the additional costs potentially incurred through policy change. These fall to the provinces, which provide an eroding patchwork of public coverage for prescription drugs in the face of rapidly increasing costs. No new federal legislation has been tabled since 2001. However, considerable shifts in

  11. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  12. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  13. Behavioral Economics and Public Policy 102: Beyond Nudging

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bhargava; George Loewenstein

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers have recently embraced Behavioral Economics as an alternative approach which recognizes the limits and consequences of human decision-making. Early applications of BE ("nudges") produced notable successes and helped to set the stage for more aggressive applications aimed at the deeper causes of policy problems. We contend that policies that aspire to simplify products and incentives, rather than choice environments, aggressively protect consumers from behavioral exploitation, and...

  14. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  15. Advancing public health obesity policy through state attorneys general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2011-03-01

    Obesity in the United States exacts a heavy health and financial toll, requiring new approaches to address this public health crisis. State attorneys general have been underutilized in efforts to formulate and implement food and obesity policy solutions. Their authority lies at the intersection of law and public policy, creating unique opportunities unavailable to other officials and government entities. Attorneys general have a broad range of authority over matters specifically relevant to obesity and nutrition policy, including parens patriae (parent of the country) authority, protecting consumer interests, enacting and supporting rules and regulations, working together across states, engaging in consumer education, and drafting opinions and amicus briefs. Significant room exists for greater attorney general involvement in formulating and championing solutions to public health problems such as obesity.

  16. Food allergen law and the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004: falling short of true protection for food allergy sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roses, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, Congress mandated labeling of food allergens on packaged foods for the first time by passing the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act (FALCPA). FALCPA requires that manufacturers of foods containing one of the eight major allergens responsible for 90 percent of food allergies either state on the food's packaging that the food contains the allergen, or refers to the allergen by a name easily understandable by consumers in the ingredients listing. Despite this important first step in protecting consumers with food allergies, FALCPA left unregulated the use of conditional precautionary statements (e.g., "may contain [allergen]"), which many manufacturers have used as a low-cost shield to liability. Further, FALCPA applies only to packaged foods, and does not mandate listing of food allergen ingredients in restaurants. This article discusses the history of food allergen litigation in the United States, highlighting the problems plaintiffs have faced in seeking recovery for allergic reactions to a defendants' food product, and some of the practical difficulties still extant due to the lack of regulation of precautionary statements. Also presented is a review of the Massachusetts Food Allergy Awareness Act, the first state legislation requiring restaurants to take an active role in educating employees and consumers about the presence and dangers of food allergens.

  17. Does the Bush Administration's climate policy mean climate protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Odile; Perkaus, James F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyzes the two major components of the Bush Administration's climate policy, namely an emission intensity target and a technology strategy. The question is whether those components will generate net emission reductions that will contribute to the stabilization of the greenhouse gas concentration at a safe level in the long run. It comes out that the Bush Administration climate policy does not guarantee any meaningful contribution to climate protection. The lenient emission intensity target set by the Administration will most likely allow near term emissions to grow. In the long run, the Bush Administration places a big bet on future climate-friendly technological breakthroughs to cost-effectively compensate for the current and near term net emission increases. But the outcomes of those technological developments are uncertain in terms of emission reduction potential, cost, and timing. The way towards enhanced climate protection will most likely not come from the policies of the current Administration, but rather from the growing concern about the climate issue in Congress and at the state, corporate and civil society levels. These combined forces may raise the playing field at the federal level in the near future

  18. Consumer reactions to the use of EU quality labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Aachmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    The EU promotes three types of food quality labels, PDO, PGI and TSG in order to protect producers of food with special qualities and to aid consumers in their decision-making. This papers reviews published research on how these labels affect consumers. 35 studies were identified and are reviewed...... based on a hierarchy of effects framework. While results are conflicting, some overall themes emerge, suggesting that the role of these quality labels in consumer decision-making at present is still relatively low. Suggestions for research are made that would provide a better basis for evidence......-based policy formulation with regard to food quality labels....

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SUPERVISION OF PERPETRATORS OF EFFORT IN PRODUCING QUALITY PRODUCTS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CONSUMER PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Haris

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was explain how the substance of the law against the perpetrators of the oversight arrangements of effort in producing quality products contained in the legislation in the field of consumer protection, explain how the implementation of surveillance against perpetrators of effort in producing quality products, explain how the form of the application of the sanctions for the perpetrators of the attempt that violates the provisions of the legislation in making products that are not qualified. Research conducted in the framework of this dissertation outlines is of type socio-juridical, because in addition to researching the secondary legal materials in the form of regulations, manual and electronic law library, relevant research results in the field of law of particular problems in the field of consumer protection and other written materials, as well as researching various legal facts about the implementation of surveillance against perpetrators of effort in producing quality products and its implications for consumer protection This is the case, the form of the application sanctions. The results showed that 1. The substance of the law against the perpetrators of the oversight arrangements of effort in producing quality products that are found in a wide range of legislation in the field of consumer protection is basically adequate. 2. surveillance of implementation against the perpetrators of the work done by the three main pillars of supervision: the Government, communities and non-governmental Consumer Protection Agency (LPKSM is not yet effective due to still having a lot of constraints. 3. The form of the application of the sanctions for the perpetrators of the attempt that violated regulations in making a quality product, it is still better to put forward sanctions administrative compared to criminal sanctions and civil penalties.

  20. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in Consumer Attitudes toward Broad-Based and Environment-Specific Sodium Policies-SummerStyles 2012 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Erika C; Whittick, Corine; Tong, Xin; John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E

    2017-08-04

    We examined temporal changes in consumer attitudes toward broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, and school and workplace cafeterias from the 2012 and 2015 SummerStyle surveys. We used two online, national research panel surveys to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 7845 U.S. adults. Measures included self-reported agreement with broad-based actions and environment-specific policies to limit sodium in restaurants, manufactured foods, school cafeterias, workplace cafeterias, and quick-serve restaurants. Wald Chi-square tests were used to examine the difference between the two survey years and multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios. Agreement with broad-based actions to limit sodium in restaurants (45.9% agreed in 2015) and manufactured foods (56.5% agreed in 2015) did not change between 2012 and 2015. From 2012 to 2015, there was a significant increase in respondents that supported environment-specific policies to lower sodium in school cafeterias (80.0% to 84.9%; p consumers ready for actions to lower sodium in foods served in schools, workplaces, and quick-serve restaurants.

  2. An evaluation of integrated climate protection policies for the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This paper summaries an analysis of an integrated set of policies designed to reduce carbon emissions in the US during the next four decades. This policy package, which was the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, particulates, volatile organic compounds). to reduce US dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The policy package analyzed is found to reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 10% relative to 1990 levels in 2010, and by 45% relative to 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants are also significantly reduced, as are petroleum imports by the US. Moreover, the policy package yields net savings for the US, equal to 19 billion dollars on an annual levelized basis through 2010, and results in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. While the overall findings from the policy package analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance and consumer behavior. 21 refs., 18 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  4. 76 FR 78500 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 [Docket No. CFPB-2011-0026] RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim final rule... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial...

  5. Consumer protection: how much and who decides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: safety characteristics of electronic products such as color television sets and microwave ovens; impossibility of lay consumer determining frequency, severity, and probability of injury from radiation emissions; leakage of x radiation from color television sets; costs of safety standards to consumer; user habits and attitudes such as ignoring directions in instruction booklets; and consumer participation such as Consumers Union petition to amend the federal microwave standard and meetings of the technical electronic products radiation safety standards committee

  6. Individual Licensing Models and Consumer Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guibault, L.; Liu, K.-C.; Hilty, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Copyright law is not primarily directed at consumers. Their interests are therefore only marginally accounted for, as the copyright rules exempt specific uses of works from the right holder’s control. This chapter examines the impact of digital technology on the position of consumers of licensed

  7. How nutrition policy affects food and agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S R

    1994-09-01

    The impact of the improved understanding of nutrition and the importance of the diet in nutrition status has had subtle but far-reaching consequences for food and agricultural policy. Many of the changes in the food supply are in response to increased consciousness of diet, nutrition and health status. The simple connection between nutrition policy and food and agricultural policy follows from the sovereignty of the consumer. Nutrition policy influences consumers' attitudes and choices. These impact the behavior of agents in the food and production system. And, if properly designed, food and agricultural policies can accelerate the process of adapting the production and distribution systems for agriculture and food to better meet the demands of the more informed consumer. Policies that reflect the behavior of consumers and supply better information to the agents in the food and agricultural system will be the most effective.

  8. Strategic trade between two regions with partial local consumer protection - General setup and nash equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanov, Iordan V.; Vassilev, Andrey A.

    2017-12-01

    We construct a model of the trade relations between two regions for the case when the trading entities (consumers) compete for a scarce good and there is an element of strategic interdependence in the trading process. Additionally, local consumers enjoy partial protection in the form of guaranteed access to a part of the locally-supplied quantity of the good. The model is formulated for the general asymmetric case, where the two regions differ in terms of parameters such as income, size of the local market supply, degree of protection and transportation costs. For this general model we establish the existence of Nash equilibria and obtain their form as a function of the model parameters, producing a typology of the equilibria. This is a required step in order to rigorously study various types of price dynamics for the model.

  9. The ICC’s Witness Protection Measures Through the Lens of Policy-Oriented Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Kayuni, Steven William

    2015-01-01

    The protection of witnesses from intimidation or harm has become a firmly entrenched part of modern criminal justice systems. The ICC’s decisionmaking with regard to procedural and non-procedural protective measures has on one hand reinforced the integrity and success of the judicial process, while on the other, led to numerous interpretational and applicability challenges of both policy and law. This article aims at designating policy-oriented jurisprudence as a possible theoretical approach...

  10. Solving public passenger transportation problems: a need for policy reorientation. [Brokerage or consumer-oriented approach needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.W. Jr.; Oen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Public transportation has declined because policymakers and outdated regulations have restricted the evolution of transportation systems which more closely reflect the mobility and lifestyles of today. Public policy needs to take a consumer-oriented approach to public transportation by recognizing that all consumers do not have the same transportation needs and that one or two modes of transportation cannot satisfy these needs. This report argues that if public transportation is to become an efficient method of satisfying the transportation needs of a community, a brokerage or consumer-oriented approach should be adopted. The transportation broker will match specific individual needs with a broad array of transportation services, and overcome institutional, legal, and operational barriers to the development of new forms of transportation service. 51 references or footnotes.

  11. Progress and challenges associated with halal authentication of consumer packaged goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premanandh, Jagadeesan; Bin Salem, Samara

    2017-11-01

    Abusive business practices are increasingly evident in consumer packaged goods. Although consumers have the right to protect themselves against such practices, rapid urbanization and industrialization result in greater distances between producers and consumers, raising serious concerns on the supply chain. The operational complexities surrounding halal authentication pose serious challenges on the integrity of consumer packaged goods. This article attempts to address the progress and challenges associated with halal authentication. Advancement and concerns on the application of new, rapid analytical methods for halal authentication are discussed. The significance of zero tolerance policy in consumer packaged foods and its impact on analytical testing are presented. The role of halal assurance systems and their challenges are also considered. In conclusion, consensus on the establishment of one standard approach coupled with a sound traceability system and constant monitoring would certainly improve and ensure halalness of consumer packaged goods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Protection of Children in Malaysia through Foster Care Legislation and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are immature, naive and unable to care for themselves. Due to this verynature of children, they are in need of among others, care, attention andsupervision from adults. Care, attention and supervision are among the means ofcare and protection of children, which can only be acquired in a familyenvironment. One of the ways to achieve family environment is through FosterCare where a child who is in need of care and protection will be placed with afamily permanently or temporarily or until they are able to care for themselves.Foster care will at least provide for a family life experience especially for childrenwithout family or who have problems in their family life. This paper is to examinethe Concept of Foster care in Malaysia and the law relating to it as to provideprotection to children in need of care and protection. Examination will focus onrelevant legislations and policy relating to Foster Care. Discussion will extend toanalysis on whether the available laws and policies are adequate to sustainchildren protection in Malaysia through Foster Care.

  13. The inadequacy of consumer protection in the UAE: the need for reform

    OpenAIRE

    AlGhafri, Abdulla MA

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis addresses the consumer protection regime in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) against damages posed by defective industrial products, unfair business practices and misleading advertising. Nowadays, unfair and deceptive practices such as the selling of defective or sub-standard goods, the charging of exorbitant prices, misrepresentation of the efficacy or usefulness of goods, and negl...

  14. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  15. Consumer preferences for reduced packaging under economic instruments and recycling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted using a web-based survey and bidding game in contingent valuation method to evaluate consumer preferences for packaging with less material. Results revealed that people who live in a municipality implementing unit-based pricing of waste have a higher willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a product. Economic instruments can affect the purchase of products with reduced packaging because a higher disposal cost increases the attractiveness of source reduction. However, unit-based pricing combined with plastic separation for recycling reduces WTP. This result suggests that recycling policy weakens the effect of economic instruments on source reduction of waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comment on “Policy offers protection from harassment” [by Marcia McNutt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Martha H.

    Regarding “Policy Offers Protection From Harassment” (Eos, October 15, 1996), I am disturbed that the AGU has extended its harassment policy to its membership at “events that combine work and social interaction, such as the meetings, conferences, and seminars that AGU members attend.” As a woman, I have always found the so-called protections extended to females and other supposedly vulnerable groups to be intrusive and patronizing, but this policy in particular goes too far by trying to sponsor aspects of members' social behavior.I am old enough to remember the days when one responded to uncomfortable situations by drawing on one's own resources. A sense of one's inviolable self developed over time, and meaningful self-esteem derived from an ability to cope with the world. Now, cowering from jokes and recoiling from eye contact, the modern geoscientist apparently requires a patron for protection—a shining knight in the form of this new policy.

  17. Facilitating Consumer Learning in Insurance Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Schottmüller, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    We model a monopoly insurance market where consumers can learn their accident risks at a cost c. We then ask: What are the welfare effects of a policy that reduces c? If c is sufficiently small (c consumer gathers information. For c ... and consumer benefit from a policy that reduces c further. For c > c*, marginally reducing c hurts the insurer and weakly benefits the consumer. Finally, a reduction in c that is “successful,” meaning that the consumer gathers information after the reduction but not before it, can hurt both parties....

  18. Scientific-methodological approaches to designing risk-oriented model of control and surveillance activities in the sphere of consumer rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We present scientific-methodological approaches to defining risk categories of economic entities which are subject to surveillance in the sphere of consumer rights protection. Risk is suggested to be assessed as a product of violations frequency comprising violations of separate provisions of the law on consumer rights protection detected in the course of scheduled and unscheduled inspections; a number of claims per one detected violation which were satisfied by courts in favor of consumers; each separate case of harm accepted by court in money terms (as a sum of physical and moral damage to health and damage to property; and coefficient of a potential impact scope which differentiates risks for economic entities belonging to micro-, small, medium-sized and large business. Our information sources are official statistic data obtained due to realization of state control in the sphere of consumer rights protection and court practice collected in all the RF regions over 2012–2016. It is shown that a share of economic entities with extremely high risk potential which can cause total material damage to consumers in sums greater than 10 million rubles per year amounts to about 0.15 % of the total number of economic entities (both juridical persons and private entrepreneurs; economic entities with high risk potential account for about 2 %. Such groups are made of companies involved in financial markets, share construction services, insurance and tourism. About 23 % of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs can be classified as having low risk potential and they can be excluded from scheduled inspections. Economic entities structure in general corresponds to world practices. It is shown that risk-oriented surveillance model development requires improvements in keeping registers of juridical persons and private entrepreneurs as such registers should contain comprehensive information; it is necessary for correct risk category (or hazard category

  19. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  20. Environmental protection and the public within the framework of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz zur Wiesch, J.

    1978-01-01

    Environmental protection policy has - before the background of topical conflicts on the long-term securing of energy in spite of increasing consumption and limited resources - developed into a problem of the whole the Federal Republic of Germany which makes high demands on the disposing capacity of the corporations involved. Decisions on long-term energy and economic policy will have to be made without sufficient knowledge of all potential environmental crises and will have to be accounted for in the face of the population. The topics 'Energy - Environment - Public' were discussed from the different political and scientific angles within a seminar held by the Deutsches Institut fuer Urbanistik and the Bundesakademie fuer Oeffentliche Verwaltung. The topics were discussed with 28 specialists from institutions of the Bund, Laender, and communities. The proceedings include the lectures held and the contributions to a panel discussion about the future energy and environmental protection policy in Bund, Laender, and Communities as well as a summary of the final discussion. (orig.) [de

  1. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  2. What foods are identified as animal friendly by Italian consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgelina Di Pasquale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Italian market, voluntary certifications implying higher levels of animal welfare generally fall into wider production schemes. Despite of the results of EU surveys indicating that about 50% of Italian consumers can easily identify and find animal-friendly products, they still are distributed scarcely or discontinuously in the main retail chains. To assess the apparent contradiction between the intricate information consumers receive from labels and their declared awareness about animal welfare, a survey was conducted in Emilia Romagna region on 355 Italian consumers (face-to-face interviews based on a structured, semi-close-ended questionnaire. Overall, consumers showed a low degree of knowledge about animal welfare attributes, animal farming conditions and animal protection policies (about 30% of correct answers, and a low level of awareness of the effects of their purchasing choices on the welfare of farmed animals (22%. The respondents also showed difficulties in identifying animal-friendly products and often confused them with other certified foods, having sometimes a weak connection (or none at all to animal welfare (e.g., Protected Designation of Origin products. However, most consumers declared to be ready to pay a premium price in name of animal welfare. In conclusion, a labelling system for the welfare content of animal-derived foods is confirmed to be an effective strategy to compensate the efforts of farmers in improving animal welfare, provided that the information given is clear and able to fill the substantial lack of consumer knowledge.

  3. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 213 [Docket No. R-1469] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION... Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board); and Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amended the CLA by requiring that the dollar threshold for exempt consumer...

  4. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  5. Semantic Legal Policies for Data Exchange and Protection across Super-Peer Domains in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kua-Ping Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In semantic policy infrastructure, a Trusted Legal Domain (TLD, designated as a Super-Peer Domain (SPD, is a legal cage model used to circumscribe the legal virtual boundary of data disclosure and usage in the cloud. Semantic legal policies in compliance with the law are enforced at the super-peer within an SPD to enable Law-as-a-Service (LaaS for cloud service providers. In addition, cloud users could query fragmented but protected outsourcing cloud data from a law-aware super-peer, where each query is also compliant with the law. Semantic legal policies are logic-based formal policies, which are shown to be a combination of OWL-DL ontologies and stratified Datalog rules with negation, i.e., so-called non-monotonic cq-programs, for policy representation and enforcement. An agent at the super-peer is a unique law-aware guardian that provides protected data integration services for its peers within an SPD. Furthermore, agents at the super-peers specify how law-compliant legal policies are unified with each other to provide protected data exchange services across SPDs in the semantic data cloud.

  6. Climate change and protected area policy and planning in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. [Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Lemieux, C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2005-10-01

    Challenges concerning climate change for agencies involved the management of Canada's protected areas were reviewed. Most protected areas have been designed to represent specific natural features, species and ecological communities, and are the most common and most important strategy for biodiversity conservation. It remains undecided whether adaptation should be a matter of responding to climate change as it manifests, or whether initiatives should be taken in advance to anticipate the potential effects of climate change. There are growing concerns that emergency adaptation will be less effective and more costly than anticipatory or precautionary adaptation over the long-term. Species extinction could result. It was noted that the northward shift of species from the United States will meet Parks Canada's existing definition of alien species in need of management interventions. The conservation objectives of individual protected areas would also be affected by projected biome and species changes, particularly as each of Canada's national parks is responsible for protecting ecosystems representative of the natural region within which it is located. All 6 vegetation change scenarios examined in a recent study projected the eventual loss of boreal forest in the Prince Albert National Park, suggesting that the park's current mandate to protect the ecological integrity of the area would no longer be viable. An overview of the policy and planning implications of climate change for protected areas in Canada was presented using examples from national and provincial park systems. A portfolio of climate change adaptation options in conservation literature was reviewed. Recommended strategies included system planning and policy development; active, adaptive ecosystem management; research and monitoring; and capacity building and awareness. It was concluded that governments will need to make major new investments in protected area establishment, personnel

  7. Optimising Age-Replacement and Extended Non-Renewing Warranty Policies in Lifecycle Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Shaomin; Longhurst, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the life cycle cost of equipment protected by both base and extended warranty policies from a consumer's perspective. We assume that the equipment has two types of failure: minor and catastrophic. A minor failure can be corrected with minimal repair whereas a catastrophic failure can only be removed by a replacement. It is assumed that equipment is maintained at no charge to the consumer during the warranty period, whereas the consumer is fully charged for any maintenance ...

  8. The consumer in Austrian economics and the Austrian perspective on consumer policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen, A.R.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis I examined the place of the competitive-entrepreneurial consumer in Austrian economic thought. For a neoclassical economist, competition among consumers is hard to find. For an Austrian economist, however, it is a necessity. The introduction puts forward the problem that although an

  9. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  10. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    (g) a collective agreement in terms of Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act. 59 ..... "Direct marketing" means to approach a person, either in person or by ..... literacy skills and minimal experience as a consumer, to understand the contents.

  11. Board certification in professional psychology: promoting competency and consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David R

    2010-04-01

    Board certification in psychology provides an opportunity for increased assessment of and demonstration of competence in the profession. In addition to serving as a means of consumer protection, it can serve the professional psychologist by providing the opportunity for increased income, professional satisfaction, facilitated mobility, and professional development. Jurisdictional and organizational recognition of the importance of board certification is increasing. This article uses the model and experience of the American Board of Professional Psychology, with particular attention to the American Board of Clinical Neuropsychology and the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology, to illustrate these benefits. Recent developments regarding board certification are described, as well as how to become involved in the process.

  12. The System of the Geographical Indication – Important Component of the Politics of the Consumers` Protection in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the use and diffusion of the geographical indication in the European Union countries, having as objective the protection of the products’ names, which are registered as Protected Geographical Indication (PGI and Protected Designation of Origin (PDO labels. The reason for treating this theme started from the fact that the level of knowledge of the system and its symbols by the consumers is very low. In the introductory part, specification of surveyed topic is given and importance of consumer education and information is highlighted. Empirical research is based on two approaches. First, 1114 product names from DOOR database (Database for agricultural products and foodstuffs in EU countries were analysed in order to investigate the frequency of labels utilization by country and product classes, cluster analysis was applied to show the labels distribution by countries. Dominant countries in number of labels are Italy, France and Spain having registered over 50 % of all products. The most frequent product class is Fruits, vegetables and cereals for PGI and Cheeses for PDO. The second approach reflects consumer view on the issue; survey of 250 consumers in the Czech Republic was carried out with the purpose to identify awareness and perceived credibility of labels. Findings reveal a low awareness of labels, credibility of labels is influenced by their low familiarity. The main problem is lack of information. Respondents show interest in getting information regarding this topic. Quality labels have potential to communicate with consumers and facilitate their food purchases, but it is necessary to improve their promotion.

  13. The Consumer Protection Act: no-fault liability of health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbert, M Nöthling; Pepper, Michael S

    2011-11-01

    The introduction of no-fault or strict liability by the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) poses serious problems in the health care context. With a patient as a 'consumer' in terms of the CPA, health care practitioners may find themselves as 'suppliers' or 'retailers' as part of a supply chain, and potentially liable for harm and loss suffered by a patient in terms of the new no-fault liability provision. The claimant (patient) can sue anyone in the supply chain in terms of this provision, which places the health care practitioner who delivered the care in a very difficult position, as he or she is the most easily and often only identifiable person in the supply chain. Although the causal link between the harm suffered by the complainant will still need to be established on a balance of probabilities, the traditional common law obstacle requiring proof of negligence no longer applies. The article argues that this situation is unsatisfactory, as it places an increasingly onerous burden on certain health care practitioners.

  14. Towards a stakeholders' consensus on patient payment policy: the views of health-care consumers, providers, insurers and policy makers in six Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambor, Marzena; Pavlova, Milena; Golinowska, Stanisława; Sowada, Christoph; Groot, Wim

    2015-08-01

    Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. To analyse the acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire. Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. There is a rather weak consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. To build consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Litigation against dermatosurgeons and cosmetologists and consumer protection act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of beauty has acquired new dimensions due to the increasing awareness in general public about the aesthetic procedures. The problems between the patient and the cosmetologists arise when the patients expectations become very high and unrealistic. The classical concept of doctor – patient relationship born in the golden days of family physicians has undergone drastic change due to dramatic advancement in medical technology, availability of sophisticated imaging system, high tech electronics and preponderance of new diseases. However, the accountability of the doctors under the law of professional negligence has emerged as a debatable issue among the medical fraternity all over the country after the enactment of the consumer protection act, 1986, which has not only changed the law of medical negligence1, but created an inexpensive and speedy remedy against medical malpractice.

  16. 75 FR 61419 - Inquiry on Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Internet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ...The Department of Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force is conducting a comprehensive review of the relationship between the availability and protection of online copyrighted works and innovation in the Internet economy. The Department, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) seek public comment from all interested stakeholders, including rights holders, Internet service providers, and consumers on the challenges of protecting copyrighted works online and the relationship between copyright law and innovation in the Internet economy. After analyzing the comments submitted in response to this Notice, the Internet Policy Task Force intends to issue a report that will contribute to the Administration's domestic policy and international engagement in the area of online copyright protection and innovation.

  17. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  18. Indicators of Consumer Protection and Empowerment in the Digital World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorun, Christian; Vetter, Max; Reisch, Lucia A.

    The process of digitalisation has changed the lives of consumers around the world. Digitalisation makes it easier for consumers to access and process information, potentially increases choice and competition, as well as encouraging innovation. At the same time, however, consumers also face barriers...... of the digital economy: When consumers mistrust businesses, they are discouraged from using new digital products and services. Hence, growth on the supply-side of the digital market presupposes consumer trust on the demand-side of the market. As a result, governments around the world have put the task...... confidence and trust. The G20 Initiative also encourages efforts to develop better metrics, inter alia, for important policy issues like trust in the digital economy. The objective of the present study is to contribute to such a development of better metrics. It aims at testing the feasibility and making...

  19. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  20. Strengthening the radiation protection culture: a priority of EDF radiation protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcier, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In order to improve the management of radiation protection at EDF nuclear power plants, the Human Factors Group of the Research and Development Division of EDF has performed some studies on the appropriation process of the radiation protection requirements. These studies have notably shown that an efficient application of the radiation protection requirements lies on a comprehension by all workers of the meaning of these requirements. Furthermore, they should not be applied under the constraint or because of the fear of a sanction, but the workers need to perceive and understand the benefits in terms of protection associated with the radiation protection requirements. The strengthening of the radiation protection culture is therefore a key element of the radiation protection policy developed by EDF. This culture lies on an awareness of the health risks potentially associated with low levels of ionising radiations, as well as on the knowledge of tools, techniques and good practices developed to control the level of exposures and improve the radiation protection. Various type of actions have been undertaken to reinforce among the relevant players (exposed and non-exposed workers, contractors, all levels of management,... ) an awareness of radiation protection in order to integrate it in their day to day work: elaboration of a 'radiation protection system of reference' explaining how the radiation protection regulatory requirements are applied at EDF, publication of a 'radiation protection handbook' available for all workers (including contractors), training sessions, creation of networks of specialists from the various nuclear power plants on specific radiation protection issues, organisation of feed-back experience forum, etc. Beyond these specific actions, i t is also important to ensure a support and an assistance on the field by dedicated specialists. In this perspective, the health physicists have to play a key role in order to

  1. Implementation Of Conservation Policy Through The Protection Of Life Support System In The Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Nur Anisa Eka; Kismartini

    2018-02-01

    The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.

  2. Sun protection policies and practices in New Zealand primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Anthony I; Jopson, Janet A; Gray, Andrew

    2012-02-10

    For schools with primary age students, to report the percentages meeting specific requirements of the New Zealand SunSmart Schools Accreditation Programme (SSAP). Schools were randomly selected, within geographic regions, from the Ministry of Education schools database. A questionnaire, mailed to school principals, assessed schools regarding 12 criteria for accreditation: policy, information, hats, 'play in the shade', sunscreen, clothing, role modelling, curriculum, planning, rescheduling, shade provision and review. Post-stratification weights (for achieving each criterion) were used to compensate for oversampling within some regions and differential response rates between regions, using the number of schools per region. 388 schools (representative in socioeconomic decile, size and type) participated. Less than 4% fully met accreditation criteria. Clothing (42%), curriculum delivery and shade (each 54%) requirements were met by the fewest schools. Staff role modelling (92%) was the most commonly met. Schools with uniforms tended to have more protective clothing expectations. Ongoing promotion is needed to consolidate gains and encourage comprehensive sun protection through policies, practices, environment and curriculum. Staff role modelling requirements may be strengthened by implementing existing occupational guidelines for mitigating UVR hazards. There is a need to further assist schools, particularly regarding sun protective clothing, curriculum delivery and environmental shade.

  3. Unpacking the Right to plain and understandable Language in the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 came into effect on 1 April 2011. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote fairness, openness and respectable business practice between the suppliers of goods or services and the consumers of such good and services. In consumer protection legislation fairness is usually approached from two directions, namely substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. Transparency in relation to the terms of a contract relates to whether the terms of the contract terms accessible, in clear language, well-structured, and cross-referenced, with prominence being given to terms that are detrimental to the consumer or because they grant important rights. One measure in the Act aimed at addressing procedural fairness is the right to plain and understandable language. The consumer’s right to being given information in plain and understandable language, as it is expressed in section 22, is embedded under the umbrella right of information and disclosure in the Act. Section 22 requires that notices, documents or visual representations that are required in terms of the Act or other law are to be provided in plain and understandable language as well as in the prescribed form, where such a prescription exists. In the analysis of the concept “plain and understandable language” the following aspects are considered in this article: the development of plain language measures in Australia and the United Kingdom; the structure and purpose of section 22; the documents that must be in plain language; the definition of plain language; the use of official languages in consumer contracts; and plain language guidelines (based on the law of the states of Pennsylvania and Connecticut in the United States of America.

  4. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  5. Power system protection 1 principles and components

    CERN Document Server

    Association, Electricity Training

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  6. I don't think we've quite got there yet: The experience of allyship for mental health consumer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Scholz, Brett; Gordon, Sarah; Bocking, Julia; Ellis, Pete; Roper, Cath; Liggins, Jackie; Platania-Phung, Chris

    2018-06-12

    Australia and New Zealand mental health policy requires consumer participation in all aspects of mental health services. Systemic participation informs and improves the quality of mental health services. Collaboration with consumer researchers should be similarly required. Enhanced understandings of collaborations are needed. To enhance understanding of the perspectives and experiences of nonconsumer researchers in working collaboratively with consumers as researchers. This qualitative exploratory study involved interviews with non-consumer mental health researchers who have worked collaboratively with consumers in research. Interviews were conducted with participants from Australia and New Zealand. 'Allyship' emerged as a major theme. This describes non-consumer researchers playing an actively supportive role to facilitate opportunities for the development and growth of consumer research roles and activities. Seven sub-themes were identified: establishing and supporting roles, corralling resources, guiding navigation of university systems, advocacy at multiple levels, aspiring to coproduction and consumer-led research, extending connections and partnerships, and desire to do better. Allyship may have an important role to play in the broader consumer research agenda and requires further consideration. Embedding meaningful consumer participation within mental health services requires active consumer involvement in research. Allies can play an important facilitative role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Capital Mobility, Corporate Protection, and Trade Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Benjamin Carl Krag; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    Capital mobility and corporate lobbying are often emphasized as key drivers of international trade policy. Most empirical research on the topic, however, has focused on the industry level or some level of geographical aggregation. We address this gap by examining the role of firm-level capital...... it with financial data on the firms filing them – a total of roughly 1,000 companies from 25 WTO countries in the period 2005-2015. Using spatial autoregressive (SAR) models, we show that companies with less mobile assets are, on average, more likely to be successful when petitioning for trade protection...

  8. The Normative Impact of Consumer Price Expectations for Multiple Brands on Consumer Purchase Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Aradhna Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Empirical research indicates that some consumers form price expectations which may impact their purchase behavior. While literature in operations research has built purchase policy models incorporating uncertain price expectations, these models have been built for commodities. Consumers face an environment with multiple brands. In this paper, we develop a model that incorporates consumer preferences and price expectations for multiple brands as determinants of normative consumer purchase beha...

  9. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  10. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and Vulnerable Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    the economic behaviour of consumers ‘below 1 average’ even though the practice does not meet the requirements of professional diligence. The Directive’s adoption of the European Court of Justice’s ‘average consumer’ entails that protection is generally provided only for those who are far from vulnerable......Consumer protection is deeply anchored in EU law, including the Treaty and the Charter of Fundamental Rights. This article discusses the concept of consumer vulnerability and how vulnerable consumers are protected in the context of commercial practices which is fully harmonised by the Unfair....... The Directive’s Article 5(3) concerning vulnerable consumers protects only—and to a limited extent—groups who are vulnerable due to mental or physical infirmity, age or credulity. Even though consumers make many good choices, all consumers are vulnerable in certain situations—often due to time constraints...

  11. A guide for controlling consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Consumer products are considered regardless of the purpose for which the radionuclide is added. For example, the purpose may be to make use of the ionising radiation emitted by the substance in the product itself (e.g. radioluminescent devices antistatic devices and ionisation chamber smoke detectors), or to make use of some other property of the material where the presence of radiation in the final product is merely adventitious (e.g. thorium gas mantles, ceramics with uranium glazes, and products containing radioactive tracers added to facilitate manufacturing and inspection processes). The Guide does not cover some products containing natural radioactive substances which have not been intentionally added, such as building materials. The Guide does not cover medicinal products and pharmaceuticals, nuclear powered cardiac pacemakers, or electronic equipment, such as television receivers, that emit X-rays. Unlike the 1970 Guide, this Guide does not consider those products, such as EXIT signs, containing gaseous tritium light sources, that would not be supplied directly to members of the public. The Guide is concerned mainly with the exposure arising from consumer products of those persons who are not subject to any regulatory controls for purposes of radiation protection in normal circumstances. Members of the public come under this heading, but not workers involved in the manufacture of consumer products. These workers will normally be subject to separate control. Radiological protection concepts and policy for the control of radioactive consumer products and licensing and post-licensing surveillance are developed

  12. Review and challenges of policies of environmental protection and sustainable development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun-Min; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2008-09-01

    China is confronted with the dual task of developing its national economy and protecting its ecological environment. Since the 1980s, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development have experienced five changes: (1) progression from the adoption of environmental protection as a basic state policy to the adoption of sustainable development strategy; (2) changing focus from pollution control to ecological conservation equally; (3) shifting from end-of-pipe treatment to source control; (4) moving from point source treatment to regional environmental governance; and (5) a turn away from administrative management-based approaches and towards a legal means and economic instruments-based approach. Since 1992, China has set down sustainable development as a basic national strategy. However, environmental pollution and ecological degradation in China have continued to be serious problems and have inflicted great damage on the economy and quality of life. The beginning of the 21st century is a critical juncture for China's efforts towards sustaining rapid economic development, intensifying environmental protection efforts, and curbing ecological degradation. As the largest developing country, China's policies on environmental protection and sustainable development will be of primary importance not only for China, but also the world. Realizing a completely well-off society by the year 2020 is seen as a crucial task by the Chinese government and an important goal for China's economic development in the new century, however, attaining it would require a four-fold increase over China's year 2000 GDP. Therefore, speeding up economic development is a major mission during the next two decades and doing so will bring great challenges in controlling depletion of natural resources and environmental pollution. By taking a critical look at the development of Chinese environmental policy, we try to determine how best to coordinate the relationship between the

  13. The Report of the National Invitational Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education. Report No. 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This report covers the background, major issues, major recommendations, and agencies and associations represented at the National Invitational Conference on Consumer Protection in Postsecondary Education held at Denver, Colorado in June 1974. Major recommendations of the conference suggest that: (1) The states should provide by legislation or by…

  14. Big Data and Consumer Participation in Privacy Contracts: Deciding who Decides on Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Rhoen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Big data puts data protection to the test. Consumers granting permission to process their personal data are increasingly opening up their personal lives, thanks to the “datafication” of everyday life, indefinite data retention and the increasing sophistication of algorithms for analysis.The privacy implications of big data call for serious consideration of consumers’ opportunities to participate in decision-making processes about their contracts. If these opportunities are insufficient, the resulting rules may represent special interests rather than consumers’ needs. This may undermine the legitimacy of big data applications.This article argues that providing sufficient consumer participation in privacy matters requires choosing the best available decision making mechanism. Is a consumer to negotiate his own privacy terms in the market, will lawmakers step in on his behalf, or is he to seek protection through courts? Furthermore is this a matter of national law or European law? These choices will affect the opportunities for achieving different policy goals associated with the possible benefits of the “big data revolution”.

  15. Legislative changes in the field of consumer collective redress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babović Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this paper is the comparative analysis of the system of collective redress in the field of consumer protection contained in the Law on Consumer Protection from 2010 and the new Law on Consumer Protection from 2014. While the previous Law on Consumer Protection contained the provisions on collective redress in litigation proceedings, the new Law on Consumer Protection provided for collective redress in administrative proceedings. Therefore, analysis of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is provided, limited to: (i meaning of the collective interest, (ii dispersion of the motion for collective redress in Serbian law and (iii analysis of requests which could have been raised in the litigation proceedings and scope of protection granted in administrative proceedings.

  16. Injury and violence prevention policy: celebrating our successes, protecting our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Rebecca Greco; Zurick, Elizabeth; Patterson, Sara; Peeples, Amy

    2012-09-01

    Policy strategies for injury and violence prevention influence systems development, organizational change, social norms, and individual behavior to improve the health and safety of a population. Injury and violence prevention professionals should consider how their issues resonate with various audiences, including policy makers, the public, and other decision makers. As the cost of healthcare continues to rise and greater demands are placed on the healthcare system, the use of public health policy becomes increasingly critical to protect the public's health and prevent injury and violence and its related morbidities and disabilities (Degutis, 2011). This article highlights some impactful policy successes from the field, allows us to reflect on the Injury Center's 20th anniversary, and describes steps to address injuries and violence into the future. The purpose of this paper is to discuss policy as a public health strategy and the critical role it plays in injury and violence prevention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The effectiveness of policy on consumer choices for private road passenger transport emissions reductions in six major economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercure, J.-F.; Lam, A.

    2015-06-01

    The effectiveness of fiscal policy to influence vehicle purchases for emissions reductions in private passenger road transport depends on its ability to incentivise consumers to make choices oriented towards lower emissions vehicles. However, car purchase choices are known to be strongly socially determined, and this sector is highly diverse due to significant socio-economic differences between consumer groups. Here, we present a comprehensive dataset and analysis of the structure of the 2012 private passenger vehicle fleet-years in six major economies across the World (UK, USA, China, India, Japan and Brazil) in terms of price, engine size and emissions distributions. We argue that choices and aggregate elasticities of substitution can be predicted using this data, enabling us to evaluate the effectiveness of potential fiscal and technological change policies on fleet-year emissions reductions. We provide tools to do so based on the distributive structure of prices and emissions in segments of a diverse market, both for conventional as well as unconventional engine technologies. We find that markets differ significantly between nations, and that correlations between engine sizes, emissions and prices exist strongly in some markets and not strongly in others. We furthermore find that markets for unconventional engine technologies have patchy coverages of varying levels. These findings are interpreted in terms of policy strategy.

  18. Long term warranty and after sales service concept, policies and cost models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents concepts, policies and cost models for various long-term warranty and maintenance contracts. It offers several numerical examples for estimating costs to both the manufacturer and consumer. Long-term warranties and maintenance contracts are becoming increasingly popular, as these types of aftersales services provide assurance to consumers that they can enjoy long, reliable service, and protect them from defects and the potentially high costs of repairs. Studying long-term warranty and service contracts is important to manufacturers and consumers alike, as offering long-term warranty and maintenance contracts produce additional costs for manufacturers / service providers over the product’s service life. These costs must be factored into the price, or the manufacturer / dealer will incur losses instead of making a profit. On the other hand, the buyer / consumer needs to weigh the cost of maintaining it over its service life and to decide whether or not these policies are worth purchasing....

  19. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.

  20. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  1. Consumer Behavior Determined by Social Classes

    OpenAIRE

    ªerban Comãnescu Adrian; Muhcinã Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Information on consumer behavior is essential in trade policy decision-making process. The study of consumer behavior has concerned different subjects:psychology, sociology, economy. In a marketing approach knowledge of consumer behavior is not an end in itself, but only a tool, a means by which business decisions are adapted to the consumer expectations.

  2. Sustainability Policy and the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Jens; Reisch, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Growing awareness of environmental and social concern and the pressing issue of climate change have forcefully re-established sustainability policy as a part of consumer policy. The need for change in consumer behaviour and for more responsible lifestyles on the demand-side of the economy is chal...... of sustainability policy in European politics. Beyond this descriptive purpose the paper thereby purports to frame the debate on sustainability policy and the law on the eve of a new political cycle of the European Union.......Growing awareness of environmental and social concern and the pressing issue of climate change have forcefully re-established sustainability policy as a part of consumer policy. The need for change in consumer behaviour and for more responsible lifestyles on the demand-side of the economy...

  3. PROTECTION OF CONSUMERS THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE OMBUDSMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gjorgonoska Manevska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In chain production - trade appear more entities: manufacturers, distributors, retailers and direct consumers. If relations between them simplify, we can conclude that the most important link in this chain are consumers. We could say that everything happens precisely to meet the needs of consumers (although for certain types of production or ranking military industry for example, the arms trade and so on. This certainly can not say. Consumer is every one for you or your family supply certain products or using certain services. This broad definition allows each of us can put ourselves in the category of consumer. Consumers are the largest group in the world. Using the principle of deduction, we can conclude - when a group is considered most important and is the most numerous, it should be the most powerful in certain social relations.

  4. Consumer participation in housing: reflecting on consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.

  5. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  6. The climate protection policy of the USA under president Obama; Die Klimaschutzpolitik der USA unter Praesident Obama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Wolfgang; Schenk, Olga [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieforschung - Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung; Holtrup-Mostert, Petra [Transatlantic Networks - Foreign Policy Analysis, Koenigswinter (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Barack Obama's slogan 'Are you ready for a Change?' may become the motto fo the future climate protection policy of the USA. While the USA is slowly beginning to play a more active role in this area, there are many political and institutional obstacles to overcome before the USA can become one of the big global players here. The authors analyse the status quo of the US climate protection policy in an attempt to indicate national and international perspectives of climate protection. (orig.)

  7. The Principles of the Consumer Right Protection in Electronic Trade: A Comparative Law Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Anatolyevna Kirillova, Elena Anatolyevna Shergunova1, Elena Stepanovna Ustinovich, Nikolay Nikolaevich Nadezhin, Lyubov Borisovna Sitdikova

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the speci嘜cs of electronic trade and the issues of protecting the rights of online-consumers, considers their rights and obligations, since we all face a radically new phenomenon in the sphere of trade – An unprecedented boom of electronic trade (e-commerce), based on the use of the Internet for concluding transactions and operations in the systems of wholesale and retail trade. The means of electronic communication provide broad opportunities for direct co...

  8. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  9. [Light protection: principles of UV protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Mang, R

    2006-05-01

    UV radiation is responsible for the induction of epithelial and melanocytic skin cancer, photoaging, and photodermatoses. UV protection is necessary to prevent damage caused by non-physiologic exposure. UV protection includes not only reduction of sun exposure but also use of sun protective filters, UV protective clothes, DNA repair enzymes, and antioxidant supplementation. Consumers are uncertain about the possibilities and limitations of commercial sun protection measures. Dermatologists must explain protective measures to the general public which continues to believe that UV-tanned skin is healthy. The sunscreen market is a highly competitive but lucrative market. The range of products with different designations and promises makes difficult for both consumers and dermatologists to determine what is sensible UV protection.

  10. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The All-or-Nothing Anti-Theft Policy - Theft Protection for Pervasive Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Østergaard; Pagter, Jakob Illeborg

    2007-01-01

    In many application scenarios for pervasive computing, theft is a serious security threat. In this paper we present the All-Or-Nothing anti-theft policy aimed at providing theft protection for pervasive computing. The overall idea behind the All-Or-Nothing anti-theft policy is to chain devices...... together in friendly networks so that any device will only work when it can see all of its friends. Thus a thief will have to keep the network of friendly devices together even if he only desires to steal one of the devices. Otherwise the device will not work. We provide a detailed security policy, present...... the required cryptographic protocols, provide three different applications, and finally we document that the policy is suitable for implementation on typical pervasive computing devices....

  12. Consumer protection : Federal actions are needed to improve oversight of the household goods moving industry : report to congressional committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    The ICC Termination Act of 1995 transferred federal responsibilities for protecting consumers who move their household goods across state lines using commercial moving companies to the Department of Transportation. A 1998 congressional hearing brough...

  13. Legal ecotones: A comparative analysis of riparian policy protection in the Oregon Coast Range, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie, Brett A; Santelmann, Mary V; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Duncan, Sally L

    2017-07-15

    Waterways of the USA are protected under the public trust doctrine, placing responsibility on the state to safeguard public resources for the benefit of current and future generations. This responsibility has led to the development of management standards for lands adjacent to streams. In the state of Oregon, policy protection for riparian areas varies by ownership (e.g., federal, state, or private), land use (e.g., forest, agriculture, rural residential, or urban) and stream attributes, creating varying standards for riparian land-management practices along the stream corridor. Here, we compare state and federal riparian land-management standards in four major policies that apply to private and public lands in the Oregon Coast Range. We use a standard template to categorize elements of policy protection: (1) the regulatory approach, (2) policy goals, (3) stream attributes, and (4) management standards. All four policies have similar goals for achieving water-quality standards, but differ in their regulatory approach. Plans for agricultural lands rely on outcome-based standards to treat pollution, in contrast with the prescriptive policy approaches for federal, state, and private forest lands, which set specific standards with the intent of preventing pollution. Policies also differ regarding the stream attributes considered when specifying management standards. Across all policies, 25 categories of unique standards are identified. Buffer widths vary from 0 to ∼152 m, with no buffer requirements for streams in agricultural areas or small, non-fish-bearing, seasonal streams on private forest land; narrow buffer requirements for small, non-fish-bearing perennial streams on private forest land (3 m); and the widest buffer requirements for fish-bearing streams on federal land (two site-potential tree-heights, up to an estimated 152 m). Results provide insight into how ecosystem concerns are addressed by variable policy approaches in multi-ownership landscapes, an

  14. [Plant protection products and their residues : Aspects of consumer safety in context of the new EU regulations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiak, U; Michalski, B; Pfeil, R; Solecki, R

    2010-06-01

    The law regulating plant protection products (PPP) in the European Union (EU) was fundamentally revised through the introduction of Regulation (EC) No. 1107/2009 which is due to enter into force on 14 June 2011. EU-wide harmonized maximum residue levels (MRLs) for the active substances of PPP in foods are laid down in Regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 and apply since entry into force of the regulation on 1 September 2008. The goal of both regulations is to strengthen the level of consumer protection. PPP are subject to a strict assessment of active substances, which is regulated at the EU level as well as an authorization procedure in the EU Member States. Prior to application for authorization of a PPP, the active substance(s) it contains must be included in a positive list. Tests regarding the toxicity and residue behavior of PPP must be conducted by the applicant, and the respective documents must be submitted to the authorities for evaluation. Following review of the required data, toxicological threshold values are derived, consumer exposure is assessed, and the risk to health is evaluated. The goal of this evaluation is to ensure that the use of PPP according to good plant protection practice does not have any harmful effects on human health.

  15. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  16. How do policy advisors and practitioners prioritise the protection of children from secondhand smoke exposure in a country with advanced tobacco control policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Deborah Doreen; Amos, Amanda; Shaw, April; O'Donnell, Rachel; Semple, Sean; Turner, Steve; Martin, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The aim is to extend understanding of the policy and practice discourses that inform the development of national tobacco control policy to protect children from secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) in the home, particularly in a country with successful implementation of smoke-free public places legislation. The Scottish experience will contribute to the tobacco control community, particularly those countries at a similar level of tobacco control, as normalising discourses about protecting children from SHSE are becoming more widespread. Case study design using qualitative interviews and focus groups (FGs) with policy makers, health and childcare practitioners during which they were presented with the findings of the Reducing Families' Exposure to Secondhand Smoke (REFRESH) intervention and discussed the implications for their policy and practice priorities. Scotland, UK PARTICIPANTS: Qualitative interviews and FGs were conducted with 30 policy makers and practitioners who were purposively recruited. Participants accepted the harm of SHSE to children; however, action is limited by political expedience due to-the perception of a shift of the public health priority from smoking to alcohol, current financial constraints, more immediate child protection concerns and continuing unresolved ethical arguments. In a country, such as Scotland, with advanced tobacco control strategies, there continue to be challenges to policy and practice development in the more contentious arena of the home. Children's SHSE in their homes is unequivocally accepted as an important health priority, but it is not currently perceived to be a top public health priority in Scotland. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Social Policies in Contemporary Latin America: Families and Poverty in the Social Protection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    González, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance ...

  18. Energy policy of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  19. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  20. Mass spectrometry in grape and wine chemistry. Part II: The consumer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Riccardo; Panighel, Annarita

    2006-01-01

    Controls in food industry are fundamental to protect the consumer health. For products of high quality, warranty of origin and identity is required and analytical control is very important to prevent frauds. In this article, the "state of art" of mass spectrometry in enological chemistry as a consumer safety contribute is reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods have been developed to determine pesticides, ethyl carbamate, and compounds from the yeast and bacterial metabolism in wine. The presence of pesticides in wine is mainly linked to the use of dicarboxyimide fungicides on vineyard shortly before the harvest to prevent the Botrytis cinerea attack of grape. Pesticide residues are regulated at maximum residue limits in grape of low ppm levels, but significantly lower levels in wine have to be detected, and mass spectrometry offers effective and sensitive methods. Moreover, mass spectrometry represent an advantageous alternative to the radioactive-source-containing electron capture detector commonly used in GC analysis of pesticides. Analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in wine by LC/MS and multiple mass spectrometry (MS/MS) permits to confirm the toxin presence without the use of expensive immunoaffinity columns, or time and solvent consuming sample derivatization procedures. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) is used to control heavy metals contamination in wine, and to verify the wine origin and authenticity. Isotopic ratio-mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to reveal wine watering and sugar additions, and to determine the product origin and traceability.

  1. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  2. THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS IN CONSUMER CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip N Stoop

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In general, the concept "contractual fairness" can be narrowed down, described and analysed with reference to the two interdependent types of fairness – substantive and procedural fairness. Measures aimed at procedural fairness in contracts address conduct during the bargaining process and generally aim at ensuring transparency. One could say that a contract is procedurally fair where its terms are transparent and do not mislead as to aspects of the goods, service, price and terms. Despite the noble aims of legislative measures aimed at procedural fairness there are certain limits to the efficacy of procedural measures and transparency. The special procedural measures which must be considered in terms of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 in order to decide if a contract is fair are analysed in this article, as are other measures contained in the Act, which may also increase procedural fairness, and are discussed so as to allow suppliers to predict whether their contracts will be procedurally fair or not in terms of the Act. The special procedural measures can be categorised under measures requiring disclosure and/or mandatory terms, and measures addressing bargaining position and choice. It is concluded that owing to the nature of all these factors and measures related to procedural fairness, it is clear that openness and transparency are required by the CPA.

  3. Nature protection in Greece: an appraisal of the factors shaping integrative conservation and policy effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorgiou, Kostas; Vogiatzakis, Ioannis N.

    2006-01-01

    The proliferation of designated areas following the implementation of Natura 2000 in Greece has initiated changes in the protected area design and conservation policy making aiming at delivering action for biodiversity and integrative planning on a wider landscape. Following the sustainability concept, an integrative approach cannot realistically take place simply by extending the protected area and designations. The paper addresses public involvement and inter-sectoral coordination as major procedural elements of integrative management and evaluates the nature and strength of their negative or positive influences on the fulfillment of an integrative vision of nature conservation. A review of the history of protected areas and administration developments in Greece provide useful input in the research. The analysis has shown that the selected network of Natura 2000 sites has been superimposed upon the existing system and resulted in duplication of administrative effort and related legislation. As a result the overall picture of protected areas in the country appears complex, confusing and fragmented. Major failures to integrated conservation perspective can be traced to structural causes rooted in politico-economic power structures of mainstream policy and in a rather limited political commitment to conservation. It is concluded that greater realisation of integrated conservation in Greece necessitates policy reforms related mainly to sectoral legal frameworks to promote environmentalism as well as an increased effort by the managing authorities to facilitate a broader framework of public dialogue and give local communities incentives to sustainably benefit from protected areas

  4. To be or not to be an auctioneer: Some thoughts on the legal nature of online eBay auctions and the protection of consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Riefa, C

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the legal classification of online “eBay” auctions. The discussion has key implications on the scope of consumer protection law as sale by auctions are, for example, excluded from the scope of the Consumer Protection (Distance Selling) Regulations 2000. The paper uncovers that online “eBay” auctions cannot always be considered as traditional auctions and that eBay, as an intermediary, is not to be considered as an auctioneer. This creates difficulties associated with a di...

  5. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  6. The Policies Concerning the Strength of Intellectual Property Rights Protection: The Choices for Estonia in Wider Context of EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign direct investment (FDI can be substitute for the contractual transfer of intellectual property rights in a situation where these rights are weakly protected. Hence, stronger intellectual property rights protection may reduce incentives for FDI. This is, however, only one line of reasoning. Stronger intellectual property protection can also increase motivation to invest into completely new products and processes. Thus, from the slightly different perspective FDI and strength of intellectual property protection can be seen as complementary. This duality of impact makes the search for efficient protection very difficult and complex. The aim of this paper is to outline the policy choices open for Estonia in influencing the relative strength of intellectual property rights protection and its impact on FDI. The vital secondary research agenda by this concerns the influence of EU-membership on the autonomy of such policy choices. Given the fact that there exist European patents and patent registry, certain intellectual property rights protection measures and legislative practices are undoubtedly pre-determined by this embeddedness into EU-wide protection systems. The national level policies and enforcement issues may still vary.

  7. Environmental Assessment of Packaging: The Consumer Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam YK

    1996-09-01

    When marketing environmentally responsible packaged products, the producer is confronted with consumer beliefs concerning the environmental friendliness of packaging materials. When making environmentally conscious packaging decisions, these consumer beliefs should be taken into account alongside the technical guidelines. Dutch consumer perceptions of the environmental friendliness of packaged products are reported and compared with the results of a life-cycle analysis assessment. It is shown that consumers judge environmental friendliness mainly from material and returnability. Furthermore, the consumer perception of the environmental friendliness of packaging material is based on the postconsumption waste, whereas the environmental effects of production are ignored. From the consumer beliefs concerning environmental friendliness implications are deduced for packaging policy and for environmental policy.KEY WORDS: Consumer behavior; Environment; Food; Packaging; Perception; Waste

  8. Radiation protection of the public in respect of consumer goods containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The use of consumer goods containing radioactive substances makes a contribution to the total exposure of man to ionizing radiation. This contribution is explicitly recognized in Section II of the Basic Safety Standards established pursuant to Article 30 of the Euratom Treaty for the health protection of the general public and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiation, first published in 1959 and most recently revised 15 July 1980. Nevertheless, the Standards are of a general nature and need to be expanded on to be of practical application in this field. National authorities must have additional information in order to attain in full the objectives stated in them. This guide has been prepared with these considerations in mind. The guide is not a set of regulations but is better described as a code of practice, drawn up by specialists and approved by the scientific experts in the field of radiological protection and public health appointed under Article 31 of the Euratom Treaty

  9. Consumer subjectivity and U.S. health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Health care consumerism is an important frame in U.S. health care policy, especially in recent media and policy discourse about federal health care reform. This article reports on qualitative fieldwork with health care users to find out how people interpret and make sense of the identity of "health care consumer." It proposes that while the term consumer is normally understood as a descriptive label for users who purchase health care and insurance services, it should actually be understood as a metaphor, carrying with it a host of associations that shape U.S. health care policy debates in particular ways. Based on interviews with 36 people, patient was the dominant term people used to describe themselves, but consumer was the second most popular. Informants interpreted the health care consumer as being informed, proactive, and having choices, but there were also "semiotic traps," or difficult-to-resolve tensions for this identity. The discourse of consumerism functions in part as code for individual responsibility, and therefore as a classed moral discourse, with implications for U.S. health care policy.

  10. Government programs for supporting and protecting young consumers: Instruments of food policy in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ene Corina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of preoccupations at the global, regional and national level have been aimed to find solutions to the current problems in the field of food consumption in children and young people, given the fact that both food insufficiency and food abuse generate negative effects on health. In Romania, the economic context consisting of the existence of a large number of children whose diet is insufficient made European programs for granting food in schools, during class hours, to be useful and to have social relevance. The article examines, starting from the Romanian legislative framework underpinning such programs, the coordinates of these efforts, concluding that they represent in the same time instruments of national food policy.

  11. Consumer protection and internet shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis is devoted to the issue of online shopping. Its aim is to analyze internet shopping and see the rights and obligations of consumers and sellers, which are based on current legislation. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part deals with purchase over the internet and its regulations. There are explained the concepts internet, e-business and e-commerce and indicate the types of e-business and is mentioned certification of online stores. The practical part i...

  12. Optimal Price Skimming by a Monopolist Facing Rational Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    David Besanko; Wayne L. Winston

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the intertemporal pricing problem for a monopolist marketing a new product. The key feature differentiating this paper from the extant management science literature on intertemporal pricing is the assumption that consumers are intertemporal utility maximizers. A subgame perfect Nash equilibrium pricing policy is characterized and shown to involve intertemporal price discrimination. We compare this policy to the optimal policy for a monopolist facing myopic consumers and f...

  13. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones.

  14. Toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones, and a waste management policy integrating consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular phones have high environmental impact potentials because of their heavy metal content and current consumer attitudes toward purchasing new phones with higher functionality and neglecting to return waste phones into proper take-back systems. This study evaluates human health and ecological toxicity potentials from waste cellular phones; highlights consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities for effective waste management; and identifies key elements needed for an effective waste management strategy. The toxicity potentials are evaluated by using heavy metal content, respective characterization factors, and a pathway and impact model for heavy metals that considers end-of-life disposal in landfills or by incineration. Cancer potentials derive primarily from Pb and As; non-cancer potentials primarily from Cu and Pb; and ecotoxicity potentials primarily from Cu and Hg. These results are not completely in agreement with previous work in which leachability thresholds were the metric used to establish priority, thereby indicating the need for multiple or revised metrics. The triple bottom line of consumer, corporate, and government responsibilities is emphasized in terms of consumer attitudes, design for environment (DfE), and establishment and implementation of waste management systems including recycling streams, respectively. The key strategic elements for effective waste management include environmental taxation and a deposit-refund system to motivate consumer responsibility, which is linked and integrated with corporate and government responsibilities. The results of this study can contribute to DfE and waste management policy for cellular phones. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer Rights in the ICT Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Rapports. Consumer protection rights - ICT : Mauritius research report. Rapports. IDRC research programme on consumers rights in the ICT sector : consumer rights - an African perspective. Rapports. Consumer protection : CRREA Rwanda. Rapports. Customer Service by MTML : CRREA Mauritius workshop ...

  16. Attitudes towards Social Networking and Sharing Behaviors among Consumers of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Vernez, Simone L; Ormond, K E; Granovetter, Mark

    2013-10-14

    Little is known about how consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genetic services share personal genetic risk information. In an age of ubiquitous online networking and rapid development of social networking tools, understanding how consumers share personal genetic risk assessments is critical in the development of appropriate and effective policies. This exploratory study investigates how consumers share personal genetic information and attitudes towards social networking behaviors. Adult participants aged 23 to 72 years old who purchased direct-to-consumer genetic testing from a personal genomics company were administered a web-based survey regarding their sharing activities and social networking behaviors related to their personal genetic test results. 80 participants completed the survey; of those, 45% shared results on Facebook and 50.9% reported meeting or reconnecting with more than 10 other individuals through the sharing of their personal genetic information. For help interpreting test results, 70.4% turned to Internet websites and online sources, compared to 22.7% who consulted their healthcare providers. Amongst participants, 51.8% reported that they believe the privacy of their personal genetic information would be breached in the future. Consumers actively utilize online social networking tools to help them share and interpret their personal genetic information. These findings suggest a need for careful consideration of policy recommendations in light of the current ambiguity of regulation and oversight of consumer initiated sharing activities.

  17. Energy policy seesaw between security and protecting the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1994-01-01

    It is just the price of oil that causes the energy policies of importing countries to vacillate. Changing perceptions of energy supply factors has had as much to do with transfiguring government action modes since 1973 as has the idea of the legitimacy of that action. The present paper thus draws a parallel between the goal of energy security twenty years ago and that of global environmental protection today, which explains the critical reversion to a view of minimum government action in the energy field - a view that marked the eighties. (author). 20 refs

  18. Consumer Handbook to Credit Protection Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    The five sections of this consumer handbook are The Cost of Credit, Applying for Credit, Credit Histories and Records, Correcting Credit Mistakes, and Complaining about Credit. Each section discusses relevant legislation: Truth in Lending, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and the Fair Credit Reporting Act. Topics discussed in section I include…

  19. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    's right to communicate with their customers. Considering privacy risks associated with advances in computer technology, the complexities of modern information processing and evolving mobile advertising (m-advertising) practices, privacy regulations should not be equated with unwarranted speech regulations...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...... to support the growth of the global mobile advertising (m-advertising) industry....

  20. Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D N; Koster, A; Russell, C G

    2004-08-01

    The widespread use of dietary supplements and so-called 'functional foods' is thought to be partially motivated by self-control of health. However, whilst consumers want foods associated with well-being or disease prevention, they are unlikely to be willing to compromise on taste or technology. This presents a dilemma for promoters of functional foods. Middle-aged consumers' intentions to consume functional foods or supplements that may improve memory were tested within an adaptation of Protection Motivation theory (PMT). Participants evaluated text descriptions of four products described as: having an unpleasant bitter taste (Natural-FF); having 'additives' to reduce bitterness (Sweetened-FF); being genetically modified to enhance function (GM-FF) and Supplements. Participants were recruited as being of high and low perceived vulnerability to memory failure. In total, 290 middle-aged consumers (aged 40-60 years) participated in the study. Motivations to consume the GM-FF were the lowest. There were gender differences between intention to consume the supplements, Natural-FF and Sweetened-FF and product differences within genders. Women were less favourable than men in their attitudes towards genetic modification in general. Regression analyses indicated that PM predictors of intention to consume functional foods or supplements explained 59-63% of the variance (R2). Overall, perceived 'efficacy' (of the behaviour) and self-efficacy were the most important predictors of intentions to consume.

  1. Flood risk, uncertainty and changing river protection policy in the Netherlands: the case of 'calamity polders'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, D.; Warner, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    Extreme river discharges, floods and debates about climate change triggered a shift in flood protection policy in the Netherlands from infrastructural to spatial measures. The new policy directive of `Room for the River¿, details of which were introduced in 2000, should prepare the country for

  2. 77 FR 65775 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 [Docket No. CFPB-2012-0040] RIN 3170-AA30... Protection. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (Bureau) amends the... issuing the final rule pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. That law...

  3. Consumer Rights in the ICT Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Extrants. Études. Consumer protection rights - ICT : Mauritius research report. Études. IDRC research programme on consumers rights in the ICT sector : consumer rights - an African perspective. Études. Consumer protection : CRREA Rwanda. Études. Customer Service by MTML : CRREA Mauritius workshop ...

  4. 3rd May 2009 - Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, visiting ATLAS experimental area, LHC tunnel and CERN Control Centre with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and Beams Department Head P. Collier.

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    090506101-08: signature of the guest book and exchange of gifts; 090506109 + 46-64: Japanese Ambassador to the United Nations Office S. Kitajima, Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Non Member-State relations Adviser J. Ellis and ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1; 090506110-11 + 28-45: Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda and his delegation visiting ATLAS experimental area with CERN Japanese users and Management; 090506112 + 86-94: Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Japanese users in front of an LHC superconducting magnet; sLHC Project Leader also present. 090506113-19: Arrival of Japanese Min...

  5. Service quality in consumer's credit branch

    OpenAIRE

    Blechová, Věra

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and comparison of their service quality. The first part of research is dedicated to consumer's knowledge of credit issues. Second describes main difficulties of consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and proves their use of unfair manners. The final part of thesis propose improvements, which will boost consumer's protection on field of consumer's credits.

  6. A policy study in strengthening the national infrastructure for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Il [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jaik Won; Lee, Choon Sik [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Ki Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Public attitude declined further toward against the nuclear technology and eventually caused undue societal costs. Since the general public are aware of, or even afraid of, effects of radiation, it is hard to expect successful nuclear program without making them ease about radiation. In order to make the public feel easy and think that they get adequate protection, the infrastructure for radiation protection should be strengthened to the level corresponding to the utilization of nuclear/radiation technologies in the country. Public confidence in the role of the regulatory body is utmost important. The objectives of this study are to figure out a good model of regulatory body for radiation protection in Korea and to promulgate a draft legislations including provisions on the competent authority, the national policy and programs for upgraded infrastructure for radiation protection. As an appropriate form for the regulatory body in Korea, 'board of nuclear and radiation regulation', an independent and specialized organization under the direction of the prime minister, was proposed. It is expected that disadvantages dominate if the organization for radiation protection is separated from one for nuclear regulation. The proposed draft radiation protection acts consist of 8 chapters and 55 articles and some supplementary provisions. Copious footnotes provide explanations of the articles including the basis, considerations. justification.

  7. Russian consumers' motives for food choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the

  8. The implications of trade policy and 'natural' barriers induced protection for aggregate demand for imports: Evidence for Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Zgovu, Evious K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyses the relative importance of trade policy and ‘natural’ trade barriers in the demand for imports for Malawi, a geographically landlocked sub-Saharan African economy, using an augmented dynamic import demand model. Incidence analysis of protection shows that pre-liberalisation trade policy barriers were greater than ‘natural’ barriers but in post-liberalisation ‘natural’ barriers were greater. Econometric analysis of the import demand model shows that ‘true’ protection of imp...

  9. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  10. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2016-03-01

    High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS) and whole exome sequencing (WES) create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT) has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the "Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes" (2010) and the "Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data" (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014). The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities.

  11. Ethical issues in consumer genome sequencing: Use of consumers' samples and data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Niemiec

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High throughput approaches such as whole genome sequencing (WGS and whole exome sequencing (WES create an unprecedented amount of data providing powerful resources for clinical care and research. Recently, WGS and WES services have been made available by commercial direct-to-consumer (DTC companies. The DTC offer of genetic testing (GT has already brought attention to potentially problematic issues such as the adequacy of consumers' informed consent and transparency of companies' research activities. In this study, we analysed the websites of four DTC GT companies offering WGS and/or WES with regard to their policies governing storage and future use of consumers' data and samples. The results are discussed in relation to recommendations and guiding principles such as the “Statement of the European Society of Human Genetics on DTC GT for health-related purposes” (2010 and the “Framework for responsible sharing of genomic and health-related data” (Global Alliance for Genomics and Health, 2014. The analysis reveals that some companies may store and use consumers' samples or sequencing data for unspecified research and share the data with third parties. Moreover, the companies do not provide sufficient or clear information to consumers about this, which can undermine the validity of the consent process. Furthermore, while all companies state that they provide privacy safeguards for data and mention the limitations of these, information about the possibility of re-identification is lacking. Finally, although the companies that may conduct research do include information regarding proprietary claims and commercialisation of the results, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of the consequences of these policies. These results indicate that DTC GT companies still need to improve the transparency regarding handling of consumers' samples and data, including having an explicit and clear consent process for research activities.

  12. The Zero Hunger and Brazil without Extreme Poverty programs: a step forward in Brazilian social protection policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes-Sousa, Romulo; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2014-11-01

    Brazilian social protection programs have had consistent effects in reducing poverty and inequality among their respective target-groups: children, adolescents and pregnant and breastfeeding women. In 2011, the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program was launched as a strategy to eradicate extreme poverty by 2014. It makes the promotion of rights the core concept of the official political narrative. This study seeks to provide a systematic description of the Brazil without Extreme Poverty program and its initial results. A review of official documents and academic studies on the social protection programs was conducted. The Brazil without Extreme Poverty program represents an incremental approach to the social protection policies enacted by the previous administration. It advocates a multidimensional and focused approach, funded primarily by the federal government. The strategy subscribes to the international trend of associating social protection with employment and income generation policies.

  13. The rights of patients as consumers: An ancient view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Nishant Bhimraj; Joglekar, Vishnu Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    As far as the rights of consumers are concerned, the International Organization of Consumer's Union (IOCU) in 1983 has specified about the eight rights of a consumer. The Consumer Protection Act (CPA), 1986 then prescribed six "Rights of Consumers," which are protected under the act. However, these rights can be observed in the ancient Indian texts such as Brihat-trayee , Narad Smruti , and Kautilya Arthashastra ., in the form of rights given to patients. For the purpose of present study, the implemented methodology includes - (1) study of the consumer rights described by IOCU and CPA, (2) detailed review of literature for observance of replication of these consumer rights in the ancient Indian texts and (3) a comparative study of the present consumer rights with the rights of patients observed in ancient Indian texts. This study shows that the substance of consumer rights is not a recent evolution, but the foundation of these rights has been laid well beforehand in the ancient times, which were provided to the patients by medical profession as well as by the rulers. The current scenario of protection of consumer rights is the replication of this ancient practice only.

  14. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  15. Attitudes towards Social Networking and Sharing Behaviors among Consumers of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Granovetter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genetic services share personal genetic risk information. In an age of ubiquitous online networking and rapid development of social networking tools, understanding how consumers share personal genetic risk assessments is critical in the development of appropriate and effective policies. This exploratory study investigates how consumers share personal genetic information and attitudes towards social networking behaviors. Methods: Adult participants aged 23 to 72 years old who purchased direct-to-consumer genetic testing from a personal genomics company were administered a web-based survey regarding their sharing activities and social networking behaviors related to their personal genetic test results. Results: 80 participants completed the survey; of those, 45% shared results on Facebook and 50.9% reported meeting or reconnecting with more than 10 other individuals through the sharing of their personal genetic information. For help interpreting test results, 70.4% turned to Internet websites and online sources, compared to 22.7% who consulted their healthcare providers. Amongst participants, 51.8% reported that they believe the privacy of their personal genetic information would be breached in the future. Conclusion: Consumers actively utilize online social networking tools to help them share and interpret their personal genetic information. These findings suggest a need for careful consideration of policy recommendations in light of the current ambiguity of regulation and oversight of consumer initiated sharing activities.

  16. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  17. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; loans in the nature of overdraft protection; and credit extended in connection with credit cards. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended...

  18. Improving anti-bullying laws and policies to protect youth from weight-based victimization: parental support for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Suh, Y; Li, X

    2017-04-01

    Weight-based bullying is a prevalent problem among youth with overweight and obesity, but remains neglected in existing policy-level strategies to address youth bullying. Parental support is an influential catalyst motivating political will for policy decisions affecting youth, but has received limited research attention. To assess levels of, and predictors of, parental support for school-based policies and state/federal legal measures to address weight-based bullying in 2014 and 2015. Identical online questionnaires were completed by two independent national samples of parents in 2014 and 2015 (N = 1804). Parental support for all policy actions was high (at least 81%) and significantly increased from 2014 to 2015 for legal measures that would a) require state anti-bullying laws to add protections against weight-based bullying, and b) enact a federal anti-bullying law that includes weight-based bullying. These findings can inform policy discourse about remedies for youth bullying, and suggest that parental support for improved legal protections against weight-based bullying is present, consistent, and strong. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  19. Public policies for managing urban growth and protecting open space: policy instruments and lessons learned in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Jennifer O. Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The public sector in the United States has responded to growing concern about the social and environmental costs of sprawling development patterns by creating a wide range of policy instruments designed to manage urban growth and protect open space. These techniques have been implemented at the local, regional, state and, to a limited extent, national levels. This...

  20. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  1. Green power certification: environmental and consumer protection benefits of the Green-e programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J. [Center for Resource Solutions (United States); Rabago, K. [Rocky Mountain Inst. (United States); Wiser, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This article gives details of the Green-e environmental certification programme which certifies electricity generated from renewable energy sources in the US. This first non-profit certification programme originally was set up for California, and has now spread to other regions. The objectives of the Green-e programme, the need for the electricity product to meet minimum criteria to qualify, marketer requirements, verification of product claims, administration of the programme, and the second year programme results are discussed. The way in which the Green-e programme fits in with other programmes such as those set up by the state and federal customer protection agencies to help consumers select environmentally superior power is described.

  2. Accuracy of Principal and Teacher Knowledge of School District Policies on Sun Protection in California Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Reynolds, Kim D; Berteletti, Julia; Massie, Kim; Ashley, Jeff; Buller, Mary Klein; Meenan, Richard T

    2018-01-18

    Policy is a key aspect of school-based efforts to prevent skin cancer. We explored the extent and accuracy of knowledge among principals and teachers in California public school districts about the elements specified in their district's written sun safety policy. The sample consisted of California public school districts that subscribed to the California School Boards Association, had an elementary school, adopted Board Policy 5141.7 for sun safety, and posted it online. The content of each policy was coded. Principals (n = 118) and teachers (n = 113) in elementary schools were recruited from September 2013 through December 2015 and completed a survey on sun protection policies and practices from January 2014 through April 2016. Only 38 of 117 principals (32.5%) were aware that their school district had a sun protection policy. A smaller percentage of teachers (13 of 109; 11.9%) than principals were aware of the policy (F 108 = 12.76, P < .001). We found greater awareness of the policy among principals and teachers who had more years of experience working in public education (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, F 106 = 4.71, P = .03) and worked in schools with more non-Hispanic white students (OR = 7.65, F 109 = 8.61, P = .004) and fewer Hispanic students (OR = 0.28, F 109 = 4.27, P = .04). Policy adoption is an important step in implementing sun safety practices in schools, but districts may need more effective means of informing school principals and teachers of sun safety policies. Implementation will lag without clear understanding of the policy's content by school personnel.

  3. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 12 CFR Part 1013 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Reporting and recordkeeping... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  4. Incorporating community and multiple perspectives in the development of acceptable drinking water source protection policy in catchments facing recreation demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syme, Geoffrey J; Nancarrow, Blair E

    2013-11-15

    The protection of catchment areas for drinking water quality has become an increasingly disputed issue in Australia and internationally. This is particularly the case in regard to the growing demand for nature based and rural recreation. Currently the policy for the protection of drinking water in Western Australia is to enforce a 2 km exclusion zone with a much larger surrounding area with limited and prescribed access to recreators. The debate between recreators and water management agencies has been lively, culminating in a recent state government enquiry. This paper describes the second phase of a three phase study to develop a methodology for defensible policy formulation which accounts for the points of view of all stakeholders. We examine general community, active recreators and professionals' views on the current policy of catchment protection and five proposed alternatives using a social judgement theory approach. Key attitudinal determinants of the preferences for policies were identified. Overall the recreators did not support the current policy despite strong support from both the general community and the professional group. Nevertheless, it was evident that there was some support by the community for policies that would enable a slight relaxation of current recreational exclusion. It was also evident that there was a significant proportion of the general community who were dissatisfied with current recreational opportunities and that, in future, it may be less easy to police exclusion zones even if current policy is maintained. The potential for future integration of recreational and water source protection is discussed as well as the benefits of community research in understanding policy preferences in this regard. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Child protection and out of home care: Policy, practice, and research connectionsAustralia and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an outline of the early development of care and protection in Australia and New Zealand as a backdrop to an overview of child protection systems and policies and the current childprotection profile in both countries. Key issues that have become the focus of policy reform are canvassed and legislative and policy initiatives to promote child safety as well as strengthen families are elaborated. An overview of trends in relation to out of home care, including routes into care, care arrangements and permanency policies is provided. The article profiles selected research studies from Australia focusing on outcomes of care: stability of care, mental health and educational outcomes of looked after children, abuse in care, and routes out of care through reunification and aging out. Other issues treated are the overrepresentation of indigenous children in care systems in both countries and the challenges of maintaining cultural connections. The article concludes with a brief comparative analysis identifying similarities and differences in child welfare systems in both countries.

  6. 12 CFR 334.83 - Disposal of consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal § 334.83 Disposal of consumer information. (a) In general. You must properly... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposal of consumer information. 334.83...

  7. Health Care and Family and Consumer Sciences Education: An Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ruth; Rider, Mary Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Uses ecological systems theory as a foundation for integrating health care and its public policy issues into family and consumer sciences classrooms. Offers teachers alternative perspectives on consumer behavior changes and needs in heath care systems and policies. Contains 24 references. (JOW)

  8. The Legal Framework of the Consumer Associations in the Romanian Consumer Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita GOICOVICI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is an analysis of the main legalaspects related to the activity of consumerassociations, seen as promoters of collectiveinterests of their members, in the RomanianConsumer Law. As a social partner of the publicadministration’ organisms, these associations playthree kinds of roles: (1 representing the consumersin the organisms of public administration;(2 informing and advising their members inquestions related to the purchase of products orthe supply of services; (3 taking legal actionsin order to obtain the protection of a collectiveinterest of consumers or the cessation of a illegalcommercial practice. This article also stresses theimportance of non governmental organizations ofconsumers’ right to be consulted by the PublicAdministration’ representatives, in the process ofelaborating legal norms and procedures relatedto consumers’ protection. The non governmentalorganizations of consumers are entitled to betreated as social partners, while representing theirmembers in the specialized organisms, at a nationalor local level, in which the Public Administrationauthorities are represented.

  9. Hydrogeologic uncertainties and policy implications: The Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L. G.; Matlock, W. G.; Jacobs, K. L.

    The 1995 Water Consumer Protection Act of Tucson, Arizona, USA (hereafter known as the Act) was passed following complaints from Tucson Water customers receiving treated Central Arizona Project (CAP) water. Consequences of the Act demonstrate the uncertainties and difficulties that arise when the public is asked to vote on a highly technical issue. The recharge requirements of the Act neglect hydrogeological uncertainties because of confusion between "infiltration" and "recharge." Thus, the Act implies that infiltration in stream channels along the Central Wellfield will promote recharge in the Central Wellfield. In fact, permeability differences between channel alluvium and underlying basin-fill deposits may lead to subjacent outflow. Additionally, even if recharge of Colorado River water occurs in the Central Wellfield, groundwater will become gradually salinized. The Act's restrictions on the use of CAP water affect the four regulatory mechanisms in Arizona's 1980 Groundwater Code as they relate to the Tucson Active Management Area: (a) supply augmentation; (b) requirements for groundwater withdrawals and permitting; (c) Management Plan requirements, particularly mandatory conservation and water-quality issues; and (d) the requirement that all new subdivisions use renewable water supplies in lieu of groundwater. Political fallout includes disruption of normal governmental activities because of the demands in implementing the Act. Résumé La loi de 1995 sur la protection des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson (Arizona, États-Unis) a été promulguée à la suite des réclamations des consommateurs d'eau de Tucson alimentés en eau traitée à partir à la station centrale d'Arizona (CAP). Les conséquences de cette loi montrent les incertitudes et les difficultés qui apparaissent lorsque le public est appeléà voter sur un problème très technique. Les exigences de la loi en matière de recharge négligent les incertitudes hydrogéologiques du fait de la

  10. Consumer Rights in the ICT Sector in Eastern and Southern Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Empowering regulators to protect consumer rights in the ICT sector : qualitative research for Rwanda; December 2010, PSCBS meeting room. Download PDF. Studies. Consumer protection rights - ICT : Mauritius research report. Download PDF. Studies. IDRC research programme on consumers rights in the ICT sector ...

  11. The influences of consumer characteristics on the amount of rice consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriana, T.; Pane, TC

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of rice consumers and the influences of consumer characteristics on the amount of rice consumption. The research areas were determined purposively in the sub-districts with the most significant population in Medan City. The analytical methods used were descriptive and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that consumers in the study areas have various characteristics, concerning age, income, family size, health, and education. Simultaneously, characteristics of rice consumers have the significant effect on the amount of rice consumed. Partially, age and the number of family members have the significant effect on the amount of rice consumed. The implications of this research are, need different policies toward consumers of rice based on their income strata. Rice policies cannot be generalized.

  12. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  13. Multiple organ failure - death of consumer protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, H A; Jobson, M R

    2010-07-15

    The enormously profitable complementary medicines, dietary supplements and traditional medicines markets are largely unregulated internationally and South Africa. Attempts to ensure that consumers are not exposed to harmful or ineffective products have met with varying success around the world.

  14. 77 FR 10725 - Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... the Bureau's functions under the Federal consumer financial protection laws, and which will provide... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION Establishment of the Consumer Advisory Board and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice...

  15. Consumer risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection, and food demand: the case of milk in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Lydia; Douthitt, Robin; You, So-Ye

    2003-10-01

    This study is an econometric systems approach to modeling the factors and linkages affecting risk perceptions toward agricultural biotechnology, self-protection actions, and food demand. This model is applied to milk in the United States, but it can be adapted to other products as well as other categories of risk perceptions. The contribution of this formulation is the ability to examine how explanatory factors influence risk perceptions and whether they translate into behavior and ultimately what impact this has on aggregate markets. Hadden's outrage factors on heightening risk perceptions are among the factors examined. In particular, the article examines the role of labeling as a means of permitting informed consent to mitigate outrage factors. The effects of attitudinal, economic, and demographic factors on risk perceptions are also explored, as well as the linkage between risk perceptions, consumer behavior, and food demand. Because risk perceptions and self-protection actions are categorical variables and demand is a continuous variable, the model is estimated as a two-stage mixed system with a covariance correction procedure suggested by Amemiya. The findings indicate that it is the availability of labeling, not the price difference, between that labeled milk and milk produced with recombinant bovine Somatotropin (rbST) that significantly affects consumer's selection of rbST-free milk. The results indicate that greater availability of labeled milk would not only significantly increase the proportion of consumers who purchased labeled milk, its availability would also reduce the perception of risk associated with rbST, whether consumers purchase it or not. In other words, availability of rbST-free milk translates into lower risk perceptions toward milk produced with rbST.

  16. EC Competition law and environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantala, M.

    1996-12-31

    Due to the increasing attention paid on environmental protection, by the European Community, the Member States and the consumers, undertakings are forced to adjust their policies to meet the new demands posed by public authorities and the market. This has an inevitable impact on competition. No matter how acceptable the goals were, the means are to be assessed also from the competition law point of view. The objective of this study is to analyze the situations where conflicts may take place, the main sources of research being the principles of law relating to the Treaty ,the judgements of the European Court of Justice, the Commission Decisions and other official documents of the Community as well as legal literature. This study classifies the Community and Member State instruments which are used for environmental protection into four categories. These are legislative, market-based, horizontal and financial supporting instruments. Undertakings` environmental practices, which are capable of affecting competition, are examined under Articles 85 and 86 EC, some attention being paid also to Article 90 EC. The touching points of competition policy and environmental protection in such cases are scrutinized under three headings. These are the two, in this case, most relevant public instruments, ie. legislative and market-based measures, and the voluntary actions of undertakings. (42 refs.)

  17. Policy and Legal Protection for Breastfeeding and Incarcerated Women in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Martha Jane

    2018-05-01

    Most incarcerated women in Canada are mothers. Because women are the fastest growing population in carceral facilities, protecting the rights of incarcerated women to breastfeed their children is increasingly important. There is considerable evidence that incarcerated women in Canada experience poor physical and mental health, isolation, and barriers to care. Incarcerated women and their children could benefit significantly from breastfeeding. This Insight in Policy explores policy and legal protection for breastfeeding in Canada as it relates to carceral facilities, considers key cases regarding breastfeeding rights among incarcerated women, and presents recommendations for policy development and advocacy. The Canadian Constitution and human rights legislation across Canada prohibits discrimination on the basis of gender and includes pregnancy and the possibility of becoming pregnant as a characteristic of gender. Some provinces note that breastfeeding is a characteristic of gender. Women's Wellness Within, a nonprofit organization providing volunteer perinatal support to criminalized women in Nova Scotia, conducted a scan of all provincial and territorial correctional services acts and the federal Corrections and Conditional Release Act: none mention breastfeeding. Protocols for breastfeeding during arrest and lockup by police were not available in any jurisdiction across Canada. International law, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Nelson Mandela Rules, and the Bangkok Rules, have application to the rights of incarcerated breastfeeding women. The Inglis v. British Columbia (Minister of Public Safety) (2013) and Hidalgo v. New Mexico Department of Corrections (2017) decisions are pivotal examples of successful litigation brought forward by incarcerated mothers to advance breastfeeding rights. Improved application and understanding of existent law could advance breastfeeding rights.

  18. The effectiveness of the European agricultural quality policy: a price analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardaji, I.; Iraizoz, B.; Rapun, M.

    2009-07-01

    The European rural development policy, the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy, is currently playing an increasing role. One of its key instruments is the support for quality standards through Protected Geographical Indications (PGI). The analysis presented in this article investigates prices for two varieties of beef (PGI and non- PGI). The research setting is a specific area in northern Spain, where Ternera de Navarra (Navarra beef) is produced. The results show that quality production systems achieve higher and more stable prices in the long term. Another major point emerging from the analysis, given the nature of the beef production sector, is that the PGI product is better able to stand up to consumer confidence crises, such as that triggered by the bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak. Additional key words: prices, protected geographical indication, rural development. (Author) 40 refs.

  19. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  20. Gaps in governance: protective mechanisms used by nurse leaders when policy and practice are misaligned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Kaye M; Kenny, Amanda; Endacott, Ruth

    2015-04-09

    Due to large geographical distances, the telephone is central to enabling rural Australian communities to access care from their local health service. While there is a history of rural nurses providing care via the telephone, it has been a highly controversial practice that is not routinely documented and little is known about how the practice is governed. The lack of knowledge regarding governance extends to the role of Directors of Nursing as clinical leaders charged with the responsibility of ensuring practice safety, quality, regulation and risk management. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical governance processes related to managing telephone presentations, and to explore Directors of Nursing perceptions of processes and clinical practices related to the management of telephone presentations to health services in rural Victoria, Australia. Qualitative documentary analysis and semi structured interviews were used in the study to examine the content of health service policies and explore the perceptions of Directors of Nursing in eight rural health services regarding policy content and enactment when people telephone rural health services for care. Participants were purposively selected for their knowledge and leadership role in governance processes and clinical practice. Data from the interviews were analysed using framework analysis. The process of analysis resulted in the identification of five themes. The majority of policies reviewed provided little guidance for managing telephone presentations. The Directors of Nursing perceived policy content and enactment to be largely inadequate. When organisational structures failed to provide appropriate governance for the context, the Directors of Nursing engaged in protective mechanisms to support rural nurses who manage telephone presentations. Rural Directors of Nursing employed intuitive behaviours to protect rural nurses practicing within a clinical governance context that is inadequate for the

  1. Knowledge and awareness of Consumer Protection Act among private dentists in Tricity, Punjab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Dhaliwal, Jagjit Singh; Anand, Samir; Bhardwaj, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Consumer Protection Act (CPA) aims to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by a medical or a dental health professional. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in a Tricity in India. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 private dental practitioners in Tricity. A close-ended self-structured questionnaire was administered which contained 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding CPA. Categorization of knowledge scores was done at three levels-low, medium and high. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. 54.7% (145) of subjects were having low knowledge scores, 23.3% (62) had a medium score and 21.8% (58) had a high score. Mean knowledge score according to educational level was statistically significant (P 0.05). The results of the present study showed that majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA but knowledge regarding basic rules and regulations was lacking in few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep them updated of various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  2. Knowledge and awareness of Consumer Protection Act among private dentists in Tricity, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh Gambhir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumer Protection Act (CPA aims to protect the interests of the patients in case of any unethical treatment rendered by a medical or a dental health professional. The present study was conducted to assess knowledge and awareness of CPA among dental professionals in a Tricity in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 265 private dental practitioners in Tricity. A close-ended self-structured questionnaire was administered which contained 15 questions on knowledge and awareness regarding CPA. Categorization of knowledge scores was done at three levels-low, medium and high. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA and Student t-test. Results: 54.7% (145 of subjects were having low knowledge scores, 23.3% (62 had a medium score and 21.8% (58 had a high score. Mean knowledge score according to educational level was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that majority of the subjects were aware of the existence of CPA but knowledge regarding basic rules and regulations was lacking in few studies. Therefore, dental professionals need to keep them updated of various rules and latest amendments to save themselves from any litigation.

  3. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  4. Characteristics and consequences of consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafilović Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's aim is studying the term of consumer society and its characteristics as well as its consequences on the community as a whole. Nowadays, a consumer is no longer a passive observer but an active participant. As the consumer's role has changed in the modern market, a new approach to marketing is required by companies. The term 'consumer society' entails defining consumerism in more detail as it has been used refer to the consumerists movement or movement for consumer rights protection. In another context, consumerism refers to the so-called consumer mentality.

  5. An Effective Supervision Model of a Standard Clause for Consumer Protection in the Business Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsudin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to form an effective supervision model of a standard clause to protect consumer’s rights and interests. This study answers the questions the effectiveness of a standard clause supervision carried out by Otoritas Jasa Keuangan [Financial Services Authority (OJK] and Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen [Consumer Dispute Settlement Agency (BPSK]; effective supervision model of a standard clause which can protect the rights and interest of the consumer. The object of this study are OJK and BPSK as a supervision of a standard clause. The result of this research shows that the supervision of standard clause done by those institutions has not been effective yet, this caused by several factors to wit the weakness of implementing regulation in terms of supervision, unclear supervision mechanism, the weakness of socialization related to the rules of standard clause towards business actors, and other weakness and obstacles faced by both institutions. The effective supervision model of standard clause is being formed that based on five points, namely: (1 the needs of institution/agency reformation who authorize to do supervision of standard clause; (2 the needs to determine the scope of duty and authority of standard clause supervision institution; (3 the needs of determination of material range about standard clause subjected to supervision which comprises: the content, the form, the position and the expression; (4 the needs of precise mechanism of standard clause supervision conducted by supervision institution; (5 the needs of following up the supervision results, especially to the business actors who break the standard clause rules.

  6. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressey, Robert L; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J

    2015-11-05

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management 'levers' to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  8. Protecting care home residents from mistreatment and abuse: on the need for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amanda Phelan School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland Abstract: With a rising older person population with increasing life expectancies, the demand for care homes will increase in the future. Older people in care homes are particularly vulnerable due to their dependencies related to cognitive and/or functional self-care challenges. Although many care homes provide good care, maltreatment and abuse of older people can and does occur. One major step in preventing and addressing maltreatment in care homes is having comprehensive and responsive policy, which delineates national expectations that are locally implemented. This paper examines the literature related to maltreatment in care homes and argues for policy based on a multisystems approach. Policy needs to firstly acknowledge and address general societal issues which tacitly impact on older person care delivery, underpin how care homes and related systems should be operationalized, and finally delineate expected standards and outcomes for individual experience of care. Such a policy demands attention at every level of the health care and societal system. Furthermore, contemporary issues central to policy evolution in care homes are discussed, such as safeguarding education and training and fostering organization whistle-blowing protection. Keywords: care homes, maltreatment, policy, older people

  9. Derived intervention levels for mostly consumed foodstuffs in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathivand, A. A.; Amidi, J.

    2006-01-01

    Measures to protect the public following an accidental release of radionuclides to the environment will depend on the circumstances including the extent of the potential hazards. The projected levels of risk are an important precondition in emergency planning. The levels can be expressed in terms of concentration levels in the environment or in protection in foodstaffs. These derived intervention levels can be determined for the range of important radionuclides that could be released to the environment in the event of a nuclear accident. Materials and Methods: Derived intervention levels for 90 Sr, 131 l, Cs 134 + 137 Cs, 238 Pu + 239 Ru+ 241 Am and 103 Ru + 106 Ru radionuclide groups were calculated for infants ( 17 years) for mostly consumed foodstuffs in Iran. Calculations of DlLs were based on recommendations from international, national organizations and average food consumption rate data for Iran. Results: From our research it was found that DlLs for foodstuffs consumed in lran for above mentioned radionuclide groups except for Ruthenium group are equal to 387, 250, 1023 and 2.8 Bqkg -1 respectively. Conclusion: The comparison of DILs for foodstuffs consumed in lran and DILs adopted in the new food and drug administration Compliance Policy Guide which are 160, 170, 1200, 2 Bq.kg -1 for 90 Sr, 131 I, 134 / 137 Cs, 2 38 / 239 Pu plus 241 Am radionuclide groups respectively, shows agreement with cesium and plutonium group and higher values for strontium and Iodine group. In the case of nuclear accident or radiological events that might affect our country calculated DILs can be used to prevent or reduce exposure due to consumption of foodstuffs

  10. NCTA v. FCC - Do Commercial Free Speech Justifications Trump Consumers' Personal Data Protection Rights? Answer To Shape Mobile Advertising Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    telecommunication carriers' personal data sharing practices in order to protect their customers' data privacy when the regulation restricts use of the data for marketing purposes. In this case National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA) challenged a new Federal Communications Commission (FCC) rule...... requiring carriers to obtain customers' advance approval before releasing their telephone record information for marketing purposes. NCTA claimed the FCC's new opt-in rule violates companies' First Amendment right to engage in commercial speech. At stake in this appeal was the constitutionally required...... balance between protecting consumers' information privacy in an era of pervasive data processing and protecting the rights of marketers to engage in protected commercial free speech that involves using customers' personal information. A ruling against the FCC would have limited the use of government...

  11. THE ACTIONS PROGRAMMES IN THE FIELD OF ENVIRONMENT AND THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duduială Popescu Lorena

    2015-06-01

    sectorial policies. The Article 95 of the Treaty of Amsterdam is the harmonization of legislation on health, environment and consumer protection in the Member States, while allowing the inclusion of national legal provisions in order to better protect the environment.

  12. Research on consumer reactions to nutrition labelling (FLABEL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    and the evaluation of existing ones difficult. Recent and ongoing research, including research in the European Union (EU)-funded FP7 project FLABEL (Food Labelling to Advance Better Education for Life), is accumulating evidence not only on consumer liking of labels and on self-reported use, but also on labels......Nutrition labels are potentially a major instrument for enabling consumers to make healthier food choices, but current insights into how nutrition labels are used by consumers in real-world shopping situations are limited, making the science-based formulation of new labelling policies......' attention-getting potential, on the way consumers draw inferences on product healthiness from them, and on how they actually affect choices. Based on the findings from this project, best practice guidelines will be developed for use of nutrition labelling in EU policy and the food industry, especially SMEs...

  13. Protecting posted genes: social networking and the limits of GINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo-Jin Lee, Sandra; Borgelt, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The combination of decreased genotyping costs and prolific social media use is fueling a personal genetic testing industry in which consumers purchase and interact with genetic risk information online. Consumers and their genetic risk profiles are protected in some respects by the 2008 federal Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA), which forbids the discriminatory use of genetic information by employers and health insurers; however, practical and technical limitations undermine its enforceability, given the everyday practices of online social networking and its impact on the workplace. In the Web 2.0 era, employers in most states can legally search about job candidates and employees online, probing social networking sites for personal information that might bear on hiring and employment decisions. We examine GINA's protections for online sharing of genetic information as well as its limitations, and propose policy recommendations to address current gaps that leave employees' genetic information vulnerable in a Web-based world.

  14. A Study on the Developmental Issues of Consumer Protection in Turkey = Türkiye'de Tüketicinin Korunması Hakkındaki Gelişimle İlgili Konular Üzerine bir Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül AYGEN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to share the findings of a study concerned with the developmental issues of consumer protection in our country from the perspective of consumers. Views and opinions of consumers with respect to the general subject of consumer protection are believed to reveal future expectations related to the subject and also opportunities and limitations we are likely to be confronted with, as a nation, in reaching a better life.

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCER AND CONSUMER ON FOOD MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADALINA DINU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Perhaps one of the largest legislative climbing in recent years is shaped by the instruments that Romanian legislator puts at hand in order to protect its consumers from potential abuses of the producer. The importance of rules of such liability producer is justified primarily by the fact that a modern democratic society, consumer protection has become an essential part of the whole system of social protection. Moreover, the consumer's right to health and safety of its community is a constitutional principle, a consumer is considered by the Community forums as a new form of citizenship.

  16. Appeals to consumer responsibility and improving structural conditions as means to promote sustainable consumer behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    for their acts or (b) structural conditions determined by governments? In field experiments with large samples of ordinary consumers, the behavioral effects of perceptions of responsibility/personal moral norms and of altering an important structural condition are quantified by measuring a relevant behavior......-developed public transit service. The results suggest that there is often more to gain from changing structural conditions to be more facilitating for the desired behavior than from a campaign targeting consumer feelings of responsibility.......Environmental policy-makers increasingly emphasize consumers' responsibility for environmental side effects of their acts, but is this justified? This paper investigates which is the most important limiting factor for sustainable consumption: (a) the extent to which consumers assume responsibility...

  17. A Qualitative Study of Vulnerable Patient Views of Type 2 Diabetes Consumer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Pellerano, Maria B; Howard, Jenna; Saver, Barry; Hannan, Edward L; Lee, Justin; Lundberg, Michael T; Sabo, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) mandates the release of publicly available consumer reports to highlight differences in quality of care and reduce healthcare disparities. However, little is known about patient perceptions of the value of such reports. This study aims to identify whether vulnerable populations with type 2 diabetes perceive consumer reports as helpful in making decisions about diabetes care. We conducted a brief demographic survey and qualitative study of 18 focus groups: six each of African American, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White consumers diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 92). We analysed focus group transcripts to identify recurring themes, which were summarized and compared across population groups. Participants expressed minimal interest in currently available consumer reports. They instead listed personal referrals and interpersonal interactions among the most important factors when choosing a physician. Further, in place of information to aid in physician selection, participants articulated strong desires for more basic, straightforward disease-specific information that would promote diabetes self-management. This study's results call into question the value of consumer reports as defined by the ACA. Participants reported little interest in comparative provider performance data. Instead, they were more interested in information to assist in diabetes self-management. This suggests that consumer reports may not be as important a tool to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities as policy makers imagine them to be.

  18. Impact of Urbanization and Enviromental Protection Policies on Timber Availibility: A GIS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald G. Hodges; James T. Gunter; Christopher M. Swalm; James L. Regens

    1998-01-01

    This study illustrates how remotely-sensed data and GIS can be utilized to allow planners to evaluate the relationship between land use, environmental protection policies, and resource availability. The case study examines St. Tammany Parish in Louisiana which has experienced tremendous population growth and land use change in the past two decades. To date, work has...

  19. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for compact fluorescent lighting: Policy implications for energy efficiency promotion in Saint Lucia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Travis; Kolodinsky, Jane; Murray, Byron

    2012-01-01

    This article examines consumer willingness to pay for energy-saving compact fluorescent light bulbs using the results of a stated preferences study conducted in the Caribbean island nation of Saint Lucia. Geographic location, low income status, and age are found to affect willingness-to-pay for compact fluorescent lighting, while higher income status and other demographic variables appear to have minimal or no significant impacts. Energy efficiency knowledge is associated with increased willingness-to-pay for energy-efficient bulbs and with increased use of compact fluorescent lighting. Contrary to theoretical expectations, past purchase of compact fluorescent bulbs is found to have no impact on self-reported willingness to pay. We hypothesize that this null result is due to the recent emergence of low-cost, low-quality compact fluorescent bulbs in the Saint Lucian lighting market, which may be negatively influencing consumers' preferences and expectations regarding energy-efficient lighting. Findings support the argument that government-sponsored education and subsidy programs will likely result in increased use of energy-saving technologies in Saint Lucia. But such behavioral changes may not be sustained in the long run unless low quality bulbs – the “lemons” of the compact fluorescent lighting market – can be clearly identified by consumers. - Highlights: ▶ We model how knowledge, attitudes, and past purchase affect CFL adoption. ▶ Saint Lucian consumers have some knowledge of and favorable attitudes toward CFLs. ▶ Energy efficiency knowledge increases stated willingness-to-pay (WTP) for CFLs. ▶ Past purchase does not increase WTP; low-quality ‘lemons’ may influence consumers. ▶ Policy can lower consumer risks in lighting markets where low quality bulbs exist.

  20. Carbon emissions and management scenarios for consumer-owned utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischlein, Miriam; Smith, Timothy M.; Wilson, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    An important subset of the utility sector has been scarcely explored for its ability to reduce carbon dioxide emissions: consumer-owned electric utilities significantly contribute to U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, but are often excluded from energy efficiency and renewable energy policies. They sell a quarter of the nation's electricity, yet the carbon impact of these sales is not well understood, due to their small size, unique ownership models, and high percentage of purchased power for distribution. This paper situates consumer-owned utilities in the context of emerging U.S. climate policy, quantifying for the first time the state-by-state carbon impact of electricity sales by consumer-owned utilities. We estimate that total retail sales by consumer-owned utilities account for roughly 568 million metric tons of CO 2 annually, making this sector the 7th largest CO 2 emitter globally, and examine state-level carbon intensities of the sector in light of the current policy environment and the share of COU distribution in the states. Based on efficiency and fuel mix pathways under conceivable regulations, carbon scenarios for 2030 are developed.

  1. Assuring consumer information and protection in the solar market: need, status, strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-01

    In this report the Consumer Energy Council has examined a number of basic issues affecting consumer assurance in the solar market. A general framework has been established to specify the role of consumer assurance as it relates both to government activity and a new consumer product industry. The available empirical evidence has been reviewed to identify the actual needs for consumer assurance in the solar market. By synthesizing the work of the SOLCAN Planning Project participants we have identified both the general thrust of existing consumer assurance mechanisms in the states and the direction that efforts to improve and expand those mechanisms are likely to take. Finally, several brief recommendations for combining the pieces of consumer assurance into an effective overall framework have been put forward.

  2. Role-task conditional-purpose policy model for privacy preserving data publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Elgendy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Privacy becomes a major concern for both consumers and enterprises; therefore many research efforts have been devoted to the development of privacy preserving technology. The challenge in data privacy is to share the data while assuring the protection of personal information. Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats even if the data is published. Access control can help to protect the data from outsider threats. Access control is defined as the process of mediating every request to resources and data maintained by a system and determining whether the request should be granted or denied. This can be enforced by a mechanism implementing regulations established by a security policy. In this paper, we present privacy preserving data publishing model based on integration of CPBAC, MD-TRBAC, PBFW, protection against database administrator technique inspired from oracle vault technique and benefits of anonymization technique to protect data when being published using k-anonymity. The proposed model meets the requirements of workflow and non-workflow system in enterprise environment. It is based on the characteristics of the conditional purposes, conditional roles, tasks, and policies. It guarantees the protection against insider threats such as database administrator. Finally it assures needed protection in case of publishing the data. Keywords: Database security, Access control, Data publishing, Anonymization

  3. Greening the Danes? Experience with consumption and environment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    structures, and information are all in accordance with each other, and this is only the case when sustainable consumption does not conflict with economic growth. A more fundamental critique thus concerns the failure of Danish consumer-oriented environmental policies to address consumption growth......Consumer-oriented environmental policies came high on the political agenda during the 1990s. Internationally, consumers were assigned a key role in environmental policies; also in Denmark, political initiatives were taken to promote sustainable consumer behaviour. In this article, the results...... of Danish policies related to consumption and environment are assessed by considering first, the environmental impacts of the political measures, and second, whether the policies have succeeded in addressing the dynamics behind increasing consumption. The study combines a theoretical understanding...

  4. Challenges of the Unemployment Protection System and Active Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Pino, Eloísa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN CSR POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Mihai Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The CSR policy of companies occupy a privileged environment through coaching programs to other interests such as employees, suppliers, customers, authorities and various NGOs. This is why we wanted to see what the environment is important for managers on companies in Romania, the company's CSR policy. In the literature the definition of social responsibility and ways to implement this in practice are often encountered. Some authors claim that societal marketing concept has not found its way into the language of business. From here, there were other terms that had a greater impact on the business environment such as social responsibility. Increasing the company's impact on the environment, the pressure exerted by stakeholders, and identifying positive elements of socially responsible approach have been the main stimulus for development of social responsibility. From that a lot of studies on academic and commercial problem. And the present study fit the same line we conducted a research on 50 companies,it was an exploratory research. As respondents were chosen only marketing managers or general managers or even owners compnaie depending, in other words I tried to go directly to company decision makers in developing and building its image. While this one sample is statistically representative of the point of view we have covered with him in all areas of business activities and of all sizes can say that the results provide a clear enough picture of managersmentality in companies in Romania on business activities with the problem of intereactiunii environment Managers of companies in Romania recognize the environmental problems and say they are implicating in various actions to protect the environment. On the declarative level social environment is one of the most important areas being the most nominated as one of the top three areas of social nature that would involve having the greatest opportunity for development in coming years, over 60% of

  6. Managing Consumer Referrals in a Chain Network

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Arbatskaya; Hideo Konishi

    2014-01-01

    We consider the optimal pricing and referral strategy of a monopoly that uses a simple consumer communication network (a chain) to spread product information. The first-best policy with fully discriminatory position-based referral fees involves standard monopoly pricing and referral fees that provide consumers with strictly positive referral incentives. Effective price discrimination among consumers based on their positions in the chain occurs in both the first-best solution and the second-be...

  7. Tools for Consumer Rights Protection in the Prediction of Electronic Virtual Market and Technological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikuláš Gangur

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic virtual markets can serve as an alternative tool for collecting information that is spread among numerous experts. This is the principal market functionality from the operators’ point of view. On the other hand it is profits that are the main interest of the market participants. What they expect from the market is liquidity as high as possible and the opportunity for unrestricted trading. Both the operator and the electronic market participant can be considered consumers of this particular market with reference to the requirements for the accuracy of its outputs but also for the market liquidity. Both the above mentioned groups of consumers (the operators and the participants themselves expect protection of their specific consumer rights, i.e. securing the two above mentioned functionalities of the market. These functionalities of the electronic market are, however, influenced by many factors, among others by participants’ activity. The article deals with the motivation tools that may improve the quality of the prediction market. In the prediction electronic virtual market there may be situations in which the commonly used tools for increasing business activities described in the published literature are not significantly effective. For such situations we suggest a new type of motivation incentive consisting in penalizing the individual market participants whose funds are not placed in the market. The functionality of the proposed motivation incentive is presented on the example of the existing data gained from the electronic virtual prediction market which is actively operated.

  8. Civil classification of the acquirer and operator of a photovoltaic power plant. Consumer or entrepreneur?; Zivilrechtliche Einordnung des Erwerbers und Betreibers einer Photovoltaikanlage. Verbraucher oder Unternehmer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidewindt, Holger [Verbraucherzentrale Nordrhein-Westfalen e.V., Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    With the prospect of revenue from the feed consumption and cost savings by means of private 'small investors' for the energy policy turnaround are obtained. The civil protection in acquisition and operation of the photovoltaic power plant largely depends on their classification according to paragraph paragraph 13, 14 Civil Law Code (BGB). paragraph paragraph 305 ff. BGB are fully applicable only to consumers. Consumer organizations can act only under the participation of consumers. The recent judgments show that the registration of relevant aspects and their proper legal assessment are a major challenge. Therefore, the feed-in tariff as a demarcation criterion was a wrong decision.

  9. Going hybrid: An analysis of consumer purchase motivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Ritsuko; Sevastyanova, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    What makes consumers adopt energy-sustainable innovations? The uptake of such products and technologies is of importance, particularly at a time when climate change, diminishing energy resources and energy security are urgent issues. This paper reports on a case study of consumer adoption of hybrid vehicles, a green innovation that has been in the market since the late 1990s. The study is based on a questionnaire survey, conducted in 2009 in collaboration with Toyota GB, to investigate the dimensions that constitute motivations to purchase the Prius and to examine how policy can encourage hybrid adoption. The survey yielded 1484 responses, 1263 of which were used for the analysis; the results of the exploratory factor analyses provide information on consumer purchase motivations. The financial benefits related to transport policy are an important factor in consumer hybrid purchase motivations, and social norms and consumers' willingness to comply with the norms of their groups influence the purchase decision. We also find that various meanings are attached to hybrid vehicle ownership, and practical, experiential and affective values need to be communicated to consumers in terms of value added.

  10. Private Protected Areas as policy instruments to tackle environmental challenges: discussing potentialities and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Iannuzzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Protected Areas owned and managed by private actors are expected to have a relevant role in nature conservation policy as an additional tool to public-run protected sites. By reducing natural habitats destruction and degradation, well designed and well governed private protected areas (PPAs can have a key role in tackling two intertwined global threats: biodiversity loss and climate change. In this article we will present PPAs diffusion in Europe basing on data collected from the European Common Database on Nationally Designated Areas. In addition, an assessment framework will be proposed, with the purpose of contributing to a broader understanding of PPAs potentialities and pitfalls. The main challenges for PPAs effectiveness deal with their geographical distribution and their ability to provide strong and stable legal structures for private protection, assuring adequate and inclusive governance.

  11. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  12. Policies and measures for economic efficiency, energy security and environment protection in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkaiah, M.; Kaushik, S.C.; Dewangan, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    India needs to sustain 8-10% economic growth to meet energy needs of people below poverty line. India would, at least, need to grow its primary energy supply (3-4 times) of present consumption to deliver a sustained growth of 8% by 2031. This paper discusses India's policies and measures for economic efficiency, environment protection and energy security (3-E). (author)

  13. When do fat taxes increase consumer welfare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jayson L; Schroeter, Christiane

    2012-11-01

    Previous analyses of fat taxes have generally worked within an empirical framework in which it is difficult to determine whether consumers benefit from the policy. This note outlines on simple means to determine whether consumers benefit from a fat tax by comparing the ratio of expenditures on the taxed good to the weight effect of the tax against the individual's willingness to pay for a one-pound weight reduction. Our empirical calculations suggest that an individual would have to be willing to pay about $1500 to reduce weight by one pound for a tax on sugary beverages to be welfare enhancing. The results suggest either that a soda tax is very unlikely to increase individual consumer welfare or that the policy must be justified on some other grounds that abandon standard rationality assumptions. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. THE CONSUMER CONCEPT IN G.O. NO. 107/1999 AND G.O. NO. 21/1992. COMPARATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Teodora STANESCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Government Ordinance no. 107/1999 is a normative act with relevance in the field of consumer protection. Thus, according to Article 30, the ordinance is supplemented by GO no. 21/1992 on consumer protection. In this context, it should be noted that the notion of consumer as defined by GO no. 107/1999 is not identical to that used in consumer protection regulations. Thus, contracts for the sale of package travels may be contracts concluded with consumers from the perspective of GO no. 107/1999, but not from the point of view of consumer protection regulations. This study will identify the features of the consumer concept in GO no. 107/1999 and in GO no. 21/1992, as a normative act comprising the common law in the field of consumer protection. By identifying the differences between concepts, this study will exemplify their legal relevance in terms of consumer protection against the introduction of unfair contract terms.

  15. Australian consumer perspectives, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a qualitative study with implications for public health policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. M. Lum

    2017-10-01

    appropriate antibiotic use behaviours. Consumers also have expectations for high quality general practice consults conducted in a manner that increases consumer confidence in the treatment decision, regardless of whether an antibiotic is prescribed. To reduce inappropriate consumption of antibiotics and to more fully engage Australian consumers in mitigating antibiotic resistance, changes in health policy and practice are required.

  16. Australian consumer perspectives, attitudes and behaviours on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance: a qualitative study with implications for public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Elaine P M; Page, Katie; Nissen, Lisa; Doust, Jenny; Graves, Nicholas

    2017-10-10

    for high quality general practice consults conducted in a manner that increases consumer confidence in the treatment decision, regardless of whether an antibiotic is prescribed. To reduce inappropriate consumption of antibiotics and to more fully engage Australian consumers in mitigating antibiotic resistance, changes in health policy and practice are required.

  17. “Dialectical Contradictions” in the Neoclassical Theory and Policy Regarding Market Competition: The Consumer and His Continuos Burden of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian-Dragomir Jora

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the apparent general consensus, both economic theory in abstracto and the political practice in the realm of competition are looked upon from (too many perspectives. Far from being convergent or even complementary, the “theories” and “policies” are rather contradictory and conflicting “in” and “between” them. Nominally subsumed to the “consumer welfare”, the praise of competition and of its disciplinary power within the market economy (and twistingly even within the socialist one has experienced between the eras of “classical” and “neoclassical” economic science a subtle transition from the paradigm of “freedom” to that of “perfection”. And the transition was accomplished with a significant risk of loss both in internal consistency and realistic adequacy, which undergo the fictional methodology as well as the mathematical formalism, endemic in the neoclassical approach. The tension inside the theorizing of competition cohabits with the one inside the policies’ camp: the regulations often seem to be at odds with the stated commitment towards the consumers (seen holistically and aggregately. Some of the real “flesh and blood” consumers become in fact passive objects of “pro-competition” coercive rearrangements of welfare in three hypostases that individuals (though unevenly subsume: as “consumers” (of goods and services, as “competitors” (factors of production in labour markets and as “citizens” (asymmetrically hit by the myriad of policies. This paper offers an “original recovery” of a common sense argument: after the mainstream imposition of “perfect” instead of “free” competition standard, the neoclassicism-inspired public policies end up promoting a competition climate heavily strained from both freedom and perfection.

  18. 76 FR 45570 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Consumer Action Network--Claude Stout Digital Policy Institute--Barry Umansky Hearing Loss Association of...--Debra Berlyn (Chairperson) Native Public Media--Dr. Traci Morris Rochester Institute of Technology--Raja...

  19. A Consumer's Guide to the Federal Trade Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth

    This publication presents consumer information designed to encourage and facilitate active citizen involvement in Federal Trade Commission (FTC) proceedings. Nine chapters are included, covering (1) the FTC and its impact on consumers (discusses the authority of FTC, the Bureau of Competition, the Bureau of Consumer Protection, and lists FTC…

  20. Realizing IoT service's policy privacy over publish/subscribe-based middleware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Shiping; Wang, Shiyao; Cheng, Bo; Chen, Junliang

    2016-01-01

    The publish/subscribe paradigm makes IoT service collaborations more scalable and flexible, due to the space, time and control decoupling of event producers and consumers. Thus, the paradigm can be used to establish large-scale IoT service communication infrastructures such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems. However, preserving IoT service's policy privacy is difficult in this paradigm, because a classical publisher has little control of its own event after being published; and a subscriber has to accept all the events from the subscribed event type with no choice. Few existing publish/subscribe middleware have built-in mechanisms to address the above issues. In this paper, we present a novel access control framework, which is capable of preserving IoT service's policy privacy. In particular, we adopt the publish/subscribe paradigm as the IoT service communication infrastructure to facilitate the protection of IoT services policy privacy. The key idea in our policy-privacy solution is using a two-layer cooperating method to match bi-directional privacy control requirements: (a) data layer for protecting IoT events; and (b) application layer for preserving the privacy of service policy. Furthermore, the anonymous-set-based principle is adopted to realize the functionalities of the framework, including policy embedding and policy encoding as well as policy matching. Our security analysis shows that the policy privacy framework is Chosen-Plaintext Attack secure. We extend the open source Apache ActiveMQ broker by building into a policy-based authorization mechanism to enforce the privacy policy. The performance evaluation results indicate that our approach is scalable with reasonable overheads.

  1. EURATOM radiation protection policy - in expectation of the European Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1991-01-01

    Everything should be avoided in order that varying radiation protection regulations of individual member states may not hamper the realization of the EC Internal Market, whereby the EURATOM Treaty does not really allow variability because of the following: It is the task of the Community to set up and implement uniform safety standards for the public health of the population and the working force. From this can be deduced that member states may not deviate from EURATOM basic norms when putting these standards into practice. Summarizing, it can be said that on the basis of the EURATOM Treaty the implementation of industrial targets and of the aims of public health policy do not compete with each other in principle. When observing the regulations of the European Atomic Community Treaty, no serious obstacles are to be expected for radiation protection when the European Internal Market becomes reality. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Social Policies in Contemporary Latin America: Families and Poverty in the Social Protection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of social policies on the living conditions of poor families—particularly women—in Latin America from the late 1980s to the present. It identifies three distinct trends of familialism in the region’s social protection systems. The first social policy trend is characterized by poverty alleviation policies addressing the family in an “elliptical” way, taking for granted the idea of a nuclear family. The distinguishing trait of the second trend is the appearance of social programs aimed at families and stressing the role of women as chief caregivers and administrators. And finally, the third policy trend is defined by an expansion of more universal social programs targeting children and the elderly. Despite the recent emergence of programs with gender specific goals, social policies continue to put a great burden on female workers. For example, many subsidies to poor families deliver money directly to women, improving their intra-family bargaining power, but this translates also into an increase of responsibilities and the ensuing overload of work. Consequently, social policies in Latin America need to aim at encouraging a more egalitarian distribution of housework and care work within the family, especially given how well-established androcentrism is in the region.

  3. Consumer attitudes towards evidence based mental health services among American mental health consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Lisa B; Hayashi, Kentaro; Latner, Janet; Mueller, Charles W

    2016-10-01

    The Consumer Attitudes towards Evidence Based Services (CAEBS) scale is a 29-item questionnaire designed to assess public views on the role of science in helping to guide mental health treatment. The aim of the current study was to assess the Factor structure the CAEBS in an online sample of adults seeking information about mental health services. The CAEBS was administered to a nationwide sample of participants from websites offering classified advertisements for mental health related study participation (n = 312). An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) suggested four factors based on 26 of the items: Beliefs Regarding Therapists' Practices, Attitudes about Mental Health Policy, Negative Personal-Level Attitudes toward EBPs, and Negative Societal-Level Attitudes towards EBPs. In order to increase consumer empowerment within the mental health-care system and develop policies supporting EBP usage, mental health professionals need to increase communication with the public to address these concerns and leverage positive attitudes. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  4. The Regulatory Consumer: Prosumer-Driven Local Energy Production Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butenko, A.; Cseres, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the (pro)active role consumers could (and are encouraged by the respective policy to) assume in markets that emerged due to European market liberalization and technological changes. These changes expanded consumer markets and changed regulatory architectures accordingly.

  5. Implementation of the Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act of 2008. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act, which was enacted on October 15, 2008, amended the Controlled Substances Act and Controlled Substances Import and Export Act by adding several new provisions to prevent the illegal distribution and dispensing of controlled substances by means of the Internet. DEA is hereby issuing an interim rule to amend its regulations to implement the legislation and is requesting comments on the interim rule.

  6. Policy packages to achieve demand reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Brenda

    2005-01-01

    In many sectors and many countries, energy demand is still increasing, despite decades of policies to reduce demand. Controlling climate change is becoming more urgent, so there is a need to devise policies that will, virtually, guarantee demand reduction. This has to come from policy, at least in the UK, as the conditions do not exist, yet, when the consumers will 'pull' the market for energy efficiency or the manufacturers will use technological development to 'push' it. That virtuous circle has to be created by a mixture of consumer education and restrictions on manufacturers (for instance, permission to manufacture). The wider policy options include higher prices for energy and stronger product policies. An assessment of the effectiveness of different policy packages indicates some guiding principles, for instance that improved product policy must precede higher prices, otherwise consumers are unable to react effectively to price rises. The evidence will be assessed about the ways in which national and EU policies can either reinforce, duplicate or undermine each other. Another area of examination will be timescales: what is the time lag between the implementation of a policy (whether prices or product based) and the level of maximum reductions. In addition, the emphasis given to factors such as equity, raising investment funds and speed of delivery also influence policy design and the extent to which absolute carbon reductions can be expected

  7. The energy policy and sustainability of the subsidy mechanism for retail petroleum products consumed in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksh, Timmy

    2010-09-15

    In 1974 the Petroleum Production Levy and Subsidy Act gave effect to legislation which detailed a mechanism to implement a subsidy on all fuel consumed within, and in the territorial waters of, Trinidad and Tobago. This paper will analyse the underlying principles of this energy policy, follow how the mechanism has evolved over the years and propose new iterations to the existing model in order to reduce the Governments liability. The sustainability of the subsidy will be examined and as well as an in-depth analysis on the possible impact on inflation if this mechanism is removed.

  8. The new challenges of the French energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonnot, F.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two themes are tackled the opening and the liberalization of the energy market in the European Community. The market opening aims to increase the security and the diversification of energy supply. The European Commission tends to introduce a real control of competition and to lay down a separation between producers and carriers. The keeping of public utility allows to protect the weakest consumers, including the small companies. If the economic development needs energy, this one is also one of the first causes of pollution so it is necessary to equilibrate the supply policy by action on demand. (N.C.)

  9. Financial protection from health spending in the Philippines: policies and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredenkamp, Caryn; Buisman, Leander R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to assess the progress of the Philippines health sector in providing financial protection to the population, as measured by estimates of health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket spending, catastrophic payments and impoverishing health expenditures. Data are drawn from eight household surveys between 2000 and 2013, including two Demographic and Health Surveys, one Family Health Survey and five Family Income and Expenditure Surveys. We find that out-of-pocket spending increased by 150% (real) from 2000 to 2012, with the sharpest increases occurring in recent years. The main driver of health spending is medicines, accounting for almost two-thirds of total health spending, and as much as three-quarters among the poor. The incidence of catastrophic payments has tripled since 2000, from 2.5% to 7.7%. The percentage of people impoverished by health spending has also increased and, in 2012, out-of-pocket spending on health added 1.5 percentage points to the poverty rate, pushing more than 1.5 million people into poverty. In light of these findings, recent policies to enhance financial risk protection-such as the expansion of government-subsidized health insurance from the poor to the near-poor, a policy of zero copayments for the poor, a deepening of the benefit package and provider payment reform aimed at cost-containment-are to be commended. Indeed, between 2008 and 2013, self-reported health insurance coverage increased across all quintiles and its distribution became more pro-poor. To speed progress toward financial protection goals, quick wins could include issuing health insurance cards to the poor to increase awareness of coverage and limiting out-of-pocket spending by clearly defining a clear copayment structure for non-poor members. An in-depth analysis of the pharmaceutical sector would help to shed light on why medicines impose such a large financial burden on households. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press

  10. 77 FR 13959 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... States of America A Proclamation Millions of Americans use financial products, including credit cards... family. Yet, irresponsible lending and deceptive practices pose serious risks to consumers and our... clear and concise information they need to make financial decisions, and to encouraging open and honest...

  11. Origin labelling; Cost analysis for producers and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terluin, I.J.; Benninga, J.; Berkhout, P.; Immink, V.M.; Janssens, S.R.M.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Rau, M.L.; Tacken, G.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    By stating the origin of a foodstuff, producers can provide consumers with information about where the food comes from. Country of origin labelling is the subject of debate from two different policy areas. One debate takes place in the framework of EU quality policy for agricultural products, the

  12. Evolution and complexity of government policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in Thailand – the unsolved challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Putthasri, Weerasak; Prakongsai, Phusit; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-01-01

    Background Of the 65 million residents in Thailand, >1.5 million are undocumented/illegal migrants from neighboring countries. Despite several policies being launched to improve access to care for these migrants, policy implementation has always faced numerous challenges. This study aimed to investigate the policy makers’ views on the challenges of implementing policies to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants in light of the dynamics of all of the migrant policies in Thailand. Methods This study used a qualitative approach. Data were collected by document review, from related laws/regulations concerning migration policy over the past 40 years, and from in-depth interviews with seven key policy-level officials. Thematic analysis was applied. Results Three critical themes emerged, namely, national security, economic necessity, and health protection. The national security discourse played a dominant role from the early 1900s up to the 1980s as Thailand attempted to defend itself from the threats of colonialism and communism. The economic boom of the 1990s created a pronounced labor shortage, which required a large migrant labor force to drive the growing economy. The first significant attempt to protect the health of migrants materialized in the early 2000s, after Thailand achieved universal health coverage. During that period, public insurance for undocumented/illegal migrants was introduced. The insurance used premium-based financing. However, the majority of migrants remained uninsured. Recently, the government attempted to overhaul the entire migrant registry system by introducing a new measure, namely the One Stop Service. In principle, the One Stop Service aimed to integrate the functions of all responsible authorities, but several challenges still remained; these included ambiguous policy messages and the slow progress of the nationality verification process. Conclusion The root causes of the challenges in migrant health policy are incoherent

  13. The Relationship between Sun Protection Policy and Associated Practices in a National Sample of Early Childhood Services in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettridge, Kerry A.; Bowden, Jacqueline A.; Rayner, Joanne M.; Wilson, Carlene J.

    2011-01-01

    Limiting exposure to sunlight during childhood can significantly reduce the risk of skin cancer. This was the first national study to assess the sun protection policies and practices of early childhood services across Australia. It also examined the key predictors of services' sun protection practices. In 2007, 1017 respondents completed a…

  14. New food policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Andersen, Lill

    The urbanisation, technical changes, and the industrialisation of the food systems on one hand and increased income and changes in lifestyles on the other hand transform the way food is produced, marketed and consumed - those changes call for changes in the nature of food policy. Concerns over food...... safety have become an important driver of reform of food policy. In particular, the BSE crisis in 1996 had a significant impact on the formulation of a change in food safety policy in the EU. The White Paper on Food Safety was prepared by the EU commision as a response to the BSE scandal as the EU felt...... a need for restablishing public confidence in its food supply, its food science, its laws and its food control. In addition, the White Paper on Food Safety points towards a farm to fork policy in that 'as the food production chain is becoming increasingly complex, the health of consumers can ony...

  15. Sun Protection Policies of Australian Primary Schools in a Region of High Sun Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S. L.; Garzón-Chavez, D. R.; Nikles, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Queensland, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer globally. Predetermined criteria were used to score the comprehensiveness of sun protection policies (SPP) of primary schools across Queensland. SPP were sought for schools in 10 regions (latitude range 16.3°S-28.1°S) from 2011 to 2014. Of the 723 schools sampled, 90.9% had a written SPP…

  16. Coordination of a supply chain with consumer return under vendor-managed consignment inventory and stochastic demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhihui; Chen, Dongyan; Yu, Hui

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the problem of the coordination policy is investigated for vendor-managed consignment inventory supply chain subject to consumer return. Here, the market demand is assumed to be affected by promotional effort and consumer return policy. The optimal consignment inventory and the optimal promotional effort level are proposed under the decentralized and centralized decisions. Based on the optimal decision conditions, the markdown allowance-promotional cost-sharing contract is investigated to coordinate the supply chain. Subsequently, the comparison between the two extreme policies shows that full-refund policy dominates the no-return policy when the returning cost and the positive effect of return policy are satisfied certain conditions. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the impacts of consumer return policy on the coordination contract and optimal profit as well as the effectiveness of the proposed supply chain decision.

  17. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking......Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  18. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  19. POLICY, PROTECTION OF POLICYHOLDER, AND LIFE INSURANCE EDUCATION TO THE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Sri Juni Kartika

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes towards betterment of policyholder protection is not proportional to the growth of life insurance company. Policyholders encounter difficulties in asserting their rights when their life insurance companyis in financial straits and served with bankruptcy petition. Life insurance company and regulator have tore-regulate in detail every possible provision contained in a life insurance and ensure that each clausehas been incorporated in the policy, to protect policyholder. The society must be educated to the rightsand responsibility of the policyholder and the insurer, including the protection accorded to policyholders when the life insurance company is on the edge of financial distress or bankruptcy. Peningkatan perlindungan bagi pemegang polis belumlah memadai jika dibandingkan dengan pertumbuhan industri perasuransian. Pemegang polis menghadapi kesulitan untuk mendapatkan haknya ketika perusahaan asuransi menghadapi kondisi keuangan yang tidak sehat dan kebangkrutan. Perusahaan asuransi dan pembuat undang-undang harus mengatur kembali secara rinci semua klausul yang diperlukan dan memastikan bahwa klausul tersebut sudah termuat dalam polis asuransi, khususnyahal-hal yang mengatur mengenai perlindungan bagi pemegang polis asuransi jiwa. Masyarakat perlu diedukasi tentang hak dan tanggungjawab dari pemegang polis dan perusahaan asuransi selaku penjamin, termasuk mengenai perlindungan pemegang polis ketika perusahaan asuransi jiwa menghadapi masalah keuangan atau kebangkrutan.

  20. Social Innovation in Consumer Protection in Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Hyánek, V.; Navrátil, J.; Placier, K.; Akinyi, E. A.; Figueroa, Maria; Alvarez Garcia, B.; Salido-Andres, N.; Sanzo Perez, M. J.; Alvarez Gonzalez, L. I.; Rey-Garcia, M.

    2017-01-01

    As a subject of this case work within the FP7 EU-funded project ITSSOIN, the growing industry of alternative financial services (AFS) has been selected. The considerably ambivalent phenomenon of AFS can be understood as both representing a socially more embedded and responsible alternative to the traditional banking system (which is during crisis less accessible for lower-income consumers), and as well as potentially threatening concept for those socially vulnerable groups. The field of AFS h...

  1. Public policy versus individual rights and responsibility: an economist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J

    2011-09-01

    Interventions to reduce childhood obesity entail ethical considerations. Although a rationale exists for government to intervene in a way that limits individual rights while protecting the public's health, a clear economic rationale also exists. The markets for goods and services that contribute to obesity are characterized by multiple failures that create an economic rationale for government to intervene (eg, consumers' lack of accurate information regarding obesogenic foods and beverages). If effective public policies for reducing obesity and its consequences are to be developed and implemented, individual rights and government interests must be balanced.

  2. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade issues within the USSR. Topics include: production, distribution, economics, housing and personal services, policies, personal income and savings.

  3. 78 FR 14625 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Security Proclamation 8939--100th Anniversary of the United States Department of Labor Order of March 1..., we established a new unit to combat fraud and investigate the abusive lending and mortgage packaging... across the Federal Government joined with consumer advocates to launch www.NCPW.gov , an online resource...

  4. Energy policy of France; Politique energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H

    2001-07-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  5. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 536 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 536 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 536, App. A Appendix A to Part 536—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  6. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 14 - Consumer Grievance Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Grievance Process A Appendix A to Part 14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE Pt. 14, App. A Appendix A to Part 14—Consumer Grievance Process Any consumer who...

  7. Evaluation of Legal Data Protection Requirements in Cloud Services in the Context of Contractual Relations with End-Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darius Štitilis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyse the compliance with basic principles of data protection in selected consumer oriented cloud services contracts, and also to highlight the adequate level of data protection in the mentioned contracts, evaluating existing data protection directive 95/46/EC, also proposed General data protection regulation.Design/methodology/approach – various survey methods have been used in the work integrated. Documental analysis method has been used in analysis of scientific literature, legal acts and other documents, where aspects of legal data protection requirements have been included. Legal documents analysis method together with logical-analytic method has been used in analysing Directive 95/46/EU, Proposal for a regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council and jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Comparative method has been applied for revealing difference between particular cloud services contracts and also comparing the compliance of cloud services contracts to requirements of basic European data protection principles, established in the international documents.Findings – from the brief analysis of selected consumer oriented cloud service providers, it may be implied that more or less all the legal principles, established in the legal acts, are reflected in the privacy policies and/or service agreements. However, it shall be noted that there is a big difference in wording of the analysed documents. Regarding other principles, all examined cloud service providers do not have indemnification provisions regarding unlawful use of personal data.Research limitations/implications – the concept of the contract was presented in a broad sense, including the privacy policies and/or terms and conditions of the service providers. In accordance with the content of the principles, the authors grouped data protection principles, applied in cloud services into fundamental and recommendatory.Practical implications

  8. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  9. A study of factors enhancing smart grid consumer engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan-Kook; Kim, Hyun-Jae; Kim, Yang-Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is important to ensure consumer acceptance in a smart grid since the ultimate deployment of the smart grid depends on the end users' acceptance of smart grid products and services such as smart meters and advanced metering services. We examine how residential consumers perceive the smart grid and what factors influence their acceptance of the smart grid through a survey for electricity consumers in Korea. In this study, consumers' smart grid acceptance factors, including the perceived risk, were examined with the existing technology acceptance model suggested by Davis. This study has an implication that it has provided theoretical and empirical ground, based on which the policies to promote consumer participation in the deployment of the smart grid can be developed. Since there are few studies on the policies from the perspective of the smart grid users, this study will contribute directly to the development of the strategy to ensure the acceptance of the smart grid. - Highlights: • We examine what factors influence electricity consumers' smart grid acceptance. • We test the smart grid technology acceptance model including the perceived risk as a main factor. • The importance of consumer education and public relations of the smart grid has been confirmed. • Another shortcut to ensure the acceptance of the smart grid is to mitigate the anxiety about the risk in the use of the smart grid

  10. Coordinating a Supply Chain with Risk-Averse Agents under Demand and Consumer Returns Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the optimal order decision in a supply chain when it faces uncertain demand and uncertain consumer returns. We build consumer returns model with decision-makers’ risk preference under mean-variance objective framework and discuss supply chain coordination problem under wholesale-price-only policy and the manufacturer’s buyback policy, respectively. We find that, with wholesale price policy, the supply chain cannot be coordinated whether the supply chain agents are risk-neutral or risk-averse. However, with buyback policy, the supply chain can be coordinated and the profit of the supply chain can be arbitrarily allocated between the manufacturer and the retailer. Through numerical examples, we illustrate the impact of stochastic consumer returns and the supply chain agents’ risk attitude on the optimal order decision.

  11. Creating sport consumers in Dutch sport policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to

  12. Biotechnology and food safety in China: Consumers' acceptance or resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.; Vermeer, E.B.; Zhao, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although China is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of genetically modified (GM) crops and derived food products, little is known about the level of Chinese consumer awareness, understanding and acceptance of GM food. Initially, China pursued relatively aggressive policies for

  13. Biotechnology and food safety in China : Consumers' acceptance or resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P; Vermeer, EB; Zhao, JH

    Although China is one of the world's largest producers and consumers of genetically modified (GM) crops and derived food products, little is known about the level of Chinese consumer awareness, understanding and acceptance of GM food. Initially, China pursued relatively aggressive policies for

  14. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  15. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  16. Privacy Policies for Apps Targeted Toward Youth: Descriptive Analysis of Readability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Gitanjali; Cheung, Cynthia; Nebeker, Camille; Bietz, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Background Due to the growing availability of consumer information, the protection of personal data is of increasing concern. Objective We assessed readability metrics of privacy policies for apps that are either available to or targeted toward youth to inform strategies to educate and protect youth from unintentional sharing of personal data. Methods We reviewed the 1200 highest ranked apps from the Apple and Google Play Stores and systematically selected apps geared toward youth. After applying exclusion criteria, 99 highly ranked apps geared toward minors remained, 64 of which had a privacy policy. We obtained and analyzed these privacy policies using reading grade level (RGL) as a metric. Policies were further compared as a function of app category (free vs paid; entertainment vs social networking vs utility). Results Analysis of privacy policies for these 64 apps revealed an average RGL of 12.78, which is well above the average reading level (8.0) of adults in the United States. There was also a small but statistically significant difference in word count as a function of app category (entertainment: 2546 words, social networking: 3493 words, and utility: 1038 words; P=.02). Conclusions Although users must agree to privacy policies to access digital tools and products, readability analyses suggest that these agreements are not comprehensible to most adults, let alone youth. We propose that stakeholders, including pediatricians and other health care professionals, play a role in educating youth and their guardians about the use of Web-based services and potential privacy risks, including the unintentional sharing of personal data. PMID:29301737

  17. Ethics in the Institution of Consumers’ Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Păuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at emphasizing the level of institutional ethics for the needs of an organization, which is the consumersř protection. By the means of this marketing research which has as a starting point the Fishbein- Rosenberg model, we wish to point out the importance of the main attributes specified by the Law of the Public Servant, whether these can be the basis of the relationship between consumers and economic operators. The institution of consumersř protection acts as an arbitrer in this case and we wish to find out whether these attributes follow the requirements of the relationship between consumer and the institution which protects them.

  18. Who speaks for the health consumer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael H

    2008-08-01

    Although consumer-directed health care has become a fashionable concept in recent years, stories abound asking whether the so-called free market in health care can provide adequate access to quality health care at an affordable price. In spite of these concerns, consumer-directed health care continues as the face of legitimacy behind an industry-driven campaign to limit regulatory protections of the consumer in the market and encourage the growth of health insurance products that place spending options closer to the consumer, whether or not these options are available, affordable, or easily understood. Understanding whether this empowerment is real begins with first asking what it now means to be a health consumer. This commentary offers perspective on the dilemma faced by millions of Americans in navigating our health care system under the assumption that market-driven choices foster consumer empowerment in health care, and suggests approaches for expanding the true consumer voice.

  19. Liberal coercion? Prostitution, human trafficking and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-young

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  20. Discussion on Consumer Rights and Interests Protection in the Era of Internet Finance%互联网金融领域消费者权益保护问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝平

    2015-01-01

    互联网金融领域消费者权益保护方面的挑战,主要集中于信息安全隐患大、资金安全难保障、消费者维权意识淡薄且维权成本高三方面。为不断加大互联网金融领域消费者权益保护力度,需加强信息安全立法,规范准入门槛,在提升风控要求基础上充分发挥市场力量提升市场主体保护消费者权益的自觉性和主动性,唤醒消费者维权意识并降低消费者维权成本。%The challenges for these problems mainly focus on huge hidden risk from information security, the safety of funds hardly to be guaranteed, weak awareness of consumer rights and high cost of rights protection. It’ s neces-sary for constantly enhancing the strength for protecting Internet financial consumer rights and interests to highlight information security legislation, to regulate access thresholds, to exert the role of market forces into full play based on promoting risk control requirement, so as to enhance the consciousness and initiative of market participants in terms of protecting consumer interests and awaken the awareness of consumers to protect their rights and reduce the cost of rights protection.

  1. Data Security and Privacy in Apps for Dementia: An Analysis of Existing Privacy Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Lisa; Torous, John; Vahia, Ipsit V

    2017-08-01

    Despite tremendous growth in the number of health applications (apps), little is known about how well these apps protect their users' health-related data. This gap in knowledge is of particular concern for apps targeting people with dementia, whose cognitive impairment puts them at increased risk of privacy breaches. In this article, we determine how many dementia apps have privacy policies and how well they protect user data. Our analysis included all iPhone apps that matched the search terms "medical + dementia" or "health & fitness + dementia" and collected user-generated content. We evaluated all available privacy policies for these apps based on criteria that systematically measure how individual user data is handled. Seventy-two apps met the above search teams and collected user data. Of these, only 33 (46%) had an available privacy policy. Nineteen of the 33 with policies (58%) were specific to the app in question, and 25 (76%) specified how individual-user as opposed to aggregate data would be handled. Among these, there was a preponderance of missing information, the majority acknowledged collecting individual data for internal purposes, and most admitted to instances in which they would share user data with outside parties. At present, the majority of health apps focused on dementia lack a privacy policy, and those that do exist lack clarity. Bolstering safeguards and improving communication about privacy protections will help facilitate consumer trust in apps, thereby enabling more widespread and meaningful use by people with dementia and those involved in their care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. SUDOQU: a new dose model to derive criteria for surface contamination of non-food (consumer) goods, containers and conveyances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dillen, Teun

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident (Japan, 11 March 2011) revealed the need for well-founded criteria for surface contamination and associated screening levels related to the import of non-food (consumer) goods, containers and conveyances. The only available European-harmonised criteria are those laid down in the IAEA transport regulations, but these criteria date back from the early 1960's and only apply to the safe transport of radioactive materials. The main problem is that a generic dose-assessment model for consumer products is missing. Therefore, RIVM (National Institute for Public Health and the Environment) developed a new methodology entitled SUDOQU (Surface Dose Quantification) to calculate the annual effective dose for both consumers and non-radiological workers, addressing issues of removability of surface contamination. The methodology can be used to derive criteria and screening levels for surface contamination and could serve as a useful tool for policy-makers and radiation-protection specialists. (authors)

  3. Smart Grid: Smart Customer Policy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In September 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) held a workshop on the regulatory, market and consumer policies necessary to ensure that smart grids are deployed with adequate consideration of their risks and benefits to all stakeholders. This was one of several workshops that brought together energy providers, network operators, technology developers, regulators, customers and government policy makers to discuss smart grid technology and policy. The Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policies workshop allowed stakeholders to: gain a perspective on key issues and barriers facing early deployment of smart grids; hear expert opinion on regulatory, consumer and market challenges to smart grids; discuss smart grid-smart customer policy priorities; and build consensus on the technology and policy ingredients needed for customer-friendly smart grid deployments. Drawing on workshop discussions, the following paper lays out a logical framework to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks that smart grids pose for customers. The paper also describes key policy research questions that will guide future IEA research on this topic.

  4. CHILDREN'S HEALTH PROTECTION IN INTERSECTORAL CONNECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.E. Lapin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently discovered phenomenon of compensatory mechanism of absence of legislative durable national policy in health protection of children is described in this article. This mechanism was developed as a result of evolution of intersect oral connection for the sake of children's health protection. «National family policy», «national policy for the sake of children», «national policy in the field of circulation of narcotic, psychotropic substances and in the field of counteraction to its illegal use», «national policy of Russian federation in the field of education», «national policy in the field of labor relations» perform functions of such compensatory mechanism. Fact of regulation of social relations in the sphere of children's health protection with means of different active directions of national policy is evidence of legal assignment of a number of problems in children's health protection as real subject of policy. The negative feature of this problem is incomplete and fragmentary regulation of relationships in the field of children's health protection. This is the reason, which maintains a status of children's health protection service as passive dirigible object but not an active regulative factor.Key words: children, health, national policy.

  5. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  6. Trends and Gaps in Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests From 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apathy, Nate C; Menser, Terri; Keeran, Lindsay M; Ford, Eric W; Harle, Christopher A; Huerta, Timothy R

    2018-06-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests for inherited disease risks have gained recent approvals from the Food and Drug Administration, and interest in these tests has continued to grow. Broad use of these tests coupled with planning and discussion with health providers regarding genetic risks and potential protective behavior changes have been proposed as preventive tools to reduce health disparities and improve equity in health outcomes. However, awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing has historically demonstrated differences by education, income, and race; these disparities could jeopardize potential benefits by limiting access and use. The national survey data from the Health Information National Trends Survey was analyzed to understand how overall awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing and disparities in awareness across sociodemographic groups have changed since 2007. The findings showed persistent disparities, as well as a widening gap in awareness between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites (OR 2007 =1.52, OR 2014 =0.58, p change =0.0056), despite overall increases in awareness over time. Given these findings, policies regulating direct-to-consumer genetic tests should prioritize equitable distribution of benefits by including provisions that counteract prevailing disparities in awareness. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Green consumers and public policy: On socially contingent moral motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Howarth, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    'Green' consumers appear to accept individual responsibility for the provision of public goods. The propensity to take such responsibility may depend on beliefs about others' behavior, even for consumers motivated by internalized moral norms, not by social sanctions. This effect can produce multiple equilibria with either high or low demand for 'green' products. Permanent increases in green consumption may be achieved by imposing temporary taxes or subsidies, or through advertising that influences beliefs about others' behavior or about external effects. If a tax is interpreted as taking responsibility away from the individual, however, taxes can reduce the influence of moral motivation. (author)

  8. A Bill to Amend the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968 to Improve . . . Strengthening of State and Local Offices of Consumer Protection. H.R. 2198. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2198), to be cited, if enacted, as the Intergovernmental Consumer Assistance Act, would add a new title to the Intergovernmental Cooperation Act of 1968: Title VII-Intergovernmental Cooperation with Respect to Consumer Assistance and Protection. The objective is to establish greater cooperation among…

  9. Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guides for Social Studies, English, Science, Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice

    These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…

  10. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  11. Advanced policy options to regulate sugar-sweetened beverages to support public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has increased worldwide. As public health studies expose the detrimental impact of SSBs, consumer protection and public health advocates have called for increased government control. A major focus has been on restricting marketing of SSBs to children, but many innovative policy options--legally defensible ways to regulate SSBs and support public health--are largely unexplored. We describe the public health, economic, and retail marketing research related to SSBs (including energy drinks). We review policy options available to governments, including mandatory factual disclosures, earmarked taxation, and regulating sales, including placement within retail and food service establishments, and schools. Our review describes recent international initiatives and classifies options available in the United States by jurisdiction (federal, state, and local) based on legal viability.

  12. 76 FR 39989 - Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Policy, (202) 874-4428; or Kevin Russell, Director, Retail Credit Risk, (202) 874-5170, Office of the...] Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... principles of safe and sound banking practices in connection with deposit-related consumer credit products...

  13. Digital consumers and the law: towards a cohesive European framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.; Loos, M.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.; van der Sloot, B.

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a critical analysis of how digitisation affects established concepts and policies in consumer law. Based on evidence of the actual experience and problems encountered by consumers in digital markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of the main issues arising in relation to

  14. Digital consumers and the law: towards a cohesive European framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.; Guibault, L.; Loos, M.; Mak, C.; Pessers, L.; van der Sloot, B.

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a critical analysis of how digitisation affects established concepts and policies in consumer law. Based on evidence of the actual experience and problems encountered by consumers in digital markets, the book offers a ground-breaking study of the main issues arising in relation to

  15. Energy efficiency versus gains in consumer amenities—An example from new cars sold in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprei, Frances; Karlsson, Sten

    2013-01-01

    Technological developments that increase energy efficiency result in net energy-saving benefits, provided the increased efficiency is not offset by enhanced consumer amenities. This paper analyzes the technology development/consumer amenities trade-off for new cars sold in Sweden between 1975 and 2010. We combine lessons learned from the policies in place and interviews with key actors in the car-purchasing process with statistical modeling of trends in vehicle attributes and technological development. Until 2007, consumer amenities were continuously enhanced, offsetting most of the efficiency gains of technological development; there was no strong policy push toward energy efficiency. In recent years, two major shifts have occurred. First, there has been a shift in the majority of new cars sold, from gasoline-powered engines to diesel engines. Flex-fuel vehicles have also contributed to a decline in the sales-share of pure gasoline engines. The observed shift of fuels, especially to flex-fuels, has been encouraged by policies. Second, after 2007 there have been major technological improvements, while attributes related to consumer amenities have remained flat, reversing the trends so that 77% of the technological development resulted in actual reduction of specific fuel consumption. EU targets, tax reforms, and consumer awareness have contributed to this trend change. - Highlights: ► Trade-offs between consumer amenities and fuel consumption of new cars in Sweden. ► Methods: Statistical modeling, policy analysis and interviews. ► Until 2007 a majority of technological development is offset by consumer amenities. ► After 2005 a shift from gasoline to diesel and flex-fuels takes place. ► Policy change and environmental awareness result in a reversion of trends.

  16. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  17. Global issues- National Policies: Comparing wetland protection polies and perceptions in the Netherlands en the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands protection is a global goal that requires action on many levels of government, including National, State or Provincial, and municipal. Global plans and programs require a network of national and sub-national policy definition and enforcement. In the United States, for example, global and

  18. Optimal Consumer Electronics Product Take-Back Time with Consideration of Consumer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tse Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth in recent years has transformed our lifestyle to massively produce, consume, and dispose of products, especially for consumer electronics. This change has put great threat to our environment and caused natural resource depletion. Moreover, short product life cycles and quick replacements of consumer electronics create enormous electronic wastes (e-wastes. Without proper waste management, immense environmental damage is expected. In this empirical study, we notice that lots of valuable materials that can still be recycled from these used consumer electronics are left unused at home instead of being recycled at the appropriate time, which causes a low collection rate and a decrease in residual value for the used products. Therefore, it is important for the government and the recyclers to handle them efficiently by increasing the used product take-back rate. Our study develops an assessment model for customer value based on the idea of value engineering and the perspective of product life cycle. We also explore the relationship between product value and the total cost of ownership with an evaluation of their time variation, considering different usage modes for various consumer groups and different recycling award schemes (fixed and variable recycling awards. Proper take-back management is likely to create a win-win situation both for consumers and environmental protection. This study regards the notebook computer as an example to determine the optimal time for recycling laptops based on usage patterns and provides consumers a reference for when to replace their used product. The results from our modeling firstly clearly indicate that consumers with higher frequency of usage have shorter take back times and higher maximum consumer value. Secondly, a variable recycling award scheme with higher maximum consumer value is more practical than a fixed recycling award scheme.

  19. The 'neighbor effect'. Simulating dynamics in consumer preferences for new vehicle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, Paulus; Eyzaguirre, Jimena; Jaccard, Mark; Tiedemann, Kenneth; Collins-Dodd, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    Understanding consumer behaviour is essential in designing policies that efficiently increase the uptake of clean technologies over the long-run. Expert opinion or qualitative market analyses have tended to be the sources of this information. However, greater scrutiny on governments increasingly demands the use of reliable and credible evidence to support policy decisions. While discrete choice research and modeling techniques have been applied to estimate consumer preferences for technologies, these methods often assume static preferences. This study builds on the application of discrete choice research and modeling to capture dynamics in consumer preferences. We estimate Canadians' preferences for new vehicle technologies under different market assumptions, using responses from two national surveys focused on hybrid gas-electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The results support the relevance of a range of vehicle attributes beyond the purchase price in shaping consumer preferences towards clean vehicle technologies. They also corroborate our hypothesis that the degree of market penetration of clean vehicle technologies is an influence on people's preferences ('the neighbor effect'). Finally, our results provide behavioural parameters for the energy-economy model CIMS, which we use here to show the importance of including consumer preference dynamics when setting policies to encourage the uptake of clean technologies. (author)

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 ON THE COMMON LAW WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTION: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Barnard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller’s common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the legal position in the United Kingdom – specifically the provisions of the Sales of Goods Act of 1979 – is investigated.

  1. Tourism law: from traveller to consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Casanovas Ibáñez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The law on tourism – “tourism law” for some authors – is the instrument that has been used to turn the tourist into a consumer. Travellers are increasingly aware of the rights they can exercise. Incorporating the regulation of combined travel contracts (separate tourist services sold for an overall price into the body of consumer regulation and air passenger protection has made a definitive contribution to establishing this condition. Tourist contracts involving consumers have ended up in the courts, which have already had the opportunity to interpret the regulations and orient them towards the most protectionist positions for consumers. With the addition of new consumption habits and new types of contracting the future of this field looks far from static.

  2. Consumer access to health information on the internet: health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W Guy; Scott, Helen M; Auld, Terry S

    2005-06-28

    Providers of health care usually have much better information about health and health care interventions than do consumers. The internet is an important and rapidly evolving source of global health-related information and could provide a means of correcting for asymmetric information. However, little is known about who accesses this information and how it is used in New Zealand. The aims of this research were to: determine the nature of the health information sought, how respondents use the information, how helpful they perceive the information to be, and the self-assessed value of such information. The researchers conducted an anonymous five minute telephone and mall intercept survey of randomly selected Wellington residents who had searched for health-related information on the internet. Investigators entered the data into an Excel spreadsheet and transferred it to SPSS for data cleaning, data exploration and statistical analysis. Search time costs were based on the opportunity cost of income foregone and respondents were asked to provide a money value for the information found. Eighty-three percent of respondents accessed the internet from home, and 87% conducted the search for themselves. Forty-five percent of people were looking for general health and nutrition information, 42% for data about a specific illness and 40% for a medicine. After finding the information, 58% discussed it with a family member/friend/workmate, 36% consulted a general practitioner, 33% changed their eating or drinking habits, and 13% did nothing. Respondents found the information very quick to find and useful. It took them on average 0.47 hours and cost $12 (opportunity cost of time) to find the information. The average value of the data found was $60 and the net benefit to the consumer was $48 ($60 - $12). The results of this research could assist providers of health information via the internet to tailor their websites to better suit users' needs. Given the high perceived value of

  3. CO2-impacts of a small-scale consumers levy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-02-01

    Because of a number of developments (altered budgets of Dutch ministries and implementation of environmental policy plans of energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) the 1993 analyses of the effects of a small-scale consumer levy on the emission of CO 2 are updated. First, attention is paid to the conservation impetus as a result of an increase of the energy price for small-scale consumers. Next, the effects that can occur as a consequence of the presently suggested form of the levy (in particular, the exemption of renewable energy and waste heat) are discussed. Subsequently, the alterations of other policy tools, that are necessary in case a higher effectiveness of conservation measures is realized, are dealt with. The direct effect of a higher energy price on the saving behavior of the small-scale consumers is calculated by means of the CENECA-model. 4 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  4. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  5. [METHODICAL APPROACHES, EXPERIENCE AND PERSPECTIVES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RISK MODEL OF SURVEILLANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE SPHERE OF THE ASSURANCE OF SANITARY AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL WELFARE OF POPULATION, POPULATION'S HEALTH RISK MANAGEMENT AND THE CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Gileva, M A; Boiarskiĭ, A P

    2015-01-01

    Control and supervision measures--one of the main technologies of Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare in the overall system of risk management for public health and damage to property consumers, aimed at the solution of the prior tasks in the field of assurance of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer rights protection. The effectiveness of this technology depends on the correct choice of priority objects of supervision, which form the main problems in the sanitary and epidemiological situation and in the consumer market. The application of is approach has led to more effective oversight activity and the improvement of a number of indices characterizing the achievement of the objectives in the common system of risk management for public health and property of consumers.

  6. Research Ethics in the Context of Transition: Gaps in Policies and Programs on the Protection of Research Participants in the Selected Countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famenka, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the ability of countries in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) to ensure appropriate protection of research participants in the field of increasingly globalizing biomedical research. By applying an analytical framework for identifying gaps in policies and programs for human subjects protection to four countries of CEE-Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, substantial gaps in the scope and content of relevant policies and major impediments to program performance have been revealed. In these countries, public policies on the protection of research participants lack consistency and reliable mechanisms for their implementation. Impediments to program performance most often relate to inadequacies in the national research ethics systems with regard to organizational structure, budgetary support, supervision, and training. The level of research ethics capacity varies from country to country and depends on socio-economic and political factors of post-communist transition. The breadth and depth of the problems identified suggest that the current level of protection for research participants in CEE might be inadequate to the challenges posed by the globalization of biomedical research. In CEE countries, there is a need for strengthening research ethics capacity through modification of relevant policies and improvement of program management. The differences among the countries call for further research on identifying the best approaches for filling the gaps in the policies and programs aimed at ensuring effective protection of research participants.

  7. The development of the IAEA policy on the radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsley, G.

    2002-01-01

    Since its creation in 1957, and in accordance with its statute, the IAEA has established standards of safety for protection of health in the fields of nuclear installations safety, radiation protection, the transport of radioactive materials and radioactive waste management, including the control of radioactive releases to the environment. In this context, the IAEA has a long history of involvement in matters related not only to the protection of humans but also to the protection of other species from the effects of radioactivity in the environment. Concern about the environment has arisen for different reasons over the years, starting with questions about the potential effects on non-human species of fall-out from nuclear weapons testing and of radioactive discharges to atmosphere and the oceans. Later, the concern was focussed on the possible harm to non-human species caused by the dumping of solid waste at sea. The IAEA has responded to requests from other UN bodies and from international conventions to evaluate these potential hazards and to establish protection criteria. Social and political attitudes have gradually changed towards the environment mainly due to a growing realisation that the environment is vulnerable to the effects of human activities. This change has been reflected in the outcomes of major UN conferences on the environment in 1972 and 1992 and, accordingly, the emphasis of international and national policies towards the environment has increasingly shifted towards protective measures and strategies that include other species. Thus, the protection of the environment from the effects of ionising radiation has taken on a new importance. The IAEA, together with other relevant international organisations, is working to develop an agreed environmental protection strategy to counter the possible effects of ionising radiation, building on the work done over the last 30 years but taking due account of the new attitudes to the subject. The IAEA

  8. The economic environment of wholesale power generation fuel products at MOL Co, Hungary, and the principal objectives of the trade policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, I.

    1998-01-01

    The trading conditions of petroleum fuel products are influenced mainly by the liberalized nature of the market. The economic regulations are concentrated to new basic rules: transparent, competition-neutral market aspects, maintaining competition, elimination of market dominance, consumer protection for those without bargaining power, environmental protection for the interest of the society. The fuel market structure and the competition in the region and in Hungary is discussed. The trade policy objectives and tools for MOL are presented, and the trends and prospects for power fuel products and quality development are outlined. (R.P.)

  9. FISCAL POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE CURRENT FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTIN SAVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policies in the current era are the sovereign right of states to collect and administer taxes on national territory. In this respect, the European Union, which is an association of independent states, did not created an European tax - although many politicians proposing it - and within the Union is found important differences between the tax systems of member states. Due to historical and national different traditions, the EU member states have heterogeneous tax systems and revenue sharing systems because of different conceptions of public policies relative to the role of state in social and economic respective community’s life. The financing of public spending is usually considered the main function of taxation. In the original tradition following Locke1, property protection is the main functions of the state. As a result, the tax must correspond to the services rendered, that is to say, to pay the State for the protection of the rights it provides. Here we are at the origin of the doctrine of the benefit that there should be equivalence between the utility derived by the citizens of public services they consume and the "price" they pay tax.

  10. Transformative consumer research: Its origins and possible enrichment of the field of consumer research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona M. Ungerer

    2014-06-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the principles underlying transformative consumer research, including how it differs from traditional research methods and pointing out some established research areas in this field. Motivation for the study: Apart from pointing to a lack of literature, this article highlights the relevance of this approach for emerging countries by investigating the principles and practices embedded in transformative consumer research. It provides some indication of how an investigation of these areas may contribute to enhancing the relevance of consumer research to its various stakeholders. Research design, approach and method: The author used a literature review to conduct the study. Main findings: It appears that consumer research currently lacks external and internal relevance. A transformative consumer-research approach may address some of the fundamental problems in the way consumer psychologists plan and conduct their research, contributing to this lack of relevance. Practical/managerial implications: Most stages of the traditional research approach may need to be adapted for transformative research purposes. Some approaches appear particularly suited to transformative consumer research, including revelatory, incendiary, policy, participatory and coalition research. Contribution/value-add: This study’s primary contribution stems from suggesting a rather novel additional approach to enhance the relevance of consumer research in South Africa, pointing out some established practices in the field of transformative consumer research and suggesting how they may augment consumer research in South Africa.

  11. A Survey of Georgia Adult Protective Service Staff: Implications for Older Adult Injury Prevention and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser, Sheryl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic. Isolation and limited autonomy render many of the elderly vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS. This study was conducted to examine current knowledge of older adult protection laws in Georgia among APS staff and to identify training opportunities to better prepare the APS workforce in case detection and intervention.Methods: The Georgia State University Institute of Public Health faculty developed a primary survey in partnership with the Georgia Division of Aging Services’ leadership to identify key training priority issues for APS caseworkers and investigators. A 47-item electronic questionnaire was delivered to all APS employees via work-issued email accounts. We conducted descriptive analyses, t-tests and chi-square analyses to determine APS employees’ baseline knowledge of Georgia’s elder abuse policies, laws and practices, as well as examine associations of age, ethnicity, and educational attainment with knowledge. We used a p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance of analyses performed.Result: Ninety-two out of 175 APS staff responded to the survey (53% response rate. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (56% women (92%. For over half the survey items, paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between what APS staff reported as known and what APS staff members indicated they needed to know more about in terms of elder abuse and current policies. Chi-square tests revealed that non-Caucasians significantly preferred video conferencing as a training format (44% compared to 18%, [χ2(1 = 7.102, p < .008], whereas Caucasians preferred asynchronous online learning formats (55% compared to 28% [χ2(1 =5.951, p < .015].Conclusion: Results from this study provide the Georgia Division of Aging with insight into specific policy areas

  12. A survey of georgia adult protective service staff: implications for older adult injury prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Sheryl M; Kerr, Judith; King, Patricia S; Payne, Brian; Beddington, Sarah; Pendrick, Danielle; Leyda, Elizabeth; McCarty, Frances

    2011-07-01

    The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic. Isolation and limited autonomy render many of the elderly vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This study was conducted to examine current knowledge of older adult protection laws in Georgia among APS staff and to identify training opportunities to better prepare the APS workforce in case detection and intervention. The Georgia State University Institute of Public Health faculty developed a primary survey in partnership with the Georgia Division of Aging Services' leadership to identify key training priority issues for APS caseworkers and investigators. A 47-item electronic questionnaire was delivered to all APS employees via work-issued email accounts. We conducted descriptive analyses, t-tests and chi-square analyses to determine APS employees' baseline knowledge of Georgia's elder abuse policies, laws and practices, as well as examine associations of age, ethnicity, and educational attainment with knowledge. We used a p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance of analyses performed. Ninety-two out of 175 APS staff responded to the survey (53% response rate). The majority of respondents were Caucasian (56%) women (92%). For over half the survey items, paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between what APS staff reported as known and what APS staff members indicated they needed to know more about in terms of elder abuse and current policies. Chi-square tests revealed that non-Caucasians significantly preferred video conferencing as a training format (44% compared to 18%), [χ(2)(1) = 7.102, p < .008], whereas Caucasians preferred asynchronous online learning formats (55% compared to 28%) [χ(2)(1) =5.951, p < .015]. Results from this study provide the Georgia Division of Aging with insight into specific policy areas that are not well understood by APS staff

  13. Capability and limits of EC policy and instruments for protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarass, H.D.; Neumann, L.F.; Pastowski, A.; Ruhr, H.J. von der; Schreiber, F.

    1994-01-01

    The authors who contributed to this compilation of studies start from different points of view in their approaches towards describing the existing (or desirable) balance between centralised and decentralised frameworks and instruments of the EC policy for protection of the environment: A total harmonisation of environmental protection standards would be inconsistent with the principles of competition and, in terms of environmental protection, would rather foster a climate tending to be hostile to innovation. The impetus given by the EC in support of free mobility in the transport sector of the internal market on the other hand ought to be flanked by mandatory ecological standards. Adhering to the economic theory of federalism would mean to decide for a high degree of decentralisation, which in turn does not seem to be altogether appropriate in view of the large scope of impact of environmental damage and the mutual ecological dependence of EC member states. A more centralised regulatory competence has to be accompanied by correspondingly strong, democratic institutions in order to fulfill the principles of constitutional law. The priority given to the principle of subsidiarity in the compromise laid down in the Treaty of Maastricht needs to be given concrete shape [de

  14. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  15. Nutrigenomics and ethics interface: direct-to-consumer services and commercial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Nola M; Castle, David

    2008-12-01

    A growing variety and number of genetic tests are advertised and sold directly to consumers (DTC) via the Internet, including nutrigenomic tests and associated products and services. Consumers have more access to genetic information about themselves, but access does not entail certainty about the implications of test results. Potential personal and public health harms and benefits are associated with DTC access to genetic testing services. Early policy responses to direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing often involved calls for bans, and some jurisdictions prohibited DTC genetic tests. Recent policy responses by oversight bodies acknowledge expansion in the range of DTC tests available and suggest that a "one-size-fits-all" regulatory approach is not appropriate for all genetic tests. This review discusses ethical and regulatory aspects of DTC genetic testing, focusing particularly on nutrigenomic tests. We identify policy options for regulating DTC genetic tests, including full or partial prohibitions, enforcement of existing truth-in-advertising laws, and more comprehensive information disclosure about genetic tests. We advocate the latter option as an important means to improve transparency about current evidence on the strengths and limits of gene-disease associations and allow consumers to make informed purchasing decisions in the DTC marketplace.

  16. On the development of the system of risk-based supervision in the field of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population and consumer protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Popova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the legal requirements for the transition to the new risk-based model of the state control (supervision in the Federal Service for Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare, the methodical approaches to the classification of economic entities and activities of potential risk of injury have been developed. The risk assessment takes into account the frequency of violations of sanitary legislation, the severity of the consequences of these violations for the health and extent of negative effects, which is estimated in terms of population under the influence of the economic entity. Algorithms and methods for calculating the exposed population: workers, consumers, including consumer food products, non-food products and services; residents of settlements under the negative impact of air pollution, water and soil, have been developed. Regional and federal registries of objects for sanitary and epidemiological supervision are formed. Testing of the risk-based approaches in the regions allowed excluding the low risk harm objects when forming the audit plans for 2016, due to what the number of planned inspections all over country was reduces by more than 20 %. The basic directions of further improvement of the risk-based model of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance: its extension to the system of technical regulation and consumer protection; scientific substantiation of its volume, content and laboratory support of the scheduled inspections of objects belonging to different classes of health risk; improving procedures and methods for evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of risk-based supervisory activities; creation of an effective system of risk communication between the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance, economic entities, public organizations and associations and civil society.

  17. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  18. Consumer involvement in the health technology assessment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, Jane; Oliver, Sandy

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to describe a cycle of development leading to sustainable methods for involving consumers in the management of a program commissioning health technology assessment. Staff time was dedicated to developing procedures for recruiting and briefing consumers to participate in prioritizing, commissioning, and reporting research. Resources and support were developed in light of early feedback from consumers and those working with them. These were piloted and amended before being used routinely. Over 4 years, procedures and resources have been developed to support six consumers attending seven to eight prioritization meetings a year; thirty to forty-five consumers each year commenting on research need for particular topics; thirty consumers a year commenting on research proposals, and twenty a year commenting on research reports. The procedures include clear job descriptions, induction and development days, clear briefing materials, payment for substantial tasks, and regularly seeking feedback to improve procedures. Explicit, inclusive, and reproducible methods for supporting consumer involvement that satisfy National Health Service policy recommendations for involving consumers in research require dedicated staff time to support a cycle of organizational development.

  19. Journal of Consumer Sciences - Vol 43 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pedagogical guidance for Consumer Studies reflected in the South African Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS): An international benchmarking · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A du Toit, C Booyse ...

  20. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods: Effects of consumer information and direct product experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    and values. Two policies can be adopted in such a situation: (a) consumers can be actively informed regarding the risks and benefits and (b) consumers can be given the opportunity to evaluate products on the basis of direct experience. The effectiveness of both policies was tested in two experiments....... In experiment 1, attitude change experiments were conducted with consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK (N=1650). Different information strategies were tested against a control group for their ability to change consumers' attitudes and their influence on product choice. Results indicate...... that no attitude change occured. Instead, all stategies seemed to bolster pre-existing attitudes, thereby significantly decreasing consumers' preferences for GM products. The effect did not occur when consumers only saw a labeled product example. In experiment 2, we tested the effects of direct experience...