WorldWideScience

Sample records for consumer liquid fuel

  1. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  2. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  3. Liquid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  4. The pass through of oil prices into euro area consumer liquid fuel prices in an environment of high and volatile oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyler, Aidan

    2009-01-01

    Crude and refined oil prices have been relatively high and volatile on a sustained basis since 1999. This paper considers the pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid (i.e. petrol, diesel and heating) fuel prices in such an environment. The pass through of oil prices into consumer liquid fuel prices has already been addressed extensively in the literature. Nonetheless much of this literature has either focused on the United States or on a time period when oil prices were relatively stable, or has used monthly data. The main contribution of this paper is a comprehensive combination of many features that have been considered before but rarely jointly. These features include: (1) the analysis of the euro area as an aggregate and a large number of countries (the initial 12 member states); (2) the consideration of different time periods; (3) the modelling of the data in raw levels rather than in log levels. This turns out to have important implications for our findings; (4) the use of high frequency (weekly) data, which, as results will suggest, are the lowest frequency one should consider; (5) the investigation of the different stages of the production chain from crude oil prices to retail distribution - refining costs and margins, distribution and retailing costs and margins; (6) the examination of prices including and excluding taxes - excise and value-added; (7) the modelling of prices for three fuel types - passenger car petrol and diesel separately and home heating fuel oil; (8) lastly we also address the issue of possible asymmetries, allowing for the pass through to vary according to (a) whether price are increasing or decreasing and (b) whether price levels are above or below their equilibrium level. The main findings are as follows: First, as distribution and retailing costs and margins have been broadly stable on average, the modelling of the relationship between consumer prices excluding taxes and upstream prices in raw levels rather than in

  5. Liquid fuel concept benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.

    1996-01-01

    There are principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel listed and analyzed in the first part of the paper. One of the primary results of the analyses performed shows that the solid fuel concept, which was to certain degree advantageous in the first periods of a nuclear reactor development and operation, has guided this branch of a utilization of atomic nucleus energy to a death end. On the background of this, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the first part of the paper, too. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilize the advantages of liquid fuels, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed and currently having been under development in the Los Alamos National Laboratory, will be studied both theoretically and experimentally. There is a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-O briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project. Finally, there will be another very promising concept of a small low power ADTT system introduced which is characterized by a high level of safety and economical efficiency. In the conclusion, the overall survey of principal benefits which may be expected by introducing liquid nuclear fuel in nuclear power and research reactor systems is given and critically analyzed. 7 refs, 4 figs

  6. LIQUID HYDROCARBON FUEL CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A compound anode consists of a reforming catalyst bed in direct contact with a palladium-silver fuel cell anode. The objective of this study was to...prove the feasibility of operating a compound anode fuel cell on a liquid hydrocarbon and to define the important parameters that influence cell...performance. Both reformer and fuel cell tests were conducted with various liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Included in this report is a description of the

  7. Consumer Views: Importance of Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on the importance of fuel economy amongst other vehicle attributes and views on which alternative fuel types would be the best and worst replacements for gasoline.

  8. Microorganism mediated liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, Richard

    2018-03-20

    Herein disclosed is a method for producing liquid hydrocarbon product, the method comprising disintegrating a hydrocarbon source; pretreating the disintegrated hydrocarbon source; solubilizing the disintegrated hydrocarbon source to form a slurry comprising a reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source; admixing a biochemical liquor into the slurry, wherein the biochemical liquor comprises at least one conversion enzyme configured to facilitate bond selective photo-fragmentation of said reactant molecule of the hydrocarbon source, to form liquid hydrocarbons via enzyme assisted bond selective photo-fragmentation, wherein said conversion enzyme comprises reactive sites configured to restrict said reactant molecule such that photo-fragmentation favorably targets a preselected internal bond of said reactant molecule; separating the liquid hydrocarbons from the slurry, wherein contaminants remain in the slurry; and enriching the liquid hydrocarbons to form a liquid hydrocarbon product. Various aspects of such method/process are also discussed.

  9. Liquid Fuels From Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of applications and of the starch in biogas plants. Oils of honge, Pongamia pinnata (see Figure a), neem and mahua, Madhuca indica have been commonly available in most parts of India for a long time as fuels for illumination purposes. However to use them as diesel substitutes in transport vehicles these oils need to be ...

  10. Liquid fuels containing polyamine dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, D.I.

    1983-08-23

    Certain polyamines are useful carburetor dispersants for liquid fuel compositions. Among the suitable polyamines are diamines which may be prepared by the Mannich reaction of certain primary or second amines with an aldehyde such as formaldehyde and an aliphatic nitro compound such as 2-nitropropan followed by reduction of the nitro group.

  11. Fueling by liquid jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, C.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of steady-state burn in tokamak fusion reactors will require a reliable method for fueling them during operation. The injection of high-velocity dense-phase DT is one solution under investigation. The eventual requirements are not known precisely but the next series of experiments in tokamak devices (e.g., Doublet III, PDX) could use millimeter size particles with velocities of the order of 2000 m/s. This paper presents results on the feasibility of a high-pressure injection system to meet these objectives

  12. 75 FR 15893 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... how much the proposed consumer information program would affect consumer tire purchasing behavior and... 575 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No... 2127-AK45 Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...

  13. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  14. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  15. Liquid fuels from Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.W.

    1979-06-15

    In Canadian energy planning, the central issue of security of supply must be addressed by developing flexible energy systems that make the best possible use of available resources. For liquid fuel production, oil sands and heavy oil currently appear more attractive than coal or biomass as alternatives to conventional crude oil, but the magnitude of their economic advantage is uncertain. The existence of large resources of oil sands, heavy oils, natural gas and low-sulfur coals in Western Canada creates a unique opportunity for Canadians to optimize the yield from these resources and develop new technology. Many variations on the three basic liquefaction routes - hydroliquefaction, pyrolysis and synthesis - are under investigation around the world, and the technology is advancing rapidly. Each process has merit under certain circumstances. Surface-mineable subbituminous and lignite coals of Alberta and Saskatchewan appear to offer the best combination of favorable properties, deposit size and mining cost, but other deposits in Alberta, Nova Scotia and British Columbia should not be ruled out. The research effort in Canada is small by world standards, but it is unlikely that technology could be imported that is ideally suited to Canadian conditions. Importing technology is undesirable: innovation or process modification to suit Canadian coals and markets is preferred; coprocessing of coal liquids with bitumen or heavy oils would be a uniquely Canadian, exportable technology. The cost of synthetic crude from coal in Canada is uncertain, estimates ranging from $113 to $220/m/sup 3/ ($18 to $35/bbl). Existing economic evaluations vary widely depending on assumptions, and can be misleading. Product quality is an important consideration.

  16. Compact Fuel-Cell System Would Consume Neat Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram; Kindler, Andrew; Valdez, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed direct methanol fuel-cell electric-power-generating system, the fuel cells would consume neat methanol, in contradistinction to the dilute aqueous methanol solutions consumed in prior direct methanol fuel-cell systems. The design concept of the proposed fuel-cell system takes advantage of (1) electro-osmotic drag and diffusion processes to manage the flows of hydrogen and water between the anode and the cathode and (2) evaporative cooling for regulating temperature. The design concept provides for supplying enough water to the anodes to enable the use of neat methanol while ensuring conservation of water for the whole fuel-cell system.

  17. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part III. Consumer Behavior and Attitudes Toward Fuel Efficient Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part III consists of studies and reviews on: consumer awareness of fuel efficiency issues; consumer acceptance of fuel efficient vehicles; car size ch...

  18. 16 CFR 309.15 - Posting of non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... rating. (a) If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells non-liquid alternative vehicle fuel (other... fuel. If you are a retailer who offers for sale or sells electricity to consumers through an electric... vehicle fuel dispensing system, either by letter or on the delivery ticket or other paper, or by a...

  19. Direct liquid methanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingfei; Peng, Ranran; Dong, Dehua; Gao, Jianfeng; Liu, Xingqin; Meng, Guangyao

    Anode coking problem of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) when using hydrocarbon fuels has been the major barrier for the practice and commercialization of well-developed high performance SOFC. In this work, based on fuels consideration, we chose liquid methanol as the candidate fuel for SOFC with the configuration of NiO/SDC-SDC-SSC/SDC. For comparison, traditional fuels, hydrogen and ammonia, were tested. With methanol as fuel, the maximum power densities were 698, 430 and 223 mW cm -2 at 650, 600 and 550 °C, respectively, which were higher than that with ammonia and lower than that of hydrogen. The electrochemical properties of the cells with the three fuels were investigated by AC impedance spectroscopy. The long-term stability of the cell with methanol, methane and ethanol were also studied at a constant output voltage of 0.5 V.

  20. Romania, producer and consumer of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iuhas, Tiberius

    1998-01-01

    A historical sketch of the activity of Romanian Rare Metals Enterprises is presented stressing the valorization of rare metals like: - radioactive metals, uranium and thorium; - dispersed rare metals, molybdenum, monazite; - heavy and refractory metals, titanium and zirconium; rare earths, lanthanides and yttrics. The beginning and developing of research in the nuclear field is in closed relation to the existence on the domestic territory of important uranium ores the mining of which begun early in 1954. The exploitation of Baita-Bihor orebody was followed by that at Ciudanovita, Natra and Dobrei ores in Caras-Severin county. Concomitantly with the ore mining, geological research was developed covering vast areas of country's surface and using advanced investigation tools suitable for increasing depths. The next step in the nuclear fuel program was made by building a uranium concentrate (as ammonium or sodium diuranate) plant. Two purification units for processing the uranium concentrate to sintered uranium dioxide powder were completed and commissioned at Feldioara in 1986. The quality of the uranium dioxide product meets the quality standards requirements for CANDU type nuclear fuel as certified in 1994. Currently, part of the fuel load of Cernavoda reactor is fuel element clusters produced by Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti of sintered powder processed at Feldioara. A list of strategic objectives of the Uranium National Company is presented among which: - maintaining the uranium mining and milling activities in close relation with the fuel requirements of Cernavoda NPP; continuing geological research in promising zones, to find new uranium orebodies, easy to mill cost effectively; decreasing the environmental impact in the geological research areas, in mining and transport affected areas and in the processing plants. The fuel demand of current operation of Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 as well as of future Unit 2 after commissioning are and will be satisfied by the

  1. Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels: status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Sheets, Johnathon P; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2014-12-01

    Methane is the main component of natural gas and biogas. As an abundant energy source, methane is crucial not only to meet current energy needs but also to achieve a sustainable energy future. Conversion of methane to liquid fuels provides energy-dense products and therefore reduces costs for storage, transportation, and distribution. Compared to thermochemical processes, biological conversion has advantages such as high conversion efficiency and using environmentally friendly processes. This paper is a comprehensive review of studies on three promising groups of microorganisms (methanotrophs, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and acetogens) that hold potential in converting methane to liquid fuels; their habitats, biochemical conversion mechanisms, performance in liquid fuels production, and genetic modification to enhance the conversion are also discussed. To date, methane-to-methanol conversion efficiencies (moles of methanol produced per mole methane consumed) of up to 80% have been reported. A number of issues that impede scale-up of this technology, such as mass transfer limitations of methane, inhibitory effects of H2S in biogas, usage of expensive chemicals as electron donors, and lack of native strains capable of converting methane to liquid fuels other than methanol, are discussed. Future perspectives and strategies in addressing these challenges are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nontoxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, Millicent

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of propellants used in conventional propulsion systems increases not only safety risks to personnel but also costs, due to special handling required during the entire lifetime of the propellants. Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) has developed and tested novel nontoxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. In Phase I of the project, the company demonstrated the feasibility of several ionic liquid formulations that equaled the performance of conventional rocket propellant monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and also provided low volatility and low toxicity. In Phase II, ORBITEC refined the formulations, conducted material property tests, and investigated combustion behavior in droplet and microreactor experiments. The company also explored the effect of injector design on performance and demonstrated the fuels in a small-scale thruster. The ultimate goal is to replace propellants such as MMH with fuels that are simultaneously high-performance and nontoxic. The fuels will have uses in NASA's propulsion applications and also in a range of military and commercial functions.

  3. Nuclear Energy and Synthetic Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Richard

    2012-10-01

    This talk will propose a plan to combine nuclear reactors with the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process to produce synthetic carbon-neutral liquid transportation fuels from sea water. These fuels can be formed from the hydrogen and carbon dioxide in sea water and will burn to water and carbon dioxide in a cycle powered by nuclear reactors. The F-T process was developed nearly 100 years ago as a method of synthesizing liquid fuels from coal. This process presently provides commercial liquid fuels in South Africa, Malaysia, and Qatar, mainly using natural gas as a feedstock. Nuclear energy can be used to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen as well as to extract carbon dioxide from sea water using ion exchange technology. The carbon dioxide and hydrogen react to form synthesis gas, the mixture needed at the beginning of the F-T process. Following further refining, the products, typically diesel and Jet-A, can use existing infrastructure and can power conventional engines with little or no modification. We can then use these carbon-neutral liquid fuels conveniently long into the future with few adverse environmental impacts.

  4. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-06-30

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current porgram are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  5. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  6. Novel materials for fuel cells operating on liquid fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. C. Sequeira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Towards commercialization of fuel cell products in the coming years, the fuel cell systems are being redefined by means of lowering costs of basic elements, such as electrolytes and membranes, electrode and catalyst materials, as well as of increasing power density and long-term stability. Among different kinds of fuel cells, low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs are of major importance, but their problems related to hydrogen storage and distribution are forcing the development of liquid fuels such as methanol, ethanol, sodium borohydride and ammonia. In respect to hydrogen, methanol is cheaper, easier to handle, transport and store, and has a high theoretical energy density. The second most studied liquid fuel is ethanol, but it is necessary to note that the highest theoretically energy conversion efficiency should be reached in a cell operating on sodium borohydride alkaline solution. It is clear that proper solutions need to be developed, by using novel catalysts, namely nanostructured single phase and composite materials, oxidant enrichment technologies and catalytic activity increasing. In this paper these main directions will be considered.

  7. Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

  8. Multiplexed electrospray scaling for liquid fuel injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waits, C Mike; Hanrahan, Brendan; Lee, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Evaporation and space-charge requirements are evaluated to understand the effect of device scaling and fuel preheating for a liquid fuel injector using a multiplexed electrospray (MES) configuration in compact combustion applications. This work reveals the influence of the droplet diameter, droplet velocity and droplet surface temperature as well as the surrounding gas temperature on the size and performance of microfabricated MES. Measurements from MES devices are used in the model to accurately account for the droplet diameter versus flow rate relationship, the minimum droplet diameter and the relevant droplet velocities. A maximum extractor electrode to ground electrode distance of 3.1 mm required to overcome space-charge forces is found to be independent of voltage or droplet velocity for large levels of multiplexing. This maximum distance also becomes the required evaporation length scale which imposes minimum fuel pre-heating requirements for large flow densities. Required fuel preheating is therefore evaluated for both ethanol and 1-butanol with combustor parameters relevant to fuel reformation, thermoelectric conversion, thermophotovoltaic conversion and thermionic conversion

  9. Comparison of alternate fuels for aircraft. [liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1979-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene were assessed as alternate fuels for aircraft in terms of cost, capital requirements, and energy resource utilization. Fuel transmission and airport storage and distribution facilities are considered. Environmental emissions and safety aspects of fuel selection are discussed and detailed descriptions of various fuel production and liquefaction processes are given. Technological deficiencies are identified.

  10. Liquid fuel injection elements for rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, George B., Jr. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Thrust chambers for liquid propellant rocket engines include three principal components. One of these components is an injector which contains a plurality of injection elements to meter the flow of propellants at a predetermined rate, and fuel to oxidizer mixture ratio, to introduce the mixture into the combustion chamber, and to cause them to be atomized within the combustion chamber so that even combustion takes place. Evolving from these injectors are tube injectors. These tube injectors have injection elements for injecting the oxidizer into the combustion chamber. The oxidizer and fuel must be metered at predetermined rates and mixture ratios in order to mix them within the combustion chamber so that combustion takes place smoothly and completely. Hence tube injectors are subject to improvement. An injection element for a liquid propellant rocket engine of the bipropellant type is provided which includes tangential fuel metering orifices, and a plurality of oxidizer tube injection elements whose injection tubes are also provided with tangential oxidizer entry slots and internal reed valves.

  11. Degradation of polyolefine wastes into liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyminski, B.; Zwolinski, K.; Jurczyk, R.

    2006-01-01

    In Poland, the consumption of polymers like polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene amounts is nearly one million tons per year. Most of the products made of these polymers becomes wastes in short time. Polymers are very resistant to biodegradation, therefore technologies of their transformation into useful materials should be developed. In our Institute, the technology of catalytic cracking of polyolefines into liquid fuels is studied. Experiments are concentrated on the selection of proper catalyst and on the construction of continuously operated installation for cracking of polyolefine wastes. Experiments on the selection of catalyst were performed in a laboratory scale batch reactor. A big laboratory installation with a yield of ca. 1 kg/h of liquid products was tested with positive results and plans are to construct a pilot plant installation with a yield of 30 kg/h of liquid products. The products of catalytic cracking are separated in a distillation column into gas, gasoline, light oil and heavy oil fractions. The gas is used for heating the reactor. The heavy oil fraction is recycled to the reactor and the gasoline and light oil fractions are the final products. The gasoline fraction can be used as a component of motor gasoline and the light oil fraction can be used as a component of diesel fuel or as a heating oil. (author)

  12. Predicting the Liquid Lengths of Heavy Hydrogen Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Laura L

    2003-01-01

    .... Using models formulated by previous researchers as well as the thermodynamic properties for three fuel surrogates the liquid length can be determined for diesel fuel, JP8 as well as provide a model...

  13. Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Prop...

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Title: Unsupervised Anomaly Detection for Liquid-Fueled Rocket Propulsion Health Monitoring. Abstract: This article describes the results of applying four...

  14. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, Charles, M., Jr.

    2009-07-07

    This report is the final technical report for DOE Program DE-FC36-04GO14301 titled “Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Prototype Demonstration for Consumer Electronics Applications”. Due to the public nature of this report some of the content reported in confidential reports and meetings to the DOE is not covered in detail in this report and some of the content has been normalized to not show actual values. There is a comparison of the projects accomplishments with the objectives, an overview of some of the key subsystem work, and a review of the three levels of prototypes demonstrated during the program. There is also a description of the eventual commercial product and market this work is leading towards. The work completed under this program has significantly increased the understanding of how Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) can be deployed successfully to power consumer electronic devices. The prototype testing has demonstrated the benefits a direct methanol fuel cell system has over batteries typically used for powering consumer electronic devices. Three generations of prototypes have been developed and tested for performance, robustness and life. The technologies researched and utilized in the fuel cell stack and related subsystems for these prototypes are leveraged from advances in other industries such as the hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell industry. The work under this program advanced the state of the art of direct methanol fuel cells. The system developed by MTI micro fuel cells aided by this program differs significantly from conventional DMFC designs and offers compelling advantages in the areas of performance, life, size, and simplicity. The program has progressed as planned resulting in the completion of the scope of work and available funding in December 2008. All 18 of the final P3 prototypes builds have been tested and the results showed significant improvements over P2 prototypes in build yield, initial performance, and durability. The systems have

  15. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

  16. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najser, Jan, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav, E-mail: jan.najser@vsb.cz, E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz [VSB - Technical university of Ostrava, Energy Research Center, 17. listopadu 15/2172, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic); Vantuch, Martin [University of Zilina, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Power Engineering, Univerzitna 1, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  17. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najser, Jan; Peer, Václav; Vantuch, Martin

    2014-08-01

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  18. Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1988-01-01

    Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

  19. The JPL Direct Methanol Liquid-feed PEM Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, G.; Surampudi, S.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, there has been a breakthrough in fuel cell technology in the Energy Storage Systems Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with the develpment of a direct methanol, liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell... The methanol liquid-feed, solid polymer electrolyte (PEM) design has numerous system level advantages over the gas-feed design. These include:...

  20. Aircraft-Fuel-Tank Design for Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T W

    1955-01-01

    Some of the considerations involved in the design of aircraft fuel tanks for liquid hydrogen are discussed herein. Several of the physical properties of metals and thermal insulators in the temperature range from ambient to liquid-hydrogen temperatures are assembled. Calculations based on these properties indicate that it is possible to build a large-size liquid-hydrogen fuel tank which (1) will weigh less then 15 percent of the fuel weight, (2) will have a hydrogen vaporization rate less than 30 percent of the cruise fuel-flow rate, and (3) can be held in a stand-by condition and readied for flight in a short time.

  1. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  2. Formulating liquid hydrocarbon fuels for SOFCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, G. J.; Preece, J.; Kendall, K.

    The injection of liquid hydrocarbons directly into an SOFC system is considered for application to hybrid vehicles. The main problem is carbon deposition on the nickel anode when molecules such as ethanol or iso-octane are injected directly. Such carbon deposition has been studied using a microtubular SOFC with a mass spectrometer analysing the product gases to investigate the reaction sequence and also to investigate the deposited carbon by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results show that only two liquids could be injected directly onto nickel cermet anodes without serious carbon blockage, methanol and methanoic acid. Even then, TPO experiments revealed deposition of small amounts of carbon which could be prevented by small additions of air or water to the fuel. Gasoline type molecules like iso-octane killed the SOFC in about 30 min operation, with about 90% of the molecular carbon being deposited on the nickel cermet anode. However, certain mixtures of iso-octane, water, alcohol and surfactant were found to produce beneficial results with remarkably low carbon deposition, less than 1% of the molecular carbon appearing on the anode. Such formulations had octane numbers appropriate to internal combustion engine operation.

  3. A review of liquid metal anode solid oxide fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIYA TOLEUOVA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC variant that uses liquid metal electrodes (anodes with the advantage of greater fuel tolerance and the ability to operate on solid fuel. Key features of the approach are discussed along with the technological and research challenges that need to be overcome for scale-up and commercialisation.

  4. High energy-density liquid rocket fuel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Douglas C.

    1990-01-01

    A fuel performance database of liquid hydrocarbons and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuels was compiled using engine parametrics from the Space Transportation Engine Program as a baseline. Propellant performance parameters are introduced. General hydrocarbon fuel performance trends are discussed with respect to hydrogen-to-carbon ratio and heat of formation. Aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is discussed with respect to aluminum metal loading. Hydrocarbon and aluminum-hydrocarbon fuel performance is presented with respect to fuel density, specific impulse and propellant density specific impulse.

  5. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  6. Liquid fuels from renewable resources in Canada: systems economics studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osler, C. F

    1978-01-01

    This paper highlights the methodology and results of a six volume study completed for the Canadian government on alternatives for liquid fuel production from renewable resources after the mid-1980s...

  7. Liquid hydrocarbon fuels containing high molecular weight Mannich bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udelhofen, J.H.; Watson, R.W.

    1980-11-04

    Reaction products obtained from the Mannich condensation of high molecular weight alkyl-substituted hydroxy aromatic compounds, amines and aldehydes provide improved detergency in liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Optionally, a non-volatile hydrocarbon carrier fluid may be included.

  8. Advancing liquid metal reactor technology with nitride fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.; Matthews, R.B.

    1991-08-01

    A review of the use of nitride fuels in liquid metal fast reactors is presented. Past studies indicate that both uranium nitride and uranium/plutonium nitride possess characteristics that may offer enhanced performance, particularly in the area of passive safety. To further quantify these effects, the analysis of a mixed-nitride fuel system utilizing the geometry and power level of the US Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor as a reference is described. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Electrochemical device for syngas and liquid fuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Robert J.; Becker, William L.; Penev, Michael

    2017-04-25

    The invention relates to methods for creating high value liquid fuels such as gasoline, diesel, jet and alcohols using carbon dioxide and water as the starting raw materials and a system for using the same. These methods combine a novel solid oxide electrolytic cell (SOEC) for the efficient and clean conversion of carbon dioxide and water to hydrogen and carbon monoxide, uniquely integrated with a gas-to-liquid fuels producing method.

  10. Atomization of liquid fuels. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, R

    1925-01-01

    This report describes the design and operation of a nozzle to inject fuel into an engine. The design of the nozzle is open, without any compulsory or automatic stop-valve. The fuel injection is regulated simply by the pressure and the adjustment of the fuel pump.

  11. Assessment of the candidate markets for liquid boiler fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    Liquid fuels can be produced from coal in a number of indirect and direct liquefaction processes. While indirect coal liquefaction has been proved commercially outside the United States, most attention in this country has focused on the direct liquefaction processes, which include the processes under examination in this report; namely, the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS), the H-Coal, and the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) II processes. The objectives of the study were to: compare the boiler fuels of direct coal liquefaction with residual fuel oil (No. 6 fuel oil) including physical characteristics and environmental hazards, such as carcinogenic characteristics and toxic hazard characteristics; determine whether a boiler fuel market would exist for the coal liquefaction products given their physical characteristics and potential environmental hazards; determine the advantages of utilizing methanol as a boiler fuel on a continuous basis in commercial boilers utilizing existing technology; identify the potential regional candidate markets for direct coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the distributing and handling costs associated with marketing coal liquefaction products as liquid boiler fuels; determine the current regulatory issues associated with the marketing of coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels; and determine and evaluate other institutional issues associated with the marketing of direct coal liquefaction products as boiler fuels.

  12. Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

    2009-12-01

    The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the

  13. Liquid-Feed Methanol Fuel Cell With Membrane Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao; Narayanan, S. R.; Halpert, Gerald; Frank, Harvey; Vamos, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    Fuel cell generates electricity from direct liquid feed stream of methanol/water solution circulated in contact with anode, plus direct gaseous feed stream of air or oxygen in contact with cathode. Advantages include relative simplicity and elimination of corrosive electrolytic solutions. Offers potential for reductions in size, weight, and complexity, and for increases in safety of fuel-cell systems.

  14. Fuel transfer manipulator for liquid metal nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturges, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A manipulator for transferring fuel assemblies between inclined fuel chutes of a liquid metal nuclear reactor installation. Hoisting means are mounted on a mount supported by beams pivotably attached by pins to the mount and to the floor in such a manner that pivoting of the beams causes movement and tilting of a hoist tube between positions of alignment with the inclined chutes. (author)

  15. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  16. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  17. Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, K. M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

  18. Do green tech policies need to pass the consumer test? The case of ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a question sometimes overlooked by policymakers and regulators, namely the need of a robust value proposition for green technologies to successfully enter the market. In particular, results from consumer choice models are used to develop measures of consumer acceptance of ethanol blends and flex-fuel vehicles is studied, a fuel-vehicle system that has received attention in a variety of federal and state policies. The analysis suggests that, under projected fuel prices and given the characteristics of the competing vehicle-fuel systems, consumers are unlikely to substitute ethanol blends for gasoline. The analysis also highlights the need for further research in this area. (author)

  19. Liquid Bio fuels: Vegetable Oils and Bi oethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, M.; Ballesteros, I.; Oliva, J. M.; Navarro, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    The European energy policy has defined clear objectives to reduce the high dependency on fossil petroleum imports, and to increase the security of sustainable energy supply for the transport sector. Moreover, the European environmental policy is requesting clean fuels that reduce environmental risks. Liquid Bio fuels (vegetable oils and bio ethanol) appear to be in a good position to contribute to achieve these goals expressed by the established objective of European Union to reach for bio fuels a market share of 5% of motor vehicle consumption. This work presents the current state and perspectives of the production and utilisation of liquid fuels from agricultural sources by reviewing agricultural feedstocks for energy sector, conversion technologies and different ways to use bio fuels. Environmental and economical aspects are also briefly analysed. (Author) 10 refs

  20. A quantitative model and the experimental evaluation of the liquid fuel layer for the downward flame spread of XPS foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shengfeng; Xie, Qiyuan; Tang, Xinyi; Qiu, Rong; Yang, Yun

    2017-05-05

    The objective of this work is to investigate the distinctive mechanisms of downward flame spread for XPS foam. It was physically considered as a moving down of narrow pool fire instead of downward surface flame spread for normal solids. A method was developed to quantitatively analyze the accumulated liquid fuel based on the experimental measurement of locations of flame tips and burning rates. The results surprisingly showed that about 80% of the generated hot liquid fuel remained in the pool fire during a certain period. Most of the consumed solid XPS foam didn't really burn away but transformed as the liquid fuel in the downward moving pool fire, which might be an important promotion for the fast fire development. The results also indicated that the dripping propensity of the hot liquid fuel depends on the total amount of the hot liquid accumulated in the pool fire. The leading point of the flame front curve might be the breach of the accumulated hot liquid fuel if it is enough for dripping. Finally, it is suggested that horizontal noncombustible barriers for preventing the accumulation and dripping of liquid fuel are helpful for vertical confining of XPS fire. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stability of liquid fuels with biogenic content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Winfried; Hoffmann, Hajo; Pohland vom Schloss, Heide [OWI - Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Herzogenrath (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Mineral-based fuels for diesel- and spark-ignition engines are always mixtures of many components with a wide distillation range. These insure, for example, a low viscosity and good cold starting properties. Therefore, the fuel system components are designed for mineral-based diesel and gasoline fuels. Biofuels like biodiesel and bioethanol, which only partially show these physical properties, are introduced into the fuel market because of political and ecological aspects. Currently common biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are investigated in uncommon high blend levels of 10 vol.-% and 30 vol.-% as well as future biofuels. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) has poor cold-flow properties concerning to the CP and CFPP. Therefore, biodiesel has the tendency to form crystalline deposits at sub-zero temperatures. For bioethanol applications, an adjustment of the materials used, for example for sealing, is necessary. It is well known that the negative implications of biofuels require an additive treatment for an optimal performance. In contrast to previous examinations, in which technical components were analyzed by their own, in the presented investigations (''GObio''-project), the complete system of sensitive fuel tank and feed system with auxiliary units like independent vehicle heaters is used to determine the influences of the biofuels. The investigations are based on hardware in the loop testing. A target of the project was to modify the application technology like the independent vehicle heater and the in-tank pumps to use the biofuels in the conventional systems. Furthermore, it was an objective to upgrade the performance of the fuels through the development and the treatment with additives. During operation with low blend levels no problems were detected so that safe operation using diesel with up to 7 vol.-% FAME according to EN 590 is ensured. At the temperature levels present in the fuel leading parts during operation

  2. Simulating Impacts of Disruptions to Liquid Fuels Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Resilience and Regulatory Effects; Corbet, Thomas F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Policy and Decision Analytics; Baker, Arnold B. [ABB Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O' Rourke, Julia M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2015-04-01

    This report presents a methodology for estimating the impacts of events that damage or disrupt liquid fuels infrastructure. The impact of a disruption depends on which components of the infrastructure are damaged, the time required for repairs, and the position of the disrupted components in the fuels supply network. Impacts are estimated for seven stressing events in regions of the United States, which were selected to represent a range of disruption types. For most of these events the analysis is carried out using the National Transportation Fuels Model (NTFM) to simulate the system-level liquid fuels sector response. Results are presented for each event, and a brief cross comparison of event simulation results is provided.

  3. Renewable liquid transport fuels from microbes and waste resources

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhodri

    2014-01-01

    In order to satisfy the global requirement for transport fuel sustainably, renewable liquid biofuels must be developed. Currently, two biofuels dominate the market; bioethanol for spark ignition and biodiesel for compression ignition engines. However, both fuels exhibit technical issues such as low energy density, poor low temperature performance and poor stability. In addition, bioethanol and biodiesel sourced from first generation feedstocks use arable land in competition with food producti...

  4. Drying grain using a hydrothermally treated liquid lignite fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P.; Bukurov, M. [Univ. of Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Ljubicic, B.R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A shortage of domestic oil and natural gas resources in Yugoslavia, particularly for agricultural and industrial purposes, has motivated the authors to explore the possibility of using liquid lignite as an alternate fuel for drying grain. This paper presents a technical and economic assessment of the possibility of retrofitting grain-drying plants currently fueled by oil or natural gas to liquid lignite fuel. All estimates are based on lignite taken from the Kovin deposit. Proposed technology includes underwater mining techniques, aqueous ash removal, hydrothermal processing, solids concentration, pipeline transport up to 120 km, and liquid lignite direct combustion. For the characterization of Kovin lignite, standard ASTM procedures were used: proximate, ultimate, ash, heating value, and Theological analyses were performed. Results from an extensive economic analysis indicate a delivered cost of US$20/ton for the liquid lignite. For the 70 of the grain-drying plants in the province of Vojvodina, this would mean a total yearly saving of about US $2,500,000. The advantages of this concept are obvious: easy to transport and store, nonflammable, nonexplosive, nontoxic, 30%-40% cheaper than imported oil and gas, domestic fuel is at hand. The authors believe that liquid lignite, rather than an alternative, is becoming more and more an imperative.

  5. 77 FR 3726 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... information program for replacement tires (74 FR 29542; Docket No. NHTSA-2008- 0121). The new consumer... efficiency rating system and consumer education program for replacement tires. The program would inform... test machine(s) for the TFECIP. This would allow tire manufacturers to know the identity of the machine...

  6. Cyanoborohydride-based ionic liquids as green aerospace bipropellant fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Yin, Ping; Zhang, Jiaheng; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2014-06-02

    In propellant systems, the most common bipropellants are composed of two chemicals, a fuel (or reducer) and an oxidizer. Currently, the choices for propellant fuels rely mainly on hydrazine and its methylated derivatives, even though they are extremely toxic, highly volatile, sensitive to adiabatic compression (risk of detonation), and, therefore, difficult to handle. With this background, the search for alternative green propellant fuels has been an urgent goal of space science. In this study, a new family of cyanoborohydride-based ionic liquids (ILs) with properties and performances comparable to hydrazine derivatives were designed and synthesized. These new ILs as bipropellant fuels, have some unique advantages including negligible vapor pressure, ultra-short ignition delay (ID) time, and reduced synthetic and storage costs, thereby showing great application potential as environmentally friendly fuels in bipropellant formulations. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Modeling water transport in liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenpeng; Wang, Chao-Yang

    Proper water management in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) is very critical and complicated because of many interacting physicochemical phenomena. Among these, the liquid saturation in the cathode side is believed to have a very strong effect on water crossover through the membrane, a key parameter to determine water balance between the anode and cathode. In this paper, based on an interfacial liquid coverage model implemented in a three-dimensional (3D) two-phase DMFC model, the liquid saturation variations in the cathode are examined in detail and their effects on the net water transport coefficient through the membrane discussed.

  8. Ionic Liquid Fuels for Chemical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    particular: “ Molten salts are nothing new, but these were the only ones I ever heard of that were liquid at 25°C. I’ve never found a use for the...Methylhydrazidinium chloride 33 (38), nitrate 34, dca 35 and tcm 36 salts were prepared and their X-ray crystal structures are depicted in Figures 11...of the chloride and nitrate were negative, molten samples of 35 and 36 ignited with NTO. Unfortunately, preliminary investigations showed that

  9. Ionic Liquid Fuels for Chemical Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    supplied the drawings, specifications, or other data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation; or convey any rights or...PROPELLANTS 10/2012- 9/2015 BERMAN USAF-AFRL Brand NASA Providing advanced monopropellant based on AFOSR material for spacecraft...demonstration Spacecraft Monopropulsion L,I O Pd IONIC LIQUID- BASED PROPELLANTS 6/2012- 12/2014 BERMAN USAF-AFRL Brand Aerojet Providing advanced

  10. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghergheleş

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  11. Characterization of Emissions from Liquid Fuel and Propane Open Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative combustion emissions of using jet propellant (JP-5) liquid fuel pools or a propane manifold grid to simulate the effects of accidental fires was investigated. A helium-filled tethered aerostat was used to maneuver an instrument package into the open fire plumes ...

  12. Fuel production from biomass: generation of liquid biofuels

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Ghergheleş; V. Ghergheleş

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes mayalso be used to produce liquid fuels frombiological raw materials. An example is theethanol production from glucose, known asstandard yeast fermentation in the beer, wine andliquor industries. It has to take place in steps, suchthat the ethanol is removed (by distillation ordehydrator application) whenever itsconcentration approaches a value (around 12%)which would impede reproduction of the yeastculture.

  13. Determinants of consumer interest in fuel economy: Lessons for strengthening the conservation argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Michael; Vickery, Gina; Dixon, Bruce; Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    With an outlook for higher global energy prices and concomitant increase of agricultural resources for the pursuit of fuel, consumers are expected to seek more fuel-economic transportation alternatives. This paper examines factors that influence the importance consumers place on fuel economy, with attention given to differences between American and European consumers. In a survey conducted simultaneously in the United States (U.S.) and Belgium in the fall of 2006, respondents in both countries ranked fuel economy high among characteristics considered when purchasing a new vehicle. Overall, respondents in the U.S. placed greater emphasis on fuel economy as a new-vehicle characteristic. Respondents' budgetary concerns carried a large weight when purchasing a new vehicle as reflected in their consideration of a fuel's relative price (e.g. gasoline vs. diesel vs. biofuel) and associated car repair and maintenance costs. On the other hand, high-income Americans displayed a lack of concern over fuel economy. Concern over the environment also played a role since consumers who felt empowered to affect the environment with their purchasing decisions (buying low and clean emission technology and fuels) placed greater importance on fuel economy. No statistically significant effects on fuel economy rankings were found related to vehicle performance, socio-demographic parameters of age, gender or education. Importantly, the tradeoff between using agricultural inputs for energy rather than for food, feed and fiber had no impact on concerns over fuel economy. Finally, contrary to expectations, U.S. respondents who valued domestically produced renewable fuels did not tend to value fuel economy. (author)

  14. Utility industry evaluation of the metal fuel facility and metal fuel performance for liquid metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstein, S.; Gibbons, J.P.; High, M.D.; O'Boyle, D.R.; Pickens, T.A.; Pilmer, D.F.; Tomonto, J.R.; Weinberg, C.J.

    1990-02-01

    A team of utility industry representatives evaluated the liquid metal reactor metal fuel process and facility conceptual design being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) under Department of Energy sponsorship. The utility team concluded that a highly competent ANL team was making impressive progress in developing high performance advanced metal fuel and an economic processing and fabrication technology. The utility team concluded that the potential benefits of advanced metal fuel justified the development program, but that, at this early stage, there are considerable uncertainties in predicting the net overall economic benefit of metal fuel. Specific comments and recommendations are provided as a contribution towards enhancing the development program. 6 refs

  15. Effectively managing consumer fuel price driven transit demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This study presents a literature review of transit demand elasticities with respect to gas prices, describes features of a transit service area population that may be more sensitive to fuel prices, identifies where stress points in the family of tran...

  16. Used CANDU fuel waste consumed and eliminated: environmentally responsible, economically sound, energetically enormous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottensmeyer, P.

    2012-01-01

    The 43,800 tonnes of currently stored CANDU nuclear fuel waste can all be consumed in fast-neutron reactors (FNRs) to reduce its long-term radioactive burden 100,000 times while extracting about 130 times more nuclear energy than the prodigious amounts that have already been gained from the fuel in CANDU reactors. The cost of processing CANDU fuel for use in FNRs plus the cost of recycling the FNR fuel is about 2.5 times less on a per kWh energy basis than the currently projected cost of disposal of 3.6 million used CANDU fuel bundles in a deep geological repository. (author)

  17. Consumers' perceptions regarding tradeoffs between food and fuel expenditures: A case study of U.S. and Belgian fuel users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, Daniel; Popp, Michael; Vickery, Gina; Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Verbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Biofuels have been suggested as a sustainable alternative to fossil-based fuels, but when produced with inputs traditionally used as food and feed grain, the production of biofuels has contributed to price increases in the food sector. In the fall of 2006, a survey was administered to compare consumer perceptions regarding the tradeoff between renewable fuels and food in the United States (U.S.) (n = 242) and Belgium (n = 363). Results show that respondents in both countries prefer lower food prices to lower fuel prices (67.6% in the U.S. and 78.9% in Belgium). A logit model was estimated to determine which variables impacted whether a consumer favored policies that lower fuel prices at the cost of higher food prices. While the sample of Belgian respondents appeared to realize that lower fuel prices eventually had to come at the cost of higher food prices, the sample of U.S. respondents felt domestic agriculture could provide some low-cost, environmentally friendly alternatives with little impact on food prices. Accessible public transportation in Belgium acted as an important fuel saving strategy in that country and led respondents to emphasize food price decreases over fuel price decreases. Also, respondents with heightened awareness towards the environment recognized that the expansion of renewable fuels may need to come at the cost of higher food prices. These attitudes were similar in both countries. Finally, in both countries older respondents placed more importance on lower food prices than lower fuel prices. (author)

  18. Intermediate Temperature Hybrid Fuel Cell System for the Conversion of Natural to Electricity and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Theodore [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-22

    This goal of this project was to develop a new hybrid fuel cell technology that operates directly on natural gas or biogas to generate electrical energy and to produce ethane or ethylene from methane, the main component of natural gas or biogas, which can be converted to a liquid fuel or high-value chemical using existing process technologies. By taking advantage of the modularity and scalability of fuel cell technology, this combined fuel cell/chemical process technology targets the recovery of stranded natural gas available at the well pad or biogas produced at waste water treatment plants and municipal landfills by converting it to a liquid fuel or chemical. By converting the stranded gas to a liquid fuel or chemical, it can be cost-effectively transported to market thus allowing the stranded natural gas or biogas to be monetized instead of flared, producing CO2, a greenhouse gas, because the volumes produced at these locations are too small to be economically recovered using current gas-to-liquids process technologies.

  19. Gasification of torrefied fuel at power generation for decentralized consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safin, R. R.; Khakimzyanov, I. F.; Galyavetdinov, N. R.; Mukhametzyanov, S. R.

    2017-10-01

    The increasing need of satisfaction of the existing needs of the population and the industry for electric energy, especially in the areas remote from the centralized energy supply, results in need of development of “small-scale energy generation”. At the same time, the basis in these regions is made by the energy stations, using imported fuel, which involve a problem of increase in cost and transportation of fuel to the place of consumption. The solution of this task is the use of the torrefied waste of woodworking and agricultural industry as fuel. The influence of temperature of torrefaction of wood fuel on the developed electric generator power is considered in the article. As a result of the experiments, it is revealed that at gasification of torrefied fuel from vegetable raw material, the generating gas with the increased content of hydrogen and carbon oxide, in comparison with gasification of the raw materials, is produced. Owing to this, the engine capacity increases that exerts direct impact on power generation by the electric generator.

  20. Liquid Missile Fuels as Means of Chemical Terrorist Attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superina, V.; Orehovec, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Modern world is faced with numerous terrorist attacks whose goals, methods and means of the conduct are various. It seems that we have entered the era when terrorism, one's own little terrorism, is the easiest and the most painless way of achieving a goal. That is why that such a situation has contributed to the necessity for strengthening individual and collective protection and safety, import and export control, control of the production and illegal sale of the potential means for delivering terrorist act. It has also contributed to the necessity for devising means of the delivery. For more than 10 years, a series of congresses on CB MTS Industry has pointed at chemicals and chemical industry as potential means and targets of terrorism. The specialization and experience of different authors in the field of the missile technology and missile fuels, especially those of Eastern origin, and the threat that was the reality of the war conflicts in 1990s was the reason for making a scientific and expert analysis of the liquid missile fuels as means of terrorism. There are not many experts in the field of NBC protection who are familiar with the toxicity and reaction of liquid missile fuels still lying discarded and unprotected in abandoned barracks all over Europe and Asia. The purpose of this paper is to draw public attention to possible different abuses of liquid missile fuels for a terrorist purpose, as well as to possible consequences and prevention measures against such abuses. (author)

  1. A direct methanol fuel cell system with passive fuel delivery based on liquid surface tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuming; Liang, Yung C.

    The existing direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) systems are fed with a fixed concentration of fuel, which are either a diluted methanol solution or an active fuel delivery driven by an attached active pump. Both approaches limit the power conversion density or degrade the overall efficiency of the DMFC system significantly. Such disadvantages become more severe in small-scale DMFCs, which require a high conversion efficiency and a small physical space suitable for portable electronics. In this paper, passive fuel delivery based on a surface tension driving mechanism was designed and integrated in a laboratory-made prototype to achieve consumption depending on fuel concentration and power-free fuel delivery. Unidirectional methanol-to-water smooth flow is achieved through the capillaries of a Teflon PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane based on the difference in liquid surface tension. The prototype was demonstrated to exhibit a better polarization performance and to last for an extended operating time compared to conventional DMFCs. Its high efficiency and load regulation performance were also demonstrated in contrast to an active DMFC supplied with a constant concentration fuel. The fuel delivery driven by the liquid surface tension effect demonstrated here is believed to be more applicable for future small-scale DMFCs for portable electronics.

  2. 76 FR 79114 - Tire Fuel Efficiency Consumer Information Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... for the TFECIP is to provide consumers with a database that allows cross-comparisons of tire brands... includes the manufacturer's name, the brand name owner (if different than the manufacturer), the tire line... is often used to represent the finite element or mathematical model of a tire, rather than the name a...

  3. Effects of consumer subsidy on household fuel switching from coal to cleaner fuels: A case study for anthracites in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hojeong; Kwon, Hyucksoo

    2011-01-01

    The Korean coal industry is in a transition under low carbon policy through the steady reduction of coal production. Since consumer subsidy for the consumption of anthracites briquette in low-income households caused a distortion in domestic coal market, the so-called coupon program will be the first target in energy reform policy in order to induce fuel switching from anthracites to alternative clean energy. This paper tries to identify various factors that influence households' fuel switching decision. Disutility from briquette consumption is also considered as an important factor. Using the 2007 census data on briquette-consuming households, it is found that the coupon program provides an adverse effect to switching fuels to clean energy while the disutility of briquettes is positively associated with the probability of fuel switching. However, the empirical finding suggests that the policy alone attempting to remove coupon program may fail to switch fuels unless the cost of boiler changes is substantially reduced through the provision of accessible networks to alternative energy sources. It indicates that reform policy for consumer subsidy must be understood in line with more comprehensive regional energy plans to resolve energy poverty issue. - Research highlights: → Various factors are identified for low income households' fuel switching from coal to clean energy. → Coupon program and accessibility to alternative energy sources are considered; Result shows that accessible network to alternative clean energy sources is essential for low income group. → More comprehensive regional energy plans are required to resolve energy poverty issue.

  4. Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Troiano

    2011-01-31

    The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time

  5. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 13. Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    coal liquids including the hydrotreated tar oil distillates from the GPGP. Thus, determination of the storage and thermal stabilities of jet fuel...AD-A224 576 AFWAL-TR-87-2042 Volume XIII PRODUCTION OF JET FUELS FROM COAL -DERIVED LIQUIDS VOL XIII - Evaluation of Storage and Thermal Stability of...Jet Fuels Derived from Coal Liquids G. P. Sturm, Jr., R. D. Grigsby, J. W. Goetzinger, J. B. Green, and R. P. Anderson lIT Research Institute National

  6. Perceived importance of fuel characteristics and its match with consumer beliefs about biofuels in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Velde, Liesbeth; Verbeke, Wim; Buysse, Jeroen; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Popp, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consumer consciousness concerning the environment has increased and become a major factor in purchasing behaviour. Consumer research to understand and influence the adoption of green technologies and products is therefore important. This paper investigates the beliefs of Belgian consumers concerning the use of biofuels and identifies four consumer segments based on the perceived importance of different fuel characteristics. To convince the performance-oriented consumers to use biofuels, information about these fuels has to stress their quality and performance standards. The society-oriented cluster attaches great importance to environmental friendliness, odour, production origin, the opportunity to decrease energy dependency and job creation. To persuade the environment-oriented consumers low odour, beneficial environmental influence and quality assurance of biofuels have to be emphasized. The convenience-oriented consumers will be the most difficult to persuade to use biofuels. They need to be convinced that every vehicle can drive with biofuel blends without the need for engine modifications. Concerns relating to the price and perceived low availability of biofuels at fuel stations are major obstacles for all consumers involved in this study. (author)

  7. Hydrogen engines based on liquid fuels, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J.; Voecks, G. E.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of storing hydrogen as part of a liquid fuel, such as gasoline or methanol, and subsequent onboard generation of the hydrogen from such liquids, is reviewed. Hydrogen generation processes, such as steam reforming, partial oxidation, and thermal decomposition are evaluated in terms of theoretical potential and practical limitations, and a summary is presented on the major experimental work on conversion of gasoline and methanol. Results of experiments indicate that onboard hydrogen generation from methanol is technically feasible and will yield substantial improvements in fuel economy and emissions, especially if methanol decomposition is brought about by the use of engine exhaust heat; e.g., a methanol decomposition reactor of 3.8 provides hydrogen-rich gas for a 4 cylinder engine (1.952), and 80% of the methanol is converted, engine exhaust gas being the only heat supply. A preliminary outline of the development of a methanol-based hydrogen engine and a straight hydrogen engine is presented.

  8. Vacuum plasma spray applications on liquid fuel rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, T. N.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Bryant, M. A.

    1992-07-01

    The vacuum plasma spray process (VPS) has been developed by NASA and Rocketdyne for a variety of applications on liquid fuel rocket engines, including the Space Shuttle Main Engine. These applications encompass thermal barrier coatings which are thermal shock resistant for turbopump blades and nozzles; bond coatings for cryogenic titanium components; wear resistant coatings and materials; high conductivity copper, NaRloy-Z, combustion chamber liners, and structural nickel base material, Inconel 718, for nozzle and combustion chamber support jackets.

  9. TOXICITY OF EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM COMBUSTION OF LIQUID BIOFUELS AND FUELS WITH BIOCOMPONENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Prokopowicz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of liquid biofuels as a transport fuels shows growing tendency so positive environmental aspects of using biomass is mainly used. Biofuel combustion prevents many of the toxic chemical compounds associated with conventional fuels to be emitted. The paper focused on health aspects of using liquid biofuels as a transport fuels in comparison with conventional fuels. There are provided characterization of exhaust emissions formed during combustion of liquid biofuels as well as toxicity tests of its exhaust components.

  10. Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

    1999-09-08

    The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

  11. Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robben, Franklin A.

    1985-01-01

    A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

  12. 26 CFR 48.4041-7 - Dual use of taxable liquid fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxable liquid fuel. Tax applies to all taxable liquid fuel sold for use or used as a fuel in the motor which is used to propel a diesel-powered vehicle or in the motor used to propel a motor vehicle... vehicle, motorboat, or aircraft. Thus, if the motor of a diesel-powered highway vehicle or a motorboat...

  13. H2FIRST: A partnership to advance hydrogen fueling station technology driving an optimal consumer experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moen, Christopher D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dedrick, Daniel E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pratt, Joseph William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, Bruce [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Noma, Edwin Yoichi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Somerday, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); San Marchi, Christopher W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wipke, Keith [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Terlip, Danny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harrison, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Harris, Aaron [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) is establishing the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) partnership, led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). FCTO is establishing this partnership and the associated capabilities in support of H2USA, the public/private partnership launched in 2013. The H2FIRST partnership provides the research and technology acceleration support to enable the widespread deployment of hydrogen infrastructure for the robust fueling of light-duty fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). H2FIRST will focus on improving private-sector economics, safety, availability and reliability, and consumer confidence for hydrogen fueling. This whitepaper outlines the goals, scope, activities associated with the H2FIRST partnership.

  14. Liquid films and droplet deposition in a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsohn, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper part of boiling water reactors (BWR) the flow regime is dominated by a steam-water droplet flow with liquid films on the nuclear fuel rod, the so called (wispy) annular flow regime. The film thickness and liquid flow rate distribution around the fuel rod play an important role especially in regard to so called dryout, which is the main phenomenon limiting the thermal power of a fuel assembly. The deposition of droplets in the liquid film is important, because this process sustains the liquid film and delays dryout. Functional spacers with different vane shapes have been used in recent decades to enhance droplet deposition and thus create more favorable conditions for heat removal. In this thesis the behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition in the annular flow regime in BWR bundles is addressed by experiments in an adiabatic flow at nearly ambient pressure. The experimental setup consists of a vertical channel with the cross-section resembling a pair of neighboring subchannels of a fuel rod bundle. Within this double subchannel an annular flow is established with a gas-water mixture. The impact of functional spacers on the annular flow behavior is studied closely. Parameter variations comprise gas and liquid flow rates, gas density and spacer shape. The setup is instrumented with a newly developed liquid film sensor that measures the electrical conductance between electrodes flush to the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. Advanced post-processing methods are used to investigate the dynamic behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition. The topic is also assessed numerically by means of single-phase Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of the flow in the gas core. For this the commercial code STAR-CCM+ is used coupled with additional models for the liquid film distribution and droplet motion. The results of the experiments show that the liquid film is quite evenly distributed around the circumference of the fuel rods. The

  15. Another driver of the Brazilian fuel ethanol supply chain: the consumers' preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Isabella

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors have been discussed in the literature as the causes for setbacks in the Brazilian ethanol supply chain, such as the low price of petroleum and the high price of sugar in the financial crisis in 2008. However, there is an important gap that was not explored yet, how do drivers choose to refuel their cars? Do the supply chain managers know their consumers? Based on that, this paper aims to demonstrate how the ethanol supply chain stakeholders perceive consumers' preferences and compare them to the factors that are taken into consideration by Brazilian flexible-fuel vehicles drivers when choosing types of fuel gasoline or ethanol. For that, we illustrated the case by using a sample of announcements collected from Brazilian news media featuring the supply chain managers' view and the survey taken by drivers to understand the consumer's actions. Our results indicate that there is a significant difference between the actual preferences of fuel consumers and the perceived consumers' preferences by the stakeholders. This disparity is probably the (or one of the main cause of the second setback in the Brazilian supply chain (2009–2012. Based on these results we point out the strategic implications in managing this supply chain and also the role of public policy in improving the diffusion of ethanol in Brazil.

  16. The use of niobium based catalysts for liquid fuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reguera Frank Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic properties of niobium based catalysts were investigated in the conversion of oleic acid to liquid fuels at atmospheric pressure and at 623 K. The catalytic tests were performed in a fixed bed and continuous flow reactor using an acid to catalyst ratio equal to 4 and N2 as carrier gas. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography and acidity measurements. NH3 temperature programmed desorption, N2 adsorption-desorption (BET method and Xray diffraction were also performed in order to determine the structural and acidic properties of the catalysts. From the catalytic tests, it was detected the formation of compounds in the range of gasoline, diesel and lubricant oils. Higher catalytic activity and selectivity for diesel fuel were observed for the catalysts NbOPO4 and H3PO4/Nb2O5 that possesses higher acidities and surface areas.

  17. Process Investigation for Conversion of MSW into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, M.T.; Jafri, U.A.; Chugtai, I.R.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on pyrolysis technology to convert the municipal solid waste into liquid fuel. The investigation includes the development of the experimental setup for this process and its future prospects in Pakistan. A pyrolysis process is under consideration for many years for the production of synthetic fuel oils from organic solid waste. The system comprises of pyrolysis reactor, condenser for condensable gas, gas holder (for non- condensable gas). The feedstock used in the pyrolysis reactor is the municipal solid waste (includes kitchen waste, papers etc) in fine mesh size i.e. 2.5 - 3.0 mm. The residue obtained were mainly tar (pyrolytic oil), pyrogas (non - condensable gases) and ash, which shows that process has a potential for the treatment of the municipal solid waste and is a good technology for resource recover. (author)

  18. Renewing Liquid Fueled Molten Salt Reactor Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Rusty; NEXT Lab Team

    2016-09-01

    Globally there is a desperate need for affordable, safe, and clean energy on demand. More than anything else, this would raise the living conditions of those in poverty around the world. An advanced reactor that utilizes liquid fuel and molten salts is capable of meeting these needs. Although, this technology was demonstrated in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) at ORNL in the 60's, little progress has been made since the program was cancelled over 40 years ago. A new research effort has been initiated to advance the technical readiness level of key reactor components. This presentation will explain the motivation and initial steps for this new research initiative.

  19. Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabo, Jule A.; Coughlin, Peter K.

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

  20. Symbiotic Nuclear—Coal Systems for Production of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, S.

    The notion of safety is not confined to the technological or non-proliferation aspects. It covers also the elements of energy policy: irrational reactions of societies, emotions, egoistic interests of more or less powerful pressure of economical and external political factors. One should be conscious that the country's privilege of being equipped by the Nature with rich resources of oil or gas is not solely economical, but even more a political one. Simultaneously, the gradual depletion of world hydrocarbons that draws behind irrevocable price increase has to be expected within the time scale of exploitation of power plants (now amounted to ~60 years). Therefore consequences of energy policy last much longer than the perspectives the political or economical decision makers are planning and acting within and the public is expecting successes and finally evaluating them. The world oil and gas resources are geopolitically very non-uniformly distributed, in contrast to coal and uranium. Since the level of energy self-sufficiency of the EU is highest for coal, the old idea of synfuels production from coal is recalled. Yet, in view of limits to the CO2 emissions in the EU another method has to be used here than the conventional coal liquefaction just applied in China. Simultaneously, an interesting evolution of energy prices was be observed, namely an increase in that of motor fuels in contrast to that of electricity remaining well stable. This fact suggests that the use of electricity (mainly the off-peak load), generated without emissions of CO2 for production of liquid fuels can prove reasonable. Thus, the essence of the presented idea of coal-nuclear symbiosis lies in the supply of energy in the form of H2, necessary for this process, from a nuclear reactor. Particularly, in the present option H2 is obtained by electrolytic water splitting supplying also O2 as a precious by-product in well mature and commercially available already since decades, Light Water Reactors

  1. Characterization and Performance of a Liquid Hydrocarbon-Fueled Pulse Detonation Rocket Engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damphousse, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The first time use of a new electro-hydraulic liquid fuel injector was demonstrated to produce consistent atomization properties while allowing for varying fuel injection durations at frequencies up to 50 Hz...

  2. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  3. A Study of Ignition Delay of Marine Fuel Oil Containing Liquidized Waste Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki, Hashimoto; Sen-ichi, Sasaki; Nobuhiro, Baba; Research Institute, Research Center; Research Institute, Research Center; Machinery Department

    2000-01-01

    Waste plastics are recycled in many ways. One of these consists of liquidizing such plastics and using the resulting material as a component in marine fuel oils. This paper reports on a study of the combustion characteristics, including ignition delay, maximum pressure, and time to Pmax., of marine fuels containing two liquidized waste plastics affect lighter ISO-F-DMA class fuel, but does not have any noticeable affect on the combustion characteristics of the heavier class fuel, ISO-F-RME25.

  4. Estimated Bounds and Important Factors for Fuel Use and Consumer Costs of Connected and Automated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, T. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gonder, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Z. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gohlke, D. [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This report details a study of the potential effects of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies on vehicle miles traveled (VMT), vehicle fuel efficiency, and consumer costs. Related analyses focused on a range of light-duty CAV technologies in conventional powertrain vehicles -- from partial automation to full automation, with and without ridesharing -- compared to today's base-case scenario. Analysis results revealed widely disparate upper- and lower-bound estimates for fuel use and VMT, ranging from a tripling of fuel use to decreasing light-duty fuel use to below 40% of today's level. This wide range reflects uncertainties in the ways that CAV technologies can influence vehicle efficiency and use through changes in vehicle designs, driving habits, and travel behavior. The report further identifies the most significant potential impacting factors, the largest areas of uncertainty, and where further research is particularly needed.

  5. Phase Change Predictions for Liquid Fuel in Contact with Steel Structure using the Heat Conduction Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Brear, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO2 brou...

  6. Liquid air fueled open–closed cycle Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiqing; Wang, Jia; Cai, Maolin; Shi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy of liquid air is divided into cryogenic energy and expansion energy. • Open–closed cycle Stirling mechanism is employed to improve efficiency. • The Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in cold space. - Abstract: An unconventional Stirling engine is proposed and its theoretical analysis is performed. The engine belongs to a “cryogenic heat engine” that is fueled by cryogenic medium. Conventional “cryogenic heat engine” employs liquid air as pressure source, but disregards its heat-absorbing ability. Therefore, its efficiency can only be improved by increasing vapor pressure, accordingly increasing the demand on pressure resistance and sealing. In the proposed engine, the added Stirling mechanism helps achieve its high efficiency and simplicity by utilizing the heat-absorbing ability of liquid air. On one hand, based on Stirling mechanism, gas in the hot space absorbs heat from atmosphere when expanding; gas in the cold space is cooled down by liquid air when compressed. Taking atmosphere as heat source and liquid air as heat sink, a closed Stirling cycle is formed. On the other hand, an exhaust port is set in the hot space. When expanding in the hot space, the vaporized gas is discharged through the exhaust port. Thus, an open cycle is established. To model and analyze the system, the Schmidt theory is modified to describe temperature variation in the cold space, and irreversible characteristic of regenerator is incorporated in the thermodynamic model. The results obtained from the model show that under the same working pressure, the efficiency of the proposed engine is potentially higher than that of conventional ones and to achieve the same efficiency, the working pressure could be lower with the new mechanism. Its efficiency could be improved by reducing temperature difference between the regenerator and the cold/hot space, increasing the swept volume ratio, decreasing the liquid–gas ratio. To keep

  7. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  8. Bioconversion of natural gas to liquid fuel: Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Q; Guarnieri, MT; Tao, L; Laurens, LML; Dowe, N; Pienkos, PT

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. This review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Bioconversion of Natural Gas to Liquid Fuel. Opportunities and Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fei, Qiang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guarnieri, Michael T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, Ling [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Laurens, Lieve M. L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dowe, Nancy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pienkos, Philip T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Natural gas is a mixture of low molecular weight hydrocarbon gases that can be generated from either fossil or anthropogenic resources. Although natural gas is used as a transportation fuel, constraints in storage, relatively low energy content (MJ/L), and delivery have limited widespread adoption. Advanced utilization of natural gas has been explored for biofuel production by microorganisms. In recent years, the aerobic bioconversion of natural gas (or primarily the methane content of natural gas) into liquid fuels (Bio-GTL) by biocatalysts (methanotrophs) has gained increasing attention as a promising alternative for drop-in biofuel production. Moreover, methanotrophic bacteria are capable of converting methane into microbial lipids, which can in turn be converted into renewable diesel via a hydrotreating process. In this paper, biodiversity, catalytic properties and key enzymes and pathways of these microbes are summarized. Bioprocess technologies are discussed based upon existing literature, including cultivation conditions, fermentation modes, bioreactor design, and lipid extraction and upgrading. Our review also outlines the potential of Bio-GTL using methane as an alternative carbon source as well as the major challenges and future research needs of microbial lipid accumulation derived from methane, key performance index, and techno-economic analysis. An analysis of raw material costs suggests that methane-derived diesel fuel has the potential to be competitive with petroleum-derived diesel.

  10. Transverse liquid fuel jet breakup, burning, and ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1990-01-01

    An analytical/numerical study of the breakup, burning, and ignition of liquid fuels injected transversely into a hot air stream is conducted. The non-reacting liquid jet breakup location is determined by the local sonic point criterion first proposed by Schetz, et al. (1980). Two models, one employing analysis of an elliptical jet cross-section and the other employing a two-dimensional blunt body to represent the transverse jet, have been used for sonic point calculations. An auxiliary criterion based on surface tension stability is used as a separate means of determining the breakup location. For the reacting liquid jet problem, a diffusion flame supported by a one-step chemical reaction within the gaseous boundary layer is solved along the ellipse surface in subsonic crossflow. Typical flame structures and concentration profiles have been calculated for various locations along the jet cross-section as a function of upstream Mach numbers. The integrated reaction rate along the jet cross-section is used to predict ignition position, which is found to be situated near the stagnation point. While a multi-step reaction is needed to represent the ignition process more accurately, the present calculation does yield reasonable predictions concerning ignition along a curved surface.

  11. Survey evidence on the willingness of U.S. consumers to pay for automotive fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Evans, David H.; Hiestand, John

    2013-01-01

    Prospect theory holds that human beings faced with a risky bet will tend to value potential losses about twice as much as potential gains. Previous research has demonstrated that prospect theory could be sufficient to explain an energy paradox in the market for automotive fuel economy. This paper analyzes data from questions added to four commercial, multi-client surveys of 1000 U.S. households each in 2004, 2011, 2012 and 2013. Households were asked about willingness to pay for future fuel savings as well as the annual fuel savings necessary to justify a given upfront payment. Payback periods inferred from household responses are generally consistent over time and across different formulations of questions. Mean calculated payback periods are about 3 years, but there is substantial dispersion among individual responses. The calculated payback periods do not appear to be correlated with the attributes of respondents. Respondents were able to quantitatively describe their uncertainty about both vehicle fuel economy and future fuel prices. Simulation of loss averse behavior based on respondents’ stated uncertainty illustrates how loss aversion could lead consumers to substantially undervalue future fuel savings relative to their expected value. - Highlights: • Payback periods were calculated from stated willingness to pay for fuel savings in 4 US surveys. • US car buyers expect payback in 3 years in order to pay more for increased fuel economy. • Respondents’ payback periods are uncorrelated with their socio-economic attributes. • Survey respondents consider fuel economy ratings and future fuel prices highly uncertain. • The survey results are consistent with the behavioral economic principle of loss aversion

  12. Method and system for low-NO.sub.x dual-fuel combustion of liquid and/or gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gard, Vincent; Chojnacki, Dennis A; Rabovitser, Ioseph K

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus for combustion in which a pressurized preheated liquid fuel is atomized and a portion thereof flash vaporized, creating a mixture of fuel vapor and liquid droplets. The mixture is mixed with primary combustion oxidant, producing a fuel/primary oxidant mixture which is then injected into a primary combustion chamber in which the fuel/primary oxidant mixture is partially combusted, producing a secondary gaseous fuel containing hydrogen and carbon oxides. The secondary gaseous fuel is mixed with a secondary combustion oxidant and injected into the second combustion chamber wherein complete combustion of the secondary gaseous fuel is carried out. The resulting second stage flue gas containing very low amounts of NO.sub.x is then vented from the second combustion chamber.

  13. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  14. A technical review of liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation equipment in the field of nuclear-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassallo, G.

    1981-01-01

    Liquid/liquid extraction is generally accepted as the preferred method in nuclear-fuel reprocessing. However, although many types of liquid/liquid contactors are available, only a few meet the stringent specifications set by the nuclear industry. This report discusses the criteria for contactor selection and then reviews the most important types, namely packed columns, pulsed columns, mixer-setters and centrifugal contactors. Finally, a short section concerned with solid/liquid separations is included because of the possible deleterious effects caused by solids in liquid/liquid contactors

  15. The Influence Of Mass Fraction Of Dressed Coal On Ignition Conditions Of Composite Liquid Fuel Droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlegel Nikita E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The laws of condition modification of inert heat and ignition in an oxidant flow of composite liquid fuel droplet were studied by the developed experimental setup. Investigations were for composite liquid fuel composition based on the waste of bituminous and nonbaking coal processing, appropriate carbon dust, water, used motor oil. The characteristics of boundary layer inertia heat of composite liquid fuel droplet, thermal decomposition of coal organic part, the yield of volatiles and evaporation of liquid combustion component, ignition of the gas mixture and coke residue were defined.

  16. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  17. Thermal performance of fresh mixed-oxide fuel in a fast flux LMR [liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, J.L.; Baker, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A test was designed and irradiated to provide power-to-melt (heat generation rate necessary to initiate centerline fuel melting) data for fresh mixed-oxide UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel irradiated in a fast neutron flux under prototypic liquid metal reactor (LMR) conditions. The fuel pin parameters were selected to envelope allowable fabrication ranges and address mass production of LMR fuel using sintered-to-size techniques. The test included fuel pins with variations in fabrication technique, pellet density, fuel-to-cladding gap, Pu concentration, and fuel oxygen-to-metal ratios. The resulting data base has reestablished the expected power-to-melt in mixed-oxide fuels during initial reactor startup when the fuel temperatures are expected to be the highest. Calibration of heat transfer models of fuel pin performance codes with these data are providing more accurate capability for predicting steady-state thermal behavior of current and future mixed-oxide LMR fuels

  18. Experimental Study of Ignition over Impact-Driven Supersonic Liquid Fuel Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirut Matthujak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the mechanism of the ignition of the supersonic liquid fuel jet by the visualization. N-Hexadecane having the cetane number of 100 was used as a liquid for the jet in order to enhance the ignition potential of the liquid fuel jet. Moreover, the heat column and the high intensity CO2 laser were applied to initiate the ignition. The ignition over the liquid fuel jet was visualized by a high-speed digital video camera with a shadowgraph system. From the shadowgraph images, the autoignition or ignition of the supersonic liquid fuel jet, at the velocity of 1,186 m/s which is a Mach number relative to the air of 3.41, did not take place. The ignition still did not occur, even though the heat column or the high intensity CO2 laser was alone applied. The attempt to initiate the ignition over the liquid fuel jet was achieved by applying both the heat column and the high intensity CO2 laser. Observing the signs of luminous spots or flames in the shadowgraph would readily indicate the presence of ignitions. The mechanism of the ignition and combustion over the liquid fuel jet was clearly clarified. Moreover, it was found that the ignition over the supersonic liquid fuel jet in this study was rather the force ignition than being the auto-ignition induced by shock wave heating.

  19. Corrosion-resistant fuel cladding allow for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Jr., William F.; Colburn, Richard P.

    1982-01-01

    An aluminide coating for a fuel cladding tube for LMFBRs (liquid metal fast breeder reactors) such as those using liquid sodium as a heat transfer agent. The coating comprises a mixture of nickel-aluminum intermetallic phases and presents good corrosion resistance to liquid sodium at temperatures up to 700.degree. C. while additionally presenting a barrier to outward diffusion of .sup.54 Mn.

  20. [A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Pros and Cons of Consuming Liquids Preoperatively].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Tzu; Lin, Tsai-Rung; Liao, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2017-08-01

    Preoperative anesthesia long time fasting, may increase patient hemodynamic instability during surgery and may affect the patient's post-surgery electrolyte balance. No meta-analysis has been conducted to explore the effects of preoperative liquid intake amount on gastric fluid PH, gastric fluid volume, surgery inhalation of pulmonary complications, and patient self-perceptions quality of care systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. To assess the pros and cons of preoperative liquid intake using a systematic review of the literature. The authors searched ten databases including NRC (Nursing Reference Center), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), WOS (Web of Science), PubMed, The Cochrane Library, UpToDate, DynaMed, NGC (National Guideline Clearinghouse), Airiti Library, and National Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations in Taiwan, to identify relevant articles that were published from 2003 to January 2017. Nine qualified articles were included in the analysis from the 30 articles that were selected using an initial keyword search. The Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence was used as the evidence grade and the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Program) was used to evaluate the quality of the selected articles. The quantitative results were analyzed using Review Manager, Version 5.1. The quality of the literature was medium to high. A small to moderate dose of fluid consumed at 2 hours prior to surgery did not significantly increase gastric fluid volume during anesthesia, with a combined effect of 2.37 (95% CI [-5.12, 9.85], p = .54), and had no effect on gastric fluid PH, with a combined effect of 0.10 (95% CI [0.00, 0.20], p = .05). The results indicate that consuming a small to moderate dose of liquid at 2 hours prior to the provision of anesthesia does not significantly increase the gastric fluid volume or gastric fluid PH of patients during anesthesia. Moreover, the positive benefits

  1. consumers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: It was found that the haemoglobin, packed sell volume, red blood cell count and the white blood cell count were within the reference ... alcohol}. One bottle of beer and one medium calabash of. BURUKUTU contain about 2 units of alcohols. Like the palm wine of Southem Nigeria, BURUKUTU is consumed by the.

  2. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart

    2013-01-01

    liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydrogen storages, simplifies refueling, and enables the use of existing fuel distribution systems. The liquid...

  3. Conversion of Mixed Plastic Wastes (High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene) into Liquid Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaw Su Su Hmwe; Tint Tint Kywe; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2010-12-01

    In this study, mixed plastic wastes were converted into liquid fuels. Mixed plastic wastes used were high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). The pyrolysis of mixed plastic waste to liquid fuel was carried out with and without prepared zeolite catalyst.The catalyst was characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). This catalyst was pre-treated for activation. The experiments were carried out at temperature range of 350-410C.Physical properties (density, kinematic, viscosity,refractive index)of prepared liquid fuel samples were measured. From this study, yields of liquid fuel and gas fuel were found to be 41-64% and 15-35% respectively. As for by products, char was obtained as the yield percentages from 9 to 14% and wax (yield% - 1 to 14) was formed during pyrolysis.

  4. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO 2 brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  5. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO{sub 2} brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the CONSUME and FOFEM fuel consumption models in pine and mixed hardwood forests of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Prichard; Eva C. Karau; Roger D. Ottmar; Maureen C. Kennedy; James B. Cronan; Clinton S. Wright; Robert E. Keane

    2014-01-01

    Reliable predictions of fuel consumption are critical in the eastern United States (US), where prescribed burning is frequently applied to forests and air quality is of increasing concern. CONSUME and the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), predictive models developed to estimate fuel consumption and emissions from wildland fires, have not been systematically...

  7. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Justesen, Kristian Kjær; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. Hightemperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydroge...

  8. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    The conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design has been performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey was completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins were designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicted that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    The conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design has been performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey was completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins were designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicted that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors. 13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Performance analysis of a mixed nitride fuel system for an advanced liquid metal reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F.; Baker, R.B.; Leggett, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the conceptual development and analysis of a proposed mixed nitride driver and blanket fuel system for a prototypic advanced liquid metal reactor design is performed. As a first step, an intensive literature survey is completed on the development and testing of nitride fuel systems. Based on the results of this survey, prototypic mixed nitride fuel and blanket pins is designed and analyzed using the SIEX computer code. The analysis predicts that the nitride fuel consistently operated at peak temperatures and cladding strain levels that compared quite favorably with competing fuel designs. These results, along with data available in the literature on nitride fuel performance, indicate that a nitride fuel system should offer enhanced capabilities for advanced liquid metal reactors

  11. Numerical Investigation on Sensitivity of Liquid Jet Breakup to Physical Fuel Properties with Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dokyun; Bravo, Luis; Matusik, Katarzyna; Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Swantek, Andy; Powell, Christopher; Ham, Frank

    2016-11-01

    One of the major concerns in modern direct injection engines is the sensitivity of engine performance to fuel characteristics. Recent works have shown that even slight differences in fuel properties can cause significant changes in efficiency and emission of an engine. Since the combustion process is very sensitive to the fuel/air mixture formation resulting from disintegration of liquid jet, the precise assessment of fuel sensitivity on liquid jet atomization process is required first to study the impact of different fuels on the combustion. In the present study, the breaking process of a liquid jet from a diesel injector injecting into a quiescent gas chamber is investigated numerically and experimentally for different liquid fuels (n-dodecane, iso-octane, CAT A2 and C3). The unsplit geometric Volume-of-Fluid method is employed to capture the phase interface in Large-eddy simulations and results are compared against the radiography measurement from Argonne National Lab including jet penetration, liquid mass distribution and volume fraction. The breakup characteristics will be shown for different fuels as well as droplet PDF statistics to demonstrate the influences of the physical properties on the primary atomization of liquid jet. Supported by HPCMP FRONTIER award, US DOD, Office of the Army.

  12. Design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a long duration aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Gary L.; Buchholtz, Brian; Olsen, Al

    2012-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen has distinct advantages as an aircraft fuel. These include a specific heat of combustion 2.8 times greater than gasoline or jet fuel and zero carbon emissions. It can be utilized by fuel cells, turbine engines and internal combustion engines. The high heat of combustion is particularly important in the design of long endurance aircraft with liquid hydrogen enabling cruise endurance of several days. However, the mass advantage of the liquid hydrogen fuel will result in a mass advantage for the fuel system only if the liquid hydrogen tank and insulation mass is a small fraction of the hydrogen mass. The challenge is producing a tank that meets the mass requirement while insulating the cryogenic liquid hydrogen well enough to prevent excessive heat leak and boil off. In this paper, we report on the design, fabrication and testing of a liquid hydrogen fuel tank for a prototype high altitude long endurance (HALE) demonstration aircraft. Design options on tank geometry, tank wall material and insulation systems are discussed. The final design is an aluminum sphere insulated with spray on foam insulation (SOFI). Several steps and organizations were involved in the tank fabrication and test. The tank was cold shocked, helium leak checked and proof pressure tested. The overall thermal performance was verified with a boil off test using liquid hydrogen.

  13. Concept of a subcritical transmutation system with fast neutron spectrum and liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tittelbach, S.

    2002-11-01

    The annual amount of nearly 9500 t of spent fuel from worldwide industrial nuclear energy utilization has to be disposed as high level waste. The retention of nuclear waste from the biosphere has to be assured until the radiological risk decreases to tolerable levels. The long-term radiological risk of spent fuel is dominated by actinide elements, i.e. plutonium, americium and curium. It is intended to reduce this amount of high level waste by Partitioning and Transmutation, so that the radiotoxicity of the disposed waste falls short of the reference value of fresh fuel decaying naturally after about thousand years. For this time period the retention of high level waste can be assured by technical means. The scope of this work is the design of a subcritical fast transmutation system with liquid metal cooling and liquid metal fuel. The lead bismuth eutectic has been choosen as the liquid metal coolant and fuel carrier. To dissolve at least 3 at% of transuran elements, a minimum fuel temperature of 600 C is required. The calculations were carried out with a fuel composition, which results from two plutonium recycling steps in a thorium fuel cycle. Two homogeneous and two heterogeneous blankets have been designed and evaluated leading to one preferred heterogeneous blanket design, which has been investigated in more detail. This blanket design merges the positive properties of a solid fuel system (better control of fuel and reactivity because of smaller and closed fuel volumina) and a liquid fuel system (continous charge and discharge or extraction of fission products). The blanket design is based on the core design of fast breeder liquid metal reactors. It consists of hexagonal fuel elements housing up to six annular shaped fuel cylinders. The hexagonal shape of the fuel elements leads to three fuel zones positioned concentrically around the central spallation target. There is a strong heterogeneous distribution of power and heat flux in this blanket design. Besides

  14. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  15. Non-Toxic Ionic Liquid Fuels for Exploration Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop and test new, non-toxic ionic liquid fuels for propulsion applications. Vintage propulsion systems frequently use highly toxic...

  16. Fiber Optic Mass Flow Gauge for Liquid Cryogenic Fuel Facilities Monitoring and Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal describes a fiber optic mass flow gauge that will aid in managing liquid hydrogen and oxygen fuel storage and transport. The increasing...

  17. The Direct Methanol Liquid-Feed Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpert, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    Until the early 1990's the idea of a practical direct methanol fuel cell from transportation and other applications was just that, an idea. Several types of fuel cells that operate under near ambient conditions were under development.

  18. Quantifying liquid boundary and vapor distributions in a fuel spray by rainbow schlieren deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber Wanstall, C; Agrawal, Ajay K; Bittle, Joshua A

    2017-10-20

    The rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) technique is used to determine the liquid boundary and the fuel volume fraction distributions in the vapor region of a high-pressure fuel spray. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure flow vessel, whereby a customized single-hole common-rail diesel injector is used to introduce n-heptane fuel into a coflow of low-speed ambient air at two different test conditions. Only the quasi-steady period of the fuel spray is considered, and multiple injections are performed to acquire statistically significant data at an image acquisition rate of 20 kHz. An algorithm to identify the liquid boundary using intensity recorded by the RSD images is presented. The results are compared against measurements obtained by the Mie scattering technique. Results demonstrate that the RSD can be a powerful optical diagnostics technique to simultaneously quantify both the vapor and liquid regions in the high-pressure fuel sprays.

  19. The fuel properties of pyrolysis liquid derived from urban solid wastes in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M N; Islam, M N; Beg, M R A

    2004-04-01

    Urban solid wastes in the form of scrap tyre, waste plastic and waste paper, were pyrolyzed in an externally heated fixed bed reactor. The condensed liquids were analyzed for their properties as fuels and compared with petroleum-derived products. The properties were physical properties, higher heating value, elemental (CHNOS) analysis and chemical composition using Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the pyrolysis of urban solid wastes may be a potential source of liquid hydrocarbon fuel.

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkenburt, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-01

    This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: • MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis • expected process scale required for favorable economics • the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements • the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

  1. Modeling of the filling and cooling processes of hot fuel mains in Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisnyakov, V. F.; Pokrishkin, V. V.; Serebryansky, V. N.

    A mathematical model of heat and mass exchange processes during filling and cooling of hot fuel mains of the Liquid Fuel Rocket Power Plant (LFRPP), which allows to define a mass consumption and distribution of two-phase flow parameters by the length of pipeline. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data, taken during filling of the main with a supply of liquid oxygen from the tank into the combustion chamber. Also, the results of modeling of hydrogen main dynamic characteristics of LFRPP in the same conditions are given.

  2. The liquid biodiesel extracted from pranajiwa (Sterculia Foetida) seeds as fuel for direct biofuel-solid oxide fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Fitria; Syahputra, Rahmat J. E.; Yuniastuti, Endang; Prameswari, Arum P.; Nurcahyo, I. F.

    2017-03-01

    This research applied the liquid biodiesel extracted from Pranajiwa seeds (biodiesel-p) as fuel in Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, IT-SOFC, with an operational temperature of 400 - 600°C. FTIR analysis of the liquid biodiesel found that the liquid consist of some functional groups. By comparing the spectrum with the commercial biosolar as produced by Pertamina, Indonesia, it is found that there are differenet peaks at a wavenumber of 3472.98; 1872.00; and 724.30 cm-1. It indicates the presence of alcoholo molecules. Composite of Samarium doped-Ceria, SDC, with sodium carbonate, NaCO3, was used as the electrolyte, and it is named as NSDC. Meanwhile, the composite of NSDC with catalyst powder of LNC, producing NSDC-L was used as a cathode and as an anode. The liquid fuel vapourized at 150 °C before come into the fuel cell, and it was reformed inside the fuel cell tube which was set up at 400, 500, and 600 °C. The measurement found that the highest Open Circuite Voltage is 0.57 volt and the power density of 1.7 mW.cm-2 at 500 °C.

  3. Consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles: Comparing a utility maximization and a regret minimization model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorus, Caspar G.; Koetse, Mark J.; Hoen, Anco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a utility-based and a regret-based model of consumer preferences for alternative fuel vehicles, based on a large-scale stated choice-experiment held among company car leasers in The Netherlands. Estimation and application of random utility maximization and random regret minimization discrete choice models shows that while the two models achieve almost identical fit with the data and differ only marginally in terms of predictive ability, they generate rather different choice probability-simulations and policy implications. The most eye-catching difference between the two models is that the random regret minimization model accommodates a compromise-effect, as it assigns relatively high choice probabilities to alternative fuel vehicles that perform reasonably well on each dimension instead of having a strong performance on some dimensions and a poor performance on others. - Highlights: • Utility- and regret-based models of preferences for alternative fuel vehicles. • Estimation based on stated choice-experiment among Dutch company car leasers. • Models generate rather different choice probabilities and policy implications. • Regret-based model accommodates a compromise-effect

  4. High liquid fuel yielding biofuel processes and a roadmap for the future transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Navneet R.

    In a fossil-fuel deprived world when crude oil will be scarce and transportation need cannot be met with electricity and transportation liquid fuel must be produced, biomass derived liquid fuels can be a natural replacement. However, the carbon efficiency of the currently known biomass to liquid fuel conversion processes ranges from 35-40%, yielding 90 ethanol gallon equivalents (ege) per ton of biomass. This coupled with the fact that the efficiency at which solar energy is captured by biomass (syngas derived from coal gasification (H2Bioil-C) or a natural gas reformer (H 2Bioil-NG) is used to supply the hydrogen and process heat for the biomass fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation. Another off-shoot of the H2Bioil process is the H2Bioil-B process, where hydrogen required for the hydropyrolysis is obtained from gasification of a fraction of the biomass. H2Bioil-B achieves the highest liquid fuel yield (126-146 ege/ton of biomass) reported in the literature for any self-contained conversion of biomass to biofuel. Finally, an integration of the H2Bioil process with the H2CAR process is suggested which can achieve 100% carbon efficiency (330 ege/ton of biomass) at the expense of 0.24 kg hydrogen/liter of oil. A sun-to-fuel efficiency analysis shows that extracting CO2 from air and converting it to liquid fuel is at least two times more efficient than growing dedicated fuel crops and converting them to liquid fuel even for the highest biomass growth rates feasible by algae. This implies that liquid fuel should preferably be produced from sustainably available waste (SAW) biomass first and if the SAW biomass is unable to meet the demand for liquid fuel, then, CO2 should be extracted from air and converted to liquid fuel, rather than growing biomass. Furthermore, based on the Sun-to-Wheels recovery for different transportation pathways, synergistic and complementary use of electricity, hydrogen and biomass, all derived from solar energy, is presented in an energy

  5. Study of liquid fuel transport in a small carburetted engine in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    recently, Li & Collings (1999) proposed a semi-empirical model of fuel transport in the intake manifold and ... In the present work, a detailed study of liquid fuel film transport inside the inlet manifold of a small ..... starts with a peak (local maxima) followed by a dip (local minima) and it then increases and sta- bilizes at some ...

  6. Terminology used for renewable liquid and gaseous fuels based on the conversion of electricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    fuels produced with coal-, gas- and biomass-to-liquid (xTL) technologies. However, a number of articles use the term beyond this definition. Results for the term electrofuel gave a similar outcome, as it was not clear which processes were used for the fuel production. In some cases, both synthetic...

  7. Thermal performance of a meso-scale liquid-fuel combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, V.; Gupta, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Demonstrated successful combustion of liquid fuel-air mixtures in a novel meso-scale combustor. → Flame quenching was eliminated using heat recirculation in a swiss roll type combustor that also extended the flammability limits. → Liquid fuel was rapidly vaporized with the use of hot narrow channel walls that eliminated the need of a fuel atomizer. → Maximum power density of the combustor was estimated to be about 8.5 GW/m3 and heat load in the range of 50-280W. → Overall efficiency of the combustor was estimated in the range of 12 to 20%. - Abstract: Combustion in small scale devices poses significant challenges due to the quenching of reactions from wall heat losses as well as the significantly reduced time available for mixing and combustion. In the case of liquid fuels there are additional challenges related to atomization, vaporization and mixing with the oxidant in the very short time-scale liquid-fuel combustor. The liquid fuel employed here is methanol with air as the oxidizer. The combustor was designed based on the heat recirculating concept wherein the incoming reactants are preheated by the combustion products through heat exchange occurring via combustor walls. The combustor was fabricated from Zirconium phosphate, a ceramic with very low thermal conductivity (0.8 W m -1 K -1 ). The combustor had rectangular shaped double spiral geometry with combustion chamber in the center of the spiral formed by inlet and exhaust channels. Methanol and air were introduced immediately upstream at inlet of the combustor. The preheated walls of the inlet channel also act as a pre-vaporizer for liquid fuel which vaporizes the liquid fuel and then mixes with air prior to the fuel-air mixture reaching the combustion chamber. Rapid pre-vaporization of the liquid fuel by the hot narrow channel walls eliminated the necessity for a fuel atomizer. Self-sustained combustion of methanol-air was achieved in a chamber volume as small as 32.6 mm 3

  8. Catalytic pyrolysis of microalgae to high-quality liquid bio-fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babych, Igor V.; van der Hulst, M.; Lefferts, Leonardus; Moulijn, J.A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; O'Connor, P.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrolytic conversion of chlorella algae to liquid fuel precursor in presence of a catalyst (Na2CO3) has been studied. Thermal decomposition studies of the algae samples were performed using TGA coupled with MS. Liquid oil samples were collected from pyrolysis experiments in a fixed-bed reactor

  9. Transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a complete description of a model for transient heating and evaporation of moving mono-component liquid fuel droplets. The model mainly consists of gas phase heat and mass transfer analysis, liquid phase analysis, and droplet dynamics analysis, which address the interaction be...

  10. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  11. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  12. Novel method for the measurement of liquid film thickness during fuel spray impingement on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, S; Beyrau, F; Hardalupas, Y; Taylor, A M K P

    2016-02-08

    This paper describes the development and application of a novel optical technique for the measurement of liquid film thickness formed on surfaces during the impingement of automotive fuel sprays. The technique makes use of the change of the light scattering characteristics of a metal surface with known roughness, when liquid is deposited. Important advantages of the technique over previously established methods are the ability to measure the time-dependent spatial distribution of the liquid film without a need to add a fluorescent tracer to the liquid, while the measurement principle is not influenced by changes of the pressure and temperature of the liquid or the surrounding gas phase. Also, there is no need for non-fluorescing surrogate fuels. However, an in situ calibration of the dependence of signal intensity on liquid film thickness is required. The developed method can be applied to measure the time-dependent and two-dimensional distribution of the liquid fuel film thickness on the piston or the liner of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines. The applicability of this technique was evaluated with impinging sprays of several linear alkanes and alcohols with different thermo-physical properties. The surface temperature of the impingement plate was controlled to simulate the range of piston surface temperatures inside a GDI engine. Two sets of liquid film thickness measurements were obtained. During the first set, the surface temperature of the plate was kept constant, while the spray of different fuels interacted with the surface. In the second set, the plate temperature was adjusted to match the boiling temperature of each fuel. In this way, the influence of the surface temperature on the liquid film created by the spray of different fuels and their evaporation characteristics could be demonstrated.

  13. The challenges and opportunities for integration of solar syngas production with liquid fuel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, James T.; McNaughton, Robbie K.; Pye, John; Saw, Woei; Stechel, Ellen B.

    2016-05-01

    Reforming of methane is practiced on a vast scale globally for the production of syngas as a precursor for the production of many commodities, including hydrogen, ammonia and synthetic liquid fuels. Solar reforming can reduce the greenhouse gas intensity of syngas production by up to about 40% by using solar thermal energy to provide the endothermic heat of reaction, traditionally supplied by combustion of some of the feed. This has the potential to enable the production of solar derived synthetic fuels as drop in replacements for conventional fuels with significantly lower CO2 intensity than conventional gas to liquids (GTL) processes. However, the intermittent nature of the solar resource - both diurnal and seasonal - poses significant challenges for such a concept, which relies on synthesis processes that typically run continuously on very stable feed compositions. We find that the integration of solar syngas production to a GTL process is a non-trivial exercise, with the ability to turn down the capacity of the GTL synthesis section, and indeed to suspend operations for short periods without significant detriment to product quality or process operability, likely to be a key driver for the commercial implementation of solar liquid fuels. Projected costs for liquid fuel synthesis suggest that solar reforming and small scale gas to liquid synthesis can potentially compete with conventional oil derived transport fuels in the short to medium term.

  14. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  15. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Final report. Biomass Alternative-Fuels Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, R K; Bodle, W W; Yuen, P C

    1982-10-01

    The ojective of the study is to provide a process design and cost estimates for a biomass hydropyrolysis plant and to establish its economic viability for commercial applications. A plant site, size, product slate, and the most probable feedstock or combination of feedstocks were determined. A base case design was made by adapting IGT's HYFLEX process to Hawaiian biomass feedstocks. The HYFLEX process was developed by IGT to produce liquid and/or gaseous fuels from carbonaceous materials. The essence of the process is the simultaneous extraction of valuable oil and gaseous products from cellulosic biomass feedstocks without forming a heavy hard-to-handle tar. By controlling rection time and temperature, the product slate can be varied according to feedstock and market demand. An optimum design and a final assessment of the applicability of the HYFLEX process to the conversion of Hawaiian biomass was made. In order to determine what feedstocks could be available in Hawaii to meet the demands of the proposed hydropyrolysis plant, various biomass sources were studied. These included sugarcane and pineapple wastes, indigenous and cultivated trees and indigenous and cultivated shrubs and grasses.

  16. The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

    2004-01-01

    Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases

  17. Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

    2005-11-01

    A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

  18. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytkov, Ivan V.; Zabelin, Maksim V.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.

    2016-02-01

    The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  19. Investigation of the Extinguishing Features for Liquid Fuels and Organic Flammable Liquids Atomized by a Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voytkov Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of heat and mass transfer were investigated experimentally while moving and evaporating the atomized water flow in high-temperature combustion products of typical liquid fuels and organic flammable liquids: gasoline, kerosene, acetone, crude oil, industrial alcohol. We determined typical periods of liquid extinguishing by an atomized water flow of various dispersability. Data of the discharge of extinguishing medium corresponding to various parameters of atomization and duration of using the atomization devices was presented. It is shown that Um≈3.5 m/s is a minimal outflow velocity of droplets during moving while passing the distance of 1m in the high-temperature gas medium to stop the combustion of organic liquids.

  20. Consumer Views: Fuel Economy, Plug-in Electric Vehicle Battery Range, and Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-11

    This presentation includes data captured by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) research efforts. The data capture consumer views on fuel economy, plug-in electric vehicle battery range, and willingness to pay for advanced vehicle technologies.

  1. Dehydrogenation of liquid fuel in microchannel catalytic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseland, Bernard Allen [Allentown, PA; Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Puri, Pushpinder Singh [Emmaus, PA

    2009-02-03

    The present invention is an improved process for the storage and delivery of hydrogen by the reversible hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of an organic compound wherein the organic compound is initially in its hydrogenated state. The improvement in the route to generating hydrogen is in the dehydrogenation step and recovery of the dehydrogenated organic compound resides in the following steps: introducing a hydrogenated organic compound to a microchannel reactor incorporating a dehydrogenation catalyst; effecting dehydrogenation of said hydrogenated organic compound under conditions whereby said hydrogenated organic compound is present as a liquid phase; generating a reaction product comprised of a liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound and gaseous hydrogen; separating the liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound from gaseous hydrogen; and, recovering the hydrogen and liquid phase dehydrogenated organic compound.

  2. Modeling efficiency and water balance in PEM fuel cell systems with liquid fuel processing and hydrogen membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Joshua B.; Bhargav, Atul; Shields, Eric B.; Jackson, Gregory S.; Hearn, Patrick L.

    Integrating PEM fuel cells effectively with liquid hydrocarbon reforming requires careful system analysis to assess trade-offs associated with H 2 production, purification, and overall water balance. To this end, a model of a PEM fuel cell system integrated with an autothermal reformer for liquid hydrocarbon fuels (modeled as C 12H 23) and with H 2 purification in a water-gas-shift/membrane reactor is developed to do iterative calculations for mass, species, and energy balances at a component and system level. The model evaluates system efficiency with parasitic loads (from compressors, pumps, and cooling fans), system water balance, and component operating temperatures/pressures. Model results for a 5-kW fuel cell generator show that with state-of-the-art PEM fuel cell polarization curves, thermal efficiencies >30% can be achieved when power densities are low enough for operating voltages >0.72 V per cell. Efficiency can be increased by operating the reformer at steam-to-carbon ratios as high as constraints related to stable reactor temperatures allow. Decreasing ambient temperature improves system water balance and increases efficiency through parasitic load reduction. The baseline configuration studied herein sustained water balance for ambient temperatures ≤35 °C at full power and ≤44 °C at half power with efficiencies approaching ∼27 and ∼30%, respectively.

  3. Designing a Surrogate Fuel for Gas-to-Liquid Derived Diesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, H. A.; Intikhab, S.; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2017-01-01

    for the surrogate is also performed to understand the effect of physicochemical properties on combustion as well as the emission behavior of the fuel. MI-5 exhibited an optimal torque at higher load conditions. A reduction of 11.26% NOx emission for MI-5 is observed when compared to conventional fuel. At higher......Synthetic diesel fuel produced from natural gas via gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology is referred to as ultraclean fuel but is still challenged for full certification as diesel fuel. GTL diesel lacks certain hydrocarbons and chemical constituents, which although are benign to the environment, result...... fuels that have fewer components. Screening of thousands of additives is a tedious task and can be done efficiently via computer based modeling to quickly and reliably identify a small number of promising candidates. These models are used to guide the formulation of five surrogates and predict...

  4. Reprocessing technology of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baetsle, L.H.; Broothaerts, J.; Heylen, P.R.; Eschrich, H.; Geel, J. van

    1974-11-01

    All the important aspects of LMFBR fuel reprocessing are critically reviewed in this report. Storage and transportation techniques using sodium, inert gas, lead, molten salts and organic coolants are comparatively discussed in connection with cooling time and de-activation techniques. Decladding and fuel disaggregation of UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel are reviewed according to the present state of R and D in the main nuclear powers. Strong emphasis is put on on voloxidation, mechanical pulverization and molten salt disaggregation in connection with volatilization of gaseous fission products. Release of fission gases and the resulting off-gas treatment are discussed in connection with cooling time, burn up and dissagregation techniques. The review is limited to tritium, iodine xenon-krypton and radioactive airborne particulates. Dissolution, solvent extraction and plutonium purification problems specifically connected to LMFBR fuel are reviewed with emphasis on the differences between LWR and fast fuel reprocessing. Finally the categories of wastes produced by reprocessing are analysed according to their origin in the plant and their alpha emitters content. The suitable waste treatment techniques are discussed in connection with the nature of the wastes and the ultimate disposal technique. (author)

  5. Data compilation report: Gas and liquid samples from K West Basin fuel storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Forty-one gas and liquid samples were taken from spent fuel storage canisters in the K West Basin during a March 1995 sampling campaign. (Spent fuel from the N Reactor is stored in sealed canisters at the bottom of the K West Basin.) A description of the sampling process, gamma energy analysis data, and quantitative gas mass spectroscopy data are documented. This documentation does not include data analysis

  6. BNFL Sellafield assessment of public radiation exposure due to liquid effluents from fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Individual (critical group) doses resulting from liquid discharges from the British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) Sellafield Works have been derived in a form normalised to unit radionuclide discharge rates. This has been done for the purpose of providing a basis for predicting doses in the event of nuclear fuel from a future Sizewell 'B' power station being reprocessed. These doses would have to be reviewed in the light of prevailing circumstances at the time when the actual discharges are known. (author)

  7. Processes for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to chemicals and liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Andrew; Woods, Elizabeth; Cortright, Randy; Gray, Matthew

    2017-05-23

    The present invention provides processes, methods, and systems for converting biomass-derived feedstocks to liquid fuels and chemicals. The method generally includes the reaction of a hydrolysate from a biomass deconstruction process with hydrogen and a catalyst to produce a reaction product comprising one of more oxygenated compounds. The process also includes reacting the reaction product with a condensation catalyst to produce C.sub.4+ compounds useful as fuels and chemicals.

  8. Power generation in fuel cells using liquid methanol and hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The invention is directed to an encapsulated fuel cell including a methanol source that feeds liquid methanol (CH.sub.3 OH) to an anode. The anode is electrical communication with a load that provides electrical power. The fuel cell also includes a hydrogen peroxide source that feeds liquid hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2 O.sub.2) to the cathode. The cathode is also in communication with the electrical load. The anode and cathode are in contact with and separated by a proton-conducting polymer electrolyte membrane.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  10. Production of High Energy Aviation Fuels from Advanced Coal Liquids. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    percentages of those aromatic molecules and may become one of the prime sources of the feedstocks needed for production of advanced fuels. Coal tars ...HRS) was an automated pilot plant capable of studying the processing associated with feedstocks such as petroleum, heavy oils, tars , coal liquids... coal that is rich in aromatics , producing liquids from it under the proper conditions, hydrotreating the aromatics to naphthenes and concentrating

  11. A review on laser diagnostics on atomization and evaporation of liquid fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuyin; Li, Shiyan; Lin, Baiyang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Jian; Xu, Bin

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the atomization and evaporation processes of liquid fuel, there are several laser diagnostics available in present. In this paper, the recent progress in laser diagnostics for atomization and evaporation will be introduced, as two categories: atomization and evaporation. The diagnostics for the former includes the primary breakup from liquid jet to ligaments or droplets and the secondary atomization from a bigger droplet to a smaller one, and the latter includes the droplet evaporation and the vapor distributions in a spray.

  12. Algae as a Biofuel: Renewable Source for Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kant Pandey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels produced by algae may provide a feasible alternative to fossil fuels like petroleum sourced fuels. However, looking to limited fossil fuel associated with problems, intensive efforts have been given to search for alternative biofuels like biodiesel. Algae are ubiquitous on earth, have potential to produce biofuel. However, technology of biofuel from algae facing a number of hurdles before it can compete in the fuel market and be broadly organized. Different challenges include strain identification and improvement of algal biomass, both in terms of biofuel productivity and the production of other products to improve the economics of the entire system. Algal biofuels could be made more cost effective by extracting other valuable products from algae and algal strains. Algal oil can be prepared by culture of algae on municipal and industrial wastewaters. Photobioreactors methods provide a controlled environment that can be tailored to the specific demands of high production of algae to attain a consistently good yield of biofuel. The algal biomass has been reported to yield high oil contents and have good amount of the biodiesel production capacity. In this article, it has been attempted to review to elucidate the approaches for making algal biodiesel economically competitive with respect to petrodiesel. Consequently, R & D work has been carried out for the growth, harvesting, oil extraction and conversion to biodiesel from algal sources.

  13. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Final report, for period ending June 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, P. F.; Sanderson, J. E.; Ashare, E.; Wise, D. L.; Molyneaux, M. S.

    1980-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of a previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids via Kolbe electrolysis to aliphatic hydrocarbons, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids, here the primary task is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300-liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process, the primary task is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter; and (6) design pilot plant and commercial size plant (1000 tons/day) processes for converting biomass to liquid hydrocarbon fuels and perform an economic analysis for the 1000 ton/day design.

  14. Physical characterization of biomass-based pyrolysis liquids. Application of standard fuel oil analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oasmaa, A.; Leppaemaeki, E.; Koponen, P.; Levander, J.; Tapola, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1997-12-31

    The main purpose of the study was to test the applicability of standard fuel oil methods developed for petroleum-based fuels to pyrolysis liquids. In addition, research on sampling, homogeneity, stability, miscibility and corrosivity was carried out. The standard methods have been tested for several different pyrolysis liquids. Recommendations on sampling, sample size and small modifications of standard methods are presented. In general, most of the methods can be used as such but the accuracy of the analysis can be improved by minor modifications. Fuel oil analyses not suitable for pyrolysis liquids have been identified. Homogeneity of the liquids is the most critical factor in accurate analysis. The presence of air bubbles may disturb in several analyses. Sample preheating and prefiltration should be avoided when possible. The former may cause changes in the composition and structure of the pyrolysis liquid. The latter may remove part of organic material with particles. The size of the sample should be determined on the basis of the homogeneity and the water content of the liquid. The basic analyses of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) include water, pH, solids, ash, Conradson carbon residue, heating value, CHN, density, viscosity, pourpoint, flash point, and stability. Additional analyses are carried out when needed. (orig.) 53 refs.

  15. Methylisothiazolinone in selected consumer products in Belgium: Adding fuel to the fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Olivier; Meert, Hans; Goossens, An; Janssens, Sighile; Lambert, Julien; Apers, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Methylisothiazolinone (MI) contact allergy is severely affecting consumers with allergic contact dermatitis, owing to its presence in cosmetics, household detergents, and water-based paints, in particular. Data on the true isothiazolinone concentrations in these products are scarce, and labelling may be incorrect. To report on the MI concentrations in such products marketed in Belgium, in order to verify the accuracy of labelling (when applicable) and compliance with EU regulations. Thirty cosmetics (18 leave-on and 12 rinse-off), eight detergents and four paints were analysed for MI by the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. The analysed leave-on, and to a lesser extent the rinse-off, cosmetics, contained MI at concentrations far exceeding the permitted 100 ppm use concentration. Household detergents contained high concentrations of MI, and mislabelling occurred for both cosmetics and detergents. The (limited) data on paints are in line with the existing literature. Cosmetics and detergents may facilitate contact sensitization because of a (too) high MI concentration, and mislabelling may make its avoidance extremely difficult. Safer use concentrations and correct labelling should be ensured by adequate quality control. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Synthesis gas production via catalytic partial oxidation reforming of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheekatamarla, P.K.; Finnerty, C.M. [NanoDynamics Energy Inc., 901 Fuhrmann Boulevard, Buffalo, NY 14203 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This work deals with the performance of waterless catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX)-based catalytic reformer system fed by different liquid fuels including ethanol, isooctane, hexadecane, synthetic JP8, kerosene and diesel for solid oxide fuel cell applications. The effect of different fuel components on product composition was studied and the operational parameters were optimized to provide a stable reforming performance. The system provided negligible pressure drop combined with the simpler system design due to the lack of water requirement making the POX reformer an attractive choice. (author)

  17. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs.

  18. Current liquid metal cooled fast reactor concepts: use of the dry reprocess fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jee Won; Jeong, C. J.; Yang, M. S.

    2003-03-01

    Recent Liquid metal cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) concepts are reviewed for investigating the potential usability of the Dry Reprocess Fuel (DRF). The LFRs have been categorized into two different types: the sodium cooled and the lead cooled systems. In each category, overall design and engineering concepts are collected which includes those of S-PRISM, AFR300, STAR, ENHS and more. Specially, the nuclear fuel types which can be used in these LFRs, have been summarized and their thermal, physical and neutronic characteristics are tabulated. This study does not suggest the best-matching LFR for the DRF, but shows good possibility that the DRF fuel can be used in future LFRs

  19. Controlling Palladium Nanocrystals by Solvent-Induced Strategy for Efficient Multiple Liquid Fuels Electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Xing; Guo, Jun; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2016-08-17

    Pd has been considered as the possible economical substitute of rare Pt for catalyzing the liquid fuels electrooxidation reaction. However, the biggest problem of Pd nanocatalysts for alcohol oxidations is that they show the limited stability and activity, greatly impacting the development of liquid fuels-based fuel cell technology. We report herein a new solvent-induced procedure for making distinct Pd NCs with geometry tuning from Pd nanosheets, Pd tetrapods, to Pd concave tetrahedra by switching the solvent from 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, formamide, to acetylacetonate. The key features for the preparation of dimension-controlled Pd NCs herein are that the use of molybdenum carbonyl (Mo(CO)6) determines the exposed {111} facet in the final Pd NCs, while different solvents control the reduction kinetics to induce the growth of Pd NCs with distinct morphologies. The as-prepared distinct Pd NCs show the interesting shape-dependent electrocatalytic activities toward multiple liquid fuels electrooxidation reactions including ethylene glycol oxidation reaction, glycerol oxidation reaction, ethanol oxidation reaction, and also methanol oxidation reaction with Pd nanosheets exhibiting higher activity than all the other Pd catalysts and higher activity than the commercial Pd/C and also Pd black due to the thin character of Pd nanosheets. Most importantly, the Pd nanosheets exhibit much higher stability for multiple liquid fuels electrooxidation than all the other Pd catalysts tested. The present work gives the first example in exploring the effect of solvent in tuning the dimensions of Pd NCs, and thus optimizing the electrocatalytic performance for liquid fuels electrooxidation.

  20. Solid-oxide fuel cell operated on in situ catalytic decomposition products of liquid hydrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hongxia; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping; Jin, Wanqin; Xu, Nanping; Ahn, Jeongmin

    Hydrazine was examined as a fuel for a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) that employed a typical nickel-based anode. An in situ catalytic decomposition of hydrazine at liquid state under room temperature and ambient pressure before introducing to the fuel cell was developed by applying a Ba 0.5Sr 0.5Co 0.8Fe 0.2O 3- δ (BSCF) oxide catalyst. Catalytic testing demonstrated that liquid N 2H 4 can be decomposed to gaseous NH 3 and H 2 at a favorable rate and at a temperature as low as 20 °C and H 2 selectivity reaching values as high as 10% at 60 °C. Comparable fuel cell performance was observed using either the in situ decomposition products of hydrazine or pure hydrogen as fuel. A peak power density of ∼850 mW cm -2 at 900 °C was obtained with a typical fuel cell composed of scandia-stabilized zirconia and La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3 cathode. The high energy and power density, easy storage and simplicity in fuel delivery make it highly attractive for portable applications.

  1. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  2. Low Emissions Burner Technology for Metal Processing Industry using Byproducts and Biomass Derived Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Ajay; Taylor, Robert

    2013-09-30

    This research and development efforts produced low-emission burner technology capable of operating on natural gas as well as crude glycerin and/or fatty acids generated in biodiesel plants. The research was conducted in three stages (1) Concept definition leading to the design and development of a small laboratory scale burner, (2) Scale-up to prototype burner design and development, and (3) Technology demonstration with field vefiication. The burner design relies upon the Flow Blurring (FB) fuel injection based on aerodynamically creating two-phase flow near the injector exit. The fuel tube and discharge orifice both of inside diameter D are separated by gap H. For H < 0.25D, the atomizing air bubbles into liquid fuel to create a two-phase flow near the tip of the fuel tube. Pressurized two-phase fuel-air mixture exits through the discharge orifice, which results in expansion and breakup of air bubbles yielding a spray with fine droplets. First, low-emission combustion of diesel, biodiesel and straight VO (soybean oil) was achieved by utilizing FB injector to yield fine sprays for these fuels with significantly different physical properties. Visual images for these baseline experiments conducted with heat release rate (HRR) of about 8 kW illustrate clean blue flames indicating premixed combustion for all three fuels. Radial profiles of the product gas temperature at the combustor exit overlap each other signifying that the combustion efficiency is independent of the fuel. At the combustor exit, the NOx emissions are within the measurement uncertainties, while CO emissions are slightly higher for straight VO as compared to diesel and biodiesel. Considering the large variations in physical and chemical properties of fuels considered, the small differences observed in CO and NOx emissions show promise for fuel-flexible, clean combustion systems. FB injector has proven to be very effective in atomizing fuels with very different physical properties, and it offers a

  3. Polyoxymetalate liquid-catalyzed polyol fuel cell and the related photoelectrochemical reaction mechanism study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weibing; Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2016-06-01

    A novel design of liquid catalyzed fuel cell (LCFC), which uses polyoxometalates (POMs) as the photocatalyst and charge carrier has been reported previously. In this paper, the adaptability of biomass fuels (e.g., glycerol and glucose) to the LCFC and corresponding cell performance were studied in detail here. An interesting finding that greatly differs from conventional fuel cell is that high molecular weight fuels rather than small molecule fuels (e.g., methanol and ethylene glycol) are favored by the novel LCFC with respect to the power densities. The power output of LCFC strongly depends on the number and structure of hydroxyl groups in the biomass fuels. The evidence of UV-Vis and 1H NMR spectra shows that the preassociation between POM and alcohol fuels, which determines the photoelectrochemical reaction pathway of POM, is enhanced as the number of hydroxyl increases. Experimental results also demonstrate that more hydroxyl groups in the molecules lead to faster photoelectrochemical reaction between POM and fuels, higher reduction degree of POM, and further higher power output of LCFC. Our study reveals that biomass-based polyhydroxyl compounds such as starch, hemicellulose and cellulose are potential high-performance fuels for LCFC.

  4. A fuel freezing model for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, F.R.; Erdman, C.; Wayne, D.

    1985-01-01

    A proposed fuel freezing mechanism for molten UO2 fuel penetrating a steel channel was investigated in the course of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor hypothetical core disruptiv accident safety studies. The fuel crust deposited on an underlying melting steel wall was analyzed as being subjected to two stresses one due to the pressure difference between the flowing fuel and the stagnant molten steel layer, and the other resulting from the temperature variation through the crust thickness. Analyses based on the proposed freezing mechanism and comparisons with fuel freezing experiments confirmed that fuel freezing occurs in three modes. For initially low steel wall temperatures, the fuel crust was stable and grew to occlude the channel. At high steel wall temperatures (above 1070 K), instantaneous wall melting leading to steel entrainment was calculated to occur with final penetration depending on the refreezing of the entrained steel. Between these two extremes, the stress developed within the crust at the steel melting front exceeds the critical buckling value, the crust ruptures, and steel is injected into the fuel flow. Freezing is dominated by the fuel/steel mixture. The theoretical penetration distances and freezing times were in good agreement with the experimental results with no more than 20% error involved.

  5. A liquid organic carrier of hydrogen as a fuel for automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taube, M.; Taube, P.

    1979-09-01

    A system of storing energy in a hydrogen containing fuel for the motor car is discussed. The recyclable liquid chemical carrier is: (Methylcyclohexane (liquid)) dehydrogenation (Toluene (liquid)) + (hydrogen (gas)). The reverse reaction, the hydrogenation of toluene, occurs in a regional plant connected to a source of hydrogen (electrolysis of water) with a significant by-product being heat at 200 0 C for district heating. The system is able to store hydrogen in liquid form under ambient temperature and pressure even in a small motor car. The concentration of hydrogen is 6.1 % by weight. The release of gaseous hydrogen from the liquid methylcyclohexane needs a chemical catalytic reactor having a temperature of 300 0 C and a pressure of some bars. This reaction has been well studied. The thermal energy for the dehydrogenation is taken from the exhaust gases at 780 0 C. A layout of the most important processes of the system is given. (Auth.)

  6. Liquid Fuels From Plants-Can we Meet our Petroleum Needs from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 11. Liquid Fuels From Plants - Can we Meet our Petroleum Needs from Plants? G Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 5 Issue 11 November 2000 pp 47-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Federal Financial Incentives to Induce Early Experience Producing Unconventional Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    to Induce Early Experience Producing Unconventional Liquid Fuels Frank Camm, James T. Bartis, Charles J. Bushman Prepared for the United States Air... Frank Camm (Frank_Camm@rand.org). v Contents Preface...common in agreements between oil producers and governments outside the United States (Kretzschmar and Kirchner , 2007; see also Metcalf, 2006). These

  8. Bifunctional catalysts for the direct production of liquid fuels from syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of catalyst formulations that maximize the direct production of liquid fuels by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS), hydrocarbon cracking, and isomerization into one single catalyst particle (bifunctional FTS catalyst) have been investigated in this thesis. To achieve

  9. Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linville, B. (ed.)

    1982-10-01

    This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

  10. Combustion of Liquid Bio-Fuels in an Internal Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miccio, F.; Kalisz, S.; Baxter, D.; Svoboda, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 143, 1-3 (2008), s. 172-179 ISSN 1385-8947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : internal circulating fluidized bed * liquid fuel * combustion Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.813, year: 2008

  11. Prospects for production of synthetic liquid fuel from low-grade coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyrev Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we compare the energy costs of steam and steam-oxygen gasification technologies for production of synthetic liquid fuel. Results of mathematic simulation and experimental studies on gasification of low-grade coal are presented.

  12. Self-Exited Oscillation in a Combustion Chamber Driven by Phase Change in the Liquid Fuel Feed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hassa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new mechanism for the generation of a self-exited oscillation of combustion in a generic combustion chamber typical for aeroengine combustors is described. The cause of the oscillation is the phase change from liquid to vapour which happens when the preheat temperature of the air flowing through the burner exceeds the boiling temperature at the operating pressure and the fuel flow is so low that heat transfer to the liquid fuel causes evaporation within the fuel channels of the burner. Liquid fuel and vapour alternatively enter the airstream of the burner. This leads to an unstable situation for the flame. Measurements of chemiluminescence and liquid fuel show nearly complete extinction and re-ignition for the limit cycle. Prevention of the oscillation is possible by better thermal management of the fuel path.

  13. Self-Exited Oscillation in a Combustion Chamber Driven by Phase Change in the Liquid Fuel Feed System

    OpenAIRE

    C. Hassa; J. Heinze; U. Meier; Ch Heeger; Ph Trunk; A. Dreizler

    2011-01-01

    A new mechanism for the generation of a self-exited oscillation of combustion in a generic combustion chamber typical for aeroengine combustors is described. The cause of the oscillation is the phase change from liquid to vapour which happens when the preheat temperature of the air flowing through the burner exceeds the boiling temperature at the operating pressure and the fuel flow is so low that heat transfer to the liquid fuel causes evaporation within the fuel channels of the burner. Liqu...

  14. Liquid Fuel Systems Maintenance Career Ladder AFS 545X1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    3 3 HQ SAC/DPAT 3 3 3 HQ SAC/LGHQ (ATCLO) 1 1 1 HQ TAC/DPAT 3 3 3 HQ TAC/DPLATC 1 1 1 HQ USAF/LEEEV (BOLLING AFB WA 20332) 1 1 1 HQ USAF/ MPPT 1 1 1 HQ...and malfunctions; repairing and replacing defective components; and adjusting systems to specifications. Much of this work involves work in the control ...separator fuel discharge control valves, manual valves, water drain valves, pump assemblies, meters, and pressure gauges. Additionally, they operate

  15. Investigating design criteria to build a performing microbial fuel cell running on swine liquid manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, D.Y.; Hogue, R.; Dube, P.; Jeanne, T.; Levesque, A. [Inst. de recherche et de developpement en agroenvironnement Inc, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Theriault, R.; Kaliaguine, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the bacterial and electro-chemical phenomena that takes place in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating on swine liquid manure as fuel. An MFC converts the available energy in a bioconvertible substrate directly into electricity while decreasing its chemical oxygen demand (COD). In this study, a first single chamber MFC operating on swine liquid manure was constructed based on a literature review. Various support media filling the anodic chamber were tested in an effort to optimize the surface area on which bacteria may develop according to the hypothesis that large bacteria concentration will improve energy production and reduce treatment time. Bacterial communities extracted from the selected support media were analyzed using molecular technologies such as DNA extraction, PCR amplification, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning and sequencing. The analyses showed that only a few bacteria species coming from raw liquid manure were responsible for electrical activities.

  16. Reduced Gravity Studies of Soret Transport Effects in Liquid Fuel Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2004-01-01

    Soret transport, which is mass transport driven by thermal gradients, can be important in practical flames as well as laboratory flames by influencing transport of low molecular weight species (e.g., monatomic and diatomic hydrogen). In addition, gas-phase Soret transport of high molecular weight fuel species that are present in practical liquid fuels (e.g., octane or methanol) can be significant in practical flames (Rosner et al., 2000; Dakhlia et al., 2002) and in high pressure droplet evaporation (Curtis and Farrell, 1992), and it has also been shown that Soret transport effects can be important in determining oxygen diffusion rates in certain classes of microgravity droplet combustion experiments (Aharon and Shaw, 1998). It is thus useful to obtain information on flames under conditions where Soret effects can be clearly observed. This research is concerned with investigating effects of Soret transport on combustion of liquid fuels, in particular liquid fuel droplets. Reduced-gravity is employed to provide an ideal (spherically-symmetrical) experimental model with which to investigate effects of Soret transport on combustion. The research will involve performing reduced-gravity experiments on combustion of liquid fuel droplets in environments where Soret effects significantly influence transport of fuel and oxygen to flame zones. Experiments will also be performed where Soret effects are not expected to be important. Droplets initially in the 0.5 to 1 mm size range will be burned. Data will be obtained on influences of Soret transport on combustion characteristics (e.g., droplet burning rates, droplet lifetimes, gas-phase extinction, and transient flame behaviors) under simplified geometrical conditions that are most amenable to theoretical modeling (i.e., spherical symmetry). The experiments will be compared with existing theoretical models as well as new models that will be developed. Normal gravity experiments will also be performed.

  17. Liquid fuel obtain from polypropylene (PP-5) and high density polyethylene (HDPE-2) waste plastics mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Rahman, Md. Sadikur; Molla, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Plastics are made by combination of small based molecules to form monomers. The monomers are then joined together by chemical polymerization mechanism to form polymers also known as plastics. These plastics contain various elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine and sul fur. The use of plastics is vastly expanded and it is being used in every sector of the world. However, using plastics does have a negative aspect, after use they end up in our landfill as waste causing numerous health and environmental problems. Landfill waste plastics release harmful gases due to the presence of carbon, chlorine and sul fur in them into the atmosphere causing climates to change drastically, equivalent to the effects of greenhouse gases (GHG) emission. To overcome these environmental issues, scientists have already developed many methods to converting these waste plastics into energy and fuel . We developed one new methods thermal cracking conversion to convert these waste plastics into usable liquid fuel . Thermal cracking conversion is a process to shorten the long chain hydrocarbons to produce liquid fuel in the absence of a catalyst. The thermal degradation process of the waste plastics long chain hydrocarbon to makes short chain hydrocarbon fuel. The fuel produced has been analyzed and tested according to standard methods. Key words: fuel , hydrocarbon, waste plastic, thermal degradation, conversion, GC/MS

  18. Mixing requirements for the limiting fuel-coolant interactions in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Jr, W F

    1976-11-01

    An estimation of the mixing requirements for the limiting fuel-coolant interactions in two specific liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR), has been undertaken. The mixing requirements were represented in terms of the limiting mixing time constants. These constants were determined with the Argonne parametric FCI Computer Model for a range of core involvements. Specifically, fuel masses used ranged from as low as one-seventh of the core to a full core involvement. In general, conservative values for additional FCI input parameters were assumed such that the results would be conservative. With the results in hand, several mechanisms were investigated to determine what limiting effects they could have on the mixing rates of the fuel and coolant during an FCI. The energy requirements for mixing were investigated. The results, however, provided no limiting effects. A solidification limited fragmentation model was also investigated. Although this model provided no absolute limiting effects, it did show that fuel particle sizes of a certain size could indeed limit the fuel-coolant mixing rates. Additionally, the limiting effects were found to be much less significant for UC fuel. The third mechanism that was investigated concerned the limiting effects of the finite fuel release rates as a result of TOP accidents in the FFTF. Equivalent mixing time constants based on the fuel release rates were shown to be greater than the limiting values. Thus, this mechanism was shown to be limiting for the particular accident sequence investigated.

  19. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    Kudryavtsev V.S., Martysh E.V., and Verovchuk M.A. Plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol in dynamic plasma-liquid system: experiments and modeling // IEEE...Shchedrin A., Rybatsev A., Demchina V., and Kudryavtsev V. Transversal gas discharges in plasma liquid systems and its applications for...Olszewskii, M. Verovchuck, D. Levko, A. Shchedrin, V. Demchina, V. Kudryavtsev . Experimental study and theoretical modeling of process of 42 ethanol

  20. STUDY REGARDING THE OPERATING SPEED OF FORAGE HARVESTING MACHINERY IN ORDER TO OPTIMIZE THE WORKING CAPACITY AND FUEL CONSUME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MOISE

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of forage production machinery system is partially reflected in someclassical economical indices, because the real efficiency of mechanical tillageutilization at forage harvesting and preparation must be reflected in the foragequality increasing and feed superior valorization by the farm livestock. An area of7.8 alfalfa ha was harvested with U-650M tractor and ROTO 165 rotary mower andwith U-650M tractor and Zakaz rotary mower at different speeds in field work.Average values of the speed in parcel work, work effective capacity, work capacityduring shift, specific work capacity on cutter width, fuel consume per land unit, andspecific fuel consume per mass unit were determined for each speed in field work.Power matching between the tractor and the mower do not always meet therequirements when forming harvesting mechanized systems. Classical mowers withcommon cutting units do not sufficiently load the U-650M tractor existing inmany Romanian farms, which determines an unfavorable functioning regime ofthe tractor engine correlated with increased fuel consumes.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a High Bandwidth Liquid Fuel Modulation Valve for Active Combustion Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saus, Joseph R.; DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2012-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, a characterization rig was designed and constructed for the purpose of evaluating high bandwidth liquid fuel modulation devices to determine their suitability for active combustion control research. Incorporated into the rig s design are features that approximate conditions similar to those that would be encountered by a candidate device if it were installed on an actual combustion research rig. The characterized dynamic performance measures obtained through testing in the rig are planned to be accurate indicators of expected performance in an actual combustion testing environment. To evaluate how well the characterization rig predicts fuel modulator dynamic performance, characterization rig data was compared with performance data for a fuel modulator candidate when the candidate was in operation during combustion testing. Specifically, the nominal and off-nominal performance data for a magnetostrictive-actuated proportional fuel modulation valve is described. Valve performance data were collected with the characterization rig configured to emulate two different combustion rig fuel feed systems. Fuel mass flows and pressures, fuel feed line lengths, and fuel injector orifice size was approximated in the characterization rig. Valve performance data were also collected with the valve modulating the fuel into the two combustor rigs. Comparison of the predicted and actual valve performance data show that when the valve is operated near its design condition the characterization rig can appropriately predict the installed performance of the valve. Improvements to the characterization rig and accompanying modeling activities are underway to more accurately predict performance, especially for the devices under development to modulate fuel into the much smaller fuel injectors anticipated in future lean-burning low-emissions aircraft engine combustors.

  2. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  3. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Tjokro Rahardjo, Sandra A.; Valkenburt, Corinne; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Machinal, Michelle A.

    2011-06-01

    ). This study is part of an ongoing effort within the Department of Energy to meet the renewable energy goals for liquid transportation fuels. The objective of this report is to present a techno-economic evaluation of the performance and cost of various biomass based thermochemical fuel production. This report also documents the economics that were originally developed for the report entitled “Biofuels in Oregon and Washington: A Business Case Analysis of Opportunities and Challenges” (Stiles et al. 2008). Although the resource assessments were specific to the Pacific Northwest, the production economics presented in this report are not regionally limited. This study uses a consistent technical and economic analysis approach and assumptions to gasification and liquefaction based fuel production technologies. The end fuels studied are methanol, ethanol, DME, SNG, gasoline and diesel.

  4. Technical and economic modelling of processes for liquid fuel production in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridgwater, A.V.; Double, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The project which is described had the objective of examining the full range of technologies for liquid fuel production from renewable feedstocks in a technical and economic evaluation in order to identify the most promising technologies. The technologies considered are indirect thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. via gasification) to produce methanol, fuel alcohol or hydrocarbon fuels, direct thermochemical liquefaction or pyrolysis to produce hydrocarbon fuels and fermentation to produce ethanol. Feedstocks considered were wood, refuse derived fuel, straw, wheat and sugar beet. In order to carry out the evaluation, a computer model was developed, based on a unit process approach. Each unit operation is modelled as a process step, the model calculating the mass balance, energy balance and operating cost of the unit process. The results from the process step models are then combined to generate the mass balance, energy balance, capital cost and operating cost for the total process. The results show that the lowest production cost (L7/GJ) is obtained for methanol generated from a straw feedstock, but there is a moderate level of technical uncertainty associated with this result. The lowest production cost for hydrocarbon fuel (L8.6/GJ) is given by the pyrolysis process using a wood feedstock. This process has a high level of uncertainty. Fermentation processes showed the highest production costs, ranging from L14.4/GJ for a simple wood feedstock process to L25.2/GJ for a process based on sugar beet. The important conclusions are as follows: - In every case, the product cost is above current liquid fuel prices; - In most cases the feedstock cost dominates the production cost; -The most attractive products are thermochemically produced alcohol fuels

  5. Evolution of temperature of a droplet of liquid composite fuel interacting with heated airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkov, D. O.; Zakharevich, A. V.; Strizhak, P. A.; Syrodoy, S. V.

    2016-11-01

    The macroscopic patterns of a temperature change at the center of a droplet of three-component (coal, water, petroleum) composite liquid fuel (CLF) were studied using a low-inertia thermoelectric converter and system of high-speed (up to 105 frames per second) video recording during the induction period at different heating intensity by the air flow with variable parameters: temperature of 670-870 K and motion velocity of 1-4 m/s. The studies were carried out for two groups of CLF compositions: fuel based on brown coal and coal cleaning rejects (filter cake). To assess the effect of liquid combustible component of CLF on characteristics of the ignition process, the corresponding composition of two-component coal-water fuel (CWF) was studied. The stages of inert heating of CLF and CWF droplets with characteristic size corresponding to radius of 0.75-1.5 mm, evaporation of moisture and liquid oil (for CLF), thermal decomposition of the organic part of coal, gas mixture ignition, and carbon burnout were identified. Regularities of changes in the temperature of CLF and CWF droplets at each of identified stages were identified for the cooccurrence of phase transitions and chemical reactions. Comparative analysis of the times of ignition delay and complete combustion of the droplets of examined fuel compositions was performed with varying droplet dimensions, temperatures, and oxidant flow velocity.

  6. Stationary liquid fuel fast reactor SLFFR — Part II: Safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, T.; Jung, Y.S.; Yang, W.S., E-mail: yang494@purdue.edu

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA is developed for SLFFR transient analyses. • MUSA is verified against the SYS4A/SASSYS-1 code by simulating the ULOF accident for the advanced burner test reactor. • It is shown that SLFFR has a passive shutdown capability for double-fault, beyond-design-basis accidents UTOP, ULOHS and ULOF. - Abstract: Safety characteristics have been evaluated for the stationary liquid fuel fast reactor (SLFFR) proposed for effective burning of hazardous TRU elements of used nuclear fuel. In order to model the geometrical configuration and reactivity feedback mechanisms unique to SLFFR, a multi-channel safety analysis code named MUSA was developed. MUSA solves the time-dependent coupled neutronics and thermal-fluidic problems. The thermal-fluidic behavior of the core is described by representing the core with one-dimensional parallel channels. The primary heat transport system is modeled by connecting compressible volumes by liquid segments. A point kinetics model with six delayed neutron groups is used to represent the fission power transients. The reactivity feedback is estimated by combining the temperature and density variations of liquid fuel, structural material and sodium coolant with the corresponding axial distributions of reactivity worth in each individual thermal-fluidic channel. Preliminary verification tests with a conventional solid fuel reactor agreed well with the reference solutions obtained with the SAS4A/SASSYS-1 code. Transient analyses of SLFFR were performed for unprotected transient over-power (UTOP), unprotected loss of heat sink (ULOHS) and unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) accidents. The results showed that the thermal expansion of liquid fuel provides sufficiently large negative feedback reactivity for passive shutdown of UTOP and ULOHS. The ULOF transient is also terminated passively with the negative reactivity introduced by the gas expansion modules installed at the core periphery

  7. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  8. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  9. Chemical Looping Combustion with Different Types of Liquid Fuels Combustion en boucle chimique avec différentes charges liquides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoteit A.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available CLC is a new promising combustion process for CO2 capture with less or even no energy penalty compared to other processes. Up to now, most of the work performed on CLC was conducted with gaseous or solid fuels, using methane and coal and/or pet coke. Liquid fuels such as heavy fuels resulting from oil distillation or conversion may also be interesting feedstocks to consider. However, liquid fuels are challenging feedstock to deal with in fluidized beds. The objective of the present work is therefore to investigate the feasibility of liquid feed injection and contact with oxygen carrier in CLC conditions in order to conduct partial or complete combustion of hydrocarbons. A batch experimental fluidized bed set-up was developed to contact alternatively oxygen carrier with liquid fuels or air. The 20 mm i.d. fluidized bed reactor was filled up with 45 g of NiAl0.44O1.67 and pulses of 1-2 g of liquid were injected in the bed at high temperatures up to 950˚C. Different feedstocks have been injected, from dodecane to heavy fuel oils No.2. Results show that, during the reduction period, it is possible to convert all the fuel injected and there is no coke remaining on particles at the end of the reduction step. Depending upon oxygen available in the bed, either full combustion or partial combustion can be achieved. Similar results were found with different liquid feeds, despite their different composition and properties. Le CLC est un nouveau concept prometteur appliqué à la combustion qui permet le captage de CO en minimisant la pénalité énergétique liée au captage. Jusqu’à présent, l’essentiel des travaux de recherche dans le domaine du CLC concerne les charges gazeuses (méthane et solides (charbon et coke. Les charges liquides, et particulièrement les résidus pétroliers, sont des charges également intéressantes à considérer a priori. La mise en oeuvre de ces charges en lit fluidisé est cependant délicate. L’objet de ce

  10. High-performance liquid-catalyst fuel cell for direct biomass-into-electricity conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Mu, Wei; Deng, Yulin

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we report high-performance fuel cells that are catalyzed solely by polyoxometalate (POM) solution without any solid metal or metal oxide. The novel design of the liquid-catalyst fuel cells (LCFC) changes the traditional gas-solid-surface heterogeneous reactions to liquid-catalysis reactions. With this design, raw biomasses, such as cellulose, starch, and even grass or wood powders can be directly converted into electricity. The power densities of the fuel cell with switchgrass (dry powder) and bush allamanda (freshly collected) are 44 mW cm(-2) and 51 mW cm(-2) respectively. For the cellulose-based biomass fuel cell, the power density is almost 3000 times higher than that of cellulose-based microbial fuel cells. Unlike noble-metal catalysts, POMs are tolerant to most organic and inorganic contaminants. Therefore, almost any raw biomass can be used directly to produce electricity without prior purification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob [HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  12. Direct Utilization of Liquid Fuels in SOFC for Portable Applications: Challenges for the Selection of Alternative Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Cimenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC have the advantage of being able to operate with fuels other than hydrogen. In particular, liquid fuels are especially attractive for powering portable applications such as small power generators or auxiliary power units, in which case the direct utilization of the fuel would be convenient. Although liquid fuels are easier to handle and transport than hydrogen, their direct use in SOFC can lead to anode deactivation due to carbon formation, especially on traditional nickel/yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni/YSZ anodes. Significant advances have been made in anodic materials that are resistant to carbon formation but often these materials are less electrochemically active than Ni/YSZ. In this review the challenges of using liquid fuels directly in SOFC, in terms of gas-phase and catalytic reactions within the anode chamber, will be discussed and the alternative anode materials so far investigated will be compared.

  13. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration:Proceedings CD

    OpenAIRE

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Justesen, Kristian Kjær

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the ongoing development of high temperature PEM fuel cell systems fuelled by steam reformed methanol. Various fuel cell system solutions exist, they mainly differ depending on the desired fuel used. Hightemperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells offer the possibility of using liquid fuels such as methanol, due to the increased robustness of operating at higher temperatures (160-180oC). Using liquid fuels such as methanol removes the high volume demands of compressed hydroge...

  14. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 5, July 1-September 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) Establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression. (2) Modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode. (3) Change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction. (4) Optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density. (5) Scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Substantial progress has been made on the problem of methane suppression through the use of sulfide addition and the identification of bromoethane-sulfonic acid as a specific inhibitor of methanogenesis. A conceptual design of a continuously fed fixed packed bed fermenter is presented. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

  15. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 7, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Wise, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the ouput of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results have shown that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels is already operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid, a coenzyme M analogue, has been shown to be an effective methane suppressor, and the program is being rapidly expanded to include biomass substrates other than marine algae. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward refining the process design and economic analysis presented previously.

  16. Resolution 127/012. It approve the fuel quality 50-S Oil Gas characteristics within the framework of Technical Quality Specifications Rules for liquid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This resolution approves the initiative of Ancap fuel quality 50-S Oil Gas characteristics within the framework of Technical Quality Specifications Rules for liquid fuel. This resolution is according to the opinion of the National Energy Regulatory Unit and the Energy and Water Services in relation with the requirements of the current rule.

  17. Consumer Convenience and the Availability of Retail Stations as a Market Barrier for Alternative Fuel Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.; Bremson, J.; Solo, K.

    2013-01-01

    The availability of retail stations can be a significant barrier to the adoption of alternative fuel light-duty vehicles in household markets. This is especially the case during early market growth when retail stations are likely to be sparse and when vehicles are dedicated in the sense that they can only be fuelled with a new alternative fuel. For some bi-fuel vehicles, which can also fuel with conventional gasoline or diesel, limited availability will not necessarily limit vehicle sales but can limit fuel use. The impact of limited availability on vehicle purchase decisions is largely a function of geographic coverage and consumer perception. In this paper we review previous attempts to quantify the value of availability and present results from two studies that rely upon distinct methodologies. The first study relies upon stated preference data from a discrete choice survey and the second relies upon a station clustering algorithm and a rational actor value of time framework. Results from the two studies provide an estimate of the discrepancy between stated preference cost penalties and a lower bound on potential revealed cost penalties.

  18. Formation of Liquid Products at the Filtration Combustion of Solid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Salgansky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yields of liquid and gaseous products of the filtration combustion of cellulose, wood, peat, coal, and rubber have been investigated. Experiments have shown that the gasification of solid fuels in the regime with superadiabatic heating yields liquid hydrocarbons with quantity and quality, which are close to those produced using other methods, for example, by pyrolysis. But in this case no additional energy supply is needed to carry out the gasification process. The low calorific combustible gas, which forms in this process, contains a substantial quantity of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which are components of syngas.

  19. Predicting duff and woody fuel consumed by prescribed fire in the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Michael A. Marsden; Kevin C. Ryan; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    1985-01-01

    Relationships for predicting duff reduction, mineral soil exposure, and consumption of downed woody fuel were determined to assist in planning prescribed fires. Independent variables included lower and entire duff moisture contents, loadings of downed woody fuels, duff depth, National Fire-Danger Rating System 1,000-hour moisture content, and Canadian Duff Moisture...

  20. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment. PMID:27386559

  1. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal-Derived Liquids. Volume 8. Heteroatom Removal by Catalytic Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mentioned previously, three liquid streams (rectisol naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil) are produced at the GPGP as a result of coal gasification...oil stream is compared to the profiles of JP-4 and JP-8 in Figure 1. As recovered, the tar oil stream is somewhat variable, depending on coal ...insolubles (0.5 micron filter). phenols or cresylic acids. The remaining two-thirds of the tar oil stream could be hydrotreated to produce jet fuel

  2. Design of oxide electrocatalysts for efficient conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya

    Electrochemical conversion of CO2 into high energy density liquid fuels utilizing renewable electricity can usher in a carbon neutral society without limiting the energy consumption. Lack of active and efficient electrocatalysts for this reaction remains a challenge. Research efforts towards...... of atomic scale reaction thermodynamic needed to engineer efficient and active oxide electrocatalysts. Rutile oxides are explored for CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) through density functional theory based simulation of reaction thermodynamics. Oxygen atom coordinated intermediates constitute the reaction...

  3. Waste polypropylene plastic conversion into liquid hydrocarbon fuel for producing electricity and energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Moinuddin; Rashid, Mohammad Mamunor; Molla, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Thermal degradation of polypropylene (PP) waste plastic is batched process studied for the purpose of converting waste PP into liquid hydrocarbon fuel and useful chemicals. The stainless steel reactor is used for conversion to fuel; this reactor chamber has a diameter of 6 inches, height of 18 inches and a temperature input capacity of 500 degrees C. The temperature of 150-370 degrees C was used for PP conversion into fuel. We have also used 1 kg PP waste plastic for conversion into fuel and HZSM-5 catalyst of 5% by preference was used by total weight of sample. Yield percentages obtained from PP to fuel are 92%, 2% light gas and 6% residue. Experimental finish time was 5.25 hours. By gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry instrumental analysis, the PP to fuel carbon range is found to be C3-C25,and the low sulfur level is detected by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test method to be <1.0 ppm.

  4. The combustion properties analysis of various liquid fuels based on crude oil and renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grab-Rogalinski, K.; Szwaja, S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of investigation on combustion properties analysis of hydrocarbon based liquid fuels commonly used in the CI engine. The analysis was performed with aid of the CRU (Combustion Research Unit). CRU is the machine consisted of a constant volume combustion chamber equipped with one or two fuel injectors and a pressure sensor. Fuel can be injected under various both injection pressure and injection duration, also with two injector versions two stage combustion with pilot injection can be simulated, that makes it possible to introduce and modify additional parameter which is injection delay (defined as the time between pilot and main injection). On a basis of this investigation such combustion parameters as pressure increase, rate of heat release, ignition delay and combustion duration can be determined. The research was performed for the four fuels as follows: LFO, HFO, Biofuel from rape seeds and Glycerol under various injection parameters as well as combustion chamber thermodynamic conditions. Under these tests the change in such injection parameters as injection pressure, use of pilot injection, injection delay and injection duration, for main injection, were made. Moreover, fuels were tested under different conditions of load, what was determined by initial conditions (pressure and temperature) in the combustion chamber. Stored data from research allows to compare combustion parameters for fuels applied to tests and show this comparison in diagrams.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND SELECTION OF IONIC LIQUID ELECTROLYTES FOR HYDROXIDE CONDUCTING POLYBENZIMIDAZOLE MEMBRANES IN ALKALINE FUEL CELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, E.

    2012-05-01

    Alkaline fuel cell (AFC) operation is currently limited to specialty applications such as low temperatures and pure HO due to the corrosive nature of the electrolyte and formation of carbonates. AFCs are the cheapest and potentially most efficient (approaching 70%) fuel cells. The fact that non-Pt catalysts can be used, makes them an ideal low cost alternative for power production. The anode and cathode are separated by and solid electrolyte or alkaline porous media saturated with KOH. However, CO from the atmosphere or fuel feed severely poisons the electrolyte by forming insoluble carbonates. The corrosivity of KOH (electrolyte) limits operating temperatures to no more than 80°C. This chapter examines the development of ionic liquids electrolytes that are less corrosive, have higher operating temperatures, do not chemically bond to CO and enable alternative fuels. Work is detailed on the IL selection and characterization as well as casting methods within the polybenzimidazole based solid membrane. This approach is novel as it targets the root of the problem (the electrolyte) unlike other current work in alkaline fuel cells which focus on making the fuel cell components more durable.

  6. Experimental study on burning behaviors of liquid fuels with different sooting levels at high altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiahao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To validate the feasibility of classical fire scaling laws under low pressure, three typical liquid fuels with different sooting levels, i. e. ethanol, n-heptane and jet-A, were employed in this paper to perform a sequence of pool fires in a high altitude city, Lhasa, Tibet, China (3650 m, 64.3 kPa. Mass loss, axial temperature profile and radiative heat flux were recorded in each test. From the assessment of experimental data, it can be concluded that the dimensionless burning intensity m”μ /D can be correlated against the Grashof number to different powers for all the three fuels, and the exponent increases with the sooting level of fuels. A correlated relationship expressed as ΔT ~ [z(P/Q2/5 ]η can be applied to analyze the axial temperature rises, partitioning flame region, intermittent region and plume region with the modified demarcations, i. e. 0.42 and 1.06. In addition, the averaged flame temperature grows higher with declining sooting level of fuels, while the radiative heat fluxes exhibit the opposite results. Moreover, the measured radiative heat fluxes for different fuels are proportional to 5 m f L T , and the soot volume fraction apparently increases with the sooting level of the fuels under low pressure condition.

  7. Characterization of Liquid Fuel Evaporation of a Lifted Methanol Spray Flame in a Vitiated Coflow Burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabra, Ricardo; Dibble, Robert W.; Chen, Jyh-Yuan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation of lifted spray flames in a coflow of hot, vitiated gases is presented. The vitiated coflow burner is a spray flame that issues into a coaxial flow of hot combustion products from a lean, premixed H2/Air flame. The spray flame in a vitiated coflow emulates the combustion that occurs in many advanced combustors without the detailed fluid mechanics. Two commercially available laser diagnostic systems are used to characterize the spray flame and to demonstrate the vitiated coflow burner's amenability to optical investigation. The Ensemble Particle Concentration and Size (EPCS) system is used to measure the path-average droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction at several axial locations while an extractive probe instrument named the Real-time Fuel-air Analyzer (RFA) is used to measure the air to fuel ratio downstream of the spray nozzle with high temporal and spatial resolution. The effect of coflow conditions (stoichiometry) and dilution of the fuel with water was studied with the EPCS optical system. As expected, results show that water retards the evaporation and combustion of fuels. Measurements obtained by the RFA extractive probe show that while the Delavan manufactured nozzle does distribute the fuel over the manufacturer specified spray angle, it unfortunately does not distribute the fuel uniformly, providing conditions that may result in the production of unwanted NOx. Despite some limitations due to the inherent nature of the experimental techniques, the two diagnostics can be readily applied to spray flames in the vitiated coflow environment.

  8. An experimental study on the effect of using gas-to-liquid (GTL fuel on diesel engine performance and emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Bassiony

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Gas to Liquid (GTL fuel is considered one of the most propitious clean alternative fuels for the diesel engines. The aim of this study was to experimentally compare the performance and emissions of a diesel engine fueled by GTL fuel, diesel, and a blend of GTL and diesel fuels with a mixing ratio of 1:1 by volume (G50 at various engine load and speed conditions. Although using the GTL and G50 fuels decreased slightly the engine maximum power compared to the diesel fuel, both the engine brake thermal efficiency and engine brake specific fuel consumption were improved. In addition, using the GTL and G50 fuels as alternatives to the diesel resulted in a significant decrease in engine CO, NOx, and SO2 emissions.

  9. Life cycle analyses applied to first generation bio-fuels consumed in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This rather voluminous publication reports detailed life cycle analyses for the different present bio-fuels channels also named first-generation bio-fuels: bio-ethanol, bio-diesel, pure vegetal oils, and oil. After a recall of the general principles adopted for this life-cycle analysis, it reports the modelling of the different channels (agricultural steps, bio-fuel production steps, Ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE steps, vehicles, animal fats and used vegetal oils, soil assignment change). It gives synthetic descriptions of the different production ways (methyl ester from different plants, ethanol from different plants). It reports and compares the results obtained in terms of performance

  10. Experimental observations on electrorefining spent nuclear fuel in molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T. A.; Laug, D. V.; Li, S. X.; Sofu, T.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is currently performing a demonstration program for the Department of Energy (DOE) which processes spent nuclear fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). One of the key steps in this demonstration program is electrorefining of the spent fuel in a molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system using a pilot scale electrorefiner (Mk-IV ER). This article summarizes experimental observations and engineering aspects for electrorefining spent fuel in the molten LiCl-KCl/liquid cadmium system. It was found that the liquid cadmium pool acted as an intermediate electrode during the electrorefining process in the ER. The cadmium level was gradually decreased due to its high vapor pressure and vaporization rate at the ER operational temperature. The low cadmium level caused the anode assembly momentarily to touch the ER vessel hardware, which generated a periodic current change at the salt/cathode interface and improved uranium recovery efficiency for the process. The primary current distributions calculated by numerical simulations were used in interpreting the experimental results

  11. On the ignition of turbulent liquid fuel spray jets using direct numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunliang

    2005-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation is used to simulate the ignition of the two-dimensional liquid fuel spray jets. The carrier fluid is solved using a compressible code with a fourth-order explicit Runge-Kutta scheme. The Lagrangian method is used to track the liquid fuel spray droplets. A chemistry mechanism for n-heptane fuel with 33 species and 65 reactions is adopted to describe the chemical reactions. The objective is to investigate the effect of mixing and evaporation cooling on the ignition and combustion processes. Some important parameters such as temperature, equivalence rate, heat release rate and the scalar dissipation rate are examined. From some samples of the results, we found that ignition first occurs at the edge of the liquid spray jet where the equivalence ratio is about 0.5 and the scalar dissipation rate is less 1.0 (1/s). In addition, for two initial spray droplet radiuses of 10 and 20 macron, the 20 macron case ignites earlier since the evaporation cooling is less than in the 10 macron case.

  12. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  13. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  14. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R.; Friedel, G.; Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P.; Moreau, J.; Perks, M.

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs

  15. Experimental data regarding the characterization of the flame behavior near lean blowout in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi

    2016-03-01

    The data are related to the research article “Image processing for the characterization of flame stability in a non-premixed liquid fuel burner near lean blowout” in Aerospace Science and Technology [1].

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  17. 26 CFR 48.4042-1 - Tax on fuel used in commercial waterway transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(a), fuel is used when it is actually consumed by a vessel's engine. (e) Liquid fuel. For purposes of..., upstream to Carthage, Tennessee, at RM 313.5. (10) Green and Barren Rivers: Green River from junction with...

  18. Process analysis of a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrian, Stefanie v.; Meusinger, Josefin

    Recently, a greatly increasing interest in solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) for a range of applications has been observed. The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) based on a PEFC uses methanol directly for electric power generation and promises technical advantages, for example, for power trains. This study analyses the interaction between a DMFC stack fed with a liquid aqueous methanol solution and the peripheral system equipment. A simulation model of a DMFC system for mobile applications (from methanol to net electricity) is presented to calculate system efficiencies on the basis of thermodynamic engineering calculations. Based on the simulation calculations, useful operating requirements can be specified. To optimise the performance of DMFC systems, it is necessary to consider the operational characteristics of all the components required in the system. There are worldwide activities to improve the performance of a DMFC stack, which depends on numerous operating parameters. But it is not sufficient to optimise only the current/potential curves of the fuel cell without taking all the consequences for the system into consideration. The results of the computer simulation presented here emphasise the difficulties in improving fuel cell performance without decreasing system efficiency and describes the consequences for the system's operation conditions. Priorities are additionally set concerning the heat management of the fuel cell stack. In the case of liquid fuel supply, the water crossover through the membrane and the ensuing vapourisation at the cathode side impairs the thermal balance. Key operating parameters, which influence these effects, are pressure, temperature, air flow and methanol permeation rate.

  19. Conversion of waste polypropylene to liquid fuel using acid-activated kaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Achyut K; Singh, R K

    2014-10-01

    Waste polypropylene was subjected to thermal degradation in the presence of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin, with different catalyst-to-plastics ratios, in a semi-batch reactor at a temperature range of 400-550°C to obtain optimized process conditions for the production of liquid fuels. The effects of process temperature, catalyst and feed composition on yield and quality of the oil were determined. For a thermal decomposition reaction at up to 450°C, the major product is volatile oil; and the major products at a higher temperature (475-550°C) are either viscous liquid or wax. The highest yield of condensed fraction in the thermal reaction is 82.85% by weight at 500°C. Use of kaolin and acid-treated kaolin as a catalyst decreased the reaction time and increased the yield of liquid fraction. The major product of catalysed degradation at all temperatures is highly volatile liquid oil. The maximum oil yield using kaolin and acid-treated kaolin is 87.5% and 92%, respectively, at 500°C. The oil obtained was characterized using GC-MS for its composition and different fuel properties by IS methods. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Handling and storage of high-level liquid wastes from reprocessing of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterwalder, L.

    1982-01-01

    The high level liquid wastes arise from the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, which are dissolved in aqueous acid solution, and the plutonium and unburned uranium removed in the chemical separation plant. The remaining solution, containing more than 99% of the dissolved fission products, together with impurities from cladding materials, corrosion products, traces of unseparated plutonium and uranium and most of the transuranic elements, constitutes the high-level waste. At present, these liquid wastes are usually concentrated by evaporation and stored as an aqueous nitric acid solution in high-integrity stainless-steel tanks. There is now world-wide agreement that, for the long term, these liquid wastes should be converted to solid form and much work is in progress to develop techniques for the solidification of these wastes. This paper considers the design requirements for such facilities and the experience gained during nearly 30 years of operation. (orig./RW)

  1. Heaters to simulate fuel pins for heat transfer tests in single-phase liquid-metal-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Graf, E.; Hartmann, W.

    1976-09-01

    The development of heaters for thermal simulation of the fuel elements of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (SNR) is reported. Beginning with the experimental demands various heating methods are discussed for thermodynamic investigations of the heat transfer in liquid metals. Then a preferred heater rod is derived to simulate the fuel pins of a SNR. Finally it is reported on the fabrication and the operation practice. (orig.) [de

  2. Catalysis engineering of bifunctional solids for the one-step synthesis of liquid fuels from syngas: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Sartipi, S.; Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of acidic zeolites and Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts for one-step production of liquid fuels from syngas is critically reviewed. Bifunctional systems are classified by the proximity between FTS and acid functionalities on three levels: reactor, catalyst particle, and active phase. A thorough analysis of the published literature on this topic reveals that efficiency in the production of liquid fuels correlates well with the proximity of FTS and acid sites. Moreover,...

  3. A tale of gastric layering and sieving: Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2017-07-01

    The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more quickly. This process of 'gastric sieving' has not been investigated for liquid foods. To determine whether gastric sieving of water can also occur for liquid foods. Two groups of men participated in a parallel design (n=15, age 22.6±2.4y, BMI 22.6±1.8kg/m 2 , and n=19, age 22.2±2.5y, BMI 21.8±1.5kg/m 2 ) and consumed an isocaloric shake (2093kJ, CARBOHYDRATES: 71g, FAT: 18g, PROTEIN: 34g), either in a 500-mL version (MIXED) or as a 150-mL shake followed by 350mL water (SEPARATE). Participants provided appetite ratings and were scanned using MRI to determine gastric emptying rate and volume at three time-points within 35min post ingestion. Gastric emptying the percentage emptied in 35min was significantly smaller for MIXED (29±19%) than for SEPARATE (57±11%, psieving can occur for liquid foods; water is able to drain from the stomach while a layer of nutrient rich liquid is retained. In indirect gastric emptying measurements, the behavior of labelling agents may be affected by the layering and confound emptying measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Life cycle assessment of biomass-to-liquid fuels - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N.; Buesser, S.; Frischknecht, R.; Tuchschmid, M.

    2008-02-15

    This study elaborates a life cycle assessment of using of BTL-fuels (biomass-to-liquid). This type of fuel is produced in synthesis process from e.g. wood, straw or other biomass. The life cycle inventory data of the fuel provision with different types of conversion concepts are based on the detailed life cycle assessment compiled and published within a European research project. The inventory of the fuel use emissions is based on information published by automobile manufacturers on reductions due to the use of BTL-fuels. Passenger cars fulfilling the EURO3 emission standards are the basis for the comparison. The life cycle inventories of the use of BTL-fuels for driving in passenger cars are investigated from cradle to grave. The full life cycle is investigated with the transportation of one person over one kilometre (pkm) as a functional unit. This includes all stages of the life cycle of a fuel (biomass and fuel production, distribution, combustion) and the necessary infrastructure (e.g. tractors, conversion plant, cars and streets). The use of biofuels is mainly promoted for the reason of reducing the climate change impact and the use of scarce non-renewable resources e.g. crude oil. The possible implementation of BTL-fuel production processes would potentially help to achieve this goal. The emissions of greenhouse gases due to transport services could be reduced by 28% to 69% with the BTL-processes using straw, forest wood or short-rotation wood as a biomass input. The reduction potential concerning non-renewable energy resources varies between 37% und 61%. A previous study showed that many biofuels cause higher environmental impacts than fossil fuels if several types of ecological problems are considered. The study uses two single score impact assessment methods for the evaluation of the overall environmental impacts, namely the Eco-indicator 99 (H,A) and the Swiss ecological scarcity 2006 method. The transportation with the best BTL-fuel from short

  5. Polystyrene Plastic Waste Conversion into Liquid Fuel with Catalytic Cracking Process Using Al2O3 as Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Kholidah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption and an increase in the plastic waste generation are two major problems that arise along with economic growth and the increase in population. Styrofoam is one type of polystyrene plastic waste that can be processed into liquid fuels by cracking process. In this study, the cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel carried by the catalytic cracking process using Al2O3 as a catalyst. This study aimed to determine the effect of the catalyst weight, length of cracking time and range of temperature in the catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste into liquid fuel toward the mass and characteristics of liquid fuels produced and to determine the composition of liquid fuels produced. The catalytic cracking process of polystyrene plastic waste with catalyst was done in the fixed bed type reactor by heating the reactor with a heater, where the process took place at temperature of 150°C, 200°C, 250°C and 300°C and the length of the process was varied into 20, 40, and 60 minutes and the catalyst weight was also varied, which were 4%, 6% and 8%, while the styrofoam weight was 250 grams. From the research, the highest mass of liquid fuel derived from polystyrene catalytic cracking process was in the amount of 48.8 grams and liquid yield percentage of 19.5% at temperature of  250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 8% catalyst, while the characteristics of liquid fuel that were approaching the characteristics of gasoline was at temperatures of 250°C, cracking time of 60 minutes and weight of 6% catalyst, in which each value of density of 0.763 g/ml, specific gravity of 0.778 and oAPI gravity of 50.2. While other liquid fuels obtained from the cracking of polystyrene were still within the tolerance range characteristic properties of gasoline. Liquid fuels produced from the catalytic cracking process was analyzed using a GC-MS, in which the analysis results indicated that liquid

  6. Energy harvesting from organic liquids in micro-sized microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, J.E.

    2014-03-07

    Micro-sized microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are miniature energy harvesters that use bacteria to convert biomass from liquids into usable power. The key challenge is transitioning laboratory test beds into devices capable of producing high power using readily available fuel sources. Here, we present a pragmatic step toward advancing MFC applications through the fabrication of a uniquely mobile and inexpensive micro-sized device that can be fueled with human saliva. The 25-ll MFC was fabricated with graphene, a two-dimensional atomic crystal-structured material, as an anode for efficient current generation and with an air cathode for enabling the use of the oxygen present in air, making its operation completely mobile and free of the need for laboratory chemicals. With saliva as a fuel, the device produced higher current densities (1190 Am-3) than any previous aircathode micro-sized MFCs. The use of the graphene anode generated 40 times more power than that possible using a carbon cloth anode. Additional tests were performed using acetate, a conventional organic material, at high organic loadings that were comparable to those in saliva, and the results demonstrated a linear relationship between the organic loading and current. These findings open the door to saliva-powered applications of this fuel cell technology for Lab-on-a-Chip devices or portable point-of-care diagnostic devices. 2014 Nature Publishing Group All rights reserved 1884-4057/14.

  7. Liquid fuel resources and prospects for ligno-cellulosic ethanol: An Egyptian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia R. Tewfik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuels (oil, natural gas and coal presently represent about 90% of the world’s total commercial primary energy demand. Yet, they are depletable sources of energy. Growth in the production of easily accessible oil, the main source of high energy liquid transportation fuels, will not match the projected rate of demand growth, especially in developing countries. In the transport sector, today, the only alternative to non-sustainable fossil fuels is biofuels that are produced from biomass, a stored environmentally neutral solar energy. These fuels are compatible with current vehicles and blendable with conventional fuels. Moreover, they share the long-established distribution infrastructure with little, if any, modification of equipment. The main biofuels presently in commercial production are bioethanol and biodiesel. Industrial countries started production of the 1st generation bioethanol and biodiesel from food products (grains and edible oil since a few decades and these fuels are currently available at petrol stations. Second generation bioethanol from ligno-cellulosic materials is on the research, pilot and/or demonstration stage. This paper discusses the current situation regarding liquid fuels in Egypt which are experiencing imbalance between total production and demand for gasoline and diesel fuels. The quantified need for nonconventional sources is presented. Based on a thorough assessment of current and prospective generated agriculture residues as distributed over the political areas, mapping of the number and capacity of plants to be installed for production of bioethanol from available residues namely rice straw, sugar cane residues and cotton stalks has been developed. Annual capacities of 3000, 10,000 and 20,000 tons ethanol/year until year 2021 have been proposed. Capital and operating requirements and economic indicators have been estimated. It has been concluded that at current price of ethanol of about $0.6/kg, the

  8. Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, April 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Barnard, G.W.; Wise, D.L.

    1979-07-23

    The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The accompishments in this program for the first year of work are as follows: a coenzyme M anologue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates; a tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter; a solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter; although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential; the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; the other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; and an economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results.

  9. Relationships Between Molecular Structure and Chemical Reactivity in Hypergolic Ionic Liquids: Progress Toward Designing Green Fuels for Bipropellant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    waxy, hygroscopic solid at room temperature, where the additional products in the HP series exist as liquids at room 9 temperature. In general...in Hypergolic Ionic Liquids : Progress Toward Designing "Green" Fuels for Bipropellant Applications 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Hypergolic ionic liquids have the potential to replace the toxic and volatile hydrazine derivatives

  10. Toward protic ionic liquid and organic ionic plastic crystal electrolytes for fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Usman Ali; Forsyth, Maria; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Pringle, Jennifer M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells that can operate above 120 °C, without humidification, would be much more commercially viable. ► Protic ionic liquids and organic ionic plastic crystals are showing increasing promise as anhydrous proton conductors in fuel cells. ► Here we review the recent progress in these two areas. - Abstract: There is increasing demand for the development of anhydrous proton conducting electrolytes, most notably to allow the development of fuel cells that can operate at temperatures above 120 °C, without the need for constant and controlled humidification. The emerging field of protic ionic liquids (PILs) represents a promising new direction for this research and the development of these materials has made significant progress in recent years. In a related but as yet little-explored avenue, proton conducting organic ionic plastic crystals offer the potential advantage of providing a solid state matrix for anhydrous proton conductivity. Here we discuss the recent progress in these areas and identify the key challenges for future research.

  11. A Continuous Liquid-Level Sensor for Fuel Tanks Based on Surface Plasmon Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A standard problem in large tanks at oil refineries and petrol stations is that water and fuel usually occupy the same tank. This is undesirable and causes problems such as corrosion in the tanks. Normally, the water level in tanks is unknown, with the problems that this entails. We propose herein a method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR to detect in real time the interfaces in a tank which can simultaneously contain water, gasoline (or diesel and air. The plasmonic sensor is composed of a hemispherical glass prism, a magnesium fluoride layer, and a gold layer. We have optimized the structural parameters of the sensor from the theoretical modeling of the reflectance curve. The sensor detects water-fuel and fuel-air interfaces and measures the level of each liquid in real time. This sensor is recommended for inflammable liquids because inside the tank there are no electrical or electronic signals which could cause explosions. The sensor proposed has a sensitivity of between 1.2 and 3.5 RIU−1 and a resolution of between 5.7 × 10−4 and 16.5 × 10−4 RIU.

  12. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  13. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  14. Processes for converting methane to liquid fuels: economic screening through energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, J.-P.; Tijm, P.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Numerous process schemes have been proposed for converting methane to liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Economic evaluation studies generally conclude that none except the best of these schemes are attractive at present oil prices of < 20 $/bbl. Simple arguments are presented here to show why methane conversion processes are now not economically attractive and what needs to be done to improve on their economics. Particularly, an analysis of numerous fuel manufacturing processes based on coal, oil and gas feedstock will show the need to increase the plant scale, and reduce the energy losses as well as the overall heat and momentum transfer duty. Furthermore, simple calculations of the overall transfer duty of various methane conversion routes for liquid fuel manufacture allow us to rank them according to their expected capital cost and identify the improvements required for making each route competitive with the cheapest scheme identified here. The conversion routes considered here include methane pyrolysis, oxidative coupling, partial oxidation to methanol, methylchloride and methylbisulfate as well as commercial routes based on synthesis gas. (author)

  15. Pyrolysis of plastic waste for liquid fuel production as prospective energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharuddin, S. D. A.; Abnisa, F.; Daud, W. M. A. W.; Aroua, M. K.

    2018-03-01

    The worldwide plastic generation expanded over years because of the variety applications of plastics in numerous sectors that caused the accumulation of plastic waste in the landfill. The growing of plastics demand definitely affected the petroleum resources availability as non-renewable fossil fuel since plastics were the petroleum-based material. A few options that have been considered for plastic waste management were recycling and energy recovery technique. Nevertheless, several obstacles of recycling technique such as the needs of sorting process that was labour intensive and water pollution that lessened the process sustainability. As a result, the plastic waste conversion into energy was developed through innovation advancement and extensive research. Since plastics were part of petroleum, the oil produced through the pyrolysis process was said to have high calorific value that could be used as an alternative fuel. This paper reviewed the thermal and catalytic degradation of plastics through pyrolysis process and the key factors that affected the final end product, for instance, oil, gaseous and char. Additionally, the liquid fuel properties and a discussion on several perspectives regarding the optimization of the liquid oil yield for every plastic were also included in this paper.

  16. Regional water implications of reducing oil imports with liquid transportation fuel alternatives in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, Sarah M; Diaz Anadon, Laura; Mielke, Erik; Schrag, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) is among the cornerstone policies created to increase U.S. energy independence by using biofuels. Although greenhouse gas emissions have played a role in shaping the RFS, water implications are less understood. We demonstrate a spatial, life cycle approach to estimate water consumption of transportation fuel scenarios, including a comparison to current water withdrawals and drought incidence by state. The water consumption and land footprint of six scenarios are compared to the RFS, including shale oil, coal-to-liquids, shale gas-to-liquids, corn ethanol, and cellulosic ethanol from switchgrass. The corn scenario is the most water and land intense option and is weighted toward drought-prone states. Fossil options and cellulosic ethanol require significantly less water and are weighted toward less drought-prone states. Coal-to-liquids is an exception, where water consumption is partially weighted toward drought-prone states. Results suggest that there may be considerable water and land impacts associated with meeting energy security goals through using only biofuels. Ultimately, water and land requirements may constrain energy security goals without careful planning, indicating that there is a need to better balance trade-offs. Our approach provides policymakers with a method to integrate federal policies with regional planning over various temporal and spatial scales.

  17. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  18. Annular core liquid-salt cooled reactor with multiple fuel and blanket zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2013-05-14

    A liquid fluoride salt cooled, high temperature reactor having a reactor vessel with a pebble-bed reactor core. The reactor core comprises a pebble injection inlet located at a bottom end of the reactor core and a pebble defueling outlet located at a top end of the reactor core, an inner reflector, outer reflector, and an annular pebble-bed region disposed in between the inner reflector and outer reflector. The annular pebble-bed region comprises an annular channel configured for receiving pebble fuel at the pebble injection inlet, the pebble fuel comprising a combination of seed and blanket pebbles having a density lower than the coolant such that the pebbles have positive buoyancy and migrate upward in said annular pebble-bed region toward the defueling outlet. The annular pebble-bed region comprises alternating radial layers of seed pebbles and blanket pebbles.

  19. Development of a Dual-Fuel Gas Turbine Engine of Liquid and Low-Calorific Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Masamichi; Fujiwara, Hiroshi

    We developed a dual-fuel single can combustor for the Niigata Gas Turbine (NGT2BC), which was developed as a continuous-duty gas turbine capable of burning both kerosene and digester gas. The output of the NGT2BC is 920kW for continuous use with digester gas and 1375kW for emergency use with liquid fuel. Digester gas, obtained from sludge processing at sewage treatment plants, is a biomass energy resource whose use reduces CO2 emissions and take advantage of an otherwise wasted energy source. Design features for good combustion with digester gas include optimized the good matching of gas injection and swirl air and reduced reference velocity. The optimal combination of these parameters was determined through CFD analysis and atmospheric rig testing.

  20. Chemical comparisons of liquid fuel produced by thermochemical liquefaction of various biomass materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.A.; Molton, P.M.; Landsman, S.D.

    1980-12-01

    Liquefaction of biomass in aqueous alkali at temperatures up to 350/sup 0/C is an effective way to convert solid wastes into liquid fuels. The liqefaction oils of several forms of biomass differing in proportions of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, protein, and minerals were studied and their chemical composition compared. It was that the proportions of chemical components varied considerably depending on the type of biomass liquefied. However, all the oils, even those produced from cellulose, had similar chemical characteristics due to the presence of significant quantities of phenols. These phenols are at least partially responsible for the corrosivity and viscosity commonly associated with biomass oils. The differences in chemical component distribution in the various biomass oils might successfully be exploited if the oil is to be used as a chemical feedstock. If the oil is to be used as a fuel, however, then reaction conditions will be a more important consideration than the source of biomass.

  1. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil to Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reaction kinetics of catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil to liquid fuels has been investigated. The reac-tion was performed with sulfuric acid as catalyst at temperatures of 350-450 oC and the ratio of oil-catalyst of 0-2 wt.% for 30-90 minutes. Kinetics was studied using the model of 6-lump parameters. The parameters were rubber seed oil, gasoline, kerosene, diesel, gas, and coke. Analysis of experimen-tal data using regression models to obtain reaction rate constants. Activation energies and pre-exponential factors were then calculated based on the Arrhenius equation. The simulation result illus-trated that the six-lump kinetic model can well predict the product yields of rubber seed oil catalytic cracking. The product has high selectivity for gasoline fraction as liquid fuel and the smallest amount of coke. The constant indicates that secondary reactions occurred in diesel products compared to gaso-line and kerosene. The predicted results indicate that catalytic cracking of rubber seed oil had better be conducted at 450 oC for 90 minutes using 0.5 wt.% catalyst. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 3rd December 2013; Revised: 5th December 2014; Accepted: 7th December 2014How to Cite: Rengga, W.D.P., Handayani, P.A., Kadarwati, S., Feinnudin, A.(2015. Kinetic Study on Catalytic Cracking of Rubber Seed (Hevea brasiliensis Oil  to Liquid Fuels. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (1: 50-60. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.1.5852.50-60

  2. Chemical analysis of solid residue from liquid and solid fuel combustion: Method development and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkmic, M. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecturek Zagreb (Croatia); Curkovic, L. [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Zagreb (Croatia); Asperger, D. [HEP-Proizvodnja, Thermal Power Plant Department, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-06-15

    This paper deals with the development and validation of methods for identifying the composition of solid residue after liquid and solid fuel combustion in thermal power plant furnaces. The methods were developed for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer analysis. Due to the fuels used, the different composition and the location of creation of solid residue, it was necessary to develop two methods. The first method is used for identifying solid residue composition after fuel oil combustion (Method 1), while the second method is used for identifying solid residue composition after the combustion of solid fuels, i. e. coal (Method 2). Method calibration was performed on sets of 12 (Method 1) and 6 (Method 2) certified reference materials (CRM). CRMs and analysis test samples were prepared in pellet form using hydraulic press. For the purpose of method validation the linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity were determined, and the measurement uncertainty of methods for each analyte separately was assessed. The methods were applied in the analysis of real furnace residue samples. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Performance of PEM Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol-Air Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    A direct methanol-air fuel cell operating at near atmospheric pressure, low-flow rate air, and at temperatures close to 60oC would tremendously enlarge the scope of potential applications. While earlier studies have reported performance with oxygen, the present study focuses on characterizing the performance of a PEM liquid feed direct methanol-air cell consisting of components developed in house. These cells employ Pt-Ru catalyst in the anode, Pt at the cathode and Nafion 117 as the PEM. The effect of pressure, flow rate of air and temperature on cell performance has been studied. With air, the performance level is as high as 0.437 V at 300 mA/cm2 (90oC, 20 psig, and excess air flow) has been attained. Even more significant is the performance level at 60oC, 1 atm and low flow rates of air (3-5 times stoichiometric), which is 0.4 V at 150 mA/cm2. Individual electrode potentials for the methanol and air electrode have been separated and analyzed. Fuel crossover rates and the impact of fuel crossover on the performance of the air electrode have also been measured. The study identifies issues specific to the methanol-air fuel cell and provides a basis for improvement strategies.

  4. Relating Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Performance to Measurements in a Liquid Half Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christoffer Mølleskov; Tynelius, Oskar; Lund-Olesen, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) could act as a replacement for batteries in low power electronics. For instance, micro—DMFC’s could be used to power hearing instruments[1]. The power output of a DMFC is limited by the sluggish kinetics of both the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) on the anode...... and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the cathode. Thus far, to achieve high power densities with a single cell, the catalyst loadings have been increased much as possible (20 mg/cm2 PtRu/C on anode and 4 mg/cm2 Pt/C on cathode). More active catalysts would yield higher power densities which in turn would...... to extract the catalyst activity from a fuel cell measurement. In this work, we attempt to narrow the gap between fuel cell testing and liquid half-cell measurements. First, by placing a custom reference electrode within the fuel cell, we can determine the potential at the anode and cathode under in...

  5. Simulation methods of rocket fuel refrigerating with liquid nitrogen and intermediate heat carrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature preparation of liquid propellant components (LPC before fueling the tanks of rocket and space technology is the one of the operations performed by ground technological complexes on cosmodromes. Refrigeration of high-boiling LPC is needed to increase its density and to create cold reserve for compensation of heat flows existing during fueling and prelaunch operations of space rockets.The method and results of simulation of LPC refrigeration in the recuperative heat exchangers with heat carrier which is refrigerated by-turn with liquid nitrogen sparging. The refrigerating system consists of two tanks (for the chilled coolant and LPC, LPC and heat carrier circulation loops with heat exchanger and system of heat carrier refrigeration in its tank with bubbler. Application of intermediate heat carrier between LPC and liquid nitrogen allows to avoid LPC crystallization on cold surfaces of the heat exchanger.Simulation of such systems performance is necessary to determine its basic design and functional parameters ensuring effective refrigerating of liquid propellant components, time and the amount of liquid nitrogen spent on refrigeration operation. Creating a simulator is quite complicated because of the need to take into consideration many different heat exchange processes occurring in the system. Also, to determine the influence of various parameters on occurring processes it is necessary to take into consideration the dependence of all heat exchange parameters on each other: heat emission coefficients, heat transfer coefficients, heat flow amounts, etc.The paper offers an overview of 10 references to foreign and Russian publications on separate issues and processes occurring in liquids refrigerating, including LPC refrigeration with liquid nitrogen. Concluded the need to define the LPC refrigerating conditions to minimize cost of liquid nitrogen. The experimental data presented in these publications is conformed with the application of

  6. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 4. GPGP Jet Fuels Production Program-Feed Analyses Compilation and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. Participants in the Jet Fuel from Coal Derived Liquids Prugram have analyzed samples of these by-product liquids...caustic-extracted tar oil they prepared for hydrotreating tests. UNDEMRC has performed detailed analyses on the whole tar oil as well as acid, base...previously mentioned, WRI performed a caustic extraction on the tar oil in order to prepare material for hydrotreating tests. Although intent here was to

  7. Determination of biogenic component in liquid fuels by the 14C direct LSC method by using quenching properties of modern liquids for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronić, Ines Krajcar; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada; Sironić, Andreja

    2017-08-01

    The fraction of biogenic component within various types of materials that can be used as fuels for energy production and transport can be determined by measuring their 14C activity. The method is based on different 14C signatures of the biogenic and the fossil components: while the biogenic component reflects the modern atmospheric 14C activity, no 14C is present in fossil fuels. A direct measurement of the 14C content in liquid fuel by liquid scintillation counter is a simple and fast technique but has a main disadvantage: different liquid colors cause different quenching properties and affect the measurement efficiency. We propose a new evaluation technique that uses liquids of different colors to construct modern and background calibration curves. Various binary mixtures of biogenic liquids have been used to verify the relation between the count rate and the quenching parameter. Mixtures of a biogenic and a 14C-free liquid demonstrated the potential of the proposed technique for determining the biogenic fraction of a mixture.

  8. Actinide ion extraction using room temperature ionic liquids: opportunities and challenges for nuclear fuel cycle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-02-14

    Studies on the extraction of actinide ions from radioactive feeds have great relevance in nuclear fuel cycle activities, mainly in the back end processes focused on reprocessing and waste management. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based diluents are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as more efficient extraction vis-à-vis molecular diluents, higher metal loading, higher radiation resistance, etc. The fascinating chemistry of the actinide ions in RTIL based solvent systems due to complex extraction mechanisms makes it a challenging area of research. By the suitable tuning of the cationic and anionic parts of the ionic liquids, their physical properties such as density, dielectric constant and viscosity can be changed which are considered key parameters in metal ion extraction. Aqueous solubility of the RTILs, which can lead to significant loss in the solvent inventory, can be avoided by appending the extractant moieties onto the ionic liquid. While the low vapour pressure and non-flammability of the ionic liquids make them appear as 'green' diluents, their aqueous solubility raises concerns of environmental hazards. The present article gives a summary of studies carried out on actinide ion extraction and presents perspectives of its applications in the nuclear fuel cycle. The article discusses various extractants used for actinide ion extraction and at many places, comparison is made vis-à-vis molecular diluents which includes the nature of the extracted species and the mechanism of extraction. Results of studies on rare earth elements are also included in view of their similarities with the trivalent minor actinides.

  9. The thermodynamics of pyrochemical processes for liquid metal reactor fuel cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irving

    1988-06-01

    The thermodynamic basis for pyrochemical processes for the recovery and purification of metallic fuel from liquid metal cooled reactors is described. These processes involve the transport of the uranium and plutonium from one liquid alloy to another through a molten salt. The processes discussed use liquid alloys of cadmium, zinc, and magnesium and molten chloride salts. The oxidation-reduction steps are done either chemically by the use of an auxiliary redox couple or electrochemically by the use of an external electrical supply. The same basic thermodynamics apply to both the salt transport and the electrotransport processes. Large deviations from ideal solution behavior of the actinides and lanthanides in the liquid alloys have a major influence on the solubilities and the performance of both the salt transport and electrotransport processes. Separation of plutonium and uranium from each other and decontamination from the more noble and the alkali metal and alkaline earth fission-product elements can be achieved using both transport processes. The thermodynamic analysis is used to make process design computations for different process conditions.

  10. Design of a Helium Vapor Shroud for Liquid Hydrogen Fueling of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, K.; Evans, C.; Haney, J.; Leachman, J.

    2017-12-01

    Filling a vehicular liquid hydrogen fuel tank presents the potential for flammable mixtures due to oxygen concentration from liquid air condensation. Current liquid hydrogen tank designs utilize insulating paradigms such as aerogel/fiberglass materials, vacuum jackets, or inert gas purge systems to keep the outer surface from reaching the condensation temperature of air. This work examines the heat transfer at the refuelling connection of the tank to identify potential areas of condensation, as well as the surface temperature gradient. A shrouded inert gas purge was designed to minimize vehicle weight and refuelling time. The design of a shrouded inert gas purge system is presented to displace air preventing air condensation. The design investigates 3D printed materials for an inert gas shroud, as well as low-temperature sealing designs. Shroud designs and temperature profiles were measured and tested by running liquid nitrogen through the filling manifold. Materials for the inert gas shroud are discussed and experimental results are compared to analytical model predictions. Suggestions for future design improvements are made.

  11. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure

  12. A three-dimensional mathematical model for liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiabin; Liu, Hongtan

    A three-dimensional, single-phase, multi-component mathematical model has been developed for a liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The traditional continuity, momentum, and species conservation equations are coupled with electrochemical kinetics in both the anode and cathode catalyst layer. At the anode side, the liquid phase is considered, and at the cathode side only the gas phase is considered. Methanol crossover due to both diffusion and electro-osmotic drag from the anode to the cathode is taken into consideration and the effect is incorporated into the model using a mixed-potential at the cathode. A finite-volume-based CFD technique is used to develop the in-house numerical code and the code is successfully used to simulate the fuel cell performance as well as the multi-component behavior in a DMFC. The modeling results of polarization curves compare well with our experimental data. Subsequently, the model is used to study the effects of methanol crossover, the effects of porosities of the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer, the effects of methanol flow rates, and the effects of the channel shoulder widths.

  13. Treatment of Mineral Oil Refinery Wastewater in Microbial Fuel Cells Using Ionic Liquid Based Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Addi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are an environmentally friendly technology that can recover electricity directly from several wastes at ambient temperatures. This work explores the use of mineral oil refinery wastewater as feedstock in single-chamber air-cathode MFC devices. A polymer inclusion membrane based on the ionic liquid methyltrioctylammonium chloride, [MTOA+][Cl−], at a concentration of 70% w/w, was used as separator, showing a good efficiency in power production and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal. The power and the chemical oxygen demand removal reached values of 45 mW/m3 and over 80%, respectively. The evolution of other parameters of the wastewater including nitrites, phosphates and sulphates were also studied. Kjeldahl nitrogen and sulphates were significantly reduced during MFC operation. The results show that mineral oil refinery wastewater can be used as feedstock in air breathing cathode-microbial fuel cells based on polymer ionic liquid inclusion membranes. This configuration could represent a good alternative for wastewater depuration while producing energy during the process.

  14. Evaporation studies of liquid oxide fuel at very high temperatures using laser beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, M.; Breitung, W.; Karow, H.U.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-11-01

    Evaporation experiments with oxide fuel are carried out based laser beam heating of the fuel specimen surface. The measuring quantities are the recoil momentum of the target, the evaporation area, the evaporation time and the mass and momentum of the supersonic vapor jet expanding into vacuum, and the thermal radiation density of the evaporating surface. From the mechanical measuring quantities we derive the vapor pressure of the target material and, in a first approach, also the evaporation temperature by applying a gas dynamic evaluation model. In a second approach, after having measured the spectral emissivity of liquid UO 2 at 633 nm, we determine the evaporation temperature at the liquid surface also from its thermal radiation. For the determination of the vapor pressure from the measured quantities a gas dynamic evaluation model has been developed. An application limit of the measuring technique is given by onset of plasma interaction of the vapor plume with the incident laser beam at temperatures above 4500 K. Experimental values for the saturated vapor pressure of UO 2 are presented, determined from three series of laser evaporation measurements obtained at temperatures around 3500 K, 3950 K, and 4200 K. The average vapor pressures found are 0.6 bar, 3 bar, and 7 bar, respectively. Laser vapor pressure measurements performed by other authors and theoretical extrapolations of the UO 2 vapor pressure curve known from literature show fairly good agreement within their confidence interval with the vapor pressure measurements reported here. (orig./HR) [de

  15. 40 CFR 80.570 - What labeling requirements apply to retailers and wholesale purchaser-consumers of diesel fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA..., motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 15 ppm sulfur standard of § 80.520(a)(1), must affix the... dispensing, motor vehicle diesel fuel subject to the 500 ppm sulfur standard of § 80.520(c), must prominently...

  16. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe

  17. An ultrasonic fuel identification system for liquid metal cooled reactors resilient against multiple transducer failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-Dyck, Dries; Dierckx, Marc

    2013-06-01

    We describe a fuel assembly identification system developed for the MYRRHA reactor - a new multi-purpose flexible irradiation facility to replace the aging BR2. MYRRHA is a fast spectrum research reactor cooled with lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) and conceived as an accelerator driven system capable of operating in sub-critical and critical modes. As liquid metal is opaque to visual light, the conventional optical fuel assembly identification system, as used by water cooled reactors, has to be replaced by a system not hindered by the opacity of the coolant. As already suggested in the late sixties, we use ultrasound for this purpose and present an encoding especially designed to enhance the robustness of the ultrasonic read-out. The encoding is based on notches of varying depth on the inflow nozzle of a fuel assembly. The depth of each notch is used to encode two bits and is measured by a dedicated transducer aligned over the notch. To increase the reliability of the fuel identification process, the identification number is protected by an error correcting code based on Hamming codes. We describe the ultrasonic system used to read out the vector of depths which is subsequently converted to a vector of bits. We explain the encoding of the twelve bit fuel identification numbers to a 22-bit error correcting code and discuss how Hamming decoding can be used to correct single bit errors, detect two bit errors or fill in the missing bits of a failing transducer. We also present a method based on solving a linear system over Boolean variables to (partially) reconstruct the fuel identification number in case multiple transducers fail. We show that the probability on full reconstruction is 100% for up to two transducer failures, 98% for three, 79% for four and 20% for five failing transducers. Finally, we present validation results in water and lead-bismuth eutectic for the differential measurement method used to measure the depth of the notches which form the basis for the

  18. Optimum operating strategies for liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ilyong; Kim, Jiyong; Pak, Sejin; Nam, Suk Woo; Moon, Il

    This study focuses on optimum operating strategies for liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) to minimize methanol consumption. A mathematical model is developed and verified with experimental data from the literature using the parameter estimation method. The model consists of a set of differential and algebraic equations and makes it possible to describe zero initial hold-up conditions. Based on the model, steady-state simulation results are obtained and explain the dependence on the feed concentration of key variables such as cell voltage, cell power density, overpotentials of both electrodes, and methanol crossover ratio. Dynamic simulation results are also presented to check the transient behaviour of a DMFC operated from start-up to shut-down. Dynamic optimization allows determination of the optimum transient strategies of feed concentration required to maximize the fuel efficiency. With six scenarios of power density load, it is demonstrated that the optimum transient strategies depend heavily on both the load of power density and the number of control actions. The main advantage of these approaches is to reduce fuel consumption and, ultimately, to enable DMFCs to be operated more efficiently.

  19. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  20. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO 2 emissions produced during the conversion process

  1. An assessment of energy and environmental issues related to the use of gas-to-liquid fuels in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO{sub 2} emissions produced during the conversion process.

  2. An Assessment of Energy and Environmental Issues Related to the Use of Gas-to-Liquid Fuels in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent technological advances in processes for converting natural gas into liquid fuels, combined with a growing need for cleaner, low-sulfur distillate fuel to mitigate the environmental impacts of diesel engines have raised the possibility of a substantial global gas-to-liquids (G-T-L) industry. This report examines the implications of G-T-L supply for U.S. energy security and the environment. It appears that a G-T-L industry would increase competitiveness in world liquid fuels markets, even if OPEC states are major producers of G-T-L's. Cleaner G-T-L distillates would help reduce air pollution from diesel engines. Implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could be positive or negative, depending on the sources of natural gas, their alternative uses, and the degree of sequestration that can be achieved for CO2 emissions produced during the conversion process.

  3. The feasibility and implications for conventional liquid fossil fuel of the Indonesian biofuel target in 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmadi, Arie; Aye, Lu; Moore, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies conventional liquid fossil fuels that can be replaced or blended with biofuel and quantifies the biofuels required to meet the Indonesian biofuel target of at least 5% of the total primary energy mix in 2025. The analysis was conducted using the Long range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) system with an energy elasticity of 1 and maximum allowable biofuel blending ratios according to the current best practices. The results show that the target could be achieved with the maximum blending alternative based on constant energy demand growth of 6%. The target requires a total contribution from biofuel of about 8–27 GL in 2025 depending on blending ratios. In energy terms, these are equivalent to 232–782 PJ or about 40–135 million barrels crude oil, which constitute roughly around 3.3–11.0% of the estimated liquid fossil fuel oil annual consumption in that year. The results imply that it may have detrimental environmental impact, as it requires 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantations. On the positive side, achieving the target offers potential new employment opportunities of about 3.4 million jobs, particularly in the agricultural sector relevant to liquid biofuel production. - Highlights: • Indonesian energy demand in 2025 was forecasted by using LEAP. • The biofuel target (5% of the total energy mix in 2025) requires 782 PJ of biofuel. • The target can be achieved under the scenario of maximum blending alternative. • The target requires up to 5.2 million ha of palm oil and sugar cane plantation area. • It may offer potential new employment for about 3.4 million people

  4. Analysis of an active tubular liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Faghri, Amir

    2011-08-01

    A two-dimensional, two-phase, non-isothermal model was developed for an active, tubular, liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The liquid-gas, two-phase mass transport in the porous anode and cathode was formulated based on the multi-fluid approach in the porous media. The two-phase mass transport in the anode and cathode channels was modeled using the drift-flux and the homogeneous mist-flow models, respectively. Water and methanol crossovers through the membrane were considered due to the effects of diffusion, electro-osmotic drag, and convection. The model enabled a numerical investigation of the effects of various operating parameters, such as current density, methanol flow rate, and oxygen flow rate, on the mass and heat transport characteristics in the tubular DMFC. It was shown that by choosing a proper tube radius and distance between the adjacent cells, a tubular DMFC stack can achieve a much higher energy density compared to its planar counterpart. The results also showed that a large anode flow rate is needed in order to avoid severe blockage of liquid methanol to the anode electrode due to the gas accumulation in the channel. Besides, lowering the flow rate of either the methanol solution or air can lead to a temperature increase along the flow channel. The methanol and water crossovers are nearly independent of the methanol flow rate and the air flow rate.

  5. Physical and mathematical modeling of diesel fuel liquid and vapor movement in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.; Kreamer, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional physical modeling of diesel fuel leaks was conducted in sand tanks to determine liquid and vapor migration characteristics. Mathematical modeling provided estimation of vapor concentrations at discrete times and distances from the vapor source and was compared to the physical experiment. The mathematical gaseous diffusion model was analogous to the Theis equation for ground-water flow, accounted for sorptive effects of the media, and was calibrated using measured concentrations from the sand tank. Mathematically different positions of the vapor source were tested to better relate observed liquid flow rates and media configuration to gaseous concentrations. The calculated diffusion parameters were then used to estimate theoretical, three-dimensional vapor transport from a hypothetical liquid leak of 2.0 1/hr for 30 days. The associated three-dimensional vapor plume, which would be reasonably detectable by commercially available vadose zone monitors, was estimated to have a diameter of 8 m with a vapor concentration of 50 ppm at the outside edge of the vapor plume. A careful application of the method and values can be used to give a first approximation to the number of vapor monitors required at a field site as well as the optimal locations for the monitors

  6. Drivers to and barriers against sustainable consumption : exploring the role of consumer anticipated emotions in the context of consumer adoption of alternative fuel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvani, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing environmental problems, sustainable consumption is an important consumer behavior. Therefore, it is important to investigate further the significant drivers to and barriers against sustainable consumption, in order to increase the share of sustainable consumption and understanding of consumer behavior. This dissertation identifies two gaps. The first is in understanding consumer positive and negative anticipated emotions as an important factor influencing high-involvement ...

  7. Study on Conversion of Municipal Plastic Wastes into Liquid Fuel Compounds, Analysis of Crdi Engine Performance and Emission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar Shetty, A. S.; Kumar, R. Ravi; Kumarappa, S.; Antony, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The rate of economic evolution is untenable unless we save or stops misusing the fossil fuels like coal, crude oil or fossil fuels. So we are in need of start count on the alternate or renewable energy sources. In this experimental analysis an attempt has been made to investigate the conversion of municipal plastic wastes like milk covers and water bottles are selected as feed stocks to get oil using pyrolysis method, the performance analysis on CRDI diesel engine and to assess emission characteristics like HC, CO, NOX and smoke by using blends of Diesel-Plastic liquid fuels. The plastic fuel is done with the pH test using pH meter after the purification process and brought to the normal by adding KOH and NaOH. Blends of 0 to 100% plastic liquid fuel-diesel mixture have been tested for performance and emission aspect as well. The experimental results shows the efficiently convert weight of municipal waste plastics into 65% of useful liquid hydrocarbon fuels without emitting much pollutants.

  8. Development of Methodology and Field Deployable Sampling Tools for Spent Nuclear Fuel Interrogation in Liquid Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-01-01

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-06-04

    This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI

  10. Direct Coal -to-Liquids (CTL) for Jet Fuel Using Biomass-Derived Solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Satya P. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Garbark, Daniel B. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Peterson, Rick [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-09-30

    Battelle has demonstrated a novel and potentially breakthrough technology for a direct coal-to-liquids (CTL) process for producing jet fuel using biomass-derived coal solvents (bio-solvents). The Battelle process offers a significant reduction in capital and operating costs and a substantial reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, without requiring carbon capture and storage (CCS). The results of the project are the advancement of three steps of the hybrid coal/biomass-to-jet fuel process to the technology readiness level (TRL) of 5. The project objectives were achieved over two phases. In Phase 1, all three major process steps were explored and refined at bench-scale, including: (1) biomass conversion to high hydrogen-donor bio-solvent; (2) coal dissolution in biomass-derived bio-solvent, without requiring molecular H2, to produce a synthetic crude (syncrude); and (3) two-stage catalytic hydrotreating/hydrogenation of syncrude to jet fuel and other distillates. In Phase 2, all three subsystems of the CTL process were scaled up to a pre-pilot scale, and an economic analysis was carried out. A total of over 40 bio-solvents were identified and prepared. The most unique attribute of Battelle’s bio-solvents is their ability to provide much-needed hydrogen to liquefy coal and thus increase its hydrogen content so much that the resulting syncrude is liquid at room temperature. Based on the laboratory-scale testing with bituminous coals from Ohio and West Virginia, a total of 12 novel bio-solvent met the goal of greater than 80% coal solubility, with 8 bio-solvents being as good as or better than a well-known but expensive hydrogen-donor solvent, tetralin. The Battelle CTL process was then scaled up to 1 ton/day (1TPD) at a pre-pilot facility operated in Morgantown, WV. These tests were conducted, in part, to produce enough material for syncrude-upgrading testing. To convert the Battelle-CTL syncrude into a form suitable as a blending stock for jet

  11. Liquid transportation fuels via large-scale fluidised-bed gasification of lignocellulosic biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannula, I.; Kurkela, E.

    2013-04-15

    With the objective of gaining a better understanding of the system design trade-offs and economics that pertain to biomass-to-liquids processes, 20 individual BTL plant designs were evaluated based on their technical and economic performance. The investigation was focused on gasification-based processes that enable the conversion of biomass to methanol, dimethyl ether, Fischer-Tropsch liquids or synthetic gasoline at a large (300 MWth of biomass) scale. The biomass conversion technology was based on pressurised steam/O2-blown fluidised-bed gasification, followed by hot-gas filtration and catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons and tars. This technology has seen extensive development and demonstration activities in Finland during the recent years and newly generated experimental data has also been used in our simulation models. Our study included conceptual design issues, process descriptions, mass and energy balances and production cost estimates. Several studies exist that discuss the overall efficiency and economics of biomass conversion to transportation liquids, but very few studies have presented a detailed comparison between various syntheses using consistent process designs and uniform cost database. In addition, no studies exist that examine and compare BTL plant designs using the same front-end configuration as described in this work. Our analysis shows that it is possible to produce sustainable low-carbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass with first-law efficiency in the range of 49.6-66.7% depending on the end-product and process conditions. Production cost estimates were calculated assuming Nth plant economics and without public investment support, CO2 credits or tax assumptions. They are 58-65 euro/MWh for methanol, 58-66 euro/MWh for DME, 64-75 euro/MWh for Fischer-Tropsch liquids and 68-78 euro/MWh for synthetic gasoline. (orig.)

  12. Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1979-01-01

    The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

  13. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalisation of Liquid Bio fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M.

    1999-07-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalisation associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalisation from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalisation are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalisation is also presented. The report also reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExtemE and ExternE-Transport projects related the externalisation of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs.

  14. A Methodology Proposal to Calculate the Externalisation of Liquid Bio fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Varela, M.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the survey is to propose a methodology to calculate the externalisation associated with the liquid bio fuels cycle. The report defines the externalisation from a theoretical point of view and classifies them. The reasons to value the externalisation are explained as well as the existing methods. Furthermore, an evaluation of specific environmental and non-environmental externalisation is also presented. The report also reviews the current situation of the transport sector, considering its environmental effects and impacts. The progress made by the ExtemE and ExternE-Transport projects related the externalisation of transport sector is assessed. Finally, the report analyses the existence of different economic instruments to internalize the external effects of the transport sector as well as other aspects of this internalization. (Author) 58 refs

  15. Development of high performance liquid chromatography for rapid determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, M.; Karunasagar, D.; Saha, B.

    1996-01-01

    Burn-up an important parameter during evaluation of the performance of any nuclear fuel. Among the various techniques available, the preferred one for its determination is based on accurate measurement of a suitable fission product monitor and the residual heavy elements. Since isotopes of rare earth elements are generally used as burn-up monitors, conditions were standardized for rapid separation (within 15 minutes) of light rare earths using high performance liquid chromatography based on either anion exchange (Partisil 10 SAX) in methanol-nitric acid medium or by cation exchange on a reverse phase column (Spherisorb 5-ODS-2 or Supelcosil LC-18) dynamically modified with 1-octane sulfonate or camphor-10-sulfonic acid (β). Both these methods were assessed for separation of individual fission product rare earths from their mixtures. A new approach has been examined in detail for rapid assay of neodymium, which appears promising for faster and accurate measurement of burn-up. (author)

  16. Fuel cells using ionic liquids as electrolyte and operating at room temperature; Celulas de combustivel utilizando como eletrolito liquidos ionicos e operando a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botton, Janine Padilha; Souza, Roberto Fernando de; Goncalves, Reinaldo Simoes; Dupont, Jairton [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica], e-mail: janine@iq.ufrgs.br

    2004-07-01

    The room temperature imidazolium based ionic liquids, such as 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI.BF4) are outstanding electrolytes for fuel cells. A 67% overall cell efficiency is achieve using these liquids as supporting electrolytes for a commercially available alkaline fuel cell (AFC) at room temperature operating with air and hydrogen at atmospheric pressure. (author)

  17. Research on the combustion, energy and emission parameters of diesel fuel and a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) fuel blend in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimkus, Alfredas; Žaglinskis, Justas; Rapalis, Paulius; Skačkauskas, Paulius

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Researched physical–chemical and performance properties of diesel fuel and BTL blend (85/15 V/V). • BTL additive reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, improved engine efficiency. • Simpler BTL molecular chains and lower C/H ratio reduced CO 2 emission and smokiness. • Higher cetane number of BTL reduced heat release in beginning of combustion and NO x emission. • Advanced start of fuel injection caused reduced fuel consumption and smokiness, increased NO x emission. - Abstract: This paper presents the comparable research results of the physical–chemical and direct injection (DI) diesel engine properties of diesel fuel and BTL (biomass-to-liquid) blend (85/15 V/V). The energy, ecological and in-cylinder parameters were analysed under medium engine speed and brake torque load regimes; the start of fuel injection was also adjusted. After analysis of the engine bench tests and simulation with AVL BOOST software, it was observed that the BTL additive shortened the fuel ignition delay phase, reduced the heat release in the pre-mixed intensive combustion phase, reduced the nitrogen oxide (NO x ) concentration in the engine exhaust gases and reduced the thermal and mechanical load of the crankshaft mechanism. BTL additive reduced the rates of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), incompletely burned hydrocarbons (HC) emission and smokiness due to its chemical composition and combustion features. BTL also reduced Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC, g/kW h) and improved engine efficiency (η e ); however, the volumetric fuel consumption changed due to the lower density of BTL. The start of fuel injection was adjusted for maximum engine efficiency; concomitantly, reductions in the CO 2 concentration, HC concentration and smokiness were achieved. However, the NO x and thermo-mechanical engine load increased.

  18. Renewable liquid fuels from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Christopher J.

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and growing concerns about global warming require the development of sustainable sources of energy. Fuels for use in the transportation sector must have specific physical properties that allow for efficient distribution, storage, and combustion; these requirements are currently fulfilled by petroleum-derived liquid fuels. The focus of this work has been the development of two new biofuels that have the potential to become widely used transportation fuels from carbohydrate intermediates. Our first biofuel has cetane numbers ranging from 63 to 97 and is comprised of C7 to C15 straight chain alkanes. These alkanes can be blended with diesel like fuels or with P-series biofuel. Production involves a solid base catalyzed aldol condensation with mixed Mg-Al-oxide between furfural or 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and acetone, followed by hydrogenation over Pd/Al2O3, and finally hydrogenation/dehydration over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Water was the solvent for all process steps, except for the hydrogenation/dehydration stage where hexadecane was co-fed to spontaneously separate out all alkane products and eliminate the need for energy intensive distillation. A later optimization identified Pd/MgO-ZrO2 as a hydrothermally stable bifunctional catalyst to replace Pd/Al2O3 and the hydrothermally unstable Mg-Al-oxide catalysts along with optimizing process parameters, such as temperature and molar ratios of reactants to maximize yields to heavier alkanes. Our second biofuel involved creating an improved process to produce HMF through the acid-catalyzed dehydration of fructose in a biphasic reactor. Additionally, we developed a technique to further convert HMF into 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF) by hydrogenolysis of C-O bonds over a copper-ruthenium catalyst. DMF has many properties that make it a superior blending agent to ethanol: it has a high research octane number at 119, a 40% higher energy density than ethanol, 20 K higher boiling point, and is insoluble in

  19. Engine performance, combustion, and emissions study of biomass to liquid fuel in a compression-ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi; Fang, Tiegang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Renewable biomass to liquid (BTL) fuel was tested in a direct injection diesel engine. • Engine performance, in-cylinder pressure, and exhaust emissions were measured. • BTL fuel reduces pollutant emission for most conditions compared with diesel and biodiesel. • BTL fuel leads to high thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption compared with diesel and biodiesel. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of diesel, biodiesel and biomass to liquid (BTL) fuels are investigated in a single-cylinder diesel engine at a fixed speed (2000 rpm) and three engine loads corresponding to 0 bar, 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The engine performance, in-cylinder combustion, and exhaust emissions were measured. Results show an increase in indicated work for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP when compared to diesel but a decrease at 0 bar. Lower mechanical efficiency was observed for BTL and biodiesel at 1.26 bar BMEP but all three fuels had roughly the same mechanical efficiency at 3.77 bar BMEP. BTL was found to have the lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and the highest brake thermal efficiency (BTE) among the three fuels tested. Combustion profiles for the three fuels were observed to vary depending on the engine load. Biodiesel was seen to have the shortest ignition delay among the three fuels regardless of engine loads. Diesel had the longest ignition delay at 0 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP but had the same ignition delay as BTL at 1.26 bar BMEP. At 1.26 bar and 3.77 bar BMEP, BTL had the lowest HC emissions but highest HC emissions at no load conditions when compared to biodiesel and diesel. When compared to diesel and biodiesel BTL had lower CO and CO 2 emissions. At 0 bar and 1.26 bar BMEP, BTL had higher NOx emissions than diesel fuel but lower NOx than biodiesel at no load conditions. At the highest engine load tested, NOx emissions were observed to be highest for diesel fuel but lowest for BTL. At 1

  20. Catalysis engineering of bifunctional solids for the one-step synthesis of liquid fuels from syngas : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sartipi, S.; Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Gascon, J.

    2014-01-01

    The combination of acidic zeolites and Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts for one-step production of liquid fuels from syngas is critically reviewed. Bifunctional systems are classified by the proximity between FTS and acid functionalities on three levels: reactor, catalyst particle, and

  1. Nitrato-Functionalized Task-Specific Ionic Liquids as Attractive Hypergolic Rocket Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Huang, Shi; Zhang, Wenquan; Liu, Tianlin; Qi, Xiujuan; Zhang, Qinghua

    2017-09-12

    Hypergolic ionic liquids (HILs) as potential replacements for hydrazine derivatives have attracted increasing interest over the last decade. Previous studies on HILs have mostly concentrated on the anionic innovations of ionic liquids to shorten the ignition delay (ID) time, but little attention has been paid to cationic modifications and their structure-property relationships. In this work, we present a new strategy of cationic functionalization by introducing the energetic nitrato group into the cationic units of HILs. Interestingly, the introduction of oxygen-rich nitrato groups into the cationic structure significantly improved the combustion performance of HILs with larger flame diameters and duration times. The density-specific impulse (ρI sp ) of these novel HILs are all above 279.0 s g cm -3 , much higher than that of UDMH (215.7 s g cm -3 ). In addition, the densities of these HILs are in the range of 1.22-1.39 g cm -3 , which is much higher than that of UDMH (0.79 g cm -3 ), showing their higher loading capacity than hydrazine-derived fuels in a propellant tank. This promising strategy of introducing nitrato groups into the cationic structures has provided a new platform for developing high-performing HILs with improved combustion properties. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The influence of temperature on the formation of liquid fuel from Polypropylene plastic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynis, M.; Mulyazmi; Praputri, E.; Witri, R.; Putri, N.

    2018-03-01

    The current trend of municipal waste management in urban areas is caused by rapid changes in social, economic, political and cultural life. As a non-biodegradable polymers that have become essential materials, plastic wastes have created a very serious environmental challenge because of the huge quantities and their disposal problems. Recycling of plastics is seen as one method for reducing environmental and resource depletion. The most attractive technique of plastics recycling is pyrolysis involving the degradation of the polymeric materials by heating in the absence of oxygen. This study investigated the characteristics of pyrolysis liquid fuel (PLF) produced from polypropylene plastic wastes with temperature variations. Pyrolisis was carried out on 200 grams of polypropylene waste plastics at the operating temperature of 200°C, 250°C, 300 °C and 350 °C for 45 minutes. The liquid products were found to have carbon chain length in the range of C8-C9, similar with gasoline. The maximum density, volume and calorific value of the oil obtained were 0.8 g/cm3, 61 ml and 1307 cal/gr, respectively.

  3. Examination on low level liquid wastes released into sea from the fuel reprocessing facility of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A report of the Committee on Examination of Nuclear Fuel Safety to the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan, concerning the release of low level liquid waste into sea, was presented; and its safety was confirmed. The results described are as follows: natural and social environments - ocean phenomena, marine lives, fishery, and marine product consumption; evaluation of the effects of low level liquid wastes released into sea - release mode, diffusion of, radioactive substances internal/external exposure dose calculation, and exposure dose evaluation. (Mori, K.)

  4. Further study on the prediction of liquid fuel spray capture by v-gutter downstream of a plain orifice injector under uniform cross air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, M.-H.; Chin, J.-S.

    On the basis of the Chin and Cao (1983) flat fan spray and fuel capture models, flame holder liquid fuel spray capture is predicted in route to a consideration of the effect of different factors on fuel spray capture for a wide range of parameters. A comparison is then undertaken between fuel spray capture by vertically and horizontally positioned flame holders, and a correlation for maximum fuel spray capture is determined. The results obtained indicate that the vertically positioned flame holder provides more effective fuel capture, as well as the ability to change fuel capture over a wide range through simple alteration of juxtaposition distance.

  5. Advanced control of liquid water region in diffusion media of polymer electrolyte fuel cells through a dimensionless number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Chen, Ken S.

    2016-05-01

    In the present work, a three-dimension (3-D) model of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is employed to investigate the complex, non-isothermal, two-phase flow in the gas diffusion layer (GDL). Phase change in gas flow channels is explained, and a simplified approach accounting for phase change is incorporated into the fuel cell model. It is found that the liquid water contours in the GDL are similar along flow channels when the channels are subject to two-phase flow. Analysis is performed on a dimensionless parameter Da0 introduced in our previous paper [Y. Wang and K. S. Chen, Chemical Engineering Science 66 (2011) 3557-3567] and the parameter is further evaluated in a realistic fuel cell. We found that the GDL's liquid water (or liquid-free) region is determined by the Da0 number which lumps several parameters, including the thermal conductivity and operating temperature. By adjusting these factors, a liquid-free GDL zone can be created even though the channel stream is two-phase flow. Such a liquid-free zone is adjacent to the two-phase region, benefiting local water management, namely avoiding both severe flooding and dryness.

  6. Parametric study on catalytic cracking of LDPE to liquid fuel over ZSM-5 zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.L.; Tuan Abdullah, T.A.; Ngadi, N.; Ahmad, A.; Inuwa, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Catalytic cracking of low density polyethylene in fixed bed reactor was studied. • Full factorial design involving five parameters and two responses was used. • Regression models were developed for LDPE conversion and liquid product yield. • Liquid product at optimized run contained C4–C8 aliphatic compounds. • Alkyl radicals combine with minor amount of benzenes during cracking. - Abstract: Pyrolysis or cracking of plastic waste is considered as a potential solution to the environmental problems brought about by plastic waste, with the production of hydrocarbon fuel as a value added benefit. In order to explore the potentials of such process, parametric study have been conducted on the catalytic cracking of LDPE dissolved in benzene in a fixed bed reactor. The five factors studied were temperature (A), catalyst mass (B), feed flow rate (C), carrier gas flow rate (D), as well as concentration of LDPE solution (E), while the responses were LDPE conversion (Y 1 ) and liquid yield (Y 2 ). The parametric study showed that four out of five factors (A, B, C and D) have significant effects on Y 1 and Y 2 . The optimum conditions that produced maximum responses for Y 1 and Y 2 simultaneously are 600 °C (A), 0.10 g catalyst (B), 1 ml/s LDPE solution (C), 80 ml/min N 2 flow (D). The numerical values for Y 1 and Y 2 were 98.6% and 99.5%, respectively. Analysis on products composition indicated that catalytic cracking of LDPE in fixed bed reaction generally produced high amount of aliphatic branched-chain compounds, together with moderate amount of cyclic compounds. Aromatization of LDPE cracking products is less due to the short retention time of the compounds on the catalysts bed.

  7. Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, S. James [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This report summarizes the technical progress made of the research project entitled “Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels,” under DOE Contract No. DE-FE-0011958. The period of performance was October 1, 2013 through July 30, 2015. The overall objectives of this project was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of a systems approach for producing high hydrogen syngas from coal with the potential to reduce significantly the cost of producing power, chemical-grade hydrogen or liquid fuels, with carbon capture to reduce the environmental impact of gasification. The project encompasses several areas of study and the results are summarized here. (1) Experimental work to determine the technical feasibility of a novel hybrid polymer/metal H2-membrane to recover pure H2 from a coal-derived syngas was done. This task was not successful. Membranes were synthesized and show impermeability of any gases at required conditions. The cause of this impermeability was most likely due to the densification of the porous polymer membrane support made from polybenzimidazole (PBI) at test temperatures above 250 °C. (2) Bench-scale experimental work was performed to extend GTI's current database on the University of California Sulfur Recovery Process-High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and recently renamed Sulfur Removal and Recovery (SR2) process for syngas cleanup including removal of sulfur and other trace contaminants, such as, chlorides and ammonia. The SR2 process tests show >90% H2S conversion with outlet H2S concentrations less than 4 ppmv, and 80-90% ammonia and chloride removal with high mass transfer rates. (3) Techno-economic analyses (TEA) were done for the production of electric power, chemical-grade hydrogen and diesel fuels, from a mixture of coal- plus natural gas-derived syngas using the Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) Advanced Compact coal gasifier and a natural gas partial oxidation reactor (POX) with SR2 technology. Due to the unsuccessful

  8. Mathematic model of the formation of a uniform liquid layer of binary fuel mixture inside a cryogenic target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinshan; Zhu Yuqun; Jiang Chao

    2006-01-01

    A mathematic model is established that formulated the relationship between the working temperature and thermal gradient in producing a uniform liquid layer of binary fuel mixture inside a cryogenic spherical shell inertial confinement fusion target. When the external linear thermal gradient was imposed on the target, the model showed the gradient of face tension induced by thermal gradient acted on the far field pull the liquid inside the ICF forward. This motion overcame the effect of gravitation to produce a uniform liquid layer inside ICF. And a finite element analysis of the heat transfer in hollow micro-sphere filled with the ICF fuel was made, the results compared with the experimental finding by K. Kim and the tendency of the thermal gradient was shown to be similar. (authors)

  9. The Liquid Sustainer Build-up Time Impact on the Emptying Spacecraft Fuel Tank in Free Orbiting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sapozhnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trouble-free operation of liquid rocket engines (LRE depends, among other factors, on the nonstop supply of liquid rocket fuel components in the fuel tank feed line with continuous flow.This condition becomes especially relevant for the aerial vehicles (AV in orbital (suborbital environment. With a little filled fuel tanks discontinuity of flow may occur because of pressurizing gas blow-by in the feed line as a result of the funnel generation (with or without vortex formation and so-called phenomenon of dynamic failure of the interface "liquid-gas”.The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of emptying tank initially a little filled and having a reduced level of the gravity acceleration. Using the developed mathematical model a parametric study has been conducted to find how stabilization rate of liquid flow effects on the volume of drained liquid. The computational experiment defines gas blow-by points in the feed line and propellant residuals, depending on the flow rate, physical properties of the fuel components, residual value of the acceleration, and diameter of the feed line.As a result, an effect is discovered that previously has been never mentioned in publications on research of the emptying processes of the aircraft fuel tanks, namely: with abrupt bootstrap of the flow rate a blow-by of gas occurs at the initial stage of emptying tank. In this case, to ensure LRE trouble-free operation there is a need in a special inner-tank device to prevent premature blow-by of pressurizing gas in the tank feed line.

  10. Method for the oxidation of dissolved uranium (IV) and/or plutonium (III) from liquid-liquid extraction for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels and/or breeding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausberger, H.; Schlosser, P.

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to use liquid NO for oxidation in liquid-liquid reactions, preferably at temperatures between +2 and +15 0 C. The example given is the oxidation of acitinides in a reprocessing process for irradiated nuclear fuels or nuclear breeders. The method is described in detail. (orig./PW)

  11. Ionic liquids and ionic liquid acids with high temperature stability for fuel cell and other high temperature applications, method of making and cell employing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angell, C Austen [Mesa, AZ; Xu, Wu [Broadview Heights, OH; Belieres, Jean-Philippe [Chandler, AZ; Yoshizawa, Masahiro [Tokyo, JP

    2011-01-11

    Disclosed are developments in high temperature fuel cells including ionic liquids with high temperature stability and the storage of inorganic acids as di-anion salts of low volatility. The formation of ionically conducting liquids of this type having conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems is described. The stability of the di-anion configuration is shown to play a role in the high performance of the non-corrosive proton-transfer ionic liquids as high temperature fuel cell electrolytes. Performance of simple H.sub.2(g) electrolyte/O.sub.2(g) fuel cells with the new electrolytes is described. Superior performance both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200.degree. C. are achieved. Both neutral proton transfer salts and the acid salts with HSO.sup.-.sub.4 anions, give good results, the bisulphate case being particularly good at low temperatures and very high temperatures. The performance of all electrolytes is improved by the addition of a small amount of involatile base of pK.sub.a value intermediate between those of the acid and base that make the bulk electrolyte. The preferred case is the imidazole-doped ethylammonium hydrogensulfate which yields behavior superior in all respects to that of the industry standard phosphoric acid electrolyte.

  12. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 1 of these proceedings contain 29 papers related to aviation fuels and long term and strategic storage. Studies investigated fuel contamination, separation processes, measurement techniques, thermal stability, compatibility with fuel system materials, oxidation reactions, and degradation during storage.

  13. Application of a room temperature ionic liquid for nuclear spent fuel reprocessing: speciation of trivalent europium and solvatation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutiers, G.; Mekki, S.; Billard, I.

    2007-01-01

    One of the solutions proposed for the optimization of the long term storage and conditioning of spent nuclear fuel is to separate actinide and lanthanide both from each other and from other less radioactive metallic species. The industrial proposed processes, based on liquid liquid extraction steps, involve solvents with non negligible vapour pressure and may generate contaminated liquid wastes that will have to be reprocessed. During the last decade, some room-temperature ionic liquids have been studied and integrated into industrial processes. The interest on this class of solvent came out from their 'green' properties (non volatile, non flammable, recyclable, etc...), but also from the variability of their physico-chemical properties (stability, hydrophobicity, viscosity) as a function of the RTIL chemical composition. Indeed, it has been shown that classical chemical industrial processes could be transferred into those media, even more improved, while a certain number of difficulties arising from using traditional solvent can be avoided. In this respect, it could be promising to investigate the ability to use room temperature ionic liquid into the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing field. The aim of this this study is to test the ability of the specific ionic liquid bumimTf 2 N to allow trivalent europium extraction. The choice of this metal is based on the chemical analogy with trivalent minor actinides Curium and Americium which are contributing the greatest part of the long-lived high level radioactive wastes. Handling these elements needs to be very cautious for the safety and radioprotection aspect. Moreover, europium is a very sensitive luminescent probe to its environment even at the microscopic scale. The report is structured with four parts. In a first chapter, we present the main physico-chemical properties of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid family, and then we choose the ionic liquid bumimTf 2 N for the whole thesis and start with the electrochemical

  14. Thermochemical production of liquid fuels from biomass: Thermo-economic modeling, process design and process integration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tock, Laurence; Gassner, Martin; Marechal, Francois

    2010-01-01

    A detailed thermo-economic model combining thermodynamics with economic analysis and considering different technological alternatives for the thermochemical production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass is presented. Energetic and economic models for the production of Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT), methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl ether (DME) by means of biomass drying with steam or flue gas, directly or indirectly heated fluidized bed or entrained flow gasification, hot or cold gas cleaning, fuel synthesis and upgrading are reviewed and developed. The process is integrated and the optimal utility system is computed. The competitiveness of the different process options is compared systematically with regard to energetic, economic and environmental considerations. At several examples, it is highlighted that process integration is a key element that allows for considerably increasing the performance by optimal utility integration and energy conversion. The performance computations of some exemplary technology scenarios of integrated plants yield overall energy efficiencies of 59.8% (crude FT-fuel), 52.5% (MeOH) and 53.5% (DME), and production costs of 89, 128 and 113 Euro MWh -1 on fuel basis. The applied process design approach allows to evaluate the economic competitiveness compared to fossil fuels, to study the influence of the biomass and electricity price and to project for different plant capacities. Process integration reveals in particular potential energy savings and waste heat valorization. Based on this work, the most promising options for the polygeneration of fuel, power and heat will be determined in a future thermo-economic optimization.

  15. Reaction kinetics and reactor modeling for fuel processing of liquid hydrocarbons to produce hydrogen. Isooctane reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacheco, Manuel [Department of Refining and Petrochemicals, Center for Research and Development of the Venezuelan Oil Industry (PDVSA-Intevep), Sector el Tambor, P.O. Box 76343, Los Teques, Edo Miranda (Venezuela); Sira, Jorge [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidad de los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Kopasz, John [US Department of Energy, Chemical Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2003-09-10

    A mathematical model was developed in the framework of the process simulator Aspen Plus in order to describe the reaction kinetics and performance of a fuel processor used for autothermal reforming of liquid hydrocarbons. Experimental results obtained in the facilities of Argonne National Laboratories (ANL) when reforming isooctane using a ceria-oxide catalyst impregnated with platinum were used in order to validate the reactor model. The reaction kinetics and reaction schemes were taken from published literature and most of the chemical reactions were modeled using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW) formulation to account for the effect of adsorption of reactants and products on the active sites of the catalyst. The water-gas-shift (WGS) reactor used to reduce the concentration of CO in the reformate was also modeled. Both reactor models use a simplified formulation for estimating the effectiveness factor of each chemical reaction in order to account for the effect of intraparticle mass transfer limitations on the reactor performance. Since the data in the literature on kinetics of autothermal reforming of liquid hydrocarbons using CeO{sub 2}-Pt catalyst is scarce, the proposed kinetic model for the reaction network was coupled to the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm implemented in Aspen Plus in order to regress the kinetic constants for the different reactions. The model describes the trend of the experimental data in terms of hydrogen yield and distribution of products with a relative deviation of {+-}15% for reforming temperatures between 600 and 800C and reactor space velocities between 15000 and 150000h{sup -1}.

  16. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo S; Silva, Luiz A J; Sousa, Raquel M F; Richter, Eduardo M; Foster, Christopher W; Banks, Craig E; Munoz, Rodrigo A A

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L(-1) HClO4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Delgass, W. N. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Ribeiro, F. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2013-08-31

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H2Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H2) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H2 is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H2Bioilprocess for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on

  18. Photoregenerative I−/I3− couple as a liquid cathode for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Wang, Yadong; Ai, Xinping; Tu, Wenmao; Pan, Mu

    2014-01-01

    A photoassisted oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) through I−/I3− redox couple was investigated for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell cathode reaction. The I−/I3−-based liquid cathode was used to replace conventional oxygen cathode, and its discharge product I− was regenerated to I3− by photocatalytic oxidation with the participation of oxygen. This new and innovative approach may provide a strategy to eliminate the usage of challenging ORR electrocatalysts, resulting in an avenue for developing low-cost and high-efficiency PEM fuel cells. PMID:25348812

  19. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.

    1995-03-01

    This proceedings summarizes recent work concerning stability and handling of fuels. Jet fuels, gasolines, heavy oils, and distillate fuels were considered. Fuel issues relevant to environmental mandates were discussed. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David; Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, Greenwood Village, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean; Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2500 (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Adjusting ratio of Q = Na/B will maximize H{sub 2} storage capacity of liquid carrier. • Mixtures of hydrolysis products are desirable to maximize solubility. • 6.5 wt.% hydrogen and remains liquid from beginning to end. - Abstract: In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH){sub 3}) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mol ratio of NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH{sub 4} hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by {sup 11}B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH){sub 4}. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH){sub 3}, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the {sup 11}B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8}, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt.% NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 M ratio of NaOH and B(OH){sub 3} and releases >8 eq of H{sub 2}. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 5}{sup 2−}, B{sub 4}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}{sup 2−}, B{sub 3}O{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}{sup −}, B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}{sup −} and B(OH){sub 3}, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB{sub 3}H{sub 8} can provide a 40% increase in H{sub 2} storage density compared to the hydrolysis

  1. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Vol 16. Analysis of Phenolic Species in Coal Derived Aviation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    streams from pyrolysis of lignite coal . The three by-product streams-- tar oil, crude phenol, and naphtha streams--have nominal production rates of 3,200...oxygen contents produced by hydrotreating the crude phenol stream (87-07-1 and 87-07-10) and one fuel produced by hydrotreating the tar oil stream (87-09-7...the Oxygenated Compounds Hydrotreating Fuel Sample from Phenols Fuel Sample Condition Stream from Tar Oil Stream 87-07-1 87-07-10 87-09-7 Temperature

  2. Engineering development of ceramic membrane reactor system for converting natural gas to hydrogen and synthesis gas for liquid transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this contract is to research, develop and demonstrate a novel ceramic membrane reactor system for the low-cost conversion of natural gas to synthesis gas and hydrogen for liquid transportation fuels: the ITM Syngas process. Through an eight-year, three-phase program, the technology will be developed and scaled up to obtain the technical, engineering, operating and economic data necessary for the final step to full commercialization of the Gas-to-Liquids (GTL) conversion technology. This report is a summary of activities through April 1998.

  3. Experimental investigations on liquid water removal from the gas diffusion layer by reactant flow in a PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Kui; Li, Xianguo [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Park, Jaewan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    The cross flow from channel to channel through gas diffusion layer (GDL) under the land could play an important role for water removal in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In this study, characteristics of liquid water removal from GDL have been investigated experimentally, through measuring unsteady pressure drop in a cell which has the GDL initially wet with liquid water. The thickness of GDL is carefully controlled by inserting various thicknesses of metal shims between the plates. It has been found that severe compression of GDL could result in excessive pressure drop from channel inlet to channel outlet. Removing liquid water from GDL by cross flow is difficult for GDL with high compression levels and for low inlet air flow rates. However, effective water removal can still be achieved at high compression levels of GDL if the inlet air flow rate is high. Based on different compressed GDL thicknesses, different GDL porosities and permeabilities were calculated and their effects on the characteristics of liquid water removal from GDL were evaluated. Visualization of liquid water transport has been conducted by using transparent flow channel, and liquid water removal from GDL under the land was observed for all the tested inlet air flow rates, which confirms that cross flow is practically effective to remove the liquid water accumulated in GDL under the land area. (author)

  4. Development of high-power electrodes for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C.; Wang, C. Y.

    Based upon Nafion 112 membrane, membrane-electrode assemblies for a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) were fabricated by using a novel method of modified Nafion solution and tape-casting, with unsupported Pt-Ru as an anode catalyst and carbon supported 40 wt.% Pt as a cathode catalyst. The amounts of catalyst loading were controlled to be 4 mg/cm 2 in the anode and 1.3 mg/cm 2 in the cathode. Morphological characteristics of anode and cathode were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A time-delayed activation effect was found in single cell tests and attributed to time-dependent wetting behavior of Nafion polymers within both catalyst layers. A high compression of the single cell leads to a remarkable decrease in diffusion-limiting current density, caused by hydrophilic broken fibers and cleavage-like defects generated during excessive compression of the cell. A maximum power density of 0.21 W/cm 2 is achieved in 2 M CH 3OH solution at 90 °C under the operating condition of non-pressurized anode side and non-humidified air pressurized to 15 psi.

  5. Pyrolysis kinetics study of three biomass solid wastes for thermochemical conversion into liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Parveen, M.; Islam, M. R.; Rahman, M. S.; Haniu, H.

    2017-06-01

    Pyrolysis has been considered as the most efficient way of producing liquid fuel from biomass and its wastes. In this study the thermal degradation characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics of three selected biomass samples of Jute stick (Corchorus capsularis), Japanese cedar wood (Cryptomeria japonica) and Tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica) have been investigated in a nitrogen atmosphere at heating rates of 10°C/min and 60°C/min over a temperature range of 30°C to 800°C. The weight loss region for the three biomass solid wastes has shifted to a higher temperature range and the weight loss rate has increased with increasing heating rate. In this case, the three biomass samples have represented the similar behavior. The initial reaction temperature has decreased with increasing heating rate but the reaction range and reaction rate have increased. The percentage of total weight loss is higher for cedar wood than jute stick and tamarind seed. For the three biomass wastes, the overall rate equation has been modeled properly by one simplified equation and from here it is possible to determine kinetic parameters of unreacted materials based on Arrhenious form. The calculated rate equation compares thoroughly well with the measured TG and DTG data.

  6. Numerical Studies on Heat Release Rate in Room Fire on Liquid Fuel under Different Ventilation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat release rate (HRR of the design fire is the most important parameter in assessing building fire hazards. However, HRR in room fire was only studied by computational fluid dynamics (CFD in most of the projects determining fire safety provisions by performance-based design. In contrast to ten years ago, officers in the Far East are now having better knowledge of CFD. Two common questions are raised on CFD-predicted results on describing free boundaries; and on computing grid size. In this work, predicting HRR by the CFD model was justified with experimental room pool fire data reported earlier. The software fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 5 was selected as the CFD simulation tool. Prescribed input heating rate based on the experimental results was used with the liquid fuel model in FDS. Five different free boundary conditions were investigated to predict HRR. Grid sensitivity study was carried out using one stretched mesh and multiple uniform meshes with different grid sizes. As it is difficult to have the entire set of CFD predicted results agreed with experiments, macroscopic flow parameters on the mass flow rate through door opening predicted by CFD were also justified by another four conditions with different ventilation factors.

  7. ASI: Dunaliella marine microalgae to drop-in replacement liquid transportation fuel

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-09-11

    Microalgae are a promising biofuels feedstock, theoretically yielding concentrations of triacylglycerides (TAGs) per unit area that are far higher than traditional feedstocks due to their rapid growth. Dunaliella is particularly advantageous as a feedstock because it is currently commercially mass cultured, thrives in salt water, and has no cell wall. Fourteen strains of Dunaliella have been investigated for growth rates and lipid production in mass culture and tested for enhanced lipid production under a range of environmental stressors including salinity, pH, nitrogen and phosphorus limitation, and light regime. The nuclear genome has been sequenced for four of these strains, with the objective of increasing carbon flux through genetic engineering. Electroflocculation followed by osmotic membrane rupturing may be a very energy and cost efficient means of harvesting the lipid bodies from Dunaliella. A technically feasible and scalable thermo-catalytic process to convert the lipids into replacements for liquid transportation fuels has been developed. The lipids were converted into long-chain alkanes through continuous thermal hydrolysis followed by fed-batch thermo-catalytic decarboxylation. These alkanes can be reformed into renewable diesel via conventional catalytic hydrocarbon isomerization reactions to improve cold flow properties, if desired. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 916-925, 2013 Copyright © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog.

  8. Development of a model for baffle energy dissipation in liquid fueled rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan A.

    In this thesis the energy dissipation from a combined hub and blade baffle structure in a combustion chamber of a liquid-fueled rocket engine is modeled and computed. An analytical model of the flow stabilization due to the effect of combined radial and hub blades was developed. The rate of energy dissipation of the baffle blades was computed using a corner-flow model that included unsteady flow separation and turbulence effects. For the inviscid portion of the flow field, a solution methodology was formulated using an eigenfunction expansion and a velocity potential matching technique. Parameters such as local velocity, elemental path length, effective viscosity, and local energy dissipation rate were computed as a function of the local angle alpha for a representative baffle blade, and compared to results predicted by the Baer-Mitchell blade dissipation model. The sensitivity of the model to the overall engine acoustic oscillation mode, blade length, and thickness was also computed and compared to previous results. Additional studies were performed to determine the sensitivity to input parameters such as the dimensionless turbulence coefficient, the location of the potential difference in the generation of the dividing streamline, the number of baffle blades and the size of the central hub. Stability computations of a test engine indicated that when the baffle length is increased, the baffles provide increased stabilization effects. The model predicts greatest dissipation for radial modes with a hub radius at approximately half the chamber's radius.

  9. Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

    1989-11-22

    Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

  10. Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1997-05-01

    A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

  11. Prospect of Pongamia pinnata (Karanja in Bangladesh: A Sustainable Source of Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Halder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy is the basic requirement for the existence of human being in today’s digital world. Indigenous energy of Bangladesh (especially natural gas and diesel is basically used in power generation and depleting hastily to meet the increasing power demand. Therefore, special emphasis has been given to produce alternative liquid fuel worldwide to overcome the crisis of diesel. Pongamia pinnata (karanja may be an emerging option for providing biooil for biodiesel production. Although karanja biooil has been used as a source of traditional medicines in Bangladesh, it can also be used for rural illumination. This paper outlines the medical and energy aspects of Pongamia pinnata. It has been assessed that Bangladesh can utilize about 128.95 PJ through Pongamia cultivation in unused lands. The paper reviews the potentiality of Pongamia pinnata as a source of biodiesel and its benefits in Bangladesh. The paper also revives that, about 0.52 million tons of biodiesel can be produced only utilizing the unused lands per year in sustainable basis as it reduces CO2, CO, HC, and NOx emission compared to pure diesel.

  12. Capacity enhancement of aqueous borohydride fuels for hydrogen storage in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, David [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Neiner, Doinita [U.S. Borax Inc., Rio Tinto, CO (United States); Bowden, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whittemore, Sean [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenguo [Univ. of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Autrey, Tom [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate enhanced hydrogen storage capacities through increased solubility of sodium borate product species in aqueous media achieved by adjusting the sodium (NaOH) to boron (B(OH)3) ratio, i.e., M/B, to obtain a distribution of polyborate anions. For a 1:1 mole ratio of NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 1, the ratio of the hydrolysis product formed from NaBH4 hydrolysis, the sole borate species formed and observed by 11B NMR is sodium metaborate, NaB(OH)4. When the ratio is 1:3 NaOH to B(OH)3, M/B = 0.33, a mixture of borate anions is formed and observed as a broad peak in the 11B NMR spectrum. The complex polyborate mixture yields a metastable solution that is difficult to crystallize. Given the enhanced solubility of the polyborate mixture formed when M/B = 0.33 it should follow that the hydrolysis of sodium octahydrotriborate, NaB3H8, can provide a greater storage capacity of hydrogen for fuel cell applications compared to sodium borohydride while maintaining a single phase. Accordingly, the hydrolysis of a 23 wt% NaB3H8 solution in water yields a solution having the same complex polyborate mixture as formed by mixing a 1:3 molar ratio of NaOH and B(OH)3 and releases >8 eq of H2. By optimizing the M/B ratio a complex mixture of soluble products, including B3O3(OH)52-, B4O5(OH)42-, B3O3(OH)4-, B5O6(OH)4- and B(OH)3, can be maintained as a single liquid phase throughout the hydrogen release process. Consequently, hydrolysis of NaB3H8 can provide a 40% increase in H2 storage density compared to the hydrolysis of NaBH4 given the decreased solubility of sodium metaborate. The authors would like to thank Jim Sisco and Paul Osenar of

  13. System dynamics of the competition of municipal solid waste to landfill, electricity, and liquid fuel in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka

    2014-03-01

    A quantitative system dynamics model was created to evaluate the economic and environmental tradeoffs between biomass to electricity and to liquid fuel using MSW biomass in the state of California as a case study. From an environmental perspective, landfilling represents the worst use of MSW over time, generating more greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to converting MSW to liquid fuel or to electricity. MSW to ethanol results in the greatest displacement of GHG emissions per dollar spent compared to MSW to electricity. MSW to ethanol could save the state of California approximately $60 billion in energy costs by 2050 compared to landfilling, while also reducing GHG emissions state-wide by approximately 140 million metric tons during that timeframe. MSW conversion to electricity creates a significant cost within the state's electricity sector, although some conversion technologies are cost competitive with existing renewable generation.

  14. Combined production of synthetic liquid fuel and electricity from coal using H2S and CO2 removal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina A. Tyurina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the research is to continue the studies on promising technologies of coal conversion into synthetic liquid fuel (methanol. The object of study is the plants for combined production of electricity and synthetic liquid fuel (PCPs, which are eco-friendly and more efficient as compared to the plants for separate production. The previous studies on PCPs consider the systems for fine cleaning of gasification products in a simplified way. This study presents the detailed mathematical modeling of the aforementioned systems and determines the values of energy consumption and investment in them. The obtained values are used to carry out the optimization studies and find the optimal parameters of PCPs with different degree of CO2 removal from gasification products providing fine cleaning of gasification products from H2S.

  15. Formation of Platinum Catalyst on Carbon Black Using an In‐Liquid Plasma Method for Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Show

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum (Pt catalyst was formed on the surface of carbon black using an in‐liquid plasma method. The formed Pt catalyst showed the average particle size of 4.1 nm. This Pt catalyst was applied to a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. The PEMFC showed an open voltage of 0.85 V and a maximum output power density of 216 mW/cm2.

  16. 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-12

    Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 November 2016 – 12 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2D and 3D Modeling ...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 2D and 3D Modeling Efforts in Fuel Film Cooling of Liquid Rocket Engines Kevin C. Brown∗, Edward B. Coy†, and...wide. As a consequence, the 3D simulations may better model the experimental setup used, but are perhaps not representative of the long circumferential

  17. Experimental investigation on the morphology of soot aggregates from the burning of typical solid and liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Dongmei; Guo, Chenning; Shi, Long

    2017-01-01

    Soot particles from the burning of typical fuels are one of the critical sources causing environmental problems and human disease. To understand the soot formation of these typical fuels, the size and morphology of soot aggregates produced from the burning of typical solid and liquid fuels, including diesel, kerosene, natural rubber (NR) latex foam, and wood crib, were studied by both extractive sampling and subsequent image analysis. The 2D and 3D fractal dimensions together with the diameter distribution of agglomerate and primary particles were analyzed for these four typical fuels. The average diameters of the primary particles were within 45–85 nm when sampling from different heights above the fire sources. Irregular sheet structures and flake-like masses were observed from the burning of NR latex foam and wood cribs. Superaggregates with a mean maximum length scale of over 100 μm were also found from the burning of all these four tested fuels. The fractal dimension of a single aggregate was 3 for all the tested fuels.

  18. Experimental investigation on the morphology of soot aggregates from the burning of typical solid and liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dongmei, E-mail: 20021567@163.com; Guo, Chenning [China Jiliang University, College of Quality and Safety Engineering (China); Shi, Long [RMIT University, Civil and Infrastructure Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Soot particles from the burning of typical fuels are one of the critical sources causing environmental problems and human disease. To understand the soot formation of these typical fuels, the size and morphology of soot aggregates produced from the burning of typical solid and liquid fuels, including diesel, kerosene, natural rubber (NR) latex foam, and wood crib, were studied by both extractive sampling and subsequent image analysis. The 2D and 3D fractal dimensions together with the diameter distribution of agglomerate and primary particles were analyzed for these four typical fuels. The average diameters of the primary particles were within 45–85 nm when sampling from different heights above the fire sources. Irregular sheet structures and flake-like masses were observed from the burning of NR latex foam and wood cribs. Superaggregates with a mean maximum length scale of over 100 μm were also found from the burning of all these four tested fuels. The fractal dimension of a single aggregate was 3 for all the tested fuels.

  19. Production of jet fuel range paraffins by low temperature polymerization of gaseous light olefins using ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Peiwen; Wu, Xiaoping; Zhu, Lijuan; Jin, Feng; Liu, Junxu; Xia, Tongyan; Wang, Tiejun; Li, Quanxin

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A novel catalytic transformation of light olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. - Highlights: • A novel transformation of light olefins to jet fuel range paraffins was demonstrated. • The synthetic fuels can be produced by atmospheric olefin polymerizations. • C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins from light olefins was achieved with a selectivity of 80.6%. - Abstract: This work demonstrated a novel catalytic transformation of gaseous olefins into jet fuel range iso-paraffins by the low-temperature olefin polymerizations under atmospheric conditions. The production of the desired C 8 –C 15 iso-paraffins with the selectivity of 80.6 C mol% was achieved by the room-temperature polymerizations of gaseous light olefins using the [BMIM] Al 2 Cl 7 ionic liquid. The influences of the reaction conditions on the olefinic polymerizations were investigated in detail. The properties of hydrocarbons in the synthetic fuels were determined by the GC–MS analyses combined with 1 H NMR, and 13 C NMR analyses. The formation of C 8 –C 15 hydrocarbons from gaseous light olefins was illustrated by the identified products and the functional groups. This transformation potentially provides a useful avenue for the production of the most important components of iso-paraffins required in jet fuels.

  20. Novel composite membranes based on PBI and dicationic ionic liquids for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooshyari, Khadijeh; Javanbakht, Mehran; Adibi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Two types of innovative composite membranes based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) containing dicationic ionic liquid 1,3-di(3-methylimidazolium) propane bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide (PDC 3 ) and monocationic ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (PMC 6 ) are prepared as electrolyte for high temperature fuel cells applications under anhydrous conditions. The analyses of results display promising characteristics such as high proton conductivity and thermal stability. Moreover the fuel cell performance of PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes is enhanced in comparison with PA doped PMC 6 and PA doped PBI membranes at high temperatures. Dicationic ionic liquid with high number of charge carriers provides well-developed ionic channels which form facile pathways and considerably develop the anhydrous proton conductivity. The highest proton conductivity of 81 mS/cm is achieved for PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes with PBI/IL mole ratio: 4 at 180 °C. A power density of 0.44 W/cm 2 is obtained at 0.5 V and 180 °C for PA doped PDC 3 composite membranes, which proves that these developed composite membranes can be considered as most promising candidates for high temperature fuel cell applications with enhanced proton conductivity.

  1. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M.; Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E.; Munoz, Rodrigo A.A.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L −1 HClO 4 (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  2. Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes: Application to on-site monitoring of liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Eduardo S.; Silva, Luiz A.J.; Sousa, Raquel M.F.; Richter, Eduardo M. [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil); Foster, Christopher W.; Banks, Craig E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Faculty of Science and the Environment, School of Science and the Environment, Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Manchester, M1 5GD, England (United Kingdom); Munoz, Rodrigo A.A., E-mail: raamunoz@iqufu.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Av. João Naves de Ávila, 2121, Uberlândia, MG, 38408100 (Brazil)

    2016-08-31

    This work presents the potential application of organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGEs) for fuel analysis. The required analysis of the antioxidant 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol (2,6-DTBP) in biodiesel and jet fuel is demonstrated as a proof-of-concept. The screen-printing of graphite, Ag/AgCl and insulator inks on a polyester substrate (250 μm thickness) resulted in SPGEs highly compatible with liquid fuels. SPGEs were placed on a batch-injection analysis (BIA) cell, which was filled with a hydroethanolic solution containing 99% v/v ethanol and 0.1 mol L{sup −1} HClO{sub 4} (electrolyte). An electronic micropipette was connected to the cell to perform injections (100 μL) of sample or standard solutions. Over 200 injections can be injected continuously without replacing electrolyte and SPGE strip. Amperometric detection (+1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl) of 2,6-DTBP provided fast (around 8 s) and precise (RSD = 0.7%, n = 12) determinations using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for the analysis of biodiesel and aviation jet fuel samples and comparable results with liquid and gas chromatographic analyses, typically required for biodiesel and jet fuel samples, were obtained. Hence, these SPGE strips are completely compatible with organic samples and their combination with the BIA cell shows great promise for routine and portable analysis of fuels and other organic liquid samples without requiring sophisticated sample treatments. - Highlights: • Organic-resistant screen-printed graphitic electrodes (SPGE) for (bio)fuels. • Screen-printing of conductive and insulator inks on thin polyester substrate. • Continuous detection of antioxidants in electrolyte with 99% v/v ethanol. • SPGE coupled with batch-injection analysis allows over 200 injections (100 μL). • Similar results to GC and HPLC analyses of biodiesel and aviation jet fuels.

  3. The turbulent liquid fuel industry in Zimbabwe: options for resolving the crisis and improving supply to the poor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashange, Krispen

    2002-01-01

    Towards the end of the last decade, supplies in petroleum fuel have been erratic to the extent that Zimbabwe has at times operated with as low as 40% of normal supplies. These shortages were attributed mainly to foreign exchange shortages and alleged mismanagement and corruption at the National Oil Company of Zimbabwe (NOCZIM). As shortages intensified, problems of product shortage began to unfold, which adversely impacted on the urban poor. The public began to question the industry's policies on the sustainability of the liquid fuel sector policies in Zimbabwe. Of particular concern was policies regarding regulatory mechanisms, pricing, distribution, utilisation of storage facilities, supply routes and NOCZIM management. This paper evaluates the challenges facing the Zimbabwean petroleum sector and presents recommendations that could assist in ensuring a robust and functional national fuel sector. (Author)

  4. Mechanistic Model for Atomization of Superheated Liquid Jet Fuel, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As air-breathing combustion applications advance, increased use of fuel for cooling, combined with cycle advancements, leads to a situation where the fuel can become...

  5. Mechanistic Model for Atomization of Superheated Liquid Jet Fuel, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As air-breathing combustion applications advance, increased use of fuel for cooling, combined with cycle advancements, leads to a situation where the fuel can become...

  6. Energy and emission benefits of alternative transportation liquid fuels derived from switchgrass: a fuel life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, May; Wu, Ye; Wang, Michael

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a mobility chains, or well-to-wheels (WTW), analysis to assess the energy and emission benefits of cellulosic biomass for the U.S. transportation sector in the years 2015-2030. We estimated the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with biofuel production and use in light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies by using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model. Analysis of biofuel production was based on ASPEN Plus model simulation of an advanced fermentation process to produce fuel ethanol/protein, a thermochemical process to produce Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), and a combined heat and power plant to co-produce steam and electricity. Our study revealed that cellulosic biofuels as E85 (mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume), FTD, and DME offer substantial savings in petroleum (66-93%) and fossil energy (65-88%) consumption on a per-mile basis. Decreased fossil fuel use translates to 82-87% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions across all unblended cellulosic biofuels. In urban areas, our study shows net reductions for almost all criteria pollutants, with the exception of carbon monoxide (unchanged), for each of the biofuel production option examined. Conventional and hybrid electric vehicles, when fueled with E85, could reduce total sulfur oxide (SO(x)) emissions to 39-43% of those generated by vehicles fueled with gasoline. By using bio-FTD and bio-DME in place of diesel, SO(x) emissions are reduced to 46-58% of those generated by diesel-fueled vehicles. Six different fuel production options were compared. This study strongly suggests that integrated heat and power co-generation by means of gas turbine combined cycle is a crucial factor in the energy savings and emission reductions.

  7. Modernization of burner devices of gas- and liquid-fueled power boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestakov, N. S.; Leikam, A. E.; Asoskov, V. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2012-03-01

    The paper describes three types of low-toxic gas-fuel-oil burners that have up to now been implemented at several of Russia's power stations in the conversion of coal-fired boilers to natural-gas and fuel-oil combustion and modernization of gas-fuel oil boilers using known combustion technologies to suppress the formation of nitric oxides.

  8. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.] [Deputy Assistant Secretary for Strategic Petroleum Reserve, Washington, DC (United States). Operations and Readiness Office

    1998-12-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  9. Modifying woody plants for efficient conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinus, R.J.; Dimmel, D.R.; Feirer, R.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Malcolm, E.W. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The Short Rotation Woody Crop Program (SRWCP), Department of Energy, is developing woody plant species as sources of renewable energy. Much progress has been made in identifying useful species, and testing site adaptability, stand densities, coppicing abilities, rotation lengths, and harvesting systems. Conventional plant breeding and intensive cultural practices have been used to increase above-ground biomass yields. Given these and foreseeable accomplishments, program leaders are now shifting attention to prospects for altering biomass physical and chemical characteristics, and to ways for improving the efficiency with which biomass can be converted to gaseous and liquid fuels. This report provides a review and synthesis of literature concerning the quantity and quality of such characteristics and constituents, and opportunities for manipulating them via conventional selection and breeding and/or molecular biology. Species now used by SRWCP are emphasized, with supporting information drawn from others as needed. Little information was found on silver maple (Acer saccharinum), but general comparisons (Isenberg 1981) suggest composition and behavior similar to those of the other species. Where possible, conclusions concerning means for and feasibility of manipulation are given, along with expected impacts on conversion efficiency. Information is also provided on relationships to other traits, genotype X environment interactions, and potential trade-offs or limitations. Biomass productivity per se is not addressed, except in terms of effects that may by caused by changes in constituent quality and/or quantity. Such effects are noted to the extent they are known or can be estimated. Likely impacts of changes, however effected, on suitability or other uses, e.g., pulp and paper manufacture, are notes. 311 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. A tale of gastric layering and sieving : Gastric emptying of a liquid meal with water blended in or consumed separately

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    BACKGROUND: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more

  11. Development of remote disassembly technology for liquid-metal reactor (LMR) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Evans, J.H.; Metz, C.F. III; Weil, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    A major objective of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is to develop equipment and demonstrate technology to reprocess fast breeder reactor fuel. Experimental work on fuel disassembly cutting methods began in the 1970s. High-power laser cutting was selected as the preferred cutting method for fuel disassembly. Remotely operated development equipment was designed, fabricated, installed, and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Development testing included remote automatic operation, remote maintenance testing, and laser cutting process development. This paper summarizes the development work performed at ORNL on remote fuel disassembly. 2 refs., 1 fig

  12. One-step catalytic conversion of biomass-derived carbohydrates to liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayusman; Yang, Weiran

    2014-03-18

    The invention relates to a method for manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels and oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels such as alkyl substituted tetrahydrofurans such as 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, 5-methylfurfural and mixtures thereof. The method generally entails forming a mixture of reactants that includes carbonaceous material, water, a metal catalyst and an acid reacting that mixture in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction is performed at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a furan type hydrocarbon fuel. The process may be adapted to provide continuous manufacture of hydrocarbon fuels such as a furan type fuel.

  13. Multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium model for LES of high-pressure fuel injection and application to ECN Spray A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheis, Jan; Hickel, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present and evaluate a two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and can represent the coexistence of supercritical states and

  14. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  15. Liquid and Gaseous Fuel from Waste Plastics by Sequential Pyrolysis and Catalytic Reforming Processes over Indonesian Natural Zeolite Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Syamsiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the performance of several differently treated natural zeolites in a sequential pyrolysis and catalytic reforming of plastic materials i.e. polypropylene (PP and polystyrene (PS were investigated. The experiments were carried out on two stage reactor using semi-batch system. The samples were degraded at 500°C in the pyrolysis reactor and then reformed at 450°C in the catalytic reformer. The results show that the mordenite-type natural zeolites could be used as efficient catalysts for the conversion of PP and PS into liquid and gaseous fuel. The treatment of natural zeolites in HCl solution showed an increase of the surface area and the Si/Al ratio while nickel impregnation increased the activity of catalyst. As a result, liquid product was reduced while gaseous product was increased. For PP, the fraction of gasoline (C5-C12 increased in the presence of catalysts. Natural zeolite catalysts could also be used to decrease the heavy oil fraction (>C20. The gaseous products were found that propene was dominated in all conditions. For PS, propane and propene were the main components of gases in the presence of nickel impregnated natural zeolite catalyst. Propene was dominated in pyrolysis over natural zeolite catalyst. The high quality of gaseous product can be used as a fuel either for driving gas engines or for dual-fuel diesel engine.

  16. Consumers' risk elimination in fuel supply chain. The Attica's Marinas yacht fuelling case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liapis, Nikolaos [ELINOIL-HELLENIC PETROLEUM COMPANY, S.A., Kifisia (Greece); Zannikos, Fanourios [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece). Lab. of Fuels Technology and Lubricants

    2013-06-01

    Oil products distribution system is a complicated supply chain and includes a lot of uncertainties. A limited but quite interesting part of this system is yachting supply in marinas. Yachts usually are equipped with high efficiency and big horsepower modem engines; sea travelling is risky itself so fuel quality contributes significant in safety; many of the yachts are chartered for hired cruises and so operators have the right to purchase tax-free marine diesel, which creates conditions for smuggling and adulteration. All above create a great need for quality control in these fuels, as Greek oil companies do not apply at the moment Total Quality Management (TQM) for securing both quality specifications and quantity paid by the end user. In this research project the Laboratory of Fuel Technology and Lubricants of NTUA collected samples and analysed fuels delivered by tank trucks to yachts in six marinas in the district of Attica. These fuels were marketed by ELINOIL SA, a medium size oil distribution company, operating in Greece. ELINOIL has a market share of 6% of the Greek fuel market but is a market leader in yachting supply in Attica, having more than 50% of the specific market. Problems concerning fuel quality were analysed, direct or indirect causes were tracked, recorded and analysed, always in comparison with data from other Quality Control procedures applied from the company. A specially developed database was updated with facts and figures from incidents and quality issues covering this activity of the company during this period. The project, as it was targeted, detected the quality problems of the specific supply chain and ended to suggestions concerning the building of Quality Assurance System in yachting fuel supply. (orig.)

  17. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  18. Valorization of Waste Lipids through Hydrothermal Catalytic Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels with in Situ Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Vardon, Derek R.; Murali, Dheeptha; Sharma, Brajendra K.; Strathmann, Timothy J.

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate hydrothermal (300 degrees C, 10 MPa) catalytic conversion of real waste lipids (e.g., waste vegetable oil, sewer trap grease) to liquid hydrocarbon fuels without net need for external chemical inputs (e.g., H2 gas, methanol). A supported bimetallic catalyst (Pt-Re/C; 5 wt % of each metal) previously shown to catalyze both aqueous phase reforming of glycerol (a triacylglyceride lipid hydrolysis coproduct) to H2 gas and conversion of oleic and stearic acid, model unsaturated and saturated fatty acids, to linear alkanes was applied to process real waste lipid feedstocks in water. For reactions conducted with an initially inert headspace gas (N2), waste vegetable oil (WVO) was fully converted into linear hydrocarbons (C15-C17) and other hydrolyzed byproducts within 4.5 h, and H2 gas production was observed. Addition of H2 to the initial reactor headspace accelerated conversion, but net H2 production was still observed, in agreement with results obtained for aqueous mixtures containing model fatty acids and glycerol. Conversion to liquid hydrocarbons with net H2 production was also observed for a range of other waste lipid feedstocks (animal fat residuals, sewer trap grease, dry distiller's grain oil, coffee oil residual). These findings demonstrate potential for valorization of waste lipids through conversion to hydrocarbons that are more compatible with current petroleum-based liquid fuels than the biodiesel and biogas products of conventional waste lipid processing technologies.

  19. Consumer preference and willingness to pay for a renewable fuel standard (RFS) policy: Focusing on ex-ante market analysis and segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jungwoo; Hwang, Won-Sik

    2017-01-01

    Total energy consumption of oil in 2050 is expected to increase to 1.6 times its level in 2005, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the transportation sector will be second only to the electricity sector. In order to reduce GHG emissions in transportation, leading countries have started to implement renewable fuel standard (RFS) policies. Other countries such as Korea have recently started implementing RFS policies in order to comply with the proposed global GHG reduction target. However, previous research did not consider the impact of RFS policy on consumer acceptance levels. Therefore, this study analyzes consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for RFS. To provide detailed policy strategies, this study conducts additional analysis using market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. The results indicate that consumers generally accept the cost of implementing an RFS policy if the cost falls between KRW 101.78/liter (USD 0.33/gal) and KRW 187.26/liter (USD 0.60/gal). In addition, consumer WTP for implementing an RFS policy changes when the income exceeds KRW 5 million (USD 4229.1) in driver group, and relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies. Based on the results of this study, we can suggest proper pricing policies for each income group and a public relations strategy to improve the level of policy acceptance. - Highlights: • We analyze consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for Korea's RFS policy. • We also conduct market segmentation and sensitivity analysis. • Korean consumers will accept the cost between KRW 101.78/liter and KRW 187.26/liter. • Preference structure for RFS policy is changed when income exceeds KRW 5 million. • Relatively lower-income groups tend not to support RFS policies.

  20. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-01

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology

  1. Study of liquid fuel transport in a small carburetted engine in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, a detailed visualization of the transport of fuel film has been performed in a small carburetted engine with a transparent manifold at the exit of the carburettor. The presence of fuel film is observed significantly on the lower half of the manifold at idling, while at load conditions, the film is found to be ...

  2. Proceedings of the 5th international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, H.N. [ed.

    1995-04-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contains 34 papers divided into the following sessions: Deposit and insolubles measurement (5 papers); Gasolines (4 papers); Heavy oils and refinery processing (3 papers); Middle distillate fuels (7 papers); New fuels and environmental mandates (5 papers); and a Poster session (10 papers). Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Experimental determination of organic liquid fuels heating value as function of the humidity; Determinacao experimental do poder calorifico de combustiveis organicos liquidos em funcao da umidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyrio, Aristoteles Alves; Dalvi, Elias Antonio; Vieira, Renata da Cruz Araujo [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    1998-07-01

    This work presents experimental results for higher heating value (HHV) and lower heating value (LHV) of organic liquid fuels sold in gas stations situated at Vitoria Metropolitan Area in the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. Experiments were conduced showing the influence of fuel water contents on the HHV and LHV such as gasoline, diesel oil, kerosene and alcohol, covering a wide range of humidity (0 to 70%). A correlation between higher heating value and the water content in the fuel was determined for the experimental data obtained. The main conclusion of the present work has shown that the content of water in the fuel makes its higher heating value to decrease in the same proportion as the value of the humidity (ratio between mass of water and mass of fuel mass of water), and so, it is very important to control the level of humidity in the fuel in order to avoid significant losses of heat released during the fuel combustion. (author)

  4. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  5. Self-consuming materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoma, Steven G.; Grubelich, Mark C; Celina, Mathias C.; Vaughn, Mark R.; Knudsen, Steven D.

    2017-05-23

    A self-consuming structure is disclosed that is formed from a self-consuming composition based on an epoxy or polyurethane having fuel and/or oxidizer molecularly dispersed and/or as particulates in the epoxy or polyurethane. The composition may be used to form self-consuming structural components.

  6. Biodiesel production using alkaline ionic liquid and adopted as lubricity additive for low-sulfur diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hui; Fan, Weiyu; Li, Yang; Nan, Guozhi

    2013-07-01

    Preparation of biodiesel from vegetable oils, such as rapeseed oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil, catalyzed by an alkaline ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium imidazolide ([Bmim]Im) was investigated in this work. The results demonstrated that [Bmim]Im exhibited high activity and the yield of biodiesel was up to 95% or more when molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil was 6:1, ionic liquid dosage was 6 wt.%, reaction temperature was 60°C, and reaction time was 60 min. After [Bmim]Im was used for the sixth time, the yield of biodiesel still remained at about 95%. The effects of the biodiesels on the lubricity of low-sulfur diesel fuel were also investigated using the High Frequency Reciprocating Rig method, and the results showed that sunflower biodiesel and soybean biodiesel had higher lubrication performance than that of rapeseed biodiesel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Direct coal liquefaction: general characteristics and comparison with other methods of manufacturing synthetic fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legarreta, J.A.; Arias, P.L.; Cambra, J.F.; Gutierrez-Canas, C.

    1985-01-01

    Direct liquefaction has considerable advantages over other methods available for coal beneficiation by the manufacture of liquid fuels, namely: it requires a lower chemical reaction and is therefore a more efficient method which consumes less energy; it requires less stringent operating conditions which reduces equipment costs; synthetic liquid fuel is a much more concentrated form of energy than gas which makes it easier to store and transport; and liquefaction plants require less water and produce less liquid and gaseous effluents. 10 references.

  8. Recent Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, T. I.; Narayanan, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    In this work, the effects of methanol crossover and airflow rates on the cathode potential of an operating direct methanol fuel cell are explored. Techniques for quantifying methanol crossover in a fuel cell and for separating the electrical performance of each electrode in a fuel cell are discussed. The effect of methanol concentration on cathode potential has been determined to be significant. The cathode is found to be mass transfer limited when operating on low flow rate air and high concentrations of methanol. Improvements in cathode structure and operation at low methanol concentration have been shown to result in improved cell performance.

  9. 76 FR 4207 - Orderly Liquidation Authority Provisions of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... recover fraudulent transfers, preferential transfers, and unauthorized transfers of property by the... immediate and disorderly liquidation of collateral during a period of market distress. The absence of... volatile, illiquid collateral, such as mortgage-backed securities. In applying its powers under the Dodd...

  10. 3rd International Conference on Stability and Handling of Liquid Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-07

    indans, tetralins, indenes , dihydronaphthalenes and benzenes. Effect of peroxide on the thermal stability of hydrocracked aviation fuel [351 L H Turner, R...similarly stored. Specification test data together with UV and FTIR spectra are reported for various storage times up to 54weeks. Properties significantly...including pyrolysis/GC/MS, FTIR , and FIMS data. Two ’model’ fuels were prepared, the second of which contained 2-methylindole and xxiv p r naphthalene

  11. Pyrolysis of flax straw: Characterization of char, liquid, and gas as fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tushar, Mohammad Shahed Hasan Khan

    The demand for energy continues to outstrip its supply and necessitates the development of renewable energy options. Biomass has been recognized as a major renewable energy source to supplement the declining fossil fuel source of energy. It is the most popular form of renewable energy and, currently, biofuel production is becoming more promising. Being carbon neutral, readily available, and low in sulphur content makes biomass a very promising source of renewable energy. In the present research, both the isothermal and non-isothermal pressurized pyrolysis of flax straw is studied for the first time. In case of isothermal pyrolysis, the influence of pyrolysis temperature and reaction time on char yield and morphology was investigated. The applied pyrolysis temperature was varied between 300 and 500°C. The reaction time was varied from 15 to 60 min. The char yield was found to decrease as pyrolysis temperature and reaction time increased. The char structure and surface morphology were thoroughly investigated by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The degree of porosity and graphitization increased as pyrolysis temperature and time increased. In fact, the experiment performed at 500°C for 1h duration did not yield any char; only residual ash could be obtained. The TPO studies on the char samples corroborated the XRD findings and showed the presence of two types of carbon, namely, amorphous filamentous carbon and graphitic carbon. A thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of the char was performed to gain an understanding of combustion kinetics and reactivity. It implied that the reactivity of the char decreases as temperature increases, and this finding is well supported by the TPO, TGA, SEM, and XRD characterization data. Furthermore, an empirical global model was devised based on the power law to estimate activation energy and other kinetic parameters. For the non-isothermal pressurized

  12. Amphoteric water as acid and base for protic ionic liquids and their electrochemical activity when used as fuel cell electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miran, Muhammed Shah; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Tatara, Ryoichi; Abu Bin Hasan Susan, Md; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2017-12-14

    Amphoteric water was mixed with equimolar amounts of a super-strong acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOH), and a super-strong base, 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]-7-undecene (DBU). Bulk physicochemical and electrochemical properties of the mixtures were compared with those of the best ever reported protic ionic liquid (PIL), diethylmethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([dema][TfO]), which has excellent physicochemical properties as a fuel cell electrolyte. The acidic mixture ([H 3 O][TfO]) behaved as a protic ionic liquid, while the basic mixture ([DBU]OH) showed incomplete proton transfer. The Walden plot indicated that [H 3 O][TfO] behaves as a good PIL, similar to [dema][TfO], whereas [DBU]OH behaves as a poor PIL. [H 3 O][TfO] showed excellent H 2 /O 2 fuel cell performance at 80 °C; however, the performance deteriorated as the bulk water content increased, because of the retardation of the electrode kinetics due to the oxidation of Pt in the presence of bulk water. On the other hand, [DBU]OH exhibited very poor performance possibly because of the existence of neutral species in the system.

  13. SUBTASK 3.12 – GASIFICATION, WARM-GAS CLEANUP, AND LIQUID FUELS PRODUCTION WITH ILLINOIS COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Curran, Tyler; Henderson, Ann

    2014-06-30

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the performance of Illinois No. 6 coal blended with biomass in a small-scale entrained-flow gasifier and demonstrate the production of liquid fuels under three scenarios. The first scenario used traditional techniques for cleaning the syngas prior to Fischer–Tropsch (FT) synthesis, including gas sweetening with a physical solvent. In the second scenario, the CO2 was not removed from the gas stream prior to FT synthesis. In the third scenario, only warm-gas cleanup techniques were used, such that the feed gas to the FT unit contained both moisture and CO2. The results of the testing showed that the liquid fuels production from the FT catalyst was significantly hindered by the presence of moisture and CO2 in the syngas. Further testing would be needed to determine if this thermally efficient process is feasible with other FT catalysts. This subtask was funded through the EERC–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Program on Research and Development for Fossil Energy-Related Resources Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-08NT43291. Nonfederal funding was provided by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  14. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  15. Scholarly Research Program. Delivery Order 0007: Characterization of Ionic Liquids as Fuel Cell Electrolytes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keitz, Thomas L; Katovic, Vladimir; Davidson, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    The object of this work was to synthesize the room temperature ionic liquids, EMImBF4, BMImBF4 and BMPBETI, and to study the electrochemical behavior of ethanol in these electrolytes on the Pt electrode...

  16. Federal Financial Incentives to Induce Early Experience Producing Unconventional Liquid Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Camm, Frank; Bartis, James T; Bushman, Charles J

    2008-01-01

    This technical report explains an analytic way to design and assess packages of financial incentives that the government can use to cost effectively promote early experience with coal-to-liquids (CTL...

  17. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; McKay, K.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  18. Lowering Saudi Arabia's fuel consumption and energy system costs without increasing end consumer prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, Walid; Murphy, Frederic; Pierru, Axel; Rioux, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    Using a multi-sector equilibrium model of the Saudi energy system that handles administered prices in a mixed-complementarity formulation, we present results from a set of policy scenarios that lower oil consumption in the country. Some of these scenarios are the solutions to Mathematical Programs subject to Equilibrium Constraints (MPECs) that maximize the net economic gain for the Saudi economy. The policies examined have the potential to generate economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011, or about 4% of Saudi Arabia's GDP. This economic gain comes mainly from inter-sectoral fuel pricing policies that incent shifting the mix in technologies that generate electricity and produce water from energy intensive technologies to more efficient ones. We show that when complemented by credits for investments in solar and nuclear power generation capacities, a modest increase in the transfer prices of fuels among sectors is sufficient to produce economic gains close to those achieved by deregulating transfer prices. The approach we develop here is an alternative to the classic recommendation of deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices in situations where the conditions for successful liberalized markets do not exist. It is a template for introducing the notions of incentivizing behavior using prices into countries that rely more on administrative procedures than markets, leading to a deeper understanding of how markets can lead to economic gain. - Highlights: • The policies examined would have potentially generated economic gains exceeding 23 billion USD in 2011. • We design policies that produce economic benefits close to those achieved by deregulating inter-sectoral fuel prices. • This paper provides a template for building multi-sector models when transfer prices between sectors are administered

  19. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didi Dwi Anggoro

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of many efforts to convert coal tar into alternative liquid fuel is by hydrocracking. This research aims to determine the impregnation of Co-Mo/Y zeolite, its characteristics, the effect of impregnation temperature and time, and also the best Co-Mo/Y zeolite impregnation condition for the conversion of coal tar. This research was conducted in several steps, impregnating Co from Co(NO32.6H2O and Mo from (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O into Zeolite Y in liquid media, drying at 100 °C for 24 hours, and calcination at 550 °C for 3 hours. Coal tar was then reacted with hydrogen gas (as a reactant, and Co-Mo/Zeolite Y (as a catalyst was conducted at 350 °C. Characteristic analysis showed that Co and Mo had impregnated into the Y zeolite, as well as it made no change of catalyst’s structure and increased the total acidity. The higher of impregnation temperature was increased the catalyst crystallinity, total acidity, and yield of gasoline. The longer impregnation time was reduced crystallinity value, but total acidity and yield were increased. GC analysis showed that products included into the gasoline product (C8, C9, and C10. Copyright © 2017 BCREC Group. All rights reserved Received: 13rd November 2016; Revised: 12nd February 2017; Accepted: 16th February 2017 How to Cite: Anggoro, D.D., Buchori, L., Silaen, G.C., Utami, R.N. (2017. Preparation, Characterization, and Activation of Co-Mo/Y Zeolite Catalyst for Coal Tar Conversion to Liquid Fuel. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (2: 219-226 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.12.2.768.219-226

  20. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions of Pollutants from Combustion Processes of Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides. The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.

  1. Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions from the Combustion of Monodisperse Liquid Fuel Sprays. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarv, H.

    1985-01-01

    A study of NO sub x formation in a one dimensional monodisperse spray combustion system, which allowed independent droplet size variation, was conducted. Temperature, NO and NO sub x concentrations were measured in the transition region, encompassing a 26 to 74 micron droplet size range. Emission measurements of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen were also made. The equivalence ratio was varied between 0.8 and 1.2 for the fuels used, including methanol, isopropanaol, n-heptane and n-octane. Pyridine and pyrrole were added to n-heptane as nitrogen-containing additives in order to simulate synthetic fuels. Results obtained from the postflame regions using the pure fuels indicate an optimum droplet size in the range of 43 to 58 microns for minimizing NO sub x production. For the fuels examined, the maximum NO sub x reductions relative to the small droplet size limit were about 10 to 20% for lean and 20 to 30% for stoichiometric and rich mixtures. This behavior is attributed to droplet interactions and the transition from diffusive to premixed type of burning. Preflame vaporization controls the gas phase stoichiometry which has a significant effect on the volume of the hot gases surrounding a fuel droplet, where NO sub x is formed.

  2. Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize ‘‘food versus fuel’’ concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

  3. Extending the basic function of lattice oxygen in lepidocrocite titanate - The conversion of intercalated fatty acid to liquid hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluangnont, Tosapol; Arsa, Pornanan; Sooknoi, Tawan

    2017-12-01

    We report herein the basicity of the external and internal lattice oxygen (OL) in lepidocrocite titanates with respect to CO2 and palmitic acid, respectively. Several compositions have been tested with different types of the metal M aliovalently (co)substituted for Ti, K0.8[MyTi2-y]O4 (M = Li, Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cu/Ni and Cu/Zn). The low CO2 desorption peak temperature (70-100 °C) suggests that the external OL sites are weakly basic similar to TiO2. However, the internal OL sites are sufficiently basic to deprotonate palmitic acid, forming the intercalated potassium palmitate at the interlayer spaces. The latter serves as a two-dimensional (2D) molecular reactor for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels via deoxygenation under atmospheric N2. A relationship has been observed between the yield of the liquid products vs the partial charge of the lattice oxygen (δO). Since the deoxygenation pathway is highly dependent on the metal substitution, the redox-active sites might also play some roles. The co-substituted K0.8[Cu0.2Ni0.2]Ti1.6O4 produced 68.0% yield of the liquid products, with 51% saturated and 15% unsaturated C15 hydrocarbons at 350 °C.

  4. Development and validation of purged thermal protection systems for liquid hydrogen fuel tanks of hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenbrook, R. D.; Colt, J. Z.

    1977-01-01

    An economical, lightweight, safe, efficient, reliable, and reusable insulation system was developed for hypersonic cruise vehicle hydrogen fuel tanks. Results indicate that, a nitrogen purged, layered insulation system with nonpermeable closed-cell insulation next to the cryogenic tank and a high service temperature fibrous insulation surrounding it, is potentially an attractive solution to the insulation problem. For the postulated hypersonic flight the average unit weight of the purged insulation system (including insulation, condensate and fuel boil off) is 6.31 kg/sq m (1.29 psf). Limited cyclic tests of large specimens of closed cell polymethacrylimide foam indicate it will withstand the expected thermal cycle.

  5. Determination of biogenic component in waste and liquid fuels by the 14C method

    OpenAIRE

    Krajcar Bronić, Ines; Barešić, Jadranka; Horvatinčić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Intensive use of fossil fuels for energy production and transport during 20th century caused an increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. The increase of CO2 concentration can be slowed down by the use of biogenic materials for energy production and/or transport. One of the method for determination of the fraction of the biogenic component in any type of fuel or waste is the 14C method, which is based on different content of 14C in biogenic and in fossil component: while the biogenic c...

  6. Design Optimization of Liquid Fueled High Velocity Oxy- Fuel Thermal Spraying Technique for Durable Coating for Fossil Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhuri, Ahsan [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Love, Norman [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

    2016-11-04

    High-velocity oxy–fuel (HVOF) thermal spraying was developed in 1930 and has been commercially available for twenty-five years. HVOF thermal spraying has several benefits over the more conventional plasma spray technique including a faster deposition rate which leads to quicker turn-around, with more durable coatings and higher bond strength, hardness and wear resistance due to a homogeneous distribution of the sprayed particles. HVOF thermal spraying is frequently used in engineering to deposit cermets, metallic alloys, composites and polymers, to enhance product life and performance. HVOF thermal spraying system is a highly promising technique for applying durable coatings on structural materials for corrosive and high temperature environments in advanced ultra-supercritical coal- fired (AUSC) boilers, steam turbines and gas turbines. HVOF thermal spraying is the preferred method for producing coatings with low porosity and high adhesion. HVOF thermal spray process has been shown to be one of the most efficient techniques to deposit high performance coatings at moderate cost. Variables affecting the deposit formation and coating properties include hardware characteristics such as nozzle geometry and spraying distance and process parameters such as equivalence ratio, gas flow density, and powder feedstock. In the spray process, the powder particles experience very high speeds combined with fast heating to the powder material melting point or above. This high temperature causes evaporation of the powder, dissolution, and phase transformations. Due to the complex nature of the HVOF technique, the control and optimization of the process is difficult. In general, good coating quality with suitable properties and required performance for specific applications is the goal in producing thermal spray coatings. In order to reach this goal, a deeper understanding of the spray process as a whole is needed. Although many researchers studied commercial HVOF thermal spray

  7. Modeling of atomization and distribution of drop-liquid fuel in unsteady swirling flows in a combustion chamber and free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridenkov, A. A.; Toktaliev, P. D.; Tretyakov, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    Numerical and experimental research of atomization and propagation of drop-liquid phase in swirling flow behind the frontal device of combustion chamber was performed. Numerical procedure was based on steady and unsteady Reynolds equations solution. It's shown that better agreement with experimental data could be obtained with unsteady approach. Fractional time step method was implemented to solve Reynolds equations. Models of primary and secondary breakup of liquid fuel jet in swirling flows are formulated and tested. Typical mean sizes of fuel droplets for base operational regime of swirling device and combustion chamber were calculated. Comparison of main features of internal swirling flow in combustion chamber with unbounded swirling flow was made.

  8. Development of an analytical framework to assess the role of new technologies for liquid and gaseous fuels. Volume I. Background. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Sullivan, S.J.

    1980-03-01

    A central issue in liquid and gaseous fuel R and D is how long conventional oil and gas will last. This volume investigates that issue by exploring the methodologies used to characterize the domestic base of oil and natural gas including detailed reviews of recent resource models and their applicability to the problem of R and D policy analysis in liquid and gaseous fuels. Detailed reviews and comments are made on 9 studies on enhanced oil and gas recovery and its potential, leasing strategies and schedules for the Outer Continental Shelf, and energy models. 38 figures, 19 tables. (DMC)

  9. One‐Step Reforming of CO2 and CH4 into High‐Value Liquid Chemicals and Fuels at Room Temperature by Plasma‐Driven Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Yi, Yanhui; Wu, Chunfei; Guo, Hongchen; Tu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The conversion of CO2 with CH4 into liquid fuels and chemicals in a single‐step catalytic process that bypasses the production of syngas remains a challenge. In this study, liquid fuels and chemicals (e.g., acetic acid, methanol, ethanol, and formaldehyde) were synthesized in a one‐step process from CO2 and CH4 at room temperature (30 °C) and atmospheric pressure for the first time by using a novel plasma reactor with a water electrode. The total selectivity to oxygenates was approxi...

  10. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Using Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei; Zheng, Richard; Brown, Heather; Li, Joanne; Holladay, John; Cooper, Alan; Rao, Tony

    2012-04-13

    This project provides critical innovations and fundamental understandings that enable development of an economically-viable process for catalytic conversion of biomass (sugar) to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). A low-cost ionic liquid (Cyphos 106) is discovered for fast conversion of fructose into HMF under moderate reaction conditions without any catalyst. HMF yield from fructose is almost 100% on the carbon molar basis. Adsorbent materials and adsorption process are invented and demonstrated for separation of 99% pure HMF product and recovery of the ionic liquid from the reaction mixtures. The adsorbent material appears very stable in repeated adsorption/regeneration cycles. Novel membrane-coated adsorbent particles are made and demonstrated to achieve excellent adsorption separation performances at low pressure drops. This is very important for a practical adsorption process because ionic liquids are known of high viscosity. Nearly 100% conversion (or dissolution) of cellulose in the catalytic ionic liquid into small molecules was observed. It is promising to produce HMF, sugars and other fermentable species directly from cellulose feedstock. However, several gaps were identified and could not be resolved in this project. Reaction and separation tests at larger scales are needed to minimize impacts of incidental errors on the mass balance and to show 99.9% ionic liquid recovery. The cellulose reaction tests were troubled with poor reproducibility. Further studies on cellulose conversion in ionic liquids under better controlled conditions are necessary to delineate reaction products, dissolution kinetics, effects of mass and heat transfer in the reactor on conversion, and separation of final reaction mixtures.

  11. Experimental investigation of an improved exhaust recovery system for liquid petroleum gas fueled spark ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürbüz Habib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have investigated the recovery of energy lost as waste heat from exhaust gas and engine coolant, using an improved thermoelectric generator (TEG in a LPG fueled SI engine. For this purpose, we have designed and manufactured a 5-layer heat exchanger from aluminum sheet. Electrical energy generated by the TEG was then used to produce hydrogen in a PEM water electrolyzer. The experiment was conducted at a stoichiometric mixture ratio, 1/2 throttle position and six different engine speeds at 1800-4000 rpm. The results of this study show that the configuration of 5-layer counterflow produce a higher TEG output power than 5-layer parallel flow and 3-layer counterflow. The TEG produced a maximum power of 63.18 W when used in a 5-layer counter flow configuration. This resulted in an improved engine performance, reduced exhaust emission as well as an increased engine speed when LPG fueled SI engine is enriched with hydrogen produced by the PEM electrolyser supported by TEG. Also, the need to use an extra evaporator for the LPG fueled SI engine is eliminated as LPG heat exchangers are added to the fuel line. It can be concluded that an improved exhaust recovery system for automobiles can be developed by incorporating a PEM electrolyser, however at the expense of increasing costs.

  12. Light Nonaqueous-Phase Liquid Weathering at Various Fuel Release Sites, 2003 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    exist (e.g., the groundwater concentration of benzene is significantly less than its effective solubility [ Table 2.1]), the dissolution rate cannot be...for ethylbenzene, most likely as a result of its lower effective water solubility TABLE 5.4 FUEL COMPONENT (ONE POINT)a/ WEATHERING RATES IN JP-8

  13. Numerical studies on liquid water flooding in gas channels used inpolymer electrolyte fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, CZ.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.; Rensink, D.

    2012-01-01

    Water management plays an important role in the development of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). The lack of a macroscopic gas channel (GC) flooding model constrains the current predictions of PEFC modeling under severe flooding situations. In this work, we have extended our

  14. FIELD-DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

    2012-09-12

    Methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of aqueous spent fuel storage basins and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials were developed to assess the corrosion potential of a basin. this assessment can then be used to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to ascertain if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations and assist in evaluating general storage basin operations. The test kit was developed based on the identification of key physical, chemical and microbiological parameters identified using a review of the scientific and basin operations literature. The parameters were used to design bench scale test cells for additional corrosion analyses, and then tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters. The tools were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The sampling kit consisted of a total organic carbon analyzer, an YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

  15. Algae biorefinery : an experimental study on liquid fuels production and nutrients recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Mankind needs renewable resources to cover for the growing energy demand in a sustainable manner and thereby alleviate the environmental/socio/political issues driven by the use of fossil fuels. Biomass, a renewable source, is one of the sustainable alternatives that can contribute to both the

  16. Storage capacity assessment of liquid fuels production by solar gasification in a packed bed reactor using a dynamic process model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaniyal, Ashok A.; Eyk, Philip J. van; Nathan, Graham J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • First analysis to assess storage requirements of a stand-alone packed bed, batch process solar gasifier. • 35 days of storage required for stand-alone solar system, whereas 8 h of storage required for hybrid system. • Sensitivity of storage requirement to reactor operation, solar region and solar multiple evaluated. - Abstract: The first multi-day performance analysis of the feasibility of integrating a packed bed, indirectly irradiated solar gasification reactor with a downstream FT liquids production facility is reported. Two fuel-loading scenarios were assessed. In one, the residual unconverted fuel at the end of a day is reused, while in the second, the residual fuel is discarded. To estimate a full year time-series of operation, a simplified statistical model was developed from short-period simulations of the 1-D heat transfer, devolatilisation and gasification chemistry model of a 150 kW th packed bed reactor (based on the authors’ earlier work). The short time-series cover a variety of solar conditions to represent seasonal, diurnal and cloud-induced solar transience. Also assessed was the influence of increasing the solar flux incident at the emitter plate of the packed bed reactor on syngas production. The combination of the annual time-series and daily model of syngas production was found to represent reasonably the seasonal transience in syngas production. It was then used to estimate the minimum syngas storage volume required to maintain a stable flow-rate and composition of syngas to a FT reactor over a full year of operation. This found that, for an assumed heliostat field collection area of 1000 m 2 , at least 64 days of storage is required, under both the Residual Fuel Re-Use and Discard scenarios. This figure was not sensitive to the two solar sites assessed, Farmington, New Mexico or Tonopah Airport, Nevada. Increasing the heliostat field collection area from 1000 to 1500 m 2 , led to an increase in the calculated daily rate

  17. EvoBot: An Open-Source, Modular Liquid Handling Robot for Nurturing Microbial Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Nejatimoharrami, Farzad; Støy, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Liquid handling robots are rarely used in the domain of artificial life. In this field, transitory behaviours of non-equilibrium man-made systems are studied and need an automatic monitoring and logging of results. In addition, artificial life experiments are dynamic with frequent changes, which...

  18. Lignin fate and characterization during ionic liquid biomass pretreatment for renewable chemicals and fuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppadon Sathitsuksanoh; Kevin M. Holtman; Daniel J. Yelle; Trevor Morgan; Vitalie Stavila; Jeffrey Pelton; Harvey Blanch; Blake A. Simmons; Anthe George

    2014-01-01

    The fate of lignin from wheat straw, Miscanthus, and Loblolly pine after pretreatment by a non-toxic and recyclable ionic liquid (IL), [C2mim][OAc], followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. The lignin partitioned into six process streams, each of which was quantified and analyzed by a combination of a novel solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic...

  19. Lignin fate and characterization during ionic liquid biomass pretreatment for renewable chemicals and fuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of lignin from wheat straw, Miscanthus, and Loblolly pine after pretreatment by a non-toxic and recyclable ionic liquid (IL), [C2mim][OAc], followed by enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. The lignin partitioned into six process streams, each of which was quantified and analyzed by a comb...

  20. Method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in liquid-metal-cooled reactor and apparatus for effecting same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristarkhov, N.N.; Efimov, I.A.; Zaistev, B.I.; Peters, I.G.; Tymosh, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Described is a method of detecting stacks with leaky fuel elements in a liquid-metal-cooled reactor, consisting in that prior to withdrawing a coolant sample, gas is accumulated in the coolant of the stack being controlled, the reactor being shut down, separated from the sample by means of an inert carrier gas, and the radioactivity of the separated gas is measured. An apparatus for carrying out said method comprises a sampler in the form of a tube parallel to the reactor axis in the hole of a rotating plug and adapted to move along the reactor axis. Made in the top portion of the tube are holes for the introduction of the inert carrier gas and the removal thereof together with the gases evolved from the coolant, while the bottom portion of the tube is provided with a sealing member

  1. The Technique for CFD-Simulation of Fuel Valve from Pneumatic-Hydraulic System of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabliy, L. S.; Malov, D. V.; Bratchinin, D. S.

    2018-01-01

    In the article the description of technique for simulation of valves for pneumatic-hydraulic system of liquid-propellant rocket engine (LPRE) is given. Technique is based on approach of computational hydrodynamics (Computational Fluid Dynamics – CFD). The simulation of a differential valve used in closed circuit LPRE supply pipes of fuel components is performed to show technique abilities. A schematic and operation algorithm of this valve type is described in detail. Also assumptions made in the construction of the geometric model of the hydraulic path of the valve are described in detail. The calculation procedure for determining valve hydraulic characteristics is given. Based on these calculations certain hydraulic characteristics of the valve are given. Some ways of usage of the described simulation technique for research the static and dynamic characteristics of the elements of the pneumatic-hydraulic system of LPRE are proposed.

  2. Characterization of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell with Sierpinski carpets fractal current collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing-Yi; Kuan, Yean-Der; Lee, Shi-Min; Lee, Shah-Rong

    The bipolar plate/current collector plays an important role in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). A current collector with different geometries could have a significant influence on cell performance. This paper presents fractal geometry application to current collector design in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). This new current collector design is named CCFG (Current Collectors with Fractal Geometry). This research determined how to make a better free open design for the current collector on a printed circuit board based DMFC. The results show that both the free area ratio and total holes perimeter length on the bipolar plate affect the cell performance. The total number of holes on the perimeter presents greater effects than the free open ratio. The cell performance is more sensitive using a cathode current collector than the anode current collector.

  3. Societal Economics of the European Union Liquid Fuel Consumption for Road Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Wong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for the EU to achieve its goal of 10% biofuel for all EU motor vehicles by 2020, a substantial amount of biofuel as well as a biofuel feedstock would need to be imported largely from developing countries where the climate is warm and labor is inexpensive. But there may never be sufficient supply to fulfill the evergrowing demand for biofuel for road transportation in the EU, even as motor vehicles are increasingly becoming more fuel-efficient. The constraint to realizing an effective and equitable reduction in greenhousegas emission is the overbearing political economics of neoliberalism. A different remedial strategy is needed to address the dual problems of the excessive uses of motor fuels and greenhouse-gas emission.

  4. Hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates to liquid alkanes for transportation fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An attractive approach for the production of transportation fuels from renewable biomass resources is to convert oxygenates into alkanes. In this paper, C5–C20 alkanes formed via the hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of the oligomers of furfuryl alcohol(FA can be used as gasoline, diesel and jet fuel fraction. The first step of the process is the oligomers of FA convert into hydrogenated products over Raney Ni catalyst in a batch reactor. The second step of the process converts hydrogenated products to alkanes via hydrodeoxygenation over different bi-functional catalysts include hydrogenation and acidic deoxidization active sites. After this process, the oxygen content decreased from 22.1 wt% in the oligomers of FA to 0.58 wt% in the hydrodeoxygenation products.

  5. Electrochemical, interfacial, and surface studies of the conversion of carbon dioxide to liquid fuels on tin electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingjie

    The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into liquid fuels especially coupling with the intermittent renewable electricity offers a promising means of storing electricity in chemical form, which reduces the dependence on fossil fuels and mitigates the negative impact of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the planet. Although converting CO2 to fuels is not in itself a new concept, the field has not substantially advanced in the last 30 years primarily because of the challenge of discovery of structural electrocatalysts and the development of membrane architectures for efficient collection of reactants and separation of products. An efficient catalyst for the electrochemical conversion of CO2 to fuels must be capable of mediating a proton-coupled electron transfer reaction at low overpotentials, reducing CO2 in the presence of water, selectively converting CO 2 to desirable chemicals, and sustaining long-term operations (Chapter 1). My Ph.D. research was an investigation of the electroreduction of CO2 on tin-based electrodes and development of an electrochemical cell to convert CO2 to liquid fuels. The initial study focused on understanding the CO2 reduction reaction chemistry in the electrical double layer with an emphasis on the effects of electrostatic adsorption of cations, specific adsorption of anion and electrolyte concentration on the potential and proton concentration at outer Helmholtz plane at which reduction reaction occurs. The variation of potential and proton concentration at outer Helmholtz plane accounts for the difference in activity and selectivity towards CO2 reduction when using different electrolytes (Chapter 2). Central to the highly efficient CO2 reduction is an optimum microstructure of catalyst layer in the Sn gas diffusion electrode (GDE) consisting of 100 nm Sn nanoparticles to facilitate gas diffusion and charge transfer. This microstructure in terms of the proton conductor fraction and catalyst layer thickness was optimized to

  6. Operator decision aid for breached fuel operation in liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, K.C.; Hawkins, R.E.; Nickless, W.K.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the development of an expert system that provides continuous assessment of the safety significance and technical specification conformance of Delayed Neutron (DN) signals during breached fuel operation. The completed expert system has been parallelized on an innovative distributed-memory network-computing system that enables the computationally intensive kernel of the expert system to run in parallel on a group of low-cost Unix workstations. 1 ref

  7. Ignition of a Droplet of Composite Liquid Fuel in a Vortex Combustion Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiullin, T. R.; Vershinina, K. Yu; Glushkov, D. O.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental study results of a droplet ignition and combustion were obtained for coal-water slurry containing petrochemicals (CWSP) prepared from coal processing waste, low-grade coal and waste petroleum products. A comparative analysis of process characteristics were carried out in different conditions of fuel droplet interaction with heated air flow: droplet soars in air flow in a vortex combustion chamber, droplet soars in ascending air flow in a cone-shaped combustion chamber, and droplet is placed in a thermocouple junction and motionless in air flow. The size (initial radii) of CWSP droplet was varied in the range of 0.5–1.5 mm. The ignition delay time of fuel was determined by the intensity of the visible glow in the vicinity of the droplet during CWSP combustion. It was established (under similar conditions) that ignition delay time of CWSP droplets in the combustion chamber is lower in 2–3.5 times than similar characteristic in conditions of motionless droplet placed in a thermocouple junction. The average value of ignition delay time of CWSP droplet is 3–12 s in conditions of oxidizer temperature is 600–850 K. Obtained experimental results were explained by the influence of heat and mass transfer processes in the droplet vicinity on ignition characteristics in different conditions of CWSP droplet interaction with heated air flow. Experimental results are of interest for the development of combustion technology of promising fuel for thermal power engineering.

  8. Real-time monitoring of methanol concentration using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor for direct methanol fuel cell without reference liquid measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Takuya; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for sensors that continuously measure liquid concentrations and detect abnormalities in liquid environments. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied for the continuous monitoring of liquid concentrations. As the SH-SAW sensor functions using the relative measurement method, it normally needs a reference at each measurement. However, if the sensor is installed in a liquid flow cell, it is difficult to measure a reference liquid. Therefore, it is important to establish an estimation method for liquid concentrations using the SH-SAW sensor without requiring a reference measurement. In this study, the SH-SAW sensor is installed in a direct methanol fuel cell to monitor the methanol concentration. The estimated concentration is compared with a conventional density meter. Moreover, the effect of formic acid is examined. When the fuel temperature is higher than 70 °C, it is necessary to consider the influence of liquid conductivity. Here, an estimation method for these cases is also proposed.

  9. Coupling of glycerol processing with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for production of liquid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonetti, D.A.; Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Kunkes, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid alkanes can be produced directly from glycerol by an integrated process involving catalytic conversion to H-2/CO gas mixtures (synthesis gas) combined with Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. Synthesis gas can be produced at high rates and selectivities suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (H-2/CO......, acetone, and acetol. Fischer -Tropsch synthesis experiments at 548 K and 5 bar over a Ru-based catalyst reveal that water, ethanol, and acetone in the synthesis gas feed have only small effects, whereas acetol can participate in Fischer -Tropsch chain growth, forming pentanones, hexanones, and heptanones...... in the liquid organic effluent stream and increasing the selectivity to C5+ alkanes by a factor of 2 ( from 0.30 to 0.60). Catalytic conversion of glycerol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were coupled in a two-bed reactor system consisting of a Pt-Re/C catalyst bed followed by a Ru/TiO2 catalyst bed...

  10. Comprehensive one-dimensional, semi-analytical, mathematical model for liquid-feed polymer electrolyte membrane direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareemulla, D.; Jayanti, S.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane direct methanol fuel cells (PEM-DMFCs) have several advantages over hydrogen-fuelled PEM fuel cells; but sluggish methanol electrochemical oxidation and methanol crossover from the anode to the cathode through the PEM are two major problems with these cells. In the present work, a comprehensive one-dimensional, single phase, isothermal mathematical model is developed for a liquid-feed PEM-DMFC, taking into account all the necessary mass transport and electrochemical phenomena. Diffusion and convective effects are considered for methanol transport on the anode side and in the PEM, whereas only diffusional transport of species is considered on the cathode side. A multi-step reaction mechanism is used to describe the electrochemical oxidation of methanol at the anode. Stefan-Maxwell equations are used to describe multi-component diffusion on the cathode side and Tafel type of kinetics is used to describe the simultaneous methanol oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions at the cathode. The model fully accounts for the mixed potential effect caused by methanol crossover at the cathode. It shows excellent agreement with literature data of the limiting current density for different low methanol feed concentrations at different operating temperatures. At high methanol feed concentrations, oxygen depletion on the cathode side, due to excessive methanol crossover, results in mass-transport limitations. The model can be used to optimize the geometric and physical parameters with a view to extracting the highest current density while still keeping a tolerably low methanol crossover.

  11. A self-supported 40W direct methanol fuel cell system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A self-supported 40W Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) system has been developed and performance tested. The auxiliaries in the DMFC system comprise a methanol sensor, a liquid-level indicator, and fuel and air pumps that consume a total power of about 5W. The system has a 15-cell DMFC stack with active ...

  12. A self-supported 40W direct methanol fuel cell system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A self-supported 40W Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) system has been developed and perfor- mance tested. The auxiliaries in the DMFC system comprise a methanol sensor, a liquid-level indicator, and fuel and air pumps that consume a total power of about 5 W. The system has a 15-cell DMFC stack with ...

  13. Investigation of liquid water in gas diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells using X-ray tomographic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flueckiger, Reto [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Marone, Federica [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Stampanoni, Marco [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Gloriastrasse 35, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Wokaun, Alexander [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Buechi, Felix N., E-mail: felix.buechi@psi.c [Electrochemistry Laboratory, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2011-02-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), condensation of water within the pore network of the gas diffusion layers (GDL) can influence the gas transport properties and thus reduce the electrochemical conversion rates. The use of X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), which allows for a resolution in the order of one micrometer is investigated for studying ex situ the local saturation in GDL's. The strength of XTM is the high spatial resolution with simultaneous contrast for water and carbon, allowing for non-destructive 3D-imaging of the solid and the contained water. The application of this method for imaging the ex situ water intrusion into the porous network of GDLs is explored using absorption and phase contrast methods. It is shown that the inhomogeneous filling behavior of GDL materials can indeed be visualized with sufficient resolution. For Toray paper TGP-H-060 the local saturation was measured as function of the water pressure. The results, evaluated in 1D, 2D and 3D show a liquid water retention effect at the denser layers near the surface. A comparison with established capillary pressure functions is presented. Altogether, the results show the potential of the XTM-method as a tool for studying the liquid water behavior in PEFC on a microscopic scale.

  14. Investigation of liquid water in gas diffusion layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells using X-ray tomographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueckiger, Reto; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Wokaun, Alexander; Buechi, Felix N.

    2011-01-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), condensation of water within the pore network of the gas diffusion layers (GDL) can influence the gas transport properties and thus reduce the electrochemical conversion rates. The use of X-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM), which allows for a resolution in the order of one micrometer is investigated for studying ex situ the local saturation in GDL's. The strength of XTM is the high spatial resolution with simultaneous contrast for water and carbon, allowing for non-destructive 3D-imaging of the solid and the contained water. The application of this method for imaging the ex situ water intrusion into the porous network of GDLs is explored using absorption and phase contrast methods. It is shown that the inhomogeneous filling behavior of GDL materials can indeed be visualized with sufficient resolution. For Toray paper TGP-H-060 the local saturation was measured as function of the water pressure. The results, evaluated in 1D, 2D and 3D show a liquid water retention effect at the denser layers near the surface. A comparison with established capillary pressure functions is presented. Altogether, the results show the potential of the XTM-method as a tool for studying the liquid water behavior in PEFC on a microscopic scale.

  15. On the determination of the optical constants and radiative heat conductivity from reflection experiments on nuclear fuel materials in the liquid phase up to above 4000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karow, H.U.

    1979-12-01

    The report deals with the following questions: 1) Study of the optical constants n sub(lambda)(T), k sub(lambda)(T) and of the radiative heat conductivity K sub(rad)(T) of liquid nuclear fuel in the light of the problems of radiative heat conduction and heat transfer in reactor safety analysis. 2) Study of the optical constants in relation to the questions of the physical structure and chemical bonding character of nuclear fuel materials in the solid and liquid state. 3) Measuring methods for the determination of the optical constants of opaque non-scattering materials at elevated temperatures. 4) High-temperature measuring technique for determining n sub(lambda)(T), k sub(lambda)(T), K sub(rad)(T) of nuclear fuel materials up to above 4000 K from reflection measurements using a special integrating-sphere laser reflectometer. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 HIS

  16. Determination of membrane degradation products in the product water of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zedda, Marco

    2011-05-12

    The predominant long term failure of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEM) is caused by hydroxyl radicals generated during fuel cell operation. These radicals attack the polymer, leading to chain scission, unzipping and consequently to membrane decomposition products. The present work has investigated decomposition products of novel sulfonated aromatic hydrocarbon membranes on the basis of a product water analysis. Degradation products from the investigated membrane type and the possibility to detect these compounds in the product water for diagnostic purposes have not been discovered yet. This thesis demonstrates the potential of solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) for the extraction, separation, characterization, identification and quantification of membrane degradation products in the product water of fuel cells. For this purpose, several polar aromatic hydrocarbons with different functional groups were selected as model compounds for the development of reliable extraction, separation and detection methods. The results of this thesis have shown that mixed mode sorbent materials with both weak anion exchange and reversed phase retention properties are well suited for reproducible extraction of both molecules and ions from the product water. The chromatographic separation of various polar aromatic hydrocarbons was achieved by means of phase optimized liquid chromatography using a solvent gradient and on a C18 stationary phase. Sensitive and selective detection of model compounds could be successfully demonstrated by the analysis of the product water using tandem mass spectrometry. The application of a hybrid mass spectrometer (Q Trap) for the characterization of unknown polar aromatic hydrocarbons has led to the identification and confirmation of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in the product water. In addition, 4-HBA could be verified as a degradation product resulting from PEM decomposition by hydroxyl radicals using an

  17. Modeling Primary Atomization of Liquid Fuels using a Multiphase DNS/LES Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, Marco [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Oefelein, Joe [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Doisneau, Francois [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project, we are developing a modeling-and-simulation capability to study fuel direct injection in automotive engines. Predicting mixing and combustion at realistic conditions remains a challenging objective of energy science. And it is a research priority in Sandia’s mission-critical area of energy security, being also relevant to many flows in defense and climate. High-performance computing applied to this non-linear multi-scale problem is key to engine calculations with increased scientific reliability.

  18. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  19. Control device for can failures of liquid cooled nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, D.; Mohm, F.; Nyhof, M.

    1974-01-01

    Checking of the fuel or breeding elements of, e.g., sodium-cooled reactors is done by detecting fission products in the coolant, with a flushing gas like argon removing the fission products from the coolant and carrying them to a detector system. In order to increase the escape rate of the fission products from the elements, these are lifted by a hoisting unit into a pit reaching down below the coolant level and are then heated. Heating is achieved by the decay heat or by an additional heating in the receiving pit which at this point is thermically insulated from the exterior. The flushing gas is blown radially into the receiving pit from below. The rising bubbles take along the fission products to a scintillation counter mounted on the head of the receiving vessel. This vessel may have double walls with coolant flowing through the interspace. (DG) [de

  20. Environmentally based siting assessment for synthetic-liquid-fuels facilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    A detailed assessment of the major environmental constraints to siting a synthetic fuels industry and the results of that assessment are used to determine on a regional basis the potential for development of such an industry with minimal environmental conflicts. Secondly, the ability to mitigate some of the constraining impacts through alternative institutional arrangements, especially in areas that are judged to have a low development potential is also assessed. Limitations of the study are delineated, but specifically, the study is limited geographically to well-defined boundaries that include the prime coal and oil shale resource areas. The critical factors used in developing the framework are air quality, water availability, socioeconomic capacity, ecological sensitivity, environmental health, and the management of Federally owned lands. (MCW)

  1. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  2. Device for the discharge of fuel assemblies from the core of a reactor cooled with liquid metal to a fuel assembly store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A.V.; Batjukov, V.I.; Fadeev, A.I.; Sapkin, A.F.; Scijan, C.G.; Ordynskij, G.V.; Dracev, V.P.; Pogodin, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    In a hermetic chamber, there is a fuel-charging machine with a fuel assembly grab head. It can be moved in channels both to the reactor and to the fuel assembly store. Coolant dripping from fuel assemblies is collected in a container that stretches over the whole distance between the two channels. It consists of number of carriages linked together that may be rolled out of the chamber through a transfer canal in order to take out the collected coolant. (DG) [de

  3. Amorphizing of Cu Nanoparticles toward Highly Efficient and Robust Electrocatalyst for CO2 Reduction to Liquid Fuels with High Faradaic Efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yan-Xin; Meng, Fan-Lu; Liu, Kai-Hua; Yi, Sha-Sha; Li, Si-Jia; Yan, Jun-Min; Jiang, Qing

    2018-04-01

    Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into valuable chemicals, especially liquid fuels, through electrochemical reduction driven by sustainable energy sources, is a promising way to get rid of dependence on fossil fuels, wherein developing of highly efficient catalyst is still of paramount importance. In this study, as a proof-of-concept experiment, first a facile while very effective protocol is proposed to synthesize amorphous Cu NPs. Unexpectedly, superior electrochemical performances, including high catalytic activity and selectivity of CO 2 reduction to liquid fuels are achieved, that is, a total Faradaic efficiency of liquid fuels can sum up to the maximum value of 59% at -1.4 V, with formic acid (HCOOH) and ethanol (C 2 H 6 O) account for 37% and 22%, respectively, as well as a desirable long-term stability even up to 12 h. More importantly, this work opens a new avenue for improved electroreduction of CO 2 based on amorphous metal catalysts. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Three phase Eulerian-granular model applied on numerical simulation of non-conventional liquid fuels combustion in a bubbling fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoda Stevan Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a two-dimensional CFD model of liquid fuel combustion in bubbling fluidized bed. The numerical procedure is based on the two-fluid Euler-Euler approach, where the velocity field of the gas and particles are modeled in analogy to the kinetic gas theory. The model is taking into account also the third - liquid phase, as well as its interaction with the solid and gas phase. The proposed numerical model comprise energy equations for all three phases, as well as the transport equations of chemical components with source terms originated from the component conversion. In the frame of the proposed model, user sub-models were developed for heterogenic fluidized bed combustion of liquid fuels, with or without water. The results of the calculation were compared with experiments on a pilot-facility (power up to 100 kW, combusting, among other fuels, oil. The temperature profiles along the combustion chamber were compared for the two basic cases: combustion with or without water. On the basis of numerical experiments, influence of the fluid-dynamic characteristics of the fluidized bed on the combustion efficiency was analyzed, as well as the influence of the fuel characteristics (reactivity, water content on the intensive combustion zone. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33042: Improvement of the industrial fluidized bed facility, in scope of technology for energy efficient and environmentally feasible combustion of various waste materials in fluidized bed

  5. Increase of efficiency and reliability of liquid fuel combustion in small-sized boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Yu V.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2017-11-01

    One of the ways to increase the efficiency of using fuels is to create highly efficient domestic energy equipment, in particular small-sized hot-water boilers in autonomous heating systems. Increasing the efficiency of the boiler requires a reduction in the temperature of the flue gases leaving, which, in turn, can be achieved by installing additional heating surfaces. The purpose of this work was to determine the principal design solutions and to develop a draft design for a high-efficiency 3-MW hot-water boiler using crude oil as its main fuel. Ensuring a high efficiency of the boiler is realized through the use of an external remote economizer, which makes it possible to reduce the dimensions of the boiler, facilitate the layout of equipment in a limited size block-modular boiler house and virtually eliminate low-temperature corrosion of boiler heat exchange surfaces. In the article the variants of execution of the water boiler and remote economizer are considered and the preliminary design calculations of the remote economizer for various schemes of the boiler layout in the Boiler Designer software package are made. Based on the results of the studies, a scheme was chosen with a three-way boiler and a two-way remote economizer. The design of a three-way fire tube hot water boiler and an external economizer with an internal arrangement of the collectors, providing for its location above the boiler in a block-modular boiler house and providing access for servicing both a remote economizer and a hot water boiler, is proposed. Its mass-dimensional and design parameters are determined. In the software package Boiler Designer thermal, hydraulic and aerodynamic calculations of the developed fire tube boiler have been performed. Optimization of the boiler design was performed, providing the required 94% efficiency value for crude oil combustion. The description of the developed flue and fire-tube hot water boiler and the value of the main design and technical and

  6. Liquid Fuel Emulsion Jet-in-Crossflow Penetration and Dispersion Under High Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guillermo Andres

    The current work focuses on the jet-in-crossflow penetration and dispersion behavior of water-in-oil emulsions in a high pressure environment. Both fuel injection strategies of using a water-in-oil emulsion and a jet-in-crossflow have demonstrated unique benefits in improving gas turbine performance from an emissions and efficiency standpoint. A jet-in-crossflow is very practical for use in gas turbine engines, rocket propulsion, and aircraft engines since it utilizes already available crossflow air to atomize fuel. Injecting water into a combustion chamber in the form of a water-in-oil emulsion allows for pollutant emissions reduction while reducing efficiency loses that may result from using a separate water or steam injection circuit. Dispersion effects on oil droplets are expected, therefore investigating the distribution of both oil and water droplets in the crossflow is an objective in this work. Understanding the synchronization and injection behavior of the two strategies is of key interest due to their combined benefits. A water-to-oil ratio and an ambient pressure parameter are developed for emulsion jet-in-crossflow trajectories. To this end, a total of 24 emulsion jet-in-crossflow tests were performed with varying ambient pressures of 2-8 atm and momentum flux ratios of 50, 85, and 120. Sobel edge filtering was applied to each averaged image obtained from a high speed video of each test case. Averaged and filtered images were used to resolve top and bottom edges of the trajectory in addition to the overall peak intensity up to 40 mm downstream of the injection point. An optimized correlation was established and found to differ from literature based correlations obtained under atmospheric pressure conditions. Overall it was found that additional parameters were not necessary for the top edge and peak intensity correlations, but a need for a unique emulsion bottom edge and width trajectory correlation was recognized. In addition to investigating emulsion

  7. Optimizing immobilized enzyme performance in cell-free environments to produce liquid fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sanat

    2015-02-05

    The overall goal of this project was to optimize enzyme performance for the production of bio-diesel fuel. Enzyme immobilization has attracted much attention as a means to increase productivity. Mesorporous silica materials have been known to be best suited for immobilizing enzymes. A major challenge is to ensure that the enzymatic activity is retained after immobilization. Two major factors which drive enzymatic deactivation are protein-surface and inter-protein interactions. Previously, we studied protein stability inside pores and how to optimize protein-surface interactions to minimize protein denaturation. In this work we studied eh effect of surface curvature and chemistry on inter-protein interactions. Our goal was to find suitable immobilization supports which minimize these inter-protein interactions. Our studies carried out in the frame work of Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) model showed that enzymes immobilized inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are best suited to minimize these inter-protein interactions. Besides, this study is also of biological importance to understand the role of chaperonins in protein disaggregation. Both of these aspects profited immensely with collaborations with our experimental colleague, Prof. Georges Belfort (RPI), who performed the experimental analog of our theoretical works.

  8. Simultaneous determination of sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose in food consumed in Korea using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsun; Do, Byungkyung; Lee, Gunyoung; Lim, Ho Soo; Yun, Sang Soon; Kwon, Hoonjeong

    2017-05-01

    Four artificial sweeteners, i.e., sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose, are permitted for use in Korea, and recent regulatory changes have expanded the number of food categories in which they may be used. Four artificial sweeteners were determined simultaneously in more than 900 food items from 30 food categories that are commercially available in Korean markets, including both domestic and imported products, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD). A new procedure using 75% acetone to remove fat was applied for sample preparation. The levels detected in all samples were below the maximum permitted use levels established in Korea. Despite the increased number of categories, the only one in which sodium saccharin was newly found was takju, an alcoholic beverage. Sodium saccharin was not found in other beverages in the food analysis or in the food label survey, even though its use was reported in a previous study, suggesting that consumer preference outweighs regulatory decisions. When the analytical results were combined with food-consumption data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-14, the estimated daily intakes of all the sweeteners were considered safe.

  9. Fuel spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  10. Production of liquid fuels and chemicals by microalgae. Final subcontract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

    1985-03-01

    An overall objective of the project was to conceptually determine if simple open pond systems have application for the production of fuels from microalgae. To demonstrate the overall objective, work concentrated on showing the potential microalgal yields that are possible from an open pond system on a sustained basis. Furthermore, problems associated with this experimental system were documented and reported so that future endeavors shall benefit. Finally, operational costs were documented to permit preliminary economic analysis of the system. The major conclusions of this project can be summarized as follows: (1) Using two wildtype species in northern California a yearly average productivity of 15 gm/m/sup 2//day, or 24 tons/acre/yr can be obtained in water with TDS = 4 to 8 ppt. (2) This can probably be increased to 20 to 25 gm/m/sup 2//day or 32 to 40 tons/acre/y in southern California. (3) Productivity can probably be further increased by using competitive strains screened for low respiration rates, tolerances to high levels of dissolved oxygen, broad temperature optima, and resistance to photoinhibition. (4) In systems with randomized, turbulent mixing, productivity is independent of channel velocity at least for productivities up to 25 to 30 gm/m/sup 2//day and velocities from 1 to 30 cm/sec. (5) Storage product induction requires one to three days of growth in batch mode under n-depleted conditions. (6) Critical cost centers include CO/sub 2/ input, harvesting and system capital cost. (7) Media recycling, necessary for water conservation, has no adverse effects, at least in the short term for strains which do not excrete organics, and when the harvesting method is at least moderately effective for all algal forms which may be present. 8 refs., 28 figs., 56 tabs.

  11. Fundamentals of Hydrocarbon Upgrading to Liquid Fuels and Commodity Chemicals over Catalytic Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao

    Promising new technologies for biomass conversion into fuels and chemical feedstocks rely on the production of bio-oils, which need to be upgraded in order to remove oxygen-containing hydrocarbons and water. A high oxygen concentration makes bio-oils acidic and corrosive, unstable during storage, and less energetically valuable per unit weight than petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. Although there are efficient processes for the production of bio-oils, there are no efficient technologies for their upgrading. Current technologies utilize traditional petroleum refining catalysts, which are not optimized for biomass processing. New upgrading technologies are, therefore, urgently needed for development of sustainable energy resources. Development of such new technologies, however, is severely hindered by a lack of fundamental understanding of how oxygen and oxygen-containing hydrocarbons derived from biomass interact with promising noble-metal catalysts. In this study, kinetic reaction measurements, catalyst characterization and quantum chemical calculations using density functional theory were combined for determining adsorption modes and reaction mechanisms of hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen on surfaces of catalytic noble-metal nanoparticles. The results were used for developing improved catalyst formulations and optimization of reaction conditions. The addition of molybdenum to platinum catalysts was shown to improve catalytic activity, stability, and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation of acetic acid, which served as a model biomass compound. The fundamental results that describe interactions of oxygen and hydrocarbons with noble-metal catalysts were extended to other reactions and fields of study: evaluation of the reaction mechanism for hydrogen peroxide decomposition, development of improved hydrogenation catalysts and determination of adsorption modes of a spectroscopic probe molecule.

  12. Investigation of pharmaceuticals and medical devices containing 90Y extracted from high radioactive liquid waste in spent-fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoma, Takashi

    2012-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals and medical devices containing radioactive 90 Y are realized, approved and placed on the international market where three products are available in Europe and the United States, and one product in Japan. These products are used not for diagnosis but for treatment by internal irradiation. It was estimated from the deliberative report of the approval in Japan that 90 Y was extracted in Europe from high radioactive liquid waste (HALW) yielded in spent-fuel reprocessing. In this report, products placed on the market and physical properties were reviewed, reasons of the realization and conditions to realize succeeding products were estimated, extraction method was compared with other methods, technical subjects, and relevant regulations were investigated. Although a medical device containing radioactive 90 Y has been studied in Japan and one pharmaceutical product was approved, a breakthrough would be necessary to put 90 Y utilization beyond alternative treatments. The breakthrough would become be promising; for example, if conventional treatments could be supported by technical development to deliver 90 Y more sharply to the target with shorter serum half-life. Extraction of 90 Y nuclide from HALW has advantages over thermal neutron irradiation of natural nuclide, a system is envisioned where 90 Sr as a parent nuclide is separated in the reprocessing then transported to and stored in a factory of radiopharmaceuticals followed by 90 Y extraction on demand. (author)

  13. Combustion Noise at Elevated Pressures in a Liquid-Fueled Premixed Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Douglas; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Oyediran, Ayo

    1997-01-01

    Noise generated in gas turbine combustors can exist in several forms-broadband noise, sharp resonant peaks, and regular or intermittent nonlinear pulsing. In the present study, dynamic pressure measurements were made in several JP-5-fueled combustor configurations, at various mean pressures and temperatures. The fluctuating pressure was measured at mean pressures from 6 to 14 atm and inlet temperatures from 550 K to 850 K. The goal of the present work was to study the effect of changes in mean flow conditions on combustor noise: both broadband noise and sharp tones were considered. In general, the shape of the broadband noise spectrum was consistent from one configuration to another. The shape of the spectrum was influenced by the acoustic filtering of the combustion zone. This filtering ensured the basic consistency of the spectra. In general, the trends in broadband noise observed at low mean pressures were also seen at high mean pressures; that is, the total sound level decreased with both increasing equivalence ratio and increasing inlet temperature. The combustor configurations without a central pilot experienced higher broadband noise levels and were more susceptible to narrow peak resonances than configurations with a central pilot. The sharp peaks were more sensitive to the mean flow than was the broadband noise, and the effects were not always the same. In some situations, increasing the equivalence ratio made the sharp peaks grow, while at other conditions, increasing the equivalence ratio made the sharp peaks shrink. Thus, it was difficult to predict when resonances would occur; however, they were reproducible. Acoustic coupling between the upstream and downstream regions of the combustor may play a role in the sharp-peaked oscillations. Noise was also observed near lean blow out. As with other types of noise, lean blow out noise was affected by the combustion chamber acoustics, which apparently maintains the fluctuations at a uniform frequency. However

  14. Consumer Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Melissa Marie

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to prove that despite consumers' impression that they are alone in deciding their consumption decision they are wrong. Consumers are manipulated on various levels by marketers. It is the marketer who decides what consumer identities should be created. Consumers are persuaded by marketers on different levels beginning with consumers' needs. Marketers begin by appealing to consumer drives, motivations and emotions to persuade their consumers to purchase their brand...

  15. The role of renewable liquid transportation fuels in Canada's climate action plan: Pros and cons, and stages of development of ethanol, biodiesel, and thermal depolymerization oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coxworth, E.

    2003-04-01

    The feasibility of using ethanol from grain as a partial replacement for gasoline is examined. Although ethanol is widely seen as a desirable renewable transportation fuel, there are concerns about the amount of fossil fuel energy used in its production, both at the farm and the factory level. Indeed, some people claim that there is, in fact, a net energy loss when ethanol is produced from grain, not to mention the concerns about the use of grain for fuel instead of food in a world where millions of people go hungry every day of their life. The emission from ethanol plants and the cost of producing ethanol from grain are related issues that cause concern. The report urges examination of alternatives to fermentation of plant materials such as gasification, and materials other than corn, such as woody material or hay which, although more complex and not yet commercially developed, are showing promise, and deserve further attention. Other renewable liquid transportation fuels such as biodiesel from canola oil, and thermal depolymerization oils that can be derived from a wide variety of waste renewable organic materials, are also suggested as potential fuel sources. Both of these appear promising and require testing to determine implications of further developing these technologies as replacement transportation fuels. The report contains a bibliography of 37 items for ethanol, 12 items for biodiesel, and two items for thermal depolymerization oil

  16. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 10. Jet Fuels Production By-Products, Utility and Sulfur Emissions Control Integration Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    the H2S removal efficiency of the Stretford /Sulfolin process . 20.33 Commereial Experience All the equipment has been used In commercial processes ...Content Definition ........... 12 6.3 Process and Intermediate Stream Definition .................. 15 6.4 Replacement Fuel Requirements...20 6.5 Jet Fuels/Chemical Production Facility Investment, Operating Costs, and Utility Consumption .................. 32 7.0 Process

  17. Data on fuel cell performance of Nafion® based hybrid composite membrane containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid at 70 °C under anhydrous condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Jatindranath; Kakati, Nitul; Woo, Sung Pil; Yoon, Young Soo

    2018-02-01

    This data provides the fuel cell performance of Nafion based hybrid membranes containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid (IL) at 70 °C under anhydrous condition. Readers are requested to go through the article entitled "Nafion® based hybrid composite membrane containing GO and dihydrogen phosphate functionalized ionic liquid for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell" (Maiti et al., 2017) [1] for further interpretation and discussion.

  18. AP fuels and the potential of renewable diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkley, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; O' Shea, Michael; Peters, Christopher

    2010-09-15

    The decrease in demand for forestry products has been detrimental to the Province of Quebec's industrial base. With increasing energy security and environmental concerns the promotion of innovative technologies is adamant. AP Fuels Inc. has undertaken the development of a biomass-to-liquids facility proposed herein as a hybrid design, combining biomass and natural gas capable of producing diesel and other liquid fuels. The facility would consume 2,200,000 tonnewet per year of biomass and produce 10,600 bbl/day of liquid fuels. Forestry-derived F-T fuels have notable advantages including: improved performance; ultra-low sulphur content; reduced emissions, particulates and fouling; and production of fewer by-products.

  19. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  20. Total energy analysis of nuclear and fossil fueled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, W.D.; Mutsakis, M.; Ort, R.G.

    1971-01-01

    The overall thermal efficiencies of electrical power generation were determined for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder, High Temperature Gas Cooled, Boiling Water, and Pressurized Water Reactors and for coal-, oil-, and gas-fired systems. All important energy consuming steps from mining through processing, transporting, and reprocessing the fuels were included in the energy balance along with electrical transmission and thermal losses and energy expenditures for pollution abatement. The results of these studies show that the overall fuel cycle efficiency of the light water nuclear fueled reactors is less than the efficiency of modern fossil fuel cycles. However, the nuclear fuel cycle based on the fast breeder reactors should produce power more efficiently than the most modern supercritical fossil fuel cycles. The high temperature gas cooled reactor has a cycle efficiency comparable to the supercritical coal fuel cycle

  1. PLASTIC WASTE CONVERSION TO LIQUID FUELS OVER MODIFIED-RESIDUAL CATALYTIC CRACKING CATALYSTS: MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION USING HYBRID ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK – GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The plastic waste utilization can be addressed toward different valuable products. A promising technology for the utilization is by converting it to fuels. Simultaneous modeling and optimization representing effect of reactor temperature, catalyst calcinations temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio toward performance of liquid fuel production was studied over modified catalyst waste. The optimization was performed to find optimal operating conditions (reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, and plastic/catalyst weight ratio that maximize the liquid fuel product. A Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA method was used for the modeling and optimization, respectively. The variable interaction between the reactor temperature, catalyst calcination temperature, as well as plastic/catalyst ratio is presented in surface plots. From the GC-MS characterization, the liquid fuels product was mainly composed of C4 to C13 hydrocarbons.KONVERSI LIMBAH PLASTIK MENJADI BAHAN BAKAR CAIR DENGAN METODE PERENGKAHAN KATALITIK MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS BEKAS YANG TERMODIFIKASI: PEMODELAN DAN OPTIMASI MENGGUNAKAN GABUNGAN METODE ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK DAN GENETIC ALGORITHM. Pemanfaatan limbah plastik dapat dilakukan untuk menghasilkan produk yang lebih bernilai tinggi. Salah satu teknologi yang menjanjikan adalah dengan mengkonversikannya menjadi bahan bakar. Permodelan, simulasi dan optimisasi simultan yang menggambarkan efek dari suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis terhadap kinerja produksi bahan bakar cair telah dipelajari menggunakan katalis bekas termodifikasi Optimisasi ini ditujukan untuk mencari kondisi operasi optimum (suhu reaktor, suhu kalsinasi katalis, dan rasio berat plastik/katalis yang memaksimalkan produk bahan bakar cair. Metode Hybrid Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA telah digunakan untuk permodelan dan optimisasi simultan tersebut. Inetraksi antar variabel

  2. Novel electrospun gas diffusion layers for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells: Part II. In operando synchrotron imaging for microscale liquid water transport characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S.; Ge, N.; Lee, J.; George, M. G.; Liu, H.; Shrestha, P.; Muirhead, D.; Lavielle, N.; Hatton, B. D.; Bazylak, A.

    2017-06-01

    This is the second paper in a two-part series in which we investigate the impact of the gas diffusion layer structure on the liquid water distribution in an operating polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell through the procedures of design, fabrication, and testing of novel hydrophobic electrospun gas diffusion layers (eGDLs). In this work, fibre diameters and alignment in eGDLs are precisely controlled, and concurrent synchrotron X-ray radiography and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to evaluate the influence of the controlled eGDL parameters on the liquid water distribution and on membrane liquid water content. For eGDLs with small fibre diameters (150-200 nm) and correspondingly smaller pore sizes, reduced liquid water accumulation under the flow field ribs is observed. However, more liquid water is pinned onto the eGDL - at the interface with flow field channels. Orienting fibre alignment perpendicular to the flow field channel direction leads to improved eGDL-catalyst layer contact and prevents rib-channel membrane deformation. On the other hand, eGDLs facilitate significant membrane dry-out, even under highly humidified operating conditions at high current densities.

  3. Liquid Fuels From Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    getting the sugar from the juice, the syrupy residue, called molasses, is used for .... The sugars in the sweet sap can be directly fermented to alcohol. Fermentation is actually spontaneous, as the enzymes required are already present in the sap. ... When these plants are scraped or injured or a slit is made in the trunk or ...

  4. One-Step Reforming of CO2 and CH4 into High-Value Liquid Chemicals and Fuels at Room Temperature by Plasma-Driven Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yi, Yanhui; Wu, Chunfei; Guo, Hongchen; Tu, Xin

    2017-10-23

    The conversion of CO 2 with CH 4 into liquid fuels and chemicals in a single-step catalytic process that bypasses the production of syngas remains a challenge. In this study, liquid fuels and chemicals (e.g., acetic acid, methanol, ethanol, and formaldehyde) were synthesized in a one-step process from CO 2 and CH 4 at room temperature (30 °C) and atmospheric pressure for the first time by using a novel plasma reactor with a water electrode. The total selectivity to oxygenates was approximately 50-60 %, with acetic acid being the major component at 40.2 % selectivity, the highest value reported for acetic acid thus far. Interestingly, the direct plasma synthesis of acetic acid from CH 4 and CO 2 is an ideal reaction with 100 % atom economy, but it is almost impossible by thermal catalysis owing to the significant thermodynamic barrier. The combination of plasma and catalyst in this process shows great potential for manipulating the distribution of liquid chemical products in a given process. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hwei-Ting; Corbin, Kendall R; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tons. Lignin is synthesized in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with intrinsically higher energy

  6. Emerging Technologies for the Production of Renewable Liquid Transport Fuels from Biomass Sources Enriched in Plant Cell Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwei-Ting Tan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell walls are composed predominantly of cellulose, a range of non-cellulosic polysaccharides and lignin. The walls account for a large proportion not only of crop residues such as wheat straw and sugarcane bagasse, but also of residues of the timber industry and specialist grasses and other plants being grown specifically for biofuel production. The polysaccharide components of plant cell walls have long been recognized as an extraordinarily large source of fermentable sugars that might be used for the production of bioethanol and other renewable liquid transport fuels. Estimates place annual plant cellulose production from captured light energy in the order of hundreds of billions of tonnes. Lignin is synthesised in the same order of magnitude and, as a very large polymer of phenylpropanoid residues, lignin is also an abundant, high energy macromolecule. However, one of the major functions of these cell wall constituents in plants is to provide the extreme tensile and compressive strengths that enable plants to resist the forces of gravity and a broad range of other mechanical forces. Over millions of years these wall constituents have evolved under natural selection to generate extremely tough and resilient biomaterials. The rapid degradation of these tough cell wall composites to fermentable sugars is therefore a difficult task and has significantly slowed the development of a viable lignocellulose-based biofuels industry. However, good progress has been made in overcoming this so-called recalcitrance of lignocellulosic feedstocks for the biofuels industry, through modifications to the lignocellulose itself, innovative pre-treatments of the biomass, improved enzymes and the development of superior yeasts and other microorganisms for the fermentation process. Nevertheless, it has been argued that bioethanol might not be the best or only biofuel that can be generated from lignocellulosic biomass sources and that hydrocarbons with

  7. Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, Bojan [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Maldonado, Ivan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The research performed in this project addressed the issue of low heavy metal loading and the resulting reduced cycle length with increased refueling frequency, inherent to all FHR designs with solid, non-movable fuel based on TRISO particles. Studies performed here focused on AHTR type of reactor design with plate (“plank”) fuel. Proposal to FY12 NEUP entitled “Fuel and Core Design Options to Overcome the Heavy Metal Loading Limit and Improve Performance and Safety of Liquid Salt Cooled Reactors” was selected for award, and the 3-year project started in August 2012. A 4-month NCE was granted and the project completed on December 31, 2015. The project was performed by Georgia Tech (Prof. Bojan Petrovic, PI) and University of Tennessee (Prof. Ivan Maldonado, Co-PI), with a total funding of $758,000 over 3 years. In addition to two Co-PIs, the project directly engaged 6 graduate students (at doctoral or MS level) and 2 postdoctoral researchers. Additionally, through senior design projects and graduate advanced design projects, another 23 undergraduate and 12 graduate students were exposed to and trained in the salt reactor technology. We see this as one of the important indicators of the project’s success and effectiveness. In the process, 1 journal article was published (with 3 journal articles in preparation), together with 8 peer-reviewed full conference papers, 8 peer-reviewed extended abstracts, as well as 1 doctoral dissertation and 2 master theses. The work included both development of models and methodologies needed to adequately analyze this type of reactor, fuel, and its fuel cycle, as well as extensive analyses and optimization of the fuel and core design.

  8. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  9. Fischer–tropsch diesel production and evaluation as alternative automotive fuel in pilot-scale integrated biomass-to-liquid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-Doo; Yang, Chang-Won; Kim, Beom-Jong; Moon, Ji-Hong; Jeong, Jae-Yong; Jeong, Soo-Hwa; Lee, See-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Ho; Seo, Myung-Won; Lee, Sang-Bong; Kim, Jae-Kon; Lee, Uen-Do

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A pilot scale biomass-to-liquid (BTL) process was investigated for Fischer-Tropsch diesel production. • 200 kW th dual fluidized bed gasifier was integrated with 1 bbl/day F-T synthesis reactor. • Purified syngas satisfies minimum requirements of F-T synthesis. • F-T diesel produced successfully (1 L/h) and satisfies the automotive fuel standard. • Fully integrated BTL system was operated successfully more than 500 h. - Abstract: Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) diesel produced from biomass through gasification is a promising alternative fuel. In this study, a biomass-to-liquid (BTL) system involving a dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), a methanol absorption tower, and an F-T synthesis process was investigated for producing clean biodiesel as an automotive fuel. A DFBG, which is an efficient indirect gasifier, can produce syngas with high caloric value while minimizing the amount of nitrogen in the product gas. In order to meet the strict requirements of syngas for F-T synthesis, any contaminants in the syngas must be minimized and its composition must be carefully controlled. In this work, the syngas mainly comprised 35 vol% of H 2 and 21.3 vol% of CO. The concentrations of H 2 S and COS in the syngas were less than 1 ppmV owing to the use of chilled methanol cleaning process. Furthermore, long-term operation of a fully integrated BTL system was successfully conducted for over 500 h. The results showed that the BTL diesel can be used as an alternative automotive diesel fuel.

  10. Modeling the Liquid Water Transport in the Gas Diffusion Layer for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Using a Water Path Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Gerteisen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to model the liquid water transport in the porous materials used in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM fuel cells, the pore network models are often applied. The presented model is a novel approach to further develop these models towards a percolation model that is based on the fiber structure rather than the pore structure. The developed algorithm determines the stable liquid water paths in the gas diffusion layer (GDL structure and the transitions from the paths to the subsequent paths. The obtained water path network represents the basis for the calculation of the percolation process with low calculation efforts. A good agreement with experimental capillary pressure-saturation curves and synchrotron liquid water visualization data from other literature sources is found. The oxygen diffusivity for the GDL with liquid water saturation at breakthrough reveals that the porosity is not a crucial factor for the limiting current density. An algorithm for condensation is included into the model, which shows that condensing water is redirecting the water path in the GDL, leading to an improved oxygen diffusion by a decreased breakthrough pressure and changed saturation distribution at breakthrough.

  11. Consumer entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, Domenico; Poldner, Kim; Pascucci, Stefano; Gartner, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to understand innovative processes of resource redeployment taking place during consumption. We label this as consumer entrepreneurship. We define consumer entrepreneurship as the process of sharing and recombining resources innovatively to seek opportunities for

  12. Investigation on application properties of liquid fuels with biogenic compounds; Untersuchungen zu anwendungstechnischen Eigenschaften fluessiger Brennstoffe mit biogenen Anteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neulen, Martin [OWI Oel-Waerme-Institut GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Hoffmann, Hajo

    2013-10-01

    Within a DGMK project (DGMK 729) a test rig was developed in which fuel can be aged semi realistically to test additives, components from middle distillate devices, fuel components and the fuel itself. The test rig is designed as a hardware-in-the-loop test rig. The test rig's design allows a high flexibility in setting aging parameters. In contrast to other, similar test rigs, the aging parameters can be set in a very defined way. Test runs were already conducted with variations in temperature, operating cycles or pressing dry air in fuel or using nitrogen in order to eliminate the ambient air. It could be shown, that higher temperatures can age the fuel faster than lower temperatures, which was expected. Pressing air into the fuel extended the time needed to reach the abort criterion. Using nitrogen in order to reduce the influence of ambient air showed no effect on the duration of the test run. The effects of both settings - pressing air in the fuel and reducing the effect of ambient air by nitrogen - cannot be explained entirely yet. (orig.)

  13. The Synthesis and Characterization of Ionic Liquids for Alkali-Metal Batteries and a Novel Electrolyte for Non-Humidified Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Telpriore G.

    This thesis focused on physicochemical and electrochemical projects directed towards two electrolyte types: 1) class of ionic liquids serving as electrolytes in the catholyte for alkali-metal ion conduction in batteries and 2) gel membrane for proton conduction in fuel cells; where overall aims were encouraged by the U.S. Department of Energy. Large-scale, sodium-ion batteries are seen as global solutions to providing undisrupted electricity from sustainable, but power-fluctuating, energy production in the near future. Foreseen ideal advantages are lower cost without sacrifice of desired high-energy densities relative to present lithium-ion and lead-acid battery systems. Na/NiCl2 (ZEBRA) and Na/S battery chemistries, suffer from high operation temperature (>300ºC) and safety concerns following major fires consequent of fuel mixing after cell-separator rupturing. Initial interest was utilizing low-melting organic ionic liquid, [EMI+][AlCl 4-], with well-known molten salt, NaAlCl4, to create a low-to-moderate operating temperature version of ZEBRA batteries; which have been subject of prior sodium battery research spanning decades. Isothermal conductivities of these electrolytes revealed a fundamental kinetic problem arisen from "alkali cation-trapping effect" yet relived by heat-ramping >140ºC. Battery testing based on [EMI+][FeCl4 -] with NaAlCl4 functioned exceptional (range 150-180ºC) at an impressive energy efficiency >96%. Newly prepared inorganic ionic liquid, [PBr4+][Al2Br7-]:NaAl2Br 7, melted at 94ºC. NaAl2Br7 exhibited super-ionic conductivity 10-1.75 Scm-1 at 62ºC ensued by solid-state rotator phase transition. Also improved thermal stability when tested to 265ºC and less expensive chemical synthesis. [PBr4 +][Al2Br7-] demonstrated remarkable, ionic decoupling in the liquid-state due to incomplete bromide-ion transfer depicted in NMR measurements. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices generating electrical energy reacting hydrogen/oxygen gases

  14. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke Bogart, S.; Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben

    2006-01-01

    $3.65 per gallon. For large installations and advanced nuclear power and hydrogen production systems (high temperature reactors and thermo-chemical hydrogen production), then fuel production might be produced at near-commercial fuel prices. For the H2-MHR and plausible assumptions and estimates of CO 2 extraction and fuel synthesis capital and operating costs, such fuels might have nominal and low production costs ranging from ∼ $2.40 to $1.70 per gallon, respectively, for a Public Sector Fixed Charge Rate of 5%. Next, it was shown that for CO 2 provided from a fossil-fired power plant, a CO 2 'disposal' fee of $30/tonne and a Fixed Charge Rate of 10%, then syn-fuel might be produced at ∼ $3.00 and $2.45 (nominal cost values) and $1.90 and $1.85 (low cost values) per gallon by LWRs and H2-MHRs, respectively. Last, it was shown that nuclear-produced H 2 and O 2 could convert coal to liquid fuels at very low cost. For a Fixed Charge Rate of 10% and nominal plant costs, fuel costs ranged from ∼ $1.60 (LWR) per gallon to ∼ $1.30 (H2-MHR) for an assumed CO 2 avoidance credit of $30/Tonne. Our studies have shown that the addition of nuclear-produced hydrogen and oxygen to the coal syn-fuel process can greatly reduce CO 2 production and, for modest CO 2 credit, can further reduce the cost of the syn-fuel. Capturing CO 2 from stack gas or even the air will further reduce the amount of CO 2 that must be dealt with. This last case is independent of the price of fossil fuels and liquid fuel production costs and prices will have been capped. Of possibly even greater importance, the carbon fuel cycle will have been closed, thus minimizing or eliminating concerns with Global Climate Change. (authors)

  15. Nuclear fuel replacement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, W.C.; Robey, R.M.; Wett, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel handling arrangement for a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a single rotating plug eccentric to the fuel core and a fuel handling machine radially movable along a slot in the plug with a transfer station disposed outside the fuel core but covered by the eccentric plug and within range of movement of said fuel handling machine to permit transfer of fuel assemblies between the core and the transfer station. (author)

  16. Consumer Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Harold J.

    Consumer health refers to the potential or actual impact upon the consumer, individually or collectively, of any substances, devices, services, or systems that are offered for the supposed purpose of protecting, preserving, or restoring physical or mental health. This book is an effort to help the consumer to choose intelligently in spending for…

  17. Liquid Fuel from Heat-Loving Microorganisms: H2-Dependent Conversion of CO2 to Liquid Electrofuels by Extremely Thermophilic Archaea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: NC State is working with the University of Georgia to create Electrofuels from primitive organisms called extremophiles that evolved before photosynthetic organisms and live in extreme, hot water environments with temperatures ranging from 167-212 degrees Fahrenheit The team is genetically engineering these microorganisms so they can use hydrogen to turn carbon dioxide directly into alcohol-based fuels. High temperatures are required to distill the biofuels from the water where the organisms live, but the heat-tolerant organisms will continue to thrive even as the biofuels are being distilled—making the fuel-production process more efficient. The microorganisms don’t require light, so they can be grown anywhere—inside a dark reactor or even in an underground facility.

  18. CATALYTIC HYDROCRACKING OF WASTE LUBRICANT OIL INTO LIQUID FUEL FRACTION USING ZnO, Nb2O5, ACTIVATED NATURAL ZEOLITE AND THEIR MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wega Trisunaryanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic hydrocracking of waste lubricant oil into liquid fuel fraction using ZnO, Nb2O5, activated natural zeolite (ZAAH and their modification has been investigated. The zeolite was produced in Wonosari, Yogyakarta. Activation of the zeolite was carried out by refluxing with HCl 3M for 30 min, produced the activated natural zeolite (ZAAH. The ZnO/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by impregnation of Zn onto the ZAAH by ion exchange method using salt precursor of Zn(NO32.4H2O. The Nb2O5/ZAAH catalyst was prepared by mixing the ZAAH sample with Nb2O5 and oxalic acid solution until the paste was formed. The impregnation of Zn onto Nb2O5/ZAAH was carried out using the same method to that of the ZnO/ZAAH catalyst resulted ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst. Characterization of catalyst includes determination of Zn metal by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS, acidity by gravimetric method and catalyst porosity by Surface Area Analyzer (NOVA-1000. Catalytic hydrocracking was carried out in a semi-batch reactor system using ZnO, ZAAH, ZnO/ZAAH and ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalysts at 450 oC under the H2 flow rate of 15 mL/min. and the ratio of catalyst/feed = 1/5. The composition of liquid products was analyzed by Gas Chromatograpy (GC.The results showed that impregnation of ZnO and/or Nb2O5 on the ZAAH increased the acidity and specific surface area of catalyst. The products of the hydrocracking process were liquid, coke and gas. Conversion of liquid products was increased by the increase of catalyst acidity. The highest liquid product was produced by ZnO/Nb2O5-ZAAH catalyst, 52.97 wt-%, consist of gasoline, 38.87 wt-% and diesel, 14.10 wt-%.   Keywords: hydrocracking, waste lubricant oil, liquid fuel fraction

  19. Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; Ruiz, Juan Carlos Serrano [Madison, WI; West, Ryan M [Madison, WI

    2012-04-03

    Described is a method to make liquid chemicals, such as functional intermediates, solvents, and liquid fuels from biomass-derived cellulose. The method is cascading; the product stream from an upstream reaction can be used as the feedstock in the next downstream reaction. The method includes the steps of deconstructing cellulose to yield a product mixture comprising levulinic acid and formic acid, converting the levulinic acid to .gamma.-valerolactone, and converting the .gamma.-valerolactone to pentanoic acid. Alternatively, the .gamma.-valerolactone can be converted to a mixture of n-butenes. The pentanoic acid so formed can be further reacted to yield a host of valuable products. For example, the pentanoic acid can be decarboxylated yield 1-butene or ketonized to yield 5-nonanone. The 5-nonanone can be hydrodeoxygenated to yield nonane, or 5-nonanone can be reduced to yield 5-nonanol. The 5-nonanol can be dehydrated to yield nonene, which can be dimerized to yield a mixture of C.sub.9 and C.sub.18 olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of alkanes. Alternatively, the nonene may be isomerized to yield a mixture of branched olefins, which can be hydrogenated to yield a mixture of branched alkanes. The mixture of n-butenes formed from .gamma.-valerolactone can also be subjected to isomerization and oligomerization to yield olefins in the gasoline, jet and Diesel fuel ranges.

  20. Experimental investigations of heat transfer and temperature fields in models simulating fuel assemblies used in the core of a nuclear reactor with a liquid heavy-metal coolant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Genin, L. G.; Krylov, S. G.; Novikov, A. O.; Razuvanov, N. G.; Sviridov, V. G.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this experimental investigation is to obtain information on the temperature fields and heat transfer coefficients during flow of liquid-metal coolant in models simulating an elementary cell in the core of a liquid heavy metal cooled fast-neutron reactor. Two design versions for spacing fuel rods in the reactor core were considered. In the first version, the fuel rods were spaced apart from one another using helical wire wound on the fuel rod external surface, and in the second version spacer grids were used for the same purpose. The experiments were carried out on the mercury loop available at the Moscow Power Engineering Institute National Research University's Chair of Engineering Thermal Physics. Two experimental sections simulating an elementary cell for each of the fuel rod spacing versions were fabricated. The temperature fields were investigated using a dedicated hinged probe that allows temperature to be measured at any point of the studied channel cross section. The heat-transfer coefficients were determined using the wall temperature values obtained at the moment when the probe thermocouple tail end touched the channel wall. Such method of determining the wall temperature makes it possible to alleviate errors that are unavoidable in case of measuring the wall temperature using thermocouples placed in slots milled in the wall. In carrying out the experiments, an automated system of scientific research was applied, which allows a large body of data to be obtained within a short period of time. The experimental investigations in the first test section were carried out at Re = 8700, and in the second one, at five values of Reynolds number. Information about temperature fields was obtained by statistically processing the array of sampled probe thermocouple indications at 300 points in the experimental channel cross section. Reach material has been obtained for verifying the codes used for calculating velocity and temperature fields in channels with

  1. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  2. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  3. Optimization of process parameters in flash pyrolysis of waste tyres to liquid and gaseous fuel in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwin Raj, R.; Robert Kennedy, Z.; Pillai, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Non-recyclable, hazards, under-utilized waste tyre was converted to useful fuel. ► Design of experiment was used to optimize the process parameters. ► Fuel compatibility for IC engines was tested by standard fuel testing procedures. ► Optimized process parameters were tested and the empirical model validated. - Abstract: Pyrolysis process offers solution to utilize huge quantity of worn out automobile tyres to produce fuel for energy needs. Shredded tyre wastes were subjected to pyrolysis at atmospheric pressure under inert gas atmosphere in a fluidized bed combustion setup. The shredded tyre particle size, the feed rate of the feed stock, and the pyrolysis temperature were varied systematically as per the designed experiment to study their influence on product yield. Maximizing the oil yield and subduing the gas and char yield is the objective to optimize the process parameters. A low pyrolysis temperature of 440 °C with low feed rate increases the residence time in the combustion reactor yielding maximum oil. The physical properties of raw pyrolysis oil, distilled oil and the evolved gases were done to find its suitability to utilize them as alternatives to the conventional fuels

  4. The market of liquid fuels in a scenario of petroleum shortages: an exploratory economic analysis to Brazil; O mercado de combustiveis liquidos em um cenario de escassez de petroleo: uma analise economica exploratoria para o Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramucci, Jose A.; Bordoni, Orlando F.J.G.; Cunha, Marcelo P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss the possible impacts on the Brazilian economy of an oil shortage crisis and its effects on the domestic market for liquid fuels. The results were obtained from simulations using a multi-sector general equilibrium model. The scenarios used in the numerical experiments were characterized by different constraining levels in imports of crude oil and oil products and also by the ability gasoline may be substituted by fuel ethanol. It is shown that the economic effects depend to a large degree on the substitution flexibility between liquid fuels. Thus it is expected that the introduction of flex-fuel vehicles in the light-duty fleet will make the Brazilian economy much less vulnerable in the event of an external oil-supply shock. (author)

  5. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    fuel, Anticipated evolution of fuel in dry storage, Anticipated evolution of fuel in deep geological disposal); Boiling-water reactor fuel (Similarities, and differences with PWR fuel, Axial and radial zoning, Rod and channel box sizes, Poisoning and reactivity control, Cladding specific characteristics, Trends in fuel evolution); 3 - Liquid-metal-cooled fast reactor fuel: Fast-neutron irradiation damage in structural materials (Fast-neutron-induced damage in metals, What materials should be used?); Fuels and targets for fast-reactor transmutation (Fast reactors: reactors affording the ability to carry out effective actinide transmutation, Recycling: homogeneous, or heterogeneous?); 4 - gas-cooled reactor fuel: Particle fuel (From the initial concept to the advanced TRISO particle concept, Kernel fabrication processes, Particle coating by chemical vapor deposition, Fuel element fabrication: particle compaction, Characterization of fuel particles, and elements, From HTR fuel to VHTR and GFR fuels: the GAIA facility at CEA/Cadarache); Irradiation behavior of particle fuels (Particle fuel: a variety of failure modes for a high-strength object, The amoeba effect, Fission product behavior, and diffusion in particle fuels); Mechanical modeling of particle fuel; Very-high-temperature reactor (VHTR) fuel; Gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) fuel (The specifications for GFR fuel, GFR fissile material, First containment baffler materials, GFR fuel element concepts); 5 - Research reactor fuels (A considerable feedback from experience, Conversion of French reactors to low-enriched (≤20% U-235)U 3 Si 2 fuel, Conversion of all reactors: R and D requirements for high-performance reactors, An 'advanced' research reactor fuel: UMo, The startup fuel for the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) will still be U 3 Si 2 -Al; 6 - An instrument for future fuel research: the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR): Fuel irradiation experiments in JHR, JHR: a flexible instrument; 7 - Glossary-Index

  6. SIEX: a correlated code for the prediction of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) fuel thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutt, D.S.; Baker, R.B.

    1975-06-01

    The SIEX computer program is a steady state heat transfer code developed to provide thermal performance calculations for a mixed-oxide fuel element in a fast neutron environment. Fuel restructuring, fuel-cladding heat conduction and fission gas release are modeled to provide assessment of the temperature. Modeling emphasis has been placed on correlations to measurable quantities from EBR-II irradiation tests and the inclusion of these correlations in a physically based computational scheme. SIEX is completely modular in construction allowing the user options for material properties and correlated models. Required code input is limited to geometric and environmental parameters, with a ''consistent'' set of material properties and correlated models provided by the code. 24 references. (U.S.)

  7. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  8. Experimental and numerical study of temperature fields and flows in flame during the diffusion combustion of certain liquid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loboda, E. L.; Matvienko, O. V.; Agafontsev, M. V.; Reyno, V. V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper represents experimental studying the pulsations of temperature fields and the structure of a flow in the flame formed during the combustion of certain fuels. Also, the paper provides the mathematical modeling of a flow in the flame formed during the combustion of diesel fuels, as well as the comparison with experimental data and the estimation of the scale for turbulent vortices in flame. The experimental results are in satisfactory agreement with numerical modeling, which confirms the hypothesis of similarity for the pulsations of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic parameters.

  9. Development and testing of high-performance fuel pin simulators for boiling experiments in liquid metal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.

    1976-01-01

    There are unknown phenomena, about local and integral boiling events in the core of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors. Therefore at GfK depend out-of-pile boiling experiments have been performed using electrically heated dummies of fuel element bundles. The success of these tests and the amount of information derived from them depend exclusively on the successful simulation of the fuel pins by electrically heated rods as regards the essential physical properties. The report deals with the development and testing of heater rods for sodium boiling experiments in bundles including up to 91 heated pins

  10. Applications of liquid phase chromatographies for the analysis of streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2000-06-01

    India has opted for a closed fuel cycle comprising of reprocessing and recycling technology. The back end of such nuclear fuel cycle involves the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for recovery of plutonium and depleted uranium by Purex technology. Wastes arising from the reprocessing plant are classified as high, intermediate and low level wastes (HLW, ILW, LLW). HLW is mixture of over 50 elements present in different chemical forms. The accurate analyses of dissolver solution and HLW are the most challenging but essential tasks for reprocessing plant operations and also for further development of treatment methods. Inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectroscopy techniques are suitable for analysis of metallic anions. Ion chromatography has proven capability to analyse number of cations or anions at ppm or even ppb level in single run. The report reviews the literature regarding the title subject. To assess the technical feasibility of ion chromatography for waste analysis, a simulated PHWR-HLW analogue was prepared. The PHWR-HLW analogue and ground water samples were analysed on DIONEX-DX 500 and Metrohm IC. Results obtained clearly demonstrated the usefulness of ion chromatography as vital analytical tool. HLW and other process or waste streams arising at the back end of nuclear fuel cycle can be analysed for alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metal cations and important anions. Use of fraction collector along with ion chromatography can enhance it's sensitivity to few Bq/ml for radioactive samples. (author)

  11. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing; Biodegradacao de rejeitos radioativos liquidos organicos provenientes do reprocessamento do combustivel nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-07-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  12. Parametric study of the cathode and the role of liquid saturation on the performance of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell-A numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasarao, M.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Rengaswamy, R.; Narasimhan, S.

    A two-dimensional two-phase steady state model of the cathode of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is developed using unsaturated flow theory (UFT). A gas flow field, a gas diffusion layer (GDL), a microporous layers (MPL), a finite catalyst layer (CL), and a polymer membrane constitute the model domain. The flow of liquid water in the cathode flow channel is assumed to take place in the form of a mist. The CL is modeled using flooded spherical agglomerate characterization. Liquid water is considered in all the porous layers. For liquid water transport in the membrane, electro-osmotic drag and back diffusion are considered to be the dominating mechanisms. The void fraction in the CL is expressed in terms of practically achievable design parameters such as platinum loading, Nafion loading, CL thickness, and fraction of platinum on carbon. A number of sensitivity studies are conducted with the developed model. The optimum operating temperature of the cell is found to be 80-85 °C. The optimum porosity of the GDL for this cell is in the range of 0.7-0.8. A study by varying the design parameters of the CL shows that the cell performs better with 0.3-0.35 mg cm -2 of platinum and 25-30 wt% of ionomer loading at high current densities. The sensitivity study shows that a multi-variable optimization study can significantly improve the cell performance. Numerical simulations are performed to study the dependence of capillary pressure on liquid saturation using various correlations. The impact of the interface saturation on the cell performance is studied. Under certain operating conditions and for certain combination of materials in the GDL and CL, it is found that the presence of a MPL can deteriorate the performance especially at high current density.

  13. The Role of Distribution Infrastructure and Equipment in the Life-cycle Air Emissions of Liquid Transportation Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strogen, Bret Michael

    Production of fuel ethanol in the United States has increased ten-fold since 1993, largely as a result of government programs motivated by goals to improve domestic energy security, economic development, and environmental impacts. Over the next decade, the growth of and eventually the total production of second generation cellulosic biofuels is projected to exceed first generation (e.g., corn-based) biofuels, which will require continued expansion of infrastructure for producing and distributing ethanol and perhaps other biofuels. In addition to identifying potential differences in tailpipe emissions from vehicles operating with ethanol-blended or ethanol-free gasoline, environmental comparison of ethanol to petroleum fuels requires a comprehensive accounting of life-cycle environmental effects. Hundreds of published studies evaluate the life-cycle emissions from biofuels and petroleum, but the operation and maintenance of storage, handling, and distribution infrastructure and equipment for fuels and fuel feedstocks had not been adequately addressed. Little attention has been paid to estimating and minimizing emissions from these complex systems, presumably because they are believed to contribute a small fraction of total emissions for petroleum and first generation biofuels. This research aims to quantify the environmental impacts associated with the major components of fuel distribution infrastructure, and the impacts that will be introduced by expanding the parallel infrastructure needed to accommodate more biofuels in our existing systems. First, the components used in handling, storing, and transporting feedstocks and fuels are physically characterized by typical operating throughput, utilization, and lifespan. US-specific life-cycle GHG emission and water withdrawal factors are developed for each major distribution chain activity by applying a hybrid life-cycle assessment methodology to the manufacturing, construction, maintenance and operation of each

  14. Aerosol feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Improvements to fuel cells include introduction of the fuel as an aerosol of liquid fuel droplets suspended in a gas. The particle size of the liquid fuel droplets may be controlled for optimal fuel cell performance by selection of different aerosol generators or by separating droplets based upon size using a particle size conditioner.

  15. A three-dimensional two-phase flow model for a liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiabin; Liu, Hongtan

    A three-dimensional, two-phase, multi-component model has been developed for a liquid-fed DMFC. The modeling domain consists of the membrane, two catalyst layers, two diffusion layers, and two channels. Both liquid and gas phases are considered in the entire anode, including the channel, the diffusion layer and the catalyst layer; while at the cathode, two phases are considered in the gas diffusion layer and the catalyst layer but only single gas phase is considered in the channels. For electrochemical kinetics, the Tafel equation incorporating the effects of two phases is used at both the cathode and anode sides. At the anode side the presence of gas phase reduces the active catalyst areas, while at the cathode side the presence of liquid water reduces the active catalyst areas. The mixed potential effects due to methanol crossover are also included in the model. The results from the two-phase flow mode fit the experimental results better than those from the single-phase model. The modeling results show that the single-phase models over-predict methanol crossover. The modeling results also show that the porosity of the anode diffusion layer plays an important role in the DMFC performance. With low diffusion layer porosity, the produced carbon dioxide cannot be removed effectively from the catalyst layer, thus reducing the active catalyst area as well as blocking methanol from reaching the reaction zone. A similar effect exits in the cathode for the liquid water.

  16. Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS) and Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric (DESI-MS) Identification of Chemical Warfare Agents in Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    criminal prosecution or to insure the safety of consumer products. Future Plans: The reported methodologies will be a valuable addition to the in...canadienne d’inspection des aliments , ThermoFisher et National Research Council a 6t6 financde pour Ia mise au point et l𔄀valuation de la spectrom...consommation, qu’un agent de guerre chimique a 6t utilis6. Plans futurs : Les mdthodologies documentdes seront un ajout important aux m~thodes intemnes

  17. Nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinauk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, Fragema has been marketing and selling the Advanced Fuel Assemby AFA whose main features are its zircaloy grids and removable top and bottom nozzles. It is this product, which exists for several different fuel assembly arrays and heights, that will be employed in the reactors at Daya Bay. Fragema employs gadolinium as the consumable poison to enable highperformance fuel management. More recently, the company has supplied fuel assemblies of the mixed-oxide(MOX) and enriched reprocessed uranium type. The reliability level of the fuel sold by Fragema is one of the highest in the world, thanks in particular to the excellence of the quality assurance and quality control programs that have been implemented at all stages of its design and manufacture

  18. Joule-Heated Ceramic-Lined Melter to Vitrify Liquid Radioactive Wastes Containing Am241 Generated From MOX Fuel Fabrication in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E C; Bowan II, B W; Pegg, I; Jardine, L J

    2004-01-01

    The governments of the United Stated of America and the Russian Federation (RF) signed an Agreement September 1, 2000 to dispose of weapons plutonium that has been designated as no longer required for defense purposes. The Agreement declares that each country will disposition 34MT of excess weapons grade plutonium from their stockpiles. The preferred disposition technology is the fabrication of mixed oxide (MOx) fuel for use or burning in pressurized water reactors to destroy the plutonium. Implementation of this Agreement will require the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide and the fabrication of MOx fuel within the Russian Federation. The MOx fuel fabrication and metal to oxide conversion processes will generate solid and liquid radioactive wastes containing trace amounts of plutonium, neptunium, americium, and uranium requiring treatment, storage, and disposal. Unique to the Russian MOx fuel fabrication facility's flow-sheet is a liquid waste stream with high concentrations (∼1 g/l) of 241 Am and non radioactive silver. The silver is used to dissolve PuO 2 feed materials to the MOx fabrication facility. Technical solutions are needed to treat and solidify this liquid waste stream. Alternative treatment technologies for this liquid waste stream are being evaluated by a Russian engineering team. The technologies being evaluated include borosilicate and phosphate vitrification alternatives. The evaluations are being performed at a conceptual design level of detail under a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) contract with the Russian organization TVEL using DOE NA-26 funding. As part of this contract, the RF team is evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the US borosilicate glass vitrification technology based on a Duratek melter to solidify this waste stream into a form acceptable for storage and geologic disposal. The composition of the glass formed from treating the waste is dictated by the concentration of silver and americium it

  19. Determination of sulfur in fly ash and fuel oil standard reference materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    Sulfur was determined in NBS Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633) and Residual Fuel Oils (SRM's 1619, 1620a, 1634a) by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (NAA) using the 34 S(n,γ) 35 S reaction. The 35 S was separated from solutions of the standards by either cation-anion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8/Dowex 1-X8 or by adsorption on Al 2 O 3 . Liquid scintillation counting of aqueous solutions was used for 35 S measurement. The 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S interference was corrected for by measurement of chlorine by instrumental NAA. The method may be applied to very small samples of fly ash or air particulates ( -3 g). 1 figure, 5 tables

  20. Conceptual design and exergy analysis of an integrated structure of natural gas liquefaction and production of liquid fuels from natural gas using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niasar, Malek Shariati; Amidpour, Majid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, utilizing absorption refrigeration system as an alternative to compression refrigeration system of MFC refrigeration cycle in an integrated superstructure with the main aim of reduction in required energy is investigated. High-energy consumption in such units is reduced because of the removal of a stage of the compression system, while the possibility of using waste energy through employing of absorption refrigeration system can be provided. A superstructure including cogeneration of heating, cooling and power for LNG production and liquid fuels using Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are investigated. Exergy analysis shows that the greatest amount of exergy destruction of equipment is related to the compressors by 28.99% and the lowest exergy destruction is related to the gas turbine by 0.17%. Integrated structure has overall thermal efficiency of 90% and specific power of 0.1988 kW h/(kg LNG)-1.

  1. Use of the magnetic test-filter for magnetic control of ferroimpurities of fuels, oils, and other liquids (phenomenological and physical models)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anna, Sandulyak; Alexander, Sandulyak; Vera, Ershova; Maria, Polismakova; Darya, Sandulyak

    2017-01-01

    It is noted that in most cases, mechanical impurities of technological liquides are ferroimpurities, possessing ferromagnetic properties; therefore for their control (as well as for the decision taking on the possible use of magnetophoresis devices for their removal) the preference should be given to magnetic methods. In the development of the existing options of magnetic control, used in metrology of ferroimpurities control (including ferrography), the main provisions of the relatively new, tested on a number of process liquids (including fuels and lubricants) poly-operational experimental calculation method is set out. Unlike already practiced experimental methods, it allows the implementation of more objective control. Operational data of magnetic control of ferroimpurities in motor oils, gasoline, diesel fuel and others are given. Based on the phenomenological approach (using the method of functional legalization of mass-operational charachteristics in semi-logarithmic coordinates) the expressions for calculating the operating masses (including the forecasted ones outside of the experiment), and, most importantly, for the calculation of the total mass for unlimited and limited number of operations are obtained. Along that expressions (with the relevant data) for determination of the error control during the limitation of the number of operations and inverse expression for the required number of operations subject to the margin of error are receieved. Based on the physical approach (assuming concepts of absorption screen of exponential type) the design formulas correlated with the phenomenological ones for calculating operating mass and the total mass of ferroimpurities (including the residual) in the analyzed sample probe are obtained. The physical meaning of the number of parameters, which were previously considered exclusively empirical, is figured out. - Highlights: • The method of magnetic sedimentation of wear particle has been examined • The main

  2. Fuels Containing Methane of Natural Gas in Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    cylinders, relative to gasoline, it would disperse more readily and therefore would mix with air more nearly completely. As a consequence, this fuel would burn more nearly completely (and, hence, more cleanly) than gasoline does. The storage density of this fuel would be similar to that of gasoline, but its energy density would be such that the mileage (more precisely, the distance traveled per unit volume of fuel) would be greater than that of either gasoline or compressed natural gas. Because the pressure needed to maintain the fuel in liquid form would be more nearly constant and generally lower than that needed to maintain compressed natural gas in liquid form, the pressure rating of a tank used to hold this fuel could be lower than that of a tank used to hold compressed natural gas. A mixture of natural gas and gasoline could be distributed more easily than could some alternative fuels. A massive investment in new equipment would not be necessary: One could utilize the present fuel-distribution infrastructure and could blend the gasoline and natural gas at almost any place in the production or distribution process - perhaps even at the retail fuel pump. Yet another advantage afforded by use of a blend of gasoline and natural gas would be a reduction in the amount of gasoline consumed. Because natural gas costs less than gasoline does and is in abundant supply in the United States, the cost of automotive fuel and the demand for imported oil could be reduced.

  3. Numerical evaluation of various gas and coolant channel designs for high performance liquid-cooled proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasmito, Agus P.; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2012-01-01

    A careful design of gas and coolant channel is essential to ensure high performance and durability of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack. The channel design should allow for good thermal, water and gas management whilst keeping low pressure drop. This study evaluates numerically the performance of various gas and coolant channel designs simultaneously, e.g. parallel, serpentine, oblique-fins, coiled, parallel-serpentine and a novel hybrid parallel-serpentine-oblique-fins designs. The stack performance and local distributions of key parameters are investigated with regards to the thermal, water and gas management. The results indicate that the novel hybrid channel design yields the best performance as it constitutes to a lower pumping power and good thermal, water and gas management as compared to conventional channels. Advantages and limitation of the designs are discussed in the light of present numerical results. Finally, potential application and further improvement of the design are highlighted. -- Highlights: ► We evaluate various gas and coolant channel designs in liquid-cooled PEM fuel cell stack. ► The model considers coupled electrochemistry, channel design and cooling effect simultaneously. ► We propose a novel hybrid channel design. ► The novel hybrid channel design yields the best thermal, water and gas management which is beneficial for long term durability. ► The novel hybrid channel design exhibits the best performance.

  4. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhou, Yan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Luo, Huimin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Toops, Todd J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookshear, Daniel W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stump, Benjamin C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Viola, Michael B. [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Zreik, Khaled [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States); Ahmed, Tasfia [General Motors (GM) Technical Center, Pontiac, MI (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  5. Constant strength fuel-fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaseen, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical apparatus composed of both a nonconsumable anode and cathode; and electrolyte, fuel oxidant and controls. This invention guarantees the constant transfer of hydrogen atoms and their respective electrons, thus a constant flow of power by submergence of the negative electrode in a constant strength hydrogen furnishing fuel; when said fuel is an aqueous absorbed hydrocarbon, such as and similar to ethanol or methnol. The objective is accomplished by recirculation of the liquid fuel, as depleted in the cell through specific type membranes which pass water molecules and reject the fuel molecules; thus concentrating them for recycle use

  6. Gas-liquid two-phase flow behaviors and performance characteristics of proton exchange membrane fuel cells in a short-term microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hang; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Jian Fu; Ye, Fang; Ma, Chong Fang

    2017-06-01

    In this work, proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with transparent windows are designed to study the gas-liquid two-phase flow behaviors inside flow channels and the performance of a PEMFC with vertical channels and a PEMFC with horizontal channels in a normal gravity environment and a 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment. Experiments are conducted under high external circuit load and low external circuit load at low temperature where is 35 °C. The results of the present experimental work demonstrate that the performance and the gas-liquid two-phase flow behaviors of the PEMFC with vertical channels exhibits obvious changes when the PEMFCs enter the 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment from the normal gravity environment. Meanwhile, the performance of the PEMFC with vertical channels increases after the PEMFC enters the 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment under high external circuit load, while under low external circuit load, the PEMFC with horizontal channels exhibits better performance in both the normal gravity environment and the 3.6 s short-term microgravity environment.

  7. CFD study of liquid-cooled heat sinks with microchannel flow field configurations for electronics, fuel cells, and concentrated solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos-Alvarado, Bladimir; Li Peiwen; Liu Hong; Hernandez-Guerrero, Abel

    2011-01-01

    A study of the heat transfer performance of liquid-cooled heat sinks with conventional and novel micro-channel flow field configurations for application in electronic devices, fuel cells, and concentrated solar cells is presented in this paper. The analyses were based on computations using the CFD software ANSYS FLUENT. The flow regime in heat sinks is constrained to laminar flow in the study. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly, the uniformity of temperature distribution on the heating surface, as well as the pressure losses and pumping power in the operation of the studied heat sinks were obtained. Comparisons of the flow distribution uniformity in multiple flow channels, temperature uniformity on heating surfaces, and pumping power consumption of heat sinks with novel flow field configurations and conventional flow field configurations were conducted. It was concluded that the novel flow field configurations studied in this work exhibit appreciable benefits for application in heat sinks. - Highlights: → We present novel designs of flow channel configurations in liquid cooled heat sinks. → The flow and heat transfer in heat sinks were simulated using CFD tool. → The temperature and pressure loss in novel and conventional heat sinks were studied. → Figure of merit of heat sinks in different flow channel configurations was presented. → The heat sinks having our novel design of flow channel configurations are excellent.

  8. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  9. LiquidPower-1. Development and proof-of-concept of core methanol reformer for stationary and motive fuel cell systems and hydrogen refuelling stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krogsgaard, J.; Mortensen, Henrik [H2 Logic A/S, Herning (Denmark); Skipper, T. [Dantherm Power A/S, Hobro (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    LiquidPower-1 has developed laboratory test systems for methanol reforming and tested reformers from four different suppliers. This has contributed to determining the state-of-the-art level for methanol reforming and enabled an update of the LiquidPower R and D Roadmap onwards a commercialisation of the technology. The project has achieved the following results: 1) A detailed technical specification of methanol reformers for the fuel cell back-up power and hydrogen refueling station markets has been conducted; 2) Laboratory test systems for methanol reformers has been developed and established at Dantherm Power and H2 Logic; 3) Initial test of reformers from four suppliers has been conducted - with two suppliers being selected for continued tests; 4) Extensive laboratory tests conducted of reformers from two suppliers, with the aim to determine state-of-the-art for price, efficiency, capacity and lifetime. Several errors and break-downs were experienced during the test period, which revealed a need for further R and D to improve lifetime and stability; 5) The LiquidPower F and U Roadmap has been updated. Reformer TCO targets (Total Cost of Operation) for each of the markets have been calculated including updated targets for efficiency and cost. These targets also serve as the main ones to be pursued as part of the continued R and D roadmap execution. Compared to the previous edition of the Roadmap, the project has confirmed the viability of methanol reforming, but also revealed that stability and lifetime needs to be addressed and solved before commencing commercialization of the technology. If the Roadmap is successful a commercialization can commence beyond 2015. (Author)

  10. Process monitoring and quality control for dietary fats and bio fuels. Necessary for the consumer protection; Prozessueberwachung und Qualitaetskontrolle fuer Nahrungsfette und Biokraftstoffe. Unerlaesslich fuer den Verbraucherschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heise, Michael; Fritzsche, Joerg; Tkatsch, Helena [Fachhochschule Suedwestfalen, Iserlohn (Germany); Kuepper, Lukas [Infrared Fiber Sensors, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    The quality control of food-grade oils, fats and fatty acid containing products is expensive, but essential for the manufacturers of such products and for the consumer protection. The analysis has the task not only to analyze the purity of fats and oils, but also to analyze the content and composition of fats. Dietary fats contain long chain, often multi-unsaturated fatty acids. An insufficient supply of so-called essential fatty acids may result in deficiency symptoms by the human species. A similar composition of fatty acids also is observed in biodiesel which is produced by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats.

  11. Conceptual Foundations of Strengthening the Fuel Security of the National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to substantiate conceptual foundations for strengthening the fuel security of Ukraine under conditions of achieving energy independence from import of finished petroleum products, ensuring energy efficiency of the transformation of primary fuel and energy resources into motor fuel and its energy saving in the transport sector. The key problems in the sphere of liquid fuel use in Ukraine are non-competitiveness of the national oil refining complex, import orientation of the Ukrainian motor fuel consumer, scarcity of the explored reserves of liquid hydrocarbons on the territory of Ukraine, monopolization of transport routes for external deliveries of crude oil. The development of Ukraine’s fuel sector should be implemented on the basis of the national model of fuel security, which provides for balancing the motor fuel market, ensuring sustainable development of the fuel sector and satisfying interests of market actors. The strategic goals of fuel security are defined as energy independence, energy efficiency and energy saving. In the article they were decomposed at the operational level, and the following necessary components were identified: maximization of the national oil production; diversification of external oil supplies with complete abandonment of imports of finished petroleum products, increase in the yield of light oil products; replacement of oil with the national energy potential, saving of motor fuel at the stage of its consumption.

  12. Combined gas-steam turbine cycle using coal derived liquid fuel - A viable alternative to direct combustion of coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabi, R.; Mesko, J. E.

    An alternative to direct coal-combustion for electric power generation is liquefaction of coal prior to combustion in a combined gas-steam turbine plant. For optimization of the overall efficiency of the power plant, individual subsystem efficiencies must be analyzed, but the prevailing energy analysis based on the first law of thermodynamics is insufficient for this purpose and can be misleading. The paper presents a complete thermodynamic analysis of an 873 MWe combined gas-steam turbine cycle, which utilizes semiclean fuel from the H-Coal process.

  13. Experimental and numerical analysis for high intensity swirl based ultra-low emission flameless combustor operating with liquid fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Vanteru, Mahendra Reddy

    2014-06-21

    Flameless combustion offers many advantages over conventional combustion, particularly uniform temperature distribution and lower emissions. In this paper, a new strategy is proposed and adopted to scale up a burner operating in flameless combustion mode from a heat release density of 5.4-21 MW/m(3) (thermal input 21.5-84.7 kW) with kerosene fuel. A swirl flow based configuration was adopted for air injection and pressure swirl type nozzle with an SMD 35-37 lm was used to inject the fuel. Initially, flameless combustion was stabilized for a thermal input of 21.5 kW ((Q) over dot \\'\\'\\'= 5.37 MW/m(3)). Attempts were made to scale this combustor to higher intensities i.e. 10.2, 16.3 and 21.1 MW/m(3). However, an increase in fuel flow rate led to incomplete combustion and accumulation of unburned fuel in the combustor. Two major difficulties were identified as possible reasons for unsustainable flameless combustion at the higher intensities. (i) A constant spray cone angle and SMD increases the droplet number density. (ii) Reactants dilution ratio (R-dil) decreased with increased thermal input. To solve these issues, a modified combustor configuration, aided by numerical computations was adopted, providing a chamfer near the outlet to increase the R-dil. Detailed experimental investigations showed that flameless combustion mode was achieved at high intensities with an evenly distributed reaction zone and temperature in the combustor at all heat intensities. The emissions of CO, NOx and HC for all heat intensities (Phi = 1-0.6) varied between 11-41, 6-19 and 0-9 ppm, respectively. These emissions are well within the range of emissions from other flameless combustion systems reported in the literature. The acoustic emission levels were also observed to be reduced by 8-9 dB at all conditions. (C) 2014 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services exploration of positive patient care synergies fueled by consumer demand: care coordination, advanced clinic access, and patient self-management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertenberger, Sydney; Yerardi, Ruth; Drake, Audrey C; Parlier, Renee

    2006-01-01

    The consumers who utilize the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system are older, and most are learning to live with chronic diseases. Their desires and needs have driven changes within the Veterans Health Administration. Through patient satisfaction initiatives and other feedback sources, consumers have made it clear that they do not want to wait for their care, they want a say in what care is provided to them, and they want to remain as independent as possible. Two interdisciplinary processes/models of healthcare are being implemented on the national level to address these issues: advanced clinic access and care coordination. These programs have a synergistic relationship and are integrated with patient self-management initiatives. Positive outcomes of these programs also meet the needs of our staff. As these new processes and programs are implemented nationwide, skills of both patients and nursing staff who provide their care need to be enhanced to meet the challenges of providing nursing care now and into the 21st century. Veterans Health Administration Office of Nursing Services Strategic Planning Work Group is defining and implementing processes/programs to ensure nurses have the knowledge, information, and skills to meet these patient care demands at all levels within the organization.

  15. Safety characteristics of mid-sized MOX fueled liquid metal reactor core of high converter type in the initiating phase of unprotected loss of flow accident. Effect of low specific fuel power density on ULOF behavior brought by employment of large diameter fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenichi; Niwa, Hajime

    2003-07-01

    Safety characteristics in core disruptive accidents (CDAs) of mid-sized MOX fueled liquid metal reactor core of high converter type have been examined by using the CDA initiating phase analysis code SAS4A. The design concept of high converter type reactor core has been studied as one of options in the category of sodium-cooled reactor in Phase II of Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle System. An unprotected loss-of-flow accident (ULOF) has been selected as a representative CDA initiator for this study. A core concept of high converter type, which employed a large diameter fuel pin of 11.1 mm with 1.2 m core height to get a large fuel volume fraction in the core to achieve high internal conversion ratio was proposed in JFY2001. Each fuel subassembly of the core (abbreviated here as UPL120)was provided with an upper sodium plenum directly above the core to reduce the sodium void reactivity worth. Because of the large fuel pin diameter, average specific fuel power density (31 kW/kg-MOX) of UPL120 is about one half of those of conventional large MOX cores. The reactivity worth of sodium voiding is 6$ in the whole core, and -1$ in the all upper plenums. Initiating phase of ULOF accident in UPL120 under the conditions of nominal design and best estimate analysis resulted in a slightly super-prompt critical power burst. The causes of the super-prompt criticality have been identified twofold: (a) the low specific fuel power density of core reduced the effectiveness of prompt negative reactivity feedback of Doppler and axial fuel expansion effects upon increase in reactor power, and (b) the longer core height compared with conventional 1m cores brought, together with the lower specific power density, a remarkable delay in insertion of negative fuel dispersion reactivity after the onset of fuel disruption in sodium voided subassembly due to the lower linear heat rating in the top portion of the core. During the delay, burst-type fuel failures in sodium un

  16. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated in the organ......What is the sovereign consumer that occupies such a central role in organizational discourse whose satisfaction has become an organizational imperative? Our research draws from extended fieldwork in the world of commercial ethnography. Our analysis shows how ethnography is implicated...... in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological......) theories of the fetish to organizational sensemaking. Second, we describe a distinctive process of organizational market sensemaking that is sensuous, magical, and analogical. Third, we offer a subtle critique of commercial ethnography, a popular research practice that aims to bring ‘real’ consumers...

  17. Catalytic pyrolysis of Alcea pallida stems in a fixed-bed reactor for production of liquid bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik

    2015-09-01

    Pyrolysis of Alcea pallida stems was performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor with and without catalyst at three different temperatures. The effects of pyrolysis parameters including temperature and catalyst on the product yields were investigated. It was found that higher temperature resulted in lower liquid (bio-oil) and solid (bio-char) yields and higher gas yields. Catalysts had different effects on product yields and composition of bio-oils. Liquid yields were increased in the presence of zinc chloride and alumina but decreased with calcium hydroxide, tincal and ulexite. The highest bio-oil yield (39.35%) by weight including aqueous phase was produced with alumina catalyst at 500 °C. The yields of bio-char, bio-oil and gas produced, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils were determined by elemental analysis, TGA, FT-IR and GC-MS. 160 different compounds were identified by GC-MS in the bio-oils obtained at 500 °C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer......Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked...

  19. Fuels characterization studies. [jet fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, G. T.; Antoine, A. C.; Flores, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current analytical techniques used in the characterization of broadened properties fuels are briefly described. Included are liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. High performance liquid chromatographic ground-type methods development is being approached from several directions, including aromatic fraction standards development and the elimination of standards through removal or partial removal of the alkene and aromatic fractions or through the use of whole fuel refractive index values. More sensitive methods for alkene determinations using an ultraviolet-visible detector are also being pursued. Some of the more successful gas chromatographic physical property determinations for petroleum derived fuels are the distillation curve (simulated distillation), heat of combustion, hydrogen content, API gravity, viscosity, flash point, and (to a lesser extent) freezing point.

  20. Evaluation and Improvement of Liquid Propellant Rocket Chugging Analysis Techniques. Part 1: A One-Dimensional Analysis of Low Frequency Combustion Instability in the Fuel Preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Final Report M.S. Thesis - Aug. 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kair Chuan

    1986-01-01

    Low frequency combustion instability, known as chugging, is consistently experienced during shutdown in the fuel and oxidizer preburners of the Space Shuttle Main Engines. Such problems always occur during the helium purge of the residual oxidizer from the preburner manifolds during the shutdown sequence. Possible causes and triggering mechanisms are analyzed and details in modeling the fuel preburner chug are presented. A linearized chugging model, based on the foundation of previous models, capable of predicting the chug occurrence is discussed and the predicted results are presented and compared to experimental work performed by NASA. Sensitivity parameters such as chamber pressure, fuel and oxidizer temperatures, and the effective bulk modulus of the liquid oxidizer are considered in analyzing the fuel preburner chug. The computer program CHUGTEST is utilized to generate the stability boundary for each sensitivity study and the region for stable operation is identified.