Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prove that profile of organic food consumers is dependent on their socio-demographic characteristics as well as to shape universal organic food consumer profile. The survey included 398 consumers in Serbia. Results indicate existence of typical consumer's profile. The findings could be generalized proving that socio-demographic profiles in a larger population are strictly related to the decision to utilize organic food. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes can help all of them to play more active role in this supply chain. It should stimulate the personalized approach to the particular groups of consumers based on socio-demographic characteristics in order to intensify consumption of organic food and to create different marketing plans dependent on the particular countries or areas.
Full Text Available The paper develops a study on the Romanians’ attitudes towards the organic wines. The analysis has been done in two stages – at a quantitative level and a qualitative one. The quantitative study has been done on a sample of 122 respondents – consumers and non-consumersin low percentage. The questionnaire investigated the general perception of wines, and included a dedicated section for the organic wines, addressed to the respondents aware of this product.The qualitative stage has been realized through a sensorial analysis, where three white wines and two red wines have been tasted by trained tasters. Among the five wines, one white – Chardonnay was organicwine. Both studies proved that the organic wine has a potential in Romania due to the sensorial qualities and people’s perception. However, the development of organic wine market won’t be a quick process and it will require first of all improving Romanians’ ‘organic’ culture.
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Jensen, Katherine
polarised. It can also be said to have matured insofar as positively oriented segments that differ in their food involvement, shopping behaviour and levels of ethical concern have appeared, while marketing and distribution strategies have co-developed with these trends. We discuss the current relevance......This study uses qualitative and quantitative data as well as household panel data regarding actual purchases of organic food in order to examine organic consumer profiles and recent developments of organic demand in Denmark. Six different segments of Danish households are identified, of which three...... of segmenting organic consumers in mature markets with a view to improving strategies of production, distribution and marketing of organic foods....
Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Daugbjerg, Carsten
A research analysis suggests that a state certification and labelling system creates confidence in organic labelling systems and consequently green consumerism. Danish consumers have higher levels of confidence in the labelling system than consumers in countries where the state plays a minor role in labelling and certification.
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Andersen, Laura Mørch; Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty
as positively oriented segments that differ in their food involvement, shopping behaviour and levels of ethical concern have appeared, while marketing and distribution strategies have co-developed with these trends. We discuss our findings in the light of the attitude-behaviour gap that is said to exist......This study uses qualitative and quantitative data as well as household panel data regarding actual purchases of organic food in order to make a psychographic profiling of organic consumers and examine recent developments of organic demand in Denmark. It is shown that contemporary organic consumers...... in regard to organic consumption and the consequences that are thought to follow from the detachment of consumers from organic producers according to the much debated conventionalisation thesis....
Scholderer, Joachim; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Bredahl, Lone
Previous research indicates that consumers expect substantially higher eating quality in pork that was produced in organic and free-range systems. Sensory studies and comparisons of objective quality suggest that these expectations are not completely realistic: in most cases, the performance...... of organic and free-range pork is equal to, and in some times even lower than that of conventional pork. However, consumers' expectations may be so strong that they may override differences in experienced quality. An experiment was conducted with 185 consumers to separate these effects and estimate...... were (a) organic pork, (b) free-range pork, (c) conventional pork, and (d) no information. Samples were prepared at a sensory lab following a standardised protocol. Serial positions of samples were counterbalanced across subjects. Before tasting each sample, consumers rated expected quality. After...
Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Johnson, Bradey; Cochran, Kerry; Hamilton, Lynn L.
This research shows that approximately 29 percent of lettuce purchases in California expect to purchase an organically grown lettuce product in the future. Organic lettuce purchasers are more likely to be female, have a higher household income and a higher level of education. Consumers are concerned with the freshness, quality, price, and environmental impact of the lettuce they purchase.
Huynh Thi, Ai Nhu
This thesis was a study on the topic of consumer behavior and attitude concerning organic food in Germany. The purpose of this research paper is to present an overall view of German organic food market and to discover consumer’s behavior and attitude towards organic food. In the process, the study sought to understand the main external and internal social factors that influence purchase behavior, consumer decision making process, and explore organic consumer profile. The result also prese...
Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug
This paper studies a Danish smart grid experiment, EcoGrid EU, designed to sustain the increase of wind power in the electricity system. EcoGrid EU is designed as a real-time market, through which engineers seek to realize price responsive electricity consumers through the introduction of smart...... meters, variable short-term price signals and training users. Based on observations and interviews with scientist, consumers and technicians, this paper analyses the attempt to produce a new kind of electricity consumer. Drawing on social studies of markets, we argue that the project entails constructing...... a new form of calculative agency. We illustrate the extensive work put into the creation of a new, reconfigured electricity consumer, as well as the challenges associated with the construction of consumers willing and able to act in accordance with the EcoGrid script. On one hand, this study adds...
Steinman, H A; Jobson, M R
The enormously profitable complementary medicines, dietary supplements and traditional medicines markets are largely unregulated internationally and South Africa. Attempts to ensure that consumers are not exposed to harmful or ineffective products have met with varying success around the world.
Bredahl, Lone; Thøgersen, John; Dean, Moira
associated with self-relevant consequences do not appear to discriminate clearly among segments, however. Generally, organic origin has significant links to personal values among segments of adventurous, enthusiastic, hedonistic and eco-healthy food consumers while it appears a dysfunctional means......This paper presents results of an empirical study conducted among European consumers to explore consumer knowledge structures with regard to organic foods and to identify the beliefs and the attribute-to-value chains that discriminate best among different consumer segments. Using means-end chain...... theory as the theoretical basis, the objectives of the study were met through carrying out laddering interviews with consumers in Germany, Great Britain, Denmark and Spain, using a Food-Related Lifestyle (FRL) segment-based approach and interviewing both organic and non-organic consumers. Respondents...
Hempel, Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich
The study deals with German consumers' attitudes towards organic food and local food, their food purchase behaviour and their personal characteristics. The purpose is to investigate the differences in attitudes and willingness-to-pay values between consumers who consider the organic production of food (very) important and those who consider it less important. This study combines a consumer survey with an in-store, discrete choice experiment. In the analysis, findings from the consumer survey were related to the choices made by consumers in the experiment. Consumers' preferences and willingness-to-pay values were estimated through random parameter logit modelling. Organic-minded consumers (i.e. those who regarded organic food production as (very) important in the survey) have stronger preferences and estimated willingness-to-pay values for organic as well as local products. Locally produced food, as opposed to food from neighbouring countries or non-EU countries, is preferred over organically produced food by both consumer groups which demonstrates that organic-minded consumers do not only consider organic food production as important, but also value local food production in a purchase situation. Hence, it can be assumed that local food production complements organic food production for the group of organic-minded consumers. This contribution is the first study dealing with local and organic food purchase behaviour in Germany that examines four different products and is carried out in rural as well as urban locations in four different regions. Due to the application of a choice experiment including no-choice options and binding purchase decisions, the results are expected to be closer to real purchase situations than results of direct questioning and choice experiments in online applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
About 35% of respondents agree that organic products have no harmful effect on the environment. Over 50% of the participants attested to having prior knowledge of organic farming and organic products, whilst 30.4% affirm to have consumed organic produce in the past. Overall, 77.1% of the respondents declared ...
Li, Xiufeng; Xin, Yazhi
Organic food has drawn attention of more and more consumers. As a result, many researchers have attempted to explain the motivations and marketing issues relevant to the topic. The previous studies provide some conflicting results and could not produce a comprehensive understanding of organic food consumers in China. Given the present research, this paper attempts to conduct a comprehensive study of organic food consumption by examining a variety of factors influencing the consumption of orga...
Jin; WANG; Pengcheng; LIU
Since the development of organic food,to a great extent,depends on the needs of consumers,the studies on the consumer behavior of organic food would have far-reaching significance to the development of the whole organic food industry. The recent studies in this field mainly include the following four aspects: the consumers’ recognition of organic food; the consumers’ attitude towards organic food; the consumers’ purchase of organic food; the consumers’ willingness to pay. The paper would review the recent domestic and foreign studies on the four aspects mentioned above,aiming to provide references to the researches in this field.
Shepherd, Richard; Magnusson, Maria; Sjödén, Per-Olow
There have been many studies of what influences consumers in their decisions to purchase or consume organic foods, mainly concerned with fresh organic foods. These show a discrepancy between attitudes and behavior with people being positive about organic foods but often not purchasing them. This discrepancy seems to be explained by the fact that consumers do not consider "organically produced" to be an important purchase criterion, that organic foods are not perceived to surpass conventional foods regarding taste and shelf life (two qualities rated to be of great importance), and because of the perceived premium prices of organic foods. In two Swedish studies, health benefits were demonstrated to be more strongly related to attitudes and behavior toward organic foods than were perceived environmental benefits. A new European Union (EU) project will investigate the influences on both fresh and processed organic foods and investigate the role of moral, ethical, and affective influences on choice across eight EU countries.
Van Loo, Ellen J; Diem, My Nguyen Hoang; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15% for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and marketing actions. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine a few factors characterizing consumer preferences and behavior towards organic food products in the south of Sweden using a proportional odds model which captures the natural ordering of dependent variables and any inherent nonlinearities. The findings show that consumer's choice for organic food depends on perceived benefits of organic food (environment, health, and quality and consumer's perception and attitudes towards labelling system, message framing, and local origin. In addition, high willingness to pay and income level will increase the probability to buy organic food, while the cultural differences and socio-demographic characteristics have no effect on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards organic food products. Policy implications are offered.
Yin, Shijiu; Wu, Linhai; Du, Lili; Chen, Mo
The global market for organic food has developed significantly in the past decade. The organic food industry in China is export oriented, with production growing rapidly, although the domestic market remains relatively small. This paper surveys 432 consumers from three cities in China, consequently establishing a logit model to analyse the main factors affecting consumers' choice for organic food. The result indicates that Chinese consumers' intent to purchase organic food is strongly affected by factors such as income, degree of trust in organic food, degree of acceptance of organic food price, and consumers' concern on self-health. This intent is only slightly affected by factors such as consumers' age, education level and concern about environmental protection. Based on the results, the following measures are recommended: reduce the cost of organic food through multiple channels to cut down the market price; establish and perfect the supervision system of organic food; and promote organic food through various channels. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the awareness, knowledge and consumers’ behavior towards organic vegetables in Cyprus. For this study, a deliberate sampling technique was used in order to identify a sample group of 180 consumers over the age of 18 years who indented or made purchases from 1 grocery stores; 2 street market; and, 3 supermarkets. A questionnaire was used for data collection across the country. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The results revealed that 99% of Cypriot consumers were aware of organic vegetables but only 69% and 49% of them consume or have knowledge of organically cultivated vegetables, respectively. According to Cypriots, organic vegetables are healthier, fresher and tastier than conventional vegetables. On the other hand, there appears to be a lack of knowledge about the stipulations of organic farming but consumers show great willingness not only to get properly informed via different means but to pay higher for organic vegetables. Concluding, consumers, organic farm holders and distributors should work together to create well-established strategies what will provide a better place in the market for organic products.
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research of organic food frequency of consumption (in general, conducted in Serbia in June 2013 (n=300. Respondents were classified into low-frequent organic food consumers' segment and high-frequent organic food consumers' segment. Socio-demographic characteristics of respondents were also investigated, thus allowing comparing two segments regarding consumers' profile. The organic food high-frequent consumers' segment consisted of more women, more educated people, more married respondents and respondents living with children and having larger households, as well as of consumers with higher self-assessed household income in comparison to organic food low-frequent consumers' segment. Having in mind the results of the research and the level of domestic market development when choosing which segment to target, as well as starting from understanding promotion in the context of integrated marketing communication and the means-end approach to consumer behavior, recommendations for organic food promotion were given.
Full Text Available The increasing consumer demand for organic products caused that the organic food market has expanded in all continents of the world. Organic foods represent a specific segment of the food market. Currently land area farmed organically in Slovakia represents 9% of the total agricultural land. In this work we identified organic foods purchase by Slovak consumers, the availability, reasons of purchase and quality assortment of organic foods at the Slovak market. Questionnaire survey involved 271 respondents. The Hierarchical multiple factor analysis was used for the segregation and classification of consumers into representative groups. The group of respondents was based on algorithms divided into three groups. In the first group of respondents, prevalent are responses that assortment is not sufficient and no answer, in the second group think that organic food assortment is not sufficient, and in the third group of respondents also dominates opinion that is not sufficient. At the question of organic food quality in all three groups is prevalent opinion that it is rather high, in the first group nearly the third of respondents considered the quality of organic foods as rather low, in the second group of respondents is rate: „rather low“ response and „rather high“ almost equal. In the third group of respondents strongly dominated response that the quality of organic food is rather high. Regarding the availability of organic products at the Slovak market, 16% of respondents considered it to be sufficient, 54% of consumers considered assortment as not enough available for all. We also analyzed the reasons of buying organic food. 42% of respondents reported that the main reason for buying organic food is a concern for the environment and landscape, 33% of respondents state it is a pleasure and the opportunity to try something unusual, 11% reported confidence in the quality of organic food and 7% their health care. Environmental education in
Full Text Available This is a treatise of consumer behaviour in the Czech foods market, respectively, organic food market. This concerns comprehensive analysis of consumer behaviour, which places great emphasis on the motivating factors and barriers, which substantially influence the individual consumers when deciding between conventional foods and organic foods and are operationally broken down into a set of empirical indicators. The database comes from a questionnaire survey to ascertain the trends in the development of the consumption of conventional foods and organic foods including the shopping behaviour of the individual consumers. The results of the questionnaire survey were evaluated by analysis of the qualitative features and other sophisticated statistical methods were also used. Based on the results obtained, the influence of the individual factors on the decision-making behaviour of the consumers when purchasing foods. The main factors that influence consumer behaviour were considered to be the income of the consumers, price of the foods, attitudes that influence the purchase of foods.
Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne
consumers’ value system? Further, what are the key motives for buying and consuming organic food products? A case study was undertaken. The unit of analysis constituted 12 high users of organic food products. The empirical data was gathered and analysed by utilizing Reynolds and Gutman’s laddering technique......Little is known about the underlying motivations for buying and consuming ethical, green and organic products. Thus, how can we understand this specific type of consumption? This paper aims to enlighten this knowledge gap. More specifically, how can we systematize and understand the political....... The results revealed that the purposive selected informants activate different cognitive structures (i.e. values) for identical attributes and consequences when buycotting organic food. Hence, some of the informants’ buycott organic food for personal well-being or for family related reasons (i.e. health...
Ščasný, Milan; Urban, Jan; Zvěřinová, Iva
The objective of this paper is twofold. First, the authors aim to analyse the factors that affect the intention of Czech consumers to purchase organic food using the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). Second, they employ an extended TPB model that introduces descriptive norms as an additional actor of behavioural intention. This study exploits data from a consumer survey of a sample of the Czech general adult population (N = 252) conducted in 2010. Structural equation modelling with an ML est...
Khan, Muhammed Zabiullah
Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2012 The purpose of this thesis is to examine the buying intention of the Norwegian consumers towards ecological or eco-labeled food products. What are the factors that are leading people to buy organic food and which one are the most important factors among consumers. The thesis is divided into four sections, Phenomena, Theory, Reality, and conclusion. Each section is interrelated with each other. In this thesis, data w...
Full Text Available Submitted paper deals with the consumers´ purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia, pointing at the situation on the organic food market in Slovakia finding the consumers' preferences when buying organic food. The results of the questionnaire survey identified the preferences and opinions of respondents about organic food. Paper analyses the questionnaire survey by 227 respondents concerning the purchasing preferences towards organic food in Slovakia. In order to achieve given aim and to ensure deeper analysis of the results, there had been stated 3 assumptions and 5 hypothesis. As the results of the survey proved, 65% of respondents buy organic food, of which 39% of respondents buy organic food at least once a week. Up to 98% of respondents have already met the concept of organic food and know what it means. 37 % of respondents buy mostly organic fruit and vegetables, 18% of respondents buy the most the meat and meat products in organic quality and 13% of respondents prefer dairy products in organic quality. The most preferred place to buy organic food are specialized stores (36 %,to buy organic food directly from the producer is the most popular way for 29 % of respondents, hypermarket and supermarkets are favorite place to buy organic food for 19% of respondents, and 12% of respondents buy organic food mostly in farmers´ markets. Only 4% of respondents prefer another way to buy organic food. Quality of organic food and not using the pesticides is the most important criteria for buying organic food (36%. Price has also really strong influence on purchasing decision, when 34% of respondents are the most affected by the price when purchasing organic food. Package is considered as the least important criteria when buying organic food by 72% of respondents. On the basis of provided results of our survey and formulated hypothesis which were evaluated by Chi-square goodness of fit test, Chi square test of the square contingency and
Seyed Abolhasan Sadati; Yaser Mohammadi
This study examined the beliefs and attitudes of customers into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)-model in predicting use intentions of organic foods. Customer intention was operationalised as a measure of the strength of one’s willingness to try to use. Questionnaire data were gathered from 154 consumers in Golestan province from Iran country. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling by AMOS software. The results of study showed that respondents believe that organic products ...
Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Nambiar, Padmanand Madhavan; Suh, Dong-Kyun
Differences in perception of organic and conventional foods matter to food suppliers and retailers. Using survey data collected from 1,100 female residents of seven urban centers in Korea this study applies the logit technique to identify consumer and household characteristics that influence the perception differences regarding six attributes. Results indicate the importance of household income with regard to organic food preference and the opposite effect of education. Perceptions also diffe...
Denver, Sigrid; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård
This study investigates organic consumers’ preferences for local production of apples. The analysis is based on a choice experiment among 637 Danish consumers used in combination with a principal component analysis of a set of opinion questions. The principal component analysis identifies two...
Annunziata, Azzurra; Angela, Mariani
Although sustainable food consumption is gaining growing importance on the international agenda, research on this subject is still quite fragmented and most studies analyse single aspects of sustainable food consumption with particular reference to environmental sustainability. In addition, the literature highlights the need to take account of the strong heterogeneity of consumers in studying sustainable behaviour. Identifying consumer segments with common profiles, needs and values is essential for developing effective communication strategies to promote sustainability in food consumption. Consumer segmentation based on the perception of the sustainability attributes of organic and local products was realized using descriptive data collected through a consumer online survey in southern Italy (Campania). K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify different consumer segments based on consumer perception of sustainable attributes in organic and local food. Results confirm the support of consumers for organic and local food as sustainable alternative in food choices even if occasional buying behaviour of these products still predominates. In addition, our results show that an egoistic approach prevails among consumers, who seem to attach more value to attributes related to quality and health than to environmental, social and economic sustainability. Segmentation proves the existence of three consumer segments that differ significantly in terms of perception of sustainability attributes: a large segment of individuals who seem more egocentric oriented, an environmental sustainability oriented segment and a small segment that includes sustainability oriented consumers. The existence of different levels of sensitivity to sustainability attributes in organic and local food among the identified segments could be duly considered by policy makers and other institutions in promoting sustainable consumption patterns. Consumers in the first cluster could be educated
Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available We investigate whether beer drinkers are willing to pay a price premium for organic beer compared to conventional beer. Moreover, we identify subgroups of consumers with different preference patterns by investigating whether specific personal characteristics of the purchasers have an influence on this willingness-to-pay. Specifically, results are reported from a survey including a stated choice experiment of consumer decisions concerning beer purchases in Flanders (Belgium, focusing on organic labels. A non-probabilistic sampling method was used over the Internet and 334 responses were useable for the empirical analysis. Each respondent was asked to choose their preferred beer from a series of nine choice cards describing three different beer varieties. In this respect, we created a two-block design, each consisting of nine choice cards. Each respondent was randomly presented with one of the two blocks, so that an equal distribution of the blocks could be obtained. Overall, we find that our sample is statistically indifferent between a beer with an organic label and a similar beer without an organic label. This is in line with previous research that stated that consumers are unwilling to pay high price premiums for organic vice products, such as beer. We find no statistically different preferences for male or female respondents, or for members or non-members of nature protection organizations. However, we find a significant difference (p-value = 0.029 between primary beer shoppers who have a zero willingness-to-pay (WTP for organic beer compared to similar non-organic beer and the reference group that has a negative WTP of 14 Euro per 1.5 L for organic beer. In addition, the WTP for beer drinkers older than 40 (negative WTP of 22 Euro per 1.5 L and the WTP for frequent beer drinkers (zero WTP are statistically different from the reference group (p-value = 0.019 and 0.000 respectively.
Van Loo, Ellen; Caputo, Vincenzina; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Meullenet, Jean-Francois; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C
Because of the growing consumers' interest in organic meat, consumers' (N = 976) attitude toward organic meat was evaluated. Most respondents (59%) occasionally purchased organic chicken. To determine the organic chicken consumer profile, the organic chicken consumption frequencies of different demographic groups were compared. The results show dependence on age (P= 0.039) and ethnicity (P = 0.015). Older respondents as well as respondents who identified themselves as Caucasians tended to buy organic chicken more frequently. However, many other socio-demographic factors were not correlated with organic chicken consumption: gender (P = 0.185), education (P = 0.235), household income (0.867), living with partner or not (P = 0.235), and number of children (P = 0.883). Taste was identified as the most important meat quality attribute (perceived as [very] important by 94% of the respondents). Other important meat quality criteria were: general appearance, overall health, price, nutritional value, and containing no medical residues. "Organically produced" appeared to not be that important compared with other criteria. When respondents bought organic chicken more often, the importance of most of the meat quality attributes shifted to higher levels of importance, except for the price where an adverse effect was shown. The main motivation factors to buy organic chicken were the perception that organic chicken has fewer residues (pesticides, hormones, antibiotics), is safer, and healthier. The high price for organic meats was the strongest limiting factor for organic meat purchases followed by poor availability. Approximately 41% of the non-buyers and 30% of the occasional buyers perceived organic meat as not or hardly likely to be available in their supermarket. This study obtained a better knowledge of consumers' attitudes and perception of organic chicken as well as the effect of various demographics on the likelihood of buying organic chicken. For marketing purposes of
Full Text Available Taking into consideration growing concerns about conventional agricultural practices, food safety, human health, animal welfare and the environment, the main goal of this paper is to identify the predictors of consumers' willingness to buy organic food and to pay a premium price for it. The research was conducted on a representative sample of respondents in the Republic of Croatia, a growing organic food market, using a highly structured questionnaire. Research results indicate that respondents in Croatia perceive organic food as more expensive, healthier and tastier than conventional food; also, they believe that the origin of organic food is strictly controlled. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicate that higher monthly household income predicts a greater willingness to pay (WTP a higher price for organic food compared to conventional food. Also, perception of organic food as healthier and tastier than conventional food predicts a greater WTP a higher price for organic food compared to conventional products. It is expected that research results will be useful for food retailers in their market communication strategies towards further development and overall growth of the organic food market in Croatia. This research is one of its kind as it captures WTP a premium price for organic food and identifies the main factors influencing WTP a premium price for organic food on the growing Croatian market.
A model of consumer decision-making and behaviour with regard to organic food is developed and applied on survey data from eight European countries. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries and are independent...... on the processing level of the product. However, whereas behavioural intentions are predictive of behaviour in the North, this is to a much lesser extend the case in the South of Europe. Policy implications and possible reasons for the difference between North and South are discussed....
Full Text Available One of the most important success factors in the organic food industry is the positive image that a significant number of customers attach to organic products in many countries, which includes the perception of healthiness and also sensory characteristics such as smell, texture or taste. Several papers have examined the effect of organic certification on consumer perceptions for many types of products from a number of perspectives. The present study aims to reveal the effect of organic (‘bio’ labels on customers’ evaluation of chocolates regarding five product attributes: fragrance, taste, healthiness, calorie content and price. The two research questions are: (1 ‘How do consumers modify their perceptions about a given chocolate after receiving information as to whether the given chocolate is an organic or a non-organic product?’ and (2 ‘How do consumers’ evaluations of organic and non-organic chocolates relative to each other change after it is revealed which ones have an organic certificate?’ To find the answers an experiment was conducted on a sample of 32 second year bachelor university students from the ‘Commerce and Marketing’ major. During the experiment the students tasted 4 dark (2 regular and 2 organic and 3 milk (2 regular and 1 organic chocolates in two phases. In the first phase they had no information as to whether organic products were involved in the experiment, but in the second the organic products were labelled. The students had to evaluate fragrance, taste, healthiness, and calorie content, and estimate the price in both phases. The results show that ‘organic’ labels can significantly modify consumers’ perception and evaluation of chocolates with every attribute for one or more of the chocolates. Labelling can also widen the perceived gap between organic and regular chocolates according to fragrance, healthiness, calorie content and price. However, changes were identified only in the case of
Andersen, Laura Mørch; Lund, Thomas Bøker
Purpose – This article aims to investigate how sub-markets with different degrees of maturity develop during a period of general organic growth, and how different consumer segments behave on these sub-markets. Design/methodology/approach – This paper uses actual purchasing behaviour of six consumer...... segments with different attitudes towards food in general, and organic production and products in particular. The data is from the Danish market for organic foods, which is one of the most mature markets in the world. Findings – The segmentation splits consumers into a positive and a non-positive half......, each half consisting of three different segments. The estimations show that the development in general organic consumption varies between segments, and that their behaviour varies between sub-markets. The positive half of the population has driven the overall growth in organic budget share...
Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide
In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively require...
Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The market of organic products around the world increased its volume in Central and Eastern Europe with organic food market has a number of shared features, which include the relatively low demand for organic food, low share of regular customers, the problems of producers marketing, the lack of enterprises which process organic products. Consumer behavior purchasing organic foods is influenced by several factors, among which is dominated consumer personality, income, finances and lifestyle, as well as psychological factors such as perception, motivation, learning, cognition and attitudes. Cultural and social factors in consumer behavior exhibit a lesser degree. Organic fruit and organic vegetables quality is generally higher for content of biologically active substances such as vitamins, polyphenols and flavonoids. The content of pesticide residues in organic food is significantly lower than conventional production. Regular monitoring of chemical and microbiological safety of organic products already in the primary production occurring in the raw state and after working in various sectors of food, an intensification of awareness raising and targeted increased support for organic agriculture. Multifunctional sector and increased support for family farms oriented for sectors with higher added value than the home sale, production processing on the farm and so on. By support of the sale of high quality domestic production by the state will be possible to persuade more people to personal health status and greater consumption of organic food affects the health and prevent the occurrence of various diseases.doi:10.5219/96
This study investigates the impact of economic and marketing variables ( quality, price, and distribution), emotions ( fear, empathy, and guilt), social norms, and environment-related variables ( environmental concern, green behaviour, and perceived consumer effectiveness) on Dutch consumers'
Gracia, A.; de Magistris, T.
The aim of this paper is to explain factors that influence organic food purchases of urban consumers in the South of Italy. To achieve this goal, a multivariate limited dependent variable model has been specified to simultaneously analyse consumers’ organic food purchases, the intention to purchase organic food products and the level of organic knowledge. This study uses survey data gathered from 200 consumers in Naples in 2003. Results indicate that consumers who are more willing to buy orga...
Brown, Louis Davis; Townley, Greg
Mental health consumer-run organizations (CROs) are a low-cost, evidence-based strategy for promoting recovery. To increase CRO utilization, characteristics that promote engagement need to be identified and encouraged. The study examined individual and organizational characteristics that predict three types of engagement in CROs-attendance, leadership involvement, and socially supportive involvement. Surveys were administered to 250 CRO members attending 20 CROs. Leaders of each CRO reported organizational characteristics through a separate questionnaire. Multilevel regression models examined relationships between predictors and indicators of CRO engagement. Perceived sense of community was the only characteristic that predicted attendance, leadership involvement, and socially supportive involvement (p<.001). Perceived organizational empowerment, shared leadership, peer counseling, and several demographic characteristics also predicted some measures of engagement. CROs that can effectively promote sense of community, organizational empowerment, shared leadership, and peer counseling may be better able to engage participants. The discussion considers several strategies to enhance these characteristics, such as collectively establishing values and practicing shared decision making.
and vegetables mainly influences the probability of a consumer entering the organic market, not the quantities consumed by households that are already active on the organic market. ‘Positive’ information that links health and the consumption of organic food influences both steps of the decision process. Our...
Anastasiadis, F.; Dam, van Y.K.
Supply chain management refers to the efficient integration of various processes involved in turning resources into consumer products. Effectiveness of the supply chain is more easily understood in terms of Value Chain Management, and the integration of processes that turn resources into consumer
Feldmann , Corinna; Hamm, Ulrich
The purpose of this paper is to get a deeper insight into consumer preferences for different food products varying in their places of origin (i.e. local, Germany, neighbouring country, non-EU country) and production practices (i.e. organic vs. non-organic). Therefore, consumer surveys combined with choice experiments were conducted with 641 consumers in eight supermarkets in different parts of Germany. Multinomial and mixed logit models were estimated to draw conclusions on the preference str...
A. V. Markeeva
Full Text Available T his article deals with transformation of consumer practices, which become (and maybe have already turned into the dominated form of social behavior and cannot be described within the model of purposeful-rational action. Utilizing the analytical distinction between “doing shopping” as routine practice, related to satisfaction of basic needs, and “going shopping” as pleasure and leasuretime social activity, this article demonstrates series of changes, resulting in generation of new consumer culture. These changes are compared with a range of transfigurations of the consumers’ spaces (trade spaces, which are at once places (scenes, where consumer practices deploy, and the structural condition of their possibility. According to the logic of the modern man, his focus on fast and diverse consumption and his desire of consuming everything in one place, “in one bottle” on the run, the shopping spaces are becoming the center of new industries-cultural, educational, recreational. The modern retail spaces become not only a place of shopping, but also closely incorporate into the social life of the community and turn into the centers of social life. Effectively combining and managing the various scenarios of consumption, the modern retail helps to feel and join the happiness of live communication in the overbounded with the online social contacts, but atomized world, to get rid of the feeling of emotional emptiness. Special design of retail space and the integration of various social technologies, which are created for manipulating the emotional sphere of the customers (non-standard architectural solutions, catchy window dressing, interior design, background music, aromamarketing, psychologically adjusted range of color, taste and tactile solutions create a special entertainment and attraction of space, control the consumer and are ready not only to stimulate the purchase, but to form an unforgettable impressions. P roducers and retailers
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Maroschek, Nicole; Hamm, Ulrich
consumer purchase motives in common. Organic food and functional food are, however, often described as contradictory rather than complementary in amongst others the concept of health. Functional food tends to be perceived as ‘unnatural’ by consumers. So far, it has not been researched how consumers react...... to a combination of both product concepts. A realistically designed purchase simulation was conducted with 210 organic consumers in Germany. Five organic products in three different categories were offered, unobtrusively altered so that they showed a nutrition, health or risk reduction claim on two products...
Aarset, Bernt; Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Bigne, Enrique
authorities considered. Focus groups in five countries (UK, Germany, Spain, Norway and France) consisting of 196 participants showed that most consumers are confused about the meaning of the term organic and are largely unaware of the organic certification and labelling process. Many consumers were unsure......, even sceptical about the concept of organic farmed salmon and display a large amount of distrust in the regulatory process. The implications for the concept of organic food and salmon production and directions for further research are discussed....
Hansen, Torben; Ingerslev Sørensen, Maria; Riwerts Eriksen, Marie-Louise
This study develops a baseline model specifying expected relationships between consumer motivations (health, environmental, and social consciousness), organic food identity, and organic food behavior. Based on an online survey of 1176 Danish food consumers, we investigate whether...... to change is low, health consciousness has a positive effect on intentional organic food behavior through organic food identity, whereas social consciousness has a negative effect on intentional organic food behavior through organic food identity. Our results provide guidance to those seeking to segment...... organic food markets based on consumers’ motivations and values....
Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Valli, Enrico; Cezanne, Marie Louise; Buchecker, Kirsten; Canavari, Maurizio
The sensory properties of food products are an important success factor, especially in the organic market, where many producers and distributors of organic food claim superior taste for their products compared to the conventional alternative. For this reason consumer expectations and preferences, as well as the sensory properties of conventional and organic yogurt, have to be investigated in depth. In this work, the sensory profiling and consumer data of six nonflavored organic and conventional Italian yogurts were elaborated. Some results on the data segmentation (heavy and light users of organic food) and on the effect of information on liking (blind and labeled test) were obtained. Multivariate analysis was carried out to study how the sensory characteristics of 'natural yogurts' drive consumer liking. Consumers' preferences were oriented towards a creamy mouthfeel and smooth visual appearance and for a less acid and fresh taste. In particular, a conventional yogurt was the least accepted, because it was not creamy enough. This paper shows there is room to improve unflavored yogurt to better meet consumer expectations. Sensory profiling did not allow a distinction in odor/taste/texture between organic and conventional samples. However, three of four organic samples were in the region of highest consumer acceptability, fitting well consumers' preference. There was no clear tendency that heavy or light users scored differently in the blind and labeled tests regarding overall liking but, for all, the most liked conventional yogurt scored higher when labeled as organic. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John
Consumer evaluation of imported organic food products in emerging economies in Asia Introduction Consumers in emerging economies such as Thailand and China have started to demand organic food products – mainly due to food safety reasons (Ortega, Wang, Wu, & Hong, 2015; Roitner-Schobesberger, Darnhofer, Somsook, & Vogl, 2008; C. L. Wang, Li, Barnes, & Ahn, 2012; O. Wang, De Steur, Gellynck, & Verbeke, 2015). However, since the domestic organic markets are still not well-establi...
Hoppe, Alexia; Vieira, Luciana Marques; Barcellos, Marcia Dutra de
The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental...
Heerkens, Jasper; Tuyttens, Frank
A major reason for increased societal popularity of organic production systems is the growing general discontent with intensive farming practices. However, urbanization leads to limited knowledge of farming and farm animal welfare. Consumers believe organic farming leads to better animal welfare, although most health and welfare issues seen in conventional systems are also found in organic poultry systems. The majority of consumers do not translate attitude and good intention into action, the...
Research has revealed that organic consumers share beliefs about positive health effects, environmentally friendly production and better taste of organic food. Yet, very little is known about the decisions of organic consumers in post-socialist countries with emerging organic food markets. In order to examine this area a representative data set (N=1054) from the Czech Republic was used. Target group of the study has become the Czech consumers that purchase organic food on regular basis. The consumers' behaviour was conceptualised with the use of the theory of planned behaviour (ToPB). Firstly, the ToPB model was tested, and secondly, belief-based factors that influence the decisions and behaviour of consumers were explored. The theory proved able to predict and explain the behaviour of Czech organic consumers. The best predictors of the intention to purchase organic food are attitudes towards the behaviour and subjective norms. Decisive positions in consumers' beliefs have product- and process-based qualities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socio-demographic variable and attitudes of respondents from Serbia and Croatia towards organic food. Consumers around the world have a positive attitude towards organic food without particular differences between various socio-demographic variables. However, the level of organic food consumption is low - organic farming covers 1% of agricultural land. High price and low income of respondents represent the basic limiting factors. The economic factor is especially important for the markets of Serbia and Croatia. Also, a lack of information and trust in the organic production and organic certificates constitute part of the decision in purchase. Therefore, manufactures of organic products needs marketing activities to build a recognizable brand and develop trust among consumers. Also, consumers have shown a high degree of self-awareness in making decisions about the purchase of organic products, which makes brand communication at the point of sale very important.
Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin
This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... and appearance of the products, the price and information level....
Verhoef, Peter C.; van Doorn, Jenny
Using actual purchase data of food products with different labels, we examine Dutch consumers' purchases of organic, fair-trade, and health labels. Empirically, consumers' purchase behavior of labeled products can be categorized into two dimensions: a health-related and a sustainable dimension
Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fenger, Morten H. J.; Thøgersen, John
registered transactions over 20 months from 8,704 randomly selected customers with a loyalty card are analyzed using a hidden Markov model, capturing the dynamics in consumers’ purchases. The model identifies latent states representing identifiable, accessible, and actionable dynamic customer segments...... and it captures the movements between states or segments. A pattern emerges which is consistent with the theory of behavioral spillover and inconsistent with the theory of moral licensing, including a tendency to buy organic products in an increasing number of product categories over time. The order in which...... organic products are adopted is inversely related to the behavioral costs of adopting them. The employed approach provides a firm basis for personalized communication aiming to increase cross-selling of organic products, increase the sale of less popular organic products, and to accelerate movements from...
The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yadav, Rambalak; Pathak, Govind Swaroop
The present study attempts to investigate the consumer's intention to purchase organic food in the context of a developing nation (India) using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Further, the study has incorporated additional constructs (moral attitude, health consciousness and environmental concern) in the TPB and measured its appropriateness. Responses were collected from 220 young consumers adopting convenience sampling approach. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to evaluate the strength of relationship between the constructs. The findings reported that the TPB partially supported the organic food purchase intention. Among the additional constructs incorporated, moral attitude and health consciousness positively influenced the consumer's intention to purchase organic food. The study has supported the inclusion of new constructs in the TPB as it has improved the predictive power of the proposed framework in determining consumer's intention to purchase organic food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim
scales (three items each) assessed the importance of organic foods, healthiness, freshness, novelty, and the price/quality relation to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate...... that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy/unprocessed foods, organic foods, and fresh foods has been declining in all three countries since the early 1990s. The pattern suggests that the actual consumer trend to organic foods already peaked several years ago......Sales of organic foods have tremendously increased over the last years. The conclusion seems obvious: European consumers have become more health-conscious. Or have they? In fact, it is not quite clear from previous research whether rising market shares reflect changes in consumer attitudes, changes...
Brunsø, Karen; Scholderer, Joachim
scales (three items each) assessed the importance of organic foods, healthiness, freshness, novelty, and the price/quality relation to consumers' food choices. Trends in the importance of these aspects were modeled using multi-sample confirmatory factor analysis with structured means. Results indicate...... that, contrary to widespread expectations, the importance of healthy/unprocessed foods, organic foods, and fresh foods has been declining in all three countries since the early 1990s. The pattern suggests that the actual consumer trend to organic foods already peaked several years ago......Sales of organic foods have tremendously increased over the last years. The conclusion seems obvious: European consumers have become more health-conscious. Or have they? In fact, it is not quite clear from previous research whether rising market shares reflect changes in consumer attitudes, changes...
Organic food is produced in a way that reduces harm to the environment and respects the welfare of farm animals. Hence, buying organic food seems to be an act of ethical and environmentally responsible consumer behavior. However, it is often claimed that consumers really buy organic food...... is analyzing how the purchase of organic food relates to the individual consumer's value priorities, using a comprehensive measurement instrument for values. Following this line of reasoning, the objective of the empirical part of the paper is to answer the question whether buying organic food is related...... to selfish (self-enhancement) or unselfish (self-transcendence) values? A survey study is reported based on representative samples of 1,000 respondents from each of eight European countries. It is found that the purchase of organic food is more strongly and consistently related to self-transcendence values...
Full Text Available Background: The results of the research conducted in March 2009 on a representative sample of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia using a highly structured survey questionnaire in households have shown that the majority of the respondents (76.6% are familiar with organic food. In the survey, special emphasis is put on the purchase of organic food, especially among regular buyers. Methods: Regular buyers were asked about their familiarity with the information on the organic food declaration and their trust in the reliability of the information on the organic food declaration. Furthermore, research explored respondents' familiarity with the label organic product of Croatia according to frequency of organic food purchase. Also, research explored consumer trust in organic food monitoring and control system in Croatia. Results and conclusions: The research gives insight into familiarity with measures for organic food consumer protection in Croatia and recommendations for organic food legislation bodies.
Nielsen, Niels Asger
) no information. Before tasting each sample, consumers rated expected quality. After tasting each sample, consumers rated experienced quality on four dimensions (including taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability) as well as willingness to pay. Highly significant differences were found between......Previous research indicates that consumers expect substantially higher eating quality in pork that was produced in organic and free-range systems. Sensory studies and comparisons of objective quality suggest that these expectations are not completely realistic: in most cases, the performance...... of organic and free-range pork is equal to, and in some times even lower than that of conventional pork. However, consumers' expectations may be strong enough to override differences in experienced quality. In an experiment with 185 consumers, each participant tasted eight pork chop samples that varied...
Hasimu, Huliyeti; Marchesini, Sergio; Canavari, Maurizio
Despite some similarities with developed countries, the growth of organic market in China seems to follow a different path. Thus, important questions are how Chinese urban consumers perceive organic food, and what are the main concepts associated to the organic attribute. We aimed at representing in graphic form the network of mental associations with the organic concept. We used an adapted version of the "Brand concept mapping" method to acquire, process, and draw individual concept networks perceived by 50 organic food consumers in Shanghai. We then analyzed the data using network and cluster analysis to create aggregated maps for two distinct groups of consumers. Similarly to their peers in developed countries, Chinese consumers perceive organic food as healthy, safe and expensive. However, organic is not necessarily synonymous with natural produce in China, also due to a translation of the term that conveys the idea of a "technology advanced" product. Organic overlaps with the green food label in terms of image and positioning in the market, since they are easily associated and often confused. The two groups we identified show clear differences in the way the organic concept is associated to other concepts and features. The study provides useful information for practitioners: marketers of organic products in China should invest in communication to emphasize the differences with Green Food products and they should consider the possibility of segmenting organic consumers; Chinese policy makers should consider implementing information campaigns aimed at achieving a better understanding of the features of these quality labels among consumers. For researchers, the study confirms that the BCM method is effective and its integration with network and cluster analysis improves the interpretation of individual and aggregated maps. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saleem, Bilal; Recker, Alena
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different types of consumer knowledge and values on their attitude towards buying organic personal care products and their purchase intentions of organic personal care products. The aim was to make a theoretical contribution to the research area of consumer behaviour in the context of organic products. As no research had been conducted on how different types of consumers’ knowledge affect their attitudes towards buying organic products an...
von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; von der Wense, Vera; Padilla Bravo, Carlos; Spiller, Achim
Although the organic food sector has been the subject of research for around 20 years, little is known about consumer behaviour when comparing developed and emerging organic food markets using causal research models. Thus, by developing a behavioural model based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this research article is to investigate the main determinants of organic food consumption in a mature (Germany) and an emerging (Chile) organic market. Subjects aged 18 or above wer...
Bunte, F.H.J.; Galen, van M.A.; Kuiper, W.E.; Bakker, J.H.
This report determines how sensitive consumer demand for organic products is to changes in the prices of organic products. The report is based on the analysis of scanner data for supermarkets in ten Dutch communities. In the framework of the analysis, an experiment has been performed in which the
Dacinia Crina Petrescu
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scientific evidence on the perceptions of organic food is based on a probabilistic survey. The results indicate an environmental consciousness of organic food consumers in North-Western Region of Romania in terms of organic food: a high percentage of consumers believe that organic food is healthier than conventional food (87% and that it contributes to environmental protection more than conventional food (75%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 was observed between people with higher education and those without higher education concerning the following beliefs: belief that most people consume organic products because they are in fashion, and belief that organic food contributes to environmental protection.
Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur
Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are
Brown, Louis D.; Shepherd, Matthew D.; Wituk, Scott A.; Meissen, Greg
Self-help initiatives stand as a classic context for organizational studies in community psychology. Behavior setting theory stands as a classic conception of organizations and the environment. This study explores both, applying behavior setting theory to consumer-run organizations (CROs). Analysis of multiple data sets from all CROs in Kansas…
Based on a survey in eight European countries, a model of consumer decision making and behaviour with regard to organic food is presented as well as comparative results. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries...
Based on a survey in eight European countries, a model of consumer decision making and behaviour with regard to organic food is presented as well as comparative results. It is found that the reasons given and the reasoning behind choosing organic products are quite similar across countries...
This Factsheet summarises the findings of the Taylor Nelson Sofres report: ‘Organic Food: Understanding the Consumer and Increasing Sales’. Issues covered are retail sales, market trends, household spending, marketing recommendations and a list of marketing support contacts for Welsh organic businesses.
Bosona, Techane; Gebresenbet, Girma
Consumers' demand for locally produced and organic foods has increased in Sweden. This paper presents the results obtained from the analysis of data acquired from 100 consumers in Sweden who participated in an online survey during March to June 2016. The objective was to identify consumers' demand in relation to organic food and sustainable food production, and to understand how the consumers evaluate food quality and make buying decisions. Qualitative descriptions, descriptive statistics and Pearson's Chi-square test (with alpha value of p price were found to be relatively less important parameters. Food buying decisions and food quality were found to be highly related with Pearson's correlation coefficient of r = 0.99.
Tanenbaum, Sandra J
This research compares two types of consumer organizations in one state in order to explore the significance of organizational independence for internal structure/operations and external relationships. The first type, consumeroperated service organizations (COSOs), are independent and fully self-governing; the second are peer-support service organizations (PSSOs), which are part of larger non-consumer entities. Mail surveys were completed by COSO and PSSO directors of a geographically representative sample of organizations; telephone interviews were conducted with a sub-sample. Owing to small sample size, matched COSO-PSSO pairs were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. COSOs and PSSOs are similar in some ways, e.g., types of services provided, but significantly different on internal variables, such as budget size, and external variables, such as number of relationships with community groups. Organizational independence appears to be a significant characteristic for consumer service organizations and should be encouraged by funders and among participants. Funders might establish administrative and/or programmatic measures to support consumer organizations that are independent or moving toward independence; their participants would also benefit from the provision, by authorities or advocates, of materials to guide organizations toward, for example, 501(c)3 status.
Wiedmann, Klaus-Peter; Hennigs, Nadine; Behrens, Stefan Henrik; Klarmann, Christiane
Purpose: There is empirical evidence that the image of organic products has a stronger effect on consumer perception than the intrinsic characteristics. Against this background, the aim of this paper is twofold; first, to ascertain if the stimulus "organic food", placed by storytelling, influences the perception of wine. Based on this, the study tries to discover wherein a positive perception of organic wine might be reflected (e.g. willingness to pay premium prices, better taste perception)....
Dacinia Crina Petrescu; Ruxandra Malina Petrescu-Mag
The main purpose of this paper is to explore consumers’ perceptions of organic food and examine whether organic food products are perceived in the North-West Region of Romania as offering health and environmental benefits or as simply another sine qua non condition to be integrated into the luxurious yuppie lifestyle. The inspiration for our study came from witnessing the stereotypical image of organic food consumers as “stylish, trendy, fancy consumers” in the last three to five years. Scien...
García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J
This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental friendly, although being less attractive and more expensive than conventional food. Respondents from the farmers' market represent a specific segment whose values are more oriented toward society. The findings showed an alignment between positive attitude and consumption behaviour among the surveyed consumers. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes more valued by consumers can help retailers to play the role of coordinators of this supply chain, stimulating producers to adhere to organic certification, helping them to upgrade their production practices and improve their income. Consumers are also benefiting from this offer in the market.
Sergio Silva Braga Junior
Full Text Available To evaluate the relationship between attributes of lifestyle and consumption of organic products in specialty retail, this research sought to understand who the consumer of organic products in specialty retail. To serve this purpose, a field survey of qualitative and quantitative nature was conducted with a sample of 60 subjects covered at the time of purchase at a grocery store specializing in organic products in the city of São Paulo/SP. To justify the sample size G*Power 3.1.7 software with the specifications recommended in the literature. The collected sample was sufficient to detect the desired effects of Structural Equation Modeling with Partial Least Squares Method (Partial Least Square - PLS. As a result it was observed that consumers of organic produce state to adopt a healthy lifestyle and attributed the following determinants for buying organic produce factors: the quality and the benefits that accrue to the same health.
Christensen, Tove; Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Povlsen, Karen Klitgaard
interviews recruited among the survey participants. Our preliminary analysis indicated that a lot of people were interested in learning more about the difference between organic and non-organic production. We found that additional information about animal welfare, health, and general differences between...... their knowledge – and that knowledge concerning the values of the producer/seller might be just as important for consumers as specific knowledge concerning the production methods. An important next step will be to identify how to target interested consumers with the type of information they are motivated to take...
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Mørkbak, Morten Raun
that although both organic and local food supply chains are often associated with special attributes such as gastronomic characteristics and relatively beneficial externality attributes, these attributes are perceived differently for the two types of supply chains. Perceived gastronomic quality is the most....... An internet questionnaire survey was conducted in 2010 among Danish consumers. 3.211 respondents completed the questionnaire, which included questions about respondents' food-related values and their specific perception of organic and local varieties of honey and apples. Variables related to consumers' food...
Narcis Alexandru BOZGA
Full Text Available Organic agriculture is a domain that is growing rapidly both in Europe or worldwide and in Romania. However, there is a limited number of researches which, by the used methodology, are able to offer a definite and appropriate image of the Romanian market of organic products. In this respect, we considered as relevant to conduct certain market researches which can offer a wide image of the Romanian market of organic products. The present study aimed to briefly present some ideas learned from these researches concerning the level of confidence that the Romanian consumer has in organic products and the way in which the level of confidence may influence the purchasing behavior. Among the most important conclusions, it could be mentioned the low level of confidence that a large number of Romanian consumers has regarding the organic products, the decision to buy organic products is strongly influenced by the confidence expressed by the consumer, as well as the lack of confidence in organic products represents one of the main reasons for not buying it, in some cases being more important than the high price. After a deeper analysis, the final conclusion is that, at least partially, the low level of confidence in organic products is determined by the confusion and the low information level, on one hand, and by some producers' practices that so not seem to comply with the certification community norms.
Full Text Available In developed countries, the demand for organic food has seen a significant increase in the past decade. However, the organic food market in Serbia is still in its infancy and can be considered an emerging market. By gaining an understanding of consumer behavior on the Serbian market, it is possible to provide a greater consumption of organic food per capita through an appropriate marketing approach, as well as quicker development of the national market. This paper will outline some of the most significant findings obtained from a quantitative study of the population of Serbia in the role of buyers and potential buyers of organic food. How much knowledge respondents have about organic food was also studied and presented here, as was the socio-demographic profile of the consumers as an important determinant of organic food consumption. In addition, we also analyzed consumer behavior when buying organic food from the standpoint of basic instruments of the marketing mix: the product, the price, marketing communication (promotion and marketing channels (place. The obtained results were explained in relation to the theoretical knowledge obtained from previous studies carried out on various national markets. Based on these findings, a solid foundation for the development of effective marketing strategies was obtained.
Reid, Paulette; Borycki, Elizabeth M
Healthcare consumers are increasingly seeking reliable forms of health information on the Internet that can be used to support health related decision-making. Frameworks that have been developed and tested in the field of health informatics have attempted to describe the effects of the Internet upon the health care consumer and physician relationship. More recently, health care organizations are responding by providing information such as hospital wait lists or strategies for self-managing disease, and this information is being provided on organizational web-sites. The authors of this paper propose that current conceptualizations of the relationship between the Internet, physicians and patients are limited from a consumer informatics perspective and may need to be extended to include healthcare organizations.
Thøgersen, John; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Perin, Marcelo Gattermann
and conclusions are limited by the covered countries and products. Practical implications: Key consumer value propositions with respect to organic food seem cross-culturally valid and universally accepted by a segment of customers that share these values. Hence, organic food can be mar-keted globally based...... on a universal set of key value propositions. The same could be true for other global prod-ucts sharing similar types of certifiable value propositions. Social implications: New insights of value for the cross-cultural marketing of “green” and ethical consumer prod-ucts. Originality/value: Fills a gap...... in research regarding the extent to which consumer purchase motives are culture bound or determined by the characteristics of the product....
Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng
Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey...
Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng
Little research has been published on Chinese consumer-citizens’ adoption of or willingness to adopt sustainable lifestyle elements. A case in point is organic food – a more sustainable alternative to conventional food. Organic food is a Western invention. However, organic food products are now...... available in upscale supermarkets in East and South-east China metropolises such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou. This paper reports the results of a study investigating what motivates early adopters of organic food in China. The data were collected in Guangzhou by means of a mallintercept survey...
Napolitano, Fabio; Braghieri, Ada; Piasentier, Edi; Favotto, Saida; Naspetti, Simona; Zanoli, Raffaele
The present study aimed to assess the effect of information about organic production on Pecorino cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay. Mean scores of perceived liking were similar for organic cheese (OC) and conventional cheese (CC). Expected liking scores were higher for OC than for CC (Pexpected liking was significantly higher (Pexpected liking was significantly lower (Pexpectations, as the difference actual vs. perceived liking was significant (Pexpected liking was significant (Ppay OC (mean+/-se=4.20+/-0.13 euro/100 g) higher than the local retail price for conventional (1.90 euro/100 g) and even organic cheese (3.00 euro/100 g). We conclude that the information about organic farming can be a major determinant of cheese liking and consumer willingness to pay, thus providing a potential tool for product differentiation, particularly for small scale and traditional farms.
Smed, Sinne; Andersen, Laura Mørch
of consuming conventional vegetables on demand for organic foods for six different segments of Danish households. Three of these segments are positive towards organics whereas the remaining three segments are negative or indifferent. Using the double hurdle model we estimate partial effects of both directly...... and indirectly obtained information as well as prices. The results show, that there are larger effects of information for households where the information is in accordance with initial knowledge and attitudes, hence the positive segments react more to information whereas the negative segments react more......Based on a unique and very detailed panel dataset covering consumption of organically and conventionally produced vegetables in the years 2005 - 2007, we examine the effects of information about positive health effects of consuming organic vegetables and information about negative health effects...
Alina-Aida Drăgan; Dacinia-Crina Petrescu
The aim of this pilot study is to outline consumers’ profile in terms of their interest in organic, natural and conventional skin care, their knowledge about these products and the differences between them, their opinion regarding the performance and price of organic skin care in relation to conventional skin care. The survey used a self-administered questionnaire and was conducted on a sample of 86 customers from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The results indicate that consumers who pu...
Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2011 The purpose of the thesis is to investigate intention to buy organic food. The aim is to examine which determinants influence the intention to buy organic food among consumers in the Czech Republic. Moreover, the study focuses to find out which determinant influences consumers’ intention the most. Based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and literature review a conceptual model was proposed. The model ...
Delnoij, D.M.J.; Hendriks, M.; Brouwer, W.; Spreeuwenberg, P.
Background: Competition on the insurance market assumes that insurance organizations differ in what they offer, that the consumers of insurance products perceive differences, and that information about differences is available in a transparent way. With the introduction of the insurance reform in
Wunderlich, Shahla; Gatto, Kelsey A
Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have been available for commercial purchase since the 1990s, allowing producers to increase crop yields through bioengineering that creates herbicide-resistant and insect-resistant varieties. However, consumer knowledge about GMOs has not increased at the same rate as the adoption of GMO crops. Consumers worldwide are displaying limited understanding, misconceptions, and even unfamiliarity with GMO food products. Many consumers report that they receive information about GMO food products from the media, Internet, and other news sources. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts. Although many in the United States support mandatory GMO labeling (similar to current European standards), consumer awareness of current GMO labeling is low. A distinction must also be made between GMO familiarity and scientific understanding, because those who are more familiar with it tend to be more resistant to bioengineering, whereas those with higher scientific knowledge scores tend to have less negative attitudes toward GMOs. This brings to question the relation between scientific literacy, sources of information, and overall consumer knowledge and perception of GMO foods. PMID:26567205
Full Text Available Consumers are increasingly more interested in the issues associated with high-quality food (organic food; consequently, the number of organic farms and commercial establishments which off er organic products with quality certifi cates is growing. Podkarpackie voivodeship, thanks to certain advantages, is a favorable place for the development of organic farming. For the needs of this research, a survey was conducted in spring 2015 among 137 inhabitants of Rzeszów and the surrounding areas who declared to be consumers of organic food. An analysis of the results provides the conclusion that organic products are very positively evaluated by the respondents, since in their opinion they have a great impact on their health, which is the main reason for purchasing them. Sales and consumption growth of organic foods can be achieved by intensive advertising using the latest methods and techniques, as well as by educating society. These activities should be particularly targeted at the inhabitants of mediumsized towns, and a convincing argument should be made to draw attention to the ingredients in organic food.
Scholz, Brett; Bocking, Julia; Happell, Brenda
Stigmatizing views towards consumers may be held even by those working within mental health organizations. Contemporary mental health policies require organizations to work collaboratively with consumers in producing and delivering services. Using social exchange theory, which emphasises mutual exchange to maximise benefits in partnership, the current study explores the perspectives of those working within organizations that have some level of consumer leadership. Interviews were conducted with 14 participants from a range of mental health organizations. Data were transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analytic and discursive psychological techniques. Findings suggest stigma is still prevalent even in organizations that have consumers in leadership positions, and consumers are often perceived as less able to work in mental health organizations than non-consumers. Several discourses challenged such a view - showing how consumers bring value to mental health organizations through their expertise in the mental health system, and their ability to provide safety and support to other consumers. Through a social exchange theory lens, the authors call for organizations to challenge stigma and promote the value that consumers can bring to maximize mutual benefits. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Adamsen, Jannie Mia; Lyons, Kristen; Winzar, Hume
Organic food is claimed to be one of the fastest growing food categories worldwide, with growth rates of 20-30%. There have been considerable research efforts globally seeking to understand the organic food consumer. To date, academic research has been unable to reach a consensus, and we remain i...... as a methodological framework to guide research about organic purchasing decisions. The Best Worst scaling method avoids issues related to Socially Desirable Responding; a known effect of using the ever-popular Likert scale....
Full Text Available In the past few decades, the market for organic food has developed well in Western European countries and comparable markets like the United States or Canada. While these markets are now approaching market saturation, other markets still have huge potential for growth and are therefore of special interest to export companies. In this paper, we analyze the demands, knowledge, and expectations of the emerging market in Russia. It is well documented that the Russian market for organic food has had a much higher growth rate than Western markets in recent years. According to the USDA, the Russian market grew significantly during the last years. The increase might also be due to changes in Russian consumers’ behavior. However, some challenges must be considered when entering the Russian market with premium products: (1 a large number of low‐income consumers are not able topay for premium products, and (2 up until now, there have been no official organic labels available in Russia, and, therefore, it is likely that the Russian population lacks knowledge of what organic food is and which requirements are connected to the organic production process. Considering these restrictions, we analyzed important factors affecting Russian consumers’ food choice on the one hand and their knowledge of organic food on the other. This paper presents results for one specific product (organic potatoes, which can be considered to be a typical alternative to low‐priced, conventional products. A conjoint analysis was conducted in Saint Petersburg (n = 300 to investigate the importance of the buying attributes of organic potatoes. While the results are not representative of the whole Russian market, they show crucial differences in consumer attitudes compared to Western markets and confirm that the average consumer knowledge about this product category remains low. These findings offer valuable information to those stakeholders of the supply chain who want to enter a
Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos
From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.
Thøgersen, John; Pedersen, Susanne; Paternoga, Maria
preferences and choices. In general, COO seems to lose impact when other quality cues are salient. This suggests a lower impact of COO for organic than for conventional food products. However, there is still no research on the possible impact of organic labelling in categories where products from a foreign......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on the country-of-origin (COO) effect in the context of organic food and develop suggestions for further research in this area. Research has investigated COO effects and consumer responses to organic food, but there is little research...... on the combination of the two. Design/methodology/approach – A narrative review of two research streams and their intersection, forming the basis for the development of a research agenda. Findings – There are few studies analysing the possible interaction between the effects of organic and COO on consumers’ food...
Full Text Available The positive image of organic products among consumers has grown gradually. Today, this image is based on a number of researches and studies conducted by specialized government bodies and private organizations and research institutes that show that these products offer, in terms of their nutritional profile, a high intake of nutrients with positive impact on health. Consumers also know that operators who produce and sell such products are subject to rigorous regulations for obtaining the organic certificate and the right to use the organic logo and are regularly monitored by inspection and certification bodies in this regard – facts that increase the new generation of consumers’ confidence in the quality and safety of these products. Having the aim of highlighting the decisive factors which contribute to the creation of a positive image for the ecological foodstuff among consumers and in order to understand the real motivations of the decisional process of buying these products, an exploring marketing research was realized among the new generation of consumers. Another aim of the investigation is the identification of some problems connected with a possible unbalanced nutritional profile of some ecological products commercialized in Romania and whose consumption may be inadequate for a diet and, implicitly, for some consumers’ health, especially for those having certain food restrictions caused by nutritional diseases from which they suffer. In this regard, we are going to analyse, from a scientific point of view, the nutritional profile of some ecological foodstuff found on the market in Romania, using an accredited and standardized method within the European Union- the SAIN-LIM method. Thereby, the paper aims to highlight the antithesis between the formal positive consumer perception and the nutritional profile of some organic products on the Romanian market. Through this endeavour we intend to draw attention on the need of adopting a
Mellin, Matthias; Spiller, Achim; Zühlsdorf, Anke
The importance of direct marketing for high quality farm products has increased in the last few years. This paper analyses the impact of customer satisfaction and its driving forces for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and is based on a customer survey in 30 organic and conventional on-farm stores in Germany. The results emphasize the role of the store atmosphere and customer service as the main influencing factors on customer satisfaction.
Annunziata, Azzurra; Pascale, Paola
Over the last decade consumers’ health consciousness is becoming an important factor driving the agrofood market. Healthier food products have entered the global markets with force in the past years and rapidly gained market share. Consequently, the food industry has reacted to this trend by developing a growing variety of new products with health-related claims and images, including organic and functional foods that are selected by consumers for their health-promoting properties. Currently, ...
Full Text Available Organic farming and organic food are terms that attract the attention of not only farmers, but also economists. It is paper, which could address many consumers in the future. A healthier way of life is becoming more and more popular. This paper primarily aims to collect basic knowledge of organic farming, organic food and its labelling. Furthermore, according to conducted marketing research (1.289 respondents were addressed in questionnaire survey, it is aim to characterize the factors that influence respondents when buying organic food. Based on the results of research another goal is to identify the main factors that could make the younger generation of Czechs buy organic food more frequently. Then according to the statistical data processing this paper aims to formulate recommendations to producers and traders of organic products to entice young people to become customers of this article for many years. Next goal is to compare the results with some other European countries. Interesting relationship between frequency of organic food purchases and other indicators will be assessed by using analysis of contingency tables. An intention is also to identify the target group for marketing strategies. What the respondents most often link with various organic labelling will be identified by using correspondence analysis of monitored data and better flows of information will be proposed.It is clear from the research that organic food is most often bought by women and respondents with higher level of household life. It is purchased mainly fruit and vegetables, as well as dairy products. Respondents mostly make their purchases of organic food in hypermarkets and supermarkets. In addition to the primary reason of disinterest in buying organic food, which is the price, respondents also don’t believe that organic food is better than conventional food and it is not attractive for them.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate consumers' decision-making process, attitudes and values towards organic food throughout the employment of the Theory of Planned Behaviour, adapting the methodology from a European project. 450 consumers were interviewed at supermarkets and farmers' markets in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Results indicate a high penetration level and very positive attitude towards organic products. Organics are believed to be healthier, tastier, more natural and environmental friendly, although being less attractive and more expensive than conventional food. Respondents from the farmers' market represent a specific segment whose values are more oriented toward society. The findings showed an alignment between positive attitude and consumption behaviour among the surveyed consumers. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes more valued by consumers can help retailers to play the role of coordinators of this supply chain, stimulating producers to adhere to organic certification, helping them to upgrade their production practices and improve their income. Consumers are also benefiting from this offer in the market.O estudo investiga o processo de tomada de decisão dos consumidores, suas atitudes e valores em relação ao alimento orgânico pelo uso da Teoria do Comportamento Planejado, adaptando a metodologia de um estudo da União Europeia. Foram entrevistados 450 consumidores em supermercados e feiras ecológicas em Porto Alegre, Brasil. Os resultados indicam um grande nível de penetração e uma atitude muito positiva em relação aos produtos orgânicos. Os entrevistados acreditam que os alimentos orgânicos são mais saudáveis, saborosos, mais naturais e ambientalmente corretos, apesar de serem menos atraentes visualmente e mais caros que alimentos convencionais. Os respondentes das feiras ecológicas representam um segmento específico com valores mais orientados
Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G
This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The interest in sustainable products has increased along the years, since the choice of products, packaging and production processes have a great impact on the environment. These products are classified by regulatory agencies in different categories, aggregating advantages to the product and increasing the demand by consumers. However, there is no harmonization in guidelines of these certifying agencies and each cosmetic industry formulates their product and packaging in a more rational way, which causes less damage to the environment. Many cosmetic products have in their formulation natural products that perform a specific biological function, but these products should be evaluated on efficacy and toxicological aspects. The aim of this article is to approach sustainability, natural and organic cosmetics, considering the consumer and the efficacy, toxicological and regulatory aspects.
Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; van Dongen, Martien Cjm; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel
To find out how the consumption of organic food during pregnancy is associated with consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes. Cross-sectional description of consumer characteristics, dietary patterns and macro- and micronutrient intakes associated with consumption of organic food during pregnancy. Healthy, pregnant women recruited to a prospective cohort study at midwives' practices in the southern part of the Netherlands; to enrich the study with participants adhering to alternative lifestyles, pregnant women were recruited through various specific channels. Participants who filled in questionnaires on food frequency in gestational week 34 (n 2786). Participant groups were defined based on the share of organic products within various food types. Consumers of organic food more often adhere to specific lifestyle rules, such as vegetarianism or anthroposophy, than do participants who consume conventional food only (reference group). Consumption of organic food is associated with food patterns comprising more products of vegetable origin (soya/vegetarian products, vegetables, cereal products, bread, fruits, and legumes) and fewer animal products (milk and meat), sugar and potatoes than consumed in conventional diets. These differences translate into distinct intakes of macro- and micronutrients, including higher retinol, carotene, tocopherol and folate intakes, lower intakes of vitamin D and B12 and specific types of trans-fatty acids in the organic groups. These differences are seen even in groups with low consumption of organic food. Various consumer characteristics, specific dietary patterns and types of food intake are associated with the consumption of organic food during pregnancy.
Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.
Full Text Available Albania has potential for developing the organic agriculture sector; however, it is a new industry and constraints abound including lack of consumer preferences information for organic food. Knowledge on consumer preferences and behaviour toward organic (bio products is crucial for market development benefiting potential entrepreneurs and government policies. They need to know the preference for preferred product attributes and willingness to pay. Tomato, which is the most important vegetable in terms of consumption and production in Albania, is the subject of this study. A conjoint choice experiment with the most important product attributes: production type (bio vs. conventional, production system (open field vs. greenhouse, origin and price were used to design the choice surveys. Four distinct classes have been identified as significant using latent class analysis. The classes are summarized as: bio-ready consumers, price sensitive consumers, variety seeking consumers and quality seeking consumers. Origin played a small influence on preference. Education and income did show some influence on preference for organic tomatoes. Although the organic food market in Albania is in its infancy stage, organic tomatoes are clearly preferred and many consumers are willing to pay a premium price.
Cooper, S D; Raymer, J H; Pellizzari, E D; Thomas, K W
Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor environment has received substantial research attention in the past several years, with the goal of better understanding the impact of such exposures on human health and well-being. Many VOCs can arise from consumer products used within the indoor environment. The VOCs emitted from five representative consumer products were collected onto Tenax-GC and subjected to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography, in combination with low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), high-resolution MS, and matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for structural characterization. An emphasis was placed on the polar organic compounds often used to provide fragrance in these products. The structures of a number of these compounds were confirmed, and an electronic literature search was carried out on them to determine any known toxic properties. The search revealed that many of the VOCs possess toxic properties when studied at acute, relatively high-level exposures. In addition, toxic effects were reported for a few of the chemicals, such as benzaldehyde, alpha-terpineol, benzyl acetate, and ethanol, at relatively low dose levels of 9-14 mg/kg. In general, the data were unclear as to the effect of chronic, low-level exposures. The widespread use of such chemicals suggests that the health effects of chronic exposures need to be determined. Validated analytical methods for the quantitative characterization of polar organic compounds at low concentrations will be required to make such work possible.
Jonge, de J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Renes, R.J.; Frewer, L.J.
This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and
Arp, Kirsten; Wegner, Karin
Consumer confidence is a very important basis for further development of the Organic Food Sector worldwide. But consumer confidence can be destroyed through (Organic) food crisis or scandals. That is why it is very important to be prepared as an individual company and as the sector as a whole. Crisis management like a crisis plan and issue management can minimize the reputational and financial damage.
Funk, Michelle; Minoletti, Alberto; Drew, Natalie; Taylor, Jacob; Saraceno, Benedetto
The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health. The mental health advocacy movement has developed over the last 30 years as a means of combating stigma and prejudice against people with mental disorders and improving services. Consumer and family organizations and related NGOs have been able to influence governments on mental health policies and laws and educating the public on social integration of people with mental disorders. Governments can promote the development of a strong mental health advocacy sector without compromising this sector's independence. For instance, they can publish and distribute a directory of mental health advocacy groups, include them in their mental health activities and help fledgling groups become more established. There are also some advocacy functions that government officials can, and indeed, should perform themselves. Officials in the ministry of health can persuade officials in other branches of government to make mental health more of a priority, support advocacy activities with both general health workers and mental health workers and carry out public information campaigns about mental disorders and how to maintain good mental health. In conclusion, the World Health Organization believes mental health advocacy is one of the pillars to improve mental health care and the human rights of people with mental disorders. It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will help government officials and activists to strengthen national advocacy movements.
Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA
The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...
Napolitano, F; Castellini, C; Naspetti, S; Piasentier, E; Girolami, A; Braghieri, A
Conventional chicken from a fast-growing strain (CC), organic chicken from a slow-growing strain (OSG), and organic chicken from a fast-growing strain (OFG) were used to assess descriptive sensory differences between organic and conventional breasts, to verify whether differences were perceived by consumers and to evaluate the effect of information about organic production on liking. A conventional quantitative-descriptive analysis was performed by a trained panel of 10 members on breast slices (1 cm thick) grilled at 300°C. A 150-member consumer panel (from southern, central, and northern Italy) rated CC, OSG, and OFG breasts according to 3 types of evaluation: tasting without information (perceived liking), information without tasting (expected liking), and tasting with information (actual liking). Breasts from different sources were clearly discriminated by the trained panel as meat from CC was perceived more tender than OFG (P consumers for perceived liking. However, consumer expected liking scores were higher for organic than for conventional products (P consumers were not. However, consumer liking was markedly affected by the information given on the organic production system, thus providing a tool to differentiate the product in an increasingly competitive market.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine attitudes and perceptions about organic cotton of Mississippi cotton growers and producers in comparison to fashion-conscious consumers, including advantages/disadvantages of growing and production processes, quality control, consumer preferences, and competitive price structures/profit margins. A sample size of 16 local Mississippi growers and/or producers and 44 undergraduate students at a mid-major Southeastern university were chosen to participate in the study. Instruments were developed based on current research and the definition of organic cotton production defined by the United States Department of Agriculture. Results indicate 75% of growers and producers do not perceive a quality difference between organic and conventionally grown cotton, while 72.7% of the consumers report organically grown cotton is capable of producing a higher quality product compared to conventionally grown cotton. Even with an increase in organic cotton prices (25- 40% higher premium, only 25% of growers and producers would be willing to convert, while a majority (52.3% of consumers would not be willing to spend more than 25% extra for an organically grown cotton product. Consumers indicate the negative effects of conventionally grown cotton, yet many report little knowledge about organic cotton production, while growers/producers immediately dismiss organically grown cotton as a retail marketing strategy.
The objective of this research was to study the variables affecting the consumer attitude to buy organic food that in turn affects the purchasing intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used to explain this. The study variables include health consciousness, environmental consciousness, organic food price, attitude, subjective norm, intentions to purchase organic food and gender. Survey method was used, with the sample containing 200 respondents intending to purchase organic food in Su...
Gracia Royo, Azucena; Magistris, Tiziana de; Barreiro Hurlé, Jesús
The behavior of the consumer for organic products has been largely explored in the academic literature, based both on actual and intended purchases. In Mediterranean Europe (mainly Italy, Spain and Greece) studies have shown that attitudes towards organic food, importance attached to different organic food attributes (human health, safety, etc.) and consumers’ concerns towards the environment are the most important factors that explain consumers’ organic food purchase decisions...
Full Text Available This article deals with evaluation of consumer data by Artificial Intelligence methods. In methodical part there are described learning algorithms for Kohonen maps on the principle of supervised learning, unsupervised learning and semi-supervised learning. The principles of supervised learning and unsupervised learning are compared. On base of binding conditions of these principles there is pointed out an advantage of semi-supervised learning. Three algorithms are described for the semi-supervised learning: label propagation, self-training and co-training. Especially usage of co-training in Kohonen map learning seems to be promising point of other research. In concrete application of Kohonen neural network on consumer’s expense the unsupervised learning method has been chosen – the self-organization. So the features of data are evaluated by clustering method called Kohonen maps. These input data represents consumer expenses of households in countries of European union and are characterised by 12-dimension vector according to commodity classification. The data are evaluated in several years, so we can see their distribution, similarity or dissimilarity and also their evolution. In the article we discus other usage of this method for this type of data and also comparison of our results with results reached by hierarchical cluster analysis.
Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja
Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship among sustainable practices, social contribution and purchase intention. The study was conducted using content analyses by reviewing articles on sustainable food service practices published domestically and abroad. Thereafter, data were collected with a face-to-face survey using a questionnaire and analyzed with factor analyses and multiple regressions. Sustainable practices classified with factor analysis consisted of 6 dimensions of green food material procurement, sustainable food preparation, green packaging, preservation of energy, waste management, and public relations on green activity, with a total of 25 green activities in foodservice operations. Consumers were not very familiar with the green activities implemented in the foodservice unit, with the lowest awareness of "green food material procurement (2.46 out of 5 points)", and the highest awareness of "green packaging (3.74)" and "waste management (3.28). The factors influencing the perception of social contribution by foodservice organizations among 6 sustainable practice dimensions were found to be public relations on green activity (β = 0.154), waste management (β = 0.204) and sustainable food preparation (β = 0.183). Green packaging (β = 0.107) and the social contribution of the foodservice organization (β = 0.761) had strong relationships with the image of the organization. The purchase intentions of customers was affected only by the foodservice image (β = 0.775). The results of this study suggest that sustainable practices by
Kamonthip Maichum; Surakiat Parichatnon; Ke-Chung Peng
Organic foods are gaining popularity around the world and consumers of organic foods are on the rise. However information on the consumer behavior towards purchasing organic foods in developing countries such as Thailand is lacking. In this study we develop an extended theory of planned behavior TPB research model that incorporates organic knowledge to investigate consumers consumption intention and behavior towards organic food. We derived and examined the model through structural equation m...
van den Dungen, Myrthe W; Kok, Dieuwertje E; Polder, Anuschka; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Leeuwen, Stefan P J; Steegenga, Wilma T; Kampman, Ellen; Murk, Albertinka J
Globally, many river sediments are seriously contaminated with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) known to accumulate in aquatic food. In the Netherlands, toxicological risks of human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds led to a ban on eel fishing in the Rhine-Meuse delta. The aim of this study is to investigate differences in serum POP levels in consumers of eel from high-polluted areas and consumers of eel from low-polluted areas or aquaculture. In total 80 Dutch men were included, aged 40-70 years, with a habitual eel consumption of at least one portion (150 g) per month. Total levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds were measured in serum of all participants with the DR CALUX bioassay, validated with GC-MS. For a subgroup of 38 participants extensive POP measurements were performed. We revealed that consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in 2.5 and up to 10 times increased levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) respectively compared to controls. The highest PCB levels were detected for PCB 153, with a median level of 896 ng/g lipid and a maximum level of 5000 ng/g lipid in the high-exposed group. Furthermore, hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs: sum of 4-OH-CB107, 4-OH-CB146, 4'-OH-CB172, and 4-OH-CB187) were 8 times higher in men who consumed eel from polluted areas, and detected at levels (median 4.5 ng/g ww) reported to cause adverse health effects. Also, the majority of the perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were significantly higher in consumers of eel from pullulated areas. In conclusion, this study is the first to reveal that (past) consumption of eel from polluted rivers resulted in high body burdens of dioxins, PCBs, OH-PCBs and PFASs. We confirmed the predictions made in a former risk assessment, and the high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds as well as the OH-PCBs are of health concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework. Deliverable: D 2.7 Public report about first round qualitative consumer research and market needs
Stolz, Hanna; Schmid, Otto
This survey of consumers’ perceptions and expectations regarding organic wine and viticulture in the selected case study countries of Italy (IT), France (FR), Germany (DE) and Switzerland (CH) was conducted within the framework of the EU research project ORWINE (Organic viticulture and wine-making: development of environment and consumer friendly technologies for organic wine quality improvement and scientifically based legislative framework). The objectives of the study were to investigat...
Asioli, Daniele; Canavari, Maurizio; Pignatti, Erika; Obermowe, Tim; Sidali, Katia Laura; Vogt, Christine; Spiller, Achim
The organic food market grew steadily during the past decade (Hamm and Gronefeld 2004, Spiller 2006). This increase is accompanied by challenges in market structures, distribution channels as well as differentiation of expectations and buying motives of organic food consumers. On this regard, the “hedonistic” motives for purchasing of organic food, that also include sensory features like taste or appearance, gained importance in comparison to other motivations. Therefore, some scientists poin...
Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
The dietary and health traits of organic food (OF) consumers have not been comprehensively described. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with OF consumption. Data were collected from 54 283 participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort using self-administered web-based questionnaires. Occasional organic food consumers and regular organic food consumers (ROFC) were compared with non-organic food consumers (NOFC) using logistical regression providing an OR and 95 % CI. Adherence to the French food-based guidelines and interactions between nutritional knowledge and OF consumption in adherence to dietary guidelines were investigated. Medical history was also assessed in relation to OF consumption. Compared with NOFC, ROFC were more likely to be vegetarian (OR 9·93; 95 % CI 7·42, 13·29 in women; OR 13·07; CI 7·00, 24·41 in men) and were less likely to be aware of nutritional guidelines regarding meat consumption (OR 0·37; CI 0·34, 0·40 in women; OR 0·41; CI 0·36, 0·47 in men). Compared with NOFC, ROFC had a lower risk of type II diabetes, hypertension and CVD; however, this effect was only significant for men. In contrast, organic consumers were more likely to report food allergies. Consuming OF appeared to affect the relationship between nutritional knowledge and adequate intake of meat/poultry/seafood/eggs and starchy food among both sexes. Our study provides new insights into the diet- and health-related behaviours of OF consumers in a large sample of participants residing in France. This should be taken into account in future studies investigating relationships between health and OF consumption.
Tanenbaum, Sandra J
Consumer-operated services organizations (COSOs) are independent, non-profit organizations that provide peer support and other non-clinical services to seriously mentally ill people. Mental health consumers provide many of these services and make up at least a majority of the organization's leadership. Although the dominant conception of the COSO is as an adjunct to clinical care in the public mental health system, this paper reconcieves the organization as a civic association and thereby a locus of citizenship. Drawing on empirical research on COSOs in one state and the citizenship and civic democracy literatures, COSOs are analyzed here as membership organizations with democratic norms and strong ties to local communities. The suggestion is made that by embracing and enhancing their status as civic associations, COSOs may advance the goals of the social movement that spawned them and avoid predictable obstacles to further growth and development.
Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D
The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baggott, Rob; Forster, Rudolf
Abstract Despite the rise of health consumer and patients’ organizations (HCPOs) in modern health‐care systems, studies are few and far between. In particular there is a lack of comparative research across Europe and at the pan‐European level. In an effort to address this gap, an expert workshop was held in Vienna in February 2006. This involved 22 delegates from 10 European Countries and was funded by the European Science Foundation (ESF). The workshop reviewed the development of HCPOs in Europe and their role in the policy process in order to establish a platform for further research in this field. It found evidence of an increase in HCPOs across European countries, increased engagement with policy makers and political institutions, and the creation of alliance organizations bringing together HCPOs across the sector. However, variations between countries were observed, relating to different political, cultural and health system contexts. There was no consensus on whether the rise of HCPOs constituted a new social movement. An increase in HCPO activity at the pan‐European level was noted, reflecting the increased interest of EU institutions in health policy. At both domestic and European levels, concerns about the representativeness and legitimacy of HCPOs were raised as well as questions about their independence (notably with regard to the drugs industry). HCPOs face a number of obstacles including: lack of capacity and resources, fragmentation and the power of more established interests within the health‐care system. The workshop concluded that further research is needed in this field, in the form of a comparative study of HCPOs in European countries and an analysis of their activities at the pan‐European level. PMID:18275405
Full Text Available There is little in vivo data concerning the fate of ingested TiO2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO2. We report here experiments aimed at assessing if ingested nano-TiO2 accumulates in the digestive gland epithelium or are internalized elsewhere in the body of the terrestrial isopod crustaceans. The animals (Porcellio scaber, Isopoda, Crustacea fed for 3, 7, or 14 days on food dosed with 100 or 1000 μg nano-TiO2 showed no evidence of internalization of Ti measured by microparticle-induced X-ray emission method. The effect of ingested nanoparticles was measured by conventional toxicity measures such as feeding rate, weight change, and mortality and did not indicate any toxicity. However, cell membrane of digestive glands, measured with a modified method for assessing cell membrane stability, was affected already after 3 days of exposure to 1000 μg nano-TiO2 per gram dry weight of food indicating cytotoxic potential of ingested nanoparticles. Our results confirmed hypothesis on low toxic potential and no internalization of consumed TiO2 nanoparticles by a model invertebrate organism. However, cytological marker unequivocally indicated adverse effect of ingested nano-TiO2. We conclude that the isopod model system could be used for studying the fate and effect of ingested nanoparticles.
Mesías, Francisco J; Martínez-Carrasco, Federico; Martínez, José M; Gaspar, Paula
In the current context of growing consumer demand for foodstuffs that are healthy and safe and that are obtained in a manner respectful to the welfare of animals, the analysis of consumer preferences towards attributes of this type takes on particular importance. These trends are especially clear in the case of the consumption of eggs because of their strong negative association with cholesterol levels and their extremely intensive systems of production. The introduction of variants that are more in harmony with current consumer demands represents an interesting market alternative. The present study was aimed at investigating the preferences of Spanish consumers for these alternative types of egg that are entering the market. The survey was conducted with 361 consumers from October 2007 to March 2008. The conjoint analysis allowed us to estimate the relative importance of the main attributes that affect consumer preferences for eggs and to distinguish segments of consumers with similar preference profiles. It was found that price is the most important attribute determining consumer preferences, followed by the hens' feed and their rearing conditions. It was also found that only some groups of consumers are willing to pay the premium necessary for alternative methods of production. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.
Crinnion, Walter J
The multi-billion dollar organic food industry is fueled by consumer perception that organic food is healthier (greater nutritional value and fewer toxic chemicals). Studies of the nutrient content in organic foods vary in results due to differences in the ground cover and maturity of the organic farming operation. Nutrient content also varies from farmer to farmer and year to year. However, reviews of multiple studies show that organic varieties do provide significantly greater levels of vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus than non-organic varieties of the same foods. While being higher in these nutrients, they are also significantly lower in nitrates and pesticide residues. In addition, with the exception of wheat, oats, and wine, organic foods typically provide greater levels of a number of important antioxidant phytochemicals (anthocyanins, flavonoids, and carotenoids). Although in vitro studies of organic fruits and vegetables consistently demonstrate that organic foods have greater antioxidant activity, are more potent suppressors of the mutagenic action of toxic compounds, and inhibit the proliferation of certain cancer cell lines, in vivo studies of antioxidant activity in humans have failed to demonstrate additional benefit. Clear health benefits from consuming organic dairy products have been demonstrated in regard to allergic dermatitis.
Heller, Barbara R.; Florio, Carol
The Money Management for Women program was designed and implemented to provide lower-income women with financial planning information geared to their current level of understanding and financial circumstances. Objectives were to develop a model consumer education program and test the efficacy of community-based organizations as agents in…
Thøgersen, John; Bredahl, Lone
Differences in consumer reasons and motives for choosing a processed organic food in four European countries are explored by means of a laddering study and controlled for food-related lifestyle (FRL). The main results are reported in the form of perceptual maps based on correspondence analysis...
Clausen, P.A.; Spaan, S.; Brouwer, D.H.; Marquart, H.; Feber, M. le; Engel, R.; Geerts, L.; Jensen, K.A.; Kofoed-Sørensen, V.; Hansen, B.; Brouwere, K. de
The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles
Thøgersen, John; Bredahl, Lone
Differences in consumer reasons and motives for choosing a processed organic food in four European countries are explored by means of a laddering study and controlled for food-related lifestyle (FRL). The main results are reported in the form of perceptual maps based on correspondence analysis. C...
Anastasiadis, F.; Dam, van Y.K.
The consumer is one of the most important stakeholders in the supply chain (SC), mainly due to the fact that all the other participants involved in the SC should work in fulfilling a customer request. Moreover, the information generated at the consumer level is critical with respect to the design of
Schösler, H.; de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.
Food consumption has been identified as a realm of key importance for progressing the world towards more sustainable consumption overall. Consumers have the option to choose organic food as a visible product of more ecologically integrated farming methods and, in general, more carefully produced
Full Text Available The presentation of credence attributes such as the product's origin or the production method has a significant influence on consumers' food purchase decisions. The dataset includes survey responses from a discrete choice experiment with 1309 food shoppers in Taiwan using the example of sweet pepper. The survey was carried out in 2014 in the three largest Taiwanese cities. It evaluates the impact of providing information on the equality of organic standards on consumers' preferences at the example of sweet pepper. Equality of organic standards implies that regardless of products’ country-of-origin (COO organic certifications are based on the same production regulation and managerial processes. Respondents were randomly allocated to the information treatment and the control group. The dataset contains the product choices of participants in both groups, as well as their sociodemographic information.
Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice.
Yeh, Ching-Hua; Hartmann, Monika; Hirsch, Stefan
The presentation of credence attributes such as the product's origin or the production method has a significant influence on consumers' food purchase decisions. The dataset includes survey responses from a discrete choice experiment with 1309 food shoppers in Taiwan using the example of sweet pepper. The survey was carried out in 2014 in the three largest Taiwanese cities. It evaluates the impact of providing information on the equality of organic standards on consumers' preferences at the example of sweet pepper. Equality of organic standards implies that regardless of products' country-of-origin (COO) organic certifications are based on the same production regulation and managerial processes. Respondents were randomly allocated to the information treatment and the control group. The dataset contains the product choices of participants in both groups, as well as their sociodemographic information.
Hidalgo-Baz, María; Martos-Partal, Mercedes; González-Benito, Óscar
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude–behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models. The results show that orientations and knowledge improve the congruity between attitudes and purchase behaviors toward organic products. Moreover, interaction effects arise between the environmental protection orientation and knowledge and between the hedonic orientation and knowledge. Increasing knowledge mitigates the difference between attitudes and purchase behaviors, especially for consumers with environmental protection or hedonic orientations. These findings have several important implications for research and practice. PMID:28286489
Pandya, Dr. Amit R.; Bariya, Kameshvari J.
In this research paper, primary data was collected from respondents of Vadodara city in Gujarat. For this purpose three shopping malls were selected RPG group, Future group and Aditya Birala group. Through this study we have tried to find out consumer behaviour of respondents when they shop through malls. As a part of consumer behaviour, their perceptions, motivation levels and demographic factors were studied. We have also tried to study the reasons for preference of a shopping mall and t...
Li, Weihua; Li, Lijie; Chen, Chia-li; Kacarab, Mary; Peng, Weihan; Price, Derek; Xu, Jin; Cocker, David R.
Emissions of certain low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOCs) are considered exempt to volatile organic compounds (VOC) regulations due to their low evaporation rates. However, these compounds may still play a role in ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone formation. The LVP-VOCs selected for this work are categorized as intermediate-volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) according to their vapor pressures and molecular formulas. In this study, the evaporation rates of 14 select IVOCs are investigated with half of them losing more than 95% of their mass in less than one month. Further, SOA and ozone formation are presented from 11 select IVOCs and 5 IVOC-containing generic consumer products under atmospherically relevant conditions using varying radical sources (NOx and/or H2O2) and a surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixture. Benzyl alcohol (0.41), n-heptadecane (0.38), and diethylene glycol monobutyl ether (0.16) are determined to have SOA yields greater than 0.1 in the presence of NOx and a surrogate urban hydrocarbon mixture. IVOCs also influence ozone formation from the surrogate urban mixture by impacting radical levels and NOx availability. The addition of lab created generic consumer products has a weak influence on ozone formation from the surrogate mixture but strongly affects SOA formation. The overall SOA and ozone formation of the generic consumer products could not be explained solely by the results of the pure IVOC experiments.
de Jonge, J; van Trijp, J C M; van der Lans, I A; Renes, R J; Frewer, L J
This paper investigates the relationship between general consumer confidence in the safety of food and consumer trust in institutions and organizations. More specifically, using a decompositional regression analysis approach, the extent to which the strength of the relationship between trust and general confidence is dependent upon a particular food chain actor (for example, food manufacturers) is assessed. In addition, the impact of specific subdimensions of trust, such as openness, on consumer confidence are analyzed, as well as interaction effects of actors and subdimensions of trust. The results confirm previous findings, which indicate that a higher level of trust is associated with a higher level of confidence. However, the results from the current study extend on previous findings by disentangling the effects that determine the strength of this relationship into specific components associated with the different actors, the different trust dimensions, and specific combinations of actors and trust dimensions. The results show that trust in food manufacturers influences general confidence more than trust in other food chain actors, and that care is the most important trust dimension. However, the contribution of a particular trust dimension in enhancing general confidence is actor-specific, suggesting that different actors should focus on different trust dimensions when the purpose is to enhance consumer confidence in food safety. Implications for the development of communication strategies that are designed to regain or maintain consumer confidence in the safety of food are discussed.
Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide
In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects.
Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina
Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. © The Author(s) 2015.
Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid
Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...
Full Text Available Organic foods are gaining popularity around the world and consumers of organic foods are on the rise. However information on the consumer behavior towards purchasing organic foods in developing countries such as Thailand is lacking. In this study we develop an extended theory of planned behavior TPB research model that incorporates organic knowledge to investigate consumers consumption intention and behavior towards organic food. We derived and examined the model through structural equation modeling SEM on a sample of 412 respondents in Thailand representing 82.40 of the samples that were investigated. Our findings indicated that consumer attitude and perceived behavioral control significantly predicts consumption intention whereas subjective norm does not. Hence consumption intention has a positive influence on organic food consumption behavior. Furthermore our results suggest that TPB model mediates the relationship between organic knowledge and consumption behavior.
All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...
Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John
, product image and consumer purchase intention: Evidence from an emerging economy. International Business Review, 21(6), 1041-1051. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibusrev.2011.11.010 Wang, O., De Steur, H., Gellynck, X., & Verbeke, W. (2015). Motives for consumer choice of traditional food and European......-country combinations in every product category (Pappu, Quester, & Cooksey, 2006, 2007). A country-of-origin-effect strong enough to drive purchasing decisions appears when a country’s equity is high and there is a good product-country match (S. A. Ahmed, d'Astous, & Petersen, 2011; Herz & Diamantopoulos, 2013; Roth......, preferences and purchase behaviour (Newman, Turri, Howlett, & Stokes, 2014). A wide range of contingencies and moderators of COO effects has been identified (Pharr, 2005; Verlegh & Steenkamp, 1999) – also for food products (Z. U. Ahmed et al., 2004; Chryssochoidis, Krystallis, & Perreas, 2007; Hoffmann, 2000...
Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Asche, Frank; Bronnmann, Julia; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus
Sustainably produced food products have rapidly grown in popularity within the last years. Eco-labeling systems to indicate the environmental sustainability of product have also been implemented in the seafood market, with the MSC label for wild fish as the leading one. However, it is not clear whether consumers really notice the values behind an eco-label and how important these attributes are in their purchasing decision. This study analyzes data from a large household scanner panel to inve...
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine consumers from distinct cultural groups and identify similarities and differences in their green purchase behaviors. The sample consisted of consumers from the U.S.A. and South Korea and the theory of planned behavior was used as a theoretical framework to test the influence of diverse constructs on consumers’ purchase intentions toward organic cotton apparel. For both countries, perceived behavioral control (PBC and descriptive norms were strong predictors of purchase intentions and injunctive norms strongly influenced attitude formation. However, the study also found different results between the two groups. For example, while attitude was the strongest predictor of purchase intentions in the U.S.A. group (strength of influence on intentions: attitude > descriptive norms > PBC > injunctive norms, it had an insignificant effect in the South Korea group. For the South Korea group descriptive norms and PBC had strongest effects on consumers purchase intentions (strength of influence on intentions: descriptive norms = PBC > injunctive norms > attitude. South Koreans were more affected by the social pressure: their purchase intentions were strongly influenced by both injunctive norms and descriptive norms in contrast to the findings from American consumers. Injunctive norms were an insignificant predictor of purchase intentions in the U.S.A. group. This result is consistent with previous research that suggest conformity is a crucial factor for people belonging to a collectivistic culture. Exposure of others’ purchasing behavior is particularly important in motivating consumers’ buying in collectivistic culture. Marketers of organic cotton apparel may consider using diverse formats of media to display consumers’ ethical buying behaviors or creating product design or packaging that can directly reveal the ethical features of the product to display greater exposure in the market.
Dean, M; Raats, MM; Shepherd, R
This study used the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the impact of moral concerns on intention to buy organic apples and organic pizza. Initially, beliefs were elicited from a group of 30 people using a combination of the traditional TPB elicitation technique supplemented by direct questioning about emotions associated with the behavior. The questionnaire-which included measures of behavioral beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and measures of moral n...
Full Text Available Additional ethical claims were tested with mock organic egg labels in five EU countries. The attitudes towards the advertising labels were assessed by multiple copy testing measures. A total of 156 individual responses were analysed. The study confirms the difficulty of conducting advertising research in a multicultural framework, and shows that additional local/ regional claims can reinforce the appeal of organic products.
The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [de
Full Text Available Introduction: Continuing growth in human population and consumptionmeans that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years and that the world needs 70-100% more food by 2050. Environmental issues such as climate change, depletion of naturalresources and biodiversity loss increasingly threaten the welfare ofhuman civilization. Confronting these threats requires, among otherthings, behavioral changes in citizens, governments and companies.Farmers and other producers are responding to consumer concerns about pesticides by creating new marketing opportunities for products grown with environmentally sound practices. Environmental economists are increasingly interested in better understanding of how people cognitively organize their beliefs and attitudes towards environmental change in order to identify key motives and barriers that stimulate or prevent action.The purpose of the presentinvestigation is to evaluate the consumers’ preferences and factors affecting their choice for conventional, healthy and organic cucumbers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Data were collected on a sample of 230consumers in 2013 by using the proportionate stratification samplingmethod through face-to-face interviews based on a comprehensive structured questionnaire. Before the survey, the reliability and validity of the questionnaire were initially evaluated in a pre-test study, respectively, by using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO criteria. Individual preferences were uncovered in choice experiment method (CEM by a contingent ranking experiment. In a contingent ranking experiment, respondents are required to rank a set of alternative options, characterized by a number of attributes, which are offered at different levels across the options.Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. The approach consists of modeling utility, that isto say the net benefit a consumer obtains from selecting a
Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich
Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Schultz, Alyssa B; Kasiarz, David; Edington, Dee W
Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are popular among employers in the United States. This study examined an employee wellness program and its association with employee health in an organization that recently initiated a CDHP. This retrospective observational analysis compared the health risks, employer-paid health care costs, and short-term disability absences of employees of a large financial services corporation from 2009 to 2010. The two-time health risk appraisal participants had a significant improvement in the percentage of employees in the overall low-risk category. The average annual employer-paid medical and pharmacy costs did not significantly change. For employees who improved their health risk category, there was a commensurate change in costs and absences. In a difficult economic climate, this organization began a health promotion program for employees as well as a new CDHP benefit structure. No short-term reduction in health care usage or overall health status was observed.
Mullen, P D; Leifer, B H
To develop strong health education programs, health educators working in complex medical care organizations must often secure professional cooperation across disciplines, coordination of services, and orientation of policies, procedures, and personnel toward patient preferences and needs. Frequently, they undertake these tasks against the tide, within a problematic organizational structure. The present case study illustrates the difficulties posed by introducing change in medical care organizations in the context of an education program to acquaint employees of a large HMO with a consumer bill of rights mandated by the consumer Board of Trustees. The underlying assumption was that in a bureaucratic institution, an employee-centered and modest system reform strategy would be effective in bringing about client-centered outcomes-in this case, increased recognition of client rights. The case analysis and results of a post-intervention, cross-sectional survey suggest that in units where a threshold level of participation was reached, there were improvements in knowledge about the Bill and employee attitudes. The program was less successful with hospital nurses whose feelings about physicians were not taken into account fully, and with physicians whose relative lack of integration into the policy and managerial domains made them harder to reach.
The flux of organic matter (OM) across ecosystem boundaries can influence estuarine food web dynamics and productivity. However, this process is seldom investigated taking into account all the adjacent ecosystems (e.g. ocean, river, land) and different hydrological settings (i.e....
Ju, Seyoung; Chang, Hyeja
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Sustainable practices in foodservice organizations including commercial and noncommercial ones are critical to ensure the protection of the environment for the future. With the rapid growth of the foodservice industry, wiser usage of input sources such as food, utilities, and single use packaging should be reconsidered for future generations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the customer's perceptions on sustainable practices and to identify the relationship amo...
Wildung, R.E.; Garland, T.R.; Cataldo, D.A.
Using a proposed model for Pu behaviour to integrate current knowledge, information is presented on the chemical/biochemical processes governing the form of Pu in soils and plants and the relationship of these phenomena to gut absorption in animals. Regardless of the source term, Pu behaviour in the soil will be governed by the chemistry of Pu(IV), which predominates over Pu(VI) due to reductive reactions in the soil and at the plant root surface. The soil behaviour of Pu(IV) is governed by (1) hydrolysis, which results in insolubilization and sorption on solid phases, and (2) complexation with inorganic and organic ligands, which stabilize Pu(IV) against hydrolysis and increase solubility. These competing processes likely represent the rate-limiting step in the ingestion pathway because plants do not effectively discriminate against the soluble Pu(IV) ion. Following dissociation of soil Pu(IV) complexes at the outer root surface, Pu is transported across the plant root membrane as the Pu(IV) ion and translocated as Pu(IV) complexes with plant organic ligands. Redistribution of Pu occurs as the plant grows, with initial increases in stem tissues followed by accumulation in roots as the plant matures. The Pu concentration decreases up the plant and seeds contain the lowest Pu concentrations. The gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu requires the presence of soluble Pu forms and hydrolysis/complexation reactions in the gut likely govern solubility. The acidity of the gut is not sufficient to retard hydrolysis of Pu(IV). Therefore, the gastro-intestinal absorption of Pu organically bound in plant tissues is increased relative to Pu administered in hydrolysable solutions. (author)
Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty; Denver, Sigrid; Zanolic, R.
analysis undertaken by experts. Considerable differences between households underlay patterns of increasing aggregate demand at national levels, and fluctuations over time were identified at the household level. Interest in purchasing organic products on a regular basis and actual changes in shopping...... practices did not proceed apace. Limited availability has constituted a major barrier to increasing demand among ‘regular’ users. Demand on the part of ‘occasional’ users reflected a wider range of barriers, including lack of interest in and knowledge about production and processing and lack of trust...
Anastasiou, Charalampia N.; Keramitsoglou, Kiriaki M.; Kalogeras, N.; Tsagkaraki, Maria I.; Kalatzi, Ioanna; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.
The "Euro-leaf" organic certification logo was adopted and made compulsory by the European Union (EU) a few years ago; the level of consumers' recognition of this logo has been explored. This paper provides important insights into the effectiveness of the logo in the Greek market. The "Euro-leaf"
Clausen, Per Axel; Spaan, Suzanne; Brouwer, Derk H; Marquart, Hans; le Feber, Maaike; Engel, Roel; Geerts, Lieve; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Hansen, Brian; De Brouwere, Katleen
The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles and one type of inkjet printed paper were used to establish the mechanisms and model. Kinetic extraction studies in methanol demonstrated existence of matrix diffusion and indicated the presence of a substance surface layer on some articles. Consequently, the proposed substance transfer model considers mechanical transport from a surface film and matrix diffusion in an article with a known initial total substance concentration. The estimated chemical substance transfer values to cotton wipes were comparable to the literature data (relative transfer ∼ 2%), whereas relative transfer efficiencies from spiked substrates were high (∼ 50%). For consumer articles, high correlation (r(2)=0.92) was observed between predicted and measured transfer efficiencies, but concentrations were overpredicted by a factor of 10. Adjusting the relative transfer from about 50% used in the model to about 2.5% removed overprediction. Further studies are required to confirm the model for generic use.
Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is understanding the consumers of the academic community community in a public higher education institution in relation to Green IT practices in organizations. This study aims to confirm the model developed by Lunardi et al. (2011 Lunardi et al. (2014 through the application of multivariate statistical technique of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The survey research was conducted in a public higher education institution, based in the city of Osasco, using structured questionnaire with five point likert scale options and the respondents were: the students and professors from graduate school in Business Administration, in addition to employees administrative technician education. The results confirmed the highly significant and demonstrate that the model is consistent with proper adjustment can be used in future research.
Robinson, K.A.; Baird, D.J.; Wrona, F.J.
Metals adsorbed to prey surfaces may be a mechanism of exposure in predators. - The current study aimed to determine the potential of two important aquatic invertebrate crustacean species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia, to adsorb cadmium on to their carapaces from aqueous solution. Using the Langmuir equation to model data outputs, it was shown that cadmium readily became associated with the carapace surfaces of both species, with uptake being dependent on exposure time and concentration. Maximum carapace-adsorption potential was found to be directly related to surface area, so that at predicted carapace saturation, D. magna neonates bound approximately five times more cadmium than the smaller C. dubia neonates. However, adsorption per unit surface area was found to be similar under the same exposure conditions. Results of surface metal adsorption studies in C. dubia suggested that short term exposures to high concentrations of aqueous cadmium would lead to similar levels of adsorption as obtained with long-term exposures to low concentrations. The study illustrates that contaminants adsorbed to prey surfaces may be an important mechanism of exposure to predators, and highlights some potential problems of feeding organisms during long-term toxicity tests
Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.
Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Péneau, Sandrine; Méjean, Caroline; Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis
Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51%) and regular (RCOP, 14%) organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers) were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines), compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity) (25 ≤ body mass indexfood intake and health markers.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lifestyle, dietary patterns and nutritional status of organic food consumers have rarely been described, while interest for a sustainable diet is markedly increasing. METHODS: Consumer attitude and frequency of use of 18 organic products were assessed in 54,311 adult participants in the Nutrinet-Santé cohort. Cluster analysis was performed to identify behaviors associated with organic product consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, food consumption and nutrient intake across clusters are provided. Cross-sectional association with overweight/obesity was estimated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Five clusters were identified: 3 clusters of non-consumers whose reasons differed, occasional (OCOP, 51% and regular (RCOP, 14% organic product consumers. RCOP were more highly educated and physically active than other clusters. They also exhibited dietary patterns that included more plant foods and less sweet and alcoholic beverages, processed meat or milk. Their nutrient intake profiles (fatty acids, most minerals and vitamins, fibers were healthier and they more closely adhered to dietary guidelines. In multivariate models (after accounting for confounders, including level of adherence to nutritional guidelines, compared to those not interested in organic products, RCOP participants showed a markedly lower probability of overweight (excluding obesity (25 ≤ body mass index<30 and obesity (body mass index ≥ 30: -36% and -62% in men and -42% and -48% in women, respectively (P<0.0001. OCOP participants (% generally showed intermediate figures. CONCLUSIONS: Regular consumers of organic products, a sizeable group in our sample, exhibit specific socio-demographic characteristics, and an overall healthy profile which should be accounted for in further studies analyzing organic food intake and health markers.
Davis, Nathan; Danes, Jeffrey E; Vorst, Keith
Post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastic material is made by collecting used plastic products (e.g., bottles and other plastic packaging materials) and reprocessing them into solid-state pellets or flakes. Plastic recycling has positive environmental benefits, but may also carry potential drawbacks due to unwanted organic and inorganic contaminants. These contaminants can migrate into food packaging made from these recycled plastic materials. The purpose of this research was to identify economically viable real-time monitoring technologies that can be used during the conversion of virgin and recycled resin feedstocks (i.e., various blends of virgin pellets and recycled solid-state pellet or mechanically ground flake) to final articles to ensure the safety, quality and sustainability of packaging feedstocks. Baseline analysis (validation) of real-time technologies was conducted using industry-standard practices for polymer analysis. The data yielded supervised predictive models developed by training sessions completed in a controlled laboratory setting. This technology can be employed to evaluate compliance and aid converters in commodity sourcing of resin without exceeding regulatory thresholds. Furthermore, this technology allowed for real-time decision and diversion strategies during the conversion of resin and flake to final articles or products to minimise the negative impact on human health and environmental exposure.
Baggott, Rob; Jones, Kathryn
Health consumer and patients' organizations (HCPOs) seek to influence policy. But how are they affected by developments in the policy context and political environment? The article draws on original research into HCPOs in the UK by the authors, including a major survey undertaken in 1999 and interviews with HCPOs and policymakers between 2000 and 2003 as well as a further survey in 2010. It also draws on a review of key government policies on health and the voluntary sector since 1997. Developments in the political environment and policy context have created both opportunities and threats for HCPOs as they seek to influence policy. These include policies to promote choice and competition in public services; support for a greater role for the voluntary sector and civil society in health and welfare (including the current government's 'Big Society' idea); NHS reorganization; changes to the system of patient and public involvement; and austerity measures. Devolution of powers within the UK with regard to health policy and the rising profile of the EU in health matters have also had implications for HCPOs. This analysis raises key issues for future research in the UK and elsewhere, such as how will HCPOs be able to maintain independence in an increasingly competitive environment? And how will they fare in an era of retrenchment? There are also challenges for HCPOs in relation to maintaining relationships in a new institutional setting characterized by multilevel governance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Daugbjerg, Carsten
in different organic food labeling regimes with varying degrees of governmental involvement. Using unique and detailed survey data from the US, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden, the analysis shows that confidence is highest in countries with substantial state involvement. This suggests that governments can...... governmental involvement increases confidence. This suggests that government should just provide the basic legal framework for eco-labeling and leave the rest to non-governmental organizations. However, the empirical underpinning of this conclusion is insufficient. This paper analyses consumer confidence......Trustworthy eco-labels provide consumers with valuable information on environmentally friendly products and thus promote green consumerism. But what makes an eco-label trustworthy and what can government do to increase consumer confidence? The scant existing literature indicates that low...
Pedersen, Susanne; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Thøgersen, John
and Germany: In-store interviews, focus groups and an online survey. A strong domestic country bias for organic food products is confirmed in Germany, and to a much lesser extent in China. German consumers prefer products imported from countries that are geographically and culturally close. Food safety...
This paper studies consumer decision-making in situations where the person knows that both his or her own interests and the interests of others will be signifi-cantly influenced by the behavioural choice. A random sample of individuals responsible household's shopping in Aarhus County, Denmark, (N...... decision-making with regard to organic products....
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the structure of consumer preferences regarding information on farming system and nutritional enhancement of eggs to verify if consumers are willing to accept products combing sustainability and nutrition related claims. The data was collected within a CAPI (Computer Assisted Personal Interviews survey on a representative sample of 935 consumers responsible for food shopping. A discrete choice-based conjoint method was selected in eliciting consumer preferences among different product profiles with varying levels of attributes. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify four distinct clusters that differed significantly in terms of importance attached to production system attributes and socio-demographic profiles. The results of the experiment showed that price and farming system had the most significant mean relative importance in shaping consumers’ preferences, while other attributes such as nutrition and health claims, egg size, package size and hen breed were far less important. Free range eggs had the highest relative importance for consumers despite the fact that organic egg production systems are governed by much stricter animal welfare standards. Our segmentation revealed that two of our four clusters may be more easily reached by information on animal welfare related attributes in egg production than the others. The results of our study provide the policy makers and marketing practitioners with insights applicable for communication and pricing strategies for eggs with sustainability claims.
Driouech, Noureddin; El Bilali, Hamid; Berjan, Sinisa; Radovic, Mirjana; Despotovic, Aleksandra
The new Millennium has seen a renewed and intensified interest in issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility (CSR). This has been partly driven by a wave of concern about conduct and governance of business and partly reflects a growing interest amongst consumers, policy makers and businesses, in forms of production and consumption that are more sustainable and more ethically oriented. This is typified by growth in demand of products encompassing ethical values such as organ...
This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and
Petkus, Ed, Jr.
In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…
Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human) in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized settings (either as service providers or as final receivers) is a promising lever for innovation. However, despite the number of studies on the matter, the debate on engagement is still very fragmented because the corpus of literature addressing the different areas of engagement is divided and diverse in its nature. In this paper, we discuss the results of a conceptual analysis of the literature conducted in order to investigate overlapping features and areas of divergence among three different areas of investigation and application of the engagement phenomenon in organized settings: the domains of employee engagement, consumer engagement, and patient engagement. These are deliberately selected as prototypical of the phenomenon of engagement along the "inside/outside" of organizational settings. The analysis consisted in a qualitative conceptual survey? Of the scholarly literature indexed with the key terms "employee engagement," "consumer engagement," and "patient engagement." We performed a key-word based survey? Of the literature in the Scopus database. A total of 163 articles were selected and analyzed. The analysis cast light on the following areas of conceptual overlap among employee, consumer and patient engagement: (1) engagement is different from empowerment and activation; (2) engagement is a multi-componential psychological experience; (3) engagement is a self-transformative experience; (4) engagement develops within a relational context; (5) engagement is a systemic
Full Text Available Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized settings (either as service providers or as final receivers is a promising lever for innovation. However, despite the number of studies on the matter, the debate on engagement is still very fragmented because the corpus of literature addressing the different areas of engagement is divided and diverse in its nature. In this paper, we discuss the results of a conceptual analysis of the literature conducted in order to investigate overlapping features and areas of divergence among three different areas of investigation and application of the engagement phenomenon in organized settings: the domains of employee engagement, consumer engagement, and patient engagement. These are deliberately selected as prototypical of the phenomenon of engagement along the “inside/outside” of organizational settings. The analysis consisted in a qualitative conceptual survey? Of the scholarly literature indexed with the key terms “employee engagement,” “consumer engagement,” and “patient engagement.” We performed a key-word based survey? Of the literature in the Scopus database. A total of 163 articles were selected and analyzed. The analysis cast light on the following areas of conceptual overlap among employee, consumer and patient engagement: (1 engagement is different from empowerment and activation; (2 engagement is a multi-componential psychological experience; (3 engagement is a self-transformative experience; (4 engagement develops within a relational context
Kang, Hee-Jin; Kim, Suna; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kim, Jeong-Weon
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions and information needs of food experts, teachers, nutrition teachers, members of nongovernmental organizations, and general consumers concerning food additives. Questions in a survey format included perceptions, information needs, and preferred communication channels. The survey was conducted both off-line and on-line via e-mail and Google Drive in March 2015. The results indicated that most Korean consumers are concerned about the safety of using food additives in processed foods and do not recognize these additives as safe and useful materials as part of a modern diet. We also identified perception gaps among different groups regarding food additives. Nutrition teachers and members of nongovernmental organizations in Korea appeared to have a biased perception of food additives, which may cause general consumers to have a negative perception of food additives. The group of food experts did not have this bias. Governmental institutions must overcome the low confidence levels of various groups as an information provider about food additives. Based on the findings in this study, it will be possible to develop a strategy for risk communication about food additives for each group.
Su, Jianzhong; Dai, Minhan; He, Biyan; Wang, Lifang; Gan, Jianping; Guo, Xianghui; Zhao, Huade; Yu, Fengling
We assess the relative contributions of different sources of organic matter, marine vs. terrestrial, to oxygen consumption in an emerging hypoxic zone in the lower Pearl River Estuary (PRE), a large eutrophic estuary located in Southern China. Our cruise, conducted in July 2014, consisted of two legs before and after the passing of Typhoon Rammasun, which completely de-stratified the water column. The stratification recovered rapidly, within 1 day after the typhoon. We observed algal blooms in the upper layer of the water column and hypoxia underneath in bottom water during both legs. Repeat sampling at the initial hypoxic station showed severe oxygen depletion down to 30 µmol kg-1 before the typhoon and a clear drawdown of dissolved oxygen after the typhoon. Based on a three endmember mixing model and the mass balance of dissolved inorganic carbon and its isotopic composition, the δ13C of organic carbon remineralized in the hypoxic zone was -23.2 ± 1.1 ‰. We estimated that 65 ± 16 % of the oxygen-consuming organic matter was derived from marine sources, and the rest (35 ± 16 %) was derived from the continent. In contrast to a recently studied hypoxic zone in the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary where marine organic matter dominated oxygen consumption, here terrestrial organic matter significantly contributed to the formation and maintenance of hypoxia. How varying amounts of these organic matter sources drive oxygen consumption has important implications for better understanding hypoxia and its mitigation in bottom waters.
Olsen, Søren Bøye; Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid
Organic farming practices are generally associated with lower environmental impacts than conventional farming but this does not generally hold true in a climate context. A recent meta-analysis shows that organic milk production often has higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kilo milk produce...... in consumers’ preferences. Hence, if reduced GHG emissions are to be pursued by increased consumption of climate friendlier food then marketing efforts and information strategies need to be targeted specifically to different segments of the population....
Full Text Available This article aims to collect information related to organic farming. It also deals with the assessment and comparison of shopping behaviour in the organic food market in the Czech and Slovak Republics. Respondents from the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic were addressed within the marketing research - survey and potential factors that could affect young people when buying organic products were formulated. There were also established recommendations to retailers of organic products on how to promote the sales of this item to the young generation of Czechs and Slovaks.For statistical data processing we used correspondence analysis and contingency tables analysis. Correspondence analysis is a multivariate statistical technique. The graphical representation of results from correspondence analysis is commonly done with so-called symmetric maps. Based on the results the target groups for marketing strategy were identified and proposals to increase the frequency of buying organic food were formulated.It has been proven in the Czech and the Slovak Republic that there is a negligible amount of young respondents who buy organic food regularly (less than 8%, and therefore it is necessary to change the existing marketing strategy and support the sale of this item.
Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.
Abstract: This study describes a process in which a firm relies on an external consumer communityfor innovation. While it has been recognized that users may sometimes innovate, little is known aboutwhat commercial firms can do to motivate and capture such innovations and their related benefits...... firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development......, Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction, Learning, Consumer Innovation, Community, User-toolkits. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...
Full Text Available Despite increased consumer concern about the privacy threat posed by new technologies and the Internet as a whole, there is relatively little evidence that people’s privacy concerns actually translate into privacy-enhancing behaviors while online. One can say that it is not yet well understood how privacy concerns and trust influence social interactions between consumers within social networking sites. That is why, this article presents an exploratory study of perceptions of trust and privacy concern, along with willingness to share information and develop new relationships within two of the most popular social networking sites in Romania, Facebook and LinkedIn. The research shows that organizations must assume greater responsibility in ensuring consumers’ safety who sometime neglect protecting their personal information, otherwise confidential. In this respect, the application of ISO 26000 standard recommendations by organizations would allow them to pass from just good intentions towards consumers to good actions, so that they are truly protected. The information was gathered with the help of an online questionnaire, administered to people over 18 years old. It is a very useful and needed tool for Romanian companies, as it presents the users’ point of view, allowing them to find the best and most ethical way to do social data mining or use consumers’ private information, disclosed on such sites. It is our strong belief that sometimes companies have to play an active part in helping users protect themselves from actually disclosing too much personal information on social networking sites. The paper begins with a summary of relevant research related to social networking sites. Then, the online survey methodology is described and the results presented, followed by limitations and conclusions.
Shin, Hyeong-Moo; McKone, Thomas E.; Bennett, Deborah H.
Because recent laboratory testing indicates that some low vapor pressure-volatile organic compounds (LVP-VOC) solvents readily evaporate at ambient conditions, LVP-VOCs used in some consumer product formulations may contribute to ozone formation. The goal of this study is to determine the fraction of LVP-VOCs available for ozone formation from the use of consumer products for two hypothetical emissions. This study calculates and compares the fraction of consumed product available for ozone formation as a result of (a) volatilization to air during use and (b) down-the-drain disposal. The study also investigates the impact of different modes of releases on the overall fraction available in ambient air for ozone formation. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs volatilized to air during use, we applied a multi-compartment mass-balance model to track the fate of emitted LVP-VOCs in a multimedia urban environment. For the portion of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain, we used a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) fate model to predict the emission rates of LVP-VOCs to ambient air at WWTPs or at the discharge zone of the facilities and then used these results as emissions in the multimedia urban environment model. In a WWTP, the LVP-VOCs selected in this study are primarily either biodegraded or removed via sorption to sludge depending on the magnitude of the biodegradation half-life and the octanol-water partition coefficient. Less than 0.2% of the LVP-VOCs disposed down the drain are available for ozone formation. In contrast, when the LVP-VOC in a consumer product is volatilized from the surface to which it has been applied, greater than 90% is available for photochemical reactions either at the source location or in the downwind areas. Comparing results from these two modes of releases allows us to understand the importance of determining the fraction of LVP-VOCs volatilized versus disposed down the drain when the product is used by consumers. The results from this study
Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...
Full Text Available We assess the relative contributions of different sources of organic matter, marine vs. terrestrial, to oxygen consumption in an emerging hypoxic zone in the lower Pearl River Estuary (PRE, a large eutrophic estuary located in Southern China. Our cruise, conducted in July 2014, consisted of two legs before and after the passing of Typhoon Rammasun, which completely de-stratified the water column. The stratification recovered rapidly, within 1 day after the typhoon. We observed algal blooms in the upper layer of the water column and hypoxia underneath in bottom water during both legs. Repeat sampling at the initial hypoxic station showed severe oxygen depletion down to 30 µmol kg−1 before the typhoon and a clear drawdown of dissolved oxygen after the typhoon. Based on a three endmember mixing model and the mass balance of dissolved inorganic carbon and its isotopic composition, the δ13C of organic carbon remineralized in the hypoxic zone was −23.2 ± 1.1 ‰. We estimated that 65 ± 16 % of the oxygen-consuming organic matter was derived from marine sources, and the rest (35 ± 16 % was derived from the continent. In contrast to a recently studied hypoxic zone in the East China Sea off the Changjiang Estuary where marine organic matter dominated oxygen consumption, here terrestrial organic matter significantly contributed to the formation and maintenance of hypoxia. How varying amounts of these organic matter sources drive oxygen consumption has important implications for better understanding hypoxia and its mitigation in bottom waters.
Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien
in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...
Zhang, S F; Zhang, L L; Luo, K; Sun, Z X; Mei, X X
The separation properties of the aluminium-plastic laminates in postconsumer Tetra Pak structure were studied in this present work. The organic solvent blend of benzene-ethyl alcohol-water was used as the separation reagent. Then triangle coordinate figure analysis was taken to optimize the volume proportion of various components in the separating agent and separation process. And the separation temperature of aluminium-plastic laminates was determined by the separation time, efficiency, and total mass loss of products. The results show that cost-efficient separations perform best with low usage of solvents at certain temperatures, for certain times, and within a certain range of volume proportions of the three components in the solvent agent. It is also found that similar solubility parameters of solvents and polyethylene adhesives (range 26.06-34.85) are a key factor for the separation of the aluminium-plastic laminates. Such multisolvent processes based on the combined-system concept will be vital to applications in the recycling industry.
The International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), a non-profit, non-party political foundation that represents the interests of consumers worldwide. It consists of some 1,140 organizations in over 50 countries of the world in the North, South, East and West. IOCU also represents the interest of the consumers in the U N system and enjoys consultative status with many of its various organs and agencies. This paper also speaks from the additional perspective of a Third World person who active in consumer public affairs issues over the last two decades
Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.
Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....
Mathieu Alemany Oliver
Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.
Borras-Morell, Jose-Enrique; Martinez-Millana, Antonio; Karlsen, Randi
Health consumers are increasingly using the Internet to search for health information. The existence of overloaded, inaccurate, obsolete, or simply incorrect health information available on the Internet is a serious obstacle for finding relevant and good-quality data that actually helps patients. Search engines of multimedia Internet platforms are thought to help users to find relevant information according to their search. But, is the information recovered by those search engines from quality sources? Is the health information uploaded from reliable sources, such as hospitals and health organizations, easily available to patients? The availability of videos is directly related to the ranking position in YouTube search. The higher the ranking of the information is, the more accessible it is. The aim of this study is to analyze the ranking evolution of diabetes health videos on YouTube in order to discover how videos from reliable channels, such as hospitals and health organizations, are evolving in the ranking. The analysis was done by tracking the ranking of 2372 videos on a daily basis during a 30-day period using 20 diabetes-related queries. Our conclusions are that the current YouTube algorithm favors the presence of reliable videos in upper rank positions in diabetes-related searches. PMID:28243314
This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.
Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.
The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product
Samie, A; Mashao, M B; Bessong, P O; NKgau, T F; Momba, M N B; Obi, C L
Diarrhoea is a hallmark of HIV infections in developing countries, and many diarrhoea-causing agents are often transmitted through water. The objective of the study was to determine the diversity and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacterial organisms isolated from samples of household drinking-water consumed by HIV-infected and AIDS patients. In the present study, household water stored for use by HIV-positive patients was tested for microbial quality, and isolated bacterial organisms were analyzed for their susceptibility profiles against 25 different antibiotics. The microbial quality of water was generally poor, and about 58% of water samples (n=270) were contaminated with faecal coliforms, with counts varying from 2 colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL to 2.4x10⁴ CFU/100 mL. Values of total coliform counts ranged from 17 CFU/100 mL to 7.9x10⁵/100 mL. In total, 37 different bacterial species were isolated, and the major isolates included Acinetobacter lwoffii (7.5%), Enterobacter cloacae (7.5%), Shigella spp. (14.2%), Yersinia enterocolitica (6.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (16.3%). No Vibrio cholerae could be isolated; however, V. fluvialis was isolated from three water samples. The isolated organisms were highly resistant to cefazolin (83.5%), cefoxitin (69.2%), ampicillin (66.4%), and cefuroxime (66.2%). Intermediate resistance was observed against gentamicin (10.6%), cefepime (13.4%), ceftriaxone (27.6%), and cefotaxime (29.9%). Levofloxacin (0.7%), ceftazidime (2.2%), meropenem (3%), and ciprofloxacin (3.7%) were the most active antibiotics against all the microorganisms, with all recording less than 5% resistance. Multiple drug resistance was very common, and 78% of the organisms were resistant to three or more antibiotics. Education on treatment of household water is advised for HIV-positive patients, and measures should be taken to improve point-of-use water treatment as immunosuppressed individuals would be more susceptible to opportunistic
Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research
Full Text Available The article presents research on consumer social responsibility based on the example of cycling service. The author analyses the tourism sector determining a relation between socially responsible behaviour of an organization and consumer behaviour.
This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...
Widdows, Richard; And Others
Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)
Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo
to farms that supply fresh manure to the digestion process, partly to crop farms in need of organic fertilizers. Environmental and agricultural benefits include savings for farmers as a consequence of improved fertilizer efficiency and thereby reduction of needs of chemical fertilizers. A side effect...
At least judged by its outcome, it seems that consumers in the rich parts of the world make less of an effort at changing their lifestyle in a sustainable direction than is desired by society and than is in their own collective long-term interest. Part of the explanations is that individual......'s striving for sustainability. The relevant external conditions are an extremely diverse set of factors, perhaps their only commonality being that, unless making an organized effort, consumers can do nothing about them. Because external conditions influence all or many consumers, making them more...... facilitating for sustainable consumption can be much more effective than anything an individual consumer can do. Many of the external constraints facing consumers who want to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle are of a relative nature and their impact depends on the individual's resources. For instance...
Deleuran, Lise Christina
In this study, the focus is on babyleaf products and the potentials that an increased interest in these products might bring to vegetable seed growers. Case studies on babyleaf products illustrate how consumers perceive babyleaf products and which parameters they give preference to. In addition, ...
Dransfield, E.; Ngapo, T.M.; Nielsen, Niels Asger
of the British and Danish preferred the paler and the French the darker pork. Most people preferred the leaner pork. When information was provided in the form of labels, the vast majority of consumers preferred the pork labelled as originating from their own country as opposed to 'imported' and that labelled...
Kuz'min, S V; Gurvich, V B; Romanov, S V; Dikonskaia, O V; Iarushin, S V; Malykh, O L
In the Sverdlovsk region there have developed and implemented methodological approaches to the optimization oj the activity of the Directorate and the Centre directed to the improvement of the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance and in the sphere of the protection of the rights of consumers in the framework of the development of an comprehensive regional system of risk management for the population's health in the Sverdlovsk region.
Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.
Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)
Organizations are experiencing increased competition, disruptive innovation, and continuous changes in their social and economic context. Furthermore, the decrease of resources (economic and human) in such a demanding context make it imperative for organizations to find new models and strategies to make their service delivery more sustainable at the economic, environmental and psychological levels. In such a complex scenario the concept of engagement of the individuals involved in organized s...
As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice
Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.
This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…
Bujac, Andreea Ioana
No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: “absence of contaminants”, “avoidance for environmental reasons”, “ethics and environment”, “taste”, “innovation”, “local and traditional production”, “price”, “health” and “convenience”. Five consumers’ clusters were identified: “standard conventional food small eaters”, “unhealthy conventional food big eaters”, “standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters”. Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers’ clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. “Green organic food eaters” had the highest mean score for the “health” dimension, while “unhealthy conventional food big eaters” obtained the lowest mean score for the “absence of contaminants” dimension. “Standard organic food small eaters”, “green organic food eaters” and “hedonist moderate organic food eaters” had comparable scores for the “taste” dimension. “Unhealthy conventional food big eaters” had the highest mean score for the “price” dimension while “green organic food eaters” had the lowest mean scores for the “innovation” and “convenience” dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers’ profiles including “green” and “hedonist” eaters.
Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...
Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus
. This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....
Suzana Maria Della Lucia
Full Text Available O efeito de algumas características da embalagem de café orgânico sobre a intenção de compra do consumidor foi avaliado, utilizando-se a conjoint analysis. Quatro características, cada uma com dois níveis, foram manipuladas: preço do produto (alto e baixo, cor da embalagem (vermelha e verde, marca (conhecida e desconhecida e informação sobre orgânicos (com e sem os dizeres "produto isento de agrotóxicos" e "não agride o meio ambiente". Dezesseis embalagens hipotéticas foram criadas seguindo o delineamento fatorial completo e avaliadas por 144 consumidores, de acordo com a intenção de compra. O modelo clustering segmentation foi utilizado para a análise dos dados. A marca conhecida afetou positivamente a intenção de compra de 93% dos consumidores. Embalagens possuindo preço alto conferiram impacto negativo na intenção de compra de todos os participantes. A cor da embalagem teve pouco impacto na avaliação. As informações adicionais sobre orgânicos afetaram positivamente a intenção de compra de 79% dos participantes, demonstrando que consumidores gostam de encontrar informações sobre o produto descritas na embalagem.The effect of some of the characteristics of organic coffee packaging on the consumer’s intention to purchase was studied using conjoint analysis. Four factors, each having two levels, were chosen and considered, namely: price (high and low, color of the packaging (red and green, brand name (familiar and unfamiliar, and information about organic foods (with and without the terms "environmental-friendly product" and "free of agrotoxic chemicals". Sixteen hypothetical organic coffee bags were created following a complete factorial design, which were then evaluated by 144 consumers based on their intention to purchase. The data were analyzed using the clustering segmentation model. The familiar brand name positively affected the intention to purchase of 93% of the consumers. High-priced organic coffee
Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.
This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...
Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.
Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)
Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…
Anagnostou, A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
Purpose – This study aims to better understand the impact of norm-challenging products on consumers’ perceptions of mainstream products and retailers. By showing that sustainable market offerings are feasible, products with sustainability labels, such as Fairtrade and organic products, implicitly
The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...
Hatch, Mary Jo
and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....
Baudry, Julia; P?neau, Sandrine; All?s, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Jos?phe; Lairon, Denis; M?jean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Sante study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "...
Baudry , Julia; Péneau , Sandrine; Allès , Benjamin; Touvier , Mathilde; Hercberg , Serge; Galan , Pilar; Amiot , Marie-Josèphe; LAIRON , Denis; Méjean , Caroline; Kesse-Guyot , Emmanuelle
International audience; The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: " absence of contaminants " , " avoidance for environmental reasons " , " ethics and environ...
Scholz, Brett; Gordon, Sarah; Happell, Brenda
Contemporary mental health policies call for greater involvement of mental health service consumers in all aspects and at all levels of service planning, delivery, and evaluation. The extent to which consumers are part of the decision-making function of mental health organizations varies. This systematic review synthesizes empirical and review studies published in peer-reviewed academic journals relating to consumers in leadership roles within mental health organizations. The Cochrane Library, Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for articles specifically analysing and discussing consumers' mental health service leadership. Each article was critically appraised against the inclusion criteria, with 36 articles included in the final review. The findings of the review highlight current understandings of organizational resources and structures in consumer-led organizations, determinants of leadership involvement, and how consumer leadership interacts with traditional mental health service provision. It appears that organizations might still be negotiating the balance between consumer leadership and traditional structures and systems. The majority of included studies represent research about consumer-run organizations, with consumer leadership in mainstream mental health organizations being less represented in the literature. Advocates of consumer leadership should focus more on emphasizing how such leadership itself can be a valuable resource for organizations and how this can be better articulated. This review highlights the current gaps in understandings of consumer leadership in mental health, including a need for more research exploring the benefits of consumer leadership for other consumers of services. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.
Hannah N Phillips
Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.
Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.
Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert
Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.
Marketing strategies and consumer preferences for fertilizers and soils from organic residues of biogas production; Vermarktungsstrategien und Konsumentenpraeferenzen fuer Duenger und Erden aus organischen Reststoffen der Biogasproduktion
The aim of this thesis is to show marketing possibilities for fermentation products and to generate sepcific recommendations for potential producers and marketers of fermentation products. Since the marketing of fermenting products is largely unexplored and a research gap, this project was launched with an exploratory phase. After the exploratory phase, private gardeners were identified as a promising customer group. Knowledge about the preferences of private gardeners when purchasing soil and fertilizer are crucial for the market success of processed fermentation products. In order to fathom the decision-making behavior of this potential customer group, personal interviews were conducted with private gardeners. These results enable potential producers and marketers of fermentation products to create a product that is in demand on the market because it meets the needs of potential consumers. The personal preferences, however, can be very different, for which reason a segmentation into different groups with similar preferences is made. [German] Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, Vermarktungsmoeglichkeiten fuer Gaerprodukte aufzuzeigen und konkrete Empfehlungen fuer potenzielle Hersteller und Vermarkter von Gaerprodukten zu generieren. Da die Vermarktung von Gaerprodukten weitestgehend unerforscht ist und eine Forschungsluecke darstellt, wurde dieses Vorhaben mit einer explorativen Phase gestartet. Nach der explorativen Phase wurden Privatgaertner als vielversprechende Kundengruppe identifiziert. Kenntnisse ueber die Praeferenzen von Privatgaertnern beim Kauf von Erden und Duengern sind entscheidend fuer den Markterfolg von aufbereiteten Gaerprodukten. Um das Entscheidungsverhalten dieser potenziellen Kundengruppe naeher zu ergruenden, wurden persoenliche Interviews mit Privatgaertnern durchgefuehrt. Diese Ergebnisse ermoeglichen es potenziellen Herstellern und Vermarktern von Gaerprodukten ein Produkt zu kreieren, das auf dem Markt nachgefragt wird, da es den Wuenschen der
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bureau of Consumer Protection. 0.17 Section... ORGANIZATION § 0.17 Bureau of Consumer Protection. The Bureau investigates unfair or deceptive acts or..., and international agencies and organizations in consumer protection enforcement and regulatory matters...
Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Wisniewski, Michael; Droby, Samir; Schena, Leonardo
The fungal diversity in harvested apples from organic or conventional management practices was analyzed in different fruit locations (stem end, calyx end, peel, and wounded flesh) shortly after fruit purchase (T1) and after 2 weeks of storage (T5). A total of 5,760,162 high-quality fungal sequences were recovered and assigned to 8,504 Operational Taxonomic Units. Members of the phylum Ascomycota were dominant in all samples and accounted for 91.6% of the total number of detected sequences. This was followed by Basidiomycota (8%), Chytridiomycota (0.1%), and unidentified fungi (0.3%). Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed the presence of significantly different fungal populations in the investigated fruit parts. Among detected fungi, the genus Penicillium prevailed in the peel and in the wounded flesh while Alternaria spp. prevailed in the calyx and stem end samples that included apple core tissues. Several taxonomic units that appear to be closely related to pathogenic fungi associated with secondary human infections were present in peel and wounds. Moreover, significantly different populations were revealed in organic and conventional apples and this result was consistent in all investigated fruit parts (calyx end, peel, stem end, and wounded flesh). Several unique taxa were exclusively detected in organic apples suggesting that management practices may have been a contributing factor in determining the taxa present. In contrast, little differences were revealed in the two assessment times (T1 and T5). Results of the present study represent an advancement of the current knowledge on the fungal microbiota in collected fruit tissues of apple.
Kyle, Greg J; Nissen, Lisa; Tett, Susan
Prescription medicine samples provided by pharmaceutical companies are predominantly newer and more expensive products. The range of samples provided to practices may not represent the drugs that the doctors desire to have available. Few studies have used a qualitative design to explore the reasons behind sample use. The aim of this study was to explore the opinions of a variety of Australian key informants about prescription medicine samples, using a qualitative methodology. Twenty-three organizations involved in quality use of medicines in Australia were identified, based on the authors' previous knowledge. Each organization was invited to nominate 1 or 2 representatives to participate in semistructured interviews utilizing seeding questions. Each interview was recorded and transcribed verbatim. Leximancer v2.25 text analysis software (Leximancer Pty Ltd., Jindalee, Queensland, Australia) was used for textual analysis. The top 10 concepts from each analysis group were interrogated back to the original transcript text to determine the main emergent opinions. A total of 18 key interviewees representing 16 organizations participated. Samples, patient, doctor, and medicines were the major concepts among general opinions about samples. The concept drug became more frequent and the concept companies appeared when marketing issues were discussed. The Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and cost were more prevalent in discussions about alternative sample distribution models, indicating interviewees were cognizant of budgetary implications. Key interviewee opinions added richness to the single-word concepts extracted by Leximancer. Participants recognized that prescription medicine samples have an influence on quality use of medicines and play a role in the marketing of medicines. They also believed that alternative distribution systems for samples could provide benefits. The cost of a noncommercial system for distributing samples or starter packs was a concern
Delbaere, Marjorie; Smith, Malcolm C
This research develops a framework for understanding how consumers process health-related information and interact with their caregivers. The context is direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising by pharmaceutical companies in North America. This theoretical research presents a research framework and focuses on the presentation of information in advertisements, consumer-learning processes, consumer utilization of health care knowledge, and bias in perceived risk. The paper proposes that consumers who lack expertise with prescription drugs learn from DTC ads differently than those with expertise. Further, it is proposed that consumers also process the information in DTC ads differently depending on the perceived effectiveness of the drug being advertised, and ultimately utilize the knowledge taken from the ads in many different ways, some of which may appear irrational to health care providers. By understanding how consumers interpret and learn from DTC ads, health care organizations and providers may be able to improve health care delivery and consumer outcomes.
Seyed Ali Akbar Afjeh
Full Text Available Market segmentation plays essential role on understanding the behavior of people’s interests in purchasing various products and services through various channels. This paper presents an empirical investigation to shed light on consumer’s purchasing attitude as well as gathering information in multi-channel environment. The proposed study of this paper designed a questionnaire and distributed it among 800 people who were at least 18 years of age and had some experiences on purchasing goods and services on internet, catalog or regular shopping centers. Self-organizing map, SOM, clustering technique was performed based on consumer’s interest in gathering information as well as purchasing products through internet, catalog and shopping centers and determined four segments. There were two types of questions for the proposed study of this paper. The first group considered participants’ personal characteristics such as age, gender, income, etc. The second group of questions was associated with participants’ psychographic characteristics including price consciousness, quality consciousness, time pressure, etc. Using multinominal logistic regression technique, the study determines consumers’ behaviors in each four segments.
Biguzzi, Coralie; Ginon, Emilie; Gomez-y-Paloma, Sergio; Langrell, Sergio; Lefebvre, Marianne; Marette, Stephan; Mateu, Guillermo; Sutan, Angela
This article aims to analyse consumers' preferences for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), in comparison to conventional and organic food products. It analyses the case of tomatoes, based on experimental data of 189 French consumers. We find that consumers are more interested in information on the production system than on the characteristics of the final product in terms of pesticide residue levels, and more in IPM than organic. While information on IPM production increases consumers' willing...
Self-attribution of responsibility: consumers of organic foods in a certified street market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Auto-atribuição de responsabilidade: consumo de alimentos orgânicos em uma feira certificada
Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the analyses of consumption, and food consumption in particular, as a political act, by emphasizing the process of self-attribution of responsibility by consumers involved in organic food consumption at an organic certified street market in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Conducted from the perspective of sociological and anthropological consumption theories, in addition to risk sociology and the theory of reflexive modernization, this study concluded that these consumers act and participate socially through “responsible consumption” instead of the collective forms of political participation through institutionalized social movements. Even though there is a diversity of values and practices, these consumers seem to have in common (1 a mistrust in other social agents and (2 the trust in the importance and effectiveness of their actions.Este trabalho busca contribuir para as análises do consumo, em particular o consumo alimentar, como um ato político. Para tanto, enfatiza o processo de auto-atribuição de responsabilidades por parte de consumidores engajados em práticas de consumo de alimentos orgânicos em uma feira certificada da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A conclusão da pesquisa, discutida à luz de algumas teorias sociológicas e antropológicas do consumo, além da sociologia do risco e da teoria da modernização reflexiva, mostra que tais consumidores parecem agir e participar da esfera pública mais através do “consumo responsável” do que através das formas coletivistas de participação política via movimentos sociais institucionalizados. Apesar de existir uma diversidade de valores e práticas, estes consumidores parecem ter em comum (1 a descrença em outros agentes sociais e (2 a crença na importância e eficácia de suas ações.
Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.
Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661
de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.
indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...
Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W
Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...
Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen
Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...
The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...
Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...
Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...
O. Bar-Gill (Oren)
textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws
A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs
Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.
This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…
Wallace, James M.
Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…
... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...
The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.
Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.
Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.
and dining rooms is im- portant, it is important that consumer goods would always be available to customers , that here they would greet customers ...make proposals on improving the work routine and on organizing the advertising of consumer services, and organize and conduct explanatory work among...the basis of rayon consumer service combines. RPU’s incorporate integrated receiving centers and mobile receiving centers. The organization of
5. Cooperation of consumer organizations from Russia (KONFOP and Belarus (Belarus Consumer Society, launched to promote best Tobacco Control practices, according to FCTC provisions, is a success story of involvement of consumer groups in Tobacco Control.
Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min
. In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....
Dr. A. Lakshmanan; Dr. V. Karthik
Consumer psychology is the study of the interactions between consumers and organizations that produce consumer products. Consumer behaviour has been of interest to organizational psychologists since the beginning of the field. Consumer behaviour could be conditioned and therefore, predicted and controlled just like any other kind of behaviour. The study of consumer helps the firms and organizations to improve their marketing strategies. Commerce has evolved over the centuries. Prior to the ev...
Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke
The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...
Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.
We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...
Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc
The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...
Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris
The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...
Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes
This course is designed to acquaint the student with the functions, criticisms, costs, and consumer analysis of advertising; Federal and State regulations of industry operation and advertising; Federal, State, and city agencies for consumer protection; private and business-sponsored organizations for consumer protection; and rights and…
MacKenzie, Louise; Smith, Alice
These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison…
Wills, Josephine M; Schmidt, David B; Pillo-Blocka, Francy; Cairns, Georgina
In many parts of the world, food companies, consumers, and governments are re-examining the provision of nutrition information on food labels. It is important that the nutrition information provided be appropriate and understandable to the consumer and that it impact food-choice behaviors. Potentially, food labeling represents a valuable tool to help consumers make informed decisions about their diet and lifestyle. Food information organizations worldwide have been following consumer trends in the use of this information as well as consumer attitudes about food, nutrition, and health. This paper summarizes a workshop that examined consumer attitudes gathered regionally with the aim of establishing commonalities and differences.
Worthington, Robert M.
Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…
E. Maira (Elisa)
markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to
The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient
Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.
ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE
Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.
Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.
Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity
We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,
Silber, Norman I.
Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…
Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.
The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to find a structure of consumer behaviour, especially regarding the preference for the newly-released products from the market. We intend to study the impact of the new, innovative products compared to the traditional ones. Empirical research is based on the selling mix of a company in Romania and Austria. The analysis of this case will be done with the support of an econometric model of simple regression. This research confirms the validation of the structure and the attitude of the consumers towards the new products, launched by that company. By applying this linear model, it is possible to identify the percentage of the increase or decrease in consumption of new products. The need of carrying out this study regarding the impact of the consumption of new products is to create a profile and to find the causes that influence their acquisition. The originality of this paper lays in studying some aspects of influence over the consumption of new products from McDonald’s in Romania and Austria. Where does McDonald’s stand regarding the digitalization? It is not enough to sell new products; it is also necessary to bring innovation in the organization. Nowadays consumers are more present in the online environment and retailers are adapting at a fast pace to their needs of direct communication and transparency. How does a company that faces Slow Food and Bio era, deal with consumers who are more preoccupied with the nutritive values of the nourishment act? Platforms for real-time communication with clients such as “Our food. Your question” redefined the term of transparency and helped McDonald’s stop bad rumors. The results of the research will show us if there really is transformation in behaviour towards traditional products and in what degree consumers are influenced by innovation.
on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...
Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing
Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....
Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.
Brinkmann, Johannes; Peattie, Ken
Originally published in the journal Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies (EJBO): http://ejbo.jyu.fi/archives/vol13_no1.html Consumer ethics is an underdeveloped specialism of business and marketing ethics, within which most publications have focused on bad rather than on good ethics, and on consumer dishonesty rather than on consumer idealism or consumer responsibility. This conceptual paper explores the latter perspective, and examines how we can seek to under...
With the increasing internet literacy, the prospect of online marketing is increasing. There are millions of people online any time and they all are a potential consumer in the online market. Since there are so many providers, the most important thing for organizations is to understand what are consumer wants and needs in this competitive business environment. Customer buying behaviors are influenced by different factors such as culture, social class, references group relation, family, salary...
Olga Stepanovna Oleynik
Full Text Available This article analyzes the innovative changes in the methodology of statistical surveys of consumer prices. These changes are reflected in the “Official statistical methodology for the organization of statistical observation of consumer prices for goods and services and the calculation of the consumer price index”, approved by order of the Federal State Statistics Service of December 30, 2014 no. 734. The essence of innovation is the use of mathematical methods in determining the range of studies objects of trade and services, in calculating the sufficient observable price quotes based on price dispersion, the proportion of the observed product (service, a representative of consumer spending, as well as the indicator of the complexity of price registration. The authors analyzed the mathematical calculations of the required number of quotations for observation in the Volgograd region in 2016, the results of calculations are compared with the number of quotes included in the monitoring. The authors believe that the implementation of these mathematical models allowed to substantially reduce the influence of the subjective factor in the organization of monitoring of consumer prices, and therefore to increase the objectivity of the resulting statistics on consumer prices and inflation. At the same time, the proposed methodology needs further improvement in terms of payment for goods, products (services by representatives having a minor share in consumer expenditure.
Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.
Smed, Karina Madsen
become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...
Larsen, Gunvor Riber
Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...
This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....
Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing
Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.
Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers \\ud November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C \\ud \\ud my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 \\ud my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] \\ud \\ud The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, \\ud Vice President and Prime Minister of the...
Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar
Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize
Laura Catalina Timiras
Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.
Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.
Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...
Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten
The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...
... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...
... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...
Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten
The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...
Consumer Finance Act by making short-term advances to customers who write personal checks in return for substantially smaller amounts of on-the-spot case...practices lawsuit with H&R Block, Inc. forcing tax return company to advertise its "Rapid Refund" program is actually a loan program charging customers ...home equity loans/lines of credit/home improvement loans, etc.) 2. A consumer can have only 9M principal dwelling at a time (includes mobile homes
The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works
Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing
A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...
Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M
Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.
Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)
Full Text Available Due to changing needs of knowledge consumers in the context of globalization organizations find it important to search out the way of effective application of the process of knowledge sharing and distribution in their activity in order to create and/or select proper means of communication with consumers on purpose of effective satisfaction of their knowledge needs. In order to address the problems of such nature it is important to assess the process of knowledge transfer and consumer purchase, knowledge needs, knowledge transferred to meet of consumer needs, channels and means of knowledge transfer. Also, to select purposefully channels of communication with consumers and tools of e-marketing that are suitable for satisfaction of consumer needs, i.e. channels and tools that affect self-determination of consumer to take a decision to acquire a product or service of specific organization.
Full Text Available This study is an analysis of the main legalaspects related to the activity of consumerassociations, seen as promoters of collectiveinterests of their members, in the RomanianConsumer Law. As a social partner of the publicadministration’ organisms, these associations playthree kinds of roles: (1 representing the consumersin the organisms of public administration;(2 informing and advising their members inquestions related to the purchase of products orthe supply of services; (3 taking legal actionsin order to obtain the protection of a collectiveinterest of consumers or the cessation of a illegalcommercial practice. This article also stresses theimportance of non governmental organizations ofconsumers’ right to be consulted by the PublicAdministration’ representatives, in the process ofelaborating legal norms and procedures relatedto consumers’ protection. The non governmentalorganizations of consumers are entitled to betreated as social partners, while representing theirmembers in the specialized organisms, at a nationalor local level, in which the Public Administrationauthorities are represented.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....
... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...
Larsen, Gunvor Riber
The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...
Conrad, Peter; Leiter, Valerie
This paper examines the impact of changes in the medical marketplace on medicalization in U.S. society. Using four cases (Viagra, Paxil, human growth hormone and in vitro fertilization), we focus on two aspects of the changing medical marketplace: the role of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the emergence of private medical markets. We demonstrate how consumers and pharmaceutical corporations contribute to medicalization, with physicians, insurance coverage, and changes in regulatory practices playing facilitating roles. In some cases, insurers attempt to counteract medicalization by restricting access. We distinguish mediated and private medical markets, each characterized by differing relationships with corporations, insurers, consumers, and physicians. In the changing medical environment, with medical markets as intervening factors, corporations and insurers are becoming more significant determinants in the medicalization process.
Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... scoring highly on both issue-relevant knowledge and motivation are the most likely innovators and early adopters. Their high level of expertise means that they do not need a lot of explanation for understanding the label and its self-relevance and their strong motivation means that they will search...
Foreman, M S; Draper, A
Many healthcare organizations have lost money on their employed group practices. The solution to this dilemma is not necessarily divestment of the group practices. Instead, some healthcare organizations should view their physicians as an asset. Healthcare organizations and physicians need to develop a new framework for their relationship to optimize their competitive advantage. Three guiding principles that will help accomplish this objective are to recast the healthcare organization-physician relationship to focus on the consumer, reconfigure the economic model to exceed consumer demands, and restructure the group practice to encourage fiscal and service excellence. In developing a new relationship framework, the stakeholders need to define the group practice's mission, strategic direction, composition, infrastructure, compensation model, and structure.
Gombeski, William R; Claypool, Joe O; Karpf, Michael; Britt, Jason; Birdwhistell, Mark; Riggs, Karen; Wray, Tanya; Taylor, Jan
Alliances, affiliations, and partnerships continue to grow as one way for health care organizations to better serve their customers and compete with other organizations and networks. These organizational relationships are often promoted through co-branding joint programs and services. A study of consumers was conducted and shows that these organizational relationships positively affect consumer future behavior and benefit the organizations involved. Most importantly, the benefits of these organizational relationships grow as familiarity and understanding of the "new" partner in the market increases.
Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.
Full Text Available Political consumerism was developed during the 19th century and expanded at the turn of the century through social movements aimed at empowering civil society in the market. Many of these movements succeeded in building power on the consumption side. Today, we still witness several forms of political consumerism. This contribution explores the possibilities and limits of consumer involvement in sustainable consumption. The main finding of this study of the political organization of consumers is that the market may not be the only arena for changing consumer behavior. Instead, social constraint and political empowerment seem to be rather more efficient.
... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...
The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and
Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena
Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...
Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna
Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example.
R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson
CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...
Arnold, Stephen J; Fischer, Eileen
This article reviews the nature of hermeneutic philosophy and the assumptions and features of a textual interpretation consistent with this perspective. The relationship of hermeneutic philosophy to the interpretive and critical theory traditions in consumer research is also discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.
The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.
van Raaij, W.F.
Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic
Grunert, Klaus G.
The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...
New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.
Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…
Explores the multiple and heterogeneous deployment of the Other within discourses that intersect and contest each other. Shows how the 19th century discourse of "le femme orientale," which informed the Romantic critique of capitalism, was recuperated in a hegemonic manner to promote an expanding consumer culture. Discusses the colonial…
David R. Phillips
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.
Full Text Available Fish consumption is a key component in production and marketing decisions. Fish consumers play a key role because fishermen and distributors recognize their purchase choices as a determinant to their operation. Consumers make buying decisions according to market conditions and to various attributes of the product, namely the specie, the form, the place of purchase, the size and the quality. This study is aimed at providing information on Oman consumers’ attitudes and preferences for fish purchase form and market outlets using an information-processing model. It identifies factors for predicting changes in market demand for fish products and services as a result of changes in consumers attributes. Results indicate that on-shore fish markets are the most preferred outlets for the coastal population while retailers and Oman National Fisheries Company are the commonly used outlets. Results also show that whole fish is the most preferred form of purchase for both rural and urban medium to low-income consumers while a large proportion of high-income consumers in urban regions prefer mainly sliced fish. Market development efforts should focus on the organization of on-shore fish markets in coastal regions, and retailers and Oman Fisheries Company’s outlets in the inland areas. Forms other than whole fish may be promoted for sale in supermarkets and specialized shops for the urban high-income consumers group..
The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...
The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...
Thøgersen, John; Jørgensen, Anne-Katrine; Sandager, Sara
to elevate consumer involvement in the choice of the product. However, there is a lack of research investigating whether adding such a “green” product attribute actually makes any difference to how consumers make choices. Does the way in which consumers make decisions about groceries change when both “green......, it is concluded that, rather than changing the way consumers make decisions when buying this type of product, the availability of a “green” alternative seems to make “green” consumers develop a new, simple choice heuristic that allows them to do their shopping as effortless and time-efficient as consumers buying......” and conventional alternatives are available? Does it make them deliberate more or do they just develop another, simple choice heuristic? Based on observation and follow-up interviews of consumers at the milk counter in two supermarkets which stock both organic (a “green” attribute) and conventional milk...
丸山, 泰広; 豊, 智行; 福田, 晋; 甲斐, 諭
Bread industry is classfied two types of business. One type is Bread manufacturer which makes bread and sells them to retailer and supermarket. Another type is Bread self-making bakery which makes bread by themselves and directly sells them to consumer. Bread consumer tastes are freshness and diversification. Bread manufacturar copes with diversification by naking many items. Bread self-making bakery copes with freshness by directly providing consumer. But by a innovation a new group is organ...
Dr. V. Seetha; J. Suganya
Impulse buying is an emerging phenomenon, which has been the focus of the retailers to attract the customers. Impulse behaviour is the outcome of emotional reactions that generate unpredicted urge to buy. Consumer behaviour is nowadays gaining much importance for retailers. Due to expansion of organized retail in India, retailers are trying to understand the behaviour of consumers that what product the consumer seeks for, why they need a particular product, when they need it and how they are...
This paper applies the theory of memory for advertising, developed in the consumer behavior literature, to an industrial organization setting to provide insight into advertising strategies in imperfectly competitive markets. There are two firms and infinitely many identical consumers. The firms produce a homogeneous product and distribute their brands through a common retailer. Consumers randomly arrive and are willing to buy one unit of the product. They are unaware of the existence of a par...
... Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products. B. Does the rule meet the evaluation criteria... the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board--Consumer Products AGENCY... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from consumer products. We are approving a local...
Full Text Available Marketing has put forward for a long time the fact that any activity conducted in an organization should consider an intimate knowledge of the client, and a close look at the green marketing practices used over time shows that eco-friendly products should be positioned in relation to those attributes looked for by the involved consumers. In this context, the following paper reveals some important aspects regarding the Romanian green market and the characteristics of the green consumer behavior together with solutions that marketers can apply to stimulate the consumption of green goods.
Codron, Jean-Marie; Grunert, Klaus G.; Giraud-Heraud, Eric
, more healthful, or produced in ways that are more beneficial to the environment and take animal welfare and equitable labor concerns into consideration. For example, 80 percent of the consumers in the European Union (EU) indicate a concern for animal welfare (Blandford and Fulponi, 1999), and European...... consumers are increasingly demanding organic food products and a wider selection of such products (Lohr, 2001). The social concerns for equitable income distribution and sustainable development are reflected in the growth of sales of products marketed under Fair Trade labels. The European Fair Trade market...
Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides
technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....
Andrade, Eduardo; Gururangan, Kapil; Iantorno, Stefano; Feng, Harvey; Cherone, Jennifer; Sawant, Manali; Neogi, Sushrita; Bhat, Prashant; Lukus, Alan
Professor Eduardo Andrade received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the University of Florida in 2004 before coming to theHaas School of Business. He studies the impact of emotions on consumer decision making. One of his studies publishedin 2009 shifted the concept of emotions from transient effects to long-term processes and his recent work is movinginto the burgeoning field of decision neuroscience, which uses neuroscience tools to study economic decision-making.When Berkeley Scientific Journal ...
Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu
Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.
Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone
Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...
Scientists and regulators are regularly baffled by public responses to risk, especially when the issue at stake seemed unproblematic or at least technocratically solvable as long as it was only discussed within the expert community. In terms of such polarizations, the 1970s were the age of dissen...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....... over nuclear power, while the 1990s saw the emergence of gene technology as an issue of public debate. The first decade of the new millennium aspires to become the age of food safety, and once again, a major research effort is made to find out how consumers' confidence can be restored. Brewing......, as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...
... organizations, companies with whom consumers have an established business relationship, and calls to persons... Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; announcement of effective date. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission announces that the Office of Management...
... Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) is leading a national campaign to educate and engage the... have the ability to educate consumers about the importance of getting access to and using their health information (e.g., employers, consumer and disease-based organizations, healthcare associations, product...
An adult-education course familiarized participants with online consumer resources. Beyond teaching the mechanics of Internet use, it showed how to use the Internet as a tool for consumer decision making. (SK)
National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO) P.O. Box 7065, Kampala, ... the introduced dessert bananas among the urban consumers be done to widen their demand. Key Words: Fusarium wilt, Gros Michel, hedonic model, Musa spp.
Cheema, Khaliq Ur Rehman; Imtiaz, Nasir; Shafiq, Yasir
Ethics are very important factor in today business. We have conducted this study to identify consumer ethics and their buying behavior in Particular two Organizations of Faisalabad, to study the consumer ethics we used four different dimensions. The purpose of this paper to find the situation in which consumer behaves unethically in Pakistan. And the result compares with previous consumer ethics researches. It is an exploratory research for the purpose of seeing the consumer ethics. The study...
Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders
From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....
... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...
Tyran, Jean-Robert; Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.
We examine the role of consumer networks in markets that suffer from moral hazard. Consumers exchange information with neighbors about past experiences with different sellers. Networks foster incentives for reputation building and enhance trust and efficiency in markets....
McGowan, Daniel A.
The evolution of the consumer economics course at Hobart and William Smith College demonstrates its mainstreaming in the liberal arts curriculum. The course uses principles of economics to address broad and often controversial consumer issues. (SK)
Bolhuis, W.; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van den Bosch, A.L.M.
Many organizations invest periodically in a new corporate visual identity (CVI). This study investigates the main effects of CVI changes in four organizations, taking into account three independent variables: stakeholder type (employees vs. consumers), the specific organization, and communication
the nutrient gap by recycling sewage sludge, and in particular the criteria applied when these technologies are assessed, are analysed. This part of the analysis shows how organic consumers base their assessment of alternative strategies and technologies primarily on concerns about environmental risks...... to phase out their use of conventional manure before 2021. This, however, raises a number of questions about consumers’ acceptance of the alternative technologies that have been proposed to close the nutrient gap. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Danish organic consumers, this paper first discusses...... what, from a consumers perspective, characterizes the technologies consumers associate with organic production. This part of the analysis shows that by and large consumers regard organic technologies as the opposite of conventional farming. Second, consumers’ perceptions of solutions suggested to close...
Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product. The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%. The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation
Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.
The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to
Foxall, Gordon R.
This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…
... The new threshold for exempt consumer leases in the CLA goes into effect on July 21, 2011. Accordingly... and 213.4) and when the availability of consumer leases on particular terms is advertised (Sec. 213.7... regulation also contain rules about advertising consumer leases. The information collection pursuant to...
Tobler, Christina; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael
Food consumption is associated with various environmental impacts, and consumers' food choices therefore represent important environmental decisions. In a large-scale survey, we examined consumers' beliefs about ecological food consumption and their willingness to adopt such behaviors. Additionally, we investigated in more detail how different motives and food-related attitudes influenced consumers' willingness to reduce meat consumption and to buy seasonal fruits and vegetables. We found consumers believed avoiding excessive packaging had the strongest impact on the environment, whereas they rated purchasing organic food and reducing meat consumption as least environmentally beneficial. Similarly, respondents appeared to be most unwilling to reduce meat consumption and purchase organic food. Taste and environmental motives influenced consumers' willingness to eat seasonal fruits and vegetables, whereas preparedness to reduce meat consumption was influenced by health and ethical motives. Women and respondents who preferred natural foods were more willing to adopt ecological food consumption patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sax, Joanna K; Doran, Neal
The food supply is complicated and consumers are increasingly calling for labeling on food to be more informative. In particular, consumers are asking for the labeling of food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMO) based on health, safety, and environmental concerns. At issue is whether the labels that are sought would accurately provide the information desired. The present study examined consumer (n = 181) perceptions of health, safety and the environment for foods labeled organic, natural, fat free or low fat, GMO, or non-GMO. Findings indicated that respondents consistently believed that foods labeled GMO are less healthy, safe and environmentally-friendly compared to all other labels (ps labels mean something to consumers, but that a disconnect may exist between the meaning associated with the label and the scientific consensus for GMO food. These findings may provide insight for the development of labels that provide information that consumers seek.
Barapatre, Nishant Bhimraj; Joglekar, Vishnu Prabhakar
As far as the rights of consumers are concerned, the International Organization of Consumer's Union (IOCU) in 1983 has specified about the eight rights of a consumer. The Consumer Protection Act (CPA), 1986 then prescribed six "Rights of Consumers," which are protected under the act. However, these rights can be observed in the ancient Indian texts such as Brihat-trayee , Narad Smruti , and Kautilya Arthashastra ., in the form of rights given to patients. For the purpose of present study, the implemented methodology includes - (1) study of the consumer rights described by IOCU and CPA, (2) detailed review of literature for observance of replication of these consumer rights in the ancient Indian texts and (3) a comparative study of the present consumer rights with the rights of patients observed in ancient Indian texts. This study shows that the substance of consumer rights is not a recent evolution, but the foundation of these rights has been laid well beforehand in the ancient times, which were provided to the patients by medical profession as well as by the rulers. The current scenario of protection of consumer rights is the replication of this ancient practice only.
Executive Summary: 1. Consumers and professionals in the food sector will differ in the way they view food quality. Professionals have knowledge and resources to establish quality based on objective criteria. Consumers lack both, and they are typically concerned with many different products...... resources, of means of transportation, of time, of knowledge. Consumers' shopping behaviour is therefore an imperfect indicator of the quality consumers want, insufficient way of communicating consumer wishes to the food sector. 3. The fact that the food producer may be separated from the consumer...... certain attributes of food products or materials which may contradict consumer intentions. Economic pressure to reduce costs may lead to deteriorating quality. 5. While the information supplied by the market may be enough to give feed back on products launched based on the trial-and-error method...
Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen
Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.
Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.
Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip
A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.
Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.
Full Text Available This critical essay introduces the problem of discrimination enabled through the use of transaction-generated-information derived from the analysis of user behaviors within the network environment. The essay begins by describing how segments of the population that are already vulnerable become further victimized through the strategic use of discriminatory algorithms in support of identification, classification, segmentation, and targeting. In response, it evaluates a set of policy options that might be used to limit the harm and compensate the victims of these inherently dangerous technologies. Traditional approaches that stress the protection of privacy through restrictions on the collection and use of personal information are compared with alternatives based on individual and class actions under tort law, as well as more traditional regulatory approaches developed in the area of consumer products safety and environmental regulation.
Hilverda, Femke; Jurgens, Manon; Kuttschreuter, Margot
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the word associations that consumers have with organic food, organic meat or organic vegetables, and how these associations differ between food type and consumer groups. Construal-level theory was used as a theoretical framework to interpret the
Hilverda, Marie-Susanne Dieudonnée; Jurgens, M.; Kuttschreuter, Margôt
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the word associations that consumers have with organic food, organic meat or organic vegetables, and how these associations differ between food type and consumer groups. Construal-level theory was used as a theoretical framework to interpret the
Full Text Available Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered, based on the account of the product use, consumer contingent specificity, known types of hazards, results of inspection and enforcement activities. It was found that the priority products exported by EASE member countries on the common market and forming potentially the greatest risk of harm to the health of consumers may include: dairy products; bird eggs (FEACN group 04; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; waxes of animal or vegetable origin (FEACN group 15; sugar and sugar confectionery (FEACN group 17; meat, fish or crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates (FEACN group 16; alcoholic and soft drinks and so on. (FEACN group 22; vegetables, roots and tubers (FEACN group 07; toys, games and sports equipment (FEACN group 95. In relation to these groups of products the priority study of the risk profile required, as well as the development of algorithms and regulations of the supervisory and control measures and improvement of laboratory support methods.
ACTIONS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FEDERAL SERVICE FOR SURVEILLANCE ON CONSUMER RIGHTS PROTECTION AND HUMANWELL-BEING IN KAMCHATSKY KRAI AND FEDERAL HEALTH ORGANIZATION"CENTER OF HYGIENE AND EPIDEMIOLOGYIN THE KAMCHATSKY KRAI" FOR RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE POPULATION IN CONNECTION WITH THE FUKUSHIMA ACCIDENT
N. I. Zhdanova
Full Text Available The article describes actions of the Administration of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Well-being in KamchatskyKrai and the Federal Health Organization "Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology in the Kamchatsky Krai" to ensure radiation protection of the population in conditions of the radiation accident at Fukushima nuclear power plant and their co-operation with other regional administrations in solution of this problem. The article also presents results of radiation monitoring in the region and shows absence of any significant radiation exposure to the population of the region resulting from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.
Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D
There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.
Sangvatanakul, Pukkaporn; Hillege, Sharon; Lalor, Erin; Levi, Christopher; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy
To test a method of engaging consumers in research priority-setting using a quantitative approach and to determine consumer views on stroke research priorities for clinical practice recommendations with lower levels of evidence (Level III and Level IV) and expert consensus opinion as published in the Australian stroke clinical practice guidelines. Survey Urban community Eighteen stroke survivors (n = 12) and carers (n = 6) who were members of the "Working Aged Group - Stroke" (WAGS) consumer support group. Phase I: Participants were asked whether recommendations were "worth" researching ("yes" or "no"); and, if researched, what potential impact they likely would have on patient outcomes. Phase II: Participants were asked to rank recommendations rated by more than 75% of participants in Phase I as "worth" researching and "highly likely" or "likely" to generate research with a significant effect on patient outcomes (n = 13) in order of priority for future stroke research. All recommendations were rated by at least half (n = 9, 50%) of participants as "worth" researching. The majority (67% to 100%) rated all recommendations as "highly likely" or "likely" that research would have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Thirteen out of 20 recommendations were ranked for their research priorities. Recommendations under the topic heading Getting to hospital were ranked highest and Organization of care and Living with stroke were ranked as a lower priority for research. This study provided an example of how to involve consumers in research priority setting successfully using a quantitative approach. Stroke research priorities from the consumer perspective were different from those of health professionals, as published in the literature; thus, consumer opinion should be considered when setting research priorities. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Increasing media clutter now exposes consumers to thousands of commercial messages every day (Gritten, 2007). The advent of the internet and technology over the past twenty years now means consumer-generated media such as blogs, podcasts, and online social networking sites are a further source (Gritten, 2007). Building brand trust remains, now more than ever, crucial to corporate marketers, in a world where consumers are losing faith in traditional marketing strategies. Social media has give...
textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers to know how transparent pricing is in reality. Commercial practices involving price intransparency can be detrimental to consumer decision making and may be associated with marke...
Findlay, Steven D
Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.
Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...
Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert
Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density......Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...
Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)
There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)
Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)
There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)
Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.
There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)
Saricam, C.; Erdumlu, N.; Silan, A.; Dogan, B. L.; Sonmezcan, G.
The concept of sustainability has begun to gain importance in fashion industry. The companies, which are acting in sustainable fashion, want to gain recognition, inform the consumer about their products and services and generate a demand from the consumers. But the awareness of the consumers about sustainability is still an unknown. In this study, the level of awareness of consumers about sustainable fashion was tried to be determined with a survey established in Turkey in which the socio-demographic characteristics and the awareness level of the participants were questioned. The result of the survey showed that the level of awareness among the participants is not so high and the perception of sustainability is mostly limited to some aspects of sustainable fashion such as “Usage of organic materials” and “Recycling”. Besides, the analysis of the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and awareness level of sustainable fashion showed that the awareness level increased with the education level and income to some extent. But specifically, the males and the participants aged between 24-29 have higher levels of awareness compared with the other participants.
Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU
Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.
The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...
Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe
This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...
Foxall, Gordon R.; Haskins, Christopher
The identification of consumer innovators offers marketing managers the opportunity to tailor new products to the buyers who initiate the diffusion of innovations. Progress has been made in identifying such consumers in economic and social terms, but there are advantages of cost and convenience in isolating the personality profiles of innovators, especially during prelaunch product testing. But innovative consumers' distinctive personality traits have proved elusive. This paper reports an inv...
Full Text Available The consumer plays a key role in resource conservation; therefore, it is important to know consumer behavior to identify consumer profiles and to promote pro-environmental practices in society that encourage resource conservation and reductions in waste generation. The purpose of this paper is to implement a fuzzy model to evaluate consumer behavior in relation to three pro-environmental practices that can be implemented at the household level, including reductions in resource consumption (reduce, reuse of resources (reuse, and recycling (recycle. To identify socio-demographic profiles that characterize an environmentally responsible consumer, 2831 surveys were applied on a representative sample of consumers residing in a Mexican city. Fuzzy logic and neural networks were applied using a Sugeno-type subtractive clustering to determine each profile. The model input variables were socioeconomic status, age, education level, monthly income, occupation and the type of organizations with which the consumer is affiliated. The output variables were represented by pro-environmental practices. Results show that the consumer practices are performed independently of each other, with the most frequent pro-environmental consumer practices being reduction and reuse.
Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...
A conference was convened to provide an overview of major empirical studies in the area of behavioral research related to energy consumption and conservation. Papers were presented in the areas of national and international perspectives of consumer energy behaviors, methodological issues in consumer behavior research, consumers and travel, energy conservation programs implemented by governments and electric utilities, household energy decision making, financial incentives and disincentives, energy information and its relation to product purchase decisions, solar energy and the consumer, and the impact of conservation programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 29 papers from this conference.
The goal of this inservice guide for teaching consumer education at the secondary and adult level is to help consumers become more assertive when buying goods and services. A major section in the guide defines assertiveness. The four basic components of assertive behavior are the ability to express emotions openly, the capacity to exercise one's…
National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014
The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…
W.H. van Boom (Willem)
textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is
...'s national Consumer Products rule. The TSD has more information on our evaluation. C. Public Comment... the California State Implementation Plan, California Air Resources Board--Consumer Products AGENCY... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from consumer products. We are approving a local...
Maignan, [No Value
Based on a consumer survey conducted in France, Germany, and the U.S., the study investigates consumers' readiness to support socially responsible organizations and examines their evaluations of the economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities of the firm. French and German consumers
Wiersinga, R.C.; Hiller, S.R.C.H.; Zimmerman, K.L.
This paper aims to identify supply chain organization and management structures that maximize innovation in consumer driven fruit supply chains with the ultimate goal of increasing European fruit consumption. Data was collected on the chain organization, management structures and innovativeness of
Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin
Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.
Geysler Rogis Flor Bertolini
Full Text Available The value to consumers of environmental issues is an important factor for decision-making organizations. This article aims to present a tool that can identify the value and the willingness of consumers to purchase environmentally friendly products. It is an exploratory research, with an interrogative model. The proposed tool consists of two steps; the first is to check the value and purchasing preference of consumers towards environmentally friendly products. The second step is the simulation of supply environmentally friendly product to consumers. Based on the results, showing whether or not consumers will buy the product eco-organizations will obtain relevant information for decision making.
Todt, Oliver; Muñoz, Emilio; González, Marta; Ponce, Gloria; Estévez, Betty
This paper reports the analysis of a recent study of public perception of food safety governance in Spain, using genetically modified (GM) foods as an indicator. The data make clear that Spanish food consumers are aware of their rights and role in the marketplace. They are critical of current regulatory decision making, which they perceive to be unduly influenced by certain social actors, such as industry. In contrast, consumers demand decisions to be based primarily on scientific opinion, as well as consumer preferences. They want authorities to facilitate informed purchasing decisions, and favor labeling of GM foods mostly on the grounds of their right to know. However, consumers' actual level of knowledge with respect to food technology and food safety remains low. There are several ambivalences as to the real impact of these attitudes on actual consumer behavior (specifically when it comes to organizing themselves or searching out background information).
Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying
Orquin, Jacob Lund
and what happens when they process it? The dissertation contains four papers which report nine different experiments. The first three papers are concerned with the question of what health information consumers process while the last paper explores the consequences of strategically exposing consumers...
Finn, Peter; And Others
Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…
This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that
Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia
of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...
Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim
Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...
Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim
, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking......Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...
Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques
Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....
Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver
European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....
De Krom, H.; Van Leeuwen, E.T.W.M.; Schaap, A.R.
This article provides an overview of the protection that energy consumers are entitled to in the framework of the energy law. First we provide an overview of the parties operating in the energy market that consumers deal with directly or indirectly. Next the supply permit is addressed, which provides an important safeguard for consumers against unreliable suppliers. In part 4 we address the protection of the consumer prior to and while closing an agreement. Part 5 addresses the supplier's obligations. Part 6 discusses the judicial processes that are available to the consumer in case of (partial) non-observance of the agreement. We also pay attention to the compensation schemes and emergency supply in case a supplier is permanently unable to fulfill his obligations. Finally, we address the termination of the agreement. [nl
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between congruity of consumer and brand values, brand identification, brand commitment, and word of mouth. In order to test the relationships between variables 600 questionnaire were distributed in Dubai Malls (Sun and Sand Sports and 334 of questionnaires were received and analyzed. To verify the validity of the questionnaire and to test the significance of observer variables (questionnaire and latent variables (factors, confirmatory factor analysis was used, and Cronbach's alpha was employed to test the reliability. To evaluate the association between variables, the Pearson correlation test is used, and then to verify the conceptual model test the structural equation modeling (SEM and LISREL software are deployed. The result shows that Value congruity positively influences consumers' identification with a brand and Value congruity positively influences consumers ‘commitment to brand. The result also shows that Consumer identification has a positive influence on brand commitment and mediating variable between value congruity and brand commitment and Consumers commitment to a brand has a positive influence on positive WOM and mediating variable between consumers' identification and WOM. The results also demonstrate that Consumer identification positively influences positive WOM.
Based on a number of key indicators, the market outcomes and market structure of the consumer market for energy are mapped, including the behavior of consumers. This report is limited to displaying a number of figures and facts, relating to the demand for products, prices, concentrations, switching, satisfaction and confidence of consumers in the energy market and information from ConsuWijzer, a Dutch governmental consumer protection organization. [nl
une documentation plus accessible que la littérature didactique et scientifique courante. Dans le présent chapitre, les auteurs abordent la question...audience more invested in “answers” than in theory . There are obviously also many different streams of consumer psychology research. The organization of a...consumer behaviour (i.e., behaviour decision theory and models of decision-making) rather than attitudes per say, and focus on product and brand
Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, â€œis C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?â€ This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...
Costa, Ana I. A.; Jongen, W.M.F.
industry are described. Contrary to previous optimistic views, it is put forward that without significant changes taking place in the mindset of the organizations involved in Europe's food R&D, the way forward for consumer-led innovation strategies in the agri-business sector will be long and hard.......This paper builds upon a review of relevant marketing, consumer science and innovation management literature to introduce the concept of consumer-led new product development and describe its main implementation stages. The potential shortcomings of this concept's application in European food...
Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person
Sergio Silva Braga Junior
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.
(g) a collective agreement in terms of Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act. 59 ..... "Direct marketing" means to approach a person, either in person or by ..... literacy skills and minimal experience as a consumer, to understand the contents.
Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria
Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...
Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....
Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel
In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...
Full Text Available Perception involves the collection, processing and interpretation of information through sensory receptors and represents the reality of an individual. Collecting customer information is imperative for marketing, because consumers are in the focus of defining all its objectives, strategies and plans. The result of the perception depends on a number of factors and that is why people do not experience stimuli in the same way. A marketing research of consumer perceptions has been carried out in order to identify the habits and understand the behavior of consumers when choosing products with special emphasis on the influence of perception, stimuli from the environment and perceptions of risk in their decision. .
Ivanova Oksana Evgen'evna
Subject of research - the system of organization and management and economic relations arising in the process of interaction between business entities. The object of research is the agricultural consumer cooperatives. In the course of the study were actively used different methods and techniques of economic and statistical analysis, with particular, such as the method of comparison, grouping method, the Delphi method, the methods and techniques of factor analysis, economic and statistical methods; techniques used medium, relative and average values of continuous reception and sample surveys, was conducted as a detail, and data compilation.
Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A
Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.
Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.
Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)
The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.
Wingo, Rosetta F.
Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)
Fernando Ormonde Teixeira
Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.
The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered
Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa
Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....
Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.
Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging
This report provides an overview of public readiness to deal with deregulation of the electric power industry , based on an analysis of public reaction to the deregulation of the transportation, telecommunications and natural gas industries which already have taken place. The report also examines the reasons why residential consumers have reason to be wary of deregulation. These include the likelihood of slow development of the intended competition, the consequent limits on consumer choices, the possibility of increased prices, decreased quality of service and erosion of social values such as affordability and accessibility. The report concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at ensuring the existence of workable competition for residential consumers, that reliable and meaningful information is available as competition in deregulated markets gets underway, that independent sources of information are widely available, and that basic consumer protection against deceptive and borderline marketing practices, a regulatory oversight mechanism and public reporting mechanisms are in place before competition begins. 33 refs
Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying process by focusing their marketing efforts on elements shaping the customer's virtual experience, the Web experience. Identifying the Web experience components and understanding their role as inpu...
Pura A, Agus Hasan
Marketing concept emerged since business philosophy shifted to a customer-centered, the job is to find the right products for your choosen target markets. The reason for customer orientation in which all functions work together to respond to, Serve, and satisfy customer. To satisfy consumer (end user) the marketing concept use integrated marketing, that is segmenting, Targeting, positioning, and marketing mix (4p/7p). And to.be success, marketer have to understand the behavior of consumers of...
Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...
Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom
Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....
Hasslinger, Anders; Hodzic, Selma; Opazo, Claudio
The Internet has developed into a new distribution channel and online transactions are rapidly increasing. This has created a need to understand how the consumer perceives online purchases. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine if there are any particular factors that influence the online consumer. Primary data was collected through a survey that was conducted on students at the University of Kristianstad. Price, Trust and Convenience were identified as important factors. Price was ...
Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin
This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...
van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G
New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....
Alba, Joseph W.; Vanhouche, Wouter; van Osselaer, Stijn
The topic of free will has a long and distinguished history in philosophy and psychology. Consumer research has implicitly confronted the issue through empirical investigation of psychological processes that speak to the existence of free will; more recently, consumer psychologists have explicitly debated the question and its implications for decision making. The present research takes a different approach by investigating consumers’ perceptions of their free will. Our results suggest that...
Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run
This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...
Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.
The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.
McEwan, Jean A.
Full Text Available This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important. Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.
Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan
Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...
Financing the American Consumer: A Business Report on Consumer Credit. Part I--Summary Report. Report of the Sub-Council on Credit and Related Terms of Sale of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.
National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.
Individuals and organizations administering consumer credit services are urged to adopt the following recommendations and the Code of Billing and Collection Practices (also included): (1) Credit grantors should support continuing educational programs at national and local levels on the nature of the consumer credit system. (2) Whenever possible,…
Cosmina, Marta; Gallenti, Gianluigi; Marangon, Francesco; Troiano, Stefania
Honey is becoming increasingly popular with consumers for its nutritional benefits as well as many other functions. The objective of this article is to determine which factors influence consumers' purchase intentions and to assess the importance of certain honey characteristics to enable identification of the constituents of an ideal honey profile. This information will lead to satisfaction of consumers' preferences and formulation of marketing strategies that support honey makers. We applied a choice experiment to the Italian honey market to define the preferences and the willingness to pay for key characteristics of the product. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 (January-July) among Italian consumers; it was completed by 427 respondents. A latent class model was estimated and four classes were identified, with different preferences, illustrating that respondents seem to be heterogeneous honey consumers. Results suggest the "organic" attribute was more important than others factors, such as the place where the honey was produced (landscape), but less important than the country of origin; local Italian honey was preferred to foreign honey. Respondents showed a higher willingness to pay (WTP) for honey from their country of origin versus the production method used. Our results suggest that while organic beekeeping might be an important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication is not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen
The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.
.... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.
Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
... Part 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 12 CFR Part 1013 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Reporting and recordkeeping... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...
Wilkinson, Kerry; Muhlhausler, Beverly; Motley, Crystal; Crump, Anna; Bray, Heather; Ankeny, Rachel
Insects have long been consumed as part of the diets of many Asian, African, and South American cultures. However, despite international agencies such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advocating the nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits of entomophagy, attitudinal barriers persist in Western societies. In Australia, the indigenous ‘bush tucker’ diet comprising witchetty grubs, honey ants, and Bogong moths is quite well known; however, in most Australian locales, the consumption of insects tends to occur only as a novelty. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the awareness and acceptance of insects as food. An online survey of 820 consumers found that 68% of participants had heard of entomophagy, but only 21% had previously eaten insects; witchetty grubs, ants, grasshoppers, and crickets were the most commonly tasted insects. Taste, appearance, safety, and quality were identified as the factors that were most likely to influence consumer willingness to try eating insects, but consumer attitudes towards entomophagy were underpinned by both food neophobia (i.e., reluctance to eat new or novel foods) and prior consumption of insects. Neophobic consumers were far less accepting of entomophagy than neophilic consumers, while consumers who had previously eaten insects were most accepting of insects as food. Incorporating insects into familiar products (e.g., biscuits) or cooked meals also improved their appeal. Collectively, these findings can be used by the food industry to devise production and/or marketing strategies that overcome barriers to insect consumption in Australia.
Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander
In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing...
Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Holm Olesen, Michael; Kjær, Jonas
This paper addresses an issue of great importance for the future organization of the consumerelectronics industry: the "battle" of control over component-based digitization. We are now witnessing the dismantling of the Japanese Model that has prevailed in consumer electronicsover the past 30 years....... Specialized and large-scale component suppliers have taken the lead inmost component-based innovations and have obtained increasingly powerful positions in thevalue chain of consumer electronics. This paper provides an in-depth study of the strategic andstructural ramifications of one such component...... technology. Aframework is developed to explain the reluctance of most of the large consumer electronicsgiants in developing/adopting this new technology.Key words: Consumer electronics, Industrial dynamics, Open InnovationJEL Codes: L6, L68, O32...
Bogers, Marcel; Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne
Digital fabrication—including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing—has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model—describing the logic of creating...... and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from a manufacturer......-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer effectively takes over...
Lazarus, Jean B; Lee, N Genell
Health care delivery competence and accountability have typically been defined from providers' perspectives, rather than those of consumers as purchasers of services. In 1999, in the face of broad public concern about nursing competence the Alabama Board of Nursing developed an accountability model that established consumers at the center of the model and placed accountability for competent nursing practice at all levels of providers including regulatory agencies, health care organizations, educators, and licensees. The Board then authorized two research projects involving first, consumers perceptions on nursing competence and regulation, and second, comparing their perceptions with those of licensees, nurse educators, and organizational leaders (N = 1,127). Comparative data evidenced significant differences between consumers' and other participants' perceptions. This article highlights how policy implications derived from research resulted in regulatory changes for nursing competence. Five years of progress in policy changes made in the interest of public safety are summarized.
Full Text Available Based on some results of a research organized in the county of Bacau on consumers of cosmetics, using the questionnaire, this article analyses a number of issues with regard to consumer behavior, namely: cosmetics brand most commonly purchased by consumers, cosmetics category to which are allocated the largest sums of money, the amounts of money that consumers are willing to spend per month to purchase these types of products, the importance of some of the main criteria considered when buying cosmetic products and differences manifested in categories of respondents by a number of variables such as age, sex, marital status, income and living environment. The research was conducted using a sample of 500 respondents non-randomly selected, so that the results presented refer only to the studied sample, being a guide to community from which it was extracted.
Consumers increasingly integrate social media into their day-to-day lives. For companies consumer engagement in a brand community on social network is becoming increasingly important for developing relations with consumers. Consumer engagement in a brand community on social network creates a dynamic relationship between the community members and the brand which contributes to an increase in consumer loyalty to the brand. The literature is abundant of studies, which examines the consumer engag...
Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.
Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.
The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)
Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar
Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize
Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.
It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...
Full Text Available Cloud computing is changing the way that organizations utilize IT resources with a corresponding impact on the role of IT management. To help organizations with managing their business informatics, Management of Business Informatics (MBI framework has been developed. The problem was that this framework did not explicitly reflect managing cloud services from cloud service consumer perspective and specifically did not address managing of cloud service improvement from consumer perspective. Therefore, analysis of MBI framework was performed from cloud service consumer viewpoint to design extension of MBI framework towards cloud service improvement management. Proposal of MBI framework extension in an output of research process according to Design Science Research Methodology and its evaluation approach is based on methodology for the design and implementation of case studies for scientific purposes and on descriptive evaluation method using scenario.
Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.
From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…
Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.
A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test
Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H
A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.
Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus
Biocidal products are commonly used in households and can pose a risk to human health and the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate consumers' use and understanding of biocidal products in order to identify starting points for minimising their exposure to these products and reducing possible emissions to the environment. In a case study, standardised questionnaires were used to interview consumers in 133 households in three neighbourhoods in Northern Germany, representing the urban-rural typologies in Europe: predominantly urban, intermediate and predominantly rural regions. The questions focussed on the comprehension of the term 'biocide', pest control habits, sources of information, risk perception of different product groups and possible emission reduction measures. Only 21% of the respondents understood the term 'biocide' correctly, whereas 29% thought of 'something that had to do with organic pest control', and 28% were not able to think of a possible meaning. The risk perception of biocidal products compared to plant protection products varied depending on the living conditions. In the urban neighbourhood, biocidal products were perceived as more dangerous than in the rural area. The main pests to be fought were ants, mould and fruit fly. The results of the study indicate that there is a considerable difference between the types of biocidal products that interviewees claimed to own and those that they actually did have in their households. Most notably, respondents did not realise that they owned surface disinfectants. This result indicates that consumers often seem not to be aware of using specific biocidal products. Also, this shows the limitations of collecting data on products owned with only one method, as the results from products inventories of the households deviate from the data collected in interviews. Our results show that the term 'biocide' is not fully understood by many people. To communicate possible risks of biocidal products
Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.
The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)
Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim
Novel foods have been the object of intense public debate in recent years. Despite efforts to communicate the outcomes of risk assessments to consumers, public confidence in the management of potential risks has been low. Various reasons behind this have been identified, chiefly a disagreement...... between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...
Full Text Available In the good old times shop manager knew their customers personally and were able to tailor offerings to their needs and desires. But how can we create meaningful moments for connected consumers in global markets? Yasmeen Ahmad explains how in digital times data fill in. Smart algorithms help generate insights and enable real time action to provide the right product and service to the right customer at the right time. Companies that don’t want to be left behind a digital elite need to remain close to their customers across multiple digital touchpoints. Being capable of reading, interpreting and acting upon consumers` traces is a prerequisite.
Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad
ABSTRACT In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790
Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad
In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.
Consumer Horticulture encompasses a wide-array of activities that are practiced by and of interest to the gardening public, garden-focused non-governmental organizations, and gardening-related industries. In a previous publication, we described the current lack of funding support for research, exten...
Discusses three generations of consumer protection issues related to managed care: (1) individual treatment decisions--individuals wanting treatment their plan does not cover or deems unnecessary; (2) insurance practices and risk selection--impact of health management organizations on the rest of the health insurance system; and (3) health plan…
The three central primitives of international trade theory are consumer preferences, factor endowments, and the production technologies that allow firms to transform factors of production into consumer goods. A limitation of traditional trade theory, however, is that the specification of technology treats the mapping between factors of production and final goods as a black box. In practice, the decisions of agents in organizations determine this mapping. Recently, international trade economis...
Awoyinka, A.; Akingbohungbe, A.E.
Three commonly used food items; maize, beans and smoked fish were irradiated and consumer acceptability was tested through a questionnaire method. Subjects were residents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Respondents attitudes towards the processing and tasting of the food were very positive and the possibility of marketing the foods was suggested by them
B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)
textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of
... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Shin, Attorney, or Benjamin K. Olson, Counsel, Division of Consumer... Workers (CPI-W), as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Therefore, from July 21, 2011 to December..., Division of Research and Statistics, Mail Stop 95-A, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System...
Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug
The paper reports on a smart grid experiment for the making of a new retail electricity market integrating fluctuating electricity generation into electricity systems. An outline of design challenges faced by the market engineers when dealing with different and lacking conceptions of consumers...
Full Text Available We live in a society where the consumer, due to the diversity and abundance of products and services whose characteristics are becoming more similar, has to make choices that are increasingly difficult. Another aspect that has led to a profound transformation of the consumer behavior is due to the large volume of information, supplied by the Internet, information which in some cases is not accurate, but is decisively influencing the consumer. In equal measure, the difficulty of making a purchasing decision is caused by the fact that with the opening to the global market, where the products and services were depersonalized, gaining common features, and where the concept of quality tends to no longer relate to the same standards as a few decades ago, having suffered major changes. The quality of products is a fundamental requirement of competitiveness, and quality assessment is a personal right of the consumer, because this is a direct effect of quality of life. (“Fundamentele ştiinţei mărfurilor” Dinu Vasile, 2008
From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other
Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed fish products. Design/methodology/approach: Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category involvement,
Timmermann, Cristian; Félix, Georges F.; Tittonell, Pablo
The concept of food sovereignty is becoming an element of everyday parlance in development politics and food justice advocacy. Yet to successfully achieve food sovereignty, the demands within this movement have to be compatible with the way people are pursuing consumer sovereignty and vice versa.
Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.
Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice
ten Raa, Thijs
This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis
to date is the millennial consumer segment ... consumers (Eastman et al, 2014; Pérez-Luño et al, 2011), due to their love of technology and the virtual world. Consumers of the innovation- generation were born between 1980 and 2000 and currently fall in the age ... The constantly changing media habits of consumers ...
Heijnen, P.; van der Made, A
We present a theory that explains the prevalence of consumer boycotts. In our model, a firm does not know how concerned consumers are about the firm's misconduct. Because it is only optimal for the firm to alter its behavior if consumers are very concerned, consumers have an incentive to overstate
Price, Linda L.; And Others
Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)
The main aim is to determine consumers' awareness of their rights in the area of consumer protection. Secondary targets are to explored the reason of ignorance of law, determine consumer satisfaction with consumer protection and design measures to improve the situation.
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer...
ªerban Comãnescu Adrian; Muhcinã Silvia
Information on consumer behavior is essential in trade policy decision-making process. The study of consumer behavior has concerned different subjects:psychology, sociology, economy. In a marketing approach knowledge of consumer behavior is not an end in itself, but only a tool, a means by which business decisions are adapted to the consumer expectations.
... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 [Docket No. CFPB-2011-0026] RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim final rule... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial...
Bartels, J.; Onwezen, M.C.
This study investigates how social representations and consumers' identification with organic food consumers affects intentions to buy products that make environmental and ethical claims. For the purposes of the study, an online panel study was conducted on a representative sample of consumers
Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A
Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.
Full Text Available Today, comprehending consumer behavior is becoming dynamically challenging with the emergence of social commerce. Business organizations are now striving to convince consumers by exploiting the advantage of social support empowered by online social networks. Importantly, social ties in such online social networks facilitate trust as the most compelling benefit while alleviating the perceived risk, which happened to be the major concerns with electronic commerce over the years. This research study is aimed at understanding the impact of social commerce on the consumer behavior, particularly consumer decision-making stages. Hence, this research was conducted as a quantitative study involving a cross-sectional survey and gathered valid responses from Facebook users. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM was used to analyze data and test hypotheses. The findings exhibited significant positive effects from social commerce on all the consumer decision-making stages namely; need recognition, information search, alternative evaluation, purchase decision and post-purchase decision. Therefore, this study highlights the importance of employing an appropriate social commerce strategy for business organizations.
Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.
Longo, Daniel R
The proliferation of health care consumer reports (also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports") designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions makes it vital to understand the perspective of employers who provide the vast majority of health insurance to the working population regarding the use of these reports. There is little empirical evidence on how consumer reports are used by employers to make health care purchasing decisions. This study fills that gap by surveying 154 businesses in Boone County, Missouri, regarding their evaluation of a consumer guide. The majority of employers surveyed indicate that the report will not have a direct effect on their health care purchasing decisions. However, they indicate that the reports are "positive and worthwhile" and their responses reflect a favorable view of the health care organization that developed and disseminated the report. Additionally, findings indicate that employers generally prefer consumer reports as a means to compare local health care institutions, rather than reviewing national averages to locate the same information. Report developers should take precautions to determine the intent of such reports, as they may not achieve the objective of changing employers' health care purchasing behavior.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the consumers decision making process. In particular, this study attempts to examine consumers negative emotions, which elicit during a decision processing. Especially, the case of a financial decision will be examined. Moreover, consumers negative emotion will be investigated in relation with consumers coping behaviour. To be more specific, the option of seeking advice as a successful consumers coping behaviour will be explor...
The diploma thesis deals with consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and comparison of their service quality. The first part of research is dedicated to consumer's knowledge of credit issues. Second describes main difficulties of consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and proves their use of unfair manners. The final part of thesis propose improvements, which will boost consumer's protection on field of consumer's credits.
Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger
To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs.
Steinemann, Anne C.
Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects
Della Lucia, Suzana Maria; Minim, Valéria Paula Rodrigues; Silva, Carlos Henrique Osório; Minim, Luis Antonio
O efeito de algumas características da embalagem de café orgânico sobre a intenção de compra do consumidor foi avaliado, utilizando-se a conjoint analysis. Quatro características, cada uma com dois níveis, foram manipuladas: preço do produto (alto e baixo), cor da embalagem (vermelha e verde), marca (conhecida e desconhecida) e informação sobre orgânicos (com e sem os dizeres "produto isento de agrotóxicos" e "não agride o meio ambiente"). Dezesseis embalagens hipotéticas foram criadas seguin...