WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumer products test

  1. The radiological testing of consumer products 1976-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.T.; Dixon, D.W.

    1979-02-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board's source testing laboratory has been operational since 1976. In the intervening period the types of consumer product which have received most attention have been ionisation chamber smoke detectors and liquid crystal digital watches containing gaseous tritium light sources; the results obtained on these two types of device are the main subject of this report. The report also traces the development of the practical appraisal of these devices by the Board and describes the part played by the test results in the evolution of national and international standards. (author)

  2. Test marketing and consumer acceptance of irradiated meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhicheng; Feng Zhixiong; Jiang Peizhen

    2001-01-01

    This study consists of two parts: irradiation processing of cooked meat and irradiation preservation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut meats. Irradiation of prepackaged pickled meat products dipped in grains stillage at a dose 6-8 kGy eliminated common food-borne microorganisms, such as E. Coli and other microbial pathogens and extended the shelf life of the product to 10 days at 5 deg. C. Test marketing of 40,000 bags (about 10,000 kg) of the product in more than 100 supermarkets in the city of Shanghai showed no untoward problem with consumer acceptance. Irradiation of prepackaged chilled fresh cut pork at a dose 3 kGy led to inactivation of microbial pathogens and parasites with a concomitant reduction in numbers of common spoilage microorganisms and extension of shelf life of the product for 30 days at 5 deg. C. The cost benefit and marketing applications were evaluated. (author)

  3. Testing indirect effect of consumer attitudes toward a product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrubá, Renata; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    a questionnaire in 2010-2011. The model is estimated using probit analysis to predict relationship between producer and consumer in decision-making when buying a new type of cheese and to examine consumer attitudes toward food origins and nutrient food security. It can be concluded that the indirect effect (e...... and on the indirect and direct effects of the perception of information through information behavior and the use of the model ordered. It is proposed that consumer levels of product familiarity of attributes affects behavior. Consumer attitudes towards agri-food products and behaviour were analyzed through...

  4. 77 FR 28673 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... multipliers based on climate, consumer behavior assumptions, and product characteristics (e.g., multi-stage or... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of...

  5. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  6. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  7. Generating and testing methods for consumer-oriented product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    In order to obtain a good insight into various design methods that can be used by product developers to enable them to develop and test useful domotics products (domotics: intelligent systems for the home), an inventory has been made of the methods used in the Netherlands. The inventory is directed at two categories of methods: (1) Methods of getting better acquainted with the user and/or the problem, and of generating novel solutions: generative methods; and (2) Methods of assessing solutions (through various phases of the designing process): testing methods. The first category of methods concentrates on the designing process. In other words: how can the designer realise as much as possible of the workability of (domotics) products during the designing process? The second category aims at testing a design (in whatever shape: drawing, prototype, functional computer animation, etc.) through its users. These are methods of assessing a design at various stages of the designing process [nl

  8. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... final rule revising energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating.... EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures...

  9. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE... necessary for residential water heaters, because the existing test procedures for those products already...

  10. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... proposed to amend, where appropriate, its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating... notes that the test procedure and metric for residential water heaters currently address and incorporate...

  11. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy.... Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to provide for the measurement of standby mode and off mode power use by microwave...

  12. 75 FR 42612 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy... (NOPR) in which DOE proposed test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to measure standby mode and off mode power use by microwave ovens. To address issues...

  13. Evaluation of farmed cod products by a trained sensory panel and consumers in different test settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Thorsdottir, F.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Kole, A.; Thorsdottir, I.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory characteristics of farmed cod exposed to low or conventional stress levels prior to slaughter were evaluated by a trained sensory panel. Consumers in two different settings, central location test (CLT) and home-use test (HUT), also tasted the products and rated them according to overall

  14. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  15. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  16. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  17. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  18. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  19. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  20. 78 FR 41609 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... September 14, 1977. 42 FR 46140. Industry representatives viewed these test procedures as too complex and... Freezers'' (HRF-1- 1979). Using this industry-created test procedure, DOE revised its test procedures on... compartment of such a product to be at a level that would effectively exclude the coverage of combination wine...

  1. 77 FR 3559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Long-Time and Variable Defrost Test Method To Fully Capture Energy Use for Temperature Recovery D... product classes. 55 FR 42845 (October 24, 1990). DOE again updated the performance standards for...: (1) Compartment temperature changes; (2) modified volume calculation methods; (3) products that...

  2. 75 FR 78809 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... discusses the treatment of combination wine storage-freezer products that were the subject of a recent test... interim final rule incorporate by reference into part 430 the following industry standards: (1) ANSI/AHAM... Rule III. Discussion A. Products Covered by the Proposed Revisions B. Combination Wine Storage-Freezer...

  3. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  4. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  5. Generating and testing methods for consumer-oriented product development; Genererende en toetsingsmethoden voor consumentgerichte productontwikkeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    In order to obtain a good insight into various design methods that can be used by product developers to enable them to develop and test useful domotics products (domotics: intelligent systems for the home), an inventory has been made of the methods used in the Netherlands. The inventory is directed at two categories of methods: (1) Methods of getting better acquainted with the user and/or the problem, and of generating novel solutions: generative methods; and (2) Methods of assessing solutions (through various phases of the designing process): testing methods. The first category of methods concentrates on the designing process. In other words: how can the designer realise as much as possible of the workability of (domotics) products during the designing process? The second category aims at testing a design (in whatever shape: drawing, prototype, functional computer animation, etc.) through its users. These are methods of assessing a design at various stages of the designing process. [Dutch] Om een goed inzicht te krijgen in verschillende ontwerpmethoden die productontwikkelaars kunnen gebruiken om bruikbare domoticaproducten te kunnen ontwikkelen en toetsen, is een inventarisatie uitgevoerd naar de methoden die in Nederland worden gebruikt. De inventarisatie richt zich op twee categorieen methoden: (1) methoden om de gebruiker casu quo het probleem beter te leren kennen en nieuwe oplossingen te genereren, zogenaamde genererende methoden, en (2) methoden om oplossingen te evatueren (in verschillende fasen van het ontwerpproces), zogenaamde toetsingsmethoden. De eerste categorie methoden richt zich op het ontwerpproces: hoe kan de ontwerper tijdens het ontwerpproces de bruikbaarheid van (domotica)producten zoveel mogelijk realiseren? De tweede categorie methoden is erop gericht om een ontwerp (in wat voor vorm dan ook: tekening, prototype, functionele computeranimatie, enzovoort) te toetsen bij gebruikers. Het zijn methoden om een ontwerp, op verschillende momenten

  6. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  7. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  8. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    .... Detergent Specifications for Clothes Dryer Test Cloth Preconditioning 5. Changes To Reflect Current Usage... conservation standard; (3) updated detergent specifications for clothes dryer test cloth preconditioning; (4... detergent specifications for clothes dryer test cloth preconditioning; (7) update the references to external...

  9. 75 FR 75289 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... revisions: (1) The addition of a method to rate the efficiency of soil-sensing products; (2) the addition of... means and discharges to the plumbing drainage system.'' 10 CFR 430.2. Today's proposed amendments to the...

  10. 75 FR 42579 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens; Repeal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... provided in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, for each basic model of conventional cooking tops, and... the cooking efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). DOE has determined that the microwave oven test procedure to measure the cooking efficiency does...

  11. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... current active mode provisions in its test procedure for microwave ovens do not produce accurate and... concerns with the DOE microwave oven cooking efficiency test procedure. Elsewhere in today's Federal...

  12. 76 FR 18105 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... the lab-added transformer. Id. Under this proposal, the instrument used to measure the electrical... the low-voltage transformer used when testing coil-only residential central air conditioners and heat... the Low-Voltage Transformer Used When Testing Coil- Only Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps and...

  13. 76 FR 65616 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... pages 2- 3. Both the American Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) and Trane stated that the... untested split system combinations for SEER and HSPF. \\4\\ ARMs are computer simulations used to rate... procedure, which is detailed in section 0, and comprises whole system testing, not testing or simulation of...

  14. 75 FR 29823 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    .... This NOPR also discusses the proposed treatment of combination wine storage-freezer products that were.... Combination Wine Storage-Freezer Units C. Establishing New Appendices A and B, and Compliance Date for the... rule published in the Federal Register on September 14, 1977. 42 FR 46140. Industry representatives...

  15. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... docket number EERE-2008-BT-TP-0010 and/or RIN 1904-AC02 in the subject line of the message. 3. Mail: Ms... DOE clothes washer test procedure), which is assumed to proportionally impact dryer load sizes. DOE... noted that IEC Standard 62087 specifies methods of measuring the power consumption of TV receivers...

  16. 75 FR 31223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Operating Tolerance Specified for the External Resistance to Airflow and the Nozzle Pressure Drop 6. Modify... Changes To Cover Triple-Capacity, Northern Heat Pumps 13. Specify Requirements for the Low-Voltage... Resistance to Airflow and the Nozzle Pressure Drop 6. Modify Third-Party Testing Requirements when Charging...

  17. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... U.S.C. 6293(e)(2)) The current energy conservation standards for direct heating equipment and pool... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy...

  18. 78 FR 675 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... WordPerfect, Microsoft Word, PDF, or ASCII file format, and avoid the use of special characters or any... furnaces and boilers is found at 10 CFR 430.23(n) and 10 CFR part 430, subpart B, appendix N, Uniform Test... such as fuel calorific value, weight of condensate, water flow and temperature, voltage, and flue gas...

  19. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  20. Consumer-based product profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....

  1. TRADE LIBERALIZATION AND CONSUMER VULNERABILITY: A LEGAL FRAMEWORK ON LEGISLATIONS AND TESTING MECHANISM FOR ASEAN PRODUCT SAFETY DIRECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sagoff Alsagoff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception in 1967 ASEAN has advanced in great leaps in the economic sector luring new member states into its pact. From a mere five member states (Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and the Philippines ASEAN has today managed to entice five other neighbouring states (Brunei 1984, Vietnam 1995, Laos & Myanmar 1997, Cambodia 1999 into its pact transforming itself into union of ten member states with a consumer population expected to exceed 600 million people. In order to ensure sustainability amid global challenges, member states have engrossed ASEAN Charter in 2007 with a view of creating an ASEAN Economic Community by 2015 that is robust, competitive and sustainable. At this juncture, ASEAN has to realize that like any trade liberalization initiatives, goods moved readily and freely throughout the free-trade area that is facilitated by a lucrative non-barrier tariffs incentives. This vision of a single market which creates a frontier without borders can prove to be advantageous to member states only if they have the required vehicle that is able to overcome the drawback of its progression through harmonization and synchronization efforts that is effective and successful. Like everything else, every advantage has some disadvantages attached to it. This article will address important determining factors that are crucial in the development and scope of proposed ASEAN Product Safety Directive including reviewing relevant determining factors such as regional stability, consumer protection legislations and standard and testing agencies of which one without the other will be incomplete. The proposals suggested in this article will strengthen and unite ASEAN in overcoming unsafe product issues at ASEAN level.

  2. Consumer behaviour towards new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucatariu Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to find a structure of consumer behaviour, especially regarding the preference for the newly-released products from the market. We intend to study the impact of the new, innovative products compared to the traditional ones. Empirical research is based on the selling mix of a company in Romania and Austria. The analysis of this case will be done with the support of an econometric model of simple regression. This research confirms the validation of the structure and the attitude of the consumers towards the new products, launched by that company. By applying this linear model, it is possible to identify the percentage of the increase or decrease in consumption of new products. The need of carrying out this study regarding the impact of the consumption of new products is to create a profile and to find the causes that influence their acquisition. The originality of this paper lays in studying some aspects of influence over the consumption of new products from McDonald’s in Romania and Austria. Where does McDonald’s stand regarding the digitalization? It is not enough to sell new products; it is also necessary to bring innovation in the organization. Nowadays consumers are more present in the online environment and retailers are adapting at a fast pace to their needs of direct communication and transparency. How does a company that faces Slow Food and Bio era, deal with consumers who are more preoccupied with the nutritive values of the nourishment act? Platforms for real-time communication with clients such as “Our food. Your question” redefined the term of transparency and helped McDonald’s stop bad rumors. The results of the research will show us if there really is transformation in behaviour towards traditional products and in what degree consumers are influenced by innovation.

  3. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  4. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  5. Consumer attitudes to enzymes in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    The use of enzymes in food production has potential benefits for both food manufacturers and consumers. A central question is how consumers react to new ways of producing foods with enzymes. This study investigates the formation of consumer attitudes to different enzyme production methods in three...... European countries. Results show that consumers are most positive towards non-GM enzyme production methods. The enzyme production method is by far the most important factor for the formation of buying intentions compared to price and benefits. Results also show that environmental concern and attitudes...... to technological progress are the socio-political attitudes that have the highest predictive value regarding attitudes to enzyme production methods....

  6. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size...

  7. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnology in food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – Nanotechnology is a technology that holds much promise for food production. It is, however not clear to what extent consumers will accept different types of nanotechnologies in food products. The purpose of this paper is to research consumer attitudes towards differing applications of

  8. Designer-made meat and dairy products: Consumer-led product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Valli, Carlotta

    2001-01-01

    targeting these segments were derived and tested with consumers from these segments. Results show considerable potential for the development of food products which are differentiated in a consumer-based way. The paper closes with a step-model for consumer-led product development adapted to the current state...... of branding and differentiation in the product category.......Consumers differ in the kind of qualities they expect from food products, and they also differ in the way they infer quality from the product information available. Nevertheless, much product innovation in the food sector is still not geared towards specific consumer segments. This is especially...

  9. Designer made meat and dairy products: Consumer-led product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Valli, Carlotta

    targeting these segments were derived and tested with consumers from these segments. Results show considerable potential for the development of food products which are differentiated in a consumer-based way. The paper closes with a step-model for consumer-led product development adapted to the current state...... of branding and differentiation in the product category.......Consumers differ in the kind of qualities they expect from food products, and they also differ in the way they infer quality from the product information available. Nevertheless, much product innovation in the food sector is still not geared towards specific consumer segments. This is especially...

  10. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing...

  11. Consumer evaluations of products from developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Consumers use country of origin as a signal or proxy for product quality. Consumers have little confidence in the ability of less developed countries to produce high quality goods. On the other hand emotionally attachment to a country or associations of "exoticness" or "authenticity" can lead to a

  12. Consumer-driven food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnemann, A.R.; Benner, M.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Food product development needs to be based on consumers' needs and wishes to be successful. Factors that have become relevant in this respect are presented and their impact discussed, like mass-individualization, globalization and an altered interpretation of the food quality concept by consumers.

  13. Consumer Disidentification and Its Effects on Domestic Product Purchases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Consumers' local bias is an important determinant of domestic product purchase behavior. Because of its importance, authors across various disciplines have investigated this phenomenon using the consumer ethnocentrism model. However, the research reported herein demonstrates that such an approach...... provides an incomplete picture at best. This research provides an initial test of the consumer disidentification (CDI) construct. In contrast with consumer ethnocentrism, the CDI model predicts that consumers' repulsion toward their domestic country negatively affects the purchase of products made...... in their domestic country or by domestic firms. The model is tested using survey data from 1534 second-generation immigrants who were born in and live in the Netherlands. Structural equation modeling supports the model and shows that CDI has a significant impact on buying decisions beyond the effect of consumer...

  14. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  15. Perception of Aesthetics in Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez Mata, Marta; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema; Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi

    2013-01-01

    In today´s highly saturated consumer markets, competition among products is high. Emotional design, kansei engineering and aesthetics are tools increasingly used to make products stand out from their competitors. This study investigates how the desire to own a product is related to the perceptions...

  16. Hierarchical production planning for consumer goods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, de A.G.

    1990-01-01

    Abstract In this paper the mathematical logic behind a hierarchical planning procedure is discussed. The planning procedure is used to derive production volumes of consumer products. The essence of the planning procedure is that first a commitment is made concerning the production volume for a

  17. Assessment of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Policy in Korea Based on Consumer Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gicheol

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, Korea permitted direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) on 42 genes. However, both the market and industry have not yet been fully activated. Considering the aforementioned context, this study provides important insights. The Korean DTC-GT policy assessment is based on consumer preference analysis using a discrete choice experiment. In August 2016, a web-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,200 respondents. The estimation results show that consumers prefer a DTC-GT product that is cheap, tests various items or genes, offers accurate test results, and guarantees the confidentiality of all information. However, consumers are not entirely satisfied by current DTC-GT products due to the existence of insufficient and/or inadequate policies. First, the permitted testing of 42 genes is insufficient to satisfy consumers' curiosity regarding their genes. Second, the accuracy of the DTC-GT products has not been fully verified, assessed, and communicated to consumers. Finally, regulatory loopholes that allow information leaks in the DTC-GT process can occur. These findings imply that DTC-GT requires an improvement in government policy-making criteria and the implementation of practical measures to guarantee test accuracy and genetic information. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  19. What Is Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumer genetic testing? What kinds of direct-to-consumer genetic tests are available? What is genetic ancestry testing? What are the benefits and risks of direct-to-consumer genetic testing? ...

  20. Advancing Consumer Product Composition and Chemical ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes EPA efforts to collect, model, and measure publically available consumer product data for use in exposure assessment. The development of the ORD Chemicals and Products database will be described, as will machine-learning based models for predicting chemical function. Finally, the talk describes new mass spectrometry-based methods for measuring chemicals in formulation and articles. This presentation is an invited talk to the ICCA-LRI workshop "Fit-For-Purpose Exposure Assessments For Risk-Based Decision Making". The talk will share EPA efforts to characterize the components of consumer products for use in exposure assessment with the international exposure science community.

  1. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  2. Purchase Behavior of Consumers for Seafood Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Omezzine

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..

  3. Evaluation of isotope utilizations in consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products are generally divided into three groups, according to the state of radioactive material or radiation used. First, there are those intentionally added with radioactive materials, such as self-luminous paints and ionization type smoke detectors, utilizing the ionization and excitation by radiation. Second, there are those utilizing natural radioactive materials like glaze. Third, there are those materials containing intrinsically natural radioactive materials. In the first group, the safety evaluation of self-luminous watches and clocks and the risk-benefit evaluation of ionization type smoke detectors are described, and the approval standards for the consumer products and the R/B evaluation method are explained. There are variety of consumer products utilizing radiation, by the exposure dose caused by them is extremely insignificant, far lower than that due to natural radiation. (J.P.N.)

  4. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample (n = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-lik...

  5. Consumers' perceptions of biocidal products in households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2018-03-01

    Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions. The questions focussed on the comprehension of the term 'biocide', pest control habits, sources of information, risk perception of different product groups and possible emission reduction measures. Only 21% of the respondents understood the term 'biocide' correctly, whereas 29% thought of 'something that had to do with organic pest control', and 28% were not able to think of a possible meaning. The risk perception of biocidal products compared to plant protection products varied depending on the living conditions. In the urban neighbourhood, biocidal products were perceived as more dangerous than in the rural area. The main pests to be fought were ants, mould and fruit fly. The results of the study indicate that there is a considerable difference between the types of biocidal products that interviewees claimed to own and those that they actually did have in their households. Most notably, respondents did not realise that they owned surface disinfectants. This result indicates that consumers often seem not to be aware of using specific biocidal products. Also, this shows the limitations of collecting data on products owned with only one method, as the results from products inventories of the households deviate from the data collected in interviews. Our results show that the term 'biocide' is not fully understood by many people. To communicate possible risks of biocidal products

  6. Consumer protection act for digital products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  7. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  8. New insights into consumer-oriented food products design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida Costa, A.I.

    2003-01-01

      To test the implementation of the most promising methods and tools associated with the early phases of a consumer-oriented approach to food product design;To improve the tested methods, or develop new ones, whenever necessary;To use the results obtained to propose research guidelines leading to

    • Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Steinemann, Anne C.

      2009-01-01

      Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

    • 75 FR 29155 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-05-24

      ... consumer product incident reports involving a description of incidents related to the use of consumer... consumer product must include a word or phrase sufficient to distinguish a product identified in a report... consumer product; or understand the relationship between the submitter of a report of harm and the victim...

    • Consumer behaviour and preferences for aquaculture products

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

      composition, still little is known about the effect this has on consumer preferences and product choices. In connection with the SEAFOODplus project CONSUMERSURVEY, which aims at explaining seafood consumption, a major survey has been carried out in five European countries in order to achieve more knowledge...... about consumer preferences and choice in relation to fish in general as well as preferences for farmed and wild fish. Questionnaires were sent to a representative sample of consumers in 5 European countries: Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Poland and Spain, and a total of 4786 valid questionnaires were...... returned and analysed. Results show that there is widespread confusion regarding whether fish is wild or farmed. The data disclose large discrepancies in reported total fish consumption frequency as shown in Table 1 and reported consumption of wild and farmed fish as shown in table 2. From the total sample...

    • Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dodson, Robin E; Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J; Perovich, Laura J; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A

      2012-07-01

      Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in product composition. Consumers should be able to avoid

    • Considerations for emotion-aware consumer products.

      Science.gov (United States)

      van den Broek, Egon L; Westerink, Joyce H D M

      2009-11-01

      Emotion-aware consumer products require reliable, short-term emotion assessment (i.e., unobtrusive, robust, and lacking calibration). To explore the feasibility of this, an experiment was conducted where the galvanic skin response (GSR) and three electromyography (EMG) signals (frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and zygomaticus major) were recorded on 24 participants who watched eight 2-min emotion inducing film fragments. The unfiltered psychophysiological signals were processed and six statistical parameters (i.e., mean, absolute deviation, standard deviation, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) were derived for each 10-s interval of the film fragment. For each physiological signal, skewness and kurtosis discriminated among affective states, accompanied by other parameters, depending on the signal. The skewness parameter also showed to indicate mixed emotions. Moreover, a mapping of events in the fragments on the signals showed the importance of short-term emotion assessment. Hence, this research identified generic features, denoted important considerations, and illustrated the feasibility of emotion-aware consumer products.

    • Consumer Purchase Behaviour for Green Products

      OpenAIRE

      Vinod Sharma; J. Sonwalkar; Maohar Kapse

      2013-01-01

      Purpose: The concern for climate change and global warming is increasing at global level which results in stimulating the interest of firms toward environmental protection and sustainable development. Many firms have started developing green products to meet the demand of environmentally conscious consumers. These firms are now interested in finding the determinants of environmentally conscious consumers’ behaviour in order to develop effective marketing strategy to ensure the green purchase ...

    • Marketing mix for consumer high technology products

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dovleac, L.

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available This paper includes an analysis upon the variables of marketing mix for high technology products used for individual consumption. There are exposed the essential aspects related to marketing policies and strategies used by high technology companies for providing consumers the best solutions tailored to their needs. A special attention is given to the necessity for inclusion in the marketing mix of the fifth element – the assistance and informational support for customers.

    • Young Consumer Behaviour Towards Tourism Products

      OpenAIRE

      Adriana Anca Cristea; Mihaela Simona Apostol; Tatiana Corina Dosescu

      2014-01-01

      Tourism is considered to be an important branch of the Romanian economy. However, its contribution to the GDP is extremely low. Inbound tourism is reduced, the sole indicator which is constanly increasing being the number of Romanian tourists who travel abroad. We assume that a good way of increasing domestic tourism in Romania would be to get the young population practise various forms of tourism. Conducting a market survey in consumer behaviour towards tourism products among pupils and stud...

    • Consumer orientation of product developers and their product perception compared to that of consumers

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Sijtsema, S.J.; Backus, G.B.C.; Linnemann, A.R.; Jongen, W.M.F.

      2004-01-01

      This research concludes that although product developers (58, response rate 35%) and consumers (344, response rate 57%) perceive health and its relation to product characteristics in the same way, the perception of product developers is more extreme. Furthermore, factor analysis reveals four

    • Consumer attention to product health cues

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Orquin, Jacob Lund

      Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five...... different dairy products) were varied within subjects and the viewing task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, purchase likelihood evaluation) was varied between subjects. As a follow-up, three more studies were carried out using verbal response measures to assess perceived product...... healthfulness and purchase likelihood. Study 2 used a 3x2x2 group mixed design manipulating product images (control images, health-related images, exercise-related images), brand (control brand, health association brand), and color scheme (control color scheme, green health-association color scheme). Study 3...

    • Plasmonic Structural Colors for Plastic Consumer Products

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

      2014-01-01

      Today colorants, such as pigments or dyes, are used to color plastic-based consumer products, either as base for solid colored bulk polymer or in inks for surface decoration. After usage, the products must be mechanically sorted by color before recycling, limiting any large-scale efficient...... can be avoided in the recycling state. Plasmon color technology based on aluminum has recently been firmly established as a route towards structural coloring of polymeric materials. We report on the fabrication of colors by localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) using roll-to-roll printing...

    • Consumer product chemical weight fractions from ingredient lists

      Science.gov (United States)

      Assessing human exposures to chemicals in consumer products requires composition information. However, comprehensive composition data for products in commerce are not generally available. Many consumer products have reported ingredient lists that are constructed using specific gu...

  1. Consumer Online Search and New-Product Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays that study the implications of online search activity for new-product marketing. Using the U.S. motion picture industry as a test case, the first essay examines the dynamic causal relationship between traditional media, consumers' media generation activity, media consumption activity, and market demand…

  2. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  3. CONSUMERS PRODUCTS AND SERVICES VALUE PERCEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nichifor

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a theoretical approach on products and services as value satisfiers. Consumers have knowledge about the personal, symbolic values that products, services and brands help them satisfy or achieve. Values are people’s broad life goals. Values often involve the emotional affect associated with such goals and needs (the strong feelings and emotions that accompany success. Recognizing when a value has been satisfied or a basic life goal has been achieved is an internal feeling that is somewhat intangible and subjective. In contrast, functional and psychosocial consequences are more tangible and are more obvious when they occur. Salespeople add value by identifying customer needs and devising or delivering a solution for those needs. Salespeople are able to adapt how products or/and services are presented or even to adapt products/services so that they meet the needs of the buyers. Such adaption powers professional selling, because customers often don’t know what they need or how to configure a solution to their needs. Satisfying a value usually elicits positive affect (happiness, joy, satisfaction, whereas blocking a value produces negative affect (frustration, anger, disappointment. Consumers can have products and services knowledge about products and services attributes, consequences of products or services use and personal values. Most marketing research focuses on one type of products and services knowledge – usually attributes or consequences, where the focus typically is on benefits rather than risks. Values are examined less frequently and usually in isolation. This paper objective is to show the importance of creating, delivering, and capturing buyer value. A company’s ability to deliver value to its customers is closely tied with its ability to create satisfaction for its employees and other stakeholders. Value ultimately depends on the perceiver. Smart companies not only offer purchase value but also offer use value

  4. Consumer health information seeking as hypothesis testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Browne, Allen C; Kaufman, David R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of consumer health sites, lay individuals often experience difficulty finding health information online. The present study attempts to understand users' information seeking difficulties by drawing on a hypothesis testing explanatory framework. It also addresses the role of user competencies and their interaction with internet resources. Twenty participants were interviewed about their understanding of a hypothetical scenario about a family member suffering from stable angina and then searched MedlinePlus consumer health information portal for information on the problem presented in the scenario. Participants' understanding of heart disease was analyzed via semantic analysis. Thematic coding was used to describe information seeking trajectories in terms of three key strategies: verification of the primary hypothesis, narrowing search within the general hypothesis area and bottom-up search. Compared to an expert model, participants' understanding of heart disease involved different key concepts, which were also differently grouped and defined. This understanding provided the framework for search-guiding hypotheses and results interpretation. Incorrect or imprecise domain knowledge led individuals to search for information on irrelevant sites, often seeking out data to confirm their incorrect initial hypotheses. Online search skills enhanced search efficiency, but did not eliminate these difficulties. Regardless of their web experience and general search skills, lay individuals may experience difficulty with health information searches. These difficulties may be related to formulating and evaluating hypotheses that are rooted in their domain knowledge. Informatics can provide support at the levels of health information portals, individual websites, and consumer education tools.

  5. Online Consumer Reviews: The Moderating Effect of Product Category

    OpenAIRE

    Bjering, Einar; Havro, Lars Jaakko

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests a previously proposed model for assessing consumer generated online reviews effect on sales, the review impact continuum. Product category is found to play an important role as a moderating factor of several properties concerning user generated online reviews - including its impact on sales. The authors introduce a novel method for product category classification using natural language processing (NLP), and by applying this method show that reviews are more influential for su...

  6. Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer : development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimann, B.; Christensen, M.; Rosendal Rasmussen, S.; Bonneau, M.; Grunert, K.G.; Arnau, J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Oksbjerg, N.; Greef, de K.H.; Petersen, B.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the quality of pork and pork products for the consumer: development of innovative, integrated, and sustainable food production chains of high quality pork products matching consumer demands.

  7. Can child restraint product information developed using consumer testing sustain correct use 6 months after child restraint purchase? Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Elkington, Jane; Hall, Alexandra; Keay, Lisa; Charlton, Judith L; Hunter, Kate; Koppel, Sjaan; Hayen, Andrew; Bilston, Lynne E

    2018-03-07

    With long-standing and widespread high rates of errors in child restraint use, there is a need to identify effective methods to address this problem. Information supplied with products at the point of sale may be a potentially efficient delivery point for such a countermeasure. The aim of this study is to establish whether product materials developed using a consumer-driven approach reduce errors in restraint use among purchasers of new child restraint systems. A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted. Retail stores (n=22) in the greater Sydney area will be randomised into intervention sites (n=11) and control sites (n=11), stratified by geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Participants (n=836) will enter the study on purchase of a restraint. Outcome measures are errors in installation of the restraint as observed by a trained researcher during a 6-month follow-up home assessment, and adjustment checks made by the parent when the child is placed into the restraint (observed using naturalistic methods). Process evaluation measures will also be collected during the home visit. An intention-to-treat approach will be used for all analyses. Correct use and adjustment checks made by the parent will be compared between control and intervention groups using a logistic regression model. The number of installation errors between groups will be compared using Poisson regression. This cRCT will determine the effectiveness of targeted, consumer-driven information on actual error rates in use of restraints. More broadly, it may provide a best practice model for developing safety product information. ACTRN12617001252303p; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Purchase Unwillingness and Willingness of Indonesian Consumers towards Israeli Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Suhud

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to measure factors influencing purchase willingness and purchase unwillingness on Israeli products. Four predictor variables including consumer animosity, product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation were used. Data were collected by an online survey, and it attracted 337 participants. Three stages of data analysis were applied, those were exploratory analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, and Structural Equation Model (SEM. In total, there were seven hypotheses tested. This research finds a significant impact of animosity on product judgment, boycott participation, and boycott motivation. Furthermore, product judgment and boycott participation significantly affect purchase willingness. Meanwhile, boycott participation and boycott motivation significantly affect purchase unwillingness.

  9. Sunscreen Product Performance and Other Determinants of Consumer Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Agarwal, Ashwin; Rademaker, Alfred; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-08-01

    Sunscreen use is a modifiable behavior that can help reduce the risk for skin cancer, prevent sunburns, mitigate photoaging, and treat photosensitive dermatoses. A better understanding of consumer sunscreen preferences would inform dermatologists in their own recommendations. To determine the characteristics and the most commonly cited positive and negative features of highly rated sunscreens described by consumers. The top 1 percentile of sunscreen products on Amazon.com as of December 2015 was selected according to average consumer review (≥4 stars) and the highest number of consumer reviews. Descriptive data for each product were collected from the product page and manufacturer claims. The top 5 "most helpful" reviews (positive and critical) were analyzed and coded by a consensus qualitative coding scheme, which included positive and negative descriptors in 6 major categories according to consumer comments: affordability, cosmetic elegance, separate ratings, product ingredients, product performance, and skin compatibility. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to determine whether characteristics of each product (eg, American Academy of Dermatology [AAD] criteria, sun protection factor [SPF], or vehicle) could be used to predict price per ounce. The number (percentage) of comments categorized by major themes and subthemes was determined. Illustrative consumer comments were also collected. There were 6500 products categorized as sunscreens in the Amazon.com, online catalog. Of the 65 products evaluated, the median price per ounce was $3.32 (range, $0.68-$23.47). Of products, 40% (26 of 65) did not adhere to AAD guidelines (broad spectrum, SPF ≥30, and water resistant) for sunscreens. Vehicles, AAD, and sunscreen type predicted a higher price per ounce. Cosmetic elegance was the most cited positive feature (198 of 325 [61%] comments) followed by product performance (146 of 325 [45%] comments) and skin type compatibility (78 of 325 [24%] comments). In this

  10. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatic Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne; Wheeler, Amanda J; Larcombe, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to fragranced consumer products, such as air fresheners and cleaning supplies, is associated with adverse health effects such as asthma attacks, breathing difficulties, and migraine headaches. This study investigated the prevalence and types of health problems associated with exposure to fragranced products among asthmatic Australians. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were obtained in June 2016 with an online survey of adult Australians ( n  = 1098), of which 28.5% were medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Nationally, 55.6% of asthmatics, and 23.9% of non-asthmatics, report adverse health effects after exposure to fragranced products. Specifically, 24.0% of asthmatics report an asthma attack. Moreover, 18.2% of asthmatics lost workdays or a job in the past year due to fragranced products in the workplace. Over 20% of asthmatics are unable to access public places and restrooms that use air fresheners. Exposure to fragranced products is associated with health problems, some potentially serious, in an estimated 2.2 million asthmatic adult Australians. Asthmatics were proportionately more affected than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 3.01-5.24). Most asthmatics would prefer workplaces, healthcare facilities, and environments that are fragrance-free, which could help reduce adverse effects.

  11. What Is Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumer genetic testing. Additional information about direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests and related research questions are ... for Links Data Files & API Site Map Subscribe Customer Support USA.gov Copyright Privacy Accessibility FOIA Viewers & ...

  12. Fragranced consumer products: effects on asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, can emit a range of air pollutants and trigger adverse health effects. This study investigates the prevalence and types of effects of fragranced products on asthmatics in the American population. Using a nationally representative sample ( n  = 1137), data were collected with an on-line survey of adults in the USA, of which 26.8% responded as being medically diagnosed with asthma or an asthma-like condition. Results indicate that 64.3% of asthmatics report one or more types of adverse health effects from fragranced products, including respiratory problems (43.3%), migraine headaches (28.2%), and asthma attacks (27.9%). Overall, asthmatics were more likely to experience adverse health effects from fragranced products than non-asthmatics (prevalence odds ratio [POR] 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.34-7.64). In particular, 41.0% of asthmatics report health problems from air fresheners or deodorizers, 28.9% from scented laundry products coming from a dryer vent, 42.3% from being in a room cleaned with scented products, and 46.2% from being near someone wearing a fragranced product. Of these effects, 62.8% would be considered disabling under the definition of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Yet 99.3% of asthmatics are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week. Also, 36.7% cannot use a public restroom if it has an air freshener or deodorizer, and 39.7% would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible due to air fresheners or some fragranced product. Further, 35.4% of asthmatics have lost workdays or a job, in the past year, due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. More than twice as many asthmatics would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and health care professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. Results from this study point to relatively simple and cost-effective ways to

  13. Testing consumer perception of nutrient content claims using conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moskowitz, Howard; Reisner, Michele; Krieger, Bert

    2010-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) proposes to establish standardized and mandatory criteria upon which front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling must be based. The present study aimed to estimate the relative contribution of declared amounts of different nutrients to the perception of the overall 'healthfulness' of foods by the consumer. Protein, fibre, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium and iron were nutrients to encourage. Total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, total and added sugar, and sodium were the nutrients to limit. Two content claims per nutrient used the FDA-approved language. An online consumer panel (n 320) exposed to multiple messages (n 48) rated the healthfulness of each hypothetical food product. Utility functions were constructed using conjoint analysis, based on multiple logistic regression and maximum likelihood estimation. Consumer perception of healthfulness was most strongly driven by the declared presence of protein, fibre, calcium and vitamin C and by the declared total absence of saturated fat and sodium. For this adult panel, total and added sugar had lower utilities and contributed less to the perception of healthfulness. There were major differences between women and men. Conjoint analysis can lead to a better understanding of how consumers process information about the full nutrition profile of a product, and is a powerful tool for the testing of nutrient content claims. Such studies can help the FDA develop science-based criteria for nutrient profiling that underlies FOP and shelf labelling.

  14. The Consumer Production Journey: Marketing to Consumers as Co-Producers in the Sharing Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractNew digital technologies not only support consumers in better fulfilling their own consumption needs, but also enable them to create greater value for other consumers. These new consumer co- production activities, collectively referred to as the sharing economy, require firms to rethink

  15. Introducing new products that affect consumer privacy : A mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancelot Miltgen, Caroline; Henseler, Jörg; Gelhard, Carsten Volker; Popovic, Ales

    2016-01-01

    Many innovative products can only fully deploy their value if they rely on consumers' personal information. This issue challenges the confidence that consumers have in new innovations, and revolutionizes marketing practices. Malhotra, Kim, and Agarwal's (2004) framework provides the theoretical

  16. Smart consumer products with a pathfinder product development strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alec

    1994-09-01

    It is generally acknowledged that technologies diffuse through industry and that the rate of diffusion varies both within different industries and according to the circumstances. Innovation is a process involving risk, especially during the adoption and adaptation of a powerful new technology. Central to a consumer products success using new technology is the quality of their designs and the nature of their forms. Form is of prime importance in influencing the purchasing decisions of consumers and it is also influential in determining the relationships between people in its use environment. The acceptance of a new product into the world is often unduly ad hoc. Many failures are created for each success and there are few guidelines to assist the formulation of a strategy for creating an appropriate form. It is suggested below that success of consumer products incorporating 'smart structures' may be determined not only by the function of products and systems, but also by the form they take. The definition of a desirable product form depends entirely on the point of view taken: technological, commercial, ecological, cultural, and social. However any design using new will incorporate the old and the new. The probability of acceptance of a new product is enhanced by maintaining a fine balance between imaginative and creative form and that with which people are familiar and prefer: a new design may be rejected if it is too novel and unfamiliar, or too traditional. The acceptance of a new product and its subsequent development depends on the success designers and engineers have when dealing with the initial forms, particularly using new technology such as 'smart structures'.

  17. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  18. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  19. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  20. Changing public perceptions of genetically modified foods: Effects of consumer information and direct product experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    and values. Two policies can be adopted in such a situation: (a) consumers can be actively informed regarding the risks and benefits and (b) consumers can be given the opportunity to evaluate products on the basis of direct experience. The effectiveness of both policies was tested in two experiments....... In experiment 1, attitude change experiments were conducted with consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK (N=1650). Different information strategies were tested against a control group for their ability to change consumers' attitudes and their influence on product choice. Results indicate...... that no attitude change occured. Instead, all stategies seemed to bolster pre-existing attitudes, thereby significantly decreasing consumers' preferences for GM products. The effect did not occur when consumers only saw a labeled product example. In experiment 2, we tested the effects of direct experience...

  1. Dimensionality of the Consumer Perceived Value of Product Colour

    OpenAIRE

    Kiehelä, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Consumers’ product assessments are largely based on colour, and a product’s colour can increase consumer satisfaction, awareness and loyalty. However, existing colour research is fragmented and calls for theoretically-enhanced understandings of the role of colour in consumer product perception. The existing colour research mainly focuses on consumers’ immediate reactions when exposed to colours although studies show that consumers evaluate products differently in purchase and in use. There...

  2. Development of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena V. Narimanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research is to develop an anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system. The main requirements for this system are formulated, the choice of method of consumer product authentication is substantiated. The scheme of anti-counterfeit consumer product authentication system is developed basing on previously proposed method of checking the QR-code integrity and authenticity. The proposed within the system consumer product authentication technology is simple, economical for implementation, does not require the external changes of product packaging, does not affect existing production process. The technology can be recommended for the use to private businesses and government institutions that are interested in the security of their products from counterfeiting, as well as tracking and removing from circulation the counterfeit consumer products.

  3. Consumer Health Informatics Aspects of Direct-to-Consumer Personal Genomic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kathleen; Stephen, Remya; Terrill, Bronwyn; Wilson, Brenda; Middleton, Anna; Tytherleigh, Rigan; Turbitt, Erin; Gaff, Clara; Savard, Jacqueline; Hickerton, Chriselle; Newson, Ainsley; Metcalfe, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    This paper uses consumer health informatics as a framework to explore whether and how direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing can be regarded as a form of information which assists consumers to manage their health. It presents findings from qualitative content analysis of web sites that offer testing services, and of transcripts from focus groups conducted as part a study of the Australian public's expectations of personal genomics. Content analysis showed that service offerings have some features of consumer health information but lack consistency. Focus group participants were mostly unfamiliar with the specifics of test reports and related information services. Some of their ideas about aids to knowledge were in line with the benefits described on provider web sites, but some expectations were inflated. People were ambivalent about whether these services would address consumers' health needs, interests and contexts and whether they would support consumers' health self-management decisions and outcomes. There is scope for consumer health informatics approaches to refine the usage and the utility of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Further research may focus on how uptake is affected by consumers' health literacy or by services' engagement with consumers about what they really want.

  4. Consumer decision making regarding a "green" everyday product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Jørgensen, Anne-Katrine; Sandager, Sara

    2012-01-01

    to elevate consumer involvement in the choice of the product. However, there is a lack of research investigating whether adding such a “green” product attribute actually makes any difference to how consumers make choices. Does the way in which consumers make decisions about groceries change when both “green......, it is concluded that, rather than changing the way consumers make decisions when buying this type of product, the availability of a “green” alternative seems to make “green” consumers develop a new, simple choice heuristic that allows them to do their shopping as effortless and time-efficient as consumers buying......” and conventional alternatives are available? Does it make them deliberate more or do they just develop another, simple choice heuristic? Based on observation and follow-up interviews of consumers at the milk counter in two supermarkets which stock both organic (a “green” attribute) and conventional milk...

  5. Exploring terroir product meanings for the consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Sirieix

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available L’origine des produits alimentaires et en particulier la référence au terroir est devenue un support de différenciation courant, l’image apportée par le lien au terroir se traduisant par un transfert de l’image régionale sur l’image des produits et augmentant ainsi leur qualité perçue. Nous proposons dans cet article d’étudier les sources (ou antécédents et conséquences du terroir, du point de vue des consommateurs. Une revue de littérature suivie d’une étude exploratoire qualitative puis quantitative nous permettent de montrer que les produits de terroir peuvent constituer une catégorie cognitive, et de caractériser trois facteurs source du terroir : la référence au lieu, au temps et à la culture et enfin à un savoir faire. Nous étudions ensuite l’impact de ces facteurs sur les représentations relatives aux produits dits « de terroir ». Nous montrons en particulier que le facteur « temps et culture » semble avoir l’impact le plus important. En particulier, il est le seul à influencer la qualité perçue.Food products’ origin and specifically local origin (“terroir” has become a factor of differentiation and added value for food companies. The so-called “terroir” indication can enhance the perceived quality and the inferences from the regional image on the products image. The results of an exploratory study based on in depth interviews, focus groups and questionnaire survey show that terroir product, from the consumer point of view, constitutes a cognitive category characterized with three intrinsic dimensions: (1 “trade-skill”, including “know-how”, “recipe” and “tradition”; (2 “time and culture”, including “history” and “ritual”; and (3 “origin”, including “territory”, “region” and “land”. The link between these dimensions and different representations associated to the terroir category demonstrates that the “time and culture”, a dimension

  6. Consumer behaviour survey for assessing exposure from consumer products: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Klaus; Recke, Selina; Kaiser, Eva; Götte, Sebastian; Berkefeld, Henrike; Lässig, Juliane; Rüdiger, Thomas; Lindtner, Oliver; Oltmanns, Jan

    2018-05-23

    Evaluating chemical exposures from consumer products is an essential part of chemical safety assessments under REACH and may also be important to demonstrate compliance with consumer product legislation. Modelling of consumer exposure needs input information on the substance (e.g. vapour pressure), the product(s) containing the substance (e.g. concentration) and on consumer behaviour (e.g. use frequency and amount of product used). This feasibility study in Germany investigated methods for conducting a consumer survey in order to identify and retrieve information on frequency, duration, use amounts and use conditions for six example product types (four mixtures, two articles): hand dishwashing liquid, cockpit spray, fillers, paints and lacquers, shoes made of rubber or plastic, and ball-pens/pencils. Retrospective questionnaire methods (Consumer Product Questionnaire (CPQ), and Recall-Foresight Questionnaire (RFQ)) as well as protocol methods (written reporting by participants and video documentation) were used. A combination of retrospective questionnaire and written protocol methods was identified to provide valid information in a resource-efficient way. Relevant information, which can readily be used in exposure modelling, was obtained for all parameters and product types investigated. Based on the observations in this feasibility study, recommendations are given for designing a large consumer survey.

  7. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means......Consumers have not had many possibilities yet for seeking out, buying and consuming genetically modified food products. However, for various reasons consumer attitude formation with regard to these products is likely to be complex and closely related to personal values. The paper presents a model...

  8. Pricing Policy and Strategies for Consumer High-Tech Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dovleac, L.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the complex process of price setting for consumer high-tech products. These prices are highly influenced by some external factors from the economic and social environment. The main objective of this paper is to establish the most effective pricing policies and strategies used by high-tech companies of various sizes. Decisions about price fixing for consumer high-technology products are largely influenced by consumer behaviour, too.

  9. Chinese consumers' attitude towards different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G.; Yanfeng, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitude towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies on western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about such attitudes in other cultural contexts...... to food safety which furthermore can provide lean meat with consistent quality are also preferred compared to farms that have less focus on food safety. Chinese consumers also rejected imported pig breeds and tasty but variable meat....

  10. Optimal Consumer Electronics Product Take-Back Time with Consideration of Consumer Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tse Fang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic growth in recent years has transformed our lifestyle to massively produce, consume, and dispose of products, especially for consumer electronics. This change has put great threat to our environment and caused natural resource depletion. Moreover, short product life cycles and quick replacements of consumer electronics create enormous electronic wastes (e-wastes. Without proper waste management, immense environmental damage is expected. In this empirical study, we notice that lots of valuable materials that can still be recycled from these used consumer electronics are left unused at home instead of being recycled at the appropriate time, which causes a low collection rate and a decrease in residual value for the used products. Therefore, it is important for the government and the recyclers to handle them efficiently by increasing the used product take-back rate. Our study develops an assessment model for customer value based on the idea of value engineering and the perspective of product life cycle. We also explore the relationship between product value and the total cost of ownership with an evaluation of their time variation, considering different usage modes for various consumer groups and different recycling award schemes (fixed and variable recycling awards. Proper take-back management is likely to create a win-win situation both for consumers and environmental protection. This study regards the notebook computer as an example to determine the optimal time for recycling laptops based on usage patterns and provides consumers a reference for when to replace their used product. The results from our modeling firstly clearly indicate that consumers with higher frequency of usage have shorter take back times and higher maximum consumer value. Secondly, a variable recycling award scheme with higher maximum consumer value is more practical than a fixed recycling award scheme.

  11. Country-of-origin effects on consumer product evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, P.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis intends to provide a better understanding of the influence of country of origin on consumers' product evaluations. The first chapter explains why consumers attach importance to the country of origin of products. Next to "made in …" labels, there are various ways in which

  12. Consumer choice of modularized products : a conjoint choice experiment approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.W.J. Borgers (Aloys); J.J. Louviere (Jordan); H.J.P. Timmermans (Harry)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRecent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer

  13. Consumer Choice of Modularized Products : A Conjoint Choice Experiment Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, B.G.C.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Louviere, J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Recent increases in flexibility and automation in the production of goods and services allow a growing number of suppliers to offer their products in flexible sets of modules from which consumers can create their own individualized packages. This paper addresses the question how consumer choices of

  14. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustainable product strategy. The level of sustainability is determined by the trade-off between profitability and costs occurred and if more consumers value sustainable products, the firm will increase its sustainable level and get a higher profit. This is because of a combination effect of an increasing marginal profit and demand expansion. Moreover, the model has been further extended to address a situation where the firm could manage consumer segmentation. Depending on parameter settings, the firm may target different consumer segments and there is always a threshold of cost for managing consumer segments. When converting regular consumers to be environmentally conscious is not costly, the firm will convert all consumers to be environmentally conscious with great efforts; otherwise, the firm will convert part of consumers to be environmentally conscious.

  15. Development of a Consumer Product Ingredient Database for ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product “use categories” within a total of 15 top-level categories. We examine the utility of this database and discuss ways in which it will support (i) exposure screening and prioritization, (ii) generic or framework formulations for several indoor/consumer product exposure modeling initiatives, (iii) candidate chemical selection for monitoring near field exposure from proximal sources, and (iv) as activity tracers or ubiquitous exposure sources using “chemical space” map analyses. Chemicals present at high concentrations and across multiple consumer products and use categories that hold high exposure potential are identified. Our database is publicly available to serve regulators, retailers, manufacturers, and the public for predictive screening of chemicals in new and existing consumer products on the basis of exposure and risk. The National Exposure Research Laboratory’s (NERL’s) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts resear

  16. Translating latent trends in food consumer behavior into new products

    OpenAIRE

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim

    2010-01-01

    For successful product development it is important to explore the latent changes in consumer behavior prior to the product development process. The identification of a latent trend before the manifestation moment can be achieved by trend analysis. Trend analysis delivers insights that explore the future in order to identify prospective consumers and new product ideas, but also includes a feeling for the currents in market and technology. Hence, the aim is to identify emerging weak signals in ...

  17. Sustainable Product Strategy in Apparel Industry with Consumer Behavior Consideration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Yang; Shaozeng Dong

    2017-01-01

    The article attempts to analyze sustainable product strategy in apparel industry specifically addressing a firm that is considering launching a sustainable product partly made from recycled materials. There are two types of consumers under consideration, environmentally conscious and regular consumers, as they have different perceived values for the sustainable products. The article provides an analytical model aimed to identify conditions under which a firm could benefit from adopting sustai...

  18. Consumer boycotts of foreign products: a metric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Hakan Altintas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Even if reactions to foreign goods are measured by means of various conceptual structures, few studies approach the question from the point of view of boycotts. Responding to this scarcity and with the aid of netnography, this study examines antecedents of consumer boycotts of foreign goods. The study considers the degree to what a measurement model is useful for examining this boycott process. When the study examines the boycotting of foreign goods as an individual or social process, the study examines the phenomena of nationalism, xenophobia, country-of-origin, and ethnocentrism as antecedents. The conversion of the dimensions obtained from discourse analysis into items and that were tested by means of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis lead to two discoveries: 1 three basic dimensions – hate against foreign products, citizen consumers and economic independence - influenced decisions to boycott and 2 the second-order model (all constructs load on one construct as consumer boycotting was more valid than the three first-order models.

  19. Emotions in consumer research : An application to novel food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laros, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decades the general public has been confronted with a continuous stream of radically new food products as well as technologies that can be used to improve food production and food products. It is rather difficult, however, to convince consumers to accept these new products. For

  20. Consumer information or direct product experience? Alternative information policies and their effects on consumer acceptance of GM foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    an informed purchase decision. Unfortunately, things are not that simple. Previous research has shown that Europeans already hold firm negative attitudes to GM foods. These attitudes are not based on risk-benefit evaluations of particular products. Rather, they seem to be a function of consumers? general......) consumers can be given the opportunity to evaluate GM products on the basis of direct experience, i.e. after the products have been launched. The first approach represents the transparency/precaution policy that was actually adopted in Europe, whilst the second one was dismissed after confrontations arose...... between different stakeholder groups in connection with Nestle's "Butterfinger" launch in 1998. Both approaches would have to compete against a strong network of pre-existing consumer attitudes, but surprisingly, neither of them has ever been experimentally tested on a broad scale. Two experiments...

  1. 75 FR 41167 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Whirlpool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Products Other Than Automobiles.'' (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309) Part A includes definitions, test procedures... consumers. 1. Petitioner. Whirlpool Corporation is the world's leading manufacturer and marketer of major...

  2. Consumer Behaviour in the New Products Management in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Bogosavljević Jovanović

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Initiating the process of new product development based on consumer needs and by satisfying their expectations, as required by the concept of marketing, emphasizes indubitable significance and contribution of consumer behaviour in marketing. However, insufficient or inadequate application and understanding of the consumer has been observed in the practice, in the process of innovation. Therefore, managers of the two companies that were involved in the process of new instant coffee development were interviewed. Secondary data, concerning the brand performance are data of the longitudinal studies of market research agencies. The paper shows that insufficient attention paid to consumers in the new product development impacts the success of the product. It has been confirmed that the marketing managers rely on consumer behaviour and that they are aware of its importance, but use it quite superficially. The conclusion is that, in practice, enterprises in Serbia, in addition to the insufficient application of consumer behaviour in the new products development, face the shortcomings related to the process itself, such as the lack of marketing concept acceptance, production of certain formal documents, strategic planning as well as consumer research. The paper proposes a modification of the new products development model that insists on the four observed shortcomings.

  3. Superior performance of constant-saltier-reference DTF and DTFM to same-different tests by consumers for discriminating products varying sodium contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Yoon-Jung; Kim, Jin-Young; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen

    2014-01-01

    Reducing sodium content in foods and beverages has become very important, and great efforts are being made to achieve this while maintaining overall taste/acceptance of food. This requires more robust sensory discrimination test methods in terms of operational power because discrimination tests u...

  4. Consumer behaviour and opportunities for new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid the selection...

  5. Differentiating the consumer benefits from labeling of GM food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Hobbs, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Although recurrent evidence is found that consumers have different willingness to pay for GM and non-GM products, there is disagreement in the scientific community about the size of consumer benefits from GM labeling. In this article we use a theoretical model based on a standard constant elasticity

  6. New insights into consumer-led food product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper builds upon a review of relevant marketing, consumer science and innovation management literature to introduce the concept of consumer-led new product development and describe its main implementation stages. The potential shortcomings of this concept's application in European food

  7. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  8. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  9. Consumers' Use of Product Owner Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showers, Linda S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 1,200 midwesterners received 643 replies identifying factors affecting tendency to read and use product owner's manuals: (1) product familiarity and lack of time negatively affected use; (2) having a question or problem increased use; and (3) perceived value of information (i.e., redundant or obvious information) deterred use. (SK)

  10. Tunnel Vision: Local Behavioral Influences on Consumer Decisions in Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Häubl (Gerald); B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); A.C.D. Donkers (Bas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe introduce and test a behavioral model of consumer product search that extends a baseline normative model of sequential search by incorporating nonnormative influences that are local in the sense that they reflect consumers' undue sensitivity to recently encountered alternatives. We

  11. Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Dallas M; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Woods, Tyler A; Kovochich, Michael; Hill, Denise S; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-02-01

    Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the ∼2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Incorporation of Consumer Products in the Teaching of Analytical Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Van T.; Kalbus, Gene E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes eight experiments involving the use of common consumer products that could be incorporated into quantitative and instrumental analysis laboratories. Discusses these activities in terms of illustration of principles, awareness, and critical thinking. (CW)

  13. Consumer Product Chemical Weight Fractions from Ingredient Lists

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data and model predictions supporting the manuscript: Isaacs K.K., Phillips K.A., Biryol D., Dionisio K.L., and Price P. Consumer product chemical weight fractions...

  14. With Home Testing, Consumers Take Charge of Their Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There is no such requirement for consumers who purchase home tests, even the ones prescribed or recommended ... device, contact the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE) . An online search is available. You ...

  15. Do Payment Mechanisms Change the Way Consumers Perceive Products?

    OpenAIRE

    Promothesh Chatterjee; Randall L. Rose

    2012-01-01

    Do payment mechanisms change the way consumers perceive products? We argue that consumers for whom credit cards (cash) have been primed focus more on benefits (costs) when evaluating a product. In study 1, credit card (cash) primed participants made more (fewer) recall errors regarding cost attributes. In a word recognition task (study 2), participants primed with credit card (cash) identified more words related to benefits (costs) than those in the cash (credit card) condition. In study 3, p...

  16. Benefit salience and consumers' selective attention to product features

    OpenAIRE

    Ratneshwar, S; Warlop, Luk; Mick, DG; Seeger, G

    1997-01-01

    Although attention is a key construct in models of marketing communication and consumer choice, its selective nature has rarely been examined in common time-pressured conditions. We focus on the role of benefit salience, that is, the readiness with which particular benefits are brought to mind by consumers in relation to a given product category. Study I demonstrated that when product feature information was presented rapidly, individuals for whom the benefit of personalised customer service ...

  17. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-01-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was ...

  18. How Culture Influences Consumer Loyalty towards Cosmetic Products--A Comparison of UK and Taiwanese consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hsin-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Culture is one of the most important factors affecting the marketing department to shape their strategy. This is particularly true when facing global marketing. This project is aimed at examining how the culture influences brand loyalty towards cosmetic products by comparing consumer behaviours of UK and Taiwanese consumers. Semi-structured interviews are conducted in order to collect data. By applying a qualitative approach, this project provides an insight of the cultural factors infl...

  19. Country-of-origin effects on consumer product evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, Peeter W J

    2001-01-01

    This thesis aims to gain a better understanding of the influence of the country-of-origin of products on consumers' product evaluation. A literature study and meta-analysis reveal a multitude of ways in which country-of-origin can influence product evaluations. The country-of-origin has a

  20. Animal Products and Handling: A Caution for Consumers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reviewed pertinent literature on edible animal products and handling with respect to contaminations and adulterations. Animal products include eggs, meat, milk, fish, skin/hide that are processed into other by products for human consumption. There is the need for awareness campaignsto consumers and ...

  1. Convenience foods, as portrayed by a consumer organisation. Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats (1960-1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, Filip

    2015-11-01

    Food choice, both today and in the past, is driven by a broad range of interacting factors, in which culture is centrally placed. This paper will assess convenience foods by means of a qualitative analysis of comparative product tests done by Belgium's largest consumer organisation Test-Aankoop/Test-Achats, and will focus on the influence of socially and culturally normative values between the years 1960 and 1995. The tests provide a unique insight into attitudes to convenience foods within an organisation that saw its role in Belgian consumer society as being both educator and guide. The organisation's views on health, food safety, modernity, tradition, control over ingredients and content, gender roles and taste shaped its attitude to the role and meaning of what food is supposed to be. The organisation thereby both guided and re-affirmed normative values with respect to convenience foods. Values, which are culturally constructed, have always played a key role in the acceptability of products. Cultural and social inhibitions and fears over control of convenience foods, which persist today, were central in the consumer organisation's representation of convenience food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antibacterial Consumer Products: How Reliable Are They?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Media is abuzz with advertisements of multitude of antibacterialproducts ranging from toothpastes, toilet soaps, andhandwashes to disinfectants and cosmetics. While, almostevery manufacturer claims that their product has 100% efficiencyin eliminating microbes, the truth really is questionable.On 2 September 2016, the ...

  3. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  4. Consumer preferences in respect of processed fruit and berry products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribova N. А.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays fruits, berries and processed products are an indispensable component of the human diet throughout the year. Frozen fruits and berries are widely distributed on the Russian market and are part of the food industry worldwide. Frozen products become popular among consumers for home use due to the minimal cooking time. Consumer evaluation is the most relevant and significant for identifying preferences and evaluating quality products in Russian markets. In this regard, a qualitative analysis of marketing research has been carried out and preferences have been identified according to which criteria consumers buy quick-frozen products. Some methods of sensory analysis have been used (consumer evaluation, the profile method, and pairwise comparison method. The dominant factor in choosing a brand of quick-frozen products is the combination of an acceptable price and quality, and to a lesser extent, the recommendation of acquaintances, the type of packaging and advertising of products. The research is aimed at identifying organoleptic properties that affect the consumer evaluation of the quality of frozen, thawed grapes in comparison with the reference product. Fruits and berries freeze for hours and even minutes, but are stored for a long time. The problem arises in rehydration – the return of the product to its original state, close to fresh natural raw material. The main goal of the research is aimed at identifying some rational method of defrosting, corresponding to organoleptic and consumer properties. With the help of organoleptic evaluation the best ways of defrosting have been identified – the microwave oven and the freezer. These methods allow obtaining thawed foods with the finest quality and identical to natural raw materials. The storage time after defrosting has been revealed: in the microwave oven – 60 min; at the room temperature – 80 min; in the coldstore – 100 min. The obtained information can be useful for consumers

  5. A guide for controlling consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Consumer products are considered regardless of the purpose for which the radionuclide is added. For example, the purpose may be to make use of the ionising radiation emitted by the substance in the product itself (e.g. radioluminescent devices antistatic devices and ionisation chamber smoke detectors), or to make use of some other property of the material where the presence of radiation in the final product is merely adventitious (e.g. thorium gas mantles, ceramics with uranium glazes, and products containing radioactive tracers added to facilitate manufacturing and inspection processes). The Guide does not cover some products containing natural radioactive substances which have not been intentionally added, such as building materials. The Guide does not cover medicinal products and pharmaceuticals, nuclear powered cardiac pacemakers, or electronic equipment, such as television receivers, that emit X-rays. Unlike the 1970 Guide, this Guide does not consider those products, such as EXIT signs, containing gaseous tritium light sources, that would not be supplied directly to members of the public. The Guide is concerned mainly with the exposure arising from consumer products of those persons who are not subject to any regulatory controls for purposes of radiation protection in normal circumstances. Members of the public come under this heading, but not workers involved in the manufacture of consumer products. These workers will normally be subject to separate control. Radiological protection concepts and policy for the control of radioactive consumer products and licensing and post-licensing surveillance are developed

  6. Counseling Customers: Emerging Roles for Genetic Counselors in the Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, A.; Kelly, S.; Wyatt, S.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals now have access to an increasing number of internet resources offering personal genomics services. As the direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) industry expands, critics have called for pre- and post-test genetic counseling to be included with the product. Several genetic testing

  7. Direct-to-consumer testing: more risks than opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, G; Favaloro, E J; Plebani, M

    2011-12-01

    As a result of incessant genetic discoveries and remarkable technological advancements, the availability and the consequent consumer's request for genetic testing are growing exponentially, leading to the development of a 'parallel' market, i.e. the direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing, also known as 'direct access testing' (DAT). Analogous to the traditional laboratory diagnostics, drawbacks of DTC testing might arise from any step characterising the total testing process, and include poor control of both appropriateness and preanalytical requirements, potential operation outside national or international regulation for in vitro diagnostic testing, little evidence of quality as well as the risk of transfer of genetic materials from the companies to other entities. Another important issue is the test panels offered to consumers, which are often based on preliminary, speculative or unsupported scientific information. Finally, the potential of this type of testing to generate anxiety or false reassurance should also be carefully considered. Although DTC testing carries some theoretical advantages (e.g. greater consumer autonomy and empowerment), solid clinical studies and costs vs. benefit analyses are needed to definitely establish whether DTC testing might be effective for decreasing the burden of diseases, delay their onset or modify their progression and therefore the clinical outcome. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  9. MODELLING CONSUMERS' DEMAND FOR ORGANIC FOOD PRODUCTS: THE SWEDISH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuchehr Irandoust

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.

  10. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  11. [Advantages and disadvantages of direct-to-consumer genetic tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Camilla Worm; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø

    2017-03-13

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests are sold over the internet to consumers all over the world - including Denmark. No regulation of these tests has been introduced neither in Denmark nor in Europe, even though they have been on the market since 2007. Such tests have several advantages, but indeed also a long list of potential disadvantages, which are most often ignored, and among these is insufficient training of general practitioners in performing the necessary counselling but also the risk of increased expenses to unnecessary follow-up consultations.

  12. CONSUMER EVALUATIONS OF BEAUTIFICATION PRODUCTS: EFFECTS OF EXTRINSIC CUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of extrinsic cues, i.e. brand image, perceived price, perceived quality, and perceived country of origin on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Multi-item measures were used for data collection. Resultsrevealed that three extrinsic cues: brand image, perceived quality, and perceived country of origin have positive and significant influence on consumers' brand evaluation of beautification brands. Only perceived price has shown no such influence on consumers' brand evaluation. Finally, unanswered questions and future researchdirections are presented.

  13. New insights into consumer-led food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I. A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    industry are described. Contrary to previous optimistic views, it is put forward that without significant changes taking place in the mindset of the organizations involved in Europe's food R&D, the way forward for consumer-led innovation strategies in the agri-business sector will be long and hard.......This paper builds upon a review of relevant marketing, consumer science and innovation management literature to introduce the concept of consumer-led new product development and describe its main implementation stages. The potential shortcomings of this concept's application in European food...

  14. Consumers as co-creators of new product ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Krystallis, Athanasios; Guerrero, Luis

    2016-01-01

    development process as a firm-centred activity. This study uses projective and creative research techniques to involve consumers in the process of modification and creation of new aquaculture product ideas. We provide guidelines for the use of these techniques in the new product development process, as well...

  15. Radioactivity in consumer products : radiation safety and regulatory appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, B.K.S.; Venkataraman, G.; Subrahmanym, P.

    1993-01-01

    Use of radioactive materials in consumer products is in vogue almost since the discovery of radioactivity. There has been a rapid growth in the use of radioactive material in various consumer products such as Ionization Chamber Smoke Detectors (ICSD), Static eliminators, etc. In addition, there are certain manufacturing processes wherein the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) get incorporated in the consumer products. Certain phosphatic fertilizers, titanium dioxide pigments, phospho gypsum plaster boards are some examples in this category. The manufacture and use of these products result in radiation dose to the public apart from radiation exposure to the personnel involved in the manufacturing process. Appropriate radiation control measures have to be taken in the design, manufacture and use of consumer products to ensure that the radiation doses to the public and the population at large do not exceed the relevant limits. While appropriate regulatory controls and surveillance are established for manufacture and use of certain products, these are still to be recognised and established in respect of certain other processes and products. The current status of radiation safety and regulatory control and the lack of these in respect of some products are discussed in this paper. (author). 5 refs

  16. Firearm Advertising: Product Depiction in Consumer Gun Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Elizabeth A.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in "Bacon's Magazine Directory" "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers…

  17. [Intention] to buy organic food products among norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah

    2012-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...

  18. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a Covered Consumer... determined that hearth products qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended. More specifically, DOE has tentatively determined that hearth...

  19. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Consumer preferences for maize products in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kimenju, Simon Chege

    2012-06-01

    New maize varieties have been biofortified with provitamin A, mainly a-carotene, which renders the grain yellow or orange. Unfortunately, many African consumers prefer white maize. The maize consumption patterns in Africa are, however, not known. To determine which maize products African consumers prefer to purchase and which maize preparations they prefer to eat. A survey of 600 consumers was conducted in Nairobi, Kenya, at three types of maize outlets: posho mills (small hammer mills), kiosks, and supermarkets. Clients of posho mills had lower incomes and less education than those of kiosks and supermarkets. The preferred maize product of the posho-mill clients was artisanal maize meal; the preferred product of the others was industrial maize meal. Maize is the preferred staple for lunch and dinner, eaten as a stiff porridge (ugali), followed by boiled maize and beans (githeri), regardless of socioeconomic background. For breakfast, only half the consumers prefer maize, mostly as a soft porridge (uji). This proportion is higher in low-income groups. Consumers show a strong preference for white maize over yellow, mostly for its organoleptic characteristics, and show less interest in biofortified maize. Maize is the major food staple in Nairobi, mostly eaten in a few distinct preparations. For biofortified yellow maize to be accepted, a strong public awareness campaign to inform consumers is needed, based on a sensory evaluation and the mass media, in particular on radio in the local language.

  1. Use of consumer insight in the new product development process in the meat sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Successful new product development requires input from the market throughout the product development process, from identification of opportunities via screening of ideas, development of concepts, development of physical prototypes and to launch. Drawing on work done in the EU FP6 projects...... PROSAFEBEEF and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid...... the selection and optimisation of new product concepts and related communication, and d) be used to test product prototypes before final launch....

  2. Direct to consumer genetic testing and the libertarian right to test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Michele

    2016-09-01

    I sketch a libertarian argument for the right to test in the context of 'direct to consumer' (DTC) genetic testing. A libertarian right to genetic tests, as defined here, relies on the idea of a moral right to self-ownership. I show how a libertarian right to test can be inferred from this general libertarian premise, at least as a prima facie right, shifting the burden of justification on regulators. I distinguish this distinctively libertarian position from some arguments based on considerations of utility or autonomy, which are sometimes labelled 'libertarian' because they oppose a tight regulation of the direct to consumer genetic testing sector. If one takes the libertarian right to test as a starting point, the whole discussion concerning autonomy and personal utility may be sidestepped. Finally, I briefly consider some considerations that justify the regulation of the DTC genetic testing market, compatible with the recognition of a prima facie right to test. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Consumer-Based Brand Equity of Products and Services: Assessing a Measurement Model with Competing Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barreiros Porto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: Identifying which brand in a category conveys more or less value to the consumer raises questions about the composition of brand equity measures and the brands that make up the category. Measures to identify Consumer-Based Brand Equity (CBBE may include functional assessments of consumer’s brand choice and firms’ brand performance, as long as they embrace competing brands. In view of this, this study comes up with a validation of a measurement model of Consumer-Based Brand Equity for competing brands of products and services, testing for possible moderation (product / service and experienced / non-experienced consumers. Method: Appraising 39 brands, the model was composed of 6 metrics: awareness, perceived quality, loyalty, association, exclusiveness and willingness to pay a price premium. Confirmatory factorial analysis revealed the CBBE structure and multigroup moderation tests showed the comparisons between products and services and between experienced and non-experienced consumers. Main Result: The metrics have convergent validity with very good model fit. The metrics are similar for products / services, but different for consumers with / without experience (evidence of moderation. Contributions: Based on this measure, researchers and marketers can identify whether their brand's performance has been perceived better or worse than that of their competitors. Relevance/Originality: This article is the first to offer a more complete scale to assess the consumer-based brand equity of products and services, allowing the researcher to compare the competitiveness between brands. 

  4. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed.

  5. Regional differences of consumer preferences when shopping for regional products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kalábová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of a research on consumer preferences when shopping for groceries. It is focused on regional products and consumer preferences in relation to the country of origin of food products. The main objective of this paper is to find the existence of spatial relationships between spatial deployment of regional products and consumer preferences for regional products. It will be necessary to create a data model for monitoring the deployment of regional products and also a data model for tracking important indicators of consumer behavior in all regions of the Czech Republic. The results are based on questionnaire survey that was conducted within the period from October 2010 to January 2011 on a sample of 3767 respondents from the Czech Republic, via both online questionnaires and their printed version. For the data collection the questionnaire system ReLa, developed by the Department of Marketing and Trade at Faculty of Business and Economics at Mendel University in Brno, was used. Data was processed with statistical software STATISTICA (ver. 10. Spatial visualisation was processed with GIS software ArcGIS (ver. 10.1. Preferences for food of Czech origin were analysed in relation to identification criteria. The research results show that the origin of food has an important role in consumer purchase decision-making. There is no significant difference in importance of this factor based on gender of consumers, however, we could prove moderate dependence on respondent’s occupation, education and age. We could also experience regional differences in levels of preferences of local products or products of Czech origin in regard of 14 regions of the Czech Republic. χ2 (N = 3767 = 245.25; p < 0.001. Value of Pearson’s coefficient of contingency is 0.334.

  6. 75 FR 28335 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... Product Certification; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 97 / Thursday, May 20, 2010.... CPSC-2010-0038] RIN 3041-AC71 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification AGENCY: Consumer... also address labeling of consumer products to show that the product complies with certification...

  7. 76 FR 69481 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1107 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... Pertaining to Product Certification AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... that the product complies with the certification requirements under section 14(a) of the Consumer...

  8. Joint Dynamic Pricing of Multiple Perishable Products Under Consumer Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Yalç{\\i}n Akçay; Harihara Prasad Natarajan; Susan H. Xu

    2010-01-01

    In response to competitive pressures, firms are increasingly adopting revenue management opportunities afforded by advances in information and communication technologies. Motivated by these revenue management initiatives in industry, we consider a dynamic pricing problem facing a firm that sells given initial inventories of multiple substitutable and perishable products over a finite selling horizon. Because the products are substitutable, individual product demands are linked through consume...

  9. Automation and decision support in interactive consumer products.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, J.; Rüttinger, B.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents two empirical studies (n=30, n=48) that are concerned with different forms of automation in interactive consumer products. The goal of the studies was to evaluate the effectiveness of two types of automation: perceptual augmentation (i.e. supporting users' action selection and implementation). Furthermore, the effectiveness of non-product information (i.e. labels attached to product) in supporting automation design was evaluated. The findings suggested greater benefits f...

  10. CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT AND VALUE ENHANCEMENT THROUGH PRODUCT INDIVIDUALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Armellini, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Product customisation has always been a regular practice as a form of self or group identification. Previous studies have demonstrated that when investing time and effort to customise a product, an emotional attachment to that product develops. Since the 1980s, new technologies in design, manufacturing and communications have facilitated customisation practices for mass manufacturers as well as for individual consumers. For example, computer algorithms can now automate customisation (i.e. ind...

  11. Investigating Consumer Preferences towards Sustainability in Product Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This research-oriented thesis investigates to which extent German consumers consider the sustainability aspect of a product package as their main factor in preferring a product. The research was conducted based on a comparison between two specific smoothies from the Company A and Company B brands. Company A smoothies are packed in glass bottles, whereas Company B smoothies are sold in plastic bottles. For the scope of the thesis, sustainable product packaging was defined regarding its contrib...

  12. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Backhaus, Birte W.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors

  13. Consumer perceptions of the application of biotechnology in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    approach from retailers. On this background, a study was designed to answer four questions: 1. How negative are consumer attitudes to GMO applications in food? 2. How much do these attitudes affect product evaluation and purchase behaviour? 3. How deeply rooted are these attitudes? 4. Can the attitudes...... be changed by more information? The study: The study on which the present paper draws investigated consumers in Denmark, Germany, Italy and the UK. A multi-method approach was employed combining qualitative laddering interviews, nation-wide surveys, and experiments. In the product-specific parts, a yoghurt...

  14. Rule-of-thumb consumers, productivity and hours

    OpenAIRE

    Furlanetto, Francesco; Seneca, Martin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study the transmission mechanism of productivity shocks in a model with rule-of-thumb consumers. In the literature, this financial friction has been studied only with reference to fiscal shocks. We show that the presence of rule-of-thumb consumers is also very helpful in accounting for recent empirical evidence on productivity shocks. Rule-of-thumb agents, together with nominal and real rigidities, play an important role in reproducing the negative response of hours and the d...

  15. Citizen and consumer influence on future pork production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bjarne Taulo; Stacey, Julia Rolsted; Poulsen, Louise Vestergaard Skøtt

    2008-01-01

    The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers.......The development on the world market for pigs may challenge the European production and export of pork, and can hit the EU countries' economy hard. To meet the changes it is essential that the pork producing sector understands the demanding and powerful citizens and consumers....

  16. Uncovering consumers' political intentions and values when buying and consuming organic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    consumers’ value system? Further, what are the key motives for buying and consuming organic food products? A case study was undertaken. The unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was gathered and analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique......Little is known about the underlying motivations for buying and consuming ethical, green and organic products. Thus, how can we understand this specific type of consumption? This paper aims to enlighten this knowledge gap. More specifically, how can we systematize and understand the political....... The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures (i.e. values) for identical attributes and consequences when buycotting organic food. Hence, some of the informants’ buycott organic food for personal well-being or for family related reasons (i.e. health...

  17. Utility and performance relative to consumer product energy efficiency standards. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coggins, J.L.

    1979-12-14

    An investigation of the relative utility and performance of nine major household consumer products covered by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act is summarized. The objective was to define the terms utility and performance, to recommend methods for quantifying these two concepts, and to recommend an approach for dealing with utility and performance issues in the energy efficiency standards program. The definitions developed are: performance of a consumer product is the objective measure of how well, with the expected level of consumer input (following the manufacturer's instructions for installation and operation), the product does its intended job; and utility of a consumer product is a subjective measure, based on the consumer's perception, of the capability of the product to satisfy human needs. Quantification is based on test procedures and consumer survey methods which are largely already in use by industry. Utility and performance issues are important in product classification for prescribing energy efficiency standards. The recommended approach to utility and performance issues and classification is: prior to setting standards, evaluate utility and performance issues in the most quantitative way allowed by resources and schedules in order to develop classification guidelines. This approach requires no changes in existing Department of Energy test procedures.

  18. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers' perspective toward cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ain Ayob

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.

  19. CONSUMER INVOLVEMENT IN BUYING DECISIONS – THE EXAMPLE OF THREE FOOD PRODUCTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerko MARKOVINA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to create an instrument suitable for the measurement of consumer involvement construct and to verify its metric characteristics. The involvement scale was tested on a sample of 283 consumers of wine, cheese and honey. The statistical analysis of results showed satisfactory validity and reliability of the instrument. High level of consumer involvement was found for wine and cheese, whereas consumer involvement for honey was somewhat lower. These results show that consumers, when buying wine, cheese and honey, do not make their buying decisions impulsively, but they search for the additional information about the products. The scale used in this article can also be used to measure involvement levels for different food and other products in the Croatian market.

  20. The psychological effects of empowerment strategies on consumers' product demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Christoph; Prandelli, Emanuela; Schreier, Martin

    2010-01-01

    . In such scenarios, it is no longer the company but its customers who decide democratically which products should be produced. This article discusses the first set of empirical studies which highlight the important psychological consequences of this power shift. The results indicate that customers who are empowered...... of psychological ownership of the products selected. The studies also identify two boundary conditions for this "empowerment - product demand" effect: It diminishes if the outcome of the joint decision-making process does not reflect consumers' preferences and if consumers do not feel that they have the relevant......Companies have recently begun to use the Internet in order to integrate their customers more actively into various phases of the new product development (NPD) process. One such strategy involves empowering customers to cooperate in selecting the product concepts to be marketed by the firm...

  1. Carbon Footprint of Tree Nuts Based Consumer Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Volpe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study shows results of a calculation of carbon footprint (CFP resulting from the production of nuts added value products for a large consumer market. Nuts consumption is increasing in the world and so is the consumer awareness of the environmental impact of goods, hence the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of food production is of growing importance for producers. Calculation of CO2eq emissions was performed for all stages of the production chain to the final retail point for flour, grains, paste, chocolate covered nuts and spreadable cream produced from almonds, pistachios and hazelnuts grown and transformed in Italy and for peanuts grown in Argentina and transformed in Italy. Data from literature was used to evaluate CFP of raw materials, emissions from transport and packing were calculated using existing models, while emissions deriving from transformation were calculated empirically by multiplying the power of production lines (electrical and/or thermal by its productivity. All values were reported in kg of CO2 equivalent for each kg of packed product (net weight. Resulting values ranged between 1.2 g of CO2/kg for a 100 g bag of almond to 4.8 g of CO2/kg for the 100 g bag of chocolate covered almond. The calculation procedure can be well used for similar cases of large consumer food productions.

  2. Consumer response to packaging design: The role of packaging materials and graphics in sustainability perceptions and product evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, N.D.; Herpen, E. van; Lans, I.A. van der; Ligthart, T.N.; Trijp, H.C.M. van

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  3. Size of the direct-to-consumer genomic testing market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caroline F; Gregory-Jones, Shelley

    2010-09-01

    There has been enormous interest in the recent development of consumer genomics services, but very little is known about their impact. Using publicly available information, we estimate that the market for genetic susceptibility tests for complex diseases is much smaller than previously suggested, and hence consider that regulation through restrictive statutory legislation may be excessive.

  4. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  5. Consumer purchasing behavior towards fish and seafood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlucci, D.; Nocella, G.; Devitiis, De B.; Bimbo, F.; Nardone, G.

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies

  6. Product's promotion patterns and their effects on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigated the influence of promotional patterns of Coca-Cola products on purchase intentions, loyalty and attitude of consumers in Nigeria. Ninety randomly selected social science undergraduates of a major Nigerian university participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to three new ...

  7. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E; Van Buren, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood.

  8. Summary of procedures used to transport and distribute consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etnier, E.L.; O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    A wide variety of consumer products that contain radionuclides are available to the general public. Estimation of radiation doses to man from exposures to these products requires that the entire life span of each product be defined in a manner that identifies persons who may be exposed and quantifies the conditions under which exposures may occur. This paper presents models of steps which make up the paths for transportation and distribution of consumer products. Fire probabilities and damage rates to parcels during transportation are included. Transportation steps considered include those used to move parcels via truck, air, first-class mail, and parcel delivery. Distribution steps include handling in distribution centers, warehouses, and retail stores. A hypothetical distribution scheme is presented to illustrate application of the exposure scenarios described in model

  9. CONDOS methodology for evaluation of radiation exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, F.R.

    1979-01-01

    The CONDOS methodology is a tool for estimating radiation doses to man from exposures to radionuclides incorporated in consumer products. It consists of two parts: (1) an outline, checklist, and selected data for modeling the life span of a product or the material from which it is made; and (2) a computer code that uses the life-span model to calculate radiation doses to exposed individuals and population groups

  10. Factors Affecting Consumer Purchase Decision on Insurance Product in PT. Prudential Life Assurance Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Esau, Eko Yiswa Rasti

    2015-01-01

    Marketing Mix is the main factor that could affect the whole marketing system. The absence of marketing mix analysis will affecting negatively on a marketing performance. The research aims to analyze the influence of Product, Price, Promotion, People and Process of the Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area on the Consumer Purchase Decision. Data collected through distribution of questionnaires to 100 consumer of Prudential Life Assurance Manado Area. The research used Classic Assumption test ...

  11. Radiological testing of products containing radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Knight, A.

    1980-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive substances are tested by NRPB to determine how much radioactive material is likely to be released from a product if it is misused or accidentally damaged. Such testing is briefly described with particular reference to ionisation chamber smoke detectors, liquid crystal display watches illuminated with gaseous tritium light sources and anti-static brushes containing polonium-210 in the form of ceramic microspheres. (U.K.)

  12. Consumer understanding of sugars claims on food and drink products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, N J; Sadler, M J; Cooper, J M

    2012-06-01

    Consumer understanding of nutrition and health claims is a key aspect of current regulations in the European Union (EU). In view of this, qualitative and quantitative research techniques were used to investigate consumer awareness and understanding of product claims in the UK, focusing particularly on nutrition claims relating to sugars. Both research methods identified a good awareness of product claims. No added sugars claims were generally preferred to reduced sugars claims, and there was a general assumption that sweeteners and other ingredients would be added in place of sugars. However, there was little awareness of the level of sugar reduction and the associated calorie reduction in products when reduced sugars claims were made on pack. In focus groups, participants felt deceived if sugar reduction claims were being made without a significant reduction in calories. This was reinforced in the quantitative research which showed that respondents expected a similar and meaningful level of calorie reduction to the level of sugar reduction. The research also identified consumer confusion around the calorie content of different nutrients, including over-estimation of the calorie content of sugars. This is crucial to consumers' expectations as they clearly link sugar to calories and therefore expect a reduction in sugar content to deliver a reduction in calorie content.

  13. Consumer knowledge and its implications for aspects of consumer purchasing behaviour in the case of information-intensive products

    OpenAIRE

    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to better understand consumer knowledge, its constituents, antecedents and consequences or implications for other consumer behaviours so as to assist wine marketers and marketers of other information-intensive products with their marketing strategy development.  Wine is a complex product difficult for consumers to evaluate particularly prior to purchase but it is also a difficult product for marketers.  Wine has a very large number of both intrinsic and extrin...

  14. Consumer characteristics and their effect on accepting online shopping, in the context of different product types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisidou, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Online shopping is among the most popular activities of the internet, yet the reasons why consumers buy online are still unclear. Although it is implied that consumer acceptance of online shopping is affected by different products not many studies have adopted this view. This study attempts to examine consumers' attitude when making online purchases in the context of different product types. A theoretical framework is proposed based on the determinants of consumer behaviour and user acceptance of online shopping, as well as online product classification. The factors that were selected to be tested are Personal Innovativeness of Information Technology (PIIT, Self-efficacy, Perceived security, Privacy, Product involvement and how they affect consumer attitude towards online shopping. Correlation analysis, at first, to determine the relationships among the variables and regression analysis afterwards to verify the extent of the variable interaction were used to test the hypotheses. Based on the aforementioned analyses, results were drawn and compared to the results found by Lian and Lin (2008 in a similar study. It has been found that PIIT, perceived security and product involvement have an effect on the attitude towards online shopping, yet the results vary among the different product types.

  15. Report revision master: an energy analysis of consumer products packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This report serves as a foundation for quantifying the potential for energy conservation in the Canadian consumer products packaging sector. Investigation was made of energy consumption, waste management, and energy conservation potential in the various stages of the packaging and consumption process: raw material acquisition, material and packaging manufacture, package filling and distribution, consumer use, post-consumption options (energy recovery, disposal, recycling), and cleaning and transportation (if applicable) between each stage. The food and beverage industry was singled out as the most important sector because of its large consumption of packaging. Significant opportunities for energy conservation were found, although any savings accomplished through packaging changes appear to be difficult to implement. Packaging energy savings seem to be able to be achieved only through a product-by-product, industry-by-industry initiative by means of product and package standardization. An efficient example of this is the milk distribution system, where refillable plastic jugs require only 1.4 MBtu per 3000 quarts delivered (as compared with, for example, 68.9 MBtu for disposable aluminium soft drink cans). Other conclusions are made concerning the optimization of packaging energy, with respect to types of packaging, energy requirements related to use of packaged products, impact of government policies and of retailing techiques, consumer lifestyles, and the like. 95 refs., 3 figs., 54 tabs.

  16. Measuring consumers' interest in instant fortified pearl millet products: a field experiment in Touba, Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Hugo; Kariuki, Sarah W; Traore, Djibril; Taylor, John Rn; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2018-04-01

    In Africa, food-processing industries are emerging fast, especially for cereals. New low-cost extrusion cookers give small enterprises an opportunity to enter the market for processed cereal products, in particular instant, fortified and flavoured mixes. Before engaging in the marketing of these products, consumers' interest needs to be assessed. This study used a combination of affective tests and experimental auctions with 200 consumers in Touba, Senegal, to evaluate four new products with conventional pearl millet flour as the control: instant pearl millet flour, instant pearl millet flour with added dry mango and carrot powder (naturally fortified), and the previous products with added conventional chemical micronutrient fortificants. During affective tests, consumers made little distinction between the five products in appearance, aroma, taste and overall appreciation. The experimental auctions showed that, without providing additional information on the products, there was no difference in 'willingness to pay' (WTP) between them. However, after that information is provided, consumers were willing to pay a modest premium for instant flour, and a large premium for added mango and carrot extract and for added micronutrients, but were not willing to pay a premium if those micronutrients came from natural sources. Income increased overall WTP, while education increased WTP for instant flour. There is a potential market in low-income African countries for instant and fortified cereal food products, but likely in the higher income and education groups. The increased cost needs to be compared to the premiums consumers are willing to pay. In the next step, the new and promising products could be tested in pilot markets, with target consumers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Demarketing of Tobacco Products and Consumers Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jacennik

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demarketing of tobacco products includes methods aimed at changing the consumer behavior and the marketing environment. The main strategies consist of price manipulation, anti-smoking advertising, regulations restricting or banning tobacco advertising, limitations of distribution or consumption of tobacco products, and warning messages on packages and advertisements. These measures influence either directly or indirectly the following psychosocial and environmental variables: health beliefs, social attractiveness of smoking, accessibility of tobacco products and associated behaviors. The article presents a review of international research on the demarketing of tobacco and its effects for the formation and change of health behavior.

  18. Quantifying effects of convenience and product packaging on consumer preferences and market share of seafood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola

    2013-01-01

    ,718 Australian oyster consumers participated in an online choice experiment with visual product stimuli to simulate their choice of ready-packaged oysters in a retail store. Considering preference heterogeneity respondents’ choices were analysed with a scale adjusted latent class model and six different consumer...... serving suggestions were assessed in a choice experiment. The impact of product packaging and preparation convenience on consumer choice were analysed relative to the traditional demand factors of price, region of origin, oyster species, health, environmental and quality claims. A total of 1...... a minor influence on consumer choice. Consumer differences in price sensitivity and preferences for species and different oyster accompaniments provide scope for consumer oriented product differentiation with the potential to increase oyster demand and healthy seafood consumption....

  19. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Background: The purpose of our study was to understand consumers' risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods: One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20–50 years were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results: Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion: A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved

  20. Consumer Preferences for Local Food: Testing an Extended Norm Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Wenzig

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer attitudes toward consuming and buying locally produced food are well studied. By contrast, the topic of consumer preferences for local food, with a special emphasis on the role of norms, still lacks empirical evidence. To study the influence of norms and morals on the intention to buy local food products, a quantitative study (N = 327 focusing on external social and internalized moral norms was conducted using the constructs of the theory of planned behavior in combination with an extended norm taxonomy and the perceived consumer effectiveness measure. The norm constructs consisted of two different personal norms, integrated and introjected, and two social norms, descriptive and injunctive. In a factor analysis, two factors for social norms but only one for personal norms were obtained. Multiple regressions explained 50 percent of the variance in intentions and 29 percent of the variance in past behavior. Norm constructs were proven important in the model, as personal norms had the largest effect among all constructs on intentions, and descriptive norms strongly influenced past behavior. An additional mediation analysis showed that personal norms were internalized social injunctive norms and that intentions mediated the relationship between all constructs. The implications of the findings and recommendations for future research are given accordingly.

  1. Colour and fat content as intrinsic cues for consumers attitudes towards meat product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers’ attitudes towards sensory properties of chicken, royal and beef salami, meat products from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1018) in four retail stores (Delhaize) in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference concerning the colour and fat of three selected salami and then completed questionnaire of socio-demographic information including eating behaviour. Selected smoked meat products were evaluated in the DLG Test Center Food, Germany. Consumers, at all education levels and in all age groups, evaluated colour as good and fat as sufficient with a significantly (psmoked products passed the DLG tests and received “DLG award winner” medals in Gold (73%) or Silver (27%).

  2. Changeability of consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Czernyszewicz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to establish and compare consumer preferences concerning the methods of fruit production (traditional or organic ones in the years 2001, 2003 and 2006 and the relations between the preferences and the socio-economic and demographic features of the consumers. The analysis was conducted on the basis of the data from surveys carried out among the inhabitants of Lublin. Results of those surveys point out that certain features of the consumers such as the sex, incomes and the family type significantly differentiated preferences concerning the method of fruit production. Increased incomes were connected with greater acceptance of the organic method, and their decrease was related to greater frequency of indicating the conventional method. Interest in the method of production, while buying the fruit was significantly higher among men than among women. Declaring the willingness to pay more for organic fruit was also correlated with the consumers’ sex. Besides, in 2006 it was not too strongly related to the incomes of the respondents. In the years 2001 and 2006 changeability of preferences con-cerning the willingness to pay a higher price for organic fruit and no change in the interest in the technology of fruit production while purchasing the fruit were shown.

  3. Linking product design to consumer behavior: the moderating role of consumption experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilal NG

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Naeem Gul Gilal,1 Jing Zhang,1 Faheem Gul Gilal2 1School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 2Donlinks School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China Background: Previous investigations of product design broadly link aesthetic, functional, and symbolic designs to sales growth, high turnover, and market share. However, the effect of product design dimensions on consumer willingness-to-buy (WTB and word-of-mouth (WOM is virtually ignored by consumer researchers. Similarly, whether the consumption experience can differentiate the effect of the three product design dimensions on WTB and WOM is completely unknown. Using categorization theory as a lens, our study aims to explore the effect of product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM directly and indirectly through the moderation of the consumption experience.Methods: A convenience sample of (n=357 Chinese and (n=277 Korean shoppers was utilized to test the hypotheses in the fashion apparel industry.Results: Our results showed that the aesthetic design was more prominent in capturing consumer WTB for both Chinese and Koreans. Similarly, the aesthetic design was more salient in enhancing WOM for Chinese, whereas the symbolic design was more promising in terms of improving WOM for Koreans. Further, our moderation results demonstrated that the consumption experience could differentiate the effects of the three product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM for Chinese. By contrast, the consumption experience could only interact with the aesthetic design to improve WOM for South Koreans.Conclusion: To the best of authors’ knowledge, the present study is one of the initial attempts to link three product design dimensions with consumer WTB and WOM in the fashion apparel context and explored whether consumption experience competes or complement with three product design dimensions to shape consumer WTB and WOM for

  4. Perceived media influence on behaviour of food products' consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Ines

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern business conditions, it is possible to identify a number of manners for company's communication with current customers and prospects. That is the reason for marketers to prioritize the requirements of finding an adequate mix of integrated marketing communications instruments, defining their roles and the extent to which they should be implemented, as well as their mutual coordination and synergetic effects. Company can use different media and, by their combination and integration, send a clear and consistent promotional message to customers. In this paper, the authors analyse the perceived impact of the media and their combination on consumers' attitudes towards food products and their intention to buy food products, as well as whether there are differences when it comes to these influences among consumers with different socio-demographic characteristics.

  5. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  6. Plasmonic Metasurfaces for Coloration of Plastic Consumer Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Christiansen, Alexander Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We present reflective plasmonic colors based on the concept of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) for plastic consumer products. In particular, we bridge the widely existing technological gap between clean-room fabricated plasmonic metasurfaces and the practical call for large-area struc......We present reflective plasmonic colors based on the concept of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) for plastic consumer products. In particular, we bridge the widely existing technological gap between clean-room fabricated plasmonic metasurfaces and the practical call for large......-area structurally colored plastic surfaces robust to daily life handling. We utilize the hybridization between LSPR modes in aluminum nanodisks and nanoholes to design and fabricate bright angle-insensitive colors that may be tuned across the entire visible spectrum....

  7. Consumer Purchase Behaviour Toward Environmentally Friendly Products in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Udo, Miyako

    2007-01-01

    This study considers consumer purchase behaviour toward environmentally friendly products in Japan and focuses on factors which can influence environmentally responsible purchase decision making. The modified theory of planned behaviour based on previous research in the area of environmentally responsible purchase behaviour and ethical purchase decision making is applied to examine factors affecting the purchase decision making and key findings from the present study are highlighted. It can b...

  8. Defining product intake fraction to quantify and compare exposure to consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Oliver; Ernstoff, Alexi; Csiszar, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction...... of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example...... modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products...

  9. Linking product design to consumer behavior: the moderating role of consumption experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilal, Naeem Gul; Zhang, Jing; Gilal, Faheem Gul

    2018-01-01

    Previous investigations of product design broadly link aesthetic, functional, and symbolic designs to sales growth, high turnover, and market share. However, the effect of product design dimensions on consumer willingness-to-buy (WTB) and word-of-mouth (WOM) is virtually ignored by consumer researchers. Similarly, whether the consumption experience can differentiate the effect of the three product design dimensions on WTB and WOM is completely unknown. Using categorization theory as a lens, our study aims to explore the effect of product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM directly and indirectly through the moderation of the consumption experience. A convenience sample of (n=357) Chinese and (n=277) Korean shoppers was utilized to test the hypotheses in the fashion apparel industry. Our results showed that the aesthetic design was more prominent in capturing consumer WTB for both Chinese and Koreans. Similarly, the aesthetic design was more salient in enhancing WOM for Chinese, whereas the symbolic design was more promising in terms of improving WOM for Koreans. Further, our moderation results demonstrated that the consumption experience could differentiate the effects of the three product design dimensions on consumer WTB and WOM for Chinese. By contrast, the consumption experience could only interact with the aesthetic design to improve WOM for South Koreans. To the best of authors' knowledge, the present study is one of the initial attempts to link three product design dimensions with consumer WTB and WOM in the fashion apparel context and explored whether consumption experience competes or complement with three product design dimensions to shape consumer WTB and WOM for Chinese and Koreans.

  10. Buying Imported Products Online : A quantitative study about Chinese Online consumer behavior towards imported products

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qianqian; Wang, Yuren

    2015-01-01

    With the fast growing Chinese online marketplace and the increasing popularity of shopping imported products online in China, more and more practitioners and researchers are interested in understanding the cues that Chinese consumers use to evaluate imported products consumption online. Our quantitative study aims to identify what factors affect the behavior of Chinese online consumers towards imported products and the relationships between the identified factors and purchase intention, and t...

  11. Managing Product Usability: How companies deal with usability in the development of electronic consumer products

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kuijk, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Even though there is a large amount of methods for user-centred design, the usability of electronic consumer products (e.g., portable music players, washing machines and mobile phones) is under pressure. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. That the usability of electronic consumer products is under pressure is attributed to an incre...

  12. Consumer decision-making with regard to organic food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    A model of consumer decision-making and behaviour with regard to organic food is developed and applied on survey data from eight European countries. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries and are independent...... on the processing level of the product. However, whereas behavioural intentions are predictive of behaviour in the North, this is to a much lesser extend the case in the South of Europe. Policy implications and possible reasons for the difference between North and South are discussed....

  13. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani BT. Tolo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community Care Local Food. It appears that the local government is trying to make this local food as an alternative food. The type of research used in this paper is a socio-legal research reviewing the local food production from the perspective of consumer protection. The outcomes of the research indicate that responsibility of food business operators in the implementation of local production is essentially an effort to assist the government in ensuring the realization of food safety system. Therefore there is a need for awareness of the laws and regulations for all parties involved towards local food production especially in Kendari Regency Southeast Sulawesi on the food production process.

  14. 75 FR 57937 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc... announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver... clothes washer test procedure. Through this notice, DOE also solicits comments with respect to the Samsung...

  15. 75 FR 45623 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung Electronics America...-014) that grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric... decision and order, Samsung shall be required to test and rate these refrigerator- freezers equipped with...

  16. NCRP study of radiation exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    The NCRP is stepping up its concern with radiation exposure resulting from consumer products, and at this time the author would not venture to suggest what its ultimate position may be. The NCRP recognizes that, at some stage, the problem has to be treated in some pseudo-quantitative fashion. However, at the present time, the Council is not enthusiastic about the attempts to legislate or regulate levels of safety into many radiation uses when these levels are based on such shaky models and assumptions as to provide readily distortable conclusions. The Council is seriously examining the matters of radiation risk on a quantitative basis, but not with the over-simplified models that have been applied in recent years. It is fairly certain that, over the next few years, the NCRP will include such details as it considers rational in relationship to consumer products, even though the end result for many of the products may result in the expression of the opinion that they are unimportant. It was suggested in the text that some kind of definition might be provided which would give a dividing line between radiation exposures that are psychologically worrisome and others that are not psychologically worrisome. To illustrate this point two tables are presented which list types of exposure, number exposed, average dose equivalent (mrem/year) and the dose index for various consumer products and natural background. The dose index is the product of the average dose equivalent by the estimated number of individuals exposed. It is deliberately an improper term. The main benefit of this study has been in pointing out what may be a way to avoid future problems rather than indicating any serious problems at the present time

  17. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  18. Fragranced consumer products: exposures and effects from emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products, such as cleaning supplies, air fresheners, and personal care products, are a primary source of indoor air pollutants and personal exposure. Previous research indicates that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects, with implications for workplaces and public places. This is the first study to examine the multiple dimensions of exposures related to fragranced products and effects in the US population. The study investigated the prevalence and types of fragranced product exposures, associated health effects, awareness of product emissions, and preferences for fragrance-free policies and environments. Data were collected using an online survey with a nationally representative population ( n  = 1136) of adults in the USA. Overall, 34.7 % of the population reported health problems, such as migraine headaches and respiratory difficulties, when exposed to fragranced products. Further, 15.1 % have lost workdays or a job due to fragranced product exposure in the workplace. Also, 20.2 % would enter a business but then leave as quickly as possible if they smell air fresheners or some fragranced product. Over 50 % of the population would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free. While prior research found that common fragranced products, even those called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, more than two thirds of the population were not aware of this, and over 60 % would not continue to use a fragranced product if they knew it emitted such pollutants. Results from this study provide strong evidence that fragranced products can trigger adverse health effects in the general population. The study also indicates that reducing exposure to fragranced products, such as through fragrance-free policies, can provide cost-effective and relatively simple ways to reduce risks and improve air quality and health.

  19. Estimates of the individual and collective doses in consumer products containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleveld, H.; Pruppers, M.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Here, consumer products refer to products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and which can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. This group of products includes, for instance, ionisation smoke detectors and timepieces with radium-painted dials. These products can cause a radiation dose to members of the public in various stages of life. In 1996 the European Council laid down basic safety standards in Directive 96/29/Euratom for protecting the health of the general public from the dangers arising from ionising radiation. The Directive contains activity concentrations and total activity per radionuclide, the so-called exemption levels, below which a practice using this radionuclide is exempted from the duty to report. Implementing the Directive in the framework of Dutch legislation, the proposed policy for consumer products is to show a distinction between products with activity concentrations and total activity above and below the exemption levels. Besides the exemption levels being used as activity criteria for the consumer products, two dose criteria an individual dose of 10 microSv/a and a collective dose of 1 manSv/a are also employed. In the study leading to this report, the most recent information on consumer products was first collected and the activity per product, and in some cases also the activity concentration, was tested against the exemption levels. Next, the expected individual and collective doses for members of the public were calculated in the storage and trade phase, as well as the user and disposal phase of the consumer products. In the storage and trade phase, the dose for shop personnel was also estimated. Finally, the doses ware tested against the dose criteria. Gas mantles, static elimination devices, gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS), ceramic tiles, welding rods and camera lenses and eyepieces (belongs to the consumer products for which at least one of the activity criteria is exceeded

  20. Antimicrobials Products Tested or Pending Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agency has completed testing of the majority of registered hospital disinfectants and tuberculocide products. The list of products can assist users in making informed choices regarding infection control in their facilities.

  1. Swedish Consumers' Perception of Food Quality and Sustainability in Relation to Organic Food Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosona, Techane; Gebresenbet, Girma

    2018-04-01

    Consumers' demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers' demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test (with alpha value of p price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.

  2. Do-It-Yourself Products Fact Sheet. To assess the risks for the consumer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg W ter; Bremmer HJ; Engelen JGM van; Burg W ter; Bremmer HJ; Engelen JGM van; SIR

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to compounds in consumer products can be assessed using the computer program ConsExpo (Consumer Exposure). Given the huge number of consumer products, it is not possible to calculate the exposure for each separate product, therefore a limited number of groups containing similar products are

  3. Disinfectant Products Fact Sheet. To assess the risks for the consumer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prud'homme de Lodder LCH; Bremmer HJ; Pelgrom SMGJ; Park MVDZ; Engelen JGM van; SIR

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to compounds in consumer products can be assessed using the computer program ConsExpo (Consumer Exposure). Given the huge number of consumer products, it is not possible to calculate the exposure for each separate product, so a limited number of groups containing similar products are

  4. Modeling population exposures to silver nanoparticles present in consumer products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (geographic information system) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product life cycle analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human life stage analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs probabilistic material flow analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employ screening microenvironmental modeling and intake fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  5. New energy storage systems for photovoltaic supplied consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burges, K.; Blok, K.

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study attention was paid to the possibility of reducing battery wastes in the Netherlands by means of integration of photovoltaic (PV) cells in small, electric consumer products. The result of that study was that only two environment-friendly applications could be used: capacitors in calculators or watches. However, new types of energy storage systems have been developed and commercialized, so that the above-mentioned study is updated. First, the technical, economic and environmental parameters of several energy storage systems are compared. Next, a number of products, in which PV-cells can be integrated, has been selected and the economic and environmental effects are calculated and analyzed. The energy storage systems discussed are primary alkaline batteries, NiCd batteries, Ni-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) batteries, Li-Solid-State (LiSS) batteries, and capacitors. It is estimated that by means of the proposed integration of PV-cells in specific consumer products the amount of battery wastes can be reduced by 50%. 33 tabs., 1 appendix, 50 refs

  6. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Branding Strategies for High Technology Products: The Effects of Consumer and Product Innovativeness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Y.; van Klink, R.; Simmons, G.; Grinstein, A.; Palmer, M.

    2017-01-01

    Choice of an appropriate branding strategy is a critical determinant of new product success. Prior work on fast-moving-consumer-goods (FMCG) prescribes that new products carry new (vs. existing) brand names to appeal to earlier adopters - a critical target for new products. However, such a

  8. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample ( n  = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  9. Consumers' environmental and ethical consciousness and the use of the related food products information: The role of perceived consumer effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghvanidze, Sophie; Velikova, Natalia; Dodd, Tim H; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna

    2016-12-01

    Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting food choices that are both healthy and produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. The current study investigates five consumer behavioural factors - namely, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE); environmental conscious behaviour; concerns for ethical food production; health conscious lifestyle; and healthy dietary patterns. The key interest of the study lies in exploring the moderating role of PCE - the extent to which the consumer believes that his/her own efforts can make a difference - in these interrelationships. The empirical analysis was conducted through an online survey of food consumers implemented in three markets - the US, the UK and Germany. Findings indicate that for individuals with higher levels of PCE, who are environmental conscious and ethically concerned, information on food labels relating to environmental and social issues represents value by itself. Interestingly, health and nutrition information on food labels was not perceived valuable by consumers with high PCE. The predictive effects of various socio-demographic variables on PCE, consumer environmental and health consciousness are discussed. Cross-cultural differences are also outlined. The results of this research may contribute to the development of environmental policies and communication strategies of the food industry to enhance perceived consumer effectiveness among consumers. Improved PCE, in turn, may catalyze consumers' environmental behaviour and ethical concerns in relation to consumption of food products with environmental and social information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consumer product branding strategy and the marketing of physicians' services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, H; Witt, J

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals have traditionally maintained physician referral programs as a means of attracting physicians to their network of affiliated providers. The advent of managed care and impending healthcare reform has altered the relationship of hospitals and physicians. An exploratory study of marketing approaches used by twelve healthcare organizations representing twenty-five hospitals in a large city was conducted. Strategies encountered in the study ranged from practice acquisition to practice promotion. This study suggests that healthcare providers might adopt consumer product branding strategies to secure market-share, build brand equity, and improve profitability.

  11. Consumer Protection Towards Local Food Production In Southeast Sulawesi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Suriani BT. Tolo; Ahsan Yunus; Ahmadi Miru; Irwansyah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Consumers have rights which should not just be ignored by businesses such as the right to be a safety the right be informed the right to be heard as well as the right to a good environment and healthy. Kendari Regency as a local government has been manifested by issuing regulations and policies that support the development of local food production such as the Mayor of Kendari regulation No. 15 of 2010 and Mayor Kendari Decree No. 427 of 2012 regarding the Establishment of Community C...

  12. Consumer involvement with products: comparison of PII and NIP scales in the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manoel Cunha de Almeida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the extent to which two scales of consumer involvement with products converge: PII (Personal Involvement Inventory, by Zaichkowsky (1994, and NIP (New Involvement Profile, by Jain and Srinivasan (1990. The literature review encompasses the main studies on measuring the involvement of consumers with products. Data was collected through a survey that was applied to a nonprobabilistic quota sample of undergraduate students from different institutions across the state of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 1,122 questionnaires were collected, of which 1,025 (91.4% were considered valid. In order to investigate the different levels of consumer involvement through different product categories, four products were used – sneakers, mobile phone, sports drinks and soft drinks. ANOVA and post hoc tests were used to verify the existence of significant difference on answers among product groups. This study’s substantive hypothesis, the degree of convergence between the classification results of the PII and NIP scales, was verified in two ways: through Spearman’s non-parametric correlation test and through the observation of the scales’ similar classification proportion rates. The scores’ independence was evaluated through the nonparametric Chi-Square test. Results show high classification convergence. The main contribution of this study is thus to empirically test the PII and NIP scales in the Brazilian context. Furthermore, the convergence of the scores of these scales suggests the possibility of comparing results of studies, using either scale.

  13. Effect of co-payment on behavioral response to consumer genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wendy; Outlaw, Jessica J; Wineinger, Nathan; Boeldt, Debra; Bloss, Cinnamon S

    2018-01-29

    Existing research in consumer behavior suggests that perceptions and usage of a product post-purchase depends, in part, on how the product was marketed, including price paid. In the current study, we examine the effect of providing an out-of-pocket co-payment for consumer genomic testing (CGT) on consumer post-purchase behavior using both correlational field evidence and a hypothetical online experiment. Participants were enrolled in a longitudinal cohort study of the impact of CGT and completed behavioral assessments before and after receipt of CGT results. Most participants provided a co-payment for the test (N = 1668), while others (N = 369) received fully subsidized testing. The two groups were compared regarding changes in health behaviors and post-test use of health care resources. Participants who paid were more likely to share results with their physician (p = .012) and obtain follow-up health screenings (p = .005) relative to those who received fully subsidized testing. A follow-up online experiment in which participants (N = 303) were randomized to a "fully-subsidized" versus "co-payment" condition found that simulating provision of a co-payment significantly increased intentions to seek follow-up screening tests (p = .050) and perceptions of the test results as more trustworthy (p = .02). Provision of an out-of-pocket co-payment for CGT may influence consumer's post-purchase behavior consistent with a price placebo effect. Cognitive dissonance or sunk cost may help explain the increase in screening propensity among paying consumers. Such individuals may obtain follow-up screenings to validate their initial decision to expend personal resources to obtain CGT. © Society of Behavioral Medicine 2018.

  14. Consumer choice : Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleenhoff, S.; Osseweijer, P.

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase

  15. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Steinemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fragranced consumer products—such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products— pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098. Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1% could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  16. Consumer-driven profit maximization in broiler production and processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecio de Farias Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased emphasis on consumer markets in broiler profit-maximizing modeling generates results that differ from those by traditional profit-maximization models. This approach reveals that the adoption of step pricing and consideration of marketing options (examples of responsiveness to consumers affect the optimal feed formulation levels and types of broiler production to generate maximum profitability. The adoption of step pricing attests that higher profits can be obtained for targeted weights only if premium prices for broiler products are contracted.Um aumento na ênfase dada ao mercado de consumidores de carne de frango e modelos de maximização de lucros na produção de frangos de corte geram resultados que diferem daqueles obtidos em modelos tradicionais de maximização de lucros. Esta metodologia revela que a adoção de step-pricing e considerando opções de mercado (exemplos de resposta às preferências de consumidores afetam os níveis ótimos de formulação de rações e os tipos de produção de frangos de corte que geram uma lucratividade máxima. A adoção de step-pricing atesta que maiores lucros podem ser obtidos para pesos-alvo somente se preços-prêmio para produtos processados de carne de frango forem contratados.

  17. THE ROMANIAN YOUNG GENERATION'S WILLINGNESS TO CONSUME GREEN HOSPITALITY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUȚA ADINA BĂLTESCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hospitality industry generates environmental degradation through the construction of buildings, waste disposal, and water usage. Nowadays, a large number of customers show increased environmental awareness, being willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products/services. In Romania institutional arrangements to generate awareness of the necessity of sustainable development were numerous, exemplifying in this respect the actions carried out by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development for introducing the european eco-label for tourist accommodation services and the camping services, as well as for promoting the use of the eco-label in Romania among interested hotels and guesthouses. Based on these aspects, the article presents the results of a quantitative marketing research conducted among the young generation from Brașov county. The main objectives of the research consist in identifying the level of information among Romanian young consumers of accommodation services from Brasov county regarding the eco-certification and environmental management systems applied in the Romanian hospitality industry and, also, to identify their intentions to consume the green accommodation products.

  18. CONDOS-II, Radiation Dose from Consumer Product Distribution Chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: This code was developed under sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to serve as a tool for assessing radiation doses that may be associated with consumer products that contain radionuclides. The code calculates radiation dose equivalents resulting from user-supplied scenarios of exposures to radionuclides contained in or released from sources that contain radionuclides. Dose equivalents may be calculated to total body, skin surface, skeletal bone, testes, ovaries, liver, kidneys, lungs, and maximally exposed segments of the gastrointestinal tract from exposures via (1) direct, external irradiation by photons (including Bremsstrahlung) emitted from the source, (2) external irradiation by photons during immersion in air containing photon-emitting radionuclides that have escaped from the source, (3) internal exposures by all radiations emitted by inhaled radionuclides that have escaped from the source, and (4) internal exposures by all radiations emitted by ingested radionuclides that have escaped from the source. 2 - Method of solution: Organ dose equivalents are approximated in two ways, depending on the exposure type. For external exposures, energy specific organ-to-skin-surface dose conversion ratios are used to approximate dose equivalents to specific organs from doses calculated to a point on the skin surface. The organ-to-skin ratios are incorporated in organ- and nuclide-specific dose rate factors, which are used to approximate doses during immersion in contaminated air. For internal exposures, 50 year dose equivalents are calculated using organ- and nuclide-specific, 50 year dose conversion factors. Doses from direct, external exposures are calculated using the energy-specific dose conversion ratios, user supplied exposure conditions, and photon flux approximations for eleven source geometries. Available source geometries include: point, shielded and unshielded; line, shielded and unshielded; disk, shielded

  19. Brand Evaluation and Consumers' Preference towards Pioneer and Follower Brands: Empirical Study on Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP Syahlani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aims of this research were to identify brand recall as well as to analyze consumers’ attitude and consumers’ preference toward pioneer and follower brands on processed dairy product. One hundred and fifty housewives were engaged as respondents in this research. The techniques used in the data analysis were non parametric two related sample test, one sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The result indicated that each of the product category, the percentage of the pioneer brand preference was higher than follower brand, namely Ultra Milk (87.30%, Yakult (94.70%, Anlene (93.30% and Kraft (98.70%. The result showed that from 150 respondents were able to correctly recall Ultra Milk (66.70%, Yakult (86.70%, Anlene (82.70% and Kraft (96.00% as the pioneer brand on each product category. Furthermore, the results showed that the average consumer attitudes were higher toward the pioneer brands than the follower brands. The result also indicated that consumers preferred pioneer brands than follower brands for the same flavour, quality and price. The result led to conclusion that consumers retrieved or recalled pioneer brands more correctly than follower brands. Moreover, consumers had a more favourable attitude to pioneer brands than to follower brands, in which consumers preferred to purchase the pioneer brands products to those of the follower brands concerning the farm-manufactured products of UHT milk, pro-biotic milk, high-calcium milk and cheese. Key Words: brand retrieval, brand recall, attitudes, preference

  20. Firearm advertising: product depiction in consumer gun magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Elizabeth A; Vittes, Katherine A; Sorenson, Susan B

    2004-10-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in Bacon's Magazine Directory "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers spent an estimated $1,195,680 on firearm advertising during the month studied. Annual advertising costs ranged widely; manufacturers spent an estimated $28.16 in advertising per firearm produced. Firearms generally were presented as a part of a lifestyle. Self-protection was noted infrequently in the advertisements. By contrast, attributes of the gun, typically technological characteristics, were noted in almost every advertisement.

  1. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-04

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  2. Nanomaterials in consumer products: a challenging analytical problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contado, Catia

    2015-01-01

    Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits vs. risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer's protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices.

  3. New food product consumer's behaviour: Health literacy and neophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Soares Luis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The development of a new food product aims to respond to consumer ́s concerns related to food and health promotion. Education plays a fundamental role in consumer’s behavior by providing tools that allows them to make informed decisions. Consumer’s empowerment is essential to the success of a health promotion strategy, also the knowledge of health literacy level is important to define a proper health policy. The aim of this study is to evaluate health literacy level and new foods consumption behavior (especially neophobic and neophilic behavior of the Lisbon area residents in Portugal. Methods A questionnaire, that includes the Portuguese version of the Newest Vital Sign, was applied to a stratified sample of 384 individuals (over 15 years old living in the Lisbon area in Portugal distributed accordingly to 2001 Census. Health literacy was evaluated by the Portuguese version of NVS, a tool by which a number of health-related information, in this case nutritional information written in a food label, is used to demonstrate one’s ability to use it to answer to questions. Data analysis was performed in SPSS®, version 19. Results Study results show that there is a close relationship between health literacy and general literacy. It is also clear that health literacy level is low for the majority of the participants and that this factor is relevant in new foods consumption, by positively affecting neophilia. Older individuals, with lower school years attendance and health literacy, are the main consumers with neophobic behavior. Higher health literacy is also directly associated with consumers concerns on how the product was manufactured and on environmental characteristics. There is no statistical association between gender and health literacy, but it is of relevance the fact that an association between health literacy and food neophilia is statistically significant. Conclusion Considering that new food products may improve health

  4. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal. PMID:28930198

  5. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator’s joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal.

  6. Joint Decisions on Production and Pricing with Strategic Consumers for Green Crowdfunding Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin

    2017-09-20

    Green crowdfunding is developing as a novel and popular transaction method, which can largely improve the efficiency of raising initial funds and selling innovative green products or services. In this paper, we explore the creator's joint decisions regarding green crowdfunding products of different quality levels that can sufficiently satisfy consumer preferences. Firstly, considering the characteristics of a green crowdfunding product, we present four pricing strategies when substitutes exist. Then we propose the optimal pricing strategies to maximize the total profit for the creator under different circumstances, facing strategic and myopic consumers. Finally, for the heterogeneity of consumer valuations, we compare the total profits of the four pricing strategies under different values of the substitution coefficient to obtain the optimal pricing and product strategies under the coexistence of strategic and myopic consumers. According to the result, we find that when the fraction of high-type consumers and the gap between high and low valuations is big, or when they are both small, traditional single pricing shows its benefit. However, when the green crowdfunding products are better than their substitute, a line of green products is more likely to be optimal.

  7. Consumer preferences for the predictive genetic test for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally A; Perri, Matthew

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess consumer preferences for predictive genetic testing for Alzheimer disease in the United States. A rating conjoint analysis was conducted using an anonymous online survey distributed by Qualtrics to a general population panel in April 2011 in the United States. The study design included three attributes: Accuracy (40%, 80%, and 100%), Treatment Availability (Cure is available/Drug for symptom relief but no cure), and Anonymity (Anonymous/Not anonymous). A total of 12 scenarios were used to elicit people's preference, assessed by an 11-point scale. The respondents also indicated their highest willingness-to-pay (WTP) for each scenario through open-ended questions. A total of 295 responses were collected over 4 days. The most important attribute for the aggregate model was Accuracy, contributing 64.73% to the preference rating. Treatment Availability and Anonymity contributed 20.72% and 14.59%, respectively, to the preference rating. The median WTP for the highest-rating scenario (Accuracy 100%, a cure is available, test result is anonymous) was $100 (mean = $276). The median WTP for the lowest-rating scenario (40% accuracy, no cure but drugs for symptom relief, not anonymous) was zero (mean = $34). The results of this study highlight attributes people find important when making the hypothetical decision to obtain an AD genetic test. These results should be of interests to policy makers, genetic test developers and health care providers.

  8. Managing Product Usability : How companies deal with usability in the development of electronic consumer products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kuijk, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Even though there is a large amount of methods for user-centred design, the usability of electronic consumer products (e.g., portable music players, washing machines and mobile phones) is under pressure. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to

  9. Consumers report lower confidence in their genetics knowledge following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carere, Deanna Alexis; Kraft, Peter; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Roberts, J Scott; Green, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure changes to genetics knowledge and self-efficacy following personal genomic testing (PGT). New customers of 23andMe and Pathway Genomics completed a series of online surveys. We measured genetics knowledge (nine true/false items) and genetics self-efficacy (five Likert-scale items) before receipt of results and 6 months after results and used paired methods to evaluate change over time. Correlates of change (e.g., decision regret) were identified using linear regression. 998 PGT customers (59.9% female; 85.8% White; mean age 46.9 ± 15.5 years) were included in our analyses. Mean genetics knowledge score was 8.15 ± 0.95 (out of 9) at baseline and 8.25 ± 0.92 at 6 months (P = 0.0024). Mean self-efficacy score was 29.06 ± 5.59 (out of 35) at baseline and 27.7 ± 5.46 at 6 months (P reported lower self-efficacy following PGT. Change in self-efficacy was positively associated with health-care provider consultation (P = 0.0042), impact of PGT on perceived control over one's health (P consumers in response to receiving complex genetic information.Genet Med 18 1, 65-72.

  10. Consumer-based optimization of a third-generation product made from peanut and rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I-D; Phillips, R D; Resurreccion, A V A

    2007-09-01

    Indirectly puffed snacks were produced by an extrusion process with partially defatted (12% fat) peanut flour (30%, 40%, 50%) at different levels of screw speed (200, 300, 400 rpm) and feed rate (4, 5, 6 kg/h). Extrudates were dried to obtain half-products (11% to 12% MC) followed by puffing with deep-fat frying. The puffed snack prototypes were subjected to consumer acceptance test. Consumers rated higher than 6.0 (= like slightly) for all products produced within the experimental factor ranges on the attributes of crispness and texture, whereas consumer scores for appearance, color, flavor, and overall liking were lower than 6.0 for the product containing 50% peanut flour regardless of screw speed and feed rate. The product extruded with 50% peanut flour at screw speed of 400 rpm and feed rate of 6 kg/h received the lowest score of 5.5 on overall liking in a 9-point hedonic score. Predicted regression models indicated that feed rate had the largest effect on consumer attributes followed by peanut flour and screw speed. From the superimposed contour plot of individual contour plot of consumer attributes, the optimum region was identified as the area beginning at the 42.0% to 43.0% peanut flour and 4.0 kg/h feed rates, rising to a maximum at 45% peanut flour and 4.6 kg/h feed rates and decreasing to the 33.0% to 34.0% peanut flour and 6.0 kg/h feed rates. Verification confirmed the ability of predictive regression models to identify peanut-based snacks, which would be scored higher than 6.0 by consumer evaluation.

  11. Testing confectionary products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Smith, I.H.

    1983-01-01

    Cream-filled cakes are tested by passing a #betta#-ray from a #betta#-particle source to a detector and checking the #betta#-particle count to indicate if the cakes have been correctly filled with cream. The presence of a cake to be tested is sensed by an optical detector and incorrectly filled cakes are removed by a plunger. (author)

  12. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-03-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light quality with respect to correlated color temperature and color rendering properties. This shows a trade-off between high color rendering warm white light and energy efficiency. The lumen and color maintenance over time has been investigated and results for products running over 11000 h will be presented. A new internet based SSL product selection tool will be shown. Here the products can be compared on efficiency, light quality parameters, thus providing a better basis for the selection of SSL products for consumers.

  13. Local power production at the end consumer - appropriate technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinden, Bjoern; Morch, Andrei Z.; Braanaas, Marit; Stang, Jacob; Berner, Monica

    2002-11-01

    The report describes and evaluates a selection of technologies which may be adequate for a local power production at the end consumer. Contrary to may other technology surveys it is focused on small-scale production units that also may be of interest to small consumers. For the various technologies the particular technology is described and an evaluation of the suitability to Norwegian conditions is carried out. For each technology the following is described: 1) The technology in general. 2) Construction and technology trends. 3) Environmental conditions, operation and maintenance. 4) Experiences. 5) Key facts/data. It has to be emphasised that all the technologies are in development and this report describes them as they are in 2002 except for general conditions which always will exist. It has not been possible to obtain exact facts regarding the investment costs and the costs for each produced kWh e lectricity or kWh h eat for many of the technologies because they are new and mass production has not yet started. In an appendix a form is presented for use in obtaining information from equipment suppliers. Later in the project there will be developed a model for calculating the profitability of such investments as well. Technologies such as small-scale wind and hydropower units are the technologies most suited for Norway in a short perspective. In the years to come it is probable that technologies which use biologic fuel/waste of some kind would be used to some extent. In a longer perspective technologies as the Stirling engine and fuel cells may be of interest. The micro gas turbines and combustion engines may be current technologies if the distribution network for natural gas is developed. For these technologies the utilisation of waste heat would approximately double the efficiency and halve the operation costs. Various external conditions will play a major part in the spreading of the local power production. The political, legal and economical external

  14. Determinants of Corporate Governance and Corporate Performance among Consumer Product Industry in Malaysia: A Theoretical Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kogilavani Apadore; Siti Subaryani Binti Zainol

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses on the relationship between corporate governance mechanisms and corporate performance of public listed companies in Bursa Malaysia among the consumer product industry. It investigates the corporate governance mechanisms such as ownership concentration, audit quality, board independence and CEO duality, are used to test on the relationship between both corporate governance and corporate performance. The proposed model indicates that the proportion of independent non-execut...

  15. Fission product separations testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.A.; DePaoli, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The initial goal of this task is to adequately understand the treatment needs of the end user in treating contaminated wastewater. These needs are then incorporated into the evaluation of new treatment technologies for wastewater treatment. Pertinent information is than supplied to the end user so that they can select a preferred process to meet their waste treatment needs. New sorbent materials, ion-exchange materials, or other processes of interest to DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) will be evaluated initially for the removal of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs from groundwater and process wastewater. Laboratory studies will strive to obtain a quantitative understanding of the behavior of these new materials and to evaluate their sorption efficiency in reference to a standard benchmark treatment technique. Testing of the new materials will begin by conducting scoping tests where new treatment materials are compared with standard, commercially available materials in batch shaker tests. Experimental data for the most promising sorbents will then be fit to an equilibrium model so that nuclide sorption can be predicted for variable wastewater composition. Additional testing with actual wastewater will be conducted with two or three of the most effective treatment methods. Once batch testing of a treatment method is completed, dynamic column tests will be performed to validate the equilibrium sorption model and to obtain the defining column operating parameters for scaling up the technology.

  16. Try Before You Buy: How to Design Information Systems to Enhance Consumer Willingness to Test Sustainable Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Stryja

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available More and more business organizations recognize the relevance of sustainable innovations as driving factor for their corporate strategies, products and processes. But while the concept of sustainability is generally ratified by employees and consumers, their willingness to actually use or buy such innovations can be low. One of the most important facilitators for the adoption of innovations is self-experience generated by testing the innovation. This paper provides insight on how sustainable innovation testing affects consumer mindsets and which barriers consumers face when considering testing a sustainable innovation. The study draws on the data from an in-depth interview study with seven providers and consumers of electric cars (as sustainable innovation in business and private environments. Insights about the nature of consumer’s willingness to test are extracted and recommendations for the design and use of information systems as facilitators for testing sustainable innovations are derived.

  17. The Importance of Consumer Trust for the Emergence of a Market for Green products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuttavuthisit, Krittinee; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer trust is a key prerequisite for establishing a market for credence goods, such as “green” products, especially when they are premium priced. This article reports research on exactly how, and how much, trust influences consumer decisions to buy new green products. It identifies consumer t...... behavior. Implications for policy and future research are discussed....

  18. 78 FR 65629 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... representative of consumer behavior. For example, if the number of annual cycles results in greater than a 3-day... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Whirlpool Corporation From... Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, a program covering most major household...

  19. 75 FR 62127 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... requirements for covered consumer products when (1) the petitioner's basic model for which the petition for... petition, discussed below. Whirlpool claims that water softeners can prevent consumer behaviors that... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Whirlpool Corporation From...

  20. Variables Influencing Food Perception Reviewed for Consumer-Oriented Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsema, S.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Gaasbeek, T.; Dagevos, H.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer wishes have to be translated into product characteristics to implement consumer-oriented product development. Before this step can be made, insight in food-related behavior and perception of consumers is necessary to make the right, useful, and successful translation. Food choice behavior

  1. Consumer Innovativeness Model of Indonesian Young People in Adopting Electronic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ashari Nasution

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available It is important for marketers to understand how innovators respond to the introduction of new products. This paper investigates consumer innovativeness (CI from meta-analysis study as suggested by Nasution and Garnida [2011] and examines the simultaneous impacts of CI on new product adoption. Nasution and Garnida [2010] proposed three different perspectives in conceptualizing the CI model. First, the generalist stream that represents a generalized personality trait that engenders consumers to adopt new product. Second, the particularist stream that focuses on product adoption behavior within a specific domain of interest. Third, the integrator perspective that proposes to integrate these two streams by putting domain-specific innovativeness as a mediating factor in relationship between general innovativeness trait and new product adoption.A structural equation model is used to test hypotheses using empirical data from 607 respondents in electronic products adoption. The result shows that the integrator perspective provides the best model in representing the empirical data. The finding of the integrator perspective reveals that domain specific CI mediates the relationship between general innovativeness trait and new product adoption. Specifically, subjective knowledge and hedonic idea shopping enhances the actuality of new products.The findings provide an explanation to the less than consistent relationship between consumer innovativeness and new product adoption. However, a single research context of electronic products and student sample may become one of the limitations and future studies needed to replicate the perspective of CI in different research contexts for greater generalizability and the use of non-student sample. The findings have implications for the innovation adoption theory, for managers involved in the introduction of new products, and for future research on innovation adoption.

  2. TOOL FOR VALUE IDENTIFICATION AND CONSUMER WILLINGNESS TO PURCHASE GREEN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geysler Rogis Flor Bertolini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The value to consumers of environmental issues is an important factor for decision-making organizations. This article aims to present a tool that can identify the value and the willingness of consumers to purchase environmentally friendly products. It is an exploratory research, with an interrogative model. The proposed tool consists of two steps; the first is to check the value and purchasing preference of consumers towards environmentally friendly products. The second step is the simulation of supply environmentally friendly product to consumers. Based on the results, showing whether or not consumers will buy the product eco-organizations will obtain relevant information for decision making.

  3. Anticipating Soft Problems with Consumer Electronic Products : How do soft problems interact with user characteristics and product properties?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade consumer electronic product industries have been confronted with an increase in consumer complaints. Interestingly about half of the reasons for product return are based on so called ‘soft problems’, consumer complaints that cannot be traced back to technical problems. Probably

  4. LC-HRMS for Characterizing Durum Wheat Pasta Production Variability and Consumer Overall Liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertini, Francesca; Cavanna, Daniele; Catellani, Dante; Vigni, Mario Li; Durante, Caterina; D'Alessandro, Alessandro; Suman, Michele

    2018-03-01

    Semolina pasta represents one of the most important dishes in Italian cuisine worldwide. Italy is the leader in its production and, recently, the worldwide diffusion of its production has begun to grow tremendously. The perceived quality of a food product, such as pasta, is a key feature that allows a company to increase and maintain the competitive advantage of a specific brand. The overall flavor perception of the consumer, therefore, has become as important as other key quality factors such as texture and color; thus, the food industry needs to meet consumer expectations and needs the tools to objectively "measure" the quality of food products. Untargeted fingerprinting by means of coupling LC with high-resolution MS (HRMS) has been well received within the analytical community, and different studies exploiting this approach for the characterization of high-value food products have recently been reported in the literature. In the present work, a tentative application of the sensomics approach to cluster analysis of semolina pasta obtained using different production conditions was developed to objectively define target molecules that correlate with consumer overall liking of an industrial standard product. Principal component analysis of chemical and physical testing, GC-MS, LC-HRMS, and sensory data were performed with the aim of identifying the main parameters to discern similarities and differences among samples and clustering them according to these features. The correlation between analytical data and compounds related to sensory data was further investigated, and lastly, a partial least-squares regression model for the prediction of consumer overall liking was reported.

  5. Clinical Practice: Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: To test or not to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, laboratory-based genetic services are offered directly to the public without an independent healthcare professional being involved. The committee of the Southern African Society for Human Genetics (SASHG) appeals to the public and clinicians to be cautious when considering ...

  6. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality...... of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been...... on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light...

  7. Should Marketers Try to Change Consumers Unfavourable Attitude for their Product into Favourable?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday O. E. Ewah; Patrick M. Igbaji; Christian I. Umeh

    2014-01-01

    This is an empirical study of the interplay between consumers' attitude toward marketers’ products and marketers; wish to elicit favourable buying behaviour from the consumer. According to the study the process of this transformation of consumer’s attitude is not quite easy. The marketers have to put their acts together by producing products to match consumers attitude or build a gradual change that will result to favourable buying decision from the consumer.

  8. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains, floor covering, and upholstery of furniture) and consumers are in contact with these products for up to 24 hours a day. The Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA) commissioned RIVM to mak...

  9. Release of nanomaterials from consumer products and implications for consumer exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackevica, Aiga

    attention, and the data currently available in the literature is scarce. Most studies are addressing only a narrow range of product categories and a few NM types, having experimental setups that are rarely comparable from study to study. Moreover, the analytical techniques applied for release testing......, data from literature and online databases was used to obtain an overview of what nanoproducts are available on the EU market, and which nanoproducts have been experimentally tested for their potential NM release. Specific focus was placed on evaluating suitable analytical methods for NM quantification...... and characterization. The findings showed that single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) in combination with other methods is a well suited analytical technique that can provide extensive NM characterization, such as mass and number concentration, and size distribution of NMs. Then...

  10. Consumers' physiological and verbal responses towards product packages: Could these responses anticipate product choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-López, Natalia; Küster-Boluda, Inés

    2018-03-03

    Today, it is a priority to predict what consumers will choose at the point of sale where there are more and more competing brands. But what kind of consumers' information can be used for that purpose? This paper compares the power of physiological responses (unconscious responses) and self-report/verbal responses (conscious responses) towards product packages, as a means of predicting product choices. To this end, six different packaging designs were created by combining three different colors (blue, red and black) and two different messages (simple and reinforced). Eighty-three young consumers were exposed to each of the six designs. In one phase of our investigation, unconscious electrodermal activity (EDA) for each participant and each packaging type was recorded. In another phase, conscious verbal opinions for each packaging type were collected in a questionnaire. Our results show that the blue packaging with a reinforced message was most often selected. For this packaging consumers' electrodermal values (unconscious responses) were lower, and verbal opinions (conscious responses) were higher. Thus, both data sets could be used to anticipate product choice. However, for the other five packages, only unconscious responses were related to product choices. In contrast, higher opinions in a questionnaire did not correspond to selection of packages. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Selecting Products Considering the Regret Behavior of Consumer: A Decision Support Model Based on Online Ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the remarkable promotion of e-commerce platforms, consumers increasingly prefer to purchase products online. Online ratings facilitate consumers to choose among products. Thus, to help consumers effectively select products, it is necessary to provide decision support methods for consumers to trade online. Considering the decision makers are bounded rational, this paper proposes a novel decision support model for product selection based on online ratings, in which the regret aversion behavior of consumers is formulated. Massive online ratings provided by experienced consumers for alternative products associated with several evaluation attributes are obtained by software finders. Then, the evaluations of alternative products in format of stochastic variables are conducted. To select a desirable alternative product, a novel method is introduced to calculate gain and loss degrees of each alternative over others. Considering the regret behavior of consumers in the product selection process, the regret and rejoice values of alternative products for consumer are computed to obtain the perceived utility values of alternative products. According to the prior order of the evaluation attributes provided by the consumer, the prior weights of attributes are determined based on the perceived utility values of alternative products. Furthermore, the overall perceived utility values of alternative products are obtained to generate a ranking result. Finally, a practical example from Zol.com.cn for tablet computer selection is used to demonstrate the feasibility and practically of the proposed model.

  12. Green Product Development with Consumer Heterogeneity under Horizontal Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the pricing and greenness issues of two competitive firms without and with consumer heterogeneity. We derive and compare the optimal solutions and profits employed by firms under different scenarios. Then, we identify the effects of consumer heterogeneity under different competition intensities. The analytical results reveal that if market competition is at a relatively low level, we find that: (i when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is sufficiently small, more consumers have high environmental awareness, and companies easily achieve their environmental goals as well as economic goals; (ii when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is at a medium level, as the fraction of consumers with high environmental awareness increases, and the firm might achieve economic goals at the cost of reducing environmental goals; and (iii when the greenness sensitivity of consumers with no preference is at a high level, the fraction of consumers with high environmental awareness increases, but firms might have more difficulty achieving their environmental and economic goals. On the other hand, if the market competition is at a relatively high level, the presence of consumer heterogeneity can help improve environmental goals, but make achievement of economic goals difficult.

  13. Consumer Intervention Mapping—A Tool for Designing Future Product Strategies within Circular Product Service Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Sinclair

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Re-distributed manufacturing presents a number of opportunities and challenges for New Product Development in a future Circular Economy. It has been argued that small-scale, flexible and localised production systems will reduce resource consumption, lower transport emissions and extend product lifetimes. At the same time smart products within the Internet of Things will gather and report data on user behaviour and product status. Many sustainable design tools have previously been developed but few are able to imagine and develop visions of how future sustainable product service systems might be manifested. This paper introduces the concept of Consumer Intervention Mapping as a tool for creating future product strategies. The tool visualises the points within a product’s lifecycle where stakeholders are able to intervene in the product’s expected journey. This perspective enables the rapid construction of scenarios that explore and describe future circular product service systems. Validation of the tool in three workshops is described and the outcomes are presented. Consumer Intervention Mapping is successful in creating scenarios that describe existing product service systems and new product concepts adapted to a Circular Economy paradigm. Further work is required to refine the tool’s performance in more focused and reflective design exercises.

  14. A Study on Consumer Perspective towards Green Products in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusarla Lakshmi Padmaja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a trending concept of the 21st century. With an increase in global warming and carbon emissions, green marketing gained importance and subsequently encouraging green products, which can further contribute to sustainable environment. The consumer play a major role in determining the demand for any product and since green products are eco-friendly, they have created niche for those environmental consciousness customers. In this context, a study on consumer perspective and attitude towards green products will be quite useful for marketers, to understand both, consumers and market. This study focus on the consumer awareness, attitude and purchase intention towards green products.

  15. Evaluation of radiation exposure from a consumer product. A pillow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Etsuko; Aburai, Tamaru

    1999-01-01

    Radiation exposure from a pillow was analyzed. According to an advertisement of the pillow, this radioactive consumer product contains enough amounts of radioactive materials to induce radiation hormesis effects. The pillow consists of the filling chips made from kneading mineral ores and the polynosic linings contains natural radioactive ores. A γ-ray analysis of the pillow using pure Ge-MCA reveals that there exist radioactivities of thorium and uranium series mixtures in it at concentration of 0.58% by the weight. The observations of a chip surface by a scanning electron microscope show that the shapes of two sides are different each other. There are lots of sharp protuberances on the outside of the chip. To determine the direct external exposures from the pillow, film badges were placed on the pillow for 210 h and 2555 h. The dose equivalents of 210 h exposure was under 0.1 mSv which is a detection limit of a γ-ray by the film badges. However, that of 2555 h exposure was over 0.1 mSv less than 0.15 mSv. Quantities of internal exposures from inhalation of the vaporized Rn were measured by a Lucas Cell. It was 79 Bq/m 3 . There is no necessity for anxious about being broken in health inhaling the Rn-gass. (author)

  16. Creating more effective health plan quality reports for consumers: lessons from a synthesis of qualitative testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Kojetin, L D; McCormack, L A; Jaël, E F; Sangl, J A; Garfinkel, S A

    2001-07-01

    Social marketing techniques such as consumer testing have only recently been applied to develop effective consumer health insurance information. This article discusses lessons learned from consumer testing to create consumer plan choice materials. Data were collected from 268 publicly and privately insured consumers in three studies between 1994 and 1999. Iterative testing and revisions were conducted to design seven booklets to help Medicaid, Medicare, and employed consumers choose a health plan. Standardized protocols were used in 11 focus groups and 182 interviews to examine the content, comprehension, navigation, and utility of the booklets. A method is suggested to help consumers narrow their plan choices by breaking down the process into smaller decisions using a set of guided worksheets. Implementing these lessons is challenging and not often done well. This article gives examples of evidence-based approaches to address cognitive barriers that designers of consumer health insurance information can adapt to their needs.

  17. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  18. Consuming nostalgia? The appreciation of authenticity in local food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, M.; Collins, R.; Wahlen, S.; Anttila, M.

    2013-01-01

    Many consumers consider local food a more sustainable choice than conventional food because of the shorter transport distances involved as well as the support provided to local economies. In addition, consumers value the perceived safety benefits, ethical associations and improved taste of local

  19. The Regulatory Consumer: Prosumer-Driven Local Energy Production Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butenko, A.; Cseres, K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the (pro)active role consumers could (and are encouraged by the respective policy to) assume in markets that emerged due to European market liberalization and technological changes. These changes expanded consumer markets and changed regulatory architectures accordingly.

  20. Species selection in secondary wood products: perspectives from different consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adult consumer perceptions of several wood species to determine if word-based and appearance-based evaluations differed. The research replicated a 2001 study by the authors, which used undergraduate college students as a proxy for older and more experienced adult furniture consumers. The literature is somewhat inconclusive concerning the extent...

  1. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  2. 75 FR 56795 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment... product, additional provisions for imports, voluntary industry certification programs (VICP), verification... DOE intends to apply certification, compliance, and enforcement regulations to all covered products...

  3. Relating consumer perceptions of pork quality to physical product characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Fertin, Claus

    , or vice versa. 7. Since consumers obviously lack competence in judging the quality of meat when choosing among different kinds of meat in a purchase situation, marketers of pork are faced with a serious problem. One way of dealing with this problem, in cases where quality experience exceeds expectations......1. Consumers form expectations about the quality of meat at the point of purchase based on the quality cues that are available to them in the shop. These expectations can either be confirmed or disconfirmed during consumption, depending on how cap the consumers actually are of predicting...... the quality that they will perceived when preparing and consuming the meat. 2. The study uses the Total Food Quality Model as a frame of reference to investigate how consumers' quality expectations and quality experience with regard to pork are formed, how they are interrelated, and how both of them...

  4. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-01-01

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process

  6. The Effects of Advertising Strategies on Consumer Trust: A Case of Skin Care Products in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Velly Anatasia; Sunitarya Sunitarya; Vinda Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to develop advertising strategies in order to increase consumer trust. Four advertising elements, celebrity endorsement, branding, product attribute, and third party certification, were investigated in this study. Data were collected to answer two research questions: (1) To investigate the advertising strategies of skin care products leading to consumer trust, (2) To know the effects of advertising strategies in skin care products on consumer trust. A 5-point Li...

  7. Persuasive Advertising : Consumers' views of and responses to the advertising of health-related products

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Malin

    2012-01-01

    The problem that this thesis deals with is that the intense competition and increasing consumer power in the health industry calls for the operating companies to take consumers’ considerations into account when advertising their products. It is further suggested that consumers will be extra careful before buying health-related products due to their direct effect on their personal health. Thus, companies selling health-related products must gain an understanding of how consumers form their jud...

  8. Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone; Scholderer, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Four questions on European consumers' attitudes to the use of genetic modification (GM) in food production are posed and answered: (1) how negative are consumer attitudes to GM applications in food production? (2) How do these attitudes affect perception of and preference for products involving GM...

  9. Exposure-Relevant Consumer Product Usage Information Derived from Longitudinal Purchasing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer products that are used in and around the home are a dominant source for anthropogenic chemical exposure. Prediction of the population distribution of chemical exposures encountered due to the residential use of consumer products (such as personal care products, cleaning ...

  10. What Can Healthcare Supply Chains Learn from Consumer-Product Supply Chains?

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Leroy B.

    2008-01-01

    A Framework for Thinking About Supply-Chain Management: “The IDIB Portfolio” (Information, Decision-making, Implementation, Buffer system) Describe Supply-Chains for Consumer Products Before “Wal-Mart” Describe Supply-Chains for Consumer Products After “Wal-Mart” Describe Stylized Supply Chain for Healthcare Products

  11. Information in launch messages : stimulating the adoption of new high-tech consumer products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talke, K.S.S.; Snelders, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates how the adoption of new high-tech consumer products can be stimulated by communicating product-related information in launch messages. In an initial pilot study, the authors find that for making an adoption decision, consumers require different types of product-related

  12. Consumer and purchasing agent response to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie Barber

    2007-01-01

    This study surveys 204 consumers and purchasing agents and reports their reaction to terms used to describe forest products from southeast Alaska. Although 67 percent of the respondents would purchase products from old-growth trees, purchasing agents were more likely to refuse to purchase such products (negative response from 12 percent of consumers vs. 29 percent for...

  13. Sources of product information used by consumers when purchasing kitchen cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2004-01-01

    Survey data from home shows in Seattle, Washington and Anchorage, Alaska were used to determine the sources of product information used by consumers when buying kitchen cabinets. Results show that in-store sales staff are the most common source of product information, and that consumers' favorite wood species, age, and gender can influence the source of product...

  14. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  15. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2882] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and... the U.S. International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint...

  16. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different

  17. 78 FR 79643 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... consumer behavior; and questions about why comments on the Draft National Climate Assessment were not... Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of... Energy Consumers of America (IECA), American Gas Association (AGA), Cato Institute Center for Study of...

  18. Model and measurement methodology for the analysis of consumer choice of foods products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThe consumer can be conceived as an imperfect problem solver. Consumer behavior with respect to food products is purposive, but the consumer is bounded by limitations of information, cognitive skills, memory and time. From this starting point, this paper develops a model of the

  19. Consumers' values and attitudes and their relation to the consumption of pork products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, M.D; Perin, Marcelo G.; Pérez-Cueto, F.J.A

    2012-01-01

    Consumers' attitudes and personal values were assessed, investigating if those constructs affect the consumption of pork products. Empirical data was collected through a survey performed with 482 consumers in Brazil, according to Q-PorkChains project definitions. Attitudes towards the environment...... and nature are quite positive, although ethnocentrism is also present. Industrial food production seems to be an accepted system, but consumers are showing that environmental sustainability must not be forgotten. Consumers with more ‘traditionalist’ values prefer fresh, whilst those with ‘adventurous’ values...... prefer processed pork products. The development of innovative pork products aiming to attend to these different groups represents interesting opportunities for the pork chain...

  20. Design, production and materials of PV powered consumer products - the case of mass production (cd-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Akkerman, Remko; Palz, W.; Ossenbrink, H.; Helm, P.

    2005-01-01

    Though many options exist, the application of integrated PV systems in mass produced consumer products is still unusual and rare [1]. Therefore, to date, design and manufacturing aspects of product-integrated PV systems have been explored only to a very limited extent. The requirements for the

  1. Pharmacogenetic testing through the direct-to-consumer genetic testing company 23andMe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mengfei; Lewis, Cathryn M; Traylor, Matthew

    2017-06-19

    Rapid advances in scientific research have led to an increase in public awareness of genetic testing and pharmacogenetics. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing companies, such as 23andMe, allow consumers to access their genetic information directly through an online service without the involvement of healthcare professionals. Here, we evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacogenetic tests reported by 23andMe in their UK tests. The research papers listed under each 23andMe report were evaluated, extracting information on effect size, sample size and ethnicity. A wider literature search was performed to provide a fuller assessment of the pharmacogenetic test and variants were matched to FDA recommendations. Additional evidence from CPIC guidelines, PharmGKB, and Dutch Pharmacogenetics Working Group was reviewed to determine current clinical practice. The value of the tests across ethnic groups was determined, including information on linkage disequilibrium between the tested SNP and causal pharmacogenetic variant, where relevant. 23andMe offers 12 pharmacogenetic tests to their UK customers, some of which are in standard clinical practice, and others which are less widely applied. The clinical validity and clinical utility varies extensively between tests. The variants tested are likely to have different degrees of sensitivity due to different risk allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium patterns across populations. The clinical relevance depends on the ethnicity of the individual and variability of pharmacogenetic markers. Further research is required to determine causal variants and provide more complete assessment of drug response and side effects. 23andMe reports provide some useful pharmacogenetics information, mirroring clinical tests that are in standard use. Other tests are unspecific, providing limited guidance and may not be useful for patients without professional interpretation. Nevertheless, DTC companies like 23andMe act as a powerful

  2. Consuming the daily recommended amounts of dairy products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Dairy Management Inc., 10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900, Rosemont, 60018, IL, USA. 2 Nutrition ... as consuming the recommended servings from each food group ...... database analyses for various food and beverage companies and.

  3. Influence of individual differences in disease perception on consumer response to direct-to-consumer genomic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, D L; Schork, N J; Topol, E J; Bloss, C S

    2015-03-01

    Individuals who undergo multiplex direct-to-consumer (DTC) genomic testing receive genetic risk results for multiple conditions. To date, research has not investigated the influence of individual differences in disease perceptions among consumers on testing outcomes. A total of 2037 participants received DTC genomic testing and completed baseline and follow-up surveys assessing disease perceptions and health behaviors. Participants were asked to indicate their most feared disease of those tested. Perceived seriousness and controllability of the disease via lifestyle or medical intervention were assessed. Participants most frequently reported heart attack (19.1%) and Alzheimer's disease (18.6%) as their most feared disease. Perceived seriousness and control over the feared disease both influenced response to DTC genomic testing. Greater perceived seriousness and diminished perceived control were associated with higher, but not clinically significant levels of anxiety and distress. In some cases these associations were modified by genetic risk. No significant associations were observed for diet, exercise and screening behaviors. Individual differences in disease perceptions influence psychological outcomes following DTC genomic testing. Higher perceived seriousness may make a consumer more psychologically sensitive to test results and greater perceived control may protect against adverse psychological outcomes. Findings may inform development of educational and counseling services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. How Can Consumers Be Sure a Genetic Test Is Valid and Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a genetic test is valid and useful? How can consumers be sure a genetic test is valid ... particular gene or genetic change. In other words, can the test accurately detect whether a specific genetic ...

  5. ORGANIC PRODUCTS, CONSUMER BEHAVIOR ON MARKET AND EUROPEAN ORGANIC PRODUCT MARKET SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Chreneková

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The market of organic products around the world increased its volume in Central and Eastern Europe with organic food market has a number of shared features, which include the relatively low demand for organic food, low share of regular customers, the problems of producers marketing, the lack of enterprises which process organic products. Consumer behavior purchasing organic foods is influenced by several factors, among which is dominated consumer personality, income, finances and lifestyle, as well as psychological factors such as perception, motivation, learning, cognition and attitudes. Cultural and social factors in consumer behavior exhibit a lesser degree. Organic fruit and organic vegetables quality is generally higher for content of biologically active substances such as vitamins, polyphenols and flavonoids. The content of pesticide residues in organic food is significantly lower than conventional production. Regular monitoring of chemical and microbiological safety of organic products already in the primary production occurring in the raw state and after working in various sectors of food, an intensification of awareness raising and targeted increased support for organic agriculture. Multifunctional sector and increased support for family farms oriented for sectors with higher added value than the home sale, production processing on the farm and so on. By support of the sale of high quality domestic production by the state will be possible to persuade more people to personal health status and greater consumption of organic food  affects the health and prevent the occurrence of various diseases.doi:10.5219/96  

  6. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for predicting sports performance and talent identification: Consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Williams, Alun; McNamee, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Ahmetov, Ildus; Ashley, Euan; Byrne, Nuala; Camporesi, Silvia; Collins, Malcolm; Dijkstra, Paul; Eynon, Nir; Fuku, Noriyuki; Garton, Fleur C; Hoppe, Nils; Holm, Søren; Kaye, Jane; Klissouras, Vassilis; Lucia, Alejandro; Maase, Kamiel; Moran, Colin; North, Kathryn N; Pigozzi, Fabio; Wang, Guan

    2015-12-01

    The general consensus among sport and exercise genetics researchers is that genetic tests have no role to play in talent identification or the individualised prescription of training to maximise performance. Despite the lack of evidence, recent years have witnessed the rise of an emerging market of direct-to-consumer marketing (DTC) tests that claim to be able to identify children's athletic talents. Targeted consumers include mainly coaches and parents. There is concern among the scientific community that the current level of knowledge is being misrepresented for commercial purposes. There remains a lack of universally accepted guidelines and legislation for DTC testing in relation to all forms of genetic testing and not just for talent identification. There is concern over the lack of clarity of information over which specific genes or variants are being tested and the almost universal lack of appropriate genetic counselling for the interpretation of the genetic data to consumers. Furthermore independent studies have identified issues relating to quality control by DTC laboratories with different results being reported from samples from the same individual. Consequently, in the current state of knowledge, no child or young athlete should be exposed to DTC genetic testing to define or alter training or for talent identification aimed at selecting gifted children or adolescents. Large scale collaborative projects, may help to develop a stronger scientific foundation on these issues in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Fibrin degradation products blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... behind when clots dissolve in the blood. A blood test can be done to measure these products. ... Certain medicines can change blood test results. Tell your health care provider about all the medicines you take. Your provider will tell you if you need ...

  9. The Level of Brand Awareness in Consumer Electronic Products: The Example of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutay Oktay

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brand awareness which is considered as one of the most important factor affecting the consumer purchasing preferences has been investigated by both academics and practitioners in the field of marketing in recent years. The current study investigated brand awareness in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan regarding consumer electronic products, such as laptop computers, tablet computers, and cell phones. To determine brand awareness, data were obtained by using suitable market analysis methods, andthen analyzed by using the Spearman correlation and the chi-square test for independence.Based on the study results, it was observed that the level brand awareness was high for laptop computers and cell phones, while being comparatively lower for tablet computers.

  10. Evaluation and monitoring of the satisfaction of meat and meat products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The managers have to be focused on clients and satisfy their needs, so that the products meet their expectations. The evaluation and monitoring the consumers satisfaction is very important because it is a managerial instrument which offers the possibility to understand and satisfy the needs of the existing consumers. In this study we used the questionnaire as research method and after analyzing and processing the data we noticed the consumers preferences related to the meat and meat products consumption, the frequency of consumption and the places from where the consumers procure their meat and meat products.

  11. Perception of oyster-based products by French consumers. The effect of processing and role of social representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debucquet, Gervaise; Cornet, Josiane; Adam, Isabelle; Cardinal, Mireille

    2012-12-01

    The search for new markets in the seafood sector, associated with the question of the continuity of raw oyster consumption over generations can be an opportunity for processors to extend their ranges with oyster-based products. The twofold aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of processing and social representation on perception of oyster-based products by French consumers and to identify the best means of development in order to avoid possible failure in the market. Five products with different degrees of processing (cooked oysters in a half-shell, hot preparation for toast, potted oyster, oyster butter and oyster-based soup) were presented within focus groups and consumer tests, at home and in canteens with the staff of several companies in order to reach consumers with different ages and professional activities. The results showed that social representation had a strong impact and that behaviours were contrasted according to the initial profile of the consumer (traditional raw oyster consumers or non-consumers) and their age distribution (younger and older people). The degree of processing has to be adapted to each segment. It is suggested to develop early exposure to influence the food choices and preferences of the youngest consumers on a long-term basis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consumer concerns and expectations about novel food processing technologies: effects on product liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Armand V

    2003-06-01

    Eighty-eight consumers participated in a blind pre-test in which they rated their baseline preference for chocolate pudding, their liking of three tasted brands of chocolate pudding, and their level of concern for 20 different food processing and preservation technologies. All returned one month later and tasted the same puddings, but this time they were informed that they had been processed by one of several different novel or traditional food processing techniques. Different sub-groups were informed of the name of the process, the name plus a factual description of the process, or the name, the factual description, plus a benefit statement. Ratings of expected liking were obtained before and after viewing the samples, but before tasting them. Finally, subjects tasted and rated the products for actual liking and a sub-group rated their concern levels for the same 20 technologies rated in the pre-test. Pre-test results showed females to have significantly higher concern levels for all technologies. Individuals who had demonstrated a willingness to consume foods processed by one novel technology (irradiation) had lower concern ratings for all technologies. Ratings of concern were negatively correlated with expected liking for products believed to be processed by the technologies. Expected liking ratings were positively influenced by visual exposure to the product and by a safety and benefit statement. Linear regression of the change in product liking as a function of whether products were better or worse than expected supported an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on liking/disliking. Lastly, post-test concern levels for many of the technologies were reduced by participation in the study.

  13. Communicating the benefits of wholegrain and functional grain products to European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, R.; Dean, M.; Lampila, P.

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the consumption of wholegrain products or grain products with functional properties, it is important to understand consumer beliefs about such products and the impact of health claims. In a series of consumer studies several differences were found between countries. While...... consumers in Finland, Italy and the UK saw wholegrain products as having positive attributes, those in Finland had more negative beliefs about refined grain products. Health claims and wholegrain labels increased perceived healthiness but had a less positive impact on likelihood of buying, and in Italy both...

  14. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  15. 76 FR 21813 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., as set forth below: PART 429--CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND...: EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  16. 75 FR 57410 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ..., regarding the Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction AGENCY...

  17. Evaluation of Consumer Product Co-occurrence to Inform Chemical Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer products are an important target of chemical innovation. Used daily for personal hygiene, home care, disinfection and cleaning, consumer products provide a host of benefits, and also an efficient delivery vehicle for a variety of chemicals into our homes and bodies. Al...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in 23.206, insert the following clause: Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products (DEC 2007) (a) Definition. As...

  19. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their phy...

  20. 76 FR 39989 - Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Policy, (202) 874-4428; or Kevin Russell, Director, Retail Credit Risk, (202) 874-5170, Office of the...] Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... principles of safe and sound banking practices in connection with deposit-related consumer credit products...

  1. The commoditization of consumer electronics products and its influence on packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2008-01-01

    The traditional purpose of packaging for consumer electronics (CE) products was to get them in one piece from the factory to the consumers home. It was purely focused on the physical distribution. In that time, buying a CE product could be considered a major family investment. However, times have

  2. Innovation in Agri-Food systems. Product quality and consumer acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, W.M.F.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.

    2005-01-01

    This is a fully rewritten and extended version of the successful textbook “Innovation of food production systems”. It focuses on consumer-driven food product innovation using a systems-oriented approach. It integrates marketing and consumer sciences with technological aspects such as processing,

  3. Segmenting Consumers According to Their Purchase of Products with Organic, Fair-Trade, and Health Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension

  4. 78 FR 26258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... adopt these VOC limits to create more consistency in regional and national markets for consumer products... organic compound (VOC) content limits and associated provisions for additional consumer products categories into the state's SIP. Finally, EPA is approving language to clarify VOC limit applicability for...

  5. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2010-0394; EPA-R05-OAR-2012-0786; FRL-9786-1] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and... consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to approve language to clarify...

  6. Health motivation and product design determine consumers' visual attention to nutrition information on food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, Vivianne H M; Hess, Rebecca; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    In the present study we investigated consumers' visual attention to nutrition information on food products using an indirect instrument, an eye tracker. In addition, we looked at whether people with a health motivation focus on nutrition information on food products more than people with a taste motivation. Respondents were instructed to choose one of five cereals for either the kindergarten (health motivation) or the student cafeteria (taste motivation). The eye tracker measured their visual attention during this task. Then respondents completed a short questionnaire. Laboratory of the ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Videos and questionnaires from thirty-two students (seventeen males; mean age 24.91 years) were analysed. Respondents with a health motivation viewed the nutrition information on the food products for longer and more often than respondents with a taste motivation. Health motivation also seemed to stimulate deeper processing of the nutrition information. The student cafeteria group focused primarily on the other information and did this for longer and more often than the health motivation group. Additionally, the package design affected participants' nutrition information search. Two factors appear to influence whether people pay attention to nutrition information on food products: their motivation and the product's design. If the package design does not sufficiently facilitate the localization of nutrition information, health motivation can stimulate consumers to look for nutrition information so that they may make a more deliberate food choice.

  7. A study of the relationship between UK consumers purchase intention and store brand food products -- Take Nottingham city consumers for example

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kaochun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, store brands play an important role in retail grocery strategy. More and more retailers put their effort to develop and market new store brands because consumers have been accepting store brands. Therefore, store brands have gradually influenced consumers purchase behaviours in order to provide an in-depth investigation of consumers purchase intention in store brands, the study choose food products among many product categories because when consumers hear the store brand, they mus...

  8. The Influence of a Factitious Free-From Food Product Label on Consumer Perceptions of Healthfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priven, Matthew; Baum, Jennifer; Vieira, Edward; Fung, Teresa; Herbold, Nancie

    2015-11-01

    Given the rapid rise of free-from products available in the marketplace (especially gluten-free), more research is needed to understand how these products influence consumer perceptions of healthfulness. To determine whether perceptions of healthfulness can be generated about free-from products in the absence of risk information. A survey was administered to 256 adults. Two picture-based food product questions evaluated which products consumers perceived to be healthier. One free-from designation was fabricated (MUI-free), whereas gluten-free was used as the comparison designation. For each question, participants chose which product they thought was healthier (free-from, conventional, or equally healthy). A χ(2) test was run to assess the difference between responses to picture-based food product questions. Multinomial regression assessed variance in responses attributable to participant demographic characteristics. Among the respondents, 21.9% selected the MUI-free product as healthier, whereas 25.5% selected the gluten-free product as healthier. Frequency data showed that a significant number of participants chose both free-from products as healthier than the conventional products (P<0.001). Regression analysis found that individuals who identified as gluten intolerant or unsure of a gluten intolerance were significantly more likely than other participants to choose the free-from product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.040). Hispanics and those with an associate's degree or vocational training were significantly more likely than their referent groups (whites and those with a doctoral degree, respectively) to choose the free-from product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.022 and 0.034, respectively). Finally, African Americans were more likely than whites to choose the conventional product as healthier compared with choosing "equally healthy" (P=0.016). Frequency data demonstrated that free-from products can

  9. Characterization and Prediction of Chemical Functions and Weight Fractions in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose fil...

  10. Model and Measurement Methodology for the Analysis of Consumer Choice of Food Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractThis paper considers the problem of a consumer purchasing a food product within a certain product class (e. g. meat, bread, vegetables, soft drinks, cheese) and making a choice from the different alternatives that are available.

  11. Consumer guidance in product innovation: Conceptualisation of a measurement instrument for the fast-moving consumer goods industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I. A.

    Recent meta-analysis of the impact of market-orientation on business performance yielded a significant positive correlation between market-orientation and new product performance (.35) and innovativeness (.45) (Kirca, Jayachandran & O'Bearden, 2005) Behavioral perspective of market-orientation: a......Recent meta-analysis of the impact of market-orientation on business performance yielded a significant positive correlation between market-orientation and new product performance (.35) and innovativeness (.45) (Kirca, Jayachandran & O'Bearden, 2005) Behavioral perspective of market......-orientation: a set of organizational activities that are related to the generation and dissemination of and responsiveness to market intelligence (Kohli, Jaworski & Kumar, 1993) Market-orientation comprises three behavioral components - customer-orientation, competitor-orientation and inter-functional coordination...... and innovativeness across different types of FMCG manufacturers? One way of approaching these questions in the context of innovation in the fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) industry is to apply the concept of consumer-led new product development. Consumer-led product development was introduced in the early 90's...

  12. Consumer attitudes towards nanotechnologies applied to food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Gupta, N.; George, S.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Giles, E.L.; Coles, D.G.

    2014-01-01

    The literature on public perceptions of, and attitudes towards, nanotechnology used in the agrifood sector is reviewed. Research into consumer perceptions and attitudes has focused on general applications of nanotechnology, rather than within the agrifood sector. Perceptions of risk and benefit

  13. Price promotions and products with low consumer ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, H. C.; Kuo, H. C.; Nakhata, C.; Nakhata, C.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates the aversive effect of low consumer ratings on consumers’ purchasing decisions. This paper aims to apply decision justifiability theory to investigate how price promotions – price discount and price bundling – can reduce this effect. 517-527.

  14. The Influence of Consumers Perception of Green Products on Green Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Kong; Amran Harun; Rini Suryati Sulong; Jaratin Lily

    2014-01-01

    Green consumerism has increasingly received attention since the increased level of consumer awareness towards green products. Therefore, the aim of this paper had been to examine the influence of consumer perception of green products on green purchase intention. In this study, perception of green products was conceptualized as a multidimensional variable comprised of green corporate perception, eco-label, green advertising, green packaging, and green product value. By using a survey, a total ...

  15. Consumers' Preferences for a Local Food Product: The Case of a New Carnaroli Rice Product in Lombardy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Giovanni; Ventura, Vera; Ratti, Sabrina; Balzaretti, Claudia

    2017-04-13

    Italy, with a cultivated area of 218,000 ha, is a European leader of rice production. In particular Lombardy region accounts for 40% of total rice cultivation and the case study in object accounts for 3.2% of Lombardy total rice area (2773 ha). Starting from 2012, through a regional project titled Buono, Sano e Vicino (good, healthy and close), Riso e Rane rural district supported local rice farmers in developing innovation in rice production and promoting an alternative supply chain to increase farmers bargaining power and promote new market strategies. More specifically, the innovation introduced is a new biotech method for variety certification, named DNA controllato (DNA tested). In the first step of the project, the attention was focused on an Italian traditional variety of rice: Carnaroli rice. Thanks to a commercial agreement with one of the most important large retailers in Lombardy, the Riso e Rane rice is offered for sale both in the traditional and wholegrain version. In this context, this work aims to evaluate the determinants of consumer's quality perception of this product, through a preference study of the commercial rice package. Preliminary results reveal that consumers perceive information about origin, local food-system and tradition more easily than DNA tested certification. In conclusion, this work contributes to evaluate the role of bio economy applications to the food sector and offers new insights for the debate about the relationships between tradition and innovation.

  16. Exploring the Determinants of Consumer Behavior in West Bank, Towards Domestic and Imported Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Maitah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate factors influencing the purchasing behavior of Palestinian customers towards domestic and imported dairy products (Israeli and foreign. The secondary data were obtained from the competent authorities. On the other hand, primary data were gathered by utilizing personal interviews and questionnaires. 450 questionnaires were distributed to all governorates of the West Bank. It has been concluded from statistical results that middle-income households concern mainly about quality, image and product validity period. In contrast, low-income households consider mainly product price. The consumer was satisfied with Israeli products that meet his needs. On the other hand, local consumer highly considered price and personal knowledge when purchasing local dairy products. Advertising negatively affected the consumer purchasing behavior of Israeli and foreign dairy products, in contrast it positively affected his behavior when purchasing local dairy products. Period of validity was the most influential factor on the purchasing decision for domestic and imported dairy products. It has been found that consumer expenditures on Israeli dairy products were the highest followed by local and foreign products. Recommendations are as follows: i producers should develop products that could meet the needs and desires of consumers, ii draw effective marketing policies, depending on technologists specialized in dairy industry, iii take into account consumer awareness when developing advertising strategy, and iv quality control should be adjusted in accordance with product specifications and standards.

  17. Attitudes of Turkish Consumers toward Foreign Products in Political Crises Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmus YÖRÜK

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the attitudes of Turkish consumers toward foreign products in diplomatic crisis period. With this aim, at first, demographic characteristics of the consumers identified and then the relationship between independent variables which are consumer ethnocentrism and consumer animosity, and dependent variable which is willingness to buy foreign products is determined. In addition, the effect of product judgment as a moderator on the relationship between willingness to buy foreign products and consumer ethnocentrism and animosity is explored. Convenience sampling method was used in the study. Data was collected from students in Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences of Afyon Kocatepe University as based on voluntary basis. The data were collected between 20.10.2015 and 02.11.2015 and within this time period, it was reached to 418 students, totally. Thus, these 418 students in Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences became the sample of the research. Research findings show, different from the many researches in the literature, that consumer ethnocentrism, and consumer animosity do not negatively affect the willingness to buy foreign products even in a case when Turkey has a diplomatic problem with some countries. So the previous findings about the consumer ethnocentrism and the consumer animosity are challenged with the findings of this study within Turkey context. In this sense, this study contributes to the literature scholarly, by offering new findings about the existing constructs within different country context.

  18. Three issues in consumer quality perception and acceptance of dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bredahl, Lone

    2000-01-01

    in communication provided. Drawing on five different empirical studies on consumer quality perception of dairy products, three issues related to the communication on credence quality dimensions are discussed: providing credible information, the role of consumer attitudes, and inference processes in quality......It is argued that consumer quality perception of dairy products is characterised by four major dimensions: hedonic, health-related, convenience-related and process-related quality. Two of these, viz. health and process-related quality, are credence dimensions, ie, a matter of consumer trust...

  19. Commercial feasibility and evaluation of consumer acceptance for certain irradiated food products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, Mohie Eldin Zohear; Karem, Hussein Abdel; El-Din, Nagwan Saad; El-Din Farag, Diaa; El-Khatib, Mervat; Mageed, Mahmoud Abdel

    2002-01-01

    Studies were carried out to assess consumer attitude towards food irradiation through questionnaires, sensory tests and market sale of irradiated products. The results showed that out of 1020 persons responded to the questionnaire, 62.43% accepted the irradiation technology while 70.45% were convinced with the advantages of irradiated food. About 73.97% of the respondents were willing to accept irradiation technology on a long term basis while 57.53% were willing to consume irradiated food if it was available in the market. Sensory tests on irradiated smoked fish, chicken, black pepper, coriander, Jew's mallow, broad bean and kidney beans using triangle test (difference test) and duo-trio test showed that the panelists consisting of 136 persons failed to indicate any difference between the irradiated and unirradiated food. About 92.2% of 144 persons participating in a lunch table of irradiated food opined that irradiated food was delicious and found no difference between the irradiated and unirradiated samples. Consumer comments recorded during the market sale of irradiated black pepper and broad beans indicated that 95.1% of the respondents found the irradiated (10kGy) black pepper of excellent or good quality while the percentage was 81.2% for irradiated (2 kGy) broad bean. The study also showed that 62.2% and 68.8% of the persons respectively would buy irradiated black pepper and broad bean again if they were available in the market. Studies on the economics of food irradiation showed that the cost of irradiation for one ton of frozen poultry as US $130.4; smoked fish US $78.2; spices US $260.1 and dried vegetable US $26. Economic evaluation of the study indicated that the average annual rate of return will be about 16.9% and the pay back period will be about 5.9 years. (author)

  20. Product personality and its influence on consumer preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, P.; Schoormans, J.P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Beyond their functional utility products have a symbolic meaning. Parts of this symbolic meaning are accounted for by concepts like brand personality and product-user image, which describe the symbolic meaning associated with the brand or product class. However, the physical product also

  1. Consumer Value perceptions of food products from emerging processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrea, Toula; Grunert, Klaus G; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Through a qualitative research approach, the present paper aims to explore the range and type of ‘values’ and ‘costs’ in formulating overall Consumer Value (CV) perceptions, in association with two emerging processing technologies that at the outset are neither distinctly positive nor negative...... in the eyes of consumers, in two culturally variant contexts, namely a Western society where technology is often met with skepticism (i.e., the UK); and a non-Western society where technology plays a reassuring role regarding concerns about food safety and quality (i.e., China). Results reveal that the most......-technology counterparts, who ‘allow’ more room for cultural discrepancies to impact on their CV perceptions. Overall, findings support the view that CV perceptions in the context of food produced by means of emerging processing technologies can be successfully analyzed using a multidimensional conceptualization, where CV...

  2. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  3. Radiation protection with consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources; Strahlenschutz bei Konsumguetern mit Tritium-Gaslichtquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahders, Erio; Haeusler, Uwe [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2017-08-01

    Consumer products containing gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS) were examined with respect to their radiological safety potential regarding leak tightness or accidents. The maximum tritium leakage rate of 2.7 Bq/d determined from experimental testing is well below the criterion for leak tightness of sealed radioactive sources in DIN 25426-4. In order to investigate the incorporation of tritium due to contact with consumer products, 2 scenarios were reviewed; the correct use of a tritium watch and the accident scenario with a keyring.

  4. Consumer preferences and demand for insect-based food products in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen

    2017-01-01

    in developing countries. Due to these benefits, stakeholders in the food sector have recently focused on establishing the insect production sector. Nevertheless, there are a number of issues that need to be investigated before the production is fully optimized. This thesis investigates consumer demand in terms...... of consumers' preferences and willingness-topay (WTP) for insect-based food products in Kenya. It does this by focusing on the association of consumers' psychological orientations, contextual attributes, tasting experience and peer influence with consumers' choice behavior. A further focus is an investigation...... of the impacts of value elicitation methods in terms of hypothetical and nonhypothetical market scenarios on consumers' WTP for the insect-based food products. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are employed to collect data in field settings. The data is then analyzed using the state-of-the-art choice modeling...

  5. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers...... in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity......, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other...

  6. Market testing and consumer acceptance of irradiated rice (Oryza sativa indica Linn.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungsunantwiwat, Ampai; Sophonsa, Sombut

    2001-01-01

    Special grade A fragrant rice (Jasmine rice) of 13% moisture content was obtained from a local miller in Bangkok. Low density polyethylene, 29.5 cm in width x 45 cm in length and 200 micron in thickness, was used to pack the rice with a net weight of 5 kg. The irradiated food label was printed on one side of the bag to comply with food control regulations. The color and the ink for marking were tested for gamma radiation compatibility. A total of 800 bags of rice, with a total gross weight of 4,000 kg, were irradiated at a minimum absorbed dose at 0.5 kGy for insect disinfestation. Radiation treatment was carried out using a multi-purpose, carrier type gamma irradiator (Model JS-8900, Serial No. IR-155) located at the Thai Irradiation Center. Irradiated rice was distributed on a weekly basis to food stores in Bangkok and Pathum Thani, as well as to various governmental organizations and interested individuals. The product was sold at 60 bahts per bag (approx. US$ 2.4) to retailers. Various commercial brands of non-irradiated rice of 5 kg size, were available in the market at 52 to 78 bahts per bag (approx. US $ 2.08 to 3.12), depending on quality and brand name. During the distribution, a leaflet of educational information was given to the consumer. A simple questionnaire used in the marketing trial indicated that 72% of the consumers bought irradiated rice because of the good quality of the product based on visual inspection, and 28% of them were willing to try the new product. Most consumers preferred irradiated rice to chemical treatment (fumigation) for insect disinfestation. However, most consumers were not sure if they would like to buy irradiated rice again unless its cooking quality was acceptable. Market testing of irradiated rice in the upper-class market or supermarket was unsuccessful because of limitations in the sale and service conditions. To meet the requirement of the supermarket retailer, irradiated rice had to be supplied on a monthly basis, with

  7. Idiographic duo-trio tests using a constant-reference based on preference of each consumer: Sample presentation sequence in difference test can be customized for individual consumers to reduce error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-A; Sim, Hye-Min; Lee, Hye-Seong

    2016-11-01

    As reformulations and processing changes are increasingly needed in the food industry to produce healthier, more sustainable, and cost effective products while maintaining superior quality, reliable measurements of consumers' sensory perception and discrimination are becoming more critical. Consumer discrimination methods using a preferred-reference duo-trio test design have been shown to be effective in improving the discrimination performance by customizing sample presentation sequences. However, this design can add complexity to the discrimination task for some consumers, resulting in more errors in sensory discrimination. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of different types of test instructions using the preference-reference duo-trio test design where a paired-preference test is followed by 6 repeated preferred-reference duo-trio tests, in comparison to the analytical method using the balanced-reference duo-trio. Analyses of d' estimates (product-related measure) and probabilistic sensory discriminators in momentary numbers of subjects showing statistical significance (subject-related measure) revealed that only preferred-reference duo-trio test using affective reference-framing, either by providing no information about the reference or information on a previously preferred sample, improved the sensory discrimination more than the analytical method. No decrease in discrimination performance was observed with any type of instruction, confirming that consumers could handle the test methods. These results suggest that when repeated tests are feasible, using the affective discrimination method would be operationally more efficient as well as ecologically more reliable for measuring consumers' sensory discrimination ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct to consumer genetic testing and the libertarian right to test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonython, Wendy Elizabeth; Arnold, Bruce Baer

    2017-08-20

    Loi recently proposed a libertarian right to direct to consumer genetic testing (DTCGT)- independent of autonomy or utility-reflecting Cohen's work on self-ownership and Hohfeld's model of jural relations. Cohen's model of libertarianism dealt principally with self-ownership of the physical body. Although Loi adequately accounts for the physical properties of DNA, DNA is also an informational substrate, highly conserved within families. Information about the genome of relatives of the person undergoing testing may be extrapolated without requiring direct engagement with their personal physical copy of the genome, triggering rights and interests of relatives that may differ from the rights and interests of others, that is, individual consumers, testing providers and regulators. Loi argued that regulatory interference with exercise of the right required justification, whereas prima facie exercise of the right did not. Justification of regulatory interference could include 'conflict with other people's rights', 'aggressive' use of the genome and 'harming others'. Harms potentially experienced by relatives as a result of the individual's exercise of a right to test include breach of genetic privacy, violation of their right to determine when, and if, they undertake genetic testing and discrimination. Such harms may justify regulatory intervention, in the event they are recognised; motives driving 'aggressive' use of the genome may also be relevant. Each of the above criteria requires clarification, as potential redundancies and tensions exist between them, with different implications affecting different groups of rights holders. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Consumer-oriented innovation in the food and personal care products sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, K.G.; Jensen, B.B.; Sonne, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we clarify the concept of consumer-oriented innovation in the food and personal products sectors and define it as a process towards the development of a new product or service in which an integrated analysis and understanding of consumers wants, needs and preference formation play...... a key role. We then outline relevant streams of research that may promote the implementation of consumer-oriented innovation in these sectors. We first review research on understanding consumers, notably on the quality perception, associated methods, and their application in innovation processes. We...... then review research on innovation management, emphasizing the use of consumer insight information in innovation processes. We conclude that a better integration of consumer research and research on innovation management would benefit the innovation process....

  10. Consumer Surplus in the Digital Economy: Estimating the Value of Increased Product Variety at Online Booksellers

    OpenAIRE

    Brynjolfsson, Erik; Smith, Michael D.; Yu, (Jeffrey) Hu

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework and empirical estimates that quantify the economic impact of increased product variety made available through electronic markets. While efficiency gains from increased competition significantly enhance consumer surplus, for instance, by leading to lower average selling prices, our present research shows that increased product variety made available through electronic markets can be a significantly larger source of consumer surplus gains. One reason for increased product...

  11. Deriving the Pricing Power of Product Features by Mining Consumer Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Archak; Anindya Ghose; Panagiotis G. Ipeirotis

    2007-01-01

    The increasing pervasiveness of the Internet has dramatically changed the way that consumers shop for goods. Consumer-generated product reviews have become a valuable source of information for customers, who read the reviews and decide whether to buy the product based on the information provided. In this paper, we use techniques that decompose the reviews into segments that evaluate the individual characteristics of a product (e.g., image quality and battery life for a digital camera). Then, ...

  12. A Study on Consumer Perspective towards Green Products in Bengaluru City, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pusarla Lakshmi Padmaja; Vaddadi Krishna Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability is a trending concept of the 21st century. With an increase in global warming and carbon emissions, green marketing gained importance and subsequently encouraging green products, which can further contribute to sustainable environment. The consumer play a major role in determining the demand for any product and since green products are eco-friendly, they have created niche for those environmental consciousness customers. In this context, a study on consumer perspective and atti...

  13. AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRODUCT HAPTIC ACCESSIBILITY AND CONSUMER RESPONSE: A BRAND PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Karangi, Sheena Wanjiku

    2017-01-01

    Consumers generally like touching products before buying and prior research indicates that touching influences the purchase decision-making process (e.g. McCabe & Nowlis, 2003; Peck & Childers, 2003a; Peck & Johnson, 2011; Peck & Shu, 2009; Webb & Peck, 2015). For example, touching products has a positive effect on consumer attitudes, intentions and behaviours and these effects seem to vary by product category, situational context and need for touch. Touch research however has principally rec...

  14. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915) and semi-structured interviews (n=78) to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported co...

  15. Organic food product purchase behaviour: a pilot study for urban consumers in the South of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia, A.; de Magistris, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain factors that influence organic food purchases of urban consumers in the South of Italy. To achieve this goal, a multivariate limited dependent variable model has been specified to simultaneously analyse consumers’ organic food purchases, the intention to purchase organic food products and the level of organic knowledge. This study uses survey data gathered from 200 consumers in Naples in 2003. Results indicate that consumers who are more willing to buy orga...

  16. The Impact of Celebrity Endorsement to Youth Consumer Purchase Decision on Adidas Apparel Product

    OpenAIRE

    Tielung, Maria V. J.; Lombo, Victor Eko Prasetyo

    2014-01-01

    Celebrity endorsements are commonly used strategies for promoting various types of products, services or brands. The main purpose of using celebrity endorser is to influence consumer behaviour, especially purchase intention that will lead to consumer purchase decision, which is directly linked to the revenue of the company. This research is conduct in Manado, North Sulawesi. The objectives of this research are to know the influence of celebrity endorsement to consumers€™ purchase decision of ...

  17. The Consistency of Consumer's Stated Preference and Revealed Preference : Evidence from Agricultural Product Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Qing; Zhou, Hui; Nanseki, Teruaki; Wang, Jimin; 南石, 晃明

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consistency of consumer's stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) for fresh certified pork by using Beijing urban residents' questionnaire survey data in December 2010. It models the factors of the consistency of SP–RP and calculates the marginal effect coefficients. The results indicate that these factors of whether consumer's household have children under 18 years old, consumer's knowledge about certified products and searching frequency about food qualit...

  18. Consumer perceptions of food products involving genetic modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Lähteenmäki, L.; Nielsen, Niels Asger

    2001-01-01

    Product descriptions of cheese, candy and salmon products were presented to samples of respondents in four Nordic countries. The descriptions represented various applications of genetic modification (GM), varied along a "distance" dimension and a "what is modified" dimension, and were presented...... along with a conventionally produced product. Respondents ranked the products according to preference, and their perceptions were ascertained by the laddering method. Results indicate that respondents regard "non-GM" as a value in itself, and associate the use of GM with a host of negative consequences...... were product specific....

  19. The Co-Discovery method: an informal method for iteratively designing consumer products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, J.A.M.; Gelderen, van T.

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency and effectiveness are frequently used as measures for what is called the usability of a product. For many consumer products it is not solely this that renders a product successful. Many users of domestic or leisure products are not really interested in efficiently and effectively

  20. Attitudes about regulation among direct-to-consumer genetic testing customers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Juli Murphy; Green, Robert C; Kaufman, David

    2013-05-01

    The first regulatory rulings by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing services are expected soon. As the process of regulating these and other genetic tests moves ahead, it is important to understand the preferences of DTC genetic testing customers about the regulation of these products. An online survey of customers of three DTC genetic testing companies was conducted 2-8 months after they had received their results. Participants were asked about the importance of regulating the companies selling DTC genetic tests. Most of the 1,046 respondents responded that it would be important to have a nongovernmental (84%) or governmental agency (73%) monitor DTC companies' claims to ensure the consistency with scientific evidence. However, 66% also felt that it was important that DTC tests be available without governmental oversight. Nearly, all customers favored a policy to ensure that insurers and law enforcement officials could not access their information. Although many DTC customers want access to genetic testing services without restrictions imposed by the government regulation, most also favor an organization operating alongside DTC companies that will ensure that the claims made by the companies are consistent with sound scientific evidence. This seeming contradiction may indicate that DTC customers want to ensure that they have unfettered access to high-quality information. Additionally, policies to help ensure privacy of data would be welcomed by customers, despite relatively high confidence in the companies.

  1. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; van Trijp, Hans C.M.; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Modern production systems aimed at improving animal welfare are more costly than traditional systems. Animal-friendly products are therefore typically more expensive than mainstream products, which presents one of the main barriers to consumer animal-friendly product choice. To overcome this barrier, marketing strategies that associate animal welfare with different types of value, such as taste, healthiness or good feeling, may be useful. This article presents a theoretical framework with marketing strategies using various types of value, suitable for animal-friendly products to encourage consumers to buy animal-friendly instead of mainstream products. We also explain why some consumers, such as those with a rational or an intuitive thinking style, may be more sensitive to some strategies over others, giving directions to marketing managers on how to approach different types of consumers. Because the credibility of animal welfare claims is a critical issue in marketing animal-friendly products, we address this issue as well. Specifically, we propose that, to gain consumer trust, companies selling animal-friendly products need to take into account the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of marketing strategies for individual products and that they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations. Abstract This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to

  2. TYPES OF CONSUMER LOYALTY IN THE UKRAINIAN HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zhurylo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study addresses the problem of the formation of customer loyalty in the market of high-tech products. It examines existing approaches to defining the determinants that influence the formation of loyalty in the consumer market. On the basis of generalization of existing approaches it is proposed to divide the determinants of such groups: behavioral, perceptual, marketing and individual determinants of customers loyalty. Marketing research was conducted to identify the features of the market behavior of Ukrainian consumers of high-tech products. As the result, the main tends of consumers behavior, external and individual factors of actualization and influence on the consumers motivation were determined. Ukrainian consumers' loyalty was sorted depending on the reasons to buying high-tech products and consumer involvement in this process. Each type of market behavior of consumers corresponds to a certain type of consumer loyalty. Cognitive, agreement, demonstrative loyalty are formed in the case of high consumer involvement in the buying process. Active, perceptual loyalty and loyalty of convenience are observed in the case of low involvement.

  3. "Worse but ours", or "better but theirs"? The role of Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism(ICE in product preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Agnieszka Maison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987, or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT. The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a whether ICE – an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign – this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b what happens when the consumer’s automatic preference for local products (ICE is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of nonexistent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena – Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism. The results of study 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT – participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference.

  4. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    2009-01-01

    countries tasted and scored the cod products on a 9-point hedonic scale. In addition information on the consumers attitudes, motives/barriers and fish purchase behaviour was collected. The aim was to investigate how sensory quality corresponded to consumers liking of different cod products and to study...... to fish consumption, attitudes and preferences of the eight cod products. However, it was demonstrated that within each country, different segments of consumers existed with different preferences, motives/barriers and demographic background. The results indicated various potential to increase fish...

  5. Consumer Attitude and Behavior towards Bio-products in Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Chovancova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bio-product market is very challenging and developing rapidly. Consumers have raised great interest in healthy and tasty diet with high nutritional compounds, confidence in food safety, environmental and animal welfare concern and also sustainability. The aim of this paper is to analyze consumer attitude and behavior as well as the factors influencing purchasing behavior when deciding to buy bio-products or their substitutes. The essential part of the article presents the partial results of the research, which was directed to consumers buying bio-products in Slovakia.

  6. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food products: an apple marketing study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, D.E.; Tabor, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the price for the non-irradiated apples was held constant. Of these 228 West-Central Missouri shoppers, 101 (44%) bought no irradiated apples, 86 (38%) bought only irradiated apples, and 41 (18%) bought some of both types, Results of probit regressions indicated three significant independent variables. There was an inverse relationship between the price of irradiated apples and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. There was a positive relationship between the purchasers’ educational level and the probability of purchasing irradiated apples. Predicted probabilities for belonging to categories in probit models were computed. Depending on particular equation specification, correctly placed were approximately 70 percent of the purchasers of the two categories--bought only non-irradiated apples, or bought some of both irradiated and non-irradiated apples or only irradiated apples. This study suggests that consumers may be interested in food irradiation as a possible alternative or supplement to current preservation techniques

  7. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riemsdijk, Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T M; van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-12-14

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  8. [Direct to consumer genetic testing: is it the moment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoril, Jérôme; Bogard, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Since the development of new human genome sequencing technologies at the beginning of the 2000, commercial companies have developped direct to consumer genomic services, which means without medical prescription. From 2007 to 2013, many companies have offered services assesing associated risk with human public health in the world especially in the United States. This kind of company is forbidden in France. From 2009 to 2013, in United States, under the pressure of national or state health administrations, these companies have been progressively forbidden. However, in certain parts of the world, companies are still offering such services. The latter raise many different questions such as ethical, juridical, medical, scientific, educative, professional one. Many studies and debates have demonstrated their limit and the lack of usefulness and advantage in the field of human health for the time being. The commercialization of this type of services has arrived all too soon et is not yet ripe. In our time of globalization, with the lack of international rules controlling direct access to genetic services in the field of human health, there is an urgent need to regulate. International administrations and politicians must act fast. Inevitably, under the pressure of lobbies and citizens, companies (multinational or not) will develop especially as 1) new sequencing technologies evolve rapidly, 2) are cheaper from year to year, 3) scientific and medical knowledges are progressing quickly, 4) services are spreading faster through the web and other networks.

  9. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by the Commission under section 9 of the CPSA. 1115.5 Section 1115.5 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT HAZARD REPORTS General Interpretation § 1115.5 Reporting of failures to comply...

  10. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... whether these attitudes coincide with people's general attitudes towards sustainability, on one hand, and their consumption of specific pork products, on the other. A conjoint experiment was designed to evaluate citizens' preferences towards pig production systems with varying sustainability levels....... Conjoint analysis results were then used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify international citizen clusters across the three continents. Respondents' sociodemographic profile, attitudes towards sustainability issues, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used to profile...

  11. Consumer attitudes towards sustainability aspects of food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to analyse citizens' sustainability attitudes towards food production in the EU, Brazil, and China (n = 2885), using pork as an exemplary production system. The objective is to map citizens' attitudes towards sustainable characteristics of pig production systems, and investigate...... whether these attitudes coincide with people's general attitudes towards sustainability, on one hand, and their consumption of specific pork products, on the other. A conjoint experiment was designed to evaluate citizens' preferences towards pig production systems with varying sustainability levels....... Conjoint analysis results were then used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order to identify international citizen clusters across the three continents. Respondents' sociodemographic profile, attitudes towards sustainability issues, and consumption frequency of various pork products are used to profile...

  12. Consumer-Oriented New Product Development in Fruit Flavour Breeding - A Bayesian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesfaye, L.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Taking consumer quality perceptions into account is very important for new-fruit product development in todays competitive food market. To this end, consumer-oriented quality improvement models like the Quality Guidance Model (QGM) have been proposed. Implementing such mod- els in the agro industry

  13. Consumer decision-making for animal-friendly products: synthesis and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Immink, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how consumers’ concerns affect the consumer decision-making process is important for developing a market for animal-friendly products. This paper presents a synthesis of research on the role of animal welfare in consumer decision-making. Drawing on basic models and concepts from

  14. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display... electronics and display devices and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics and...

  15. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal.

  16. MOTIVES AND BARRIERS TO THE CONSUMPTION OF INNOVATIVE FOOD PRODUCTS BY POLISH AND UKRAINIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jasiulewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The significant increase in the number of new food products means consumers have the opportunity to choose from among a wide range of innovative foods, which bring a variety of benefits to consumption, but can also, for some, raise uncertainty, opposition and suspicion. The article reviews the literature on innovative food products and their acceptance by consumers. The results of own research on the purchase motives and barriers to consumption of such products are presented in the context of theoretical considerations. The study is presented in relation to the issue of consumer innovativeness as a determinant affecting the approval or rejection of new products. The respondents’ degree of innovativeness was evaluated according to Rogers’ concept and the impact of this variable on the respondents motives of to purchase innovative products. For the comparative analysis of Polish and Ukrainian consumers’ behaviour on the innovative food products market, international research was conducted in 2015 on a sample of 340 Polish and 255 Ukrainian respondents (595 respondents in total. The results clearly show consumer types differing from the Rogers distribution, as well as differences between Polish and Ukrainian consumers’ appetite for innovation. Analysis of the literature and the research results together indicate that the motives and barriers to consuming innovative food products come down to features of the innovation (including price, functionality, healthiness, convenient packaging, taste, consumer characteristics (neophilia, neophobia, innovativeness and environmental characteristics (trends in consumption, marketing and social communication. Those consumers who are innovators play an important role in shaping the positive attitudes of buyers in relation to innovative food products. Products possessing attributes consumers consider to be essential may also help in the desire to adopt innovation. Basing on the research results certain

  17. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: To test or not to test, that is the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    significant resources that have been invested in basic biomedical .... knowledge, could be misled into thinking that genetic testing can be done for any .... strands of hair, bubble gum or cigarette butts. .... Lesage S, Ibanez P, Lohmann E, et al.

  18. Chilean consumers' perception about animal welfare in dairy production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Riveros, José Luis; Köbrich, Claus

    2017-01-01

    production systems and animal welfare, and the main aspects they considered when buying dairy products. A face-to-face interview was conducted on a sample of 501 persons from the Province of Santiago, Chile. The survey was conducted in major supermarkets from 15 different municipalities of Santiago...

  19. Consumer willingness to purchase and to pay more for potential benefits of irradiated fresh food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A national household survey was conducted to evaluate consumer willingness to accept irradiated fresh food products. For those consumers willing to purchase irradiated food, analyses were conducted relative to their willingness to pay a price premium for proposed benefits of food irradiation. A low level of awareness of food irradiation exists. Fifty-four percent of households were not willing to purchase irradiated food. Education, income, and sex were significant in some analyses but were not successful in predicting or classifying consumer willingness to purchase or pay more for irradiated food. Measurement of consumer beliefs and values affecting food safety concerns may improve levels of prediction and classification. (author)

  20. Exposure to Chemicals in Consumer Products: The Role of the Near-Field Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products during product use and environmental releases with inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake as typical exposure routes. Nevertheless, chemical exposure modeling has traditionally focused on the far-field with near-field indoor models only...... recently gaining attention. Further, models that are mostly emissions-based, may not necessarily be applicable to all types of chemical release from consumer products. To address this gap, we (1) define a framework to simultaneously account for exposure to chemicals in the near- and far-field, (2......) determine chemical product concentrations for various functional use categories, (3) introduce a quantitative metric linking exposure to chemical mass in products, the Product Intake Fraction (PiF), and (4) demonstrate our framework for various consumer product categories. This framework lends itself...

  1. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Functional and organic eggs as an alternative to conventional production: a conjoint analysis of consumers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula

    2011-02-01

    In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Educating Consumers in Self-Testing: The Development of an Online Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickenroth, Martine H. P.; Grispen, Janaica E. J.; Ronda, Gaby; Dinant, Geert-Jan; de Vries, Nanne K.; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2015-01-01

    Context and objective: Diagnostic self-tests have become available worldwide. The most frequently performed self-tests in the Netherlands are tests to detect high cholesterol and diabetes. Since these tests can be performed without professional guidance, potential consumers need to receive independent information on the pros and cons of…

  5. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF) radiation produced by consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roha Tukimin; Ahmad Fazli Ahmad Sanusi; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali; Mohamad Amirul Nizam Mohamad Thari

    2006-01-01

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field ( ELF EMF) radiation falls under category of non-ionising radiation (NIR).ELF EMF consists of electric and magnetic fields. Excessive exposure to ELF EMF radiation may cause biological and health effects to human beings such as behavioral changes, stochastic and as initiator of cancer. In daily life, the main source of extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation are consumer products in our home and office. Due to its ability to cause hazard, a study of ELF EMF radiation produced by consumer product was conducted. For this preliminary study, sample of 20 types electrical appliances were selected. The measurement was covered electric and magnetic field strength produced by the sample. PMM model EHP50A were used for measurement and data analysis. The results were compared with the permissible limits recommended by International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) for members of public (1000 mGauss and 5000 V/m). The results showed that all tested sample produced magnetic and electric field but still under the permissible limit recommended by ICNIRP. Besides that we found that field strengths can be very high at closer distance to the sample. (Author)

  6. 75 FR 61361 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    .... EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC24 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment Correction In proposed rule document...

  7. Made in China: Policy Analysis and Prescriptions to Improve China's Consumer Product Safety Regulatory Regime

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, III, James A

    2008-01-01

    China's central government's response to the current challenge of consumer product safety in the food and drug arena could be a determining factor in its ability to sustain robust economic growth over the next decade...

  8. Consumer and Commercial Products, Group IV: Control Techniques Guidelines in Lieu of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has determined that control techniques guidelines (CTGs) will be substantially as effective as regulations in reducing volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions in ozone nonattainment areas for certain consumer and commercial product categories.

  9. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0024] Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for Exemption From Federal Preemption of Massachusetts' Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Non...

  10. 76 FR 21881 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc... comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver and application for [[Page 21882

  11. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  12. 75 FR 81258 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Electrolux...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... associate General Counsel, Electrolux Home Products, Inc., 20445 Emerald Parkway, SW., Suite 250, P.O. Box... insight, to meet the real needs of consumers and professionals. Electrolux's principal clothes washer...

  13. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics.

  14. Quality and use of consumer information provided with home test kits: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grispen, Janaica E J; Ickenroth, Martine H P; de Vries, Nanne K; van der Weijden, Trudy; Ronda, Gaby

    2014-10-01

    Diagnostic self-tests (tests on body materials that are initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a disorder or risk factor) are becoming increasingly available. Although the pros and cons of self-testing are currently not clear, it is an existing phenomenon that is likely to gain further popularity. To examine consumers' use of and needs for information about self-testing, and to assess the quality of consumer information provided with home test kits, as perceived by consumers and as assessed using a checklist of quality criteria. A cross-sectional Internet survey among 305 self-testers assessed their use of and needs for information and their perception of the quality of consumer information provided with self-test kits. A meta-search engine was used to identify Dutch and English consumer information for home diagnostic tests available online at the time of the study. The quality of this consumer information was evaluated using a checklist of quality criteria. The consumers' information needs were in line with the most frequently used information, and the information was perceived as being of moderate to good quality. The information was mostly in agreement with clinical practice guidelines, although information on reliability and follow-up behaviour was limited. Approximately half of the instruction leaflets did not include information on the target group of the test. Although generally of moderate to good quality, some aspects of the information provided were in many cases insufficient. European legislation concerning self-tests and accompanying information needs to be adapted and adhered to more closely. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Thermal Management of Software Changes in Product Lifecycle of Consumer Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Muraoka , Yoshio; Seki , Kenichi; Nishimura , Hidekazu

    2014-01-01

    Part 6: Industry and Consumer Products; International audience; Because the power consumption of consumer electronic products varies according to processor execution, which depends on software, thermal risk may be increased by software changes, including software updates or the installation of new applications, even after hardware development has been completed. In this paper, we first introduce a typical system-level thermal simulation model, coupling the activities within modules related to...

  16. Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John

    2017-01-01

    Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia Introduction Consumers in emerging economies such as Thailand and China have started to demand organic food products – mainly due to food safety reasons (Ortega, Wang, Wu, & Hong, 2015; Roitner-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook, & Vogl, 2008; C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, & Ahn, 2012; O. Wang, De Steur, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2015). However, since the domestic organic markets are still not well-establi...

  17. Exploring consumer online product returning behavior : Chinese e-consumers’ perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yijun

    2018-01-01

    In the retail world, product returns are a common practice by consumers. Many businesses have been attempting to obtain more sales by providing customers with lenient return policies as well as customer-friendly return processes and procedures. Over the past decade, the issue of product returns by consumers is on the rise and drawing increased attention from practitioners and researchers. The objective of this thesis is to explore Chinese e-consumers’ perception of fraudulent returning beh...

  18. Negotiating the boundary between medicine and consumer culture: online marketing of nutrigenetic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saukko, Paula M; Reed, Matthew; Britten, Nicky; Hogarth, Stuart

    2010-03-01

    Genomics researchers and policy makers have accused nutrigenetic testing companies--which provide DNA-based nutritional advice online--of misleading the public. The UK and USA regulation of the tests has hinged on whether they are classed as "medical" devices, and alternative regulatory categories for "lifestyle" and less-serious genetic tests have been proposed. This article presents the findings of a qualitative thematic analysis of the webpages of nine nutrigenetic testing companies. We argue that the companies, mirroring and negotiating the regulatory debates, were creating a new social space for products between medicine and consumer culture. This space was articulated through three themes: (i) how "genes" and tests were framed, (ii) how the individual was imagined vis a vis health information, and (iii) the advice and treatments offered. The themes mapped onto four frames or models for genetic testing: (i) clinical genetics, (ii) medicine, (iii) intermediate, and (iv) lifestyle. We suggest that the genomics researchers and policy makers appeared to perform what Gieryn (Gieryn, T.F. (1983). Boundary-work and the demarcation of science from non-science: strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. American Sociological Review, 48, 781-795.) has termed "boundary work", i.e., to delegitimize the tests as outside proper medicine and science. Yet, they legitimated them, though in a different way, by defining them as lifestyle, and we contend that the transformation of the boundaries of science into a creation of such hybrid or compromise categories is symptomatic of current historical times. Social scientists studying medicine have referred to the emergence of "lifestyle" products. This article contributes to this literature by examining the historical, regulatory and marketing processes through which certain goods and services become defined this way. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: User Motivations, Decision Making, and Perceived Utility of Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J Scott; Gornick, Michele C; Carere, Deanna Alexis; Uhlmann, Wendy R; Ruffin, Mack T; Green, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    To describe the interests, decision making, and responses of consumers of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing (DTC-PGT) services. Prior to 2013 regulatory restrictions on DTC-PGT services, 1,648 consumers from 2 leading companies completed Web surveys before and after receiving test results. Prior to testing, DTC-PGT consumers were as interested in ancestry (74% very interested) and trait information (72%) as they were in disease risks (72%). Among disease risks, heart disease (68% very interested), breast cancer (67%), and Alzheimer disease (66%) were of greatest interest prior to testing. Interest in disease risks was associated with female gender and poorer self-reported health (p decisions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Development of a mathematical model for physical disintegration of flushable consumer products in wastewater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadagli, Fatih; McAvoy, Drew C; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2009-05-01

    The processes that flushable solid products may undergo after discharge to wastewater systems are (1) physical disintegration of solids resulting from turbulence, (2) direct dissolution of water-soluble components, (3) hydrolysis of solids to form soluble components, and (4) biodegradation of soluble and insoluble components. We develop a mathematical model for physical disintegration of flushable solid consumer products and test it with two different flushable products--product A, which has 40% water soluble-content, and product B, which has no water-soluble components. We present our modeling analysis of experimental results, from which we computed disintegration rate constants and fractional distribution coefficients for the disintegration of larger solids. The rate constants for solids of product A in units of (hour(-1)) are 0.45 for > 8-mm, 2.25 x 10(-2) for 4- to 8-mm, 0.9 x 10(-2) for 2- to 4-mm, and 1.26 x 10(-2) for 1- to 2-mm solids. The rate constants for solids of product B in units of hour(-1) are 1.8 for > 8-mm, 1.8 for 4- to 8-mm, 3.6 x 10(-1) for 2- to 4-mm, and 2.25 x 10(-3) for 1- to 2-mm solids. As indicated by the rate constants, larger solids disintegrate at a faster rate than smaller solids. In addition, product B disintegrated much faster and went mostly to the smallest size range, while product A disintegrated more slowly and was transferred to a range of intermediate solid sizes.

  1. 76 FR 38287 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial... products will be required to submit certification reports no later than December 31, 2012. DATES: This rule... some certification requirements for these products but make those requirements [[Page 38289

  2. Software product line engineering for consumer electronics : Keeping up with the speed of innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Herman

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade consumer electronics products have changed radically. Traditionally these products were used for a few dedicated tasks, and were implemented through hardware. Nowadays, these products are used for a variety of tasks and are largely implemented through software. Furthermore

  3. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles derived from consumer products on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased manufacture of TiO2 nano-products has caused concern about the potential toxicity of these products to the environment and in public health. Identification and confirmation of the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from consumer products as opposed to industrial TiO...

  4. Consumer responses to shelf-out-of-stocks of perishable products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woensel, van T.; Donselaar, van K.H.; Broekmeulen, R.A.C.M.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to identify customer behavior with regard to out-of-stocks (OOS) of perishable products (focused on bakery bread) and the resulting inventory performance for these perishable products. Design/methodology/approach – Insights on how consumers behave when their preferred bread product

  5. Consumer Products Advertised to Save Energy--Let the Buyer Beware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-24

    AD-AL06 653 GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE WASHINGTON DC HUMAN RESOUR--ETC F/G 5/3 CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED TO SAVE ENERGY--LET THE BUYER BEWA-ETC...COMPTROLLER GENERAL’S CONSUMER PRODUCTS ADVERTISED REPORT TO THE CONGRESS TO SAVE ENERGY- - LET THE BUYER BEWARE D IG E ST In efforts to reduce energy costs...and comparable, GAO believes that the best ad- vice for consumers is "let the buyer beware." (See p. 42.) F’TC ’S COMMENTS FTC said that GAO

  6. Releases of selected alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates and use in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Carsten; Warming, Marlies; Fauser, Patrik

    /APE to the environment and the significance of the different sources, and  to establish an overview of the use of AP/APE in consumer products as background for consid-erations regarding the potential for consumer exposure. This report presents the results of the surveys undertaken from August 2013 to August 2014...... EPA has initiated a survey of emissions of alkylphenols and al-kylphenol ethoxylates from all life cycle stages of the substances and a survey of the use of the sub-stances in consumer products. The main objectives of the surveys are:  to establish an overview of the releases of the AP...

  7. Nanomaterials in consumer products: a challenging analytical problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia eContado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs, generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits versus risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer’s protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences.On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization.This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors.The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices.

  8. Consumer Decision-Making Styles Extension to Trust-Based Product Comparison Site Usage Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Macik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an implementation of extended consumer decision-making styles concept in explaining consumer choices made in product comparison site environment in the context of trust-based information technology acceptance model. Previous research proved that trust-based acceptance model is useful in explaining purchase intention and anticipated satisfaction in product comparison site environment, as an example of online decision shopping aids. Trust to such aids is important in explaining their usage by consumers. The connections between consumer decision-making styles, product and sellers opinions usage, cognitive and affective trust toward online product comparison site, as well as choice outcomes (purchase intention and brand choice are explored trough structural equation models using PLS-SEM approach, using a sample of 461 young consumers. Research confirmed the validity of research model in explaining product comparison usage, and some consumer decision-making styles influenced consumers’ choices and purchase intention. Product and sellers reviews usage were partially mediating mentioned relationships.

  9. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka van Riemsdijk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  10. Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Consumer Knowledge and Values on Attitudes and Purchase Intentions : A Quantitative Study of Organic Personal Care Products Among German Female Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem, Bilal; Recker, Alena

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different types of consumer knowledge and values on their attitude towards buying organic personal care products and their purchase intentions of organic personal care products. The aim was to make a theoretical contribution to the research area of consumer behaviour in the context of organic products. As no research had been conducted on how different types of consumers’ knowledge affect their attitudes towards buying organic products an...

  12. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  13. The impact of front-of-pack nutrition labels on consumer product evaluation and choice: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Robert P; McNeill, Lisa S; Moore, Vanessa

    2015-08-01

    The present research was an experimental test that aimed to quantify the impact of two dominant front-of-pack (FOP) nutritional label formats on consumer evaluations of food products that carried them. The two FOP label types tested were the traffic light label and the Percentage Daily Intake. A 4×5 partially replicated Latin square design was used that allowed the impact of the FOP labels to be isolated from the effects of the product and the consumers who were performing the evaluations. The experiment was conducted on campus at the University of Otago, New Zealand. The participants were 250 university students selected at random who met qualifying criteria of independent living and regular purchase of the products used in the research. They were not aware of the purpose of the research. The presence of FOP labels led to significant and positive changes in consumer purchase intentions towards the products that carried them. These changes were not affected by the nature of FOP labels used, their size or the product nutritional status (good/bad) that they were reporting. The result is consistent with the participants paying attention to the FOP label and then using it as an adimensional cue indicating product desirability. As such, it represents a complete functional failure of both of these FOP label types in this specific instance. This result supports calls for further research on the performance of these FOP labels before any move to compulsory deployment is made.

  14. Pricing and Timing Strategies for New Product Using Agent-Based Simulation of Behavioural Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Keeheon Lee; Hoyeop Lee; Chang Ouk Kim

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we are interested in the problem of determining the pricing and timing strategies of a new product by developing an agent-based product diffusion simulation. In the proposed simulation model, agents imitate behavioural consumers, who are reference dependent and risk averse in the evaluation of new products and whose interactions create word-of-mouth regarding new products. Pricing and timing strategies involve the timing of a new product release, the timing of providing a disco...

  15. Exploring the use of consumer collages in product design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, A.I.A.; Schoolmeester, D.; Dekker, M.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the development, application and evaluation of a method for need identification in food product design, which combines the use of collage techniques and focus groups. Recent findings in neurobiology and psychology have considerable relevance for methodological improvement in

  16. Consumer attitudes to food quality products : emphasis on Southern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopcic, M.; Kuipers, A.; Hocquette, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Quality foods, such as traditional, EU certified, organic and health claimed are part of a growing trend towards added value in the agri-food sector. In these foods, elements of production, processing, marketing, agro-tourism and speciality stores are combined. Paramount above all is the link to the

  17. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain

  18. Consumer Adoption of Counterfeit Products in a Developing Country

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Lede (Madesta)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With an increase in global trade, currently involving almost all countries in the world (expect for a few autarkic ones), there is a growing interest in studying various aspects of trade in counterfeit products. As almost every type of good has been counterfeited

  19. Assessment of Consumers' Satisfaction with the Automotive Product Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amineh, Hadi; Kosach, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of article is caused by the fact that customer's satisfaction currently serves as the mechanism allowing the carmakers to be competitive in the market. The paper describes issues of assessment of the quality of products manufactured by automobile companies. The assessment is based on widely applicable complex characteristics of the…

  20. 16 CFR 1500.88 - Exemptions from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for certain electronic devices. 1500.88 Section... from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for certain electronic devices. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA) provides for specific lead limits...

  1. End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g. electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g. Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is

  2. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Situational Factors and Product on Consumer Buying Decision In Hypermart at Manado City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nova Christian Mamuaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at (1 understanding and analyzing the effect of situational and non situational (produc factors, simultaneously or partially, on the consumer buying decision in hypermart at Manado City, (2 understanding and analyzing factor with dominant effect on consumer buying decision in hypermart at Manado City. The observed situational and non situational (product factors through Belk Theory. Sampling has been developed through accidental sampling, resulting in 60 respondents. Data  have  been  collected  by main instrument of questionnaire, 5-point Likert Scale to measure the respondents’ answer, data analysis using multiple linier regression. Results of research indicate that situational factor and product have significant effect simultaneously or partially on consumer buying decisions in hypermart at Manado City and product assortment has dominant effect on consumer buying decision in hypermart at Manado City.

  4. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effect of colour and relative product size (RPS) on consumer attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Varsha Jain; Subhadip Roy; Adwita Pant

    2013-01-01

    Colour and visuals are used extensively by the advertisers of different product categories to attract consumer attention and create favourable attitude. Based on this premise, the present study aimed to explore the effect of colour and relative product size on the consumer attitudes incorporating the moderating role of product familiarity. An experimental design was used, with a sample size of 420 respondents of 18-25 years in a 3 (Product Size: Large/Med/Small) X 2 (Ad Colour: CL/BW) X 2 (Ge...

  6. "Worse but Ours," or "Better but Theirs?" - The Role of Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) in Product Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maison, Dominika; Maliszewski, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to investigate whether consumer ethnocentrism is purely conscious mechanism based on ideology, as suggested by Shimp and Sharma (1987), or rather is an automatic, unconscious process. The aim of the project was an introduction of the Implicit Consumer Ethnocentrism (ICE) concept, measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The goal of the four studies conducted was to investigate the following issues: (a) whether ICE - an automatic mechanism underlying the preference for local products over foreign - this could be observed next to the more ideologically based classic consumer ethnocentrism; (b) what happens when the consumer's automatic preference for local products (ICE) is confronted by objective evidence of the superiority of foreign products or by the inferiority of local products. It was assumed that ICE could be reduced when foreign products were associated with a higher level of competence than local products, and this could explain the preference for foreign products over local often observed in less developed countries. In study 1 the ICE for different product categories of existing brands was tested, and in study 2 the ICE was measured in the context of non-existent brands. Both studies showed a strong in-group brand preference and confirmed the existence of new phenomena - ICE. The results of studies 3 and 4 again indicated a strong, automatic in-group brand favoritism effect as measured by IAT - participants preferred local brands over foreign. However, the inclusion of well-known foreign brands associated with high competence reduced the IAT effect (in-group preference).

  7. Hungry for success: Urban consumer demand for wild animal products in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Drury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising urban prosperity is escalating demand for wild animal products in Vietnam. Conservation interventions seek to influence consumer demand, but are based on a limited understanding of consumers and consumption behaviour. This report presents key findings of a structured survey (n=915 and semi-structured interviews (n=78 to investigate the social context of consumption of wild animal-derived products among the population of central Hanoi. Wildmeat is the product most commonly reported consumed-predominantly by successful, high-income, high-status males of all ages and educational levels-and is used as a medium to communicate prestige and obtain social leverage. As Vietnam′s economy grows and its population ages, demand for wildmeat and medicinal products is likely to rise. Given the difficulties of acting on personal rather than collective interests and the symbolic role of wildmeat in an extremely status-conscious society, reducing demand is challenging. Influencing consumer behaviour over the long term requires social marketing expertise and has to be informed by an in-depth understanding, achieved using appropriate methods, of the social drivers of consumer demand for wild animal products. In the meantime, strengthened enforcement is needed to prevent the demand being met from consumers prepared to pay the rising costs of finding the last individuals of a species.

  8. Sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics: consumer, products, efficacy, toxicological and regulatory considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fonseca-Santos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interest in sustainable products has increased along the years, since the choice of products, packaging and production processes have a great impact on the environment. These products are classified by regulatory agencies in different categories, aggregating advantages to the product and increasing the demand by consumers. However, there is no harmonization in guidelines of these certifying agencies and each cosmetic industry formulates their product and packaging in a more rational way, which causes less damage to the environment. Many cosmetic products have in their formulation natural products that perform a specific biological function, but these products should be evaluated on efficacy and toxicological aspects. The aim of this article is to approach sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics, considering the consumer and the efficacy, toxicological and regulatory aspects.

  9. BEES AS BIOINDICATORS TO GUARANTEE HEALTHY PRODUCTS FOR THE CONSUMER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Brusa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many investigators have employed honeybees or honeybee products as tools for assessing environmental pollution in industrial areas. The pollution in northwest Italy by insecticides used in crop protection, heavy metals and radioactivity has been investigated utilizing, as a bioindicator: honeybees, bee honey, wax, pollen produced in this area. Honeybees and honeybee products samples collected from 6 apiaries located in this area were analyzed for neonicotinoids residues with LC/MS method, pesticides organochlorines and organophosphates by GCECD and GC-NPD methods, PCB using GC-MS, radioactivity on 137Cs by g spectrometer and heavy metals with atomic spectroscopy. The results show: 19 honeybee samples were positive on neonicotinoids (clothianidin residues (total of 78 samples, no one sample was positive on pesticides organochlorines and organophosphates residues (total of 32 honeybee samples, the radioactivity levels were always below the instrumental limit determination, at last the heavy metal content (Pb, Cd, Cr on 21 honey samples was favorable. This study indicates that in agricultural areas with developed apiculture, useful information about the occurrence and the distribution of pesticide residues due to crop protection treatments can be derived from the analysis of randomly collected honeybee products samples, used as bioindicators.

  10. THE ACCEPTANCE OF HEALTH RELATED INNOVATIONS IN TRADITIONAL MEAT PRODUCTS BY CROATIAN CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine Croatian consumers’ acceptance of health related innovations in traditional meat products. A face-to-face survey was conducted with a sample of 151 visitors of a specialized fair of traditional food products in Zagreb in 2013. The respondents were asked to indicate their attitudes on a fivepoint scale, where 1 meant rejection or no impact and 5 meant full acceptance or high impact. Results (mean±SD showed the highest level of acceptance for innovations related to better control of smoking conditions (3.3± 1.14 and reduction of salt content (3.1±1.15, followed by reduced fat content (3.0±1.14 and controlled fermentation (2.9±1.12. The perceived negative impact of innovations on traditional character of meat products was highest for fat (3.4±0.99 and salt (3.4±1.03 reduction and lowest for controlled fermentation (3.2±1.04 and smoking conditions (3.2±1.05. With regards to respondents’ socio-demographic features a nonparametric test statistic (Mann-Whitney U revealed a higher acceptance of fat reduction and higher willingness to increase a consumption of healthier traditional meat products among females, while age, education level and income had no influence on the investigated parameters. In addition, some health related innovations; e.g. fat reduction and controlled fermentation were generally less acceptable among respondents with a high consumption frequency of traditional meat products. The results of this preliminary study indicated controlled smoking conditions as the best accepted health related innovation by Croatian consumers with the least negative impact on perceived traditional character of product. In general terms, women were more likely to accept some of the investigated innovations and consequently to increase their consumption of innovate products. However, the most regular consumers of traditional meat products were less open towards innovations which may pose a challenge to

  11. Survey of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors present in Japanese consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Feng; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors have been used in various consumer products. However, limited information regarding their occurrence and concentration levels in products is available. In this study, we investigated 18 PFAAs and 14 PFAA precursors in various categories of consumer products purchased in Japan. Relatively high total concentrations of PFAAs and their precursors were found in sprays for fabrics and textiles (car wash/coating products (consumer products is required. Furthermore, the amount of PFAAs emitted from consumer products may be underestimated if the occurrence of PFAA precursors is not considered. In addition to PFAA precursors, long chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (carbon chain length⩾7) were also detected in greater concentrations than short chain PFCAs (⩽6). This result suggests that consumer products are one of the important sources of long-chain PFCAs in the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does the Country-of-Origin (COO) of food products influence consumer evaluations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Chryssohoidis, G.

    2009-01-01

    The present study attempts to assess the impact of the COO effect on the evaluation of specific food products by Greek consumers. This issue has been examined exhaustively in the international literature albeit there are very few studies concerning food products. A particular effort is geared...... and confirmatory factor analyses. Data were collected though personal interviews with a sample of 274 respondents, which compared two food products of Greek origin (ham and yellow cheese) to their counterparts from Italy and the Netherlands. Results indicate that respondents exhibit a marginally ethnocentric...... toward measuring consumers' ethnocentric tendency as antecedent to the appearance of the COO effect and examining the level at which the latter is activated (product or attribute-specific). In this respect, consumer attitude (dis)similarities toward product types are analysed with exploratory...

  13. Combining product attributes with recommendation and shopping location attributes to assess consumer preferences for insect-based food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Mohammed Hussen; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    into consumers' preferences for termite-based food products (TBFPs) using data from a choice experiment survey in Kenya. A novel feature of this paper is that it investigates the combined effects of product-related and contextual attributes, as well as consumer attitudes on preferences for TBFPs. In addition......, the paper focuses on the extent to which preferences may be affected depending on the meal formats, i.e. whether the termites are introduced either as whole insects or as a processed component in a typical daily meal. The results suggest that consumers prefer TBFPs with high nutritional value and especially...... when they are recommended by officials. Results further indicate that affirmative recommendations are particularly important for the processed TBFP, and consumers prefer to buy this type of product in kiosks or supermarkets than at local marketplaces. Despite a considerable degree of preference...

  14. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  15. Bioprocess engineering of microalgae to produce a variety of consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Razif [Bio Engineering Laboratory (BEL), Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang (Malaysia); Singh, Manjinder; Forde, Gareth M.; Danquah, Michael K. [Bio Engineering Laboratory (BEL), Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2010-04-15

    Microalgae biotechnology has recently emerged into the lime light owing to numerous consumer products that can be harnessed from microalgae. Product portfolio stretches from straightforward biomass production for food and animal feed to valuable products extracted from microalgal biomass, including triglycerides which can be converted into biodiesel. For most of these applications, the production process is moderately economically viable and the market is developing. Considering the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and recent developments in genetic and metabolic engineering, this group of organisms represents one of the most promising sources for new products and applications. With the development of detailed culture and screening techniques, microalgal biotechnology can meet the high demands of food, energy and pharmaceutical industries. This review article discusses the technology and production platforms for development and creation of different valuable consumer products from microalgal biomass. (author)

  16. Bioprocess engineering of microalgae to produce a variety of consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harun, Razif; Singh, Manjinder; Forde, Gareth M.; Danquah, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae biotechnology has recently emerged into the lime light owing to numerous consumer products that can be harnessed from microalgae. Product portfolio stretches from straightforward biomass production for food and animal feed to valuable products extracted from microalgal biomass, including triglycerides which can be converted into biodiesel. For most of these applications, the production process is moderately economically viable and the market is developing. Considering the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and recent developments in genetic and metabolic engineering, this group of organisms represents one of the most promising sources for new products and applications. With the development of detailed culture and screening techniques, microalgal biotechnology can meet the high demands of food, energy and pharmaceutical industries. This review article discusses the technology and production platforms for development and creation of different valuable consumer products from microalgal biomass. (author)

  17. Current ethical and legal issues in health-related direct-to-consumer genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Emilia; Kalokairinou, Louiza; Howard, Heidi Carmen

    2017-09-01

    A variety of health-related genetic testing is currently advertized directly to consumers. This article provides a timely overview of direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT) and salient ethical issues, as well as an analysis of the impact of the recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices on DTC GT. DTC GT companies currently employ new testing approaches, report on a wide spectrum of conditions and target new groups of consumers. Such activities raise ethical issues including the questionable analytic and clinical validity of tests, the adequacy of informed consent, potentially misleading advertizing, testing in children, research uses and commercialization of genomic data. The recently adopted regulation on in vitro diagnostic medical devices may limit the offers of predisposition DTC GT in the EU market.

  18. How to use local resources to fight malnutrition in Madagascar? A study combining a survey and a consumer test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Valentin, Dominique; Arvisenet, Gaëlle

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to understand consumers' habits and belief structures concerning local food products and to develop a new snack as a way to fight against children malnutrition in Madagascar. A large variety of natural food resources grow in Madagascar, like Moringa oleifera (MO) which leaves are rich in nutrients but not consumed. First, a survey conducted in four areas of Madagascar revealed that MO leaves are known for their health benefits but infrequently consumed, probably because of their low satiating power and strong odor. In the studied areas, different levels of consumption were observed, which may be linked to varying levels of familiarity with MO by the local populations, this in turn resulting from different situations regarding geographical and historical availability. In contrary, resources such as cassava are perceived as having negative effects on health but are widely consumed because they are cheap, liked by children and satiating. The second step in the study aimed to propose products that could increase MO consumption without completely changing food practices. The acceptability of snacks associating cassava roots and MO was evaluated by means of hedonic tests performed by children. Between the snacks tested, the preferred snack contained the highest quantity of MO and was sweetened. There was no effect of area on the acceptance of the formulated snacks. This work is an evaluation of the potential of MO in the diet of malnourished population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Market structure and the role of consumer information in the physician services industry: an empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H S

    1996-04-01

    This paper applies Panzar and Rosse's (1987) econometric test of market structure to examine two long-debated issues: What is the market structure for physician services? Do more physicians in a market area raise the search cost of obtaining consumer information and increase prices (Satterthwaite, 1979, 1985)? For primary care and general and family practice physicians, the monopolistically competitive model prevailed over the competing hypotheses--monopoly, perfect competition, and monopolistic competition characterized by consumer informational confusion. Although less conclisive, there is some evidence to support the monopolistically competitive model for surgeons and the consumer informational confusion model for internal medicine physicians.

  1. Empirical testing of forecast update procedure forseasonal products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Johansen, John

    2008-01-01

    Updating of forecasts is essential for successful collaborative forecasting, especially for seasonal products. This paper discusses the results of a theoretical simulation and an empirical test of a proposed time-series forecast updating procedure. It involves a two-stage longitudinal case study...... of a toy supply chain. The theoretical simulation involves historical weekly consumer demand data for 122 toy products. The empirical test is then carried out in real-time with 291 toy products. The results show that the proposed forecast updating procedure: 1) reduced forecast errors of the annual...... provided less forecast accuracy improvement and it needed a longer time to achieve relatively acceptable forecast uncertainty....

  2. Awareness, attitudes and perspectives of direct-to-consumer genetic testing in Greece: a survey of potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidopoulou, Vasiliki; Xera, Ellie; Mollaki, Vasiliki

    2015-09-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTCGT) is now offered by numerous companies. The present survey aimed to explore awareness, interest, reasons to take and refuse DTCGT, and understanding of results amongst 725 higher education students in Greece. A third of the responders were aware of DTCGT and interest was dependent on cost. More than 60% of the participants would undergo DTCGT to learn more about their health, to warn their children, so that their doctor can monitor their health and change their lifestyle. Nevertheless, they would prefer to consult their doctor first and expressed concerned about their personal data. After receiving results from a hypothetical DTC genetic test predicting higher risk for colon cancer, 59.5% of the responders thought that they could understand the results but 46.1% believed that the results have diagnostic value. In total, 83.6% of the participants would ask their doctor to explain the results and 70.4% would discuss results with their family. In conclusion, the majority of higher education students in Greece appreciate the benefits of genetic testing but with the involvement of their doctor. A physician's participation in the process and informing the public about the true value of genetic testing, are crucial to avoid misinterpretation of DTCGT results.

  3. Consumer preference for chicken breast may be more affected by information on organic production than by product sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, F; Castellini, C; Naspetti, S; Piasentier, E; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A

    2013-03-01

    Conventional chicken from a fast-growing strain (CC), organic chicken from a slow-growing strain (OSG), and organic chicken from a fast-growing strain (OFG) were used to assess descriptive sensory differences between organic and conventional breasts, to verify whether differences were perceived by consumers and to evaluate the effect of information about organic production on liking. A conventional quantitative-descriptive analysis was performed by a trained panel of 10 members on breast slices (1 cm thick) grilled at 300°C. A 150-member consumer panel (from southern, central, and northern Italy) rated CC, OSG, and OFG breasts according to 3 types of evaluation: tasting without information (perceived liking), information without tasting (expected liking), and tasting with information (actual liking). Breasts from different sources were clearly discriminated by the trained panel as meat from CC was perceived more tender than OFG (P consumers for perceived liking. However, consumer expected liking scores were higher for organic than for conventional products (P consumers were not. However, consumer liking was markedly affected by the information given on the organic production system, thus providing a tool to differentiate the product in an increasingly competitive market.

  4. The perception of quality mapping product and service quality to consumer perceptions

    CERN Document Server

    Kenyon, George N

    2015-01-01

    Exploring the concept of quality management from a new point of view, this book presents a holistic model of how consumers judge the quality of products. It links consumer perceptions of quality to the design and delivery of the final product, and presents models and methods for improving the quality of these products and services. It offers readers an improved understanding of how and why the design process must consider how the consumer will perceive a product or service. In order to facilitate the presentation and understanding of these concepts, illustrations and case examples are also provided throughout the book.   This book provides an invaluable resource for managers, designers, manufacturers, professional practitioners and academics interested in quality management. It also offers a useful supplementary text for marketing and quality management courses.

  5. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five EU countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in 26 five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data...... included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience...... and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume...

  6. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Delicious words – Assessing the impact of short storytelling messages on consumer preferences for variations of a new processed meat product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Morten H. J.; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hansen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    related to stimulation seeking and hedonism and with a tendency towards variety seeking – reacted positively to the new product, others were less interested. The introduction of elements of storytelling, however, had a favorable effect on choice for the segment previously less interested. Thus......Continuous food product improvements require communication that induces consumers to test the new products. The paper presents an experiment that investigated the characteristics of consumers who reacted positively to variations of a new meat product, and explores the effect of short storytelling...... messages on choice. 1087 Danish consumers were presented with binary choice sets consisting of conventional and new variations of a cubed ham product; half of the respondents in addition saw short storytelling messages. It was found that while some consumers – especially those characterized by values...

  8. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... undated planning and organizing products. The review shows that on August 21, 2008, a certification of..., Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Pro-Tel People, Sidney, NY; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance In accordance with...

  9. 76 FR 24761 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and...) Certification. Each manufacturer, before distributing in commerce any basic model of a covered product or.... EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and...

  10. The impact of fit measures on the consumer evaluation of new co-branded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouten, L.M.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.; Hultink, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    A popular strategy currently employed for new product introductions is co-branding. Such a strategy allows a brand to innovate with the support of a partner brand. The present study investigates how consumers perceive a new product with two brands. Previous research focused on the logic of a brand

  11. Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Brain Based Products: A Guide for Educators and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Lesley J.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    The term "brain" based is often used to describe learning theories, principles, and products. Although there have been calls urging educators to be cautious in interpreting and using such material, consumers may find it challenging to understand the role of the brain and to discriminate among brain based products to determine which would be…

  12. 75 FR 81236 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action Lifting Stay of Enforcement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... action with respect to non-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic... pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets and rugs, and clothing textiles on January 26, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Reduction, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland 20814; e-mail...

  13. Product quality : an investigation into the concept and how it is perceived by consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, J.B.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the present work are (1) to review the literature on product quality from different perspectives, (2) to develop a model that describes the way consumers form judgments about product quality, and (3) to investigate the proposed model empirically. In addition,

  14. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-836] Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend... electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos...

  15. Stimulating diffusion of green products - Co-evolution between firms and consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, MA; Jager, W

    This paper presents a model-based analysis of the introduction of green products, which are products with low environmental impacts. Both consumers and firms are simulated as populations of agents who differ in their behavioural characteristics. Model experiments illustrate the influence of

  16. Consumer exposure to chemicals in indoor environment : A specific focus on chemicals from textile products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven SWP; Kooi MW; te Biesebeek JD; SIR; vgc

    2010-01-01

    Textile products in indoor environment contain a variety of chemicals. Well-known examples are flame retardants, phthalates, formaldehyde and dimethylfumarate. Consumers are potentially exposed to these chemicals since a lot of textile products are present in indoor environment (clothing, curtains,

  17. Categorization framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Michelson, Evan S.; Kamper, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson Inte...

  18. 76 FR 19902 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Furnace Company; (16) New Yorker Residential Heating Boilers; (17) Nordyne; (18) NY Thermal Inc.; (19... Products LLC; (24) Trane; (25) Triangle Tube; (26) US Boiler Company; and (27) Weil-McLain. In the same... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension of Compliance Date...

  19. A voice-of-consumer approach in development of new seafood product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintzoglou, T.; Einarsdóttir, G.; Valsdóttir, T.; Schelvis, R.; Skåra, T.; Luten, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a consumer-based approach for development of new seafood product concepts among young adults in Norway and Iceland. The study aim was to gain insight into how young adults determine their acceptance of seafood and make potential product choices. Additional insights measured

  20. Eco-friendly Retail Product Attributes, Customer Attributes and the Repurchase Intentions of South African Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Job Dubihlela; Tandiswa Ngxukumeshe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose –Consumers are becoming progressively aware of the significance of eco-friendly activities, and their environmental consciousness drives them to consume eco-friendly products and services more, and prefer to support organisations that favor conservational practices. Increased environmental impacts bring a rise in concerns locally and globally, on sustainability issues aimed at reducing non-conservative consumption patterns. Retail organisations are increasingly developing and marketin...

  1. Contributions of Consumer-perceived Creativity and Beauty to Willingness-to-pay for Design Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Thomas; Kristensen, Tore; Reber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    experiments using designer lamps and wrist watches as stimuli, the present study shows how creativity and beauty both positively influence consumer willingness-to-pay (WtP) for the designed product, but each explains different parts of the variance. The results show that it is essential to develop separate...... models of creativity and beauty evaluations in consumer psychology, in that they seem to be distinct factors, explaining different parts of the variance in their consequences on WtP....

  2. Exploring Consumer Associations between Corporate Reputation, Corporate Sustainability and Product Attributes within Utilitarian Market Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Garry, Tony; Harwood, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Much of the extant literature proposes that contemporary motivated consumers assess, evaluate and differentiate firms based not only on their corporate reputation (CR), but also on their corporate sustainability (CS) strategy. However, research that examines the interrelationship and cognitive associations between CR, CS strategy and a firm’s product attributes among consumer stakeholders remains scant. To address this gap, we take a holistic perspective that draws on pertinent literature to ...

  3. Consumer acculturation of Latin American visitors in Taiwan : a study of food and clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Aihwa; Lee, Yi-Fan

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the factors influencing consumer acculturation of Latin American student visitors in Taiwan for the product categories of food and clothing. This research found: (1) some variables of acculturation influence, marketing practices, and situation factors are significantly related to consumer acculturation; (2) four acculturation patterns are discovered and they coincide with Berry's (1997) typology;(3) visitors do not travel in family units, hence their food habits ...

  4. Analysis of consumer behaviour when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Poměnková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is consumer behaviour analysis when purchasing selected commodity groups concerning the effect of price, habit, discount and product characteristics. Analysis proceed from the Czech household marketing research, where 726 households were electronically questioned. As mentioned above, selected factors for the analysis were habit, products‘ characteristics, price and discount actions.Primary aim is to measure the correspondence of selected factors influence on consumer behaviour during purchase decision making process of selected commodity groups. Interpretation is based on two-tier evaluation. First level represents commodity groups distinction by the character of goods and subsequent evaluation of goods characteristics correspondence in accordance with each influencing factor. Second one represents behaviour of commodity group in cross-section of selected factors. For consumer behaviour analysis chi-square test was used. Before its application the data set (responses was divided according to the ten-point scale into three interval’ groups.

  5. Product placement in video games: The effect of brand familiarity and repetition on consumers´ memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Bermejo Berros, Jesús; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Product placement in video games is gaining momentum as a means to target audiences in an indirect and engaging way. This research uses a 2 (high repetition vs low repetition) x 2 (high brand familiarity vs low brand familiarity) factorial design to test the effects of repetition and brand familiarity on consumers’ memory for brands placed in video games. Results suggest that consumers recall better familiar than unfamiliar brands placed in the video game and repetition increases recall for f...

  6. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  7. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory... have accepted the revised ASTM F963-11 standard titled, Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy Safety. Pursuant to section 106 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008, ASTM F963-11 will...

  8. Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation of donkey bresaola and salami: comparison with conventional products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R; Albenzio, M; Della Malva, A; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2015-03-01

    Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation were performed in bresaola and salami from donkey meat compared with respective conventional products. Donkey bresaola and salami showed higher content of protein and lower content of fat than beef bresaola and pork salami. Significant differences in the unsaturation level of fatty acids were found. Particularly, donkey meat products showed lower saturated fatty acids, higher polyunsatured fatty acid content and better nutritional indices than conventional beef bresaola and pork salami. Furthermore, donkey meat products, especially bresaola, showed the highest content of essential amino acids. Both donkey meat products resulted to be more tender than conventional products, in addition donkey bresaola showed also higher consumer acceptability. Our investigation demonstrates the possibility of processing donkey meat into products comparable to traditional ones with a high nutritional value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A review of models for near-field exposure pathways of chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    able to quantify the multiple transfers of chemicals from products used near-field to humans. The present review therefore aims at an in-depth overview of modeling approaches for near-field chemical release and human exposure pathways associated with consumer products. It focuses on lower......-tier, mechanistic models suitable for life cycle assessments (LCA), chemical alternative assessment (CAA) and high-throughput screening risk assessment (HTS). Chemicals in a product enter the near-field via a defined “compartment of entry”, are transformed or transferred to adjacent compartments, and eventually end......Exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been gaining increasing attention, with multiple studies showing that near-field exposures from products is high compared to far-field exposures. Regarding the numerous chemical-product combinations, there is a need for an overarching review of models...

  10. Population exposure resulting from the presence of radioactivity in consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.

    1978-01-01

    Population exposure to radiation resulting from the manufacture and use of consumer products has been the subject of a recent symposium and an NCRP report along with numerous papers and reports. This paper contains updated data on this subject and is based on the papers presented at a symposium entitled 'Public Health Aspects of Radioactivity in Consumer Products' in Atlanta, Georgia, February 2-4,1977. The paper concludes that the population exposure from consumer products is small but significant. A more important conclusion relates to large fluctuations in the exposure resulting from changes in the market, raw materials and regulations. Since this type of population exposure is unnecessary and proper data is not available to determine the population exposure, it is suggested by the authors that a monitoring program could be instituted to provide the necessary information. (author)

  11. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrgiakos, Leonidas

    2018-01-01

    In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years) regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France). Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries). Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly). Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old) have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries. PMID:29439536

  12. What Are the Main Drivers of Young Consumers Purchasing Traditional Food Products? European Field Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Vlontzos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the attitude of European young adults (age 18 to 30 years regarding their consumption of local and traditional products was examined. The survey was conducted on a sample of 836 consumers from seven European countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Denmark and France. Data collection was made by distributing a developed questionnaire through social media and university mail services. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was used to identify consumer perception comparing the overall sample with two subsets (consumers from Eastern and Western European countries. Six major factors were revealed: consumer behavior, uncertainty about health issues, cost, influence of media and friends and availability in store. Young adults had a positive attitude to local and traditional food products, but they expressed insecurity about health issues. Cost factor had less of an influence on interviewees from Eastern European countries than those from the overall sample (3rd and 5th factor accordingly. Influence of close environment was a different factor in Eastern countries compared to Western ones, for which it was common to see an influence from media. Females and older people (25–30 years old have fewer doubts about Traditional Food Products, while media have a high influence on consumers’ decisions. The aim of this survey was to identify the consumer profiles of young adults and create different promotion strategies of local and traditional products among the two groups of countries.

  13. The Effects of Advertising Strategies on Consumer Trust: A Case of Skin Care Products in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velly Anatasia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop advertising strategies in order to increase consumer trust. Four advertising elements: celebrity endorsement, branding, product attribute, and third party certification were investigated. Data were collected to answer two research questions: (1 To investigate the advertising strategies of skin care products leading to consumer trust, (2 To know the effects of advertising strategies in skin care products on consumer trust. A 5-point Likert scale survey was distributed to the female population in Taipei area. Via online and personal approaches, 266 questionnaires were returned. Targeting on 18-30 years old female skin care product users who stay in Taipei area more than six months, 240 qualified questionnaires were analyzed. The four independent variables are found having a significant relationship with trust in skin care advertising, in which branding has the greatest influence on increasing consumer trust. The control variable which is financial status is not found having statistically significant effect on consumer trust. To conclude, this study is dedicated to the communities in order to optimize their marketing strategies.

  14. Product quality : an investigation into the concept and how it is perceived by consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Steenkamp, J.B.E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of the present work are (1) to review the literature on product quality from different perspectives, (2) to develop a model that describes the way consumers form judgments about product quality, and (3) to investigate the proposed model empirically. In addition, price-perceived quality tradeoffs and the relationship between price and product quality in the marketplace are investigated. The main conclusions are summarized in this chapter.

    The concept o...

  15. Product involvement and consumer food-elicited emotional associations: Insights from emoji questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Lee, Pui-Yee; Ares, Gastón

    2018-04-01

    Individual differences in food-related consumer behaviour are well documented, but lack thorough exploration in relation to product-elicited emotional associations. In this research, focus is directed to product involvement as a factor that modulates emotional associations to tasted products (dried fruit, n = 4) and written descriptions of consumption situations (drinking red wine, cooking dinner using seafood). Emoji questionnaires were used (as check-all-that-apply questions: CATA), and across two studies with consumers in New Zealand (n = 352) and China (n = 450), higher levels of involvement were associated with more positive emotional associations. For example, consumers with higher involvement for dried fruit used emoji with positive meanings (e.g., face savouring delicious food (), smiling face with heart-shaped eyes () and smiling face with smiling eyes () more frequently than those with lower levels of involvement. Conversely, emoji with negative or neutral meanings (e.g., confused face (), confounded face (), neutral face ()), were more frequently used by consumers with lower levels of product involvement. The number of significant differences between the samples of dried fruit were lower in the less involved consumer segment, and these consumers, on average, used less emoji to characterise the samples. A similar pattern of results were established for the written stimuli, which were used with Chinese consumers. For example, in the segment with greater involvement with seafood, associations to emoji with positive meanings were higher when responding to the situation "cooking dinner using frozen seafood as one of the ingredients." In the case of "drinking French red wine," the strategy used to define segments (median vs. triadic split of summed involvement scores) additionally influenced the results, and bigger differences were established when comparing more discrete segments (two extreme groups following triadic split). Copyright © 2018

  16. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  17. Enhancing the economic value and consumer preferences of commercial mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather creative products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahubawa, L.; Pertiwiningrum, A.; Rahmadian, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The research objectives were to design, assess the economic value and consumer preference level of stingray leather products. The research method included a product design, analysis of economic value and consumer preferences. Mondol stingray (Himantura gerardi) leather, with a length of 50 cm and width of 30 cm, were processed into ID card wallet, man and women’s wallet and key holder. The number of respondents involved to analyze the preference level is 75 respondents (students, lecturers and employees of Universitas Gadjah Mada). Indicators of consumer preferences were model, color, price and purchasing power. The price of ID card wallet is Rp. 450,000; women wallet is Rp. 650,000 and a key holder is Rp. 300,000. Consumer preferences on ID card wallet were as follow: 84 % stated very interesting model; 83 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 53 % had enough. Consumer preferences of women’s wallet were as follow: 81 % stated very interesting model; 84 % stated very interesting color; 56 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough. Consumer preferences on key holder were as follow: 49 % stated interesting model; 72 % stated very interesting color; 61 % stated cheap and 57 % had enough.

  18. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  19. Which types of knowledge about organic products are consumers interested in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Povlsen, Karen Klitgaard

    2016-01-01

    interviews recruited among the survey participants. Our preliminary analysis indicated that a lot of people were interested in learning more about the difference between organic and non-organic production. We found that additional information about animal welfare, health, and general differences between...... their knowledge – and that knowledge concerning the values of the producer/seller might be just as important for consumers as specific knowledge concerning the production methods. An important next step will be to identify how to target interested consumers with the type of information they are motivated to take...

  20. Toward a sustainability label for food products: an analysis of experts' and consumers' acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Stéphanie V; Hansmann, Ralf; Scholz, Roland W

    2010-01-01

    The recent proliferation of standards and labels for organic, fair-trade, locally produced, and healthy food products risks creating confusion among consumers. This study presents a standardized approach to developing a comprehensive sustainability label that incorporates ecological, economic, and social values. The methodology is based on an extension of modular life-cycle assessment to non-environmental sustainability criteria. Interviews with a wide range of experts (n=65) and a consumer survey (n=233) were conducted to analyze the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the approach. Responses indicated that a comprehensive sustainability label could considerably influence consumption patterns and facilitate cross-product comparisons. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  1. Voluntary Certification of Agricultural Products in Competitive Markets: The Consideration of Boundedly Rational Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujin Pu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Market competition creates strategic incentives for firms to communicate private information about their own product quality through certification. Although voluntary certification has recently gained importance in the agricultural industry, information asymmetry is not always completely addressed. This study analyzes how the relative proportion of boundedly rational consumers in the market influences the effectiveness of voluntary certification mechanisms by using a duopoly game model of high- and low-quality firms. The presented results show that a change in the proportion of boundedly rational consumers leads to different certification behaviors and a different market equilibrium. We also find that the existence of boundedly rational consumers is an important factor in the failure of voluntary certification. Indeed, when the relative proportion of such consumers is very high, voluntary certification is ineffective at improving market efficiency.

  2. Trends and Gaps in Awareness of Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Tests From 2007 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apathy, Nate C; Menser, Terri; Keeran, Lindsay M; Ford, Eric W; Harle, Christopher A; Huerta, Timothy R

    2018-06-01

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests for inherited disease risks have gained recent approvals from the Food and Drug Administration, and interest in these tests has continued to grow. Broad use of these tests coupled with planning and discussion with health providers regarding genetic risks and potential protective behavior changes have been proposed as preventive tools to reduce health disparities and improve equity in health outcomes. However, awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing has historically demonstrated differences by education, income, and race; these disparities could jeopardize potential benefits by limiting access and use. The national survey data from the Health Information National Trends Survey was analyzed to understand how overall awareness of direct-to-consumer genetic testing and disparities in awareness across sociodemographic groups have changed since 2007. The findings showed persistent disparities, as well as a widening gap in awareness between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites (OR 2007 =1.52, OR 2014 =0.58, p change =0.0056), despite overall increases in awareness over time. Given these findings, policies regulating direct-to-consumer genetic tests should prioritize equitable distribution of benefits by including provisions that counteract prevailing disparities in awareness. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaporation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) from selected cosmetic products: Implications for consumer exposure modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; Garcia Hidalgo, Elena; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Consumer exposure to leave-on cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) ingredients of low or moderate volatility is often assumed to occur primarily via dermal absorption. In reality they may volatilize from skin and represent a significant source for inhalation exposure. Often, evaporation rates of pure substances from inert surfaces are used as a surrogate for evaporation from more complex product matrices. Also the influence of partitioning to skin is neglected and the resulting inaccuracies are not known. In this paper we describe a novel approach for measuring chemical evaporation rates from C&PCPs under realistic consumer exposure conditions. Series of experiments were carried out in a custom-made ventilated chamber fitted with a vapor trap to study the disposition of a volatile cosmetic ingredient, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), after its topical application on either aluminum foil or porcine skin in vitro. Single doses were applied neat and in commercial deodorant and face cream formulations at normal room (23°C) and skin temperature (32°C). The condition-specific evaporation rates were determined as the chemical mass loss per unit surface area at different time intervals over 1-1.25h post-dose. Product weight loss was monitored gravimetrically and the residual D5 concentrations were analyzed with GC/FID. The release of D5 from exposed surfaces of aluminum occurred very fast with mean rates of 0.029 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.060 mg cm(-2)min(-1) at 23°C and 32°C, respectively. Statistical analysis of experimental data confirmed a significant effect of cosmetic formulations on the evaporation of D5 with the largest effect (2-fold decrease of the evaporation rate) observed for the neat face cream pair at 32°C. The developed approach explicitly considers the initial penetration and evaporation of a substance from the Stratum Corneum and has the potential for application in dermal exposure modeling, product emission tests and the formulation of C

  4. Consumer knowledge, preference, and perceived quality of dried tomato products in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Oduro, Ibok; Tortoe, Charles; Saalia, Firibu K

    2017-05-01

    Postharvest losses (PHL) are incurred in the tomato value chain in Ghana and solar drying of tomato is a promising technology for reducing the loss. However, there are concerns on the usage, functionality and sensory appeal of the dried products to consumers, compounded with the lack of information and research on dried tomato processing in Ghana. A survey was carried out by administering semistructured questionnaires to 395 randomly selected and willing respondents in the Accra Metropolis. Information was obtained on the socioeconomic profile, consumption pattern, knowledge, and acceptance of tomato processing technologies and assessment of quality attributes important to consumers. Most consumers (74%) preferred tomato powder that is conveniently packaged to retain the characteristic intense taste and the flavor using Friedman's rank mean procedure. The study indicated that consumers were more concerned about good manufacturing practices during the production of solar-dried tomato (48.8%) rather than the quality attributes (8.6%). These findings indicate the need for safe solar drying procedures in order to increase consumer acceptability of solar-dried tomato products in Ghana.

  5. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor...... compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we...

  6. Consumer Preferences, Product Characteristics, and Potentially Allergenic Ingredients in Best-selling Moisturizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuai; Kwa, Michael; Lohman, Mary E; Evers-Meltzer, Rachel; Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2017-11-01

    Because moisturizer use is critical for the prevention and treatment of numerous dermatological conditions, patients frequently request product recommendations from dermatologists. To determine the product performance characteristics and ingredients of best-selling moisturizers. This cohort study involved publicly available data of the top 100 best-selling whole-body moisturizing products at 3 major online retailers (Amazon, Target, and Walmart). Products marketed for use on a specific body part (eg, face, hands, eyelids) were excluded. Pairwise comparisons of median price per ounce on the basis of marketing claims (eg, dermatologist recommended, fragrance free, hypoallergenic) and presence of ingredients represented in the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) series were conducted using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. The effect of vehicle type (eg, ointment, lotion, cream, butter) was assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Cross-reactors and botanicals for fragrances were derived from the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Contact Allergen Management Program database. A total of 174 unique best-selling moisturizer products were identified, constituting 109 713 reviews as of August 2016. The median price per ounce was $0.59 (range, $0.10-$9.51 per ounce) with a wide range (9400%). The most popular vehicles were lotions (102 [59%]), followed by creams (22 [13%]), oils (21 [12%]), butters (14 [8%]), and ointments (3 [2%]). Only 12% (n = 21) of best-selling moisturizer products were free of NACDG allergens. The 3 most common allergens were fragrance mix (n = 87), paraben mix (n = 75), and tocopherol (n = 74). Products with the claim "dermatologist recommended" had higher median price per ounce ($0.79; interquartile range [IQR], $0.56-$1.27) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR, $0.34-$0.92). Products with the claim "phthalate free" had higher median price per ounce ($1.38; IQR, $0.86-$1.63) than products without the claim ($0.59; IQR

  7. CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS AND PRODUCT PERFORMANCE: A STUDY OF NIGERIAN CONSUMER MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo OYENIYI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy has experienced increased launching of consumer products; this is occasioned by the level of competition in the country. As such consumers are exposed to large number of product-related communication messages in primetime television and newspaper content. One commonly strategy adopted by manufacturers of consumer products is the use of celebrity endorsement with it attendance cost and other risks. The main objective of this study is to establish if there is a relationship between brand positioning, purchasing decisions, brand equity and celebrity endorsement. A survey of 142 respondents was used and the data was analyzed with Structural Equation Model. The results indicate that trust, level of expertise and the fit between the celebrity and the product have positive impact on product performance. However, it was discovered that attractiveness of the celebrity and the similarities between the celebrity and the receiver has little effect on product performance. Therefore, organizations desirous of making use of celebrity in promoting their products should evaluate the attributes of the celebrities that will enhance product performance.

  8. Assessing consumer responses to potential reduced-exposure tobacco products: a review of tobacco industry and independent research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Vaughan W; Kreslake, Jennifer M; Cummings, K Michael; O'Connor, Richard J; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Parascandola, Mark; Shields, Peter G; Connolly, Gregory N

    2009-12-01

    Internal tobacco industry documents and the mainstream literature are reviewed to identify methods and measures for evaluating tobacco consumer response. The review aims to outline areas in which established methods exist, identify gaps in current methods for assessing consumer response, and consider how these methods might be applied to evaluate potentially reduced exposure tobacco products and new products. Internal industry research reviewed included published articles, manuscript drafts, presentations, protocols, and instruments relating to consumer response measures were identified and analyzed. Peer-reviewed research was identified using PubMed and Scopus. Industry research on consumer response focuses on product development and marketing. To develop and refine new products, the tobacco industry has developed notable strategies for assessing consumers' sensory and subjective responses to product design characteristics. Independent research is often conducted to gauge the likelihood of future product adoption by measuring consumers' risk perceptions, responses to product, and product acceptability. A model that conceptualizes consumer response as comprising the separate, but interacting, domains of product perceptions and response to product is outlined. Industry and independent research supports the dual domain model and provides a wide range of methods for assessment of the construct components of consumer response. Further research is needed to validate consumer response constructs, determine the relationship between consumer response and tobacco user behavior, and improve reliability of consumer response measures. Scientifically rigorous consumer response assessment methods will provide a needed empirical basis for future regulation of potentially reduced-exposure tobacco products and new products, to counteract tobacco industry influence on consumers, and enhance the public health.

  9. Consumer exposure to certain ingredients of cosmetic products: The case for tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Bernhard O

    2017-10-01

    Reliable exposure data are essential to evaluate the safety of ingredients in cosmetics. The study reported here was carried out on behalf of the Australian Tea Tree Industry Association in order to support safety assessment of TTO in consumer cosmetic products. Data regarding the use of TTO-containing cosmetic products were collected through a web-survey among 2535 qualified users of validated TTO-containing cosmetics in 5 European countries. Data regarding the percentage of TTO present in the individual products (TTO-inclusion) were collected from the suppliers of those products. Beyond TTO exposure-measures there were several significant findings: One is a special "TTO-effect" for several categories of TTO-containing cosmetic products showing a positive correlation between consumers' strength of TTO-orientation and frequency of product use, combined with a negative correlation between frequency of product use and amount of product used per application. Another is significant differences regarding the intensity of product use between TTO-containing cosmetics and respective types of products in general. Thus it seems not to be appropriate to evaluate the toxicological safety of certain ingredients of cosmetic products from exposure data on "generic" types of cosmetic products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sustainable sheep production and consumer preference trends: compatibilities, contradictions, and unresolved dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers' perception of protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, Gianna A; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers' everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products' life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products' perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat's environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Socioeconomic influences on the effects of a genetic testing direct-to-consumer marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, D J; Harris, J; Jorgensen, C M; Myers, M F; Kuniyuki, A

    2010-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer marketing of genetic tests is beginning to appear in select markets, and little independent evaluation has been conducted on the effects of this marketing on consumer attitudes or behavior. The purpose of this paper is to identify the effects of socioeconomic status on women's reactions to such a campaign, including knowledge of the test, perceptions of personal risk, communications with others about the test, and interest in pursuing the test. The only United States provider of genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1/2 testing) conducted a pilot marketing campaign that targeted women aged 25-54 and their health care providers in 2 cities, Atlanta, Ga., and Denver, Colo. The design for the evaluation was a post campaign consumer survey, based on a cross-sectional stratified random sample of women in the 2 intervention sites and 2 comparison sites. The campaign had no differential impact by socioeconomic status. However, there was a consistent relationship between socioeconomic status and several outcome variables, including knowledge of the test, beliefs about the test, and desire to know about genetic risk. These data indicate that socioeconomic status may play a role in uptake of genetic services, regardless of response to a media campaign. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparison of modeled estimates of inhalation exposure to aerosols during use of consumer spray products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihoon; Yoon, Chungsik; Lee, Kiyoung

    2018-05-30

    In the field of exposure science, various exposure assessment models have been developed to complement experimental measurements; however, few studies have been published on their validity. This study compares the estimated inhaled aerosol doses of several inhalation exposure models to experimental measurements of aerosols released from consumer spray products, and then compares deposited doses within different parts of the human respiratory tract according to deposition models. Exposure models, including the European Center for Ecotoxicology of Chemicals Targeted Risk Assessment (ECETOC TRA), the Consumer Exposure Model (CEM), SprayExpo, ConsExpo Web and ConsExpo Nano, were used to estimate the inhaled dose under various exposure scenarios, and modeled and experimental estimates were compared. The deposited dose in different respiratory regions was estimated using the International Commission on Radiological Protection model and multiple-path particle dosimetry models under the assumption of polydispersed particles. The modeled estimates of the inhaled doses were accurate in the short term, i.e., within 10 min of the initial spraying, with a differences from experimental estimates ranging from 0 to 73% among the models. However, the estimates for long-term exposure, i.e., exposure times of several hours, deviated significantly from the experimental estimates in the absence of ventilation. The differences between the experimental and modeled estimates of particle number and surface area were constant over time under ventilated conditions. ConsExpo Nano, as a nano-scale model, showed stable estimates of short-term exposure, with a difference from the experimental estimates of less than 60% for all metrics. The deposited particle estimates were similar among the deposition models, particularly in the nanoparticle range for the head airway and alveolar regions. In conclusion, the results showed that the inhalation exposure models tested in this study are suitable

  14. Internet-Based Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, Loredana; Rubinelli, Sara; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Gelatti, Umberto

    2015-12-14

    Direct-to-consumer genetic tests (DTC-GT) are easily purchased through the Internet, independent of a physician referral or approval for testing, allowing the retrieval of genetic information outside the clinical context. There is a broad debate about the testing validity, their impact on individuals, and what people know and perceive about them. The aim of this review was to collect evidence on DTC-GT from a comprehensive perspective that unravels the complexity of the phenomenon. A systematic search was carried out through PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Embase, in addition to Google Scholar according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist with the key term "Direct-to-consumer genetic test." In the final sample, 118 articles were identified. Articles were summarized in five categories according to their focus on (1) knowledge of, attitude toward use of, and perception of DTC-GT (n=37), (2) the impact of genetic risk information on users (n=37), (3) the opinion of health professionals (n=20), (4) the content of websites selling DTC-GT (n=16), and (5) the scientific evidence and clinical utility of the tests (n=14). Most of the articles analyzed the attitude, knowledge, and perception of DTC-GT, highlighting an interest in using DTC-GT, along with the need for a health care professional to help interpret the results. The articles investigating the content analysis of the websites selling these tests are in agreement that the information provided by the companies about genetic testing is not completely comprehensive for the consumer. Given that risk information can modify consumers' health behavior, there are surprisingly few studies carried out on actual consumers and they do not confirm the overall concerns on the possible impact of DTC-GT. Data from studies that investigate the quality of the tests offered confirm that they are not informative, have little predictive power, and do not measure genetic risk

  15. Characterization and prediction of chemical functions and weight fractions in consumer products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin K. Isaacs

    Full Text Available Assessing exposures from the thousands of chemicals in commerce requires quantitative information on the chemical constituents of consumer products. Unfortunately, gaps in available composition data prevent assessment of exposure to chemicals in many products. Here we propose filling these gaps via consideration of chemical functional role. We obtained function information for thousands of chemicals from public sources and used a clustering algorithm to assign chemicals into 35 harmonized function categories (e.g., plasticizers, antimicrobials, solvents. We combined these functions with weight fraction data for 4115 personal care products (PCPs to characterize the composition of 66 different product categories (e.g., shampoos. We analyzed the combined weight fraction/function dataset using machine learning techniques to develop quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR classifier models for 22 functions and for weight fraction, based on chemical-specific descriptors (including chemical properties. We applied these classifier models to a library of 10196 data-poor chemicals. Our predictions of chemical function and composition will inform exposure-based screening of chemicals in PCPs for combination with hazard data in risk-based evaluation frameworks. As new information becomes available, this approach can be applied to other classes of products and the chemicals they contain in order to provide essential consumer product data for use in exposure-based chemical prioritization. Keywords: Chemical function, Exposure modeling, Chemical prioritization, Consumer products, Cosmetics, ExpoCast

  16. Environmental policy and the energy efficiency of vertically differentiated consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzeskot, Magdalena; Haupt, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We analyse optimal environmental policies in a market that is vertically differentiated in terms of the energy efficiency of products. Considering energy taxes, subsidies to firms for investment in more eco-friendly products, and product standards, we are particularly interested in how distributional goals in addition to environmental goals shape the choice of policy instruments. We find that an industry-friendly government levies an energy tax to supplement a lax product standard, but shies away from subsidies to firms. By contrast, a consumer-friendly government relies heavily on a strict product standard and additionally implements a moderate subsidy to firms, but avoids energy taxes. - Highlights: ► We analyse how distributional goals shape environmental policy. ► Firms invest in the energy efficiency of their products and compete in prices. ► An industry-friendly government implements an energy tax and a lax product standard. ► A consumer-friendly government chooses a subsidy to firms instead of an energy tax. ► A consumer-friendly government implements a strict energy efficiency standard

  17. STUDY ON THE LEVEL OF CONFIDENCE THAT ROMANIAN CONSUMERS HAVE REGARDING THE ORGANIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis Alexandru BOZGA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is a domain that is growing rapidly both in Europe or worldwide and in Romania. However, there is a limited number of researches which, by the used methodology, are able to offer a definite and appropriate image of the Romanian market of organic products. In this respect, we considered as relevant to conduct certain market researches which can offer a wide image of the Romanian market of organic products. The present study aimed to briefly present some ideas learned from these researches concerning the level of confidence that the Romanian consumer has in organic products and the way in which the level of confidence may influence the purchasing behavior. Among the most important conclusions, it could be mentioned the low level of confidence that a large number of Romanian consumers has regarding the organic products, the decision to buy organic products is strongly influenced by the confidence expressed by the consumer, as well as the lack of confidence in organic products represents one of the main reasons for not buying it, in some cases being more important than the high price. After a deeper analysis, the final conclusion is that, at least partially, the low level of confidence in organic products is determined by the confusion and the low information level, on one hand, and by some producers' practices that so not seem to comply with the certification community norms.

  18. Quantitative concept tests of organic premium meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysochou , Polymeros; Krystallis Krontalis, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    This report is part of WP6 of the SUMMER project. The aim is to investigate how consumers perceive organic premium products and if they are willing to pay a price premium for these products. We conducted an experiment with 426 Danish consumers, in which we manipulate production method (organic vs. conventional), premium production (premium vs. non-premium) and extrinsic quality (high vs. low) across three meat products (pork, beef and chicken). Our findings show that consumers perceive organi...

  19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  20. IMPACT OF PROMOTIONAL STRATEGY ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Świątkowska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chain and market-oriented dairy sustainability, nutritional and social objectives related to the promotion of behaviours aimed at the development are essential. At the same time, the signifi cance of the various forms of sales promotion, as a factor of consumer buying behaviour infl uence, increases. The study includes the use of the sales promotion instruments in commercial space, perceived by consumers and assessment of their impact on purchasing decisions. The study was carried out on the basis of a standardized authoring individual interview questionnaire on nationwide random-quota, registered trials, in 2007–2012, as a part of the study of consumer behaviour performed in the dairy market for KZSM (National Association of Dairy Cooperatives. The results confi rm that the effect of promotion activities is a high visibility by consumers and change of their purchasing decisions. The most important determinant of consumer purchasing behaviour are the price promotions. Most often supported by a complete set of sales promotion instruments have been modern dairy products – yoghurt, grainy and ripening cheese. Sales promotion is an important instrument of balancing the dairy market and shaping the desired behaviour of consumers.