WorldWideScience

Sample records for construction operation shutdown

  1. Shutdown/low power operations inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, J.; Clausner, J.P.; Holahan, G.; Vandewalle, A.

    1993-02-01

    A main breakout session (5-1/2 hours total) identified, {open_quotes}prioritized{close_quotes} and then discussed the following issues: (a) Planning for shutdown; (b) Monitoring of shutdown activities; (c) Requirements before startup. Three later separate sessions (each of 3 hours duration) discussed the frequency and scope of inspections during shutdowns and other relevant topics. The results of all sets of discussions, which involved people from 16 different countries, are summarized in this section of the report. In view of time constraints, the type of shutdown considered was limited to planned periodic shutdowns of plants to carry out maintenance, examination and inspections which might also involve modification to the plants.

  2. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-06

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility.

  3. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-05-23

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance).

  4. Fault tolerant wind turbine production operation and shutdown (Sustainable Control)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engelen, T.; Schuurmans, J.; Kanev, S.; Dong, J.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Hayashi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environmental conditions as well as system failure are real-life phenomena. Especially offshore, extreme environmental conditions and system faults are to be dealt with in an effective way. The project Sustainable Control, a new approach to operate wind turbines (Agentschap NL, grant EOSLT02

  5. Cost estimates of operating onsite spent fuel pools after final reactor shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rod, S R

    1991-08-01

    This report presents estimates of the annual costs of operating spent fuel pools at nuclear power stations after the final shutdown of one or more onsite reactors. Its purpose is to provide basic spent fuel storage cost information for use in evaluating DOE's reference nuclear waste management system, as well as alternate systems. The basic model of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) used in this study was based on General Electric Corporation's Morris Operation and was modified to reflect mean storage capabilities at an unspecified, or generic,'' US reactor site. Cost data for the model came from several sources, including both operating and shutdown nuclear power stations and existing ISFSIs. Duke Power Company has estimated ISFSI costs based on existing spent fuel storage costs at its nuclear power stations. Similarly, nuclear material handling facilities such as the Morris Operation, the West Valley Demonstration Project, and the retired Humbolt Bay nuclear power station have compiled spent fuel storage cost data based on years of operating experience. Consideration was given to the following factors that would cause operating costs to vary among pools: (1) The number of spent fuel pools at a given reactor site; (2) the number of operating and shutdown reactors onsite; (3) geographic location; and (4) pool storage capacity. 10 ref., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Impact of the Digital Coil Protection System and Plasma Shutdown Handler on NSTX-U Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Stefan; Battaglia, D.; Boyer, M.; Erickson, K.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2016-10-01

    In order to prevent excessive forces on the NSTX-U vessel and coils, a digital coil protection system (DCPS) has been implemented. This system computes approximately 400 different forces/torques/stresses, and terminates the discharge if limits on those quantities are exceeded. It is desirable, however, to prevent these coil system trips from ever happening. Given that many of these limits would be reached during transients associated with disruptions, as ``discharge shutdown handler'' was coded in the plasma control system to automatically control the plasma shutdown. This is a state machine with five states, and a set of rules for transitioning between states. The first use of these systems during plasma operations on NSTX-U will be described, with a focus on operational experiences and directions for future improvements. Work Supported by U.S.D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Shutdown margin for high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaposhnik, Y., E-mail: shaposhy@bgu.ac.il [NRCN – Nuclear Research Center Negev, POB 9001, Beer Sheva 84190 (Israel); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Shwageraus, E. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, POB 653, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Elias, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City 32000, Haifa (Israel)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • BWR core operating in a closed self-sustainable Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle. • Shutdown Margin in Th-RBWR design. • Fully coupled MC with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules. • Thermal–hydraulic analysis includes MCPR observation. - Abstract: Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-{sup 233}U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied core has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone “sandwiched” between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Implementation of alternative reactivity control materials, reducing axial leakage through non-uniform enrichment distribution, use of burnable poisons, reducing number of pins as well as increasing pin diameter are also shown to be incapable of meeting the SDM requirements. Instead, an alternative assembly design, based on Rod Cluster Control Assembly with absorber rods was investigated. This design matches the reference ABWR core power and has adequate shutdown margin. The new concept was modeled as a single three-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupled with fuel depletion and thermo-hydraulic feedback modules.

  8. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff`s evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements.

  9. The NRC staff evaluation of shutdown and low-power operation at nuclear power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, G.M.; Caruso, M.A. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's recent evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants are summarized in this paper. The NRC staff's evaluation was initiated following their investigation of the loss during shutdown of all vital alternating current power on March 20, 1990, at the Alvin W. Vogtle nuclear plant. The objective of the evaluation has been to assess risk broadly during shutdown, refueling, and startup, addressing not only issues raised by the Vogtle event, but also a number of other shutdown-related issues that had been identified by foreign regulatory organizations as well as the NRC and any new issues uncovered in the evaluation process. The key issues concerning shutdown risk identified in the integration process described earlier and subsequently addressed by the staff include the following: (1) outage planning and control; (2) stress on personnel and programs; (3) the need to improve training and procedures; (4) technical specifications; and (5) PWR safety during midloop operation. Other technical topics identified for further study by the staff included loss of RHR, containment capability, rapid boron dilution, fire protection, instrumentation, emergency core cooling system recirculation capability, effect of PWR upper internals, on-site emergency planning, fuel handling and heavy loads, potential for draining the BWR reactor vessel, reporting requirements for shutdown events, and need to strengthen inspection program.

  10. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, T.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  11. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers

  12. Shutdown Margin for High Conversion BWRs Operating in Th-233U Fuel Cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnik, Yaniv; Elias, Ezra

    2013-01-01

    Several reactivity control system design options are explored in order to satisfy shutdown margin (SDM) requirements in a high conversion BWRs operating in Th-233U fuel cycle (Th-RBWR). The studied has an axially heterogeneous fuel assembly structure with a single fissile zone sandwiched between two fertile blanket zones. The utilization of an originally suggested RBWR Y-shape control rod in Th-RBWR is shown to be insufficient for maintaining adequate SDM to balance the high negative reactivity feedbacks, while maintaining fuel breeding potential, core power rating, and minimum Critical Power Ratio (CPR). Instead, an alternative assembly design, also relying on heterogeneous fuel zoning, is proposed for achieving fissile inventory ratio (FIR) above unity, adequate SDM and meeting minimum CPR limit at thermal core output matching the ABWR power. The new concept was modeled as a single 3-dimensional fuel assembly having reflective radial boundaries, using the BGCore system, which consists of the MCNP code coupl...

  13. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Development of human reliability analysis methodology and its computer code during low power/shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; You, Young Woo; Huh, Chang Wook; Kim, Ju Yeul; Kim Do Hyung; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jae, Moo Sung [Hansung University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study is to develop the appropriate procedure that can evaluate the human error in LP/S(lower power/shutdown) and the computer code that calculate the human error probabilities(HEPs) using this framework. The assessment of applicability of the typical HRA methodologies to LP/S is conducted and a new HRA procedure, SEPLOT (Systematic Evaluation Procedure for LP/S Operation Tasks) which presents the characteristics of LP/S is developed by selection and categorization of human actions by reviewing present studies. This procedure is applied to evaluate the LOOP(Loss of Off-site Power) sequence and the HEPs obtained by using SEPLOT are used to quantitative evaluation of the core uncovery frequency. In this evaluation one of the dynamic reliability computer codes, DYLAM-3 which has the advantages against the ET/FT is used. The SEPLOT developed in this study can give the basis and arrangement as to the human error evaluation technique. And this procedure can make it possible to assess the dynamic aspects of accidents leading to core uncovery applying the HEPs obtained by using the SEPLOT as input data to DYLAM-3 code, Eventually, it is expected that the results of this study will contribute to improve safety in LP/S and reduce uncertainties in risk. 57 refs. 17 tabs., 33 figs. (author)

  15. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  16. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  17. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  18. Identification of Human-induced Initiating Event in the Low and Shutdown operation by using CESA method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    This paper suggests a procedure to identify human-induced initiating events during low and shutdown state in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Human-induced initiating events, also called Category B actions in human reliability analysis (HRA), are operator actions that may lead directly to initiating events either by themselves or in combination with equipment failures. Most of conventional probabilistic safety analyses (PSAs) typically assume that the frequency of initiating events also includes the probability of human-induced initiating events. However, some regulatory documents require Category B actions to be specifically analyzed and quantified in the PSA. In addition, a NUREG report also addresses that an explicit modeling of Category B actions could potentially lead to important insights for human performance on safety. However, there is no standard procedure to identify Category B actions which are either recommended by regulations or widely used in the PSA. This paper develops a systematic procedure to identify the Category B actions for the shutdown and low power. The procedure includes several steps to derive operator actions that may lead to initiating events in the low and shutdown stage. Those steps are the selection of initiating events to be analyzed, the selection of systems or components, the screening of unlikely operating actions, and quantification of initiating events. The procedure also suggests the detailed activity of each step such as the information required, screening rules, and output of steps. Finally, the applicability of the suggested approach is also investigated to show its feasibility.

  19. A dynamic model of a vapor compression cycle with shut-down and start-up operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin; Alleyne, Andrew G. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 West Green Street, MC-244, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an advanced switched modeling approach for vapor compression cycle (VCC) systems used in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Building upon recent work (), a complete dynamic VCC model is presented that is able to describe the severe transient behaviors in heat exchangers (condenser/evaporator), while maintaining the moving-boundary framework, under compressor shut-down and start-up operations. The heat exchanger models retain a constant structure, but accommodate different model representations. Novel switching schemes between different representations and pseudo-state variables are introduced to accommodate the transitions of dynamic states in heat exchangers while keeping track of the vapor and liquid refrigerant zones during the stop-start transients. Two model validation studies on an experimental system show that the complete dynamic model developed in Matlab/Simulink can well predict the system dynamics in shut-down and start-up transients. (author)

  20. Which systems (except main circuits) should be commissioned/tested for 7 TeV operation before the long shutdown?

    CERN Document Server

    Pojer, M

    2011-01-01

    The key driver of the long 2012/13 shutdown is the consolidation of the 13 kA splices. Once the machine will be back to operation, the increase of energy to 7 TeV should be possible. Are all circuits and systems ready for 7 TeV operation? This paper focuses on what else could limit LHC high energy operation and how we can know that in advance. A period of dedicated testing at the end of operation and before the long shutdown could give a precious knowledge on the status of the machine.

  1. Integrity, safety and efficiency in LNG transfer: impact of emergency shutdown and release operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, E. van; Driessen, F.P.G.; Nennie, E.D.; Remans, D.; Smeulers, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Caused by the global increase of demand for natural gas the interest in offshore liquefaction, transport and re-gasification grows rapidly. The installations that are presently developed are in essence copies of the onshore systems that are already many years in operation. However, the fact that the

  2. Construction Minerals Operations - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  3. A study on the human reliability analysis in probabilistic safety assessment during low power/shutdown operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Sung, T. Y.; Jung, W. D.; Yang, J. E.; Park, J. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Jin, Y. H

    1997-02-01

    This report describes the review results of human reliability analysis (HRA) in the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) during low power/shutdown operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). We select four NPP PSA reports to review. These are System 80+ using THERP, Surry using SLIM, Grand Gulf using ASEP, Electric de France using simulator experiments. This report also describe the method, the procedure, the quantification example, the critical review and the insights of HRA which were used in the process of PSA of NPPs mentioned above. It is expected that this study results will be effectively used in HRA of domestic PSA during low power/shutdown operation of NPPs. (author). 18 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Confirmation of shutdown cooling effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kotaro, E-mail: ksato@nelted.co.jp; Tabuchi, Masato; Sugimura, Naoki; Tatsumi, Masahiro [Nuclear Engineering, Limited, 1-3-7 Tosabori Nishi-ku, Osaka-shi, Osaka 550-0001 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    After the Fukushima accidents, all nuclear power plants in Japan have gradually stopped their operations and have long periods of shutdown. During those periods, reactivity of fuels continues to change significantly especially for high-burnup UO{sub 2} fuels and MOX fuels due to radioactive decays. It is necessary to consider these isotopic changes precisely, to predict neutronics characteristics accurately. In this paper, shutdown cooling (SDC) effects of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels that have unusual operation histories are confirmed by the advanced lattice code, AEGIS. The calculation results show that the effects need to be considered even after nuclear power plants come back to normal operation.

  5. PSA Applications for Shutdown Condition of CEFR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tian-xi; GAO; Ji-ning; CHEN; Shu-ming

    2012-01-01

    <正>China Experimental Fast Reactor (CEFR) is the first sodium cooled experimental fast reactor in China. CEFR is in a low-power or shutdown operating condition in most of its life time, and the reactorsafety risks remain in the low-power or shutdown operating condition. At design phase, there is little

  6. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    Experience has shown that corrosion occurring during geothermal energy utilization system downtime--shutdown corrosion--can pose a serious threat to successful operations. Shutdown corrosion in geothermal plants appears more severe than would be expected in their nongeothermal analogs, and its mitigation may pose a severe challenge to corrosion engineering personnel. This paper presents four case histories of geothermal shutdown corrosion problems. General methods of mitigation are explored.

  7. Facility design, construction, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    France has been disposing of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM) since 1969 and now at the Centre de Stockage de l`Aube (CSA) since 1992. In France, several agencies and companies are involved in the development and implementation of LLW technology. The Commissariat a l`Energie Atomic (CEA), is responsible for research and development of new technologies. The Agence National pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs is the agency responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities and for wastes acceptance for these facilities. Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires provides fuel services, including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing, and is thus one generator of LLW. Societe pour les Techniques Nouvelles is an engineering company responsible for commercializing CEA waste management technology and for engineering and design support for the facilities. Numatec, Inc. is a US company representing these French companies and agencies in the US. In Task 1.1 of Numatec`s contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Numatec provides details on the design, construction and operation of the LLW disposal facilities at CSM and CSA. Lessons learned from operation of CSM and incorporated into the design, construction and operating procedures at CSA are identified and discussed. The process used by the French for identification, selection, and evaluation of disposal technologies is provided. Specifically, the decisionmaking process resulting in the change in disposal facility design for the CSA versus the CSM is discussed. This report provides` all of the basic information in these areas and reflects actual experience to date.

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful.

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  12. SYSTEM OF STANDARTIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS ARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Pavel Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed article, management of construction operations is represented as a multi-level system; it is considered with the framework of projects including new construction, restructuring and overhaul of buildings and structures. The system of management of construction operations is to be composed of the following three constituent parts. They include a construction and assembling entity, project and operations, and a procurement base. Such matters as the quality of construction products, purchase (lease of building machinery and vehicles are incorporated into the level of the construction and assembling entity. The project level comprises such components of construction operations management as pre-construction preparation of a project, methods and forms of construction management, preparatory works, management of construction activities, real-time operations control, construction quality control, etc. The level of operations and the procurement base covers the needs for materials and equipment, their purchase and procurement, as well as the warehouse management. The main elements of the standardization system are identified. Standards of construction operations management are explained, including 1. General Provisions; 2. Preparation and performance of construction and assembling works; 3. New construction. Building site organization; 4. Demolition (dismantling of buildings and structures; 5. Rules of preparation for acceptance and commissioning of completed residential buildings. The prospects for the further development of the system of standardization of construction operations management are outlined

  13. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnitz, R.J. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Davis, P.R. [PRD Consulting (United States); Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ``internal initiators.`` This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10{sup {minus}7}/year.

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  16. Enterprise risk management in international construction operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xianbo; Low, Sui Pheng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers an understanding of the implementation of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) for international construction operations. In an extended case study, it primarily focuses on Chinese construction firms (CCFs) based in Singapore. In this regard, the book explains the differences and similarities between Risk Management (RM), Project Risk Management (PRM) and ERM in the construction industry, and examines their linkages for international construction operations in a broader context. The explanation elaborates on how companies may adopt and implement RM, PRM and ERM as appropriate in their various operations, both in their home market as well as in overseas host markets. The book also reviews the whole spectrum of work relating to organizational behavior (OB) as one of the key underpinnings for companies to evaluate and implement ERM. It will benefit practitioners from the industry as well as academics interested in the implementation of ERM practices in international construction operat...

  17. Construal operations of the English progressive construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    . The present paper focuses on each of these symbolic links and their interplay, and investigates the meaning construction processes involved in the symbolic structure of the progressive construction. Drawing on Croft & Wood's (2000) model of construal operations—revised in Croft & Cruse (2004: 40–73)—the...... present paper provides an overview of construal operations that are likely to be at play in the construction of the aspectual and actional meaning components of the progressive construction. The discussion also involves instances of the progressive construction, which display low semantic compatibility......, as the ensuing semantic coercion involves a number of construal operations that are revelatory to the meaning construction of the progressive in general....

  18. Operations Management on The Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    this as a refreshing renewal and improvement of practical operations management at the site. However this paper will present a first step of development of a new approach to operations management at the building site, which at the same time builds on, and criticize lean construction for missing the point...... of the knowledge economy. This endeavour is carried out in two ways. First by a reading of the operations management literature. Juxtaposing this with lean construction extentions and the critique developed by other scholars. And also drawing on human resource management approaches. Second through a series......” scheme. In both directions it is revealed that the human resource and knowledge element of building processes is largely left untouched by lean construction methods. It is suggested to introduce at least two more dimensions of operations management at the site than the ones offered in lean construction...

  19. Weight diagram construction of Lax operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbon, S.L.; Piard, E.J.

    1991-10-01

    We review and expand methods introduced in our previous paper. It is proved that cyclic weight diagrams corresponding to representations of affine Lie algebras allow one to construct the associated Lax operator. The resultant Lax operator is in the Miura-like form and generates the modified KdV equations. The algorithm is extended to the super-symmetric case.

  20. Generic construction of efficient matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubig, C.; McCulloch, I. P.; Schollwöck, U.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix product operators (MPOs) are at the heart of the second-generation density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm formulated in matrix product state language. We first summarize the widely known facts on MPO arithmetic and representations of single-site operators. Second, we introduce three compression methods (rescaled SVD, deparallelization, and delinearization) for MPOs and show that it is possible to construct efficient representations of arbitrary operators using MPO arithmetic and compression. As examples, we construct powers of a short-ranged spin-chain Hamiltonian, a complicated Hamiltonian of a two-dimensional system and, as proof of principle, the long-range four-body Hamiltonian from quantum chemistry.

  1. ACS SBC Recovery from Anomalous Shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This proposal is designed to permit a safe and orderly recovery of the SBC {FUV MAMA} detector after an anomalous shutdown. This is accomplished by using slower-than-normal MCP high-voltage ramp-ups and diagnostics. Anomalous shutdowns can occur because of bright object violations, which trigger the Global Hardware Monitor or the Global Software Monitor. Anomalous shutdowns can also occur because of MAMA hardware anomalies or failures. The cause of the shutdown should be thoroughly investigated and understood prior to recovery. Twenty-four hour wait intervals are required after each test for MCP gas desorption and data analysis. Event flag 2 is used to prevent inadvertent MAMA usage. The recovery procedure consists of four separate tests {i.e. visits} to check the MAMA's health after an anomalous shutdown: 1} signal processing electronics check, 2} slow, high-voltage ramp-up to an intermediate voltage, 3} a slow high-voltage ramp-up to the nominal operating HV, and 4} fold analysis test. Each must be completed successfully before proceeding onto the next. During the two high-voltage ramp-ups, dark ACCUM exposures are taken. At high voltage, dark ACCUM exposures and diagnostics are taken. This proposal is based on Proposal 13163 from Cycle 20. For additional MAMA recovery information, see STIS ISR 98-02R.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  3. Bottom-mounted Reactor Shutdown Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sanghaun; Lee, Jin Haeng; Cho, Yeonggarp; Yoo, Yeonsik; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Jongin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The CRDM acts as the first reactor shutdown mechanism and reactor regulating as well. The SSDM provides an alternate and independent means of reactor shutdown. The second shutdown rods (SSRs) of the SSDM are poised at the top of the core by the hydraulic system during the normal operation and drop by gravity within the specific time for a reactor trip. The SSR drop is actuated by the Reactor Protection System (RPS), Alternate Protection System (APS), Automatic Seismic Trip System (ASTS), or by the reactor operator in KJRR. Based on the proven technology of the design, operation and maintenance for HANARO and JRTR (Jordan Research and Training Reactor), the SSDM for the KJRR has been optimized by the design improvement from the experience and test. This paper aims for the introduction of the BM SSDM in the process of the basic design. The major differences of the shutdown mechanisms are comparatively analyzed between HANARO and KJRR. And the design features, system, structure and future works are also suggested. A basic design of the BM SSDM for the KJRR has been completed on the basis of the HANARO's SO unit or JRTR's SSDM. The SSR and its guide tube are designed and optimized according to the geometrical core configuration.

  4. The Social Construction of the Software Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle Damborg; Rose, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    challenge the underlying social practice of the software operation, the metrics program reinforced it by adopting the same underlying values. Our conclusion is that, under these circumstances, metrics programs are unlikely to result in radical changes to the software operation, and are best suited to small......In a large software company in Denmark, much effort was expended capturing metrics about the company’s software operation. The purpose of the metrics program was to change and improve the software operation. Writing software can be understood as a socially constructed practice, which can...... be analyzed using structuration theory. This structurational analysis showed that the company’s software operation followed an easily recognizable and widely understood pattern. The software operation was organized in terms of development projects leading to applications that then needed maintenance...

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  7. 77 FR 10576 - Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft... Draft NUREG/CR-7114, Revision 0, ``Methodology for Low Power/Shutdown Fire PRA.'' In response to request... quantitatively analyzing fire risk in commercial nuclear power plants during low power operation and shutdown...

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  9. Operations Management on The Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    ; human resource issues (knowledge) and site management issues. The seven “healthy stream-s” focus on whether the human resources are available, but no not understand the competence and knowledge content. Moreover the empirical research revealed that site management themselves creating “stumbling stones......In these years lean construction approaches is flourishing in Danish building projects. The Koskela (2000) concepts such as the TFV-perspectives (Transformation, Flow, Value) and the last planner (Ballard 2000) are directly used in attempts to rationalize building processes. One can receive...... this as a refreshing renewal and improvement of practical operations management at the site. However this paper will present a first step of development of a new approach to operations management at the building site, which at the same time builds on, and criticize lean construction for missing the point...

  10. CUORE-0 detector: design, construction and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Alduino, C; Artusa, D R; Avignone, F T; Azzolini, O; Balata, M; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biare, D; Biassoni, M; Bragazzi, F; Brofferio, C; Buccheri, A; Bucci, C; Bulfon, C; Caminata, A; Canonica, L; Cao, X G; Capelli, S; Capodiferro, M; Cappelli, L; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Cariello, M; Carniti, P; Casali, N; Cassina, L; Cereseto, R; Ceruti, G; Chiarini, A; Chiesa, D; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Conventi, D; Copello, S; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Cushman, J S; Dafinei, I; Davis, C J; Dell'Oro, S; Deninno, M M; Di Domizio, S; Di Vacri, M L; DiPaolo, L; Drobizhev, A; Erme, G; Fang, D Q; Faverzani, M; Fernandes, G; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; Gaigher, R; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gladstone, L; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Guetti, M; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Hansen, E; Heeger, K M; Hennings-Yeomans, R; Hickerson, K P; Huang, H Z; Iannone, M; Ioannucci, L; Kadel, R; Keppel, G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Leder, A; Lim, K E; Liu, X; Ma, Y G; Maino, M; Marini, L; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Mazza, R; Mei, Y; Meijer, S; Michinelli, R; Miller, D; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Mosteiro, P J; Nastasi, M; Nisi, S; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; O'Donnell, T; Orio, F; Orlandi, D; Ouellet, J L; Pagliarone, C E; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pancaldi, G; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pedrotta, R; Pelosi, A; Perego, M; Pessina, G; Pettinacci, V; Piperno, G; Pirro, S; Pozzi, S; Previtali, E; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Sala, E; Sangiorgio, S; Santone, D; Scielzo, N D; Singh, V; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Stivanello, F; Taffarello, L; Tatananni, L; Tenconi, M; Terranova, F; Tessaro, M; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Ventura, G; Vignati, M; Wagaarachchi, S L; Wallig, J; Wang, B S; Wang, H W; Wilson, J; Winslow, L A; Wise, T; Zanotti, L; Zarra, C; Zhang, G Q; Zhu, B X; Zimmermann, S; Zucchelli, S

    2016-01-01

    The CUORE experiment will search for neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{130}$Te with an array of 988 TeO$_2$ bolometers arranged in 19 towers. CUORE-0, the first tower assembled according to the CUORE procedures, was built and commissioned at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, and took data from March 2013 to March 2015. In this paper we describe the design, construction and operation of the CUORE-0 experiment, with an emphasis on the improvements made over a predecessor experiment, Cuoricino. In particular, we demonstrate with CUORE-0 data that the design goals of CUORE are within reach.

  11. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  13. Recursive Construction of Operator Product Expansion Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula involves just the OPE coefficients themselves but no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula requires no further UV-renormalization, i.e., it is completely well-defined from the start. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV- and IR-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features of the identity, is given for the example of massive, Euclidean theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space. It relies on the renormalization group flow equation method and is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes neither explicit reference to the renormalization group flow, nor to perturbation theory, and we conjecture that it also holds non-perturbatively. Our identity can be applied constructively because it gives a novel recursive algorithm for the computation of OPE coefficients to arbitrary (finite) perturbation order in terms of the zeroth order coefficients corresponding to the underlying free field theory, which in turn are trivial to obtain. We briefly illustrate the relation of this method to more standard methods for computing the OPE in some simple examples.

  14. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) [Object Modeling Group 2006], was used to capture the steps relevant to COBIE. Information ex- ERDC...Construction Research Workshop, Stanford, California. Object Modeling Group. 2006. Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) Specification. Final

  15. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  16. The Social Construction of the Software Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Helle Damborg; Rose, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    be analyzed using structuration theory. This structurational analysis showed that the company’s software operation followed an easily recognizable and widely understood pattern. The software operation was organized in terms of development projects leading to applications that then needed maintenance...... challenge the underlying social practice of the software operation, the metrics program reinforced it by adopting the same underlying values. Our conclusion is that, under these circumstances, metrics programs are unlikely to result in radical changes to the software operation, and are best suited to small...

  17. LHC Report: The shutdown work nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The work planned for the LHC injector chain during the winter shutdown is nearing completion. The PS Booster (PSB) and PS will be closed to access next week, and the control of machine access will be transferred to the CERN Control Centre in preparation for the resumption of machine operation. Hardware tests are being performed in all the machines.   Tests are under way in the LHC tunnel. The technical teams are putting the finishing touches to the work planned for the winter shutdown. At the Linac2, the PS Booster and the PS, work will be completed next week and hardware tests will be carried out soon after. POPS, the new powering system for the PS, will be commissioned for the first time in the coming days after the necessary preliminary tests have been carried out. At the SPS, various magnets have been replaced over recent weeks and the performance tests on the main power supply and other hardware tests will be able to start shortly. After that, the machine will be ready for operation with b...

  18. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  19. Construal operations of the English progressive construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    The progressive construction has a tripartite symbolic structure in which the auxiliary verb symbolically links up with the meaning component of TENSE, the main verb with the expressed SITUATION, and the present participial realization of the main verb with the aspectual category of IMPERFECTIVITY...

  20. Construction robot force control in cleaning operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Skibniewski, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Basic surface treatment tasks on construction sites that can be performed by robots include the spraying, cleaning, and finishing of surfaces. In the present paper, a construction robot is proposed for accomplishing a variety of cleaning tasks in construction. Specifically, the force-control problem in cleaning a surface is studied. The paper shows that a force sensor can be used not only to monitor the force acting at the contact points, but also to identify the uncertainties of the unstructured construction environment. A different formulation for the external force is presented. With this formulation, the external force on the end-effector is presented as a function of the contact force, contact torque, and constraint conditions, but not the actuated torque in the joint space. Therefore, the force-control problem is simplified to compensate for the external force and to exert a desired force. One advantage fo this approach is that the original PID position control loop of an industrial robot is retained so that the time-consuming computed torque method is avoided. The proposed control scheme can be applied to numerous cleaning tasks with hard contact regardless of the different nature of the surface.

  1. Theory, construction and operation of simple tensiometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, D.I.

    1986-01-01

    The tensiometer presented here in detail is suited to diverse on-site applications. Constructed from readily available, inexpensive parts, it can measure as much as 0.85 bar of tension. Design features include a flushing system for removal of entrapped air or mercury, and an easily maintained modular network of nylon manometers and water-supply tubes. -from Author

  2. Construal operations of the English progressive construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    The progressive construction has a tripartite symbolic structure in which the auxiliary verb symbolically links up with the meaning component of TENSE, the main verb with the expressed SITUATION, and the present participial realization of the main verb with the aspectual category of IMPERFECTIVIT...

  3. Knowledge transfer from building operation to construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia

    2017-01-01

    on interdepartmental knowledge transfer between departments responsible for operation and management and departments responsible for building projects in organisations with large and fast changing building portfolios. The paper includes a case study of the FM organisation of the Technical University of Denmark...... different tools and adopted several processes, aiming to the integration of the knowledge they possess from many years of operation and maintenance of the existing buildings. However, there are many situations, where the tools and processes do not work efficiently, and therefore the knowledge transfer...

  4. Avoiding compressor surge during emergency shutdown hybridturbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pezzini, Paolo [University of Genova, Italy; Tucker, David [U.S. DOE; Traverso, Alberto [University of Genova, Italy

    2013-01-01

    A new emergency shutdown procedure for a direct-fired fuel cell turbine hybrid power system was evaluated using a hardware-based simulation of an integrated gasifier/fuel cell/turbine hybrid cycle (IGFC), implemented through the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (NETL). The Hyper facility is designed to explore dynamic operation of hybrid systems and quantitatively characterize such transient behavior. It is possible to model, test, and evaluate the effects of different parameters on the design and operation of a gasifier/fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system and provide a means of quantifying risk mitigation strategies. An open-loop system analysis regarding the dynamic effect of bleed air, cold air bypass, and load bank is presented in order to evaluate the combination of these three main actuators during emergency shutdown. In the previous Hybrid control system architecture, catastrophic compressor failures were observed when the fuel and load bank were cut off during emergency shutdown strategy. Improvements were achieved using a nonlinear fuel valve ramp down when the load bank was not operating. Experiments in load bank operation show compressor surge and stall after emergency shutdown activation. The difficulties in finding an optimal compressor and cathode mass flow for mitigation of surge and stall using these actuators are illustrated.

  5. CCF analysis of BWR reactor shutdown systems based on the operating experience at the TVO I/II in 1981-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-04-01

    The work constitutes a part of the project conducted within the research program of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate SKI, aimed to develop the methods and data base for the Common Cause Failure (CCF) analysis of highly redundant reactor scram systems. The data analysis for the TVO I/II plant is focused on the hydraulic scram system, and control rods and drives. It covers operating experiences from 1981 through 1993. (9 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.).

  6. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Maintenance work is scheduled for the NICE home directory servers and the central Web servers. Users must, therefore, expect service interruptions. Unix batch services will be available but without access to HPSS or to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by email to: computer.operations@cern.ch Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files for eithe...

  7. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  8. Recursive construction of operator product expansion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, J

    2014-01-01

    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula only involves the OPE coefficients themselves, and no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula is completely well-defined from the start, i.e. requires no further UV-renormalization. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features, of our identity is given for the example of massive, Euclidean $\\varphi^4$ theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space, and relies heavily on the framework of the renormalization group flow equations. It is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes no explicit reference to the renormalization group...

  9. Sugawara construction and Casimir operators for Krichever-Novikov algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Schlichenmaier, M; Schlichenmaier, Martin; Sheinman, Oleg K

    1995-01-01

    We show how to obtain from highest weight representations of Krichever-Novikov algebras of affine type (also called higher genus affine Kac-Moody algebras) representations of centrally extended Krichever-Novikov vector field algebras via the Sugawara construction. This generalizes classical results where one obtains representations of the Virasoro algebra. Relations between the weights of the corresponding representations are given and Casimir operators are constructed. In an appendix the Sugawara construction for the multi-point situation is done.

  10. 33 CFR 127.205 - Emergency shutdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Equipment § 127.205 Emergency shutdown. Each...

  11. Study on secondary shutdown systems in Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, H.R.; Fadaei, A.H., E-mail: Fadaei_amir@aut.ac.ir; Gharib, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A study was undertaken to summarize the techniques for secondary shutdown systems (SSS). • Neutronic calculation performed for proposed systems as SSS. • Dumping the heavy water stored in the reflector vessel is capable to shut down reactor. • Neutronic and transient calculation was done for validating the selected SSS. • All calculation shown that this system has advantages in safety and neutron economy. - Abstract: One important safety aspect of any research reactor is the ability to shut down the reactor. Usually, research reactors, currently in operation, have a single shutdown system based on the simultaneous insertion of the all control rods into the reactor core through gravity. Nevertheless, the International Atomic Energy Agency currently recommends use of two shutdown systems which are fully independent from each other to guarantee secure shutdown when one of them fails. This work presents an investigative study into secondary shutdown systems, which will be an important safety component in the research reactor and will provide another alternative way to shut down the reactor emergently. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to summarize the techniques that are currently used at world-wide research reactors for recognizing available techniques to consider in research reactors. Removal of the reflector, removal of the fuels, change in critical shape of reactor core and insertion of neutron absorber between the core and reflector are selected as possible techniques in mentioned function. In the next step, a comparison is performed for these methods from neutronic aspects. Then, chosen method is studied from the transient behavior point of view. Tehran research reactor which is a 5 MW open-pool reactor selected as a case study and all calculations are carried out for it. It has 5 control rods which serve the purpose of both reactivity control and shutdown of reactor under abnormal condition. Results indicated that heavy

  12. Variation of Loads on Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains During Measured Shutdown Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the frequency of normal shutdowns to be used in the design stage of wind turbines based on measurements at an offshore wind farm and seeks to quantify their impact on the fatigue loads on the drivetrain and tower top. The measured shutdowns observed on an instrumented mult...... to quantify their coefficient of variation for varying site-specific wind conditions under both normal operation and with shutdowns.......-megawatt wind turbine located at an offshore wind farm are correlated with corresponding observations of shutdowns on surrounding wind turbines. The observed wind turbines have multiple shutdowns at high mean wind speeds due to wind speed variations near cut-out. Through the use of an Inverse First Order...

  13. AN ACD DIAGRAM DEVELOPED FOR SIMULATING A BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Zaeri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Success in the performance of construction projects can be substantially enhanced if plans are formulated more realistically, ahead of time. Planning includes identifying project activities, required resources, interdependencies, and also recognizing the uncertainties in the duration of activities. Inherent features of construction projects, such as high repetition, complexity and uniqueness on the one hand, and advances in technology and methodologies on the other, create more difficulties in planning construction delivery. This is true for bridge operations. This study presents an innovative incremental beam launching method with twin truss gantry. This construction method has significant advantages in terms of cost and speed of performance, but increases the level of planning and management required for the bridge operation. Further, because of the newness of the method, no specific Work Breakdown Structure nor conceptual framework has been developed as yet. The aim of the current study is to explore the use of a simulation-based tool (EZStrobe to facilitate the planning and management of a bridge construction operation (case study. The process followed in the development of a conceptual framework for the case study project is described. An Activity Cycle Diagram is produced alongside the conceptual framework and process models, with the intent of illustrating the key steps in the simulation modelling method. The developed models could assist in scheduling and controlling inherent construction features such as uncertainties, complexities, and repetitions in bridge construction projects, consequently improving their delivery.

  14. Radio Frequency Identification in Construction Operation and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    and maintenance. Research results from a contextual design process are presented and supplemented with practical experiences from implementing an RFID-supported operation and maintenance system. The greatest obstacles for successful implementation of RFID-based O&M systems have been found in structuring working...... and access control. Recently maintenance applications have been proposed to hold the trigger needed to launch RFID more widely in the construction sector. Therefore the purpose of the research presented in this paper is to identify the actual user needs for automatic identification in construction operation...... processes and information rather than in making the hardware work....

  15. Constructing triangular patch by basic approximation operator plus additional interpolation operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiming; Jl Xiuhua; YANG Xingqiang

    2005-01-01

    A new method for constructing triangular patches is presented. The triangular patch that interpolates the given boundary curves and cross-boundary slopes is constructed by a basic approximation operator plus an additional interpolation operator. The basic approximation operator is constructed by a polynomial surface of degree five which approximates the given interpolation conditions. The additional interpolation operator is formed by the side-vertex method. The basic and the additional operators have different roles in constructing the triangular patch: the first one makes the triangular patch approximate the given interpolation conditions with a polynomial approximation precision of degree five, while the second one makes it satisfy the given interpolation conditions. The triangular patch reproduces polynomial surfaces of degree five. Comparison results of the new method with the other two methods are included.

  16. The Construction of Quantum Field Operators: Something of Interest

    CERN Document Server

    Dvoeglazov, Valeri V

    2010-01-01

    We draw attention to some tune problems in constructions of the quantum-field operators for spins 1/2 and 1. They are related to the existence of negative-energy and acausal solutions of relativistic wave equations. Particular attention is paid to the chiral theories, and to the method of the Lorentz boosts.

  17. Minimum construction of two-qubit quantum operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Sastry, S; Whaley, K B; Zhang, Jun; Vala, Jiri; Sastry, Shankar

    2003-01-01

    Optimal construction of quantum operations is a fundamental problem in the realization of quantum computation. We here introduce a newly discovered quantum gate, B, that can implement any arbitrary two-qubit quantum operation with minimal number of both two- and single-qubit gates. We show this by giving an analytic circuit that implements a generic nonlocal two-qubit operation from just two applications of the B gate. We also demonstrate that for the highly scalable Josephson junction charge qubits, the B gate is also more easily and quickly generated than the CNOT gate for physically feasible parameters.

  18. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Unix batch services will be available but without access to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by Email to computer.operations@cern.ch. Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files (for Unix or Windows) or for email folders. Any changes that you make to your files during this period may be lost in the event of a disk failure. Please note that all t...

  19. Quantum current operators; 3, Commutative quantum current operators semi-infinite construction and functional models

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Feigin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    We construct a commutative current operator $\\bar x^+(z)$ inside $U_q(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2))$. With this operator and the condition of quantum integrability on the quantum current of $U_q(\\hat{\\frak sl}(2))$, we derive the quantization of the semi-infinite construction of integrable modules of The quantization of the functional models for $\\hat{\\frak sl}(2)$ are also given.

  20. Design Improvement Study for Passive Shutdown System of the PGSFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    There have been no experiences of implementing a passive shutdown system in operating or operated SFRs around the world. However, new SFRs are considered to adopt a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) in the future to provide an alternate means of passively shutting down the reactor. The Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) also adopts this system for the same reason. This passive shutdown design concept is combined with a group of secondary control rod drive mechanisms (SCRDM). The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power in an emergency of the reactor. This paper describes the design upgrade parametric study of a passive shutdown system, which consists of a thermal expansion device, an electromagnet, a secondary control rod assembly head, etc. The conceptual design values of each component are also suggested. Parametric calculations are performed to meet the performance requirements of the thermal expansion device and electromagnets. The maximum thermal expansion difference length of 3.6 mm is less than the target value of 5 mm, and the calculated electromagnet forces on the CRA are smaller than the target value of 800 N. An additional design improvement to increase the thermal expansion difference length of a thermal expansion device are necessary to meet the target value, and the electromagnetic force should be increased by an adjustment of the electromagnet design values such as supplied current, material permeability, etc. The design feasibility of the thermal expansion device as a passive concept will be verified based on these results.

  1. Some applications and constructions of intertwining operators in LCFT

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovic, Drazen

    2016-01-01

    We discuss some applications of fusion rules and intertwining operators in the representation theory of cyclic orbifolds of the triplet vertex operator algebra. We prove that the classification of irreducible modules for the orbifold vertex algebra W(p)^{A_m} follows from a conjectural fusion rules formula for the singlet vertex algebra modules. In the p=2 case, we computed fusion rules for the irreducible singlet vertex algebra modules by using intertwining operators. This result implies the classification of irreducible modules for W(2)^{A_m}, conjectured previously in [4]. The main technical tool is a new deformed realization of the triplet and singlet vertex algebras, which is used to construct certain intertwining operators that can not be detected by using standard free field realizations.

  2. Oscillator construction of su(n|m) Q-operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassek, Rouven, E-mail: rfrassek@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lukowski, Tomasz, E-mail: lukowski@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meneghelli, Carlo, E-mail: carlo@aei.mpg.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias, E-mail: matthias@aei.mpg.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    We generalize our recent explicit construction of the full hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators of compact spin chains with su(n) symmetry to the supersymmetric case su(n|m). The method is based on novel degenerate solutions of the graded Yang-Baxter equation, leading to an amalgam of bosonic and fermionic oscillator algebras. Our approach is fully algebraic, and leads to the exact solution of the associated compact spin chains while avoiding Bethe ansatz techniques. It furthermore elucidates the algebraic and combinatorial structures underlying the system of nested Bethe equations. Finally, our construction naturally reproduces the representation, due to Z. Tsuboi, of the hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators in terms of hypercubic Hasse diagrams.

  3. Constructive Representation Theory for the Feynman Operator Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, T L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent progress on the constructive theory of the Feynman operator calculus. We first develop an operator version of the Henstock-Kurzweil integral, and a new Hilbert space that allows us to construct the elementary path integral in the manner originally envisioned by Feynman. After developing our time-ordered operator theory we extend a few of the important theorems of semigroup theory, including the Hille-Yosida theorem. As an application, we unify and extend the theory of time-dependent parabolic and hyperbolic evolution equations. We then develop a general perturbation theory and use it to prove that all theories generated by semigroups are asympotic in the operator-valued sense of Poincar e. This allows us to provide a general theory for the interaction representation of relativistic quantum theory. We then show that our theory can be reformulated as a physically motivated sum over paths, and use this version to extend the Feynman path integral to include more general interaction...

  4. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge.

  5. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, A.

    2016-12-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012 – 2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC.

  6. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012-2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC

  7. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  8. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  9. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  10. FPGA Implementation of the stepwise shutdown system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotjonen, L.

    2012-07-01

    This report elaborates the design process of applications for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Brief introductions to EPGA technology and the design process are first given and then the design phases are walked through with the aid of a case study. FPGA is a programmable logic device that is programmed by the customer rather than the manufacturer. They are also usually re-programmable which enables updating their programming and otherwise modifying the design. There are also one-time programmable FPGAs that can be used when security issues require it. FPGA is said to be 'hardware designed like software', which means that the design process resembles software development but the end-product is considered a hardware application because the execution of the functions is entirely different from a microprocessor. This duality can give both the flexibility of software and the reliability of hardware. The FPGA design and verification and validation (V and V) methods for NPP safety systems have not yet matured because the technology is rather new in the field. Software development methods and stanfards can be used to some extent but the hardware aspects bring new challenges that cannot be tacled using purely software methods. International efforts are being made to development formal and consistent design and V and V methodology regulations for FPGA devices. A preventive safety function called Stepwise Shutdown System (SWS) was implemented on an Actel M1 IGLOO field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. SWS is used to drive a process into a normal state if the process measurements deviate from the desired operating values. This can happen in case of process disturbances. The SWS implementation processfrom the reguirements to the functional device is elaborated. The design is tested via simulation and hardware testing. The case study is to be further expanded as a part of a master's thesis. (orig.)

  11. Improvements of primary coolant shutdown chemistry and reactor coolant system cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudard, G.; Gilles, B.; Mesnage, F. [EDF/GDL (France); Cattant, F. [EDF R and D (France)

    2002-07-01

    In the framework of a radiation exposure management program entitled <>, EDF aims at decreasing the mass dosimetry of nuclear power plants workers. So, the annual dose per unit, which has improved from 2.44 m.Sv in 1991 to 1.08 in 2000, should target 0.8 mSv in the year 2005 term in order to meet the results of the best nuclear operators. One of the guidelines for irradiation source term reduction is the optimization of operation parameters, including reactor coolant system (RCS) chemistry in operation, RCS shutdown chemistry and RCS cleanup improvement. This paper presents the EDF strategy for the shutdown and start up RCS chemistry optimization. All the shutdown modes have been reviewed and for each of them, the chemical specifications will be fine tuned. A survey of some US PWRs shutdown practices has been conducted for an acid and reducing shutdown chemistry implementation test at one EDF unit. This survey shows that deviating from the EPRI recommended practice for acid and reducing shutdown chemistry is possible and that critical path impact can be minimized. The paper also presents some investigations about soluble and insoluble species behavior and characterization; the study focuses here on {sup 110m}Ag, {sup 122}Sb, {sup 124}Sb and iodine contamination. Concerning RCS cleanup improvement, the paper presents two studies. The first one highlights some limited design modifications that are either underway or planned, for an increased flow rate during the most critical periods of the shutdown. The second one focuses on the strategy EDF envisions for filters and resins selection criteria. Matching the study on contaminants behavior with the study of filters and resins selection criteria should allow improving the cleanup efficiency. (authors)

  12. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and health: an emerging role for social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Raina M; Ha, Yoonhee P; Wong, Charlene A; Schwartz, H Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H; Asch, David A

    2014-12-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, "We're sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We'll be back as soon as possible!" These "last tweets" and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media's role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health.

  13. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%.

  14. The FY2014 Government Shutdown: Economic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    volatile on a weekly basis, can be attributed to the shutdown and debt limit (the study does not attempt to distinguish between the relative...half the reduction attributable to lower government spending and half to “ spillover effects and lost activity” in the rest of the economy.39

  15. ORAM and shutdown PRA comparison study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, W.G.; Hilsmeier, Todd; Carrier, Tom [PSE and G, Salem, NJ (United States)

    2000-07-01

    A comparison study between results obtained from an Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) model and a shutdown Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) model was conducted. The purpose of the study was to provide useful risk information for better outage planning by focusing resources and contingency plans on risk significant configurations. The comparison study used selected configurations from the 8th refueling outage of the Hope Creek Generation Station (HCGS), a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). A total of Eleven configurations were compared. Three configurations were selected to evaluate the impact of the Service Water System during the early stage of a refueling outage. (There are existing studies suggesting that the designed redundancy of Service Water Systems is needed during the early stage of a shutdown.) Four configurations were selected because they were deemed risk significant by the ORAM analysis. (For configurations deemed risk significant by ORAM results, compensatory actions have been taken and contingency plans have been developed to mitigate potential deviations from the configuration. The shutdown PRA was used to evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of these contingency plans and compensatory actions.) To increase the comparison population, an additional four configurations were randomly selected. Thus, a total of 15 configurations were evaluated by the shutdown PRA, and a total of 11 configurations were studied by the ORAM. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 63.310 - Requirements for startups, shutdowns, and malfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or operator shall operate and maintain the coke oven battery and its pollution control equipment required under this subpart, in a manner consistent with good air pollution control practices for... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.310 Requirements for startups, shutdowns...

  17. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O' Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been

  18. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  19. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience in LHC.

  20. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adler, Clemens; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Antonczyk, Dariusz; Arend, Andreas; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartos, D; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Baumann, Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Bucher, Damian; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Caragheorgheopol, G; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, V; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Chernenko, S; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Ciobanu, M; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; Daues, Heinz; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Deplano, Caterina; Devismes, A; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dupieux, Pascal; Duta, V; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Esumi, Shinichi; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fateev, O; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fleck, M; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Freuen, S; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gatz, Henriette; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giolu, G; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-dziadus, Ewa; Glasow, Richard; Glassel, Peter; Gremmler, Svenja; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Sanchez Gonzalez, Andres; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Gottschalk, Dirk; Gottschlag, Holger; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grajcarek, Robert; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grimm, Helge; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Gruber, Lukas; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutfleisch, M; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamon, Julien Charles; Haque, Md Rihan; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hehner, Joerg; Heide, Markus; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hladky, Jan; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huber, Sebastian; Hughes, Charles; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jercic, Marko; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kislov, E; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; "Klein-Boesing", Melanie; Kliemant, Michael; Klingenmeyer, Hannah; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kohn, Martin; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konno, Masahiro; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kravcakova, Adela; Krawutschke, Tobias; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krumbhorn, Dirk; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehmann, T; Lehner, Jorg; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Lesser, F; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lohner, Daniel; Lonne, Per-ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Lu, XianGuo; Ludolphs, W; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Lutz, Tyler Harrison; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Magureanu, C; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmoud, T; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Lucio Martinez, Jose Antonio; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzilli, Marianna; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Mhlanga, Sibaliso; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mihaylov, Dimitar Lubomirov; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morino, Yuhei; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munning, Konstantin; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murakami, Hikari; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Myers, Corey James; Myrcha, Julian Wojciech; Mycke, Jan Felix; Nag, Dipanjan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Neher, Michael; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Panebratsev, Yu; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Park, WooJin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petris, M; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Radomski, Sylwester; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Rana, Dhan Bahadur; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Reischl, A; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; Rumyantsev, Boris; Rusanov, Ivan; Rustamov, Anar; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Saarinen, Sampo; Sadhu, Samrangy; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Saha, Sumit Kumar; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Baidyanath; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dousatsu; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandoval, Andres; Sann, H; Sano, Masato; Santo, Rainer; Sarkar, Debojit; Sarkar, Nachiketa; Sarma, Pranjal; Sas, Mike Henry Petrus; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schaefer, Brennan; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Scheid, Horst Sebastian; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schmidt, Marten Ole; Schmidt, Martin; Schmidt, Nicolas Vincent; Schmiederer, Stefan; Schneider, R; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulze, R; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sedykh, S; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sett, Priyanka; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shaikh, Wadut; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Anjali; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Sheikh, Ashik Ikbal; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimansky, S; Shou, Qiye; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Shukla, P; Sibiryak, Yury; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silaeva, Svetlana; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simon, Reinhard S; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singhal, Vikas; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Smykov, L; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Solveit, Hans Kristian; Sommer, Wolfgang; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stankus, Paul; Stelzer, Herbert; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Stiller, Johannes; Stocco, Diego; Stockmeyer, MR; Storetvedt, Maksim Melnik; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Tilsner, Heinz; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsiledakis, Georgios; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vargas, H; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vazquez Doce, Oton; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Velure, Arild; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Vertesi, Robert; Vickovic, Linda; Vigolo, Sonia; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Voscek, Dominik; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, Boris; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Kengo; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Wegerle, Dominik; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wenzel, Sandro Christian; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Willems, Guido Alexander; Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael; Witt, William Edward; Xu, C; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yurevich, Vladimir; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zanevski, Yuri; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmer, Stefan; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2017-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet and for electron selection.

  1. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis and between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC.

  2. Impacts of flare emissions from an ethylene plant shutdown to regional air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Sujing; Xu, Qiang; Ho, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Critical operations of chemical process industry (CPI) plants such as ethylene plant shutdowns could emit a huge amount of VOCs and NOx, which may result in localized and transient ozone pollution events. In this paper, a general methodology for studying dynamic ozone impacts associated with flare emissions from ethylene plant shutdowns has been developed. This multi-scale simulation study integrates process knowledge of plant shutdown emissions in terms of flow rate and speciation together with regional air-quality modeling to quantitatively investigate the sensitivity of ground-level ozone change due to an ethylene plant shutdown. The study shows the maximum hourly ozone increments can vary significantly by different plant locations and temporal factors including background ozone data and solar radiation intensity. It helps provide a cost-effective air-quality control strategy for industries by choosing the optimal starting time of plant shutdown operations in terms of minimizing the induced ozone impact (reduced from 34.1 ppb to 1.2 ppb in the performed case studies). This study provides valuable technical supports for both CPI and environmental policy makers on cost-effective air-quality controls in the future.

  3. Time-dependence of the dose distribution in the containment of the CAREM-25 reactor during shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jatuff, Fabian E. [Investigacion Aplicada SE (INVAP), San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1997-12-01

    The dose rate distribution in the surroundings of the pressure vessel and day room of the CAREM-25 reactor was determined for the shutdown status. The time dependence of dose rate distribution was calculated for periods of one minute, one hour, one and three days, one week and one month after shutdown. The radiation sources were determined and individual dose rates calculated for each individual source separately. The results show the importance of water activity source term as the fundamental source at shutdown condition, and the possibility of man-proceeded operations, provided activated gases and halogens are previously removed from the water source term. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Control Strategies for Drug Product Continuous Direct Compression-State of Control, Product Collection Strategies, and Startup/Shutdown Operations for the Production of Clinical Trial Materials and Commercial Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaya, Ahmad; De Belder, Lawrence; Meyer, Robert; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hung-Ren Homer; Leavesley, Ian; Jayanth, Jayanthy; Bajwa, Gurjit; DiNunzio, James; Tantuccio, Anthony; Blackwood, Dan; Abebe, Admassu

    2017-04-01

    Continuous manufacturing (CM) has emerged in the pharmaceutical industry as a paradigm shift with significant advantages related to cost, efficiency, flexibility, and higher assurance of quality. The inherent differences from batch processes justify examining the CM control strategy more holistically. This article describes the current thinking for the control and implementation of CM, using the example of a direct compression process and taking into consideration the ICH Q10 definition of "state of control" and process validation requirements. Statistical process control using control charts, sources of variation, process capability, and process performance is explained as a useful concept that can help assess the impact of variation within a batch and indicates if a process is in state of control. The potential for time-variant nature of startup and shutdown with CM is discussed to assure product quality while minimizing waste as well as different options for detection and isolation of non-conforming materials due to process upsets. While different levels of control are possible with CM, an appropriate balance between process control and end product testing is needed depending on the level of process understanding at the different stages of development from the production of clinical supplies through commercialization.

  5. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  6. Hybrid Dynamic Modeling and Control of Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Stack Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; CAO Guang-yi; ZHU Xin-jian

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid automaton modeling approach that incorporates state space partitioning, phase dynamic modeling and control law synthesis by control strategy is utilized to develop a hybrid automaton model of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack shutdown. The shutdown operation is divided into several phases and their boundaries are decided according to a control strategy, which is a set of specifications about the dynamics of MCFC stack during shutdown. According to the control strategy, the specification of increasing stack temperature is satisfied in a phase that can be modeled accurately. The model for phase that has complex dynamic is approximated. The duration of this kind of phase is decreased to minimize the error caused by model approximation.

  7. Global shutdown dose rate maps for a DEMO conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtle, D., E-mail: dieter.leichtle@f4e.europa.eu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanz, J.; Catalan, J.P.; Juarez, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia(UNED), E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Application of R2S-method on high-resolution full torus sector mesh for DEMO. • Absorbed dose rates after shutdown for a variely of RH equipment at typical locations. • Idenification of radiation levels at several port based locations. - Abstract: For the calculations of highly reliable shutdown dose rate (SDR) maps in fusion devices like a DEMO plant, the Rigorous-2-step (R2S) method is nowadays routinely applied using high-resolution decay gamma sources from initial high-resolution neutron flux meshes activating all materials in the system. This approach has been utilized in the present paper with the objective to provide SDR results relevant for RH systems of a conceptual DEMO design developed in the EU. The primary objective was to assess specific locations of interest for RH equipment inside the vessel and along the extension of maintenance ports. To this end, a provisional DEMO MCNP model has been used, featuring HCLL-type blankets, tungsten/copper divertor, manifolds, vacuum vessel with ports and toroidal field coils. The operational scenario assumed 2.1 GW fusion power and a life-time of 20 years with plant availability of 30%, where removable parts will be extracted after 5.2 years. Results of absorbed dose rate distributions for several relevant materials are presented and discussed in terms of the different contributions from the various activated components.

  8. The 2013 US Government Shutdown (#Shutdown) and Health: An Emerging Role for Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yoonhee P.; Wong, Charlene A.; Schwartz, H. Andrew; Sap, Maarten; Ungar, Lyle H.; Asch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    In October 2013, multiple United States (US) federal health departments and agencies posted on Twitter, “We’re sorry, but we will not be tweeting or responding to @replies during the shutdown. We’ll be back as soon as possible!” These “last tweets” and the millions of responses they generated revealed social media’s role as a forum for sharing and discussing information rapidly. Social media are now among the few dominant communication channels used today. We used social media to characterize the public discourse and sentiment about the shutdown. The 2013 shutdown represented an opportunity to explore the role social media might play in events that could affect health. PMID:25322303

  9. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...

  10. Towards an Operational Definition of Lean Construction Onsite

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren Leong, Michelle; Ward, Steve; Koskela, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Through literature review and drawing from a combined professional experience of over 20 years of lean construction implementation, this paper investigates the key success factor for the automotive industry’s uptake of lean production to see what the construction industry can derive from it. The paper concludes that there exist a variety of definitions of lean, but no existing definition is yet satisfactory to describe lean construction in a rigorously testable method. This is a major obstacl...

  11. Exposure from residual radiation after synchrotron shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, M.F. [Proton Therapy, Inc., Colton, CA 92324 (United States)], E-mail: mfmoyers@roadrunner.com; Lesyna, D.A. [Optivus Proton Therapy, San Bernardino, CA 92408 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Personnel exposure from residual radiation present after an accelerator is shutdown for preventative or corrective maintenance is an important aspect that governs the manner in which a light ion facility can be used. This radiation is not only a safety issue for maintenance personnel but also can affect the patient throughput of the facility. Measurements were made with survey instruments around the synchrotron accelerator at the Loma Linda University Proton Treatment Facility and personnel dosimetry records of maintenance staff were reviewed. Results showed that the residual radiation in this facility design is very low, does not significantly impact maintenance staff safety, and has placed no restrictions on patient throughput.

  12. The Probabilistic Safety Analysis during low power and shutdown, framework to improve safety; El APS a baja potencia en parada, marco para la mejora de la seguridad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nos, V.

    2014-02-01

    Historically Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) has been focused exclusively at full power operation, nevertheless, operational experience has revealed that events occurred during low power and shutdown can also present threats for the safety of the plant. Through qualitative assessment (NUMARC 91-06) about the configuration in shutdown have been internationally accepted, the benefits of Low Power and Shutdown PSA have been demonstrated as fundamental framework of quantitative understanding for improving safety and risk management in the above mentioned operative conditions of the plant. (Author)

  13. Decommissioning of the NPP Obrigheim (KWO). Shutdown/close-down of systems or components; Stilllegungsbetrieb der Anlage KWO Obrigheim. Ausserbetriebnahme / Stillsetzung von Systemen oder Anlagenteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Eberhard H. [ISE Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Stilllegung und Entsorgung mbH, Roedermark (Germany); Rudolf, Dieter [Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG (EnBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    As a consequence of the decommissioning of the NPP Obrigheim (KWO) the plant was transferred into the decommissioning operation, including the operation of several safety relevant systems and the storage of irradiation fuel elements. Actually, the fuel element have been removed from the reactor pressure vessel and the reactor building 01 and are now stored in an external fuel element storage pool at the NPP site. Most of the systems required for power operation have been shutdown (drained, depressurized, cold, and disconnected from operated systems). The operated systems exhibit significantly lower working pressure and temperatures compared to power operation. The shutdown is performed stepwise, for each system a shutdown plan has to be prepared, describing the scheduled measures. The presentation includes details of the work flow of the performed and planned system shutdown.

  14. Construction Management Utilizing 4D CAD and Operations Simulation Methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianping; ZHANG Yang; HU Zhenzhong; LU Ming

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents applications of simplified discrete-event simulation (SDESA), and 4D-GCPSU,to the National Stadium of the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Taking into account influential factors, e.g., resource, spatial condition, and the randomness of the construction process, the installation process of the steel- structure was simulated and optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology. The op- erations simulation shortened the installation duration by 39 days (about 16% of the original total duration),guided the manufacturers to plan the construction processes, and provided specific suggestions on the en-try time of the installation components, resulting in resource allocation optimization, resource saving, and construction efficiency improvement. Combining with the optimized schedule, the 4D visualization environ- ment can discover time-space conflicts timely, and may assist project managers to reschedule the construc-tion activities in tune with the site layout and resource allocation.

  15. Professionalising the asphalt construction process: aligning information technologies, operators' knowledge and laboratory practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, Frank Roland

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the need to professionalise the asphalt construction process. A distinctive action research strategy is designed and carried out to progressively improve operational strategies of asphalt teams from technological, human (operator) and laboratory perspectives. Using informatio

  16. ISHIKAWA ITERATIVE PROCESS FOR CONSTRUCTING SOLUTIONS OF m-ACCRETIVE OPERATOR EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾六川

    2002-01-01

    The convergence of the Ishikawa iteration sequences with errors for constructing solutions of m-accretive operator equations is characterized. Moreover, the error estimates of approximate solutions for locally Lipschitzian and m-accretive operator equations are established.

  17. Construction and operation of an electromagnetic shower detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbincius, P.H.; Polychronakos, V.A.; Barton, D.S.; Dobrowolski, T.; Halliwell, C.; Kendall, H.W.; Lyons, T.; Young, C.C.; Nassalski, J.; Siemiarczuk, T.

    1979-10-01

    An electromagnetic shower detector consisting of lead glass blocks and scintillator hodoscopes was constructed. During calibration runs detector resolutions were measured for single incident electrons. Performance of the detector for ..pi../sup 0/ and multi-photon showers, including sizable backgrounds, was studied during actual data runs. This detector was used in Fermilab Experiment 451.

  18. Operation and Funding of the Regional Wartime Construction Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    for 75 days, but construction requirements continue for a total of 90 days. a. Threat Forces The countries of Tiburon, Perro , Pared, Zorritos, Barco...country of Perro through to the country of Cisnes. Concurrently, BP forces from their eastern command (Pared, Zorritos, Barco, and Mariposa) launch

  19. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are

  20. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Remarks on the construction of a Hermitian phase operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P.; Roy, B.

    1997-12-01

    We consider an oscillator system (whose states are realized in the space of Kravchuk polynomials) in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space. A Hermitian phase operator and the phase quanta raising and lowering operator are constructed using this framework. Also, we have constructed phase coherent states and examined their squeezing property.

  1. Difference equations of quantum current operators and quantum parafermion construction

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, J; Ding, Jintai; Feigin, Boris

    1996-01-01

    For the current realization of the affine quantum groups, a simple comultiplication for the quantum current operators was given by Drinfeld. With this comultiplication, we prove that, for the integrable modules of $U_q(\\hat x^\\pm(zq^{\\pm 2k})$ are vertex operators satisfying certain q-difference equations, and we derive the quantum parafermions of $U_q(\\hat {\\frak sl}(2))$.

  2. 46 CFR 111.33-7 - Alarms and shutdowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alarms and shutdowns. 111.33-7 Section 111.33-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Power Semiconductor Rectifier Systems § 111.33-7 Alarms and shutdowns. Each power...

  3. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  4. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  5. Constructing rational maps with cluster points using the mating operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharland, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we show that all admissible rational maps with fixed or period two cluster cycles can be constructed by the mating of polynomials. We also investigate the polynomials which make up the matings that construct these rational maps. In the one cluster case, one of the polynomials must be an $n$-rabbit and in the two cluster case, one of the maps must be either $f$, a "double rabbit", or $g$, a secondary map which lies in the wake of the double rabbit $f$. There is also a very simple combinatorial way of classifiying the maps which must partner the aforementioned polynomials to create rational maps with cluster cycles. Finally, we also investigate the multiplicities of the shared matings arising from the matings in the paper.

  6. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  7. MRF based construction of statistical operator and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hongliang; LIU Guizhong; LI Yongli; HOU Xingsong

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Markov random field (MRF) theory, a new nonlinear operator is defined according to the statistical information in the image, and the corresponding 2D nonlinear wavelet transform is also provided. It is proved that many detail coefficients being zero (or almost zero) in the smooth gray-level variation areas can be achieved under the conditional probability density function in MRF model, which shows that this operator is suitable for the task of image compression, especially for lossless coding applications. Experimental results using several test images indicate good performances of the proposed method with the smaller entropy for the compound and smooth medical images with respect to the other nonlinear transform methods based on median and morphological operator and some well-known linear lifting wavelet transform methods (5/3, 9/7, and S+P).

  8. Yannawa wastewater treatment plant (Bangkok, Thailand): design, construction and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, S

    2004-01-01

    Yannawa Wastewater Treatment plant (Phase 1) serves a population equivalent of 500,000 and is located on a restricted site within the city of Bangkok, Thailand. Secondary treatment is based on the CASS sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process and the plant is one of the largest multi-storey SBRs in the world. The limitation of available site area, the ground conditions and the characteristics of the wastewater to be treated set a series of challenges for the designers, contractors and commissioning and operational staff. This paper briefly describes the collection system, the process selection and the treatment streams of the wastewater treatment plant. The SBR secondary treatment plant is described in more detail. The problems that arose during commissioning and operation and the solutions made possible by the use of an SBR type of process are discussed. Details of plant performance during performance testing and during the first three years of plant operation are provided.

  9. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  10. The transition from construction to operations on the ALMA control software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Ralph; Hiriart, Rafael

    2016-07-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a set of 66 millimeter wave antenna in the Andes in Northern Chile. All antennas are connected and operate as an interferometer making ALMA the most powerful millimeter telescope in the world. In 2013 ALMA formally marked the end of construction and the beginning of operations. This paper will focus on the impact, on the ALMA control software, of this transition from construction to operations.

  11. Educational Trends Shaping School Planning, Design, Construction, Funding and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    What does the future hold for educators and facilities professionals when it comes to planning, building, funding, and operating school facilities? No one can absolutely know beforehand. However, there are many, many indicators of where public education in the United States may well be destined. These indicators take the form of already occurring…

  12. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  13. Construction and initial operation of the combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enteria, Napoleon; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Mochida, Akashi; Takaki, Rie [Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satake, Akira [Technical Research Institute, Maeda Corporation, Tokyo 179-8914 (Japan); Yoshie, Ryuichiro [Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo Polytechnic University, Atsugi 243-0297 (Japan); Mitamura, Teruaki [Faculty of Engineering, Ashikaga Institute of Technology, Ashikaga 326-8558 (Japan); Baba, Seizo [Earth Clean Tohoku Co., Ltd., Sendai 984-0038 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    This paper reports the constructed combined solar thermal and electric desiccant cooling system - its initial operation and operational procedures. The system, as designed, can be operated during nighttime and daytime. The nighttime operation is for thermal energy storage using the auxiliary electric heater, while the daytime operation is for solar energy collection and desiccant cooling. Ongoing experimental evaluation is being undertaken to observe and determine the long-term performance of the system. (author)

  14. Problems of NPP construction project standardization and operational safety increase in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Yu.V.

    1980-01-01

    Main causes of slackening paces of the USA nuclear power engineering development are considered using the experience of the USA NPP design, construction and operation. Data on increase in capital investments for the NPP construction and variation of their structure to enhancing waste of capital are given. Problems of improvement of operational safety of water-cooled and water-moderated reactors as well as NPP separate assemblies are considered. Ways for reducing periods of NPP design realization are described taking as an example the USA leading power, construction and reactor construction companies. It is shown that the optimization of existing methods for designing NPPs and nuclear reactor structures, systems for construction management and control as well as complex standartization of equipment, construction methods and operational procedures for NPPs are main factors.

  15. Mission Assurance: An Operating Construct for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    structures. A search of databases ; academic, government and open sources is more likely to provide copious data regarding space craft operations when...resource allocation.”15 Summary The literature search in addition to the standard library database search utilized government databases such as; GAO...Retrieved from EBSCOhost . 7 Prizzia, R and Helfand, G (2001) Emergency preparedness and disaster management in Hawaii. Disaster Prevention and

  16. A buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for passive reactivity control of a Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blandford, Edward D., E-mail: edb@unm.edu [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131-0001 (United States); Peterson, Per F. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • We develop a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for a FHR. • Shutdown rod system can be actively or passively activated during transients. • Response of the rod was computationally simulated and experimentally validated. • Initial results indicate rod could provide effective transient reactivity control. -- Abstract: This paper presents a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod concept for use in Fluoride salt-cooled High-temperature Reactors (FHRs). The baseline design considered here is a 900 MWth modular version of the FHR class called the Pebble Bed Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) that uses pebble fuel. Due to the high volumetric heat capacity of the primary coolant, the FHRs operate with a high power density core with a similar average coolant temperature as in modular helium reactors. The reactivity control system for the baseline PB-AHTR uses a novel buoyantly-driven shutdown rod system that can be actively or passively activated during reactor transients. In addition to a traditional active insertion mechanism, the new shutdown rod system is designed to also operate passively, fulfilling the role of a reserve shutdown system. The physical response of the shutdown rod was simulated both computationally and experimentally, using scaling arguments where applicable, with an emphasis on key phenomena identified by a preliminary Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) study. This paper presents results from both the pre-predicted simulation and experimental validation efforts.

  17. The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2003-01-01

    The Two-Stage Gasifier was operated for several weeks (465 hours) and of these 190 hours continuously. The gasifier is operated automatically unattended day and night, and only small adjustments of the feeding rate were necessary once or twice a day. The operation was successful, and the output a...... of the reactor had to be constructed in some other material....

  18. 75 FR 13299 - Lower Colorado River Authority Transmission Services Corporation; Construction, Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ...; Construction, Operation, Maintenance, and Repair of Competitive Renewable Energy Zone Transmission Lines and..., operation, and/or maintenance of LCRA TSC's CREZ transmission lines. The proposed HCP, which must meet the..., operation, maintenance, and repair of LCRA TSC's CREZ transmission lines and all related infrastructure......

  19. Construction and Operation of a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Matthew W.; Javernick, Philip D.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2012-02-01

    A Differential Hall Element Magnetometer (DHEM) was constructed to measure the magnetic saturation and coercive fields of small samples consisting of magnetic nanoparticles that may have biomedical applications. The device consists of two matched Hall elements that can be moved through the room temperature bore of a 9 Tesla superconducting magnet. The Hall elements are wired in opposition such that a null response, to within a small offset, is measured in the absence of a sample that may be located on top of one unit. A LabVIEW program controls the current through the Hall elements and measures the net Hall voltage while simultaneously moving the probe through the magnetic field by regulating a linear stepper motor. Ultimately, the system will be tested to obtain a figure of merit using successively smaller samples. Details of the apparatus will be provided along with preliminary data.

  20. Outcomes of an international initiative for harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many probabilistic safety assessment studies completed to the date have demonstrated that the risk dealing with low power and shutdown operation of nuclear power plants is often comparable with the risk of at-power operation, and the main contributors to the low power and shutdown risk often deal with human factors. Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, decommissioning and dismantling. The importance of this aspect has been confirmed by recent operating experience. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of a workshop organized in 2007 by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. The major objective of the workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and the results of human reliability analyses and gain insights in the enhanced handling of human factors.

  1. Investigation into the High Voltage Shutdown of the Oxygen Generator System in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Joyce E.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Diderich, Greg S.; Roy, Robert J.; Golden, John L.; VanKeuren, Steve; Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony J.; Varsik, Jerome D.; Montefusco, Daniel J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Worthy, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System (OGS) Hydrogen Dome Assembly Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) serial number 00001 suffered a cell stack high-voltage shutdown on July 5, 2010. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was removed and replaced with the on-board spare ORU serial number 00002 to maintain OGS operation. The Hydrogen Dome Assembly ORU was returned from ISS on STS-133/ULF-5 in March 2011 with test, teardown and evaluation (TT&E) and failure analysis to follow.

  2. Hangout with CERN: LHC, why the shutdown? (S02E06)

    CERN Multimedia

    Kahle, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider has now entered its first long shutdown. But why? Why stop a machine that is working so well?CMS experiment physicist Seth Zenz is joined by head of LHC Operations, Mike Lamont, as well as CMS physicist Freya Blekman and ATLAS physicist Steven Goldfarb, with questions from Anne-Sophie Dirand from France and social media.Recorded live on 28th February 2013.

  3. The construction and combined operation for fuzzy consistent matrixes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Min; SHEN Bin; LUO Jian-hua

    2005-01-01

    Fuzziness is one of the general characteristics of human thinking and objective things. Introducing fuzzy techniques into decision-making yields very good results. Fuzzy consistent matrix has many excellent characteristics, especially center-division transitivity conforming to the reality of the human thinking process in decision-making. This paper presents a new approach for creating fuzzy consistent matrix from mutual supplementary matrix in fuzzy decision-making. At the same time,based on the distance between individual fuzzy consistent matrix and average fuzzy consistent matrix, a kind of combined operation for several fuzzy consistent matrixes is presented which reflects most opinions of experienced experts. Finally, a practical example shows its flexibility and practicability further.

  4. Toward Construction of Exact Operator Solution of $A_N$-Toda Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Takimoto, Y

    2002-01-01

    Quantum $A_N$-Toda field theory in two dimensions is investigated based on the method of quantizing canonical free field. Toda exponential operator associated with the fundamental weight $\\lambda^1$ is constructed.

  5. Horizontal high-pressure air injection well construction and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, J. [Continental Resources Inc., ND (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the design and operational challenges of a horizontal high-pressure air injection well currently in use at the Cedar Hill Red River B field in North Dakota. The field was developed in 1994, using horizontal wells oriented from the northeast to the southwest corners of each section on 640 acre spacing. In March of 2001, the field was unitized resulting in a horizontal waterflood project and a 320 acre horizontal high pressure air injection project. Extreme temperatures and pressures occurring in the reservoir from the combustion processes associated with high pressure air injection have resulted in several challenges. Reservoir and fluid properties of the field were presented, as well as a type log. Details of the Buffalo and Cedar Hills field were also provided, with a comparison of horizontal and vertical patterns. A light oil displacement process was reviewed, with details of tubing leak corrosion, packer seal and detonation failures. Burn front exposure to casing was discussed, and a wellbore diagram was provided. Various horizontal conversions were discussed. A description of the Cedar Hills Compressor Station and compression trains was provided. It was concluded that knowledge gained from 25 years of vertical high pressure air injection experience has been successfully incorporated to create a safe and durable design. 1 tab., 16 figs.

  6. 33 CFR 148.725 - What are the design, construction and operational criteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the design, construction... Criteria for Deepwater Ports § 148.725 What are the design, construction and operational criteria? In... the basis of how well they: (a) Reflect the use of best available technology in design,...

  7. Construction of some Quantum Stochastic Operator Cocycles by the Semigroup Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Martin Lindsay; Stephen J Wills

    2006-11-01

    A new method for the construction of Fock-adapted quantum stochastic operator cocycles is outlined, and its use is illustrated by application to a number of examples arising in physics and probability. The construction uses the Trotter–Kato theorem and a recent characterisation of such cocycles in terms of an associated family of contraction semigroups.

  8. Thermal shutdown behavior of PVdF-HFP based polymer electrolytes comprising heat sensitive cross-linkable oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.; Wan, C. C.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wu, M. S.

    PVdF-HFP (polyvinylidenefluoride-hexafluoropropylene) polymer electrolytes comprising cross-linkable PEGDMA (polyethylene glycol dimethacrylate) oligomers with thermal shutdown characteristic have been developed. In contrast to the melting mechanism of polyolefin, this new polymer electrolyte possesses a thermal shutdown characteristic by a rapid cross-linking reaction of PEGDMA. The cross-linked PEGDMA network inside the PVdF-HFP matrix can provide the mechanical strength for the electrolytes, while the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers serve as plasticizers for PVdF-HFP to improve the mobility of lithium ions at normal operation temperatures. In addition, the un-cross-linked PEGDMA oligomers can initiate cross-linking upon a sudden rise of temperature and thus provide thermal shutdown protection at elevated temperatures.

  9. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC’s Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J A

    2014-01-01

    During the long shutdown 1 (LS1), several maintenance, consolidation and upgrade activities have been carried out in LHC’s injector chain. Each machine has specific vacuum requirements and different history, which determine the present status of the vacuum components, their maintenance and consolidation needs. The present work presents the priorities agreed at the beginning of the LS1 period and their implementation. Of particular relevance are the interventions in radioactive controlled areas where several leaks due to stress corrosions stopped the operations in the past years. The strategy to reduce the collective dose is presented, in particular the use of remote controlled robots. An important part of the work performed during this period involves supporting other teams (acceptance tests, new equipment installation, etc.). Finally, as a result of the LS1 experience, a medium to long term strategy is depicted, focusing on the preparation of the next shutdown (LS2) and the integration of LINAC4 in the in...

  10. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1997-03-01

    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  11. Containment closure time following loss of cooling under shutdown conditions of YGN units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling. The thermal hydraulic analyses were performed for the five cases of RCS configurations under the worst event scenario, unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior. From the analyses results, times to boil, times to core uncovery and times to core heat up were estimated to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. These data provide useful information to the abnormal procedure to cope with the event. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  12. 基于LTE网络的智能关断技术研究%Intelligent Shutdown Technology Based on LTE Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李韶英; 庄湛海; 倪伟彬

    2014-01-01

    通过对基站射频智能关断、载频智能关断、PSU智能关断、通道智能关断、符号智能关断、MBSFN子帧调整关断等智能关断技术进行研究,分析比较各种智能关断技术的优缺点和适用场景,为运营商在4G网络建设的同时实施节能减排提供了技术参考。%Based on the research on the intelligent shutdown technologies of base station, such as radio frequency, carrier frequency, PSU, channel, symbol, MBSFN sub-frame adjustment, the advantages and disadvantages and applicable scenarios of the intelligent shutdown technologies are analyzed. It provides a reference for the 4G network construction of operators with energy conservation and emission reduction.

  13. PCDD/F emissions during startup and shutdown of a hazardous waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Wang, Chao; Cen, Kefa; Ni, Mingjiang; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    Compared with municipal solid waste incineration, studies on the PCDD/F emissions of hazardous waste incineration (HWI) under transient conditions are rather few. This study investigates the PCDD/F emission level, congener profile and removal efficiency recorded during startup and shutdown by collecting flue gas samples at the bag filter inlet and outlet and at the stack. The PCDD/F concentration measured in the stack gas during startup and shutdown were 0.56-4.16 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3) and 1.09-3.36 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively, far exceeding the present codes in China. The total amount of PCDD/F emissions, resulting from three shutdown-startup cycles of this HWI-unit is almost equal to that generated during one year under normal operating conditions. Upstream the filter, the PCDD/F in the flue gas is mainly in the particle phase; however, after being filtered PCDD/F prevails in the gas phase. The PCDD/F fraction in the gas phase even exceeds 98% after passing through the alkaline scrubber. Especially higher chlorinated PCDD/F accumulate on inner walls of filters and ducts during these startup periods and could be released again during normal operation, significantly increasing PCDD/F emissions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Cooling the intact loop of primary heat transport system using Shutdown Cooling System in case of LOCA events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icleanu Diana Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to model the operation of the Shutdown Cooling System (SDCS for CANDU 6 nuclear power plants in case of LOCA accidents, using Flowmaster calculation code, by delimiting models and setting calculation assumptions, input data for hydraulic analysis and input data for calculating thermal performance check for heat exchangers that are part of this system.

  15. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  16. Placement of Controls in Construction Equipment Using Operators´Sitting Postures : Process and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Jalkebo, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    An ergonomically designed work environment may decrease work related musculoskeletal disorders, lead to less sick leaves and increase production time for operators and companies all around the world. Volvo Construction Equipment wants to deepen the knowledge and investigate more carefully how operators are actually sitting whilst operating the machines, how this affects placement of controls and furthermore optimize controls placements accordingly. The purpose is to enhance their product deve...

  17. The scheme optimization on construction diversion with discharge control feature of upstream operational reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Quan; Hu Zhigen; Fan Wuyi; Ni Jinchu; Li Qinjun

    2012-01-01

    There is a discharge control feature of construction diversion system with the upstream operational reservoir. The risk evaluation model of construction diversion is established by taking into consideration the risk factors of construc- tion diversion system with discharge control feature as well as their composition. And the risk factors include the up- stream operational reservoir discharge control, the interval flood and branch flood and the diversion system itself. And then based on analyzing of the conversion relation between risk index and investment index of diversion scheme, the risk control and conversion principals of diversion system are put forward, and the feasible diversion scheme model is built. At last, the risk and economic evaluation and scheme economic feasibility analysis method of diversion scheme are shown by an example of construction diversion scheme optimization with the discharge control condition of upstream hydropower station. The study is valuable for establishment and optimization of construction diversion scheme with upstream reservoir discharge control.

  18. Self-actuated shutdown system for a commercial size LMFBR. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1978-08-01

    A Self-Actuated Shutdown System (SASS) is defined as a reactor shutdown system in which sensors, release mechanisms and neutron absorbers are contained entirely within the reactor core structure, where they respond inherently to abnormal local process conditions, by shutting down the reactor, independently of the plant protection system (PPS). It is argued that a SASS, having a response time similar to that of the PPS, would so reduce the already very low probability of a failure-to-scram event that costly design features, derived from core disruptive accident analysis, could be eliminated. However, the thrust of the report is the feasibility and reliability of the in-core SASS hardware to achieve sufficiently rapid shutdown. A number of transient overpower and transient undercooling-responsive systems were investigated leading to the selection of a primary candidate and a backup concept. During a transient undercooling event, the recommended device is triggered by the associated rate of change of pressure, whereas the alternate concept responds to the reduction in core pressure drop and requires calibration and adjustment by the operators to accommodate changes in reactor power.

  19. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.williams@oxfordtechnologies.co.uk [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sanders, Stephen [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Weder, Gerard [Tree-C Technology BV, Buys Ballotstraat 8, 6716 BL Ede (Netherlands); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Allan, Peter; Hazel, Stuart [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  20. The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Assran, Y.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colafranceschi, S.; Felli, F.; Piccolo, D.; Saviano, G.; Carrillo, C.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Vitulo, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K.S.; Park, S.K.; Shin, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with...

  1. Josh's Operational Conjectures: Abductions of a Splitting Operation and the Construction of New Fractional Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on students' learning through conjecturing, by drawing on a semester-long teaching experiment with 6 sixth-grade students. It focuses on 1 of the students, Josh, who developed especially powerful ways of operating over the course of the teaching experiment. Through a fine-grained analysis of Josh's actions, this article…

  2. General design, construction, and operation guidelines: Constructed wetlands wastewater treatment systems for small users including individual residences. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, G.R.; Watson, J.T.

    1993-05-01

    One of the Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA`s) major goals is cleanup and protection of the waters of the Tennessee River system. Although great strides have been made, point source and nonpoint source pollution still affect the surface water and groundwater quality in the Tennessee Valley and nationally. Causes of this pollution are poorly operating wastewater treatment systems or the lack of them. Practical solutions are needed, and there is great interest and desire to abate water pollution with effective, simple, reliable and affordable wastewater treatment processes. In recognition of this need, TVA began demonstration of the constructed wetlands technology in 1986 as an alternative to conventional, mechanical processes, especially for small communities. Constructed wetlands can be downsized from municipal systems to small systems, such as for schools, camps and even individual homes.

  3. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  4. Construction of Fuzzy Sets and Applying Aggregation Operators for Fuzzy Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudec, Miroslav; Sudzina, Frantisek

    issue is selection of an adequate aggregation operator. Usual t-norm functions as well as compensatory γ – operator have been examined. Finally, the interface for managing these issues has been proposed. A user can obtain an overview about stored data before running a query; that may reduce empty......Flexible query conditions could use linguistic terms described by fuzzy sets. The question is how to properly construct fuzzy sets for each linguistic term and apply an adequate aggregation function. For construction of fuzzy sets, the lowest value, the highest value of attribute...

  5. Spherical and plane integral operators for PDEs construction, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelfeld, Karl K

    2013-01-01

    The book presents integral formulations for partial differential equations, with the focus on spherical and plane integral operators. The integral relations are obtained for different elliptic and parabolic equations, and both direct and inverse mean value relations are studied. The derived integral equations are used to construct new numerical methods for solving relevant boundary value problems, both deterministic and stochastic based on probabilistic interpretation of the spherical and plane integral operators.

  6. National Ignition Facility start-up/operations engineering and special equipment construction health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddleston, P C

    1998-05-08

    This document sets forth the responsibilities, interfaces, guidelines, rules, policy, and regulations for all workers involved in the S/O and SE construction, installation, and acceptance testing. This document is enforced from the first day that S/O and SE workers set foot on the NIF construction site until the end of the Project at Critical Decision 4. This document is applicable only to site activities, which are defined as those that occur within the perimeter of the fenced-off NIF construction zone and the Target Chamber Assembly Area (Helipad). The associated Special Equipment laydown and construction support areas listed in Appendix B are not under this plan; their safety provisions are discussed in the Appendix. Prototype and other support activities, such as the Amplifier Laboratory and Frame Assembly Unit assembly area, are not included in this plan. After completion of the Operational Readiness Review, the Facility Safety Procedure, Operational Safety Requirements, and Operational Safety Procedures are the governing safety documents for the operating facility. The S/O and SE project elements are required to implement measures that create a universal awareness of and promote safe job practices at the site. This includes all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester, supplement labor organization, and subcontractor employees; visitors; and guests serving the S/O and SE effort.

  7. National Ignition Facility start-up/operations engineering and special equipment construction health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddleston, P C

    1998-05-08

    This document sets forth the responsibilities, interfaces, guidelines, rules, policy, and regulations for all workers involved in the S/O and SE construction, installation, and acceptance testing. This document is enforced from the first day that S/O and SE workers set foot on the NIF construction site until the end of the Project at Critical Decision 4. This document is applicable only to site activities, which are defined as those that occur within the perimeter of the fenced-off NIF construction zone and the Target Chamber Assembly Area (Helipad). The associated Special Equipment laydown and construction support areas listed in Appendix B are not under this plan; their safety provisions are discussed in the Appendix. Prototype and other support activities, such as the Amplifier Laboratory and Frame Assembly Unit assembly area, are not included in this plan. After completion of the Operational Readiness Review, the Facility Safety Procedure, Operational Safety Requirements, and Operational Safety Procedures are the governing safety documents for the operating facility. The S/O and SE project elements are required to implement measures that create a universal awareness of and promote safe job practices at the site. This includes all Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, University of Rochester, supplement labor organization, and subcontractor employees; visitors; and guests serving the S/O and SE effort.

  8. 78 FR 24734 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ...-HI) propose to construct and operate a modern Infantry Platoon Battle Course (IPBC) and associated infrastructure that is compliant with current Army training requirements at P hakuloa Training Area (PTA), Hawai... Reserve, and Hawai`i Army National Guard, as well as other Service components that are stationed or...

  9. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a... advising the public of its intent to prepare an EIS evaluating potential environmental impacts associated...: Cancellation of Pan-STARRS EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969,...

  10. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied...

  11. Construction of the Model of the Lambda Calculus System with Algebraic Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆汝占; 张政; 等

    1991-01-01

    A lambda system with algebraic operators,Lambda-plus system,is introduced.After giving the definitions of the system,we present a sufficient condition for formulating a model of the system.Finally,a model of such system is constructed.

  12. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY... a COL intending to construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to... Impacts of Construction (under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at...

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  14. Whole-body vibration and postural stress among operators of construction equipment: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittusamy, N Kumar; Buchholz, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    Operators of construction equipment perform various duties at work that expose them to a variety of risk factors that may lead to health problems. A few of the health hazards among operators of construction equipment are: (a) whole-body vibration, (b) awkward postural requirements (including static sitting), (c) dust, (d) noise, (e) temperature extremes, and (f) shift work. It has been suggested that operating engineers (OEs) are exposed to two important risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders: whole-body vibration and non-neutral body postures. This review evaluates selected papers that have studied exposure to whole-body vibration and awkward posture among operators of mobile equipment. There have been only few studies that have specifically examined exposure of these risk factors among operators of construction equipment. Thus other studies from related industry and equipment were reviewed as applicable. In order to better understand whole-body vibration and postural stress among OEs, it is recommended that future studies are needed in evaluating these risk factors among OEs.

  15. On the construction of charged operators inside an eternal black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the holographic construction of (approximately) local bulk operators inside an eternal AdS black hole in terms of operators in the boundary CFTs. If the bulk operator carries charge, the construction must involve a qualitatively new object: a Wilson line that stretches between the two boundaries of the eternal black hole. This operator - more precisely, its zero mode - cannot be expressed in terms of the boundary currents and only exists in entangled states dual to two-sided geometries, which suggests that it is a state-dependent operator. We determine the action of the Wilson line on the relevant subspaces of the total Hilbert space, and show that it behaves as a local operator from the point of view of either CFT. For the case of three bulk dimensions, we give explicit expressions for the charged bulk field and the Wilson line. Furthermore, we show that when acting on the thermofield double state, the Wilson line may be extracted from a limit of certain standard CFT operator expressions. We also ...

  16. A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as a green technology to treat various wastewaters for several decades. CWs offer a land-intensive, low-energy, and less-operational-requirements alternative to conventional treatment systems, especially for small communities and remote locations. However, the sustainable operation and successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Hence, this paper aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development on their sustainable design and operation for wastewater treatment. Firstly, a brief summary on the definition, classification and application of current CWs was presented. The design parameters and operational conditions of CWs including plant species, substrate types, water depth, hydraulic load, hydraulic retention time and feeding mode related to the sustainable operation for wastewater treatments were then discussed. Lastly, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs were highlighted.

  17. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  18. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing system during the LHC Long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  19. Summary of Beam Vacuum Activities Held during the LHC 2008-2009 Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Jimenez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    At the start of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 2008-2009 shutdown, all the LHC experimental vacuum chambers were vented to neon atmosphere. They were later pumped down shortly before beam circulation. Meanwhile, 2.3 km of vacuum beam pipes with NEG coatings were vented to air to allow the installation or repair of several components such as roman pot, magnets kicker, collimators, rupture disks and masks and reactivated thereafter. Beside these standard operations, “fast exchanges” of vacuum components and endoscopies inside cryogenic beam vacuum chambers were performed. This paper presents a summary of all the beam vacuum activities held during this period and the achieved vacuum performances

  20. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-03-24

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment.

  1. Determination of Optimum Frame Rates for Observation of Construction Operations from Time-Lapse Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Ibrahim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction professionals have been using time-lapse movies in monitoring construction operations. However, some amount of detail is always lost in the interval between two consecutive frames in a time-lapse movie. This poses the question: By how much can the frame rate be lowered from the standard 30fps (frames per second to allow for the accurate observation of construction operations from a time-lapse movie? This paper addresses the problem by establishing the optimum frame rates for observation of activities related to mortar mixing and block handling. The activities were first recorded at the standard rate of 30fps. Using the Adobe Premier Pro video editing software, the records were then segregated into still images from which 15 different time-lapse movies of various time intervals were generated. The movies were then shown to 25 Construction Managers. A structured questionnaire was employed to capture the level of accuracy with which Construction Managers could interpret the job site situation from each movie. The results suggest that 1fpm (frame per minute is sufficient for the accurate tracking of labourers involved in mortar mixing while 1 frame in every 20 seconds is sufficient for accurate identification of number of cement bags used. However, for tracking number of blocks off-loaded, and those damaged, 1 frame in every 2 seconds is required.

  2. Optical shutdown control of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Milton

    1966-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  3. Planning Annual Shutdown Inspection for BFB Boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Sorsa, Tatu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to create an illustrative guidebook of annual inspection planning for BFB boiler to help power plant operator when planning of annual inspection is topical. This thesis was made for Andritz Oy and it is based on inspection reports and experiences of BFB boiler’s maintenance and inspection staff. In this thesis it is shown how to plan an annual inspection for BFB boiler and thesis gives good tools and hints for operator to manage inspection from the beginning ...

  4. EARTH’S CRUST FRACTURES AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Mikhailov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a tectonics influence on construction and operation of engineering structures on the territory of Belarus.  An example of studying  tectonic  fracture zones  in  the  Soligorsk  mining region with disturbed geological medium is given in the paper. The paper contains conclusions on necessity of obligatory account of geo-dynamic factors at all stages of constructing industrial projects, pipe-line transport and automobile roads.

  5. Working operations of simple technological processes in construction industry ordering (rus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyuzhnyuk A.V.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ordering process has been described by the example of the simple technological processes of reinforced concrete building structures joints welding working operations set.Methods of ordering are adopted from graph theory, expert assessment, network planning and management. The proposed method is designed for application in technical regulation for organizational effectiveness indicators of simple technological processes of construction and special types of work determining.The proposed methods improve the technical normalization quality. They are recommended for application in systems of the construction industry automated preparation.

  6. Autonomic shutdown of lithium-ion batteries using thermoresponsive microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baginska, Marta; White, Scott R. [306 Talbot Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Sottos, Nancy R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering Building, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Merriman, Ryan J. [306 Talbot Laboratory, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Moore, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Autonomic, thermally-induced shutdown of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries is demonstrated by incorporating thermoresponsive polymer microspheres (ca. 4 {mu}m) onto battery anodes or separators. When the internal battery environment reaches a critical temperature, the microspheres melt and coat the anode/separator with a nonconductive barrier, halting Li-ion transport and shutting down the cell permanently. Three functionalization schemes are shown to perform cell shutdown: 1) poly(ethylene) (PE) microspheres coated on the anode, 2) paraffin wax microspheres coated on the anode, and 3) PE microspheres coated on the separator. Charge and discharge capacity is measured for Li-ion coin cells containing microsphere-coated anodes or separators as a function of capsule coverage. For PE coated on the anode, the initial capacity of the battery is unaffected by the presence of the PE microspheres up to a coverage of 12 mg cm{sup -2} (when cycled at 1C), and full shutdown (>98% loss of initial capacity) is achieved in cells containing greater than 3.5 mg cm{sup -2}. For paraffin microspheres coated on the anode and PE microspheres coated on the separator, shutdown is achieved in cells containing coverages greater than 2.9 and 13.7 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy images of electrode surfaces from cells that have undergone autonomic shutdown provides evidence of melting, wetting, and resolidification of PE into the anode and polymer film formation at the anode/separator interface. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. A safety and regulatory assessment of generic BWR and PWR permanently shutdown nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, R.J.; Davis, R.E.; Grove, E.J.; Azarm, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The long-term availability of less expensive power and the increasing plant modification and maintenance costs have caused some utilities to re-examine the economics of nuclear power. As a result, several utilities have opted to permanently shutdown their plants. Each licensee of these permanently shutdown (PSD) plants has submitted plant-specific exemption requests for those regulations that they believe are no longer applicable to their facility. This report presents a regulatory assessment for generic BWR and PWR plants that have permanently ceased operation in support of NRC rulemaking activities in this area. After the reactor vessel is defueled, the traditional accident sequences that dominate the operating plant risk are no longer applicable. The remaining source of public risk is associated with the accidents that involve the spent fuel. Previous studies have indicated that complete spent fuel pool drainage is an accident of potential concern. Certain combinations of spent fuel storage configurations and decay times, could cause freshly discharged fuel assemblies to self heat to a temperature where the self sustained oxidation of the zircaloy fuel cladding may cause cladding failure. This study has defined four spent fuel configurations which encompass all of the anticipated spent fuel characteristics and storage modes following permanent shutdown. A representative accident sequence was chosen for each configuration. Consequence analyses were performed using these sequences to estimate onsite and boundary doses, population doses and economic costs. A list of candidate regulations was identified from a screening of 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. The continued applicability of each regulation was assessed within the context of each spent fuel storage configuration and the results of the consequence analyses.

  8. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  9. Experience Gained From the Construction, Test and Operation of the Large 4-T CMS Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A; Curé, B; Fabbricatore, P; Gaddi, A; Kircher, F; Sgobba, S

    2008-01-01

    The 4-T, 6-m free bore CMS solenoid has been successfully tested, operated and mapped at CERN during the autumn of 2006; R&D studies started in 1993 and the construction proper in 1997. The main parameters of this 100 MUS$ project (including yoke) were then considered beyond what was thought possible, as the total stored magnetic energy reaches 2.6 GJ for a specific magnetic energy density exceeding 11 kJ/kg of cold mass. During this period, the international design and construction team had to make several important technical choices, in particular mechanical, to maximize the chances of reaching the nominal induction of 4 Tesla. The paper will review these choices in the light of what is presently known and examine if better solutions would be possible today for constructing a new large high-field thin solenoid for a future detector magnet.

  10. Towards a non-perturbative construction of the operator product expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Jan [Universitaet Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Our current understanding of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is based to a large extent on perturbative - i.e. approximate - methods. Exact constructions in QFT are not only of fundamental conceptual interest, but they offer insights into physical phenomena that are intractable by perturbative means. In this talk, I present progress on a novel approach towards the non-perturbative construction of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE). The OPE is a structure encoding the complete algebraic skeleton as well as the short distance properties of a Quantum Field Theory. Our construction method is based on a recently found recursion formula for the OPE, which is discussed along with recent results on mathematical properties of the OPE in perturbation theory.

  11. Construction and operation of biogas plants. Bau und Betrieb von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, F. von

    1985-01-01

    Biogas utilisation in agriculture has increased considerably as a consequence of the energy crisis. So far, energy production was the most important aspect, and the high-quality natural fertilizer offered by the fermentation residues was commonly neglected. This fertilizer is an effective substitute for commercial fertilizers and thus contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution. The book discusses the chemical and biological mechanisms, the criteria of selection for plants and materials, optimum gas production techniques, uses of the product gas, and the advantages and properties of the biofertilizer produced. Planning procedures, design, construction, function and performance of several biogas production plants now in operation are described. Hints are given for do-it-yourself construction, as are cost-benefit calculations and decision aids for construction.

  12. 77 FR 75198 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report.'' This guide describes a method...) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for Post-shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report,''...

  13. Final Environmental Assessment, Construction and Operation of Air Traffic Control Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-12

    Existing Control Tower Site. Complete demolition of the Control Tower building on the site would produce waste concrete, asphalt , metal, and wood...Construction & Operation of Air Traffic Control Tower 44 May 12, 2008 receptor elements. Workers would wear ear protection, as necessary, for...appear to be achieving their hazardous waste reduction goals. The major areas not meeting goals appear to be abrasive blasting and industrial

  14. Demystifying the twistor construction of composite operators in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    We explain some details of the construction of composite operators in N=4 SYM that we have elaborated earlier in the context of Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace. We give a step-by-step elementary derivation and show that the result coincides with the recent hypothesis put forward in arXiv:1603.04471 within the twistor approach. We provide the appropriate LHC-to-twistors dictionary.

  15. Human reliability analysis in low power and shut-down probabilistic safety assessment: Outcomes of an international initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, and decommissioning. This aspect has been confirmed by the operating experience. A workshop was organized by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. One of the major objectives of the Workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and results of human reliability analyses for WWER 440 and WWER 1000, and gain insights for future application of human reliability analyses in Low Power and Shutdown scenarios. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of the workshops concerning human reliability analyses and human factors.

  16. Summary of Information Presented at an NRC-Sponsored Low-Power Shutdown Public Workshop, April 27, 1999, Rockville, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, Timothy A.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Lois, Erasmia

    1999-07-01

    This report summarizes a public workshop that was held on April 27, 1999, in Rockville, Maryland. The workshop was conducted as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) efforts to further develop its understanding of the risks associated with low power and shutdown operations at US nuclear power plants. A sufficient understanding of such risks is required to support decision-making for risk-informed regulation, in particular Regulatory Guide 1.174, and the development of a consensus standard. During the workshop the NRC staff discussed and requested feedback from the public (including representatives of the nuclear industry, state governments, consultants, private industry, and the media) on the risk associated with low-power and shutdown operations.

  17. LHC Report: finalizing the shutdown activities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance work and other activities scheduled for the LHC technical stop have now been completed and the electrical, quality assurance and powering tests are in full swing.   These hardware tests, or hardware re-commissioning as it is known in the CERN Control Centre, are complete for Sectors 5-6 and 6-7. The re-commissioning process is almost complete in Sectors 7-8 and 8-1, but a problem with the emergency stop safety system last week, and the failure of a turbine in the cryogenic plant at Point 8, mean that the final part of the re-commissioning for these two sectors has been delayed and will be completed this week. Preparations for the re-commissioning in the other 4 sectors are going well, and everything is on schedule for the LHC to restart with beam as planned on 18 February. At the SPS, all the technical stop work and magnet changes have been completed and the machine has been handed over to the Operations Group for the usual set of hardware tests and preparations for beam operation. ...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To..., apply to construction permits and operating licenses subject to this appendix N. 2. Applications for...

  19. 77 FR 33782 - License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium... referenced. The Ludeman facility In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Project License Amendment Request is... construct and operate a new in situ leach uranium recovery (ISL) facility at its Ludeman facility...

  20. Selection of optimal threshold to construct recurrence plot for structural operational vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Ren, Wei-Xin; Hu, Yi-Ding; Li, Dan

    2015-08-01

    The structural health monitoring (SHM) involves the sampled operational vibration measurements over time so that the structural features can be extracted accordingly. The recurrence plot (RP) and corresponding recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) have become a useful tool in various fields due to its efficiency. The threshold selection is one of key issues to make sure that the constructed recurrence plot contains enough recurrence points. Different signals have in nature different threshold values. This paper is aiming at presenting an approach to determine the optimal threshold for the operational vibration measurements of civil engineering structures. The surrogate technique and Taguchi loss function are proposed to generate reliable data and to achieve the optimal discrimination power point where the threshold is optimum. The impact of selecting recurrence thresholds on different signals is discussed. It is demonstrated that the proposed method to identify the optimal threshold is applicable to the operational vibration measurements. The proposed method provides a way to find the optimal threshold for the best RP construction of structural vibration measurements under operational conditions.

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel (UNF) from 12 shutdown nuclear power plant sites. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites are Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. The evaluation was divided into four components: characterization of the UNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory; a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of UNF and GTCC waste; an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing UNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information; and, an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove UNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of UNF and GTCC waste are the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) RW-859 used nuclear fuel inventory database, industry sources such as StoreFUEL and SpentFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of site and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included observations and information collected during visits to the Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion sites; information provided by managers at the shutdown sites; Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005; Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994; industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions; and Google Earth. State and Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative participated in six of the shutdown site

  2. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  3. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, M.C. (Duke Power Co. (US)); Jones, C.R. (S. Levy Inc. (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software.

  4. Pre-operative simulation of periacetabular osteotomy via a three-dimensional model constructed from salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima Kensuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO is an effective joint-preserving procedure for young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although PAO provides excellent radiographic and clinical results, it is a technically demanding procedure with a distinct learning curve that requires careful 3D planning and, above all, has a number of potential complications. We therefore developed a pre-operative simulation method for PAO via creation of a new full-scale model. Methods: The model was prepared from the patient’s Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM formatted data from computed tomography (CT, for construction and assembly using 3D printing technology. A major feature of our model is that it is constructed from salt. In contrast to conventional models, our model provides a more accurate representation, at a lower manufacturing cost, and requires a shorter production time. Furthermore, our model realized simulated operation normally with using a chisel and drill without easy breakage or fissure. We were able to easily simulate the line of osteotomy and confirm acetabular version and coverage after moving to the osteotomized fragment. Additionally, this model allowed a dynamic assessment that avoided anterior impingement following the osteotomy. Results: Our models clearly reflected the anatomical shape of the patient’s hip. Our models allowed for surgical simulation, making realistic use of the chisel and drill. Our method of pre-operative simulation for PAO allowed for the assessment of accurate osteotomy line, determination of the position of the osteotomized fragment, and prevented anterior impingement after the operation. Conclusion: Our method of pre-operative simulation might improve the safety, accuracy, and results of PAO.

  5. Pre-operative simulation of periacetabular osteotomy via a three-dimensional model constructed from salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kensuke; Takahira, Naonobu; Uchiyama, Katsufumi; Moriya, Mitsutoshi; Takaso, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) is an effective joint-preserving procedure for young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although PAO provides excellent radiographic and clinical results, it is a technically demanding procedure with a distinct learning curve that requires careful 3D planning and, above all, has a number of potential complications. We therefore developed a pre-operative simulation method for PAO via creation of a new full-scale model. Methods: The model was prepared from the patient’s Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) formatted data from computed tomography (CT), for construction and assembly using 3D printing technology. A major feature of our model is that it is constructed from salt. In contrast to conventional models, our model provides a more accurate representation, at a lower manufacturing cost, and requires a shorter production time. Furthermore, our model realized simulated operation normally with using a chisel and drill without easy breakage or fissure. We were able to easily simulate the line of osteotomy and confirm acetabular version and coverage after moving to the osteotomized fragment. Additionally, this model allowed a dynamic assessment that avoided anterior impingement following the osteotomy. Results: Our models clearly reflected the anatomical shape of the patient’s hip. Our models allowed for surgical simulation, making realistic use of the chisel and drill. Our method of pre-operative simulation for PAO allowed for the assessment of accurate osteotomy line, determination of the position of the osteotomized fragment, and prevented anterior impingement after the operation. Conclusion: Our method of pre-operative simulation might improve the safety, accuracy, and results of PAO. PMID:28186873

  6. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  7. Natural Airfield Pavements, Load-Carrying Capacities There Of, Principles Of Construction And Operational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper has been intended to present analytically derived relationships for aircraft wheels that move through the soil medium. The analyses have been conducted for both the rigid wheel and the pneumatic whell. The most fundamental principles of constructing natural(soil and sod/grass airfield pavements have been diccussed. Characteristic of soils typical of such pavements /surfaces have been defined. Proped are criteria for the evaluation of load-carring capacities of such pavements. The most essential principles that goven the operational use there of follow.

  8. The Research on the Construction of Monitoring and Evaluation System for the Operation of Marine Economy in Liaoning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianjin; TAN; Weimin; GOU; Peili; SUN

    2015-01-01

    According to the needs of Liaoning province marine economic operation monitoring and evaluation system for capacity building in this paper,it proposes the concept of marine economy operation monitoring and evaluation system,and introduces the system construction content and its architecture,and discusses the key issues on the monitoring index system,evaluation index system,mechanism construction and system implementation. It will help to improve the Liaoning marine economic statistical informatization level and promote the innovation of marine economy in Liaoning,and expect to provide reference for the system construction of other coastal provinces’ provincial marine economy operation monitoring and evaluation system.

  9. LS1 “First Long Shutdown of LHC and its Injector Chains”

    CERN Multimedia

    Foraz, K; Barberan, M; Bernardini, M; Coupard, J; Gilbert, N; Hay, D; Mataguez, S; McFarlane, D

    2014-01-01

    The LHC and its Injectors were stopped in February 2013, in order to maintain, consolidate and upgrade the different equipment of the accelerator chain, with the goal of achieving LHC operation at the design energy of 14 TeV in the centre-of-mass. Prior to the start of this First Long Shutdown (LS1), a major effort of preparation was performed in order to optimize the schedule and the use of resources across the different machines, with the aim of resuming LHC physics in early 2015. The rest of the CERN complex will restart beam operation in the second half of 2014. This paper presents the schedule of the LS1, describes the organizational set-up for the coordination of the works, the main activities, the different main milestones, which have been achieved so far, and the decisions taken in order to mitigate the issues encountered.

  10. The Chernobyl plant shutdown; L'arret de la centrale de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  11. Fast, Exact and Robust Set Operations on Polyhedrons Using Localized Constructive Solid Geometry Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Lu; Xudong Jiang; Wei Lu; Ran Wei; Bin Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Regularized Boolean operations have been widely used in 3D modeling systems. However, evaluating Boolean operations may be quite numerically unstable and time consuming, espe⁃cially for iterated set operations. A novel and unified tech⁃nique is proposed in this paper for computing single and iter⁃ated set operations efficiently, robustly and exactly. An adap⁃tive octree is combined with a nested constructive solid geom⁃etry (CSG) tree by this technique. The intersection handling is restricted to the cells in the octree where intersection actu⁃ally occurs. Within those cells, a CSG tree template is in⁃stanced by the surfaces and the tree is converted to plane⁃based binary space partitioning (BSP) for set evaluation;More⁃over, the surface classification is restricted to the cells in the octree where the surfaces only come from a model and are within the bounding⁃boxes of other polyhedrons. These two ways bring about the efficiency and scalability of the opera⁃tions, in terms of runtime and memory. As all surfaces in such a cell have the same classification relation, they are clas⁃sified as a whole. Robustness and exactness are achieved by integrating plane⁃based geometry representation with adaptive geometry predicate technique in intersection handling, and by applying divide⁃and⁃conquer arithmetic on surface classifica⁃tion. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ap⁃proach can guarantee the robustness of Boolean computations and runs faster than other existing approaches.

  12. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  13. Operations analysis for lunar surface construction: Results of two office of exploration case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lisa Y.; Boles, Walter; Smith, Alvin

    1991-08-01

    In an environment of intense competition for Federal funding, the U.S. space research community is responsible for developing a feasible, cost-effective approach to establishing a surface base on the moon to fulfill long-term Government objectives. This report presents the results of a construction operations analysis of two lunar scenarios provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Activities necessary to install the lunar base surface elements are defined and scheduled, based on the productivities and availability of the base resources allocated to the projects depicted in each scenario. The only construction project in which the required project milestones were not completed within the nominal timeframe was the initial startup phase of NASA's FY89 Lunar Evolution Case Study (LECS), primarily because this scenario did not include any Earth-based telerobotic site preparation before the arrival of the first crew. The other scenario analyzed. Reference Mission A from NASA's 90-Day Study of the Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, did use telerobotic site preparation before the manned phase of the base construction. Details of the analysis for LECS are provided, including spreadsheets indicating quantities of work and Gantt charts depicting the general schedule for the work. This level of detail is not presented for the scenario based on the 90-Day Study because many of the projects include the same (or similar) surface elements and facilities.

  14. Contaminant removal in septage treatment with vertical flow constructed wetlands operated under batch flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2016-01-01

    Individual septic tanks are the most common means of on-site sanitation in Malaysia, but they result in a significant volume of septage. A two-staged vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) system for the treatment of septage was constructed and studied in Sarawak, Malaysia. Raw septage was treated in the first stage wetlands, and the resulting percolate was fed onto the second stage wetlands for further treatment. Here, the effects of a batch loading regime on the contaminant removal efficiency at the second stage wetlands, which included palm kernel shell within their filter substrate, are presented. The batch loading regime with pond:rest (P:R) period of 1:1, 2:2 and 3:3 (day:day) was studied. The improvement of the effluent redox condition was evident with P:R = 3:3, resulting in excellent organic matters (chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand) and nitrogen reduction. The bed operated with P:R = 1:1 experienced constant clogging, with a water layer observed on the bed surface. For the P:R = 3:3 regime, the dissolved oxygen profile was not found to decay drastically after 24 hours of ponding, suggesting that the biodegradation mainly occurred during the first day. The study results indicate that a suitable application regime with an adequate rest period is important in VFCWs to ensure efficient operation.

  15. Construction of the X100 operational trial pipeline at Spadeadam, Cumbria, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millwood, N. A. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd, Leicestershire, (United Kingdom); Johnson, J.; Hudson, M. [BP Explorations Operating CO Ltd, Sunbury-on-Thames, (United Kingdom); Armstrong, K. [GL Noble Denton Ltd, Spadeadam, (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Intermediate field construction trials using grade X100 steel pipeline have been carried out recently to demonstrate the manufacturers' ability to build large diameter high strength steel pipelines. This paper reports the construction of an X100 operational trial pipeline for BP and focuses on the studies of the performance of the girth welding systems used. The mainline welding on X100 pipe was performed using a single tandem wire GMAW. All-weld tensile testing, Charpy impact testing, CTOD testing using SENB specimens and hardness testing were completed to monitor the integrity of the metal welds. The tie-in was performed using a vertical-up mechanized FCAW system and a vertical-down STT root pass. Weld procedure qualification testing on the tie-in was carried out as well. AUT was carried out on all the mainline girth welds using a phased-array system. The results demonstrated that the operational trial succeeded in testing the girth welds at a design factor of 0.8.

  16. Reactor scram experience for shutdown system reliability analysis. [BWR; PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edison, G.E.; Pugliese, S.L.; Sacramo, R.F.

    1976-06-01

    Scram experience in a number of operating light water reactors has been reviewed. The date and reactor power of each scram was compiled from monthly operating reports and personal communications with the operating plant personnel. The average scram frequency from ''significant'' power (defined as P/sub trip//P/sub max greater than/ approximately 20 percent) was determined as a function of operating life. This relationship was then used to estimate the total number of reactor trips from above approximately 20 percent of full power expected to occur during the life of a nuclear power plant. The shape of the scram frequency vs. operating life curve resembles a typical reliability bathtub curve (failure rate vs. time), but without a rising ''wearout'' phase due to the lack of operating data near the end of plant design life. For this case the failures are represented by ''bugs'' in the plant system design, construction, and operation which lead to scram. The number of scrams would appear to level out at an average of around three per year; the standard deviations from the mean value indicate an uncertainty of about 50 percent. The total number of scrams from significant power that could be expected in a plant designed for a 40-year life would be about 130 if no wearout phase develops near the end of life.

  17. 77 FR 67863 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The Surface Transportation Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA... Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in....gov . By the Board. Victoria Rutson, Director, Office of Environmental Analysis. Jeffrey...

  18. 77 FR 66663 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) The Surface Transportation Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA... Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in..., Victoria Rutson, Director, Office of Environmental Analysis. Jeffrey Herzig, Clearance Clerk. BILLING...

  19. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power reactor sites was conducted. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: (1) characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory, (2) a description of the on-site infrastructure and conditions relevant to transportation of SNF and GTCC waste, (3) an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to shipping transportation casks containing SNF and GTCC waste, including identification of gaps in information, and (4) an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. Every site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an important source of information used to identify the transportation mode options for the sites. Especially important in conducting the evaluation were site visits, through which information was obtained that would not have been available otherwise. Extensive photographs taken during the site visits proved to be particularly useful in documenting the current conditions at or near the sites. It is expected that additional site visits will be conducted to add to the information presented in the evaluation.

  20. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  1. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  2. 26 CFR 1.528-2 - Organized and operated to provide for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and care of association property. (a) Organized and... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Organized and operated to provide for the acquisition, construction, management, maintenance and care of association property. 1.528-2 Section...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial tractors used in construction. 1926.1003 Section 1926.1003 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction. (a) General—(1) Purpose. When overhead protection is provided on wheel-type agricultural and industrial tractors,...

  4. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 2, Part 3: Internal Events Appendices I and J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakle, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Darby, J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitehead, D.; Staple, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probablistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143.

  5. Francis-99: Transient CFD simulation of load changes and turbine shutdown in a model sized high-head Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössinger, Peter; Jester-Zürker, Roland; Jung, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    With increasing requirements for hydropower plant operation due to intermittent renewable energy sources like wind and solar, numerical simulations of transient operations in hydraulic turbo machines become more important. As a continuation of the work performed for the first workshop which covered three steady operating conditions, in the present paper load changes and a shutdown procedure are investigated. The findings of previous studies are used to create a 360° model and compare measurements with simulation results for the operating points part load, high load and best efficiency. A mesh motion procedure is introduced, allowing to represent moving guide vanes for load changes from best efficiency to part load and high load. Additionally an automated re-mesh procedure is added for turbine shutdown to ensure reliable mesh quality during guide vane closing. All three transient operations are compared to PIV velocity measurements in the draft tube and pressure signals in the vaneless space. Simulation results of axial velocity distributions for all three steady operation points, during both load changes and for the shutdown correlated well with the measurement. An offset at vaneless space pressure is found to be a result of guide vane corrections for the simulation to ensure similar velocity fields. Short-time Fourier transformation indicating increasing amplitudes and frequencies at speed-no load conditions. Further studies will discuss the already measured start-up procedure and investigate the necessity to consider the hydraulic system dynamics upstream of the turbine by means of a 1D3D coupling between the 3D flow field and a 1D system model.

  6. Legal aspects of shut-down and decommissioning of nuclear power plants; Rechtsfragen der Stilllegung und des Rueckbaus von Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Luther Rechtsanwaltsgesellschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    The legally phase-out the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Germany has put into focus the topics decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants. Technically and legally issues have to be managed, which are often closely connected. From a legal perspective it is important, that the initial situation of operation and operation phases of the nuclear power plant are settled. Some of the most relevant legal issues are more accurate presented and discussed. They are related to the period after shut-down and before granting the decommissioning license.

  7. A dynamic process model of a natural gas combined cycle -- Model development with startup and shutdown simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liese, Eric [U.S. DOE; Zitney, Stephen E. [U.S. DOE

    2013-01-01

    Research in dynamic process simulation for integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCC) with carbon capture has been ongoing at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), culminating in a full operator training simulator (OTS) and immersive training simulator (ITS) for use in both operator training and research. A derivative work of the IGCC dynamic simulator has been a modification of the combined cycle section to more closely represent a typical natural gas fired combined cycle (NGCC). This paper describes the NGCC dynamic process model and highlights some of the simulator’s current capabilities through a particular startup and shutdown scenario.

  8. Feasibility of Construction of the Continuously Operating Geodetic GPS Network of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Jacobo, C.

    2011-12-01

    This research is based on the study and analysis of feasibility for the construction of the geodetic network for GPS continuous operation for Sinaloa, hereafter called (RGOCSIN). A GPS network of continuous operation is defined as that materialized structure physically through permanent monuments where measurements to the systems of Global Positioning (GPS) is performed continuously throughout a region. The GPS measurements in this network are measurements of accuracy according to international standards to define its coordinates, thus constituting the basic structure of geodetic referencing for a country. In this context is that in the near future the RGOCSIN constitutes a system state only accurate and reliable georeferencing in real-time (continuous and permanent operation) and will be used for different purposes; i.e., in addition to being fundamental basis for any lifting topographic or geodetic survey, and other areas such as: (1) Different construction processes (control and monitoring of engineering works); (2) Studies of deformation of the Earth's crust (before and after a seismic event); (3) GPS meteorology (weather forecasting); (4) Demarcation projects (natural and political); (5) Establishment of bases to generate mapping (necessary for the economic and social development of the state); (6) Precision agriculture (optimization of economic resources to the various crops); (7) Geographic information systems (Organization and planning activities associated with the design and construction of public services); (8) Urban growth (possible settlements in the appropriate form and taking care of the environmental aspect), among others. However there are criteria and regulations according to the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, http://www.inegi.org.mx/) that must be met; even for this stage of feasibility of construction that sees this project as a first phase. The fundamental criterion to be taken into account according to INEGI is a

  9. Tracking of fuel particles after pin failure in nominal, loss-of-flow and shutdown conditions in the MYRRHA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckingham, Sophia; Planquart, Philippe [von Karman Institute, Chaussée de Waterloo 72, B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse (Belgium); Van Tichelen, Katrien [SCK- CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Quantification of the design and safety of the MYRRHA reactor in the event of a pin failure. • Simulation of different accident scenarios in both forced and natural convection regime. • The accumulation areas at the free-surface in case of the least dense particles depend on the flow regime. • The densest particles form an important deposit at the bottom of the vessel. • Further study of the risk of core blockage requires a detailed model of the core. - Abstract: This work on fuel dispersion aims at quantifying the design and safety of the MYRRHA nuclear reactor. A number of accidents leading to the release of a secondary phase into the primary coolant loop are investigated. Among these scenarios, an incident leading to the failure of one or more of the fuel pins is simulated while the reactor is operating in nominal conditions, but also in natural convection regime either during accident transients such as loss-of-flow or during the normal shut-down of the reactor. Two single-phase CFD models of the MYRRHA reactor are constructed in ANSYS Fluent to represent the reactor in nominal and natural convection conditions. An Euler–Lagrange approach with one-way coupling is used for the flow and particle tracking. Firstly, a steady state RANS solution is obtained for each of the three conditions. Secondly, the particles are released downstream from the core outlet and particle distributions are provided over the coolant circuit. Their size and density are defined such that test cases represent potential extremes that may occur. Analysis of the results highlights different particle behaviors, depending essentially on gravity forces and kinematic effects. Statistical distributions highlight potential accumulation regions that may form at the free-surfaces, on top of the upper diaphragm plate or at the bottom of the vessel. These results help to localize regions of fuel accumulation in order to provide insight for development of strategies for

  10. An investigation of scramming the outer shutdown rods of the ANS with no reversal of flow in the manifold inlet lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsk, K. (Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden))

    1992-10-01

    This report provides calculations and calculation checks on the outer shutdown system, consisting of eight shutdown rods located on the outside of the core. The function of the system is to scram the reactor, or to break the chain reaction of the fission process. The shutdown rods are clad with a neutron-absorbing material (i.e., hafnium) to achieve scram. During normal operation, the outer shutdown rods (Fig. 1) are in a nonscram, withdrawn position. This means that they are not close enough to the core to absorb a significant number of the neutrons that cause the fission process. In the case of a malfunction or an emergency, the outer control rods are moved to a position near the core. The outer shutdown system is operated with the use of springs and hydraulics. During normal operation, a constant flow of heavy water is circulated through the reflector vessel. A part of this flow provides a pressure high enough to keep the rods in their withdrawn or upper position, a nonscram status. If any signs of abnormal operation occur, the valves in the hydraulic system cut off the flow, and the springs push the rods into the scram position, stopping the chain reaction. Once the flow is restarted, the rods can be withdrawn to the nonscram position. Calculations of the mass of the outer control rod, the scram spring data, and the hydraulic pressure to hold the rods in the withdrawn position have been checked. In the case of a malfunction of the flow/pressure relief valves, a calculation was needed to show that the scram time would not exceed the time allowed. The scram time has been determined based on different values of the rod insertion length and the outside radius of the annulus was calculated. The effective force pushing the rod into the scram position, the rate of acceleration, and the actual scram time was then determined.

  11. The Construction and Competitiveness of Operation Model of Agricultural Industrial Cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Through reviewing the viewpoints of former scholars, the connotation and features of supply chain of agricultural industrial cluster are introduced. The agricultural industrial cluster model constituted by core network and supporting network is constructed. Three operation models of this kind of supply chain is described: the model takes wholesale market of agricultural products as the core; the model take pillar industries of agricultural industrialization as core; model takes the chains of retail enterprises as core. The competitiveness of agricultural industrial cluster is researched. The research assumes that the competiveness of supply chain of agricultural industrial cluster is mainly represented to make the agricultural industrial cluster to acquire more capabilities in terms of innovation and knowledge sharing capability, resource allocation capability, agile market adaptability and distinct value creation capability.

  12. Study on the construction and operation for management system of municipal domestic wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Wang Shuqiang; Chen Jingxin

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity of our country's municipal domestic wastes increase rapidly, but the waste disposal still has problems, such as the simple way of processing, wasting the resources, the serious environmental pollution and so on. By holding waste minimization as the center, the developed countries have formed perfect waste management system. Based on analyzing the status quo and problems of processing in our country, on the principle of benefit, scale,waste minimization, reclamation and hazard-free treatment, according to the recycling model of processing, the article has constructed our country's domestic wastes management system, proposed the measures of promoting the operation of system. It has realized the transformation of waste management system from terminal disposal to source reduction,achieved the goals, including domestic wastes categorizing and reclaiming, industrialization and non-pollution processing,and finally brought sustainable development for resources, environment, economy and society.

  13. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  14. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  15. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  16. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  17. Low-power and shutdown models for the accident sequence precursor (ASP) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattison, M.B.; Thatcher, T.A.; Knudsen, J.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has been using full-power. Level 1, limited-scope risk models for the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program for over fifteen years. These models have evolved and matured over the years, as have probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and computer technologies. Significant upgrading activities have been undertaken over the past three years, with involvement from the Offices of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR), Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), and Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES), and several national laboratories. Part of these activities was an RES-sponsored feasibility study investigating the ability to extend the ASP models to include contributors to core damage from events initiated with the reactor at low power or shutdown (LP/SD), both internal events and external events. This paper presents only the LP/SD internal event modeling efforts.

  18. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-20

    This study is a requirements document that presents analysis for the functional description for the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment. The requirements in this study apply to the first phase of the W314 Project. This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W314 Project to cover the second phase of the project's scope.

  19. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC Beam Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Chiggiato, P; Jimenez, JM; Lanza, G

    2014-01-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) and the consolidation of the magnet bus bars, the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will operate with nominal beam parameters. Larger beam energy, beam intensities and luminosity are expected. Despite the very good performance of the beam vacuum system during the 2010-12 physics run (Run 1), some particular areas require attention for repair, consolidation and upgrade. Among the main activities, a large campaign aiming at the repair of the RF bridges of some vacuum modules is conducted. Moreover, consolidation of the cryogenic beam vacuum systems with burst disk for safety reasons is implemented. In addition, NEG cartridges, NEG coated inserts and new instruments for the vacuum system upgrade are installed. Besides these activities, repair, consolidation and upgrades of other beam equipment such as collimators, kickers and beam instrumentations are carried out. In this paper, the motivation and the description for such activities, together with the expected beam vacuum performa...

  20. The management of large cabling campaigns during the Long Shutdown 1 of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Meroli, Stefano; Formenti, Fabio; Frans, Marten; Guillaume, Jean Claude; Ricci, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN entered into its first 18 month-long shutdown period in February 2013. During this period the entire CERN accelerator complex will undergo major consolidation and upgrade works, preparing the machines for LHC operation at nominal energy (7 TeV/beam). One of the most challenging activities concerns the cabling infrastructure (copper and optical fibre cables) serving the CERN data acquisition, networking and control systems. About 1000 kilometres of cables, distributed in different machine areas, will be installed, representing an investment of about 15 MCHF. This implies an extraordinary challenge in terms of project management, including resource and activity planning, work execution and quality control. The preparation phase of this project started well before its implementation, by defining technical solutions and setting financial plans for staff recruitment and material supply. Enhanced task coordination was further implemented by deploying selected competences to form a ...

  1. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  2. Study on the Method of Test and Evaluation Measure Construction Based on Operational Desired Effect of Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For the basic input of weapons test, the author absorbed the advanced ideas of military equipment test and put forward the construction of three-level measures system of operational test evaluation, namely the combat mission, the combat equipment system task measures and weapon system/concept elaborated, the weapons and equipment operational mission description, the expected results, characteristics and operational missions. This paper is not only for the mission of measures, the mission decomposition process, solutions for the subsequent task decomposition and weapon system/equipment system decomposition, but also for the construction of similar measures system provides a useful reference.

  3. SEMI-BATCH OPERATED CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS PLANTED WITH PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS FOR TREATMENT OF DYEING WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOON-AN ONG

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study is to evaluate the using of constructed wetland under semi-batch operation for the treatment of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7 containing wastewater. The emergent plant selected in our study was Phragmites australis. Toxic signs were observed at the Phragmites australis after the addition of AO7 into the wetland reactors but it can adapt to the wastewater as shown in the increase of stem as the operation continue. Our result shows that the artificial aeration and the presence of Phragmites australis had a significant impact on the removal of organic matters, AO7, aromatic amines and NH4-N. The COD removal efficiency in the aerated and non-aerated wetland reactors was 95 and 62%, respectively. The NH4-N removal efficiency in the aerated wetland reactor (86% was significantly higher than the non-aerated wetland reactor (14 %. All wetland reactors show high removal efficiency of AO7 (> 94% but only the aerated wetland reactor perform better in the removal of aromatic amines.

  4. Decree no. 2002-447 of the 27 march 2002 authorizing the Normandy society of preserve and sterilization to realize definitive shutdowns and dismantling operations of the nuclear installation no. 152 situated on the territory of Osmanville (Calvados); Decret no. 2002-447 du 27 mars 2002 autorisant le Societe normande de conserve et sterilisation a proceder aux operations de mise a l'arret definitif et de demantelement de l'installation nucleaire de base no. 152 situee sur le territoire de la commune d'Osmanville (Calvados)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The decree presents the shutdown preliminary obligations, the installation quality, the prevention of radioactivity dissemination risk, the workers protection, the wastes management, the fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  5. Method for the thermo-hydraulic analysis of the test facility for the PBMR reserve shutdown system / Petrus Gerhardus van der Merwe

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) is a revolutionary small, compact and safe nuclear power plant. It operates on a direct closed Brayton cycle. One of the unique features of this concept is its load following capability enabled by extracting or injecting of the working fluid (in the PBMR's case Helium) from or to the system during operation. The Reserve Shutdown System (RSS) is one of the essential subsystems of the PBMR. The RSS is used as a maintenance and secondary shutd...

  6. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    and fish habitat in basin streams and lakes. 'Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan.

  7. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

  8. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengshi

    2010-08-01

    We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

  9. Progress of Project “The Key Technology Research of Passive Shutdown System for CDFR”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Passive shutdown technology is one of the key technologies to increase safety performance of larger-size sodium-cooled fast reactors. The objective to the project was to develop the preliminary design of the rod on the basis of theoretic analysis of passive shutdown assembly.

  10. CORAL and COOL during the LHC long shutdown.

    CERN Document Server

    Valassi, Andrea; Dulstra, D; Goyal, N; Salnikov, A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M

    2014-01-01

    CORAL and COOL are two software packages used by the LHC experiments for managing detector conditions and other types of data using relational database technologies. They have been developed and maintained within the LCG Persistency Framework, a common project of the CERN IT department with ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This presentation reports on the status of CORAL and COOL at the time of CHEP2013, covering the new features and enhancements in both packages, as well as the changes and improvements in the software process infrastructure. It also reviews the usage of the software in the experiments and the outlook for ongoing and future activities during the LHC long shutdown (LS1) and beyond.

  11. CORAL and COOL during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Multimedia

    Valassi, A; Dykstra, D; Goyal, N; Salnikov, A; Trentadue, R; Wache, M

    2013-01-01

    CORAL and COOL are two software packages used by the LHC experiments for managing detector conditions and other types of data using relational database technologies. They have been developed and maintained within the LCG Persistency Framework, a common project of the CERN IT department with ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. This presentation reports on the status of CORAL and COOL at the time of CHEP2013, covering the new features and enhancements in both packages, as well as the changes and improvements in the software process infrastructure. It also reviews the usage of the software in the experiments and the outlook for ongoing and future activities during the LHC long shutdown (LS1) and beyond.

  12. Experimental investigation of a new method for advanced fast reactor shutdown cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakholkov, V. V.; Kandaurov, A. A.; Potseluev, A. I.; Rogozhkin, S. A.; Sergeev, D. A.; Troitskaya, Yu. I.; Shepelev, S. F.

    2017-07-01

    We consider a new method for fast reactor shutdown cooling using a decay heat removal system (DHRS) with a check valve. In this method, a coolant from the decay heat exchanger (DHX) immersed into the reactor upper plenum is supplied to the high-pressure plenum and, then, inside the fuel subassemblies (SAs). A check valve installed at the DHX outlet opens by the force of gravity after primary pumps (PP-1) are shut down. Experimental studies of the new and alternative methods of shutdown cooling were performed at the TISEY test facility at OKBM. The velocity fields in the upper plenum of the reactor model were obtained using the optical particle image velocimetry developed at the Institute of Applied Physics (Russian Academy of Sciences). The study considers the process of development of natural circulation in the reactor and the DHRS models and the corresponding evolution of the temperature and velocity fields. A considerable influence of the valve position in the displacer of the primary pump on the natural circulation of water in the reactor through the DHX was discovered (in some modes, circulation reversal through the DHX was obtained). Alternative DHRS designs without a shell at the DHX outlet with open and closed check valve are also studied. For an open check valve, in spite of the absence of a shell, part of the flow is supplied through the DHX pipeline and then inside the SA simulators. When simulating power modes of the reactor operation, temperature stratification of the liquid was observed, which increased in the cooling mode via the DHRS. These data qualitatively agree with the results of tests at BN-600 and BN-800 reactors.

  13. Definition and means of maintaining the supply ventilation system seismic shutdown portion of the PFP safety envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keck, R.D.

    1997-01-21

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO) described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Operational Safety Requirements, WHC-SD-CP-OSR- 010, Rev. 0. Kay 1994, Section 3.2.3, `Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown.` This document, with its appendices, provides the following: 1. The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). 2. Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety boundary for the system (Section 4). 3. A list of annotated drawings which show the safety envelope boundaries (Appendix C). 4. A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). 5. Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate setpoints and process parameters (Section 4.1). 6. A list of the operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A).

  14. Construct validity in Operations Management by using Rasch Measurement Theory. The case of the construct “motivation to implement continuous improvement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sanchez-Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construct design and validation is a common practise in the Operations Management field. In this sense, the aim of this study is to present Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT as richful and useful methodology in order to validate constructs. In order to do so, the measurement controversy in the social science is presented; then, RMT is explained as a solution for this measurement issue; after that, the different applications of RMT are described and, finally, the different stages of the validation process are presented. Thus, this work aims to serve as a guide for those researchers interested in the methodology. Therefore, a specific case is included: the validation of the construct “motivation to implement continuous improvement”.

  15. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  16. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  18. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  19. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  20. Spent fuel acceptance scenarios devoted to shutdown reactors: A preliminary analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, T.W.; Plummer, A.M.; Dippold, D.G.; Short, S.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (USA). Office of Transportation Systems and Planning; Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Spent fuel acceptance schedules and the allocation of federal acceptance capacity among commercial nuclear power reactors have important operational and cost consequences for reactor operators. Alternative allocation schemes were investigated to some extent in DOE's MRS Systems Study. The current study supplements these analyses for a class of acceptance schemes in which the acceptance capacity of the federal radioactive waste management system is allocated principally to shutdown commercial power reactors, and extends the scope of analysis to include considerations of at-reactor cask loading rates. The operational consequences of these schemes for power reactors, as measured in terms of quantity of spent fuel storage requirement above storage pool capacities and number of years of pool operations after last discharge, are estimated, as are the associated utility costs. This study does not attempt to examine the inter-utility equity considerations involved in departures from the current oldest-fuel-first (OFF) allocation rule as specified in the Standard Contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste.'' In the sense that the alternative allocations are more economically efficient than OFF, however, they approximate the allocations that could result from free exchange of acceptance rights among utilities. Such a process would result in the preservation of inter-utility equity. 13 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. Design Report for the ½ Scale Air-Cooled RCCS Tests in the Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisowski, D. D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kilsdonk, D. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bremer, N. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aeschlimann, R. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Natural convection Shutdown heat removal Test Facility (NSTF) is a large scale thermal hydraulics test facility that has been built at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The facility was constructed in order to carry out highly instrumented experiments that can be used to validate the performance of passive safety systems for advanced reactor designs. The facility has principally been designed for testing of Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) concepts that rely on natural convection cooling for either air or water-based systems. Standing 25-m in height, the facility is able to supply up to 220 kW at 21 kW/m2 to accurately simulate the heat fluxes at the walls of a reactor pressure vessel. A suite of nearly 400 data acquisition channels, including a sophisticated fiber optic system for high density temperature measurements, guides test operations and provides data to support scaling analysis and modeling efforts. Measurements of system mass flow rate, air and surface temperatures, heat flux, humidity, and pressure differentials, among others; are part of this total generated data set. The following report provides an introduction to the top level-objectives of the program related to passively safe decay heat removal, a detailed description of the engineering specifications, design features, and dimensions of the test facility at Argonne. Specifications of the sensors and their placement on the test facility will be provided, along with a complete channel listing of the data acquisition system.

  2. Environmental assessment for construction and operation of a Human Genome Laboratory at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].

  3. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel From Nine Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul

    2013-04-30

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from nine shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites included Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, and Zion. At these sites a total of 7649 used nuclear fuel assemblies and a total of 2813.2 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of used nuclear fuel are contained in 248 storage canisters. In addition, 11 canisters containing greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste are stored at these sites. The evaluation was divided in four components: • characterization of the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste inventory at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the onsite transportation conditions at the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and experience relevant to the shipping of transportation casks containing used nuclear fuel from the shutdown sites • an evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from the shutdown sites. Using these evaluations the authors developed time sequences of activities and time durations for removing the used nuclear fuel and GTCC low-level radioactive waste from a single shutdown site, from three shutdown sites located close to each other, and from all nine shutdown sites.

  4. RESEARCH OF A TANK-CONTAINER STRENGTH OF IMPROVED CONSTRUCTION USING THE COMPUTER SIMULATION OF OPERATING CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Lovskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article highlights the сoverage of the results and characteristics of computer research of tank-container construction strength in operation that was improved by using round pipes as supporting constructions. Methodology. To achieve this aim, operation conditions of the typical tank-container construction were investigated. To study the strength of the tank-container in operation the spatial geometric model was constructed. The maximum equivalent stresses that occur in its supporting structures under the action of the most adverse operating conditions load were defined. Calculations were carried out using the finite element method. It was found that the margin of safety of the standard design container is about 2. For the metal content contraction of the tank-container it is proposed the improvement of its supporting construction by replacing round pipes instead of square pipes, which are used in typical design (providing in terms of durability and operational reliability. Findings. The improved supporting structure of the tank-container for transporting the petroleum products was developed. For the optimal design of its frame optimality research were conducted on the criterion if minimum material consumption. Originality. A model of strength tank-container which provides the possibility to determine the equivalent stresses in its supporting structure by encountering as the most unfavorable case of load was offered. The improved supporting structure of a tank-container using simulation optimization was developed. The improved construction of a tank-container is designed for all types of loads specified in the regulations. Practical value. The results of strength calculation showed that the tension of an improved supporting construction of a tank-container in the main modes of operating does not exceed the allowable values. Technical and economic feasibility of the proposed engineering solutions to the supporting construction

  5. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  6. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  7. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation.

  8. Performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland under different operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Abdelhakeem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSSFCW for sewage effluent treatment was studied in an eight month experiment under different operational conditions including: vegetation (the presence or absence of common reeds “Phragmites australis”, media type (gravel or vermiculite, and mode of sewage feeding (continuous or batch. Plants had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the removal efficiency and mass removal rate of all pollutants, except phosphorous. The average removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD, biological oxygen demand (BOD, total suspended solids (TSS, ammonium (NH4 and total-P (TP were 75%, 84%, 75%, 32% and 22% for the planted beds compared to 29%, 37%, 42%, 26% and 17%, respectively, for the unplanted beds. The VSSFCW was ineffective in removing nitrate (NO3. The effect of either media type or feeding mode system on the removal efficiency of COD and BOD was insignificant. Vermiculite media significantly (P < 0.05 increased the efficiency of the wetland in removing NH4, TP and dissolved phosphorous (DP when compared with gravel particularly in the planted beds. The batch mode was more effective in removing TSS and NH4 compared to the continuous mode. Volumetric rate constant (kV was different for various pollutants and significantly increased due to the presence of plants. Media type had no significant effect on the values of kV for COD, BOD and TSS, while kV for NH4 and TP under vermiculite in the planted beds and kV for P in the unplanted beds were significantly higher than those under gravel.

  9. Smooth Operator - Mobile Information Technology for Improved Flow at the Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    and industry for an updated and forward looking comprehension, and view of tendencies, of the roles and potentials of mobile IT at the construction site including potential for further research. Qualitative and interpretive methodology inspired by information systems and sociology of research and construction......Mobile information technology (IT) seems an ideal innovation to promote effectiveness of the construction process, particularly at the construction site; research has over the last 15 years focused on solutions, potentials and barriers with this field. This paper aim at the duality between research...... and micro mobility (the site); additionally systems designed for the construction site are used in increasingly adjacent industries: Architects, engineers, facility management, insurance, etc. The ambiguousness of mobile IT on the construction site strongly supports further research within this field using...

  10. 77 FR 64592 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation... on Draft Scope. SUMMARY: On October 16, 2012, Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc. (TRRC) filed a... Miles City, Montana, and two termini located near Ashland, Montana, a proceeding known as Tongue River...

  11. 77 FR 71872 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-in Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Rail Construction and Operation--in Custer, Powder River and Rosebud Counties, MT; Extension of Comment Period for the Draft Scope of...

  12. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This two-volume Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Volume 1 contains the assessment of the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, by Louisiana Energy Services, LP. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are construction, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D)- of the site. Issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment. The FEIS supports issuance of a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  14. A Training Manual in Conducting a Workshop in the Design, Construction, Operation, Maintenance and Repair of Hydrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Office of Programming and Training Coordination.

    This manual presents a comprehensive training design, suggested procedures, and materials for conducting a workshop in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and repair of hydrams, and in the planning and implementation of hydram projects. Hydrams (hydraulic rams, hydraulic ram pumps, automatic hydraulic ram pumps, rams) are devices…

  15. 75 FR 2133 - Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz County, AZ (DOE/EIS-0440)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Area Power Administration Construction and Operation of the Quartzsite Solar Energy Project, La Paz..., intends to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Quartzsite Solar Energy Project (Project) in La Paz County, near Quartzsite, Arizona. Quartzsite Solar Energy, LLC (QSE)...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant... that the applicant wishes to have the application considered under 10 CFR part 52, appendix N, and must...

  17. Smooth Operator - Mobile Information Technology for Improved Flow at the Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    and industry for an updated and forward looking comprehension, and view of tendencies, of the roles and potentials of mobile IT at the construction site including potential for further research. Qualitative and interpretive methodology inspired by information systems and sociology of research and construction...... and micro mobility (the site); additionally systems designed for the construction site are used in increasingly adjacent industries: Architects, engineers, facility management, insurance, etc. The ambiguousness of mobile IT on the construction site strongly supports further research within this field using...

  18. Group-theoretical construction of finite-momentum and multi-particle operators for lattice hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Justina; Jhang, You-Cyuan; Juge, Keisuke J.; Lenkner, David; Morningstar, Colin; Wong, Chik Him

    2012-01-01

    Determining the spectrum of hadronic excitations from Monte Carlo simulations requires the use of interpolating operators that couple to multi-particle states. Recent algorithmic advances have made the inclusion of multi-hadron operators in spectroscopy calculations a practical reality. In this talk, a procedure for constructing a set of multi-hadron interpolators that project onto the states of interest is described. To aid in the interpretation of simulation data, operators are designed to transform irreducibly under the lattice symmetry group. The identification of a set of optimal single-hadron interpolators for states with non-zero momenta is an essential intermediate step in this analysis.

  19. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Government,9 which states among other things that management should establish an organizational structure, assign responsibility, and delegate...O&M funds under the Contingency Construction Authority. The information may also enable DOD to determine whether existing departmental processes...construction needs; and revise existing departmental processes or seek additional authorities, as appropriate. • To help ensure that DOD limits demands

  20. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D&D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS.

  1. Experimental investigations of transient pressure variations in a high head model Francis turbine during start-up and shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TRIVEDI Chirag; CERVANTES Michel J.; GANDHI B. K.; OLE DAHLHAUG G

    2014-01-01

    Penetration of the power generated using wind and solar energy to electrical grid network causing several incidents of the grid tripping, power outage, and frequency drooping. This has increased restart (star-stop) cycles of the hydroelectric turbines significantly since grid connected hydroelectric turbines are widely used to manage critical conditions of the grid. Each cycle induces significant stresses due to unsteady pressure loading on the runner blades. The presented work investigates the pressure loading to a high head ( HP=377m, DP=1.78m) Francis turbine during start-stop. The measurements were carried out on a scaled model turbine ( HM =12.5m, DM =0.349m). Total four operating points were considered. At each operating point, three schemes of guide vanes opening and three schemes of guide vanes closing were investigated. The results show that total head variation is up to 9%during start-stop of the turbine. On the runner blade, the maximum pressure amplitudes are about 14 kPa and 16 kPa from the instantaneous mean value of 121 kPa during rapid start-up and shutdown, respectively, which are about 1.5 times larger than that of the slow start-up and shutdown. Moreover, the maximum pressure fluctuations are given at the blade trailing edge.

  2. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    Geophysical Institute/International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001), available electronically at http://www.gi.alaska.edu/services/library/pipeline.html codes. The Association of Oil Pipe Lines (AOPL) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) jointly provide an overview covering the life cycle of design, construction, operations, maintenance, economic regulation, and deactivation of liquid pipelines (AOPL/API 2007).

  3. Annual report, August 1976--July 1977 Radiation dose to construction workers at operating nuclear power plant sites.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, G.W.R.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation exposures received by most construction workers at nuclear power plant sites have not been measured routinely because field surveys have indicated exposure levels below the point for which monitoring is required. As a consequence, the dose to individuals and groups of workers is not known to the degree desired for adequate environmental impact assessment. This study was developed to measure and evaluate radiation exposure and exposure rates received by construction workers at various reactor sites where one or more reactors are operating while construction is proceeding on one or more additional reactors. This study is providing a data base from which a realistic assessment of radiological impact can be made for the construction workers of proposed multiunit nuclear power plants and to help arrive at a decision as to whether increased control of the radiation exposure of these workers is warranted. Four nuclear sites were included in this study after receiving approval of the operating utilities. Data from thermoluminescent personnel dosimeters and environmental dosimeters showed that the construction workers receive very little exposure above background.

  4. Network design and operational modelling for construction green supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhou Dong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on studying organizational structure of Construction Green Supply Chain Management (CGSCM, a mathematical programming model of CGSCM was proposed. The model aimed to maximize the aggregate profits of normalized construction logistics, the reverse logistics and the environmental performance. Numerical experiments show that the proposed approach can improve the aggregate profit effectively. In addition, return ratio, subsidies from governmental organizations, and environmental performance were analyzed for CGSCM performance. Herein, the proper return, subsidy and control strategy could optimize construction green supply chain.

  5. Wind Power predictability a risk factor in the design, construction and operation of Wind Generation Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, J.; Gulstad, L.; Ristic, I.; Maric, T.

    2010-09-01

    Summit: The wind power predictability is often a forgotten decision and planning factor for most major wind parks, both onshore and offshore. The results of the predictability are presented after having examined a number of European offshore and offshore parks power predictability by using three(3) mesoscale model IRIE_GFS and IRIE_EC and WRF. Full description: It is well known that the potential wind production is changing with latitude and complexity in terrain, but how big are the changes in the predictability and the economic impacts on a project? The concept of meteorological predictability has hitherto to some degree been neglected as a risk factor in the design, construction and operation of wind power plants. Wind power plants are generally built in places where the wind resources are high, but these are often also sites where the predictability of the wind and other weather parameters is comparatively low. This presentation addresses the question of whether higher predictability can outweigh lower average wind speeds with regard to the overall economy of a wind power project. Low predictability also tends to reduce the value of the energy produced. If it is difficult to forecast the wind on a site, it will also be difficult to predict the power production. This, in turn, leads to increased balance costs and a less reduced carbon emission from the renewable source. By investigating the output from three(3) mesoscale models IRIE and WRF, using ECMWF and GFS as boundary data over a forecasting period of 3 months for 25 offshore and onshore wind parks in Europe, the predictability are mapped. Three operational mesoscale models with two different boundary data have been chosen in order to eliminate the uncertainty with one mesoscale model. All mesoscale models are running in a 10 km horizontal resolution. The model output are converted into "day a head" wind turbine generation forecasts by using a well proven advanced physical wind power model. The power models

  6. Low Power and Shutdown PSA Modeling using AIMS-PSA and SIMA Script

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    KAERI has been developing an integrated PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) software package, called OCEANS. OCEANS includes software for Level- 1, 2 and 3 PSAs, fire PSA, seismic PSA, and shutdown PSA. OCEANS is being developed to simplify and automate the modeling and quantification procedures in PSA. The AIMS-PSA software plays a key role in OCEANS, which takes charge of the event tree and fault tree modeling, as well as automates the quantification procedure. The first low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA in Korea was performed for the purpose of estimating the risk during the LPSD operation for YGN 5 and 6 in 2000. The LPSD PSA requires a lot of time and effort for the following 2 reasons: 1) The risk is analyzed for 14 POSs (Plant Operating States). A PSA for each POS corresponds to a full power PSA. The size of a LPSD PSA can be as large as 14 times a full power PSA. 2) The states of systems/components are changed for every overhaul. The LPSD PSA should be revised for every overhaul to reflect the overhaul schedule. Another study was performed to improve the quality and enhance the methodology for the LPSD PSA in 2006. A method to use the conditioning gate was introduced for the purpose of handling a change in the state of a component. This approach has a benefit compared with the previous one, but still requires modifying the model manually. An approach has been developed in this study to simply the modeling of the LPSD PSA by using a script, called SIMA (Script Interpreter for Mapping Algorithm), in conjunction with AIMS-PSA. The SIMA script consists of a series of script commands to describe the changes in the fault tree model, which enables modifying the system fault trees of a full power PSA automatically to incorporate the situation of LPSD, so as not to modify the fault tree manually. The approach developed in this study was tested and verified for the LPSD PSA model developed in 2006

  7. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE): Requirements Definition and Pilot Implementation Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) [Object Modeling Group 2006], was used to capture the steps relevant to COBIE. Information ex- ERDC...Construction Research Workshop, Stanford, California. Object Modeling Group. 2006. Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) Specification. Final

  8. Full line achievement in construction and business operation in first quarter by CSIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ In the first quarter of 2006, CSIC has made a full line achievement. Economy gross, sales revenue and added value increased 25%, 28% and 25% respectively. Among other things,CSIC got orders for 19 new ships or 2000000 dwt/8.8 billion Yuan. CSIC completed the construction of 11 ships amounting to 220000 dwt. It realized a ship construction value of 4.7 billion Yuan, up 21% from previous year.

  9. Evolution of the ATLAS distributed computing system during the LHC long shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, S.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1 PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileup. We will describe the evolution of the ADC software foreseen during this period. This includes consolidating the existing Production and Distributed Analysis framework (PanDA) and ATLAS Grid Information System (AGIS), together with the development and commissioning of next generation systems for distributed data management (DDM/Rucio) and production (Prodsys-2). We will explain how new technologies such as Cloud Computing and NoSQL databases, which ATLAS investigated as R&D projects in past years, will be integrated in production. Finally, we will describe more fundamental developments such as breaking job-to-data locality by exploiting storage federations and caches, and event level (rather than file or dataset level) workload engines.

  10. Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains based on Measured Shut-down Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Buhl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The key objective of this paper is to investigate the frequency of normal shutdowns to be used in the design stage of wind turbines, based on measurements at an offshore wind farm and thereby quantify the irimpact on the fatigue loads on the drivetrain and tower top. The measured shut-downs obser......The key objective of this paper is to investigate the frequency of normal shutdowns to be used in the design stage of wind turbines, based on measurements at an offshore wind farm and thereby quantify the irimpact on the fatigue loads on the drivetrain and tower top. The measured shut...... action. The IFORM determined frequency of shutdowns at cut-out mean wind speed is usedas an input to the fatigue load computations in the drivetrain, by which, the resulting damage equivalent loads are analyzed to quantify their coefficient of variation for varying site specific wind conditions underboth...

  11. Conceptual study of reactor control and shutdown rod drive mechanism of a SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Han; Kim, Jong Bum

    2012-09-15

    The conceptual design of a prototype SFR (sodium cooled Fast Reactor) of 150MWe capacity was began in 2012 through the Korea national long term R and D project by KAERI. This report describes the design concepts of a control rod drive mechanism for plant control system and a passive shutdown rod drive mechanism for reactor protection system of a SFR. The performance requirements and preliminary design values of the core power control rod drive mechanism are determined based on the KALIMER 600 and PRISM design concepts. As for the scram rod drive mechanism, several types of passive shutdown systems are introduced, several candidate design concepts are proposed and the reactor shutdown rod drive mechanism is described shortly. This report also performs the parametric design studies for the electromagnet component of the passive shutdown device. Its design feasibility is investigated for a given design installation constraint, and the necessary items for design improvements to meet the design requirements are suggested.

  12. Investigation of a P-96 heat-recovery boiler used as part of the PGU-450T power unit at the Kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station in the course of perfecting the starting and shutdown operations and during running with base loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepaev, P. A.; Shtan', T. P.; Glusker, B. N.; Pashnin, L. V.; Konovalov, P. S.

    2007-09-01

    Results from operational tests carried out on the pilot P-96 heat-recovery boiler of the PGU-450T power unit at the Kaliningrad TETs-2 cogeneration station are presented. Technologies of starting and shutting down the boiler from different thermal states and peculiarities of its operating conditions in the load controlled range are considered. Specific features pertinent to the operation of a horizontal heat-recovery boiler with natural circulation of working medium in the evaporation heating surfaces are established.

  13. Dynamic Model and Performance of Absorption Heat Pump in Shut-down Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lei; LU Zhen

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic model of LiBr absorption heat pump in shut-down process is established. The simulation results show good agreement with the experiments. The dynamic performance of high-pressure generator, low-pressure generator and heat exchanger are analyzed in detail. The proper shut-down mode of the heat pump is presented,which, in consideration of solution parameters, has a great effect on the possibility of crystallization of some components.

  14. A novel quark-field creation operator construction for hadronic physics in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Peardon, Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, Huey-Wen Lin, David Richards, John Bulava, Colin Morningstar, Keisuke Juge

    2009-09-01

    A new quark-field smearing algorithm is defined which enables efficient calculations of a broad range of hadron correlation functions. The technique applies a low-rank operator to define smooth fields, that are to be used in hadron creation operators. The resulting space of smooth fields is small enough that all elements of the reduced quark propagator can be computed exactly at reasonable computational cost. Correlations between arbitrary sources, including multi-hadron operators can be computed {\\em a posteriori} without requiring new lattice Dirac operator inversions. The method is tested on realistic lattice sizes with light dynamical quarks.

  15. A novel quark-field creation operator construction for hadronic physics in lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Peardon, Jozef Dudek, Robert Edwards, Huey-Wen Lin, David Richards, John Bulava, Colin Morningstar, Keisuke Juge

    2009-09-01

    A new quark-field smearing algorithm is defined which enables efficient calculations of a broad range of hadron correlation functions. The technique applies a low-rank operator to define smooth fields, that are to be used in hadron creation operators. The resulting space of smooth fields is small enough that all elements of the reduced quark propagator can be computed exactly at reasonable computational cost. Correlations between arbitrary sources, including multi-hadron operators can be computed {\\em a posteriori} without requiring new lattice Dirac operator inversions. The method is tested on realistic lattice sizes with light dynamical quarks.

  16. Electricity production from Azo dye wastewater using a microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland operating under different operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhou; Song, Hai-liang; Cang, Ning; Li, Xian-ning

    2015-06-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have got tremendous attention for their capability to enhance the degradation of some recalcitrant pollutants and simultaneous electricity production. A microbial fuel cell coupled constructed wetland (CW-MFC) is a new device to treat the wastewater and produce energy which has more wastewater treatment volume and more easily to maintenance than others MFCs. The studies on the performance of CW-MFCs are necessary. In this work, the effects of hydraulic residence time (HRT), reactive brilliant red X-3B (ABRX3) proportion and COD concentration on the electricity production of CW-MFC and the degradation characteristics of ABRX3 were investigated. The decolorization rate and the electricity production increased to a peak before slowing down with the elongation of HRT. The highest decolorization rate and electricity production were obtained when HRT was 3 days. The ABRX3 proportion (calculated as COD) in the wastewater played an important role in decolorization and electricity production, which may influence the distribution of electrons in the system. The power density of CW-MFC and the decolorization rate decreased concomitantly with an increasing ABRX3 proportion. The COD concentration influenced the CW-MFC performance slightly. The highest decolorization rate and power density reached 95.6% and 0.852 W/m(3), respectively, when the COD concentration was 300 mg/L while the ABRX3 proportion was 30%. The coulombic efficiency of the CW-MFC depended on glucose and ABRX3 proportions in the wastewater. ABRX3 acquired more electrons than the anode. Further investigations are needed to optimize CW-MFC performance and explain the mechanism of biorefractory compounds degradation and electron motion in CW-MFCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in the design, construction and operation of green roofs to improve the rainwater quality. State of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Andrés Morales Mojica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The green roofs appear as technology for the improvement water quality. This article identifies trends in the conditions of design, construction and operation of green roofs, which aim is to improve the quality of rainwater. A literature review was carried out in order to collect 45 original research papers from databases as Scopus, Science Direct, and Redalyc. From the information collected trends in increments and reductions in the concentrations of the main water quality parameters, seasons of the year with the best results, types of green roofs , types of substrate and most common components, construction trends (dimensions, inclination, Materials and layers and vegetation used in these systems have been determined. The results show that green roofs have the ability to neutralize acid rain. Extensive type roofs are the ones most commonly used, due to its characteristics of construction, functionality and low maintenance requirements.

  18. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft{sup 2} waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft{sup 2} mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required.

  19. Research on the application of PPP model in the Chinese construction and operation of new energy vehicle charging facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liping

    2017-05-01

    New energy car charging equipment is the development and popularization of new energy vehicles. It has the nature of quasi-public goods. Due to the large number of construction projects, wide distribution, big investment, it needs huge sums of money. PPP mode is a new financing model and has the inherent driving force to lead the idea the technology and the system innovation. The government and the social subject cooperate on the basis of the spirit of contract thus achieve benefit sharing. This mode effectively improve the operation of new energy vehicle charging facilities operating efficiency

  20. IMPROVED METHOD OF DETERMINATION OF ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF HIGH SPEED MAINLINE IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. S. Barash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To develop an advanced methodology and formulate the measures concerning the definition of economic efficiency of high-speed movement organization taking into account the operating experience of rapid transportations in Ukraine, travel time, number of stops on the route, schedule and the demand for these transportations. Methodology. The economic feasibility for appropriateness of high-speed movement organization in Ukraine is an investment project, which involves step-by-step money investment to the construction. To solve such problems one uses net present value, which UZ or newly created companies can get during the project realization and after its completion. Findings. On the basis of obtained studies one can state that the methodology of complex determination of construction efficiency and high-speed passenger trains operation taking into account the cost of infrastructure, rolling stock, impact of environmental factors, etc. was developed in the article. Originality. We propose a scientific approach to determine the economic efficiency of the construction and high-speed main lines operation. This approach, unlike the existing one, includes the improved principles of determining the passenger traffic, the cost of high-speed mainline construction, the number of rolling stock; optimizes income and expenditure calculations in the context of competitive advantages and impact of the external factors on the company. For the first time it was taken into account the transit flow of passengers departing from CIS countries to the vacation in the Crimea, the Carpathians, Odessa and Lviv regions. The account of these factors increases the feasibility of administrative decisions concerning ensuring the efficiency of high-speed traffic functioning. Practical value. The proposed methodology and the research results allowed determining the construction reasonability of high-speed mainline for the passenger trains with a speed at least250 km/h in

  1. 空客A320系列飞机APS3200型APU自动关车故障分析%Failure Analysis of APS3200 Type APU Automatic Vehicle Shutdown of the Airbus A320 Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪勤

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, by analyzing the troubleshooting process of APS3200 Type APU Automatic Vehicle Shutdown of the Airbus A320 Series occurring repeatedly, it proposed troubleshooting and maintenance tips to the APU shutdown automatic vehicle shutdown appearing in the operation of the aircraft power supply switching.%本文通过对空客A320系列飞机APS3200型APU反复出现自动关车故障的排故过程进行分析,对飞机运行中供电切换时出现APU自动关车现象提出排故建议和维护提示。

  2. DETERMINATION OF MAIN OUTPUT PARAMETERS FOR HYDROFICATED CONSTRUCTION AND ROAD-BUILDING MACHINES AT OPERATIONAL STAGE OF THEIR LIFE CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Maximenko

    2014-01-01

    fact must be taken account while creating a machine and using it for its intended operational purpose and ensuring its operating capability. The proposed methodology for maintaining and restoration of operating capability of construction and road-building machines was published previously [3]. The paper proposes a methodology for its implementation on the basis of expenses for machine manufacturing and dynamics of main output parameters at the operational stage of its life cycle.

  3. Development of a human reliability analysis procedure for a low power/shutdown probabilistic safety assessment in pressurized light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Sung, T. Y.; Park, J. H.; Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, W. D.; Lee, Y. H.; Hwang, M. J.

    1997-09-01

    A human reliability analysis (HRA) procedure is developed for a low power/shutdown probalistic safety assessment (PSA) in pressurized light water reactors. At first, the HRA procedure developed is based on the two major current methods: THERP (technique for human error rate prediction) and SHARP (systematic human action reliability procedure). Then, it focuses on the specific situation of low power and shutdown operation of pressurized light water reactors. Major characteristics of the HRA procedure are as follows; 1) The use of the work sheet developed increase the plausibility and credibility of the quantification process of human actions and enable use to trace easily it. 2) The explicit use of decision tree could partly eliminate the possible subjectiveness in human reliability analyst`s judgement used for HRA. It is expected that the HRA procedure developed allow human reliability analyst to perform a systematic and consistent HRA. (author). 26 refs., 13 tabs., 8 figs.

  4. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  5. Using the PPML approach for constructing a low-dissipation, operator-splitting scheme for numerical simulations of hydrodynamic flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    An approach for constructing a low-dissipation numerical method is described. The method is based on a combination of the operator-splitting method, Godunov method, and piecewise-parabolic method on the local stencil. Numerical method was tested on a standard suite of hydrodynamic test problems. In addition, the performance of the method is demonstrated on a global test problem showing the development of a spiral structure in a gravitationally unstable gaseous galactic disk.

  6. Design and Construction of Low Cost High Voltage dc Power Supply for Constant Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N. S.; Jayasankar, V.

    2013-06-01

    Pulsed load applications like laser based systems need high voltage dc power supplies with better regulation characteristics. This paper presents the design, construction and testing of dc power supply with 1 kV output at 300 W power level. The designed converter has half bridge switched mode power supply (SMPS) configuration with 20 kHz switching. The paper covers the design of half bridge inverter, closed loop control, High frequency transformer and other related electronics. The designed power supply incorporates a low cost OPAMP based feedback controller which is designed using small signal modelling of the converter. The designed converter was constructed and found to work satisfactorily as per the specifications.

  7. Construction of Fuzzy Sets and Applying Aggregation Operators for Fuzzy Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hudec, Miroslav; Sudzina, Frantisek

    Flexible query conditions could use linguistic terms described by fuzzy sets. The question is how to properly construct fuzzy sets for each linguistic term and apply an adequate aggregation function. For construction of fuzzy sets, the lowest value, the highest value of attribute...... and the distribution of data inside its domain are used. The logarithmic transformation of domains appears to be suitable. This way leads to a balanced distribution of tuples over fuzzy sets. In addition, users’ opinions about linguistic terms as well as current content in database are merged. The second investigated...

  8. Shut-Down Dose Rate analysis for ITER Diagnostic Equatorial and Upper Ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serikov, Arkady, E-mail: arkady.serikov@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bertalot, Luciano [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pitcher, Charles Spencer; Suarez, Alejandro; Udintsev, Victor S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Weinhorst, Bastian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) analysis for ITER Diagnostic Equatorial and Upper Port Plugs (EPP and UPP). •ALARA principle and minimization of SDDR are used for the optimization of the port plugs shielding. •Activation and radiation shielding analyses with the MCNP5, FISPACT-2007, D1S and R2Smesh codes. •Significance of contribution of ELM/in-vessel coils and blanket manifolds into the port SDDR is shown. •Shielding improvements for EPP, UPP, and adjacent ITER components were proposed. -- Abstract: The Shut-Down Dose Rate (SDDR) is an important criterion of radiation safety for the personnel access for maintenance operations in ITER ports after the cessation of the D-T 14 MeV neutron fusion source. Therefore, the problem of the SDDR calculations attracts the attention of fusion neutronics community because SDDR in such a large and geometrically complicated fusion device as the ITER tokamak is challenging to compute. This challenge has been faced and overcome by applying dedicated methodological approaches explained in this paper. The results of the SDDR analysis allowed us to propose several design solutions for improvement of the radiation shielding of the ITER Generic Diagnostic Equatorial and Upper Port Plugs (EPP and UPP). The SDDR analysis was focused on the interspace area located between the ITER bioshield and port plugs where the personnel access is envisaged at ∼12 days after the ITER shut-down. By this analysis the radiation streaming pathways and dominant sources of decay radiation were revealed and the methods to mitigate the streaming and subsequent activation were found. The optimization of the port shielding was targeted on minimization of the SDDR in the interspace area following the ALARA principle and taking into account the feasibility to implement proposed shielding options with the actual hardware. Among them, wrapping the EPP walls with the B{sub 4}C tiles improves the EPP shielding performance. While void around the ELM

  9. Catalyzed steam gasification of biomass. Phase 3: Biomass Process Development Unit (PDU) construction and initial operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, J. J.; Hooverman, R. H.

    1981-12-01

    The design and construction of the process development unit (PDU) are described in detail, examining each system and component in order. Siting, the chip handling system, the reactor feed system, the reactor, the screw conveyor, the ash dump system, the PDU support equipment, control and information management, and shakedown runs are described.

  10. Transparency, market operation and trust in the Dutch construction industry: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Nijhof, André

    2007-01-01

    After the discovery of illegal price agreements in the Dutch construction industry, the government and major players in the sector have initiated a transition process towards more professional commercial relations. In the transition process transparency plays an important part, as it is a preconditi

  11. Development, Construction, and Operation of a Multisample Volumetric Apparatus for the Study of Gas Adsorption Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rui P. P. L.; Silva, Ricardo J. S.; Esteves, Isabel A. A. C.; Mota, Jose´ P. B.

    2015-01-01

    The construction of a simple volumetric adsorption apparatus is highlighted. The setup is inexpensive and provides a clear demonstration of gas phase adsorption concepts. The topic is suitable for undergraduate chemistry and chemical engineering students. Moreover, this unit can also provide quantitative data that can be used by young researchers…

  12. A distributed data collection and management framework for tracking construction operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, A.; Hartmann, T.; Doree, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Construction work typically means producing on shifting locations. Moving materials, equipment and men efficiently from place to place, in and in between projects, depends on good coordination and requires specialized information systems. The key to such information systems are appropriate approache

  13. Technical report on the design, construction, commissioning and operation of the super-FRS of FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissel, H.; Winkler, M.; Weick, H. [and others

    2005-04-01

    In this report the construction of the super-FRS is described. Especially described are the ion-optical lay-out, the production targets, the magnets, the beam dumps, the degrader systems and the ion catcher, detectors and data-acquisition systems, as well as the safety aspects. (HSI)

  14. Improvement of Initiating Events Analsis in Low-Power and Shutdown PSA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Jee; Jang, Seung Chul; Lim, Ho Gon

    2005-04-15

    In this study, we have improved the methodology of the initiating event identification for the KSNP LPSD PSA to complement the deficiency obtained from Review of KSNP LPSD PSA Mode based on ANS LPSD PSA Standard. To improve the quality of initiating event analysis, we integrated three systematic approachs for this purpose such as Master Logic Diagram, the empirical approach using domestic and international operating experience and the engineering approach. And we have identified 22 initiation events finally. We could got a basis and satisfied a structured, systematic process for initiating event identification demanded in ANS LPSD PSA Standard. But the sufficient completeness of initiating event analysis for LPSD PSA, the domestic low power and shutdown operating experience for overhaul and un-planed outages analysis is also needed.

  15. On self-adjoint operators in Krein spaces constructed by Clifford algebra Cl_{2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergii Kuzhel

    2012-01-01

    \\(\\Sigma_{J_{\\vec{\\beta}}}\\ are unitarily equivalent for different \\(\\vec{\\alpha}, \\vec{\\beta} \\in \\mathbb{S}^2\\ and describe in detail the structure of operators \\(A \\in \\Sigma_{J_{\\vec{\\alpha}}}\\ with empty resolvent set.

  16. Estimate of -Functionals and Modulus of Smoothness Constructed by Generalized Spherical Mean Operator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M El Hamma; R Daher

    2014-05-01

    Using a generalized spherical mean operator, we define generalized modulus of smoothness in the space $L^2_k(\\mathbb{R}^d)$. Based on the Dunkl operator we define Sobolev-type space and -functionals. The main result of the paper is the proof of the equivalence theorem for a -functional and a modulus of smoothness for the Dunkl transform on $\\mathbb{R}^d$.

  17. VITASCOPE: Extensible and Scalable 3D Visualization of Simulated Construction Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Vineet Rajendra

    2003-01-01

    In the domain of operations design and analysis, the ability to see a 3D animation of processes that have been simulated allows for three very important things: 1) The developer of a simulation model can ascertain that there are no errors in the coding (Verification); 2) The experts, field personnel, and decision makers can discover differences between the way they understand the operation and the way the model developer understands it (Validation); and 3) A model can be communicated effectiv...

  18. Final Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1107, analyzing the environmental effects relating to the construction and operation of an office building at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). SLAC is a national facility operated by Stanford University, California, under contract with DOE. The center is dedicated to research in elementary particle physics and in those fields that make use of its synchrotron facilities. The objective for the construction and operation of an office building is to provide adequate office space for existing SLAC Waste Management (WM) personnel, so as to centralize WM personnel and to make WM operations more efficient and effective. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Design, construction, activation, and operation of a high intensity acoustic test chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, L. T.

    1986-01-01

    The design philosophy, construction, integration, and activation of the high intensity acoustic test chamber for production acceptance testing of satellites are discussed. The 32,000 cubic-foot acoustic test cell consists of a steel reinforced concrete chamber with six electropneumatic noise generators. One of the innovative features of the chamber is a unique quarter horn assembly that acoustically couples the noise generators to the chamber. Design concepts, model testing, and evaluation results are presented. Considerations such as nitrogen versus compressed air source, digital closed loop spectrum control versus manual equalizers, and microprocessor based interlock systems are included. Construction difficulties, anomalies encountered, and their resolution are also discussed. Results of the readiness testing are highlighted.

  20. Construction and Operation of Three-Dimensional Memory and Logic Molecular Devices and Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    decrease in measured current. “Traditional” NDR devices such as resonant tunnel diodes (RTD) or Gunn diodes , are commonly made of III-V...and memory devices in the form of resonant tunnel diodes (RTDs) used in the pre- CMOS era to construct digital circuits but with prohibitive fabrication...alternative material systems. Indeed, organic electronic devices such as field effect transistors, diodes , rectifiers and nanowires have been recently

  1. Stormwater Treatment Evaluation of a Constructed Floating Wetland after Two Years Operation in an Urban Catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Walker; Katharina Tondera; Terry Lucke

    2017-01-01

    Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFW) for stormwater treatment are increasingly used to treat urban runoff. However, studies of large-scale systems and the long-term evaluation of their treatment efficiency are scarce. This article presents the final results of a two-year study of the pollutant removal performance of a CFW in a stormwater pond capturing runoff from a low-residential catchment in South-East Queensland (Australia) under subtropical conditions. Although the CFW treatment area to c...

  2. An exploratory study of whole-body vibration exposure and dose while operating heavy equipment in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Adam P; Salmoni, Alan W; Vi, Peter; Eger, Tammy R

    2003-12-01

    Whole-body vibration measurements were recorded for various types of heavy equipment used within the construction industry. The purpose of these measurements was to provide more information about the potential levels of whole-body vibration experienced by equipment operators in the construction industry, as well as to identify types of equipment warranting further research. In total, 67 pieces of equipment were tested from 14 different equipment types. Testing took place at various construction sites including corporate, public, and residential work projects. Measurements were made (following the 1997 International Standards Organization's 2631-1 whole-body vibration standards) for 20-minute testing periods using a Larson Davis HVM100 vibration monitor and a triaxial accelerometer. The mobile equipment tested was associated with greater levels of whole-body vibration than the stationary equipment. When whole-body vibration levels were compared to the International Standards Organization's 2631-1 standards, wheel loaders, off-road dump trucks, scrapers, skid steer vehicles, backhoes, bulldozers, crawler loaders, and concrete trowel vehicles exceeded the recommendations based on measured vibration dose values. Further research incorporating larger sample sizes and controlled testing conditions is required to better understand the levels of exposure experienced by operators as well as the amount to which seating, terrain, mobility, and vehicle structure might affect whole-body vibration.

  3. Solutions to Overcome Barriers of Implementing Constructability, Operability, and Maintainability (COM Concepts in Infrastructure Projects: A Meta-Synthesis Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbabi, O.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Construction managers in infrastructure projects in different societies offer and use approaches that can conclude each project’s triangle of cost, time, and quality in the most optimal mode, satisfying important needs of the projects. One of these approaches is benefiting from concepts of Constructability, Operability, and Maintainability (the threefold concepts of COM, which can satisfy such need in infrastructure projects. In order to implement each approach, while the desired approach is innovative, as well, there are some barriers. It is significantly required to offer solutions to obtain desired results from that approach. Therefore, the aim of this research is presenting solutions to overcome existing barriers in implementing the threefold concepts of COM in infrastructure projects. For that, the Meta-Synthesis method is applied, which is placed in qualitative research category. In order to analyze collected data, descriptive and pattern coding techniques have been used. As the result of this study, a systematic classification of the solutions to overcome barriers of implementing the threefold concepts of COM in infrastructure projects is presented. The aim of construction managers is successful delivery of projects, for that, it is suggested to use such approaches that result in integration of different project life cycle phases. This facilitates optimization of project time and cost, aiming to provide a better quality of constructions. Therefore, in order to achieve infrastructure projects main objectives, such approaches are to be used, and in order to overcome barriers in implementing them, some solutions are to be identified, classified and presented.

  4. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  5. Construction, Maintenance, and Operation of a Glacial Runway, McMurdo Station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    the glacial ice which would even- tually lead to the Pegasus runway. We regret that, because of his untimely death, he did not have the opportunity... lineal meter of Additionally, operators can remain in visual con- actual cutting edge (50 hp per lineal ft) to propel. tact with each other in case of a

  6. Construction of wave operator for two-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger systems with Yukawa coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tsuruta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We prove the existence of the wave operator for the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system with Yukawa coupling. This non-linearity type is below Strichartz scaling, and therefore classic perturbation methods will fail in any Strichartz space. Instead, we follow the "first iteration method" to handle these critical non-linearities.

  7. Disengagement Operations: Context, Violence, and Spoilers in a New Phase IV Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    disengagement from Operation 4 Robert M. Gates, “Gates Calls European Mood a Danger to Peace,” The New York Times, February 23, 2010; and Noam Chomsky ...September 2009. Chomsky , Noam . Failed States. New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006. Citino, Robert M. Blitzkrieg to Desert Storm: The Evolution of

  8. Environmental Assessment: Construction and Operation of Security Forces & Command Post / Installation Control Center Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Operation of Security Forces &Command Post/ICC Facilities January 03, 2008 91 6.0 PERSONS CONTACTED Russell Adams – 78th CEG/CEVQ Larry J. Allen...fPD believes the proposed project will have no adverse effect on Building 300, as defined in 36 CFR Parr 800.5(d)(l). Please note that historic and

  9. 75 FR 34516 - Issuance of an Amended Presidential Permit Authorizing the Construction, Operation, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... different types of traffic as it approaches the border inspection station owned by the General Services Administration and operated by the Department of Homeland Security/Customs and Border Protection. In making its... agencies, as required by Executive Order 11423, as amended. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stewart...

  10. LIQUID PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH (III & IV) DEMONSTRATION IN THE LAPORTE ALTERNATIVE FUELS DEVELOPMENT UNIT. Final Topical Report. Volume I/II: Main Report. Task 1: Engineering Modifications (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration) and Task 2: AFDU Shakedown, Operations, Deactivation (Shut-Down) and Disposal (Fischer-Tropsch III & IV Demonstration).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1999-06-01

    Slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch technology was successfully demonstrated in DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) at LaPorte, Texas. Earlier work at LaPorte, with iron catalysts in 1992 and 1994, had established proof-of-concept status for the slurry phase process. The third campaign (Fischer-Tropsch III), in 1996, aimed at aggressively extending the operability of the slurry reactor using a proprietary cobalt catalyst. Due to an irreversible plugging of catalyst-wax separation filters as a result of unexpected catalyst fines generation, the operations had to be terminated after seven days on-stream. Following an extensive post-run investigation by the participants, the campaign was successfully completed in March-April 1998, with an improved proprietary cobalt catalyst. These runs were sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Air Products & Chemicals, Inc., and Shell Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (SSFI). A productivity of approximately 140 grams (gm) of hydrocarbons (HC)/ hour (hr)-liter (lit) of expanded slurry volume was achieved at reasonable system stability during the second trial (Fischer-Tropsch IV). The productivity ranged from 110-140 at various conditions during the 18 days of operations. The catalyst/wax filters performed well throughout the demonstration, producing a clean wax product. For the most part, only one of the four filter housings was needed for catalyst/wax filtration. The filter flux appeared to exceed the design flux. A combination of use of a stronger catalyst and some innovative filtration techniques were responsible for this success. There was no sign of catalyst particle attrition and very little erosion of the slurry pump was observed, in contrast to the Fischer-Tropsch III operations. The reactor operated hydrodynamically stable with uniform temperature profile and gas hold-ups. Nuclear density and differential pressure measurements indicated somewhat higher than expected gas hold-up (45 - 50 vol%) during Fischer

  11. Relationship between construction characteristics and carbon emissions from urban household operational energy usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Feng; Li, Xuanqi; Pan, Lingyang [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361021 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Carbon emitted from urban metabolism constitutes a substantial proportion of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission, which is at least partially responsible for the recent global warming. Part of the urban carbon emission comes from residential energy consumption. Given the ongoing rapid urbanization and strict emission-reduction requirement, understanding the urban home energy usage carbon emission (UHEUCE) is of great importance to optimize the sustainability of social and economic developments in China. For this reason, a survey has been conducted to exam the condition of home energy usage in Xiamen Island, SE China. This study was based on 340 valid responses and a general linear model for univariate method. The analysis showed (1) among the residential building characteristics, window thermal insulation has the greatest effect on UHEUCE. (2) Construction age and wall thermal insulation could also influence UHEUCE in areas where summer is hot and winter is warm. The better heat prohibiting effect of external wall and window, as well as the newer construction, the more UHEUCE can be generated. The survey provided helpful first-hand data for design and planning on urban energy saving, emission reduction, and for relevant scientific researches. (author)

  12. Assessment of the capacity of the national ecological network elements for road construction and operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicošev Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Road construction and usage have a wide range of direct and indirect negative effects on protected areas. The impact of state roads on protected areas in Vojvodina was reviewed in this article, based on the orientation values of habitat loss and secondary negative effects originating from traffic functioning. Results of the assessment indicate that the use of existing roads constructed on habitats within the national ecological network exceeded the capacity of individual PA-protected areas (e.g., in case of Straža Natural Monument. Recorded capacity overflow on other PAs occurs solely as a consequence of overlapping between protected areas and areas of influence of roads routed along the borders of protected areas (which is the case with Slano Kopovo Special Nature Reserve and Selevenjske pustare Special Nature Reserve. The aim of this article is to show that even with the smallest values of the parameters related to the width of roads and critical distance from the habitat, the vulnerability of certain core areas of the national ecological network is evident.

  13. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  14. A Human Reliability Analysis of Pre-Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of the KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Jang, Seungchul

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS Low Power /Shutdown (LPSD)PRA Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Younggwang (YGN) Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP showed that 13 items among 15 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for pre-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP to improve its quality. We considered potential pre-accident human errors for all manual valves and control/instrumentation equipment of the systems modeled in the KSNP LPSD PSA model except reactor protection system/ engineering safety features actuation system. We reviewed 160 manual valves and 56 control/instrumentation equipment. The number of newly identified pre-accident human errors is 101. Among them, the number of those related to testing/maintenance tasks is 56. The number of those related to calibration tasks is 45. The number of those related to only shutdown operation is 10. It was shown that the pre-accident human errors related to only shutdown operation contributions to the core damage frequency of LPSD PSA model for the KSNP was negligible.The self-assessment results for the new HRA results of pre-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II or III. It is expected that the HRA results for the pre-accident human errors presented in this study will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of supporting requirements for the postaccident human errors in the ANS LPSD PRA Standard.

  15. Design and construction of high-sensitivity, infrared bolometers for operation at 300 mK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, D. C.; Inman, C.; Lange, A. E.; Wibanks, T.

    1992-01-01

    The design and construction of 300-mK composite bolometers developed for millimeter-wave astronomical observations are described. Graphite fibers are used as the electrical leads for the thermistor to reduce the thermal conductance and heat capacity associated with the leads. A mechanical suspension made of Nylon fibers provides the required thermal conductance. Electrical noise equivalent powers below 1 x 10 exp -16 W/sq rt Hz have been achieved for detectors with thermal time constants of 11 ms. The detectors were installed in a millimeter-wave photometer and used to perform observations of the cosmic microwave background from a balloonborne platform. The flight performance was consistent with the measured laboratory properties.

  16. Efficient Construction of Discrete Adjoint Operators on Unstructured Grids Using Complex Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Kleb, William L.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology is developed and implemented to mitigate the lengthy software development cycle typically associated with constructing a discrete adjoint solver for aerodynamic simulations. The approach is based on a complex-variable formulation that enables straightforward differentiation of complicated real-valued functions. An automated scripting process is used to create the complex-variable form of the set of discrete equations. An efficient method for assembling the residual and cost function linearizations is developed. The accuracy of the implementation is verified through comparisons with a discrete direct method as well as a previously developed handcoded discrete adjoint approach. Comparisons are also shown for a large-scale configuration to establish the computational efficiency of the present scheme. To ultimately demonstrate the power of the approach, the implementation is extended to high temperature gas flows in chemical nonequilibrium. Finally, several fruitful research and development avenues enabled by the current work are suggested.

  17. Efficient Construction of Discrete Adjoint Operators on Unstructured Grids by Using Complex Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Eric J.; Kleb, William L.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology is developed and implemented to mitigate the lengthy software development cycle typically associated with constructing a discrete adjoint solver for aerodynamic simulations. The approach is based on a complex-variable formulation that enables straightforward differentiation of complicated real-valued functions. An automated scripting process is used to create the complex-variable form of the set of discrete equations. An efficient method for assembling the residual and cost function linearizations is developed. The accuracy of the implementation is verified through comparisons with a discrete direct method as well as a previously developed handcoded discrete adjoint approach. Comparisons are also shown for a large-scale configuration to establish the computational efficiency of the present scheme. To ultimately demonstrate the power of the approach, the implementation is extended to high temperature gas flows in chemical nonequilibrium. Finally, several fruitful research and development avenues enabled by the current work are suggested.

  18. 输电线路施工技术及运行管理维护探讨%Transmission Line Construction and Operation Management and Maintenance Techniques Discussed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄财源

    2014-01-01

    The construction technology and operational management as a power grid construction and operation is an important part, its quality is directly related to the safe operation of the entire power grid could. Construction of the transmission line maintenance and operation management techniques are discussed, in order to promote the level of power grid construction and operation.%施工技术和运行管理作为电网建设、运营中的重要环节,其质量的好坏直接关系到整个电网能否安全运行。对输电线路施工技术和运行管理维护进行探讨,以促进电网建设和运营水平。

  19. Dynamic Responses of A Semi-Type Offshore Floating Wind Turbine During Normal State and Emergency Shutdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志强; 李良; 王晋; 胡秋皓; 沈马成

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  20. Dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine during normal state and emergency shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhi-qiang; Li, Liang; Wang, Jin; Hu, Qiu-hao; Shen, Ma-cheng

    2016-03-01

    This paper addresses joint wind-wave induced dynamic responses of a semi-type offshore floating wind turbine (OFWT) under normal states and fault event conditions. The analysis in this paper is conducted in time domain, using an aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulation code-FAST. Owing to the unique viscous features of the reference system, the original viscous damping model implemented in FAST is replaced with a quadratic one to gain an accurate capture of viscous effects. Simulation cases involve free-decay motion in still water, steady motions in the presence of regular waves and wind as well as dynamic response in operational sea states with and without wind. Simulations also include the cases for transient responses induced by fast blade pitching after emergency shutdown. The features of platform motions, local structural loads and a typical mooring line tension force under a variety of excitations are obtained and investigated.

  1. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to

  2. Shutdown dose rate assessment with the Advanced D1S method: Development, applications and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villari, R., E-mail: rosaria.villari@enea.it [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moro, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Petrizzi, L. [European Commission, DG Research and Innovation K5, CDMA 00/030, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Podda, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Serikov, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: Development of Advanced-D1S for shutdown dose rate calculations; Recent applications of the tool to tokamaks; Summary of the results of benchmarking with measurements and R2S calculations; Limitations and further development. Abstract: The present paper addresses the recent developments and applications of Advanced-D1S to the calculations of shutdown dose rate in tokamak devices. Results of benchmarking with measurements and Rigorous 2-Step (R2S) calculations are summarized and discussed as well as limitations and further developments. The outcomes confirm the essential role of the Advanced-D1S methodology and the evidence for its complementary use with the R2Smesh approach for the reliable assessment of shutdown dose rates and related statistical uncertainties in present and future fusion devices.

  3. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  4. Some assembly required: constructing the elementary units of store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Minnie M; Luik, Riina M; Lewis, Richard S

    2007-08-01

    The means by which Ca(2+) store depletion evokes the opening of store-operated Ca(2+) channels (SOCs) in the plasma membrane of excitable and non-excitable cells has been a longstanding mystery. Indirect evidence has supported local interactions between the ER and SOCs as well as long-range interactions mediated through a diffusible activator. The recent molecular identification of the ER Ca(2+) sensor (STIM1) and a subunit of the CRAC channel (Orai1), a prototypic SOC, has now made it possible to visualize directly the sequence of events that links store depletion to CRAC channel opening. Following store depletion, STIM1 moves from locations throughout the ER to accumulate in ER subregions positioned within 10-25nm of the plasma membrane. Simultaneously, Orai1 gathers at discrete sites in the plasma membrane directly opposite STIM1, resulting in local CRAC channel activation. These new studies define the elementary units of store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and reveal an unprecedented mechanism for channel activation in which the stimulus brings a channel and its activator/sensor together for interaction across apposed membrane compartments. We discuss the implications of this choreographic mechanism with regard to Ca(2+) dynamics, specificity of Ca(2+) signaling, and the existence of a specialized ER subset dedicated to the control of the CRAC channel.

  5. Construction and operation of a microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, David K.; Das Mankidy, Bijith; Ambarish, K.; Manogari, R. [Chemical Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-09-15

    The increase in the global energy demand every year and the over-consumption of nonrenewable sources of energy has led to the identification and use of renewable and cost effective sources of energy. In this context, wastewater, which contains high levels of easily degradable organic material, has gained importance as a source of electricity generation using a microbial fuel cell. A microbial fuel cell comprising of Pseudomonas sp., mediator, and potassium ferricyanide as the oxidizing agent was developed for generation of electricity using wastewater, as substrate, obtained from wastewater treatment plant. The cells were connected in series with the anodic and cathodic solutions being introduced in batch and continuous modes. A maximum open-circuit potential of 2.2 V was obtained with the anode in batch-fed and cathode in continuous mode of operation. Methylene blue, when used as the mediator was found to produce a higher output from the cell when compared to neutral red. The maximum power output and current density obtained were 979 {mu}W/m{sup 2} and 1.15 mA/m{sup 2} respectively. A 10% reduction in COD was observed when the microbial fuel cell was operated using the wastewater as the substrate. (author)

  6. Stormwater Treatment Evaluation of a Constructed Floating Wetland after Two Years Operation in an Urban Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Constructed Floating Wetlands (CFW for stormwater treatment are increasingly used to treat urban runoff. However, studies of large-scale systems and the long-term evaluation of their treatment efficiency are scarce. This article presents the final results of a two-year study of the pollutant removal performance of a CFW in a stormwater pond capturing runoff from a low-residential catchment in South-East Queensland (Australia under subtropical conditions. Although the CFW treatment area to catchment ratio was only 0.14%, the results demonstrated a significant removal of both Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Phosphorus (TP from the stormwater inflows by the CFW. The efficiency ratios for TSS and TP were 81% and 52%, respectively. While the removal rate for total nitrogen was not significant for the CFW evaluated in this study, the ER was still 17%. However, the ERs for nitrate and nitrogen oxide were both 47%. The study results suggest that it may be possible to increase the pollution removal performance of the CFW by upsizing the system and including intermittent re-aeration zones in the surrounding stormwater pond. The results of this research study clearly demonstrate that CFW can be an effective treatment solution for the removal of pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  7. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  8. EIA BASED COMPARATIVE URBAN TRAFFIC NOISE ANALYSIS BETWEEN OPERATIONAL AND UNDER CONSTRUCTION PHASE PUBLIC TRANSPORT CORRIDOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Mishra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Delhi has a population of 16.75 million and is increasing at a rapid rate. This increase in population has enhanced the need for public transport. In Delhi, this need for public transport is served mainly by buses, auto rickshaws, a rapid transit system, taxis and suburban railways. Delhi has one of the highest road densities in India. Buses are the most popular means of transport catering to about 60% of the total demand. In order to meet the transport demand in Delhi, the State and the Union government started the construction of a mass rapid transit system, including the Delhi Metro. By the application of various data and public response, the paper accentuates the qualitative discussion on impacts of mass rapid transit system (MRTS corridor on land use and social aspects of lives of residents and road users. It also proposes certain mitigating measures for that meticulous condition. The analysis and survey outcome explain about the exceeded level of noise level as compared to CPCB standards. The share of public transport in total noise pollution is smaller than private but still exceeds the standards. Such problem demands the design of noise barrier along the corridor to curb the noise pollution.

  9. An improved approach to the efficient construction of and search operations in motion graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan; CHEN ZhiHua; CHEN MinGang; SHEN Yang

    2012-01-01

    Motion graphs have been widely used as an effective technique in the synthesis of human motions.To synthesize well-formed motions,motion graphs require smooth transitions and good connectivity.However,the time and costs grow quadratically as the graph size increases.In this paper,we present a method to set up a hierarchical structure,called a structure table.The coarse level of this graph models different motion categories and their transitions,and the fine level mainly captures different motion styles.An interpolation space method is used to improve the graph connectivity at the fine level.This structure guides the establishment of a faster and more realistic graphical object.After the building process,this structure also helps with searching the motion graph,by performing a traverse search and placing the findings into a direct look-up table or local search depository.Moreover,when there is no direct link between the different motions,a navigation map is introduced to conduct an appropriate search path via a series of transition motion clips.The experimental results indicate that our approach could lower the computation time in construction and searching,while simultaneously providing a richer variety of motion styles.

  10. Construction and evaluation of ion selective electrodes for nitrate with a summing operational amplifier. Application to tobacco analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Olmos, R; Rios, A; Fernández, J R; Lapa, R A; Lima, J L

    2001-01-05

    In this paper, the construction and evaluation of an electrode selective to nitrate with improved sensitivity, constructed like a conventional electrode (ISE) but using an operational amplifier to sum the potentials supplied by four membranes (ESOA) is described. The two types of electrodes, without an inner reference solution, were constructed using tetraoctylammonium bromide as sensor, dibutylphthalate as solvent mediator and PVC as plastic matrix, the membranes obtained directly applied onto a conductive epoxy resin support. After the comparative evaluation of their working characteristics they were used in the determination of nitrate in different types of tobacco. The limit of detection of the direct potentiometric method developed was found to be 0.18 g kg(-1) and the precision and accuracy of the method, when applied to eight different samples of tobacco, expressed in terms of mean R.S.D. and average percentage of spike recovery was 0.6 and 100.3%, respectively. The comparison of variances showed, on all ocassions, that the results obtained by the ESOA were similar to those obtained by the conventional ISE, but with higher precision. Linear regression analysis showed good agreement (r=0.9994) between the results obtained by the developed potentiometric method and those of a spectrophotometric method based on brucine, adopted as reference method, when applied simultaneously to 32 samples of different types of tobacco.

  11. The planning, construction, and operation of a radioactive waste storage facility for an Australian state radiation regulatory authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, J.D.; Kleinschmidt, R.; Veevers, P. [Radiation Health, Queensland (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    Radiation regulatory authorities have a responsibility for the management of radioactive waste. This, more often than not, includes the collection and safe storage of radioactive sources in disused radiation devices and devices seized by the regulatory authority following an accident, abandonment or unauthorised use. The public aversion to all things radioactive, regardless of the safety controls, together with the Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) syndrome combine to make the establishment of a radioactive materials store a near impossible task, despite the fact that such a facility is a fundamental tool for regulatory authorities to provide for the radiation safety of the public. In Queensland the successful completion and operational use of such a storage facility has taken a total of 8 years of concerted effort by the staff of the regulatory authority, the expenditure of over $2 million (AUS) not including regulatory staff costs and the cost of construction of an earlier separate facility. This paper is a summary of the major developments in the planning, construction and eventual operation of the facility including technical and administrative details, together with the lessons learned from the perspective of the overall project.

  12. LHC Detector Vacuum System Consolidation for Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in 2013-2014

    CERN Document Server

    Gallilee, M; Cruikshank, P; Gallagher, J; Garion, C; Jimenez, J M; Kersevan, R; Kos, H; Leduc, L; Lepeule, P; Provot, N; Rambeau, H; Veness, R

    2012-01-01

    The LHC has ventured into unchartered territory for Particle Physics accelerators. A dedicated consolidation program is required between 2013 and 2014 to ensure optimal physics performance. The experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, and LHCb, will utilise this shutdown, along with the gained experience of three years of physics running, to make optimisations to their detectors. New vacuum technologies have been developed for the experimental areas, to be integrated during this first phase shutdown. These technologies include bellows, vacuum chambers and ion pumps in aluminium, new beryllium vacuum chambers, and composite mechanical supports. An overview of this first phase consolidation program for the LHC experiments is presented.

  13. Interpretations of de-orbit, deactivation, and shutdown guidelines applicable to GEO satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, L.; Perkins, J.; Sun, Sheng

    As the population of space debris in orbit around the Earth grows, the probability for catastrophic collisions increases. Many agencies such as the IADC, FCC, and UN have proposed space debris mitigation guidelines or recommendations. For example, a minimum increase in perigee altitude of 235km + (1000 Cr A / m) where Cr is the solar radiation pressure coefficient, A/m is the aspect area to dry mass ratio, and 235 km is the sum of the upper altitude of the geostationary orbit (GEO) protected region (200 km) and the maximum descent of a re-orbited spacecraft due to lunar-solar & geopotential perturbations (35 km) with an eccentricity less than or equal to 0.003. While this particular recommendation is reasonably straightforward, the assumptions an operator chooses may change the result by 25 km. Other recommendations are more ambiguous. For example, once the space vehicle has been de-orbited to the required altitude, all on-board stored energy sources must be discharged by venting propellants and pressurants, discharging batteries and disabling the ability to charge them, and performing other appropriate measures. “ Vented” is not usually defined. In addition, the broadcasting capability of the spacecraft must be disabled. Boeing and its customers are working together to devise de-orbit and deactivation sequences that meet the spirit of the recommendations. This paper derives and proposes a generic minimum deorbit altitude, appropriate depletion and venting pressures based on tank design, propellant and pressurant type, and an acceptable shutdown procedure and final configuration that avoid interference with those still in the GEO belt well into the future. The goal of this paper is to open a dialogue with the global community to establish reasonable guidelines that are straightforward, safe, and achievable before an absolute requirement is set.

  14. Operational Implementation of a Pc Uncertainty Construct for Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, L.; Hejduk, M.; Johnson, L.

    2016-09-01

    Earlier this year the NASA Conjunction Assessment and Risk Analysis (CARA) project presented the theoretical and algorithmic aspects of a method to include the uncertainties in the calculation inputs when computing the probability of collision (Pc) between two space objects, principally uncertainties in the covariances and the hardbody radius. The output of this calculation approach is to produce rather than a single Pc value an entire probability density function that will represent the range of possible Pc values given the uncertainties in the inputs and bring CA risk analysis methodologies more in line with modern risk management theory. The present study provides results from the exercise of this method against an extended dataset of satellite conjunctions in order to determine the effect of its use on the evaluation of conjunction assessment (CA) event risk posture. The effects are found to be considerable: a good number of events are downgraded from or upgraded to a serious risk designation on the basis of consideration of the Pc uncertainty. The findings counsel the integration of the developed methods into NASA CA operations.

  15. Construction of new operation interface for the LABIHS simulator using the ELIPSE E3 studio software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, Silas C.; Oliveira, Mauro V., E-mail: silas@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS), located at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), has a compact simulator that simulate the processes of a pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant of 930 MWe of power. This simulator is composed by a HP-UX workstation computer, where the simulation software runs, and a set of computer stations, that represent an advanced control room, where the simulator is operated by software control panels that represent several systems of the simulated nuclear power plant. The current HSIs for the LABIHS simulator was built using iLog software tool. The development of new human-system interfaces (HSIs) for the simulator is one of the research fields of LABIHS. This paper presents the screen components development process for a new HSI for the LABIHS simulator, using the software Elipse{sup TM} E3 Studio. These new components developed using the E3 Studio are similar to the ones used in the current simulator interface. The article shows some comparisons between the component and screen development with Elipse{sup TM} E3 Studio processes and using iLog Studio. (author)

  16. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Construction and Operation of the Westside Shoppette/Gas Station at Kirtland Air Force Base, Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Encourage construction workers to carpool to the site. Operation Because the number of personnel assigned to Kirtland AFB would not be expected to...uate off-street parking or all construction workers to avoid increased congestion near roadsid s, as well as encourage onstruction workers to carpool to

  18. Interim Safety Basis for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-09-07

    This ISB, in conjunction with the IOSR, provides the required basis for interim operation or restrictions on interim operations and administrative controls for the facility until a SAR is prepared in accordance with the new requirements or the facility is shut down. It is concluded that the risks associated with tha current and anticipated mode of the facility, uranium disposition, clean up, and transition activities required for permanent closure, are within risk guidelines.

  19. Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater

  20. Framework programme for detailed characterisation in connection with construction and operation of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the

  1. Framework programme for detailed characterisation in connection with construction and operation of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the

  2. Treatment of anaerobic digested effluent in biochar-packed vertical flow constructed wetland columns: Role of media and tidal operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizito, Simon; Lv, Tao; Wu, Shubiao; Ajmal, Zeeshan; Luo, Hongzhen; Dong, Renjie

    2017-03-15

    Three types of vertical flow constructed wetland columns (VFCWs), packed with corn cob biochar (CB-CW), wood biochar (WB-CW) and gravel (G-CW) under tidal flow operations, were comparatively evaluated to investigate anaerobic digested effluent treatment performance and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that CB-CW and WB-CW provide significantly higher removal efficiencies for organic matter (>59%), NH4(+)-N (>76%), TN (>37%) and phosphorus (>71%), compared with G-CW (22%-49%). The higher pollutants removal ability of biochar-packed VFCWs was mainly attribute to the higher adsorption ability and microbial cultivation in the porous biochar media. Moreover, increasing the flooded/drained ratio from 4/8h to 8/4h of the tidal operation further improved around 10% of the removal of both organics and NH4(+)-N for biochar-packed VFCWs. The phosphorus removal was dependent on the media adsorption capacities through the whole experiment. However, the NH4(+)-N biodegradation by microbial communities was demonstrated to become the dominant removal mechanism in the long term treatment, which compensated the decreased adsorption capacities of the media. The study supported that the use of biochar would increase the treatment performance and elongate the lifespan of CWs under tidal operation.

  3. 78 FR 38739 - Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ..., DG-1272, in the Federal Register on December 19, 2012 (77 FR 75198), for a 60-day public comment... COMMISSION Standard Format and Content for Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear... (NRC) is issuing Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.185, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  4. Technical documentation in support of the project-specific analysis for construction and operation of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, M.A.; Vinikour, W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.; Allison, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.] [and others

    1996-09-01

    This document provides information that supports or supplements the data and impact analyses presented in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) Project-Specific Analysis (PSA). The purposes of NIF are to achieve fusion ignition in the laboratory for the first time with inertial confinement fusion (ICF) technology and to conduct high- energy-density experiments ins support of national security and civilian application. NIF is an important element in the DOE`s science-based SSM Program, a key mission of which is to ensure the reliability of the nation`s enduring stockpile of nuclear weapons. NIF would also advance the knowledge of basic and applied high-energy- density science and bring the nation a large step closer to developing fusion energy for civilian use. The NIF PSA includes evaluations of the potential environmental impacts of constructing and operating the facility at one of five candidate site and for two design options.

  5. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  6. Use of KPIs to Regulate Co-operation and to Improve Intercompany Benchmarking in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to investigate whether it can fairly be assumed that the prequalification and selection of co-operators via Key Performance Indicators (KPI) provide increased odds in favour of success, a study on contractors consisting of benchmark results from The Benchmark Centre for the Danish...... Construction Sector and financial statements has been accomplished. Through a comparative analysis based on detected correlations between economy and KPIs, it is explained how these factors are linked. The research showed that the use of KPIs has motivated companies to improve their competitive ability, thus...... their ability to become prequalified. It also showed that the use of KPIs (e.g. quality, timeliness, economy, customer satisfaction and accident rates) for selection and prequalification improves the probability of success in the building process as highly rated KPIs have a positive linear relationship...

  7. Viability Assessment of a Repository at Yucca Mountain. Volume 5: Costs to Construct and Operate the Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents a management summary of the cost estimate to complete the design, and to license, construct, operate, monitor, close, and decommission a Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. This volume summarizes the scope, estimating methodologies, and assumptions used in development of the Monitored Geologic Repository-VA cost estimate. It identifies the key features necessary to understand the summary costs presented herein. This cost summary derives from a larger body of documented cost analysis. Volume 5 is organized to reflect this structured approach to cost estimation and contains the following sections: Section 1, Cost Elements. This section briefly defines the components of each major repository cost element. Section 2, Project Phases. This section presents the definition, as used in the estimate, of five project phases (Licensing, Pre-emplacement Construction, Emplacement Operations, Monitoring, and Closure and Decommissioning) and the schedule dates for each phase. It also contains major milestone dates and a bar chart schedule. Section 3, Major Assumptions. This section identifies key high-level assumptions for the cost estimate basis. Additional detailed assumptions are included in the appendices. Section 4, Integrated Cost Summary. This section presents a high-level roll-up of the VA costs resulting from the estimating work. The tables and figures contained in this section were compiled from the more detailed cost estimates in the appendices. Section 5, References. This section identifies the references that support this cost volume. Appendices. For each major repository cost element, Appendices B-F [B, C, D, E, F] presents additional information on the scope of cost elements, identifies methodologies used to develop the cost estimates, lists underlying cost assumptions, and tabulates summary results. Appendix A contains a glossary to assist the reader in understanding the terminology in Volume 5. Appendix G presents costs

  8. Use of Natural-Fiber Bio-Composites in Construction versus Traditional Solutions: Operational and Embodied Energy Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Galan-Marin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades natural polymers have become more and more frequent to replace traditional inorganic stabilizers in building materials. The purpose of this research is to establish a comparison between the most conventional building material solutions for load-bearing walls and a type of biomaterial. This comparison will focus on load-bearing walls as used in a widespread type of twentieth century dwelling construction in Europe and still used in developing countries nowadays. To carry out this analysis, the structural and thermal insulation characteristics of different construction solutions are balanced. The tool used for this evaluation is the life cycle assessment throughout the whole lifespan of these buildings. This research aims to examine the environmental performance of each material assessed: fired clay brick masonry walls (BW, concrete block masonry walls (CW, and stabilized soil block masonry walls (SW stabilized with natural fibers and alginates. These conventional and new materials are evaluated from the point of view of both operational and embodied energy.

  9. Use of Natural-Fiber Bio-Composites in Construction versus Traditional Solutions: Operational and Embodied Energy Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Marin, Carmen; Rivera-Gomez, Carlos; Garcia-Martinez, Antonio

    2016-06-13

    During the last decades natural polymers have become more and more frequent to replace traditional inorganic stabilizers in building materials. The purpose of this research is to establish a comparison between the most conventional building material solutions for load-bearing walls and a type of biomaterial. This comparison will focus on load-bearing walls as used in a widespread type of twentieth century dwelling construction in Europe and still used in developing countries nowadays. To carry out this analysis, the structural and thermal insulation characteristics of different construction solutions are balanced. The tool used for this evaluation is the life cycle assessment throughout the whole lifespan of these buildings. This research aims to examine the environmental performance of each material assessed: fired clay brick masonry walls (BW), concrete block masonry walls (CW), and stabilized soil block masonry walls (SW) stabilized with natural fibers and alginates. These conventional and new materials are evaluated from the point of view of both operational and embodied energy.

  10. Dynamics of nitrogen transformation depending on different operational strategies in laboratory-scale tidal flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yongjiang; Wu, Shubiao; Zhang, Tao; Mazur, Robert; Pang, Changle; Dong, Renjie

    2014-07-15

    The influence of different flooded/drained (F/D) time ratios and different effluent flow rates on the dynamics of nitrogen transformations in three laboratory-scale tidal flow constructed wetland systems (TFCWs-A, B, and C) under varying NH4(+)-N and COD influent loadings was investigated in this study. Good organic matter removal performance up to 90% was achieved for all experimental TFCWs under inflow concentrations of 300 and 150 mg/L regardless of F/D and effluent flow rate. The ammonium removal efficiency of wetland with F/D=3h:3h (55%) was higher than that of the wetland with F/D=5h:1h (47%) under an ammonium inflow concentration of 60 mg/L, indicating the positive effect of longer drained and shorter flooded time on tidal-operated wetlands under nitrification. In addition, more uniform oxygen distribution and better nitrification capacity within the wetland might be achieved with a relatively slow effluent flow rate of 0.025 L/s. TFCWs were shown to be a robust and reliable option to achieve high TN removal of 70% due to its repeated cycle of "wet" and "dry" periods, particularly for the treatment of wastewater with high organic content. Moreover, F/D and effluent flow rates of tidal flow constructed wetlands exhibited no significant effect on phosphorus removal in this study. Other techniques, such as pretreatment or post treatment, require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimization of operating parameters of hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland systems for domestic sewerage treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Zhang, Xianning; Cui, Lihua; Yu, Guangwei

    2016-09-15

    In this work, three hybrid vertical down-flow constructed wetland (HVDF-CW) systems with different compound substrates were fed with domestic sewage and their pollutants removal performance under different hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio was investigated. The results showed that the hydraulic loading and step-feeding ratio were two crucial factors determining the removal efficiency of most pollutants, while substrate types only significantly affected the removal of COD and NH4(+)-N. Generally, the lower the hydraulic loading, the better removal efficiency of all contaminants, except for TN. By contrast, the increase of step-feeding ratio would slightly reduce the removal rate of ammonium and TP but obviously promoted the TN removal. Therefore, the optimal operation of this CWs could be achieved with low hydraulic loading combined with 50% of step-feeding ratio when TN removal is the priority, whereas medium or low hydraulic loading without step-feeding would be suitable when TN removal is not taken into consideration. The obtained results in this study can provide us with a guideline for design and optimization of hybrid vertical flow constructed wetland systems to improve the pollutants removal from domestic sewage.

  12. Analysis on Construction and Operation of Cloud Computing Data Center%云计算数据中心建设运营分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鲁

    2012-01-01

    通过对现在云计算数据中心的建设成本、市场业务发展和综合管理等方面的详细分析,建立云计算数据中心的建设运营模型,结合现阶段国内外云计算发展情况,给出企业、政府及电信运营商建设运营云计算数据中心的建议和意见。%Detailed analysis of cloud computing data center construction costs, the market for business development and management, constructed cloud computing data center construction and operation models, combined at this stage at home and abroad cloud computing situation, given enterprises, governments and telecommunications suggestions and opinions of the operators in the construction and operation of cloud computing data center.

  13. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  14. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown.

  15. Government Shutdown: Operations of the Department of Defense During a Lapse in Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    55 Activities involving technical intelligence information collection, analysis and dissemination functions not in direct...and pest control, only to the extent necessary to prevent imminent danger to life or property.56 • Safe storage or transportation of hazardous...military personnel, so that private agencies such as colleges and universities may provide courses for which payment bas already been made. Civilian

  16. [Development characteristics of aquatic plants in a constructed wetland for treating urban drinking water source at its initial operation stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Ma, Xin-Tang; Zhou, Lan; Zhou, Qing-Yuan; Wang, Zhong-Qiong; Wang, Wei-Dong; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2011-08-01

    The development characteristics and improvement measures of aquatic plants were studied in Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (SCW) at its initial operation stage. SCW was a large-scale wetland aiming to help relieve the source water pollution in Jiaxing City. A checklist of vascular plants in SCW was built, and species composition, life forms, biomass and association distributions were examined. Our objectives were to examine the diversity and community structure of aquatic plants in SCW at its initial operation stage, and to find out the possible hydrophyte improvement measures. The survey results showed that there were 49 vascular plant species belonging to 41 genera, 25 families in SCW, which greatly exceeded the artificially transplanted 13 species. The life forms of present aquatic plants in SCW were dominated by hygrophilous plants (20 species) and emerged plants (17 species), which accounted for 75.5% of the total number of aquatic plants. The aquatic plants transplanted artificially were dominated by emerged plants (accounted for 69.2%), while those naturally developed were predominated by hygrophilous plants (accounted for 47.2%). The horizontal distribution of aquatic plant community in SCW was mixed in the form of mosaics, which made up typical association complex. Except association Aeschynomene indica L., the dominant species of other associations were all those transplanted artificially. The naturally grown species scattered throughout the SCW and only occupied a small percentage. A marked difference was detected on the species and species richness of aquatic plants in different regions of SCW. Biomass of aquatic plant associations in SCW was 167.7 t. SCW has shown a trend of succession heading for quick increase of plant diversity at the primary operation stage. This trend provides a good material base for the future stable community of aquatic plants in SCW. According to the current status of aquatic plants, some suggestions were put forward on the

  17. Work on CMS Muon Detector (CSCs) during Long Shutdown 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    These U.S. physicists made crucial contributions in preparing new electronics in the CMS effort to refurbish the first layer of the muon detector endcap. This effort recently passed a major review, suggesting the project is on track to be part of the experiment when detector operations resumes in early 2015. From left to right: Wells Wulsin (Oklahoma State), Nick Amin (Texas A&M), Indara Suarez (Texas A&M), Shalhout Shalhout (UC Davis), Joe Haley (Northeastern), Michael Gardner (UC Davis), and Justin Pilot (UC Davis). Inset: Joe Golf (left) and Manuel Franco Sevilla, both of UC Santa Barbara.

  18. Brawley 10MW Geothermal Plant Plant Manual for Southern California Edison Company and Union Oil Company of California: Systems Start-up and Operations, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-28

    Each system within the facility is considered from an operation viewpoint. There are five subsegments within this operation's viewpoint. Prerequisite conditions, start-up, normal operating, emergency and shutdown.

  19. The analysis of pressurizer safety valve stuck open accident for low power and shutdown PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Park, Jin Hee; Jang, Seong Chul; Kim, Tae Woon

    2005-01-01

    The PSV (Pressurizer Safety Valve) popping test carried out practically in the early phase of a refueling outage has a little possibility of triggering a test-induced LOCA due to a PSV not fully closed or stuck open. According to a KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power Plant) low power and shutdown PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), the failure of a HPSI (High Pressure Safety Injection) following a PSV stuck open was identified as a dominant accident sequence with a significant contribution to low power and shutdown risks. In this study, we aim to investigate the consequences of the NPP for the various accident sequences following the PSV stuck open as an initiating event through the thermal-hydraulic system code calculations. Also, we search the accident mitigation method for the sequence of HPSI failure, then, the applicability of the method is verified by the simulations using T/H system code.

  20. Design, construction, and operation of a life-cycle test system for the evaluation of flue gas cleanup processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H.W.; Yeh, James T.; Hoffman, J.S. [USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States); Longton, E.J.; Vore, P.A.; Resnik, K.P.; Gromicko, F.N. [Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy has designed, constructed, and operated a Life-Cycle Test Systems (LCTS) that will be used primarily for the investigation of dry, regenerable sorbent flue gas cleanup processes. Sorbent continuously cycles from an absorber reactor where the pollutants are removed from the flue gas, to a regenerator reactor where the activity of the spent sorbent is restored and a usable by-product stream of gas is produced. The LCTS will initially be used to evaluate the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process by determining the effects of various process parameters on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removals. The purpose of this paper is to document the design rationale and details, the reactor/component/instrument installation, and the initial performance of the system. Although the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process will be investigated initially, the design of the LCTS evolved to make the system a multipurpose, versatile research facility. Thus, the unit can be used to investigate various other processes for pollution abatement of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulates, air toxics, and/or other pollutants.

  1. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Dalai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used in BSL for one decade. Direct reduction is a process, which extracts high metallic solid iron by removing oxygen from iron ore or any other iron oxides without passing through molten stage, i.e. solid state reduction. The product, so formed is known as directly reduced tron (DRI or Sponge Iron. Due to shortage of raw material or any other problem in DRI sections, the DRI section undergoes a temporary short down. During the shutdown period the equipments tend to be idle. To keep the equipment ready for operation as well as to maintain the plants economy an alternate methodology is used in this research. Various operations are: CO gas from Coke Oven, DRI, Steam Generation, and Power Generation.

  2. Signal processing system design for improved shutdown system of CANDU{sup ®} nuclear reactors in large break LOCA events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.ca [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Xia, Lingzhi; Isham, Manir U. [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, ON, Canada L1H 7K4 (Canada); Ponomarev, Vladimir [Megawatt Solutions, 1235 Radom St., unit 68, Pickering, ON, Canada L1W 1J3 (Canada)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic signal processing system design to improve CANDU SDS1 performance. • Reactor modeling for CANDU LLOCA transient. • MATLAB/Simulink system implementation for the SDS1 trip logic. • Increasing the SDS1 trip response. - Abstract: For CANDU reactors, several options to improve CANDU nuclear power plant operation safety margin have been investigated in this paper. A particular attention is paid to the response time of CANDU shutdown system number 1 (SDS1) in case of large break loss of coolant accident (LLOCA). Based on point kinetic method, a systematic fundamental analysis is performed to CANDU LLOCA event, and the power transient signal is generated. In order to improve the SDS1 response time during LLOCA events, an innovative power measurement and signal processing system is particularly designed. The new signal processing system is implemented with the input of the LLOCA power transient, and the simulation results of the reactor trip time and signal are compared to those of the existing system in CANDU power plants. It is demonstrated that the new signal processing system can not only achieve a shorter reactor trip time than the existing system, but also accommodate the spurious trip immunity. This will significantly enhance the safety margin for the power plant operation, or bring extra economical benefits to the power plant units.

  3. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content ({lambda}, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical {lambda} ({lambda}{sub h}), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of {lambda} ({lambda}{sub l}), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between {lambda}{sub l} and {lambda}{sub h}, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both {lambda}{sub l} and {lambda}{sub h} are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical {lambda} for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum {lambda} for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the {lambda} is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the {lambda} is much higher than this optimum. (author)

  4. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (?, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical ? (?h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 C. There is a second value of ? (?l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between ?l and ?h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 C. Both ?l and ?h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical ? for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum ? for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the ? is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the ? is much higher than this optimum.

  5. Water transport during startup and shutdown of polymer electrolyte fuel cell stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Tajiri, K.; Ahluwalia, R. K.

    A dynamic three-phase transport model is developed to analyze water uptake and transport in the membrane and catalyst layers of polymer electrolyte fuel cells during startup from subfreezing temperatures and subsequent shutdown. The initial membrane water content (λ, the number of water molecules per sulfonic acid site) is found to be an important parameter that determines whether a successful unassisted self-start is possible. For a given initial subfreezing temperature at startup, there is a critical λ (λ h), above which self-start is not possible because the product water completely engulfs the catalyst layers with ice before the stack can warm-up to 0 °C. There is a second value of λ (λ l), below which the stack can be self-started without forming ice. Between λ l and λ h, the stack can be self-started, but with intermediate formation of ice that melts as the stack warms up to 0 °C. Both λ l and λ h are functions of the initial stack temperature, cell voltage at startup, membrane thickness, catalyst loading, and stack heat capacity. If the stack is purged during the previous shutdown by flowing air in the cathode passages, then depending on the initial amount of water in the membrane and gas diffusion layers and the initial stack temperature, it may not be possible to dry the membrane to the critical λ for a subsequent successful startup. There is an optimum λ for robust and rapid startup and shutdown. Startup and shutdown time and energy may be unacceptable if the λ is much less than the optimum. Conversely, a robust startup from subfreezing temperatures cannot be assured if the λ is much higher than this optimum.

  6. Two computational approaches for Monte Carlo based shutdown dose rate calculation with applications to the JET fusion machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrizzi, L.; Batistoni, P.; Migliori, S. [Associazione EURATOM ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chen, Y.; Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P. [Association FZK-EURATOM Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany); Loughlin, M. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX (United Kingdom); Secco, A. [Nice Srl Via Serra 33 Camerano Casasco AT (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    In deuterium-deuterium (D-D) and deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion plasmas neutrons are produced causing activation of JET machine components. For safe operation and maintenance it is important to be able to predict the induced activation and the resulting shut down dose rates. This requires a suitable system of codes which is capable of simulating both the neutron induced material activation during operation and the decay gamma radiation transport after shut-down in the proper 3-D geometry. Two methodologies to calculate the dose rate in fusion devices have been developed recently and applied to fusion machines, both using the MCNP Monte Carlo code. FZK has developed a more classical approach, the rigorous 2-step (R2S) system in which MCNP is coupled to the FISPACT inventory code with an automated routing. ENEA, in collaboration with the ITER Team, has developed an alternative approach, the direct 1 step method (D1S). Neutron and decay gamma transport are handled in one single MCNP run, using an ad hoc cross section library. The intention was to tightly couple the neutron induced production of a radio-isotope and the emission of its decay gammas for an accurate spatial distribution and a reliable calculated statistical error. The two methods have been used by the two Associations to calculate the dose rate in five positions of JET machine, two inside the vacuum chamber and three outside, at cooling times between 1 second and 1 year after shutdown. The same MCNP model and irradiation conditions have been assumed. The exercise has been proposed and financed in the frame of the Fusion Technological Program of the JET machine. The scope is to supply the designers with the most reliable tool and data to calculate the dose rate on fusion machines. Results showed that there is a good agreement: the differences range between 5-35%. The next step to be considered in 2003 will be an exercise in which the comparison will be done with dose-rate data from JET taken during and

  7. Enhanced autonomic shutdown of Li-ion batteries by polydopamine coated polyethylene microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baginska, Marta; Blaiszik, Benjamin J.; Rajh, Tijana; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.

    2014-12-01

    Thermally triggered autonomic shutdown of a Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is demonstrated using polydopamine (PDA)-coated polyethylene microspheres applied onto a battery anode. The microspheres are dispersed in a buffered 10 mM dopamine salt solution and the pH is raised to initiate the polymerization and coat the microspheres. Coated microspheres are then mixed with an aqueous binder, applied onto a battery anode surface, dried, and incorporated into Li-ion coin cells. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy are used to verify the presence of the polydopamine on the surface of the microspheres. Scanning electron microscopy is used to examine microsphere surface morphology and resulting anode coating quality. Charge and discharge capacity, as well as impedance, are measured for Li-ion coin cells as a function of microsphere content. Autonomous shutdown is achieved by applying 1.7 mg cm-2 of PDA-coated microspheres to the electrode. The PDA coating significantly reduces the mass of microspheres for effective shutdown compared to our prior work with uncoated microspheres.

  8. Does debt ceiling and government shutdown help in forecasting the us equity risk premium?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Goodness C.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the predictability of the equity risk premium in the United States by comparing the individual and complementary predictive power of macroeconomic variables and technical indicators using a comprehensive set of 16 economic and 14 technical predictors over a monthly out-ofsample period of 1995:01 to 2012:12 and an in-sample period of 1986:01- 1994:12. In order to do so we consider, in addition to the set of variables used in Christopher J. Neely et al. (2013 and using a more recent dataset, the forecasting ability of two other important variables namely government shutdown and debt ceiling. Our results show that one of the newly added variables namely government shutdown provides statistically significant out-of-sample predictive power over the equity risk premium relative to the historical average. Most of the variables, including government shutdown, also show significant economic gains for a risk averse investor especially during recessions.

  9. Adaptive brain shut-down counteracts neuroinflammation in the near-term ovine fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex eXU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Repetitive umbilical cord occlusions (UCOs in ovine fetus leading to severe acidemia result in adaptive shut-down of electrocortical activity (ECOG as well as systemic and brain inflammation. We hypothesized that the fetuses with earlier ECOG shut-down as a neuroprotective mechanism in response to repetitive UCOs will show less brain inflammation and, moreover, that chronic hypoxia will impact this relationship.Methods: Near term fetal sheep were chronically instrumented with ECOG leads, vascular catheters and a cord occluder and then underwent repetitive UCOs for up to 4 hours or until fetal arterial pH was < 7.00. Eight animals, hypoxic prior to the UCOs (SaO2< 55%, were allowed to recover 24 hours post insult, while 14 animals, five of whom also were chronically hypoxic, were allowed to recover 48 hours post insult, after which brains were perfusion-fixed. Time of ECOG shut-down and corresponding pH were noted, as well as time to then reach pH<7.00 (ΔT. Microglia (MG were counted as a measure of inflammation in grey matter layers 4-6 (GM4-6 where most ECOG activity is generated. Results are reported as mean±SEM for p<0.05.Results: Repetitive UCOs resulted in worsening acidosis over 3 to 4 hours with arterial pH decreasing to 6.97±0.02 all UCO groups’ animals, recovering to baseline by 24 hours. ECOG shut-down occurred 52±7 min before reaching pH < 7.00 at pH 7.23±0.02 across the animal groups. MG counts were inversely correlated to ΔT in 24 hours recovery animals (R=-0.84, as expected. This was not the case in normoxic 48 hours recovery animals, and, surprisingly, in hypoxic 48 hours recovery animals this relationship was reversed (R=0.90.Conclusion: Adaptive brain shut-down during labour-like worsening acidemia counteracts neuroinflammation in a hypoxia- and time-dependent manner.

  10. Analisa Kinerja Sistem Shutdown Valve pada Sistem Perpipaan untuk Proses Loading dan Unloading di Pertamina (Persero Refinery Unit VI Balongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahtaria Rohmah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sistem perpipaan loading dan unloading merupakan salah satu sistem terpenting di PT. PERTAMINA (Persero RU VI Balongan yang berfungsi sebagai jalur bongkar dan pengisian minyak mentah dari kapal tengker ke tangki penyimpanan (storage tank. Pada jalur perpipaan loading-unloading terdapat suatu sistem keamanan berupa emergency shutdown valve yang berfungsi untuk menutup aliran crude oil dari subsea pipeline menuju ke tangki penyimpanan apabila terdapat bahaya. Sejak pertama dioperasikan hingga sekarang emergency shutdown vavlve tidak pernah digunakan karena tidak pernah terjadi bahaya, akan tetapi pada sistem tersebut akan dilakukan pengembangan/penambahan jalur aliran crude oil ke meterring system dengan kapasitas yang relatif besar. Oleh karena itu penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa kinerja emergency shutdown valve melalui pengamatan waktu respon yang diperlukan valve untuk menutup aliran terhadap jenis aliran fluidanya (crude oil Duri, Minas, DCO dan Jati Barang, selain itu dilakukan pengamatan terhadap pola aliran fluidamya ketika valve mulai menutup (tutupan 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% dan 85%. Dari pengamatan tersebut diperoleh bahwa Apabila ditinjau dari nilai time respons shutdown valve, kinerja shutdown valve masih tergolong bagus, karena dapat menutup aliran fluida dalam waktu 72 detik dari diameter pipa sebesar 36 inch. Sedangkan apabila ditinjau dari ΔP sistem terhadap jenis aliran crude oil dan jenis prosesnya dapat dikatakan bahwa kinerja shutdown valve paling bagus ketika proses unloading, karena nilai ΔP paling besar yaitu1,4 x 10-4 N/m2. Dari hasil pengamatan pola aliran fluida, tekanan paling besar saat fluida menumbuk valve pada tutupan 85%.

  11. Vertical flow-constructed wetlands for domestic wastewater treatment under tropical conditions: effect of different design and operational parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohórquez, Eliana; Paredes, Diego; Arias, Carlos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the treatment of domestic wastewater to find the optimum vertical flow-constructed wetland (VFCW) configuration under tropical conditions. Eight pilot-scale configurations units were studied to compare between fine sand and medium gravel used as substrate, two feeding frequencies (20 pulses d(-1) and 10 pulses d(-1)), and the presence or absence of tropical plants (Heliconia psittacorum). The results showed that the sand beds were significantly more efficient in the removal of organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, and total suspended solids than gravel beds, presenting average removal rates of 48 and 24 g m(-2) d(-1) of COD; 35 and 16 g m(-2) d(-1) of BOD5; 7 and 4 g m(-2) d(-1) of [Formula: see text]; 9 and 0 g m(-2) d(-1) for sand and gravel, respectively. The oxygen consumption rates were calculated and a value of 65 g m(-2) d(-1) was obtained for sand beds while for the gravel beds the consumption rate was 30 g m(-2 )d(-1). The assessment of different kinds of nitrogen showed interesting dynamics in the nitrification processes. The presence of H. psittacorum showed positive effects in the total nitrogen (TN) removal. The different loading frequencies applied did not show significant statistical differences in the removal of the tested contaminants. Preliminary results were found in the pathogen removal, where the sand is favorable as the substrate. This work represents the first step in the research of optimum VFWC design and operation parameters for Colombia as well as the use of plants of the genus Heliconia.

  12. Draft environmental impact statement siting, construction, and operation of New Production Reactor capacity. Volume 4, Appendices D-R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-04-01

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts, both on a broad programmatic level and on a project-specific level, concerning a proposed action to provide new tritium production capacity to meet the nation`s nuclear defense requirements well into the 21st century. A capacity equivalent to that of about a 3,000-megawatt (thermal) heavy-water reactor was assumed as a reference basis for analysis in this EIS; this is the approximate capacity of the existing production reactors at DOE`s Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The EIS programmatic alternatives address Departmental decisions to be made on whether to build new production facilities, whether to build one or more complexes, what size production capacity to provide, and when to provide this capacity. Project-specific impacts for siting, constructing, and operating new production reactor capacity are assessed for three alternative sites: the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington; the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho; and the Savannah River Site. For each site, the impacts of three reactor technologies (and supporting facilities) are assessed: a heavy-water reactor, a light-water reactor, and a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Impacts of the no-action alternative also are assessed. The EIS evaluates impacts related to air quality; noise levels; surface water, groundwater, and wetlands; land use; recreation; visual environment; biotic resources; historical, archaeological, and cultural resources; socioeconomics; transportation; waste management; and human health and safety. The EIS describes in detail the potential radioactive releases from new production reactors and support facilities and assesses the potential doses to workers and the general public. This volume contains 15 appendices.

  13. The flower and the butterfly constructed wetland system at Koh Phi Phi-System design and lessons learned during implementation and operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Hans; Koottatep, Thammarath; Fryd, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, a constructed wetland system was implemented on the tourist island of Koh Phi Phi in Southern Thailand. This paper presents the process of planning, designing and implementing the system and discusses the performance and operational issues 3 years after implementation. The system is an i...

  14. Constructing the Private-operated Enterprise Culture with the Anshan Characteristics%创建具有鞍山特色的民营企业文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高天好

    2012-01-01

    民营企业文化建设是实现企业可持续发展的重要因素。鞍山民营企业已经成为推动地方经济社会发展的重要力量,但却存在着企业文化建设观念落后、家族化的管理方式依然存在、缺乏科学化管理企业文化等问题。探究解决鞍山民营企业文化建设的策略,对于鞍山经济社会的可持续发展意义重大。%The constructing of private-operated enterprise culture is an important factor of realizing the sustainable development of the enterprises. The private-operated enterprises in Anshan have become an important power to promote the domestic economy. But there are some problems such as the old fashions of conception for enterprise culture constructing, the restraint of household operation style fo the enterprise culture constructing, the lack of best and excellent management. So searching the solution of the strategy of constructing the private- operated enterprise culture in Anshan has an important meaning to realize the sustainable development of economy and society.

  15. Chinese Biogas Digester. A Potential Model for Small-Scale, Rural Applications. (A Manual for Construction and Operation). Reprint No. R-51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Charles H.; Honquilada, Q. L.

    This book provides the basic knowledge and guides for the construction and operation of a small-scale, family-size biogas unit. The first chapter discusses the benefits of biogas production and the Chinese biogas model. The second chapter shows the components, design formulas, and sizing units of the biogas model. Chapter 3 describes actual…

  16. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs

    1997-12-31

    This paper covers the overview of the Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program, the general approach to the siting, design, construction, operation and closure of a geological disposal facility, the implementing disposal, and the public involvement in implementing geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. And two appendices are included. 45 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  17. Design, construction, operation and evaluation of a prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler unit. Facility test plan: startup and shakedown, parametric studies and long term operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This proposed performance study is to be performed in the anthracite culm prototype boiler located at Paxinos, Pennsylvania. The boiler is designed to produce 23,400 lb/hr of steam of 200 psig. Effects of operating variables on combustion efficiency, sulfur retention, erosion and corrosion will be analyzed during the runs. The boiler will be operated to determine its technical, economic and environmental performance and to project the viability of it for commercial operation. After the initial testing, the boiler performance will be evaluated over the long term operation.

  18. Comparisons of RELAP5-3D Analyses to Experimental Data from the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Hu, Rui; Lisowski, Darius; Kraus, Adam

    2016-04-17

    The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) is an important passive safety system being incorporated into the overall safety strategy for high temperature advanced reactor concepts such as the High Temperature Gas- Cooled Reactors (HTGR). The Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) reflects a 1/2-scale model of the primary features of one conceptual air-cooled RCCS design. The project conducts ex-vessel, passive heat removal experiments in support of Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technology (ART) program, while also generating data for code validation purposes. While experiments are being conducted at the NSTF to evaluate the feasibility of the passive RCCS, parallel modeling and simulation efforts are ongoing to support the design, fabrication, and operation of these natural convection systems. Both system-level and high fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were performed to gain a complete understanding of the complex flow and heat transfer phenomena in natural convection systems. This paper provides a summary of the RELAP5-3D NSTF model development efforts and provides comparisons between simulation results and experimental data from the NSTF. Overall, the simulation results compared favorably to the experimental data, however, further analyses need to be conducted to investigate any identified differences.

  19. Study on the standardization management of construction organization by communication operator%通信运营商施工单位标准化管理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戎国庆; 张辉; 曾俊钰; 韦耀东

    2015-01-01

    针对通信工程建设中施工单位管理存在的问题,本文将PMBOK项目管理理念与运营商现有的规章制度相结合,分析了运营商对施工单位管理的关键点,制定出一系列施工单位标准化管理动作,以统一不同施工单位的管理行为,提高通信工程建设水平。%Aiming at the problems existing in the management of the construction organization about communication, the PMBOK project management concept and the operator's existing rules of operator combination, key points of construction organization management, developed a series of standards for the construction organization management, to unify behavior of different construction organization, improve the level of communication engineering construction.

  20. Analysis of Multiple Spurious Operation Scenarios for Decay Heat Removal Function of CANDU Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youngseung; Bae, Yeon-kyoung; Kim, Myungsu [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The worst fire broke out in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975. A fire occurrence in a nuclear power plant has recognized a latently serious incident. Nuclear power plants should achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions during and after the occurrence of a fire. Functions of the safe shutdown are five such as the shutdown function, the decay heat removal function, the containment function, monitoring and control function, and the supporting function for CANDU type reactors. The purpose of this paper is to analyze that the decay heat removal function of the safe shutdown functions for CANDU type reactors is achieved under the fire induced multiple spurious operation. The scenarios of the fire induced multiple spurious operations (MSO) for the systems used for the decay heat cooling were analyzed. Additionally, Integrated Severe Accident Analysis code for CANDU plants (ISAAC) for determining success criteria of thermal hydraulic analysis was used. Decay heat cooling systems of CANDU reactors are the auxiliary feedwater system, the emergency water supply system, and the shutdown cooling system. A big fire can threat the safety of nuclear power plants, and safe shutdown conditions. The regulatory body in Korea requires the fire hazard analysis including fire induced MSOs. The safe shutdown functions for CANDU reactors are the shutdown function, the decay heat removal function, the containment function, the monitoring and control function, and the supporting service function. The number of spurious operations for the auxiliary feedwater system is more than six and that for the emergency water supply system is one. Additionally, misoperations for the shutdown cooling system are more than two. Accordingly, if total nine components could be spuriously operated, the decay heat removal function would be lost entirely.

  1. The analysis of the existing typology of energy saving measures in the course of construction project implementation and real estate object operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiseleva Ekaterina Aleksandrovna

    Full Text Available Today, speaking about the efficiency of energy saving measures it is necessary to analyze the consequences of alternative options of the use of renewables at reconstruction and updating of housing stock from the point of view of secondary energy use and by doing that to avoid negative consequences of greenhouse gases emissions. Thus special attention is paid as a rule to residential buildings. In addition to the assessment of the ideas of housing stock and power sources updating, the cost of construction materials in reconstruction projects, various concepts of reconstruction and economic consequences of the repair of buildings is also important. As a rule, the life cycle of a real estate object is longer, than the life cycle of the production process of the goods or service occurring on this object. Careful planning of the operation program of a real estate object already at the stage of its design and also its timely modernization according to new requirements play an important role throughout the whole life cycle of an object and its long-term and effective operation. The decision on the expediency of a construction project is made on the basis of the analysis of expenses for it. In practice it is quite seldom possible to take into account all the expenses for a constructed facility, that is the expenses arising at construction, operation, the contents and service of a real estate object during its existence. Often realization of more expensive solutions at the level of construction designs and equipment leads to considerable decrease in operational costs of a real estate object. Thus, without creation of a program of operation for this object it is very difficult to prove the expediency of more expensive resources and methods at construction, then it is determined by the minimum requirements. Nevertheless, the object not necessarily has to correspond to its initial state. As a rule, after some time the use of newer technical solutions is

  2. Review of Well Operator Files for Hydraulically Fractured Oil and Gas Production Wells: Well Design and Construction Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA reviewed a statistically representative sample of oil and gas production wells reported by nine service companies to help understand the role of well design and construction practices preventing pathways for subsurface fluid movement.

  3. The integration of price/cost modelling and construction planning - the automated generation of construc­tion operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bowen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that traditional price/cost models are unrelated to the construction process renders them largely unsuited to the provision of meaningful price/cost advice. The nature and lengthiness of the construction planning process has precluded its incorporation into price/cost modelling during the pre-tender phase of the traditional building procurement process. The nub of the modelling problem has been how to integrate the complex process of construction planning into the pre-tender price/cost modelling process. In this paper the authors propose the synthesis of artificial intelligence techniques and construction planning techniques, resulting in a conceptual framework for a network-based cost modelling system for use by quantity surveyors in the cost modelling of buildings.

  4. An Assessment of Water Demand and Availability to meet Construction and Operational Needs for Large Utility-Scale Solar Projects in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Tidwell, V. C.; Macknick, J.; Reno, M. D.; Moreland, B. D.; Zemlick, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    In the Southwestern United States, there are many large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities currently in operation, with even more under construction and planned for future development. These are locations with high solar insolation and access to large metropolitan areas and existing grid infrastructure. The Bureau of Land Management, under a reasonably foreseeable development scenario, projects a total of almost 32 GW of installed utility-scale solar project capacity in the Southwest by 2030. To determine the potential impacts to water resources and the potential limitations water resources may have on development, we utilized methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine potential water use in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance (O&M), which is then evaluated according to water availability in six Southwestern states. Our results indicate that PV facilities overall use less water, however water for construction is high compared to lifetime operational water needs. There is a transition underway from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities and larger PV facilities due to water use concerns, though some water is still necessary for construction, operations, and maintenance. Overall, ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability. Understanding the location of potentially available water sources can help the solar industry determine locations that minimize impacts to existing water resources, and help understand potential costs when utilizing non-potable water sources or purchasing existing appropriated water. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract

  5. An analytic-numerical method for the construction of the reference law of operation for a class of mechanical controlled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizhidon, A. D.; Mizhidon, K. A.

    2017-04-01

    An analytic-numerical method for the construction of a reference law of operation for a class of dynamic systems describing vibrations in controlled mechanical systems is proposed. By the reference law of operation of a system, we mean a law of the system motion that satisfies all the requirements for the quality and design features of the system under permanent external disturbances. As disturbances, we consider polyharmonic functions with known amplitudes and frequencies of the harmonics but unknown initial phases. For constructing the reference law of motion, an auxiliary optimal control problem is solved in which the cost function depends on a weighting coefficient. The choice of the weighting coefficient ensures the design of the reference law. Theoretical foundations of the proposed method are given.

  6. On the Operation Mechanism of the University Culture Construction%大学文化建设运行机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张振鹏

    2012-01-01

    大学文化建设运行机制是一个有机体系,在大学文化建设中起着基础性作用。其中,核心价值体系的引导机制是大学文化建设的灵魂,切实有效的组织调控机制是大学文化建设的核心架构,文化互动机制是大学文化建设共融互动、协同发展的基础,创新激励机制是大学文化建设的动力源泉,舆情反馈机制是对大学文化建设的基本策略和必要补充。大学文化建设运行机制只有实现整体性的结合,才能发挥出调控大学文化建设的集合效应。%The operation mechanism of the university culture construction is an organic system, it plays a fundamen tal role in the cultural construction of the university. Among them, the guiding mechanism of the core value system is the soul of the university culture building, the effective and organizational control mechanism is the core architec ture of the building of the university culture, the cultural interaction mechanism is the basis for the interactive and collaborative development of university culture, the innovative and incentives operation mechanism is the power source of the university cultural construction, the public opinion feedback mechanism is the basic strategy and a necessary complement to the construction of university culture. University culture construction and operation mecha nism is the organic combination in order to play out the collection effect of regulation of the university cultural con struction.

  7. Operation algorithm of the information system of improving organizational and technological reliability of construction projects using energy efficient technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginzburg Aleksandr Vital’evich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The main source for the development of construction projects with energy-efficient technologies in use is investments. The traditional approaches of risk management: insurance, diversification and redundancy only raise the cost of the construction project, which has a negative impact on the investor’s decision to invest. In order to solve this problem an information system has been developed, which is based on the principle of insightful analysis of the potential “pure” risks and a list of recommendations of risk management. This tool allows identifying all the weaknesses of a construction project, improving the organizational and technological reliability, and imparting an understanding to the investor / a customer of the resources required for the project implementation.

  8. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience; Drei integrierte PV-Schallschutz Versuchsfelder. Bau und Erprobung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-07-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  9. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...... for the Japanese fast breeder reactor plant MONJU....

  10. Modeling Operating Modes for the Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2012-01-01

    The specification of supervision and control tasks in complex processes requires definition of plant states on various levels of abstraction related to plant operation in start-up, normal operation and shut-down. Modes of plant operation are often specified in relation to a plant decomposition in...

  11. Inner engine shutdown from transitions in the angular momentum distribution in collapsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batta, Aldo; Lee, William H.

    2016-06-01

    For the collapsar scenario to be effective in the production of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), the infalling star's angular momentum J(r) must be larger than the critical angular momentum needed to form an accretion disc around a black hole (BH), namely Jcrit = 2rgc for a Schwarzschild BH. By means of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, here we study the collapse and accretion on to BHs of spherical rotating envelopes, whose angular momentum distribution has transitions between supercritical (J > Jcrit) and subcritical (J hydrodynamical simulations, we find that a substantial amount of subcritical material fed to the accretion disc, lingers around long enough to contribute significantly to the energy loss rate. Increasing the amount of angular momentum in the subcritical material increases the time spent at the accretion disc, and only when the bulk of this subcritical material is accreted before it is replenished by a massive outermost supercritical shell, the inner engine experiences a shutdown. Once the muffled accretion disc is provided again with enough supercritical material, the shutdown will be over and a quiescent time in the long GRB produced afterwards could be observed.

  12. Environmental Assessment For the Proposed Construction and Operation of a Consolidated Fuels Facility and the Demolition of the Existing Fuel Farm at Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Transfer Pollutant Storage Loses Benzene 19.95 3.40 Cumene 0.97 0.76 Ethyl benzene 1.65 0.7I Hexane 12.76 1.71 Methyl tert-buty l ether 96.72 15.25...Due to the daytime hours of construction 3 operations, no sleep disturbances are expected. In general, the average reaction of receptors 4 outside

  13. 78 FR 1936 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... a proceeding known as Tongue River III.\\3\\ \\1\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--In....2d 758 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 976 (1987). \\2\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and..., 1996). \\3\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--Western Alignment, FD 30186 (Sub-No. 3) (STB...

  14. NATO Phase Zero Contracting - A Proposed Strategic and Operational Planning Construct Within the NATO Framework for Defense Planning and Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-12

    ethical business protocols; • Primary and secondary customers/supported units and nations; • Anticipated requirements (in relative time-phase...prowess. And, critical to business operations integrity, the STANAG creation can incorporate tenets of ethical and sound business practices in contracting...Expeditionary Operations, Defense Acquisition Review Journal , October 2013, Volume 20, pages 349-372. Acquisition Research Program Graduate School of Business

  15. Identifying the influential factors in corrosive processes on the LP shaft of the Elverlingsen E4 turbogenerator set during unit shutdown procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipp, H.G.; Leidich, F.U. [ALSTOM Power Support GmbH, Mannheim (Germany); Freund, E. [Mark-E AG, Elverlingsen Power Plant (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Overhauls repeatedly revealed cracks on the grooves of blade suspensions on LP turbine rotors in various turbo-generator sets. Some of these cracks caused costly repairs. Without exception, the starting points of the cracks were identified to be in areas affected by shallow pitting corrosion. In many cases, the same phenomena were found in units which underwent frequent hot and cold start-ups. In order to avoid corrosive attacks on the LP turbine during operational standstills, the shutdown procedures for the unit 4 in Elverlingsen were modified. (orig.) [German] An den Nuten der Schaufelaufhaengungen an ND-Turbinenlaeufern verschiedener Turbogruppen wurden bei Revisionen Risse gefunden, die teilweise aufwaendige Sanierungsmassnahmen zur Folge hatten. Die Rissausgaenge lagen ausnahmslos im Bereich von Muldenkorrosionsangriffen. Besonders haeufig traten diese Phaenomene bei Blockeinheiten mit haeufigen Warm- und Kaltstarts auf. Zur Vermeidung von Korrosionsangriffen an der Niederdruck-Turbine waehrend Betriebsstillstaenden wurde das Abfahren des Blockes 4 im Kraftwerk Elverlingsen modifiziert. (orig.)

  16. Transmission Line Construction Technology and Operational Management Maintenance Technology%输电线路施工技术和运行管理维护技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊葳

    2015-01-01

    Transmission line construction project is an important part of power engineering, construction, and operation and maintenance of technical quality is directly related to the quality of the transmission line project, therefore, of great significance both for the security and stability of grid operation. Transmission Line Project construction techniques were analyzed and discussed the operational management and maintenance of the transmission line technology for the relevant officers.%输电线路施工工程是电力工程的重要组成部分,施工技术和运行维护质量直接关系到整个输电线路工程的质量,因此,二者对电网运行的安全和稳定具有十分重要的意义。对输电线路工程施工技术进行了分析,并探讨了输电线路运行管理维护技术,以供有关人员参考。

  17. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulic loading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoulakis, M S; Terzakis, S; Chatzinotas, A; Brix, H; Kalogerakis, N; Manios, T

    2009-04-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a free water surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor (RBC), and (d) a packed bed filter (PBF). All units operated in parallel at various hydraulic loading rates (HLR) ranging from 50% to 175% of designed operating HLR. The study was conducted during an 8 month period and showed that COD removal efficiency of HSF was comparable (>75%) to that of RBC and PBF, whereas that of the FWS system was only 57%. Average nutrient removal efficiencies for FWS, HSF, RBC and PBF were 6%, 21%, 40% and 43%, respectively for total nitrogen and 21%, 39%, 41% and 42%, respectively for total phosphorus. Removals of total coliforms were lowest in FWS and PBF (1.3 log units) and higher in HSF and RBC (2.3 to 2.6 log units). HSF showed slightly lower but comparable effluent quality to that of RBC and PBF systems, but the construction cost and energy requirements for this system are significantly lower. Overall the final decision for the best non-conventional wastewater treatment system depends on the construction and operation cost, the area demand and the required quality of effluent.

  18. 高校基层党组织促进学科建设运行机制的构建%On theConstruction of Operation Mechanism of the Prinmry Party Organization to Promote Discipline Construction in Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏泽

    2012-01-01

    Discipline construction is the everlasting topic and core project in the development d higher education. The level of discipline construction reflects the education quality and the level of a university. The combination of the primary party organization construction and the discipline construction urge the affection and promotion of them. It is an important measure in realizing leapfrog development of universities. The primary party organization should promote discipline construction in unlversifies, realize the co-construction of the party meraber team and dis- cipline backbone team,exploit their advantages to the full, set up series of highly efficient and flexible working operation system,includlng deci- sion- making,guarantee,incentive and regulation mechanisms.%学科建设是高校发展的永恒主题和核心工程,学科建设水平体现了一所大学的办学质量和办学水平。高校基层党组织建设和学科建设的结合,使两者相互影响、相互促进,是高校实现跨越式发展的重要举措。高校基层党组织要促进学科建设、实现党员队伍与学科骨干队伍的共建,应当发挥自身优势,构建一系列高效灵活的工作运行机制,包括决策机制、保障机制、激励机制和调控机制。

  19. 75 FR 30057 - Proposed Issuance of an Incidental Take Permit to Energy Northwest for Construction and Operation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Administration substation at Naselle, Washington. We are furnishing this notice to announce the initiation of a... clearing, upgrade of existing roads, construction of new roads, a new project substation on the ridge, and... substation to an existing BPA substation in Naselle, Washington. Within the project area, up to 32 wind...

  20. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc...

  1. 78 FR 50050 - Record of Decision for the Construction and Operation of an Infantry Platoon Battle Course at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... engage targets with small arms, machine guns, and other weapon systems as part of live-fire exercises... IPBC that will meet Army training requirements and will support the live-fire collective training needs... munitions fire and constructing the IPBC here will reclaim a portion of the impact area. A copy of the...

  2. Pilot-scale comparison of constructed wetlands operated under high hydraulicloading rates and attached biofilm reactors for domestic wastewater treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Terzakis, S.; Chatzinotas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Four different pilot-scale treatment units were constructed to compare the feasibility of treating domestic wastewater in the City of Heraklio, Crete, Greece: (a) a freewater surface (FWS) wetland system, (b) a horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) wetland system, (c) a rotating biological contactor...

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3-70). Volume 2, Public comments and NRC response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (Volume 1), was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), to assess the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana by Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are co on, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning of the site. In order to help assure that releases from the operation of the facility and potential impacts on the public are as low as reasonably achievable, an environmental monitoring program was developed by LES to detect significant changes in the background levels of uranium around the site. Other issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment, and proposes to issue a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility. The letters in this Appendix have been divided into three sections. Section One contains letters to which the NRC responded by addressing specific comments. Section Two contains the letters that concerned the communities of Forest Grove and Center Springs. Section Three is composed of letters that required no response. These letters were generally in support of the facility.

  4. Operation and maintenance manual for septic holding tank system for project W-519, two double-wide construction support trailers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORTIMER, C.S.

    1999-08-25

    This manual was prepared to provide detailed information for the operation and maintenance of the sanitary wastewater holding system. This procedure sets forth system operations which include type and frequency of required maintenance as well as system failure response procedures. The system consists of a sanitary sewage holding tank, two alarms and appurtenances necessary to provide a functional system. The maximum daily design flow is 696 liters. The holding tank is located as shown on the site plan.

  5. Construction of explicitly correlated geminal-projected particle-hole creation operators for many-electron systems using the diagrammatic factorization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Michael G.; Uchida, Yuki; Eller, Joshua; Daniels, Carena; Chakraborty, Arindam

    2016-11-01

    The computational cost of performing a configuration interaction (CI) calculation for treating electron-electron correlation is directly proportional to the number of terms in the CI expansion. In this work, we present a diagrammatic projection approach for a priori identification of noncontributing terms in a CI expansion. This method known as the geminal-projected configuration interaction (GP-CI) method is based on using a two-body R12 geminal operator for describing electron-electron correlation in a reference many-electron wave function. The diagrammatic projection procedure was performed by first deriving the Hugenholtz diagrams of the energy expression of the R12 reference wave function and then performing diagrammatic factorization of effective particle-hole creation operators. The projection operation, which is a functional of the geminal function, was defined and used for the construction of the geminal-projected particle-hole creation operators. The form of the two-body R12 geminal operator was derived analytically by imposing an approximate Kato cusp condition. A linear combination of the geminal-projected one-particle one-hole and two-particle two-hole operators were used for the construction of the GP-CI wave function. The applicability and implementation of the diagrammatic projection method was demonstrated by performing proof-of-concept calculations on an isoelectronic series of 10 electron systems: CH4,NH3,H2O ,HF , and Ne . The results from the calculations show that compared to conventional CI calculations, the GP-CI method was able to substantially reduce the size of the CI space (by a factor of 6-9) while maintaining an accuracy of 10-5 Hartrees for the ground-state energies. These results demonstrate the ability of the diagrammatic projection procedure to identify noncontributing states using an analytical form of the R12 geminal correlator operator. The geminal-projection method was also applied to second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation

  6. HIRFL Operation and Upgrade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoHongwei; WangYifang; ZhanWenlong; WeiBaowen; HIRFLTeam

    2003-01-01

    After almost one year shutdown for upgrading the vacuum chamber of the iniector SFC,SFC has been in operation separately since May 2003. The SFC operation statistics and accelerated heams from May to December 2003 are shown in Table 1 and 2. The main cyclotron SSC has beenfor still shut down in 2003 for upgrading the SSC power supply system, control and diagnostic system, and themain experimental area, LECR3, an ECR ion source dedicated for atomic physics and surface physics research, has provided 2488 hours beams for experiments of atomic physics research.

  7. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Land for the Siting, Construction and Operation of a Commercial AM Radio Antenna at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-02-16

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to lease approximately 3 acres of land at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on the southeast tip of Technical Area (TA) 54 for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna. This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been developed in order to assess the environmental effects of the Proposed Action and No Action alternative. The Proposed Action includes the lease of land for the siting, construction and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna in TA-54, just north of Pajarito Road and State Highway 4. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under the No Action Alternative, DOE would not lease land on LANL property for the siting and operation of an AM radio broadcasting antenna; the DOE would not have a local station for emergency response use; and the land would continue to be covered in native vegetation and serve as a health and safety buffer zone for TA-54 waste management activities. Other potential sites on LANL property were evaluated but dismissed for reasons such as interference with sensitive laboratory experiments. Potential visual, health, and environmental effects are anticipated to be minimal for the Proposed Action. The radio broadcasting antenna would be visible against the skyline from some public areas, but would be consistent with other man-made objects in the vicinity that partially obstruct viewsheds (e.g. meteorological tower, power lines). Therefore, the net result would be a modest change of the existing view. Electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions from the antenna would be orders or magnitude less than permissible limits. The proposed antenna construction would not affect known cultural sites, but is located in close proximity to two archaeological sites. Construction would be monitored to ensure that the associated road and utility corridor would avoid cultural sites.

  8. Construction and operation of the flue gas desulphurization plant at Altbach/Deizisau power station, unit no. 5. Experience from commissioning and initial operating period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, R.; Necker, P.; Strauss, J.; Hemming, H.; Landgraf, E.

    1987-04-01

    Since take-over the flue gas desulphurization plant has easily maintained the required level of desulphurisation. Caking-on and incrustation are substantially avoided. By redesigning the gypsum drying process an easily storable gypsum which can be used both in the gypsum and cement industry is produced. According to experience gained to date it is expected that the flue gas desulphurisation plant will not impair the availability of the power plant unit taking into account statutory regulations. In overall terms the plant has satisfactorily fulfilled the expectations of the operator.

  9. Theater of Operations Construction in the Desert. A Handbook of Lessons Learned in the Middle East. Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    and material can also be used for coarse aggregates in grave- bitumen and base Table1 Granular soils - Classification test results Yle Sample Type...Southwest Asia. Locclly available construction materials include aggregates , sands, mud for adobc, and bally poles. Expedient methods of using local...pipes, avoid straight lines; use thermal blank- ets and screens to break up lines and pattern of piping. Use adhesives and local soil to mdtch background

  10. Construction and operation of a system for secure and precise medical material distribution in disaster areas after Wenchuan earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhong; Xu, Jiankang; Ma, Jian; Cheng, Shusen; Shi, Yingkang

    2009-11-01

    After the Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th , 2008, under the strong leadership of the Sichuan Provincial Party Committee, the People's Government of Sichuan Province, and the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, the Medical Security Team working at the Sichuan Provincial Headquarters for Wenchuan Earthquake and Disaster Relief Work constructed a secure medical material distribution system through coordination and interaction among and between regions, systems, and departments.

  11. Effect of operational and design parameters on performance of pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating university campus wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaevangelou, Vassiliki; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2016-10-01

    Three horizontal subsurface flow (HSF) pilot-scale constructed wetland (CW) units operated for 3 years treating municipal wastewater originating from a university campus. The main objective of the study was the evaluation of the performance of these systems under several operational, design, and climatic conditions. Several parameters and factors were investigated, including the influence of temperature, vegetation, and hydraulic residence time. The results were compared to those of a previous study conducted in the same pilot-scale units and under the same operational conditions where synthetic municipal wastewater was used. Results show the satisfying overall performance of the CW units. Performance seems to be influenced by vegetation, temperature, and hydraulic residence time (HRT). The planted units produced better results than the unplanted one while, generally, all units operated better under warmer conditions. In addition, longer HRTs contributed to higher removal efficiencies. Finally, the systems showed higher removal efficiencies in the previous study (synthetic wastewater) regarding organic matter removal, while for the other pollutants, the present study (real wastewater) showed higher or comparable performance in most cases and especially in the planted units. The study also shows the overall good, continuous, and long-term operation of CW systems, since these systems operate for about 13 years.

  12. Construction and Research on Construction of Jiangx Security Operation Integrated Provincial Local Taxation Information Systems Management Platform%江西地税安全运维管理平台的建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文星

    2012-01-01

    this article has mainly analyzed JiangXi Provincial Local Taxation information management problems that exist in Network security,and introduced Research and Practice on construction of Jiangxi Provincial Local Taxation Information Systems Security Operation Integrated Management Platform%文章主要分析了江西地税网络安全管理过程中存在的问题,就这些问题介绍了江西地税安全运维管理平台建设过程中的研究和实践。

  13. Economical assessment of the design, construction and operation of open-bed biofilters for waste gas treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, O J; Gabriel, D; Lafuente, J

    2009-06-01

    A protocol was developed with the purpose of assessing the main costs implied in the set-up, operation and maintenance of a waste gas-treating conventional biofilter. The main operating parameters considered in the protocol were the empty bed residence time and the gas flow rate. A wide variety of investment and operating costs were considered. In order to check its reliability, the protocol was applied to a number of scenarios, with biofilter volumes ranging from 8.3 to 4000 m(3). Results show that total annualized costs were between 20,000 and 220,000 euro/year and directly dependent, among other factors, on the size of the system. Total investment and operating costs for average-size compost biofilters were around 60,000 euro and 20,000 euro/year, respectively, which are concordant with actual costs. Also, a sensitivity analysis was performed in order to assess the relative influence of a series of selected costs. Results prove that operating costs are those that influence the total annual costs to a higher extent. Also, packing material replacement costs contribute significantly to the total yearly costs in biofilters with a volume higher than 800 m(3). Among operating costs, the electricity consumption is the main influencing factor in biofilters with a gas flow rate above 50,000 m(3)/h, while labor costs are critical at lower gas flow rates. In addition, the use of a variety of packing materials commonly employed in biofiltration was assessed. According to the results obtained, special attention should be paid to the packing material selected, as it is the main parameter influencing the medium replacement costs, and one of the main factors affecting investment costs.

  14. Environmental assessment for the resiting, construction, and operation of the Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) presents estimated environmental impacts from the resiting, construction, and operation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Environmental and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), which is proposed to be constructed and operated on land near the south boundary of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The EMSL, if constructed, would be a modern research facility in which experimental, theoretical, and computational techniques can be focused on environmental restoration problems, such as the chemical and transport behavior of complex mixtures of contaminants in the environment. The EMSL design includes approximately 18,500 square meters (200,000 square feet) of floor space on a 12-hectare (30-acre) site. The proposed new site is located within the city limits of Richland in north Richland, at the south end of DOE`s 300 Area, on land to be deeded to the US by the Battelle Memorial Institute. Approximately 200 persons are expected to be employed in the EMSL and approximately 60 visiting scientists may be working in the EMSL at any given time. State-of-the-art equipment is expected to be installed and used in the EMSL. Small amounts of hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) are expected to be used in experimental work in the EMSL.

  15. Thinking on the International Operation of China's Construction Enterprises%对我国建筑企业国际化经营的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝碧波

    2015-01-01

    伴随国家“走出去”战略的强势推进,我国越来越多的建筑企业走出国门,并取得了骄人的成绩。但与国际著名大型承包商相比,我国建筑企业国际化经营水平仍然存在较大差距。本文分析了我国建筑企业国际化经营中面临的机遇和挑战,明确了存在的主要问题,并提出了相应对策。%With the strong detrusion of the national strategy of"going-out", more and more construction enterprises of China go abroad, and have got good grades. But compared with the famous international large contractors, there is still a large gap in the international operation level of China's construction enterprises. This paper analyzes the opportunities and challenges in the international operation of China's construction enterprises, definitizes the main existing problems and puts forward the related countermeasures.

  16. QPS/LHC Activities requiring important Tunnel Work During a future long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlerup-Petersen, K

    2011-01-01

    The MPE/circuit protection section is presently establishing a road map for its future LHC activities. The tasks comprise essential consolidation work, compulsory upgrades and extensions of existing machine facilities. The results of a first round of engineering exertion were presented and evaluated at a MPE activity review in December 2010. The technical and financial aspects of this program will be detailed in the ‘QPS Medium and Long-Term Improvement Plan’, to be published shortly. The QPS activities in the LHC tunnel during a future, long shutdown are closely related to this improvement chart. A project-package based program for the interventions has been established and will be presented in this report, together with estimates for the associated human and financial resources necessary for its implementation.

  17. Performance of Resistive Plate Chambers installed during the first long shutdown of the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Shopova, M; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Sultanov, G; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Assran, Y; Sayed, A; Radi, A; Aly, S; Singh, G; Abbrescia, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, M; Pugliese, G; Verwilligen, P; Van Doninck, W; Colafranceschi, S; Sharma, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Rios, A A O; Tytgat, M; Zaganidis, N; Gul, M; Fagot, A; Bhatnagar, V; Singh, J; Kumari, R; Mehta, A; Ahmad, A; Awan, I M; Shahzad, H; Hoorani, H; Asghar, M I; Muhammad, S; Ahmed, W; Shah, M A; Cho, S W; Choi, S Y; Hong, B; Kang, M H; Lee, K S; Lim, J H; Park, S K; Kim, M S; Laktineh, I B; Lagarde, F; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Pedraza, I; Bernardino, S Carpinteyro; Estrada, C Uribe; Moreno, S Carrillo; Valencia, F Vazquez; Pant, L M; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Orso, I; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Paolucci, P; Thyssen, F; Lanza, G; Esposito, M; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Montagna, P; Ban, Y; Qian, S J; Choi, M; Choi, Y; Goh, J; Kim, D; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Petkov, P; Pavlov, B; Bagaturia, I; Lomidze, D; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Sanabria, J C; Crotty, I; Vaitkus, J

    2016-01-01

    The CMS experiment, located at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, has a redundant muon system composed by three different detector technologies: Cathode Strip Chambers (in the forward regions), Drift Tubes (in the central region) and Resistive Plate Chambers (both its central and forward regions). All three are used for muon reconstruction and triggering. During the first long shutdown (LS1) of the LHC (2013-2014) the CMS muon system has been upgraded with 144 newly installed RPCs on the forth forward stations. The new chambers ensure and enhance the muon trigger efficiency in the high luminosity conditions of the LHC Run2. The chambers have been successfully installed and commissioned. The system has been run successfully and experimental data has been collected and analyzed. The performance results of the newly installed RPCs will be presented.

  18. Spins, Stalls, and Shutdowns: Pitfalls of Qualitative Policing and Security Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy K. Lippert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores key elements of qualitative research on policing and security agencies, including barriers encountered and strategies to prevent them. While it is oft-assumed that policing/security agencies are difficult to access due to their clandestine or bureaucratic nature, this article demonstrates this is not necessarily the case, as access was gained for three distinct qualitative research projects. Yet, access and subsequent research were not without pitfalls, which we term security spins, security stalls, and security shutdowns. We illustrate how each was encountered and argue these pitfalls are akin to researchers falling into risk categories, not unlike those used by policing/security agents in their work. Before concluding we discuss methodological strategies for scholars to avoid these pitfalls and to advance research that critically interrogates the immense policing/security realm. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1601108

  19. Dissolution in anisotropic porous media: Modelling convection regimes from onset to shutdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Marco; Zonta, Francesco; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we use direct numerical simulations to examine the role of non-isotropic permeability on solutal convection in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The dense solute injected from the top boundary is driven downwards by gravity and follows a complex time-dependent dynamics. The process of solute dissolution, which is initially controlled by diffusion, becomes dominated by convection as soon as fingers appear, grow, and interact. The dense solute finally reaches the bottom boundary where, due to the prescribed impermeable boundary, it starts filling the domain so to enter the shutdown stage. We present the entire transient dynamics for large Rayleigh-Darcy numbers, Ra, and non-isotropic permeability. We also try to provide suitable and reliable models to parametrize it. With the conceptual setup presented here, we aim at mimicking the process of liquid CO2 sequestration into geological reservoirs.

  20. Construction and Operation of a 165K Microcooler with a Sorption Compressor and a Micromachined Cold Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Johannes Faas; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Rogalla, Horst; Ross, R.G. jr

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the integration and testing of a 165 K microcooler that operates with a sorption compressor and a micromachined cold stage. Attractive features of this combination are the lack of vibration and a long lifetime for a potentially very small cryocooler. The developed cold stage work

  1. Construction and Operation of a 165K Microcooler with a Sorption Compressor and a Micromachined Cold Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.F.; Holland, H.J.; Brake, ter H.J.M.; Elwenspoek, M.C.; Rogalla, H.; Ross, R.G. jr

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the integration and testing of a 165 K microcooler that operates with a sorption compressor and a micromachined cold stage. Attractive features of this combination are the lack of vibration and a long lifetime for a potentially very small cryocooler. The developed cold stage work

  2. Construction and Operation of a 165K Microcooler with a Sorption Compressor and a Micromachined Cold Stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Johannes Faas; Holland, Herman J.; ter Brake, Hermanus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Rogalla, Horst; Ross, R.G. jr

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the integration and testing of a 165 K microcooler that operates with a sorption compressor and a micromachined cold stage. Attractive features of this combination are the lack of vibration and a long lifetime for a potentially very small cryocooler. The developed cold stage

  3. A SCOPING STUDY: Development of Probabilistic Risk Assessment Models for Reactivity Insertion Accidents During Shutdown In U.S. Commercial Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Khericha

    2011-06-01

    This report documents the scoping study of developing generic simplified fuel damage risk models for quantitative analysis from inadvertent reactivity insertion events during shutdown (SD) in light water pressurized and boiling water reactors. In the past, nuclear fuel reactivity accidents have been analyzed both mainly deterministically and probabilistically for at-power and SD operations of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Since then, many NPPs had power up-rates and longer refueling intervals, which resulted in fuel configurations that may potentially respond differently (in an undesirable way) to reactivity accidents. Also, as shown in a recent event, several inadvertent operator actions caused potential nuclear fuel reactivity insertion accident during SD operations. The set inadvertent operator actions are likely to be plant- and operation-state specific and could lead to accident sequences. This study is an outcome of the concern which arose after the inadvertent withdrawal of control rods at Dresden Unit 3 in 2008 due to operator actions in the plant inadvertently three control rods were withdrawn from the reactor without knowledge of the main control room operator. The purpose of this Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) Model development project is to develop simplified SPAR Models that can be used by staff analysts to perform risk analyses of operating events and/or conditions occurring during SD operation. These types of accident scenarios are dominated by the operator actions, (e.g., misalignment of valves, failure to follow procedures and errors of commissions). Human error probabilities specific to this model were assessed using the methodology developed for SPAR model human error evaluations. The event trees, fault trees, basic event data and data sources for the model are provided in the report. The end state is defined as the reactor becomes critical. The scoping study includes a brief literature search/review of historical events, developments of

  4. A Systems Analysis View of the Vietnam War: 1965-1972. Volume 12. Construction and Port Operations in South Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-02-01

    W’A k.C c0 ~ ,~ 3T UT IWO CONFIDENTIAL Ij k3 r *.g,Ž i , . • |- Y• r• c.1.’ i Api -a u- -•z-Otb.r v rDcme 5| 62,14.9 52,6.53 %47,759 1.6,636 6,63 4...12601x361 153,000 j430.,860 logistical 12 5000’ x60 ’ 1501x150’ 27601x361 314,000 795,860) The runways and turnaround areas will be constructed of AM-2/rnX-19

  5. Study of waste generation in the drilling and cementing operations during construction of offshore oil and gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Ferraço de Campos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This literature review aims to present drilling and cementing activities which take place during the construction of offshore oil and gas wells, listing the waste generated in each step. IBAMA, the environmental agency that regulates the activity, allows two disposal options for these wastes: disposal in open sea or treatment followed by disposal on shore. The documentary research applied in this article details the destination options showing that the monitoring required by the environmental agency is a way to track the actual results of the activities described.

  6. Simulation of runaway electron generation during plasma shutdown by impurity injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feher, Tamas

    2011-03-15

    Disruptions are dangerous instabilities in tokamaks that should be avoided or mitigated. One possible disruption mitigation method is to inject impurities into the plasma to shut it down in a controlled way. Runaway Electrons (REs) can be generated after the plasma is cooled down by the impurities and these electrons can damage the tokamak. In this work a simulation code is developed to investigate different disruption mitigation scenarios. The response of the bulk plasma, more precisely the temperature evolution of electrons, deuterium and impurity ions are described by energy balance equations in a 1D cylindrical plasma model. The induction and resistive diffusion of electric field is calculated. RE generation rates are used to calculate the runaway current. The Dreicer, hot-tail and avalanche effect is taken into account and a simple model for RE losses is also included. RE generation is studied in JET-like plasmas during pellet injection. Carbon pellets cause effective cooling but these scenarios are prone to runaway generation. A mixture of argon and deuterium gas could be used for safe shutdown without RE generation. In ITER the hot-tail RE generation process becomes important, and the simulation is therefore extended to take this into account. Shutdown scenarios with different concentration of neon and argon impurities were tested in ITER-like plasmas. To simplify the problem the impurity injection into the plasma is not modeled in these cases, only the response of the bulk plasma. The avalanche process cannot be suppressed in a simple way and would produce high runaway current. It can be avoided if some runaway loss phenomenon is included in the simulations, like diffusion due to magnetic perturbations

  7. The behavior of runaway current in massive gas injection fast shutdown plasmas in J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Luo, Y. H.; Tang, Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Zeng, L.; Tong, R. H.; Wang, S. Y.; Wei, Y. N.; Wang, X. H.; Jian, X.; Li, J. C.; Zhang, X. Q.; Rao, B.; Yan, W.; Ma, T. K.; Hu, Q. M.; Yang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Ding, Y. H.; Wang, Z. J.; Zhang, M.; Zhuang, G.; Pan, Y.; Jiang, Z. H.; J-TEXT Team

    2016-11-01

    Runaway currents following disruptions have an important effect on the first wall in current tokamaks and will be more severe in next generation tokamaks. The behavior of runaway currents in massive gas injection (MGI) induced disruptions have been investigated in the J-TEXT tokamak. The cold front induced by the gas jet penetrates helically along field lines, preferentially toward the high field side and stops at a location near the q  =  2 surface before the disruption. When the cold front reaches the q  =  2 surface it initiates magnetohydrodynamic activities and results in disruption. It is found that the MGI of He or Ne results in runaway free shutdown in a large range of gas injections. Mixture injection of He and Ar (90% He and 10%Ar) consistently results in runaway free shutdown. A moderate amount of Ar injection could produce significant runaway current. The maximum runaway energy in the runaway plateau is estimated using a simplified model which neglects the drag forces and other energy loss mechanisms. The maximum runaway energy increases with decreasing runaway current. Imaging of the runaway beam using a soft x-ray array during the runaway current plateau indicates that the runaway beam is located in the center of the plasma. Resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) is applied to reduce the runaway current successfully during the disruption phase in a small scale tokamak, J-TEXT. When the runaway current builds up, the application of RMP cannot decouple the runaway beam due to the lower sensitivity of the energetic runaway electrons to the magnetic perturbation.

  8. Examination of risk significant configuration during low power and shutdown with ORION and PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul Kyu; Oh, Seung Jong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This paper suggests an approach to calculate the increased CDF corresponding to Orange and Red states in ORION program and analyzed the result of calculation. This approach is expected to be useful for checking the adequacy of the LPSD PSA. And also, the result of this calculation can provide the information about which SSCs for certain SF are more sensitive to risk in particular POS. Defense-in-depth is a safety philosophy in which multiple lines of defense and conservative design and evaluation methods are applied to ensure the safety of the public. Based on this philosophy EPRI developed Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) program as a qualitative assessment to better manage the risk during low power and shutdown event after the Vogtle loss of vital AC power and RHR event in 1990. Each risk level of RED, ORANGE color status caused by the degradation of each key safety function might be different depend on the importance of each key safety function. However we can't know how much different. If we know the quantitative information about the risk level represented by color, we can take and prepare concrete actions to reduce the risk level of the plant with rescheduling maintenance, strengthen surveillance for important safety function, and developing outage management strategy. The probabilistic safety analysis for low power and shutdown period can provide risk information with quantitative value related on the degradation of redundancy and diversity level for the safety functions during outage. In this study, we calculated the increased Core Damage frequency (CDF) of each RED and ORANGE states in ORION program caused by the degradation of each key safety function by modifying LPSD PSA model. The result of calculation and analysis could be effective to check adequacy and find improvement for these two methods.

  9. Shielding optimisation of the ITER ICH&CD antenna for shutdown dose rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.turner@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Leichtle, Dieter [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Lamalle, Philippe; Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Meunier, Lionel [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Polunovskiy, Eduard [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St., Paul-lez-Durance (France); Sartori, Roberta [Fusion for Energy, Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Shannon, Mark [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Neutronics analysis on the ITER ICH&CD system conducted to reduce shutdown dose rate. • Several designs for shielding the port plug gaps were modelled. • Shielding significantly reduced interspace dose rate but still exceed project requirements. • Design optimisation of the ICH port is continuing. • Significant contributions from other ports require an integrated modelling approach. - Abstract: The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ICH&CD) system will reside in ITER equatorial port plugs 13 and 15. Shutdown dose rates (SDDR) within the port interspace are required to be less than 100 μSv/h at 10{sup 6} s cooling. A significant contribution to the SDDR results from neutrons streaming down gaps around the port frame, and the mitigation of this streaming is the main subject of these analyses. An updated MCNP model of the antenna was created and integrated into an ITER reference model. Shielding plates were defined in the port gaps, and scoping studies conducted to assess their effectiveness in several configurations, based on which a front dog-leg arrangement was selected for high resolution 3-D activation analysis using MCR2S. It was concluded that the selected configuration reduced the SDDR from ∼500 μSv/h to 220 μSv/h but were still in excess of dose rate requirements. Approximately 30% of this was due to cross-talk from neighbouring ports. In addition, increased dose rates were observed in the port interspace along the lines of sight of the removable vacuum transmission lines. Design optimisation is continuing, however an integrated approach is needed with regard to ITER port plug design and the shielding of surrounding systems.

  10. Enhanced organics and nitrogen removal in batch-operated vertical flow constructed wetlands by combination of intermittent aeration and step feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinlin; Liang, Shuang; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Jian

    2013-04-01

    Oxygen and carbon source supply are usually insufficient in subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Simultaneous removal of organic pollutants and nitrogen in five batch-operated vertical flow constructed wetlands under different operating conditions was investigated. Alternate aerobic and anaerobic regions were created well with intermittent aeration. Four-month experiments showed that the wetland-applied intermittent aeration combined with step feeding strategy (reactor E) greatly improved the removal of organics, ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), and total nitrogen (TN) simultaneously, which were 97, 96, and 82%, respectively. It was much better than non-aerated reactors A and B and outperformed intermittently aerated reactor D without step feeding. Continuous aeration (reactor C) significantly enhanced the organics removal and nitrification, but it limited the TN removal (29%) seriously as a result of low denitrification level, and the high operation cost remained a question. The effect of plants was confirmed in this study, and the monitoring data showed that the plants could grow normally. Intermittent aeration as well as step feeding had no obvious influence on the growth of wetland plants in this study.

  11. Operational, design and microbial aspects related to power production with microbial fuel cells implemented in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Clara; Guivernau, Miriam; Viñas, Marc; Puigagut, Jaume

    2015-11-01

    This work aimed at determining the amount of energy that can be harvested by implementing microbial fuel cells (MFC) in horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands (HSSF CWs) during the treatment of real domestic wastewater. To this aim, MFC were implemented in a pilot plant based on two HSSF CW, one fed with primary settled wastewater (Settler line) and the other fed with the effluent of a hydrolytic up-flow sludge blanket reactor (HUSB line). The eubacterial and archaeal community was profiled on wetland gravel, MFC electrodes and primary treated wastewater by means of 16S rRNA gene-based 454-pyrosequencing and qPCR of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes. Maximum current (219 mA/m(2)) and power (36 mW/m(2)) densities were obtained for the HUSB line. Power production pattern correlated well with water level fluctuations within the wetlands, whereas the type of primary treatment implemented had a significant impact on the diversity and relative abundance of eubacteria communities colonizing MFC. It is worth noticing the high predominance (13-16% of relative abundance) of one OTU belonging to Geobacter on active MFC of the HUSB line that was absent for the settler line MFC. Hence, MFC show promise for power production in constructed wetlands receiving the effluent of a HUSB reactor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Annual Report on SPR Operation in 2002

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1 Information of operation SPR is operated for 2 727.983 h in 2002, the reactor’s rated power is 3.5 MW,and the total releasedenergy is 397.831 MW d Times of reactor’s operation and non-plan shut-down are 20 and 37,respectively. The pH and resistivity of primary loop water is 5.8 and 66.7×10~4Ω·cm, respectively;

  13. 渝怀电气化铁路营业线增建明洞施工技术%Construction Technique of Constructing Cut - and - cover Tunnel over the Electrified Railway for Chongqing- Huaihua in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢新民; 邵青

    2011-01-01

    Research purposes: In order to resist the landslides while constructing a new open cut tunnel for an existing electrified railway, in condition of normal operation of the railway, in spite of the HV contact wire overhead and tracks below the line. If the reasonable measures are not taken,the delay of the construction progress is not guaranteed it will frequently and seriously threaten the traffic safety. Therefore, we must adopt safe and secure measures.Research conclusions:The cut - and - cover tunnel will be constructed over the electrified railway for Chongqing -Huaihua in operation. According to the technology of " One cut - and - cover tunnel and one interval" , it solves the difficult problem of constructing subgrade of the cut - and - cover tunnel without impact on the regular operation of railway. The approach to the development of installing the "arch" steel tube brace for the transitional contact the way of suspension solves the difficulty of possibility of the electricity current cutting by which the catenary and locomotive in question are supported in case the existing pillars be removed. It originally makes the lining trolley in the arch ring which has the functions of lifting, sliding and anti - electric. It solves the problem that the lining trolley would not touch the contact wire while performing on the contact wire net and also protects the workers from the danger of electric shock. It could carry out the construction and guarantee the safety of operation at the same time with the arch ring of reverse templates. The above - mentioned new technology in construction is worthy being applied in the similar projects.%研究目的:当已经投入运营的电气化铁路为了抵御山体塌方的侵害,需要增建明洞,势必在上方有高压接触网、下方有行车轨道、列车照常运营的复杂环境中施工,如果技术措施不当,施工进度就无法保证,甚至会影响行车安全或者导致作业人员触电.因此,必须研究

  14. SPEAR3 Construction Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCocq, Catherine; Banuelos, Cristobal; Fuss, Brian; Gaudreault, Francis; Gaydosh, Michael; Griffin, Levirt; Imfeld, Hans; McDougal, John; Perry, Michael; Rogers,; /SLAC

    2005-08-17

    An ambitious seven month shutdown of the existing SPEAR2 synchrotron radiation facility was successfully completed in March 2004 when the first synchrotron light was observed in the new SPEAR3 ring, SPEAR3 completely replaced SPEAR2 with new components aligned on a new highly-flat concrete floor. Devices such as magnets and vacuum chambers had to be fiducialized and later aligned on girder rafts that were then placed into the ring over pre-aligned support plates. Key to the success of aligning this new ring was to ensure that the new beam orbit matched the old SPEAR2 orbit so that existing experimental beamlines would not have to be reoriented. In this presentation a pictorial summary of the Alignment Engineering Group's surveying tasks for the construction of the SPEAR3 ring is provided. Details on the networking and analysis of various surveys throughout the project can be found in the accompanying paper.

  15. Type and timing of childhood maltreatment and severity of shutdown dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46 M/29 F, M = 31 ± 10 years old with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (p < 0.003 in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that "life-threatening" events are a critical determinant.

  16. 78 FR 79709 - Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2013-31317] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-302; NRC-2013-0283] Duke Energy Florida, Inc., Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Generating Plant Post-Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Notice of receipt; availability; public...

  17. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction for installation and operation of a waste retrieval system and tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104 project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEXTER, M.L.

    1999-11-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246 247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61 07 for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in the 24 1 AP-102 Tank and one waste retrieval system in the 241 AP 104 Tank Pursuant to 40 CFR 61 09 (a)( 1) this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start up notification Its is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start up notification Project W 211 Initial Tank Retrieval Systems (ITRS) is scoped to install a waste retrieval system in the following double-shell tanks 241-AP 102-AP 104 AN 102, AN 103, AN-104, AN 105, AY 102 AZ 102 and SY-102 between now and the year 2011. Because of the extended installation schedules and unknowns about specific activities/designs at each tank, it was decided to submit NOCs as that information became available This NOC covers the installation and operation of a waste retrieval system in tanks 241 AP-102 and 241 AP 104 Generally this includes removal of existing equipment installation of new equipment and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings Tanks 241 AP 102 and 241 AP 104 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product (i.e. glass logs) The total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to the offsite maximally exposed individual (MEI) from the construction activities is 0 045 millirem per year The unabated TEDE to the offsite ME1 from operation of the mixer pumps is 0 042 millirem per year.

  18. Correlation between leachate production and construction-operation criteria of MSW landfills; Correlazione tra la produzione di percolato e le caratteristiche costruttive e gestionali di discariche per RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collivignarelli, C.; Bertanza, G.; Cavallari, S. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile

    2001-06-01

    This research (which is still going on) is aimed to collect and analyse monitoring of several MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes) landfills, in order to point out possible correlations among design-construction and operation criteria and the characteristics of landfill emissions. This paper deals with three studied landfills, receiving MSW and industrial municipal-like solid wastes. They have been designed, constructed and operated by the same company (in Northern Italy) since 1972. All landfills were realised in degraded areas (quarries), previously used for gravel-sand extraction. Specific construction criteria employed for the different landfills were revised and modified progressively accordingly with current regulation standards and on the basis of previous experience. The analysis of operating data confirm that some factors have influenced leachate production; in particular, among construction criteria: the characteristics of biogas extraction wells (during the opening phase); the type of capping system (during the after-care phase); and, among operation criteria: waste compaction (during the opening phase); the duration of the landfill opening phase (before capping realisation). [Italian] L'obiettivo di questa ricerca (tuttora in corso) e' quello di raccogliere ed analizzare i dati di monitoraggio di alcune discariche per rifiuti solidi urbani, con l'intento di evidenziare eventuali correlazioni fra i criteri costruttivi/gestionali e le caratteristiche delle emissioni. Questo lavoro prende in considerazione 3 discariche in cui sono stati smaltiti rifiuti solidi urbani ed assimilabili. Gli impianti sono stati progettati, costruiti e gestiti, a partire dal 1972, da un'unica azienda che opera nel Nord Italia. Tutte le discariche sono state realizzate in cave dismesse utilizzate per l'estrazione di sabbia e ghiaia. I criteri costruttivi impiegati per le varie discariche sono stati via via modificati in accordo con le specifiche normative e in

  19. ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION AND OPERATION OF THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND PROSPECTS FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION N THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subbotin Artem Sergeevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors argue that successful development and implementation of major infrastructural projects require special arrangements between the government authorities and the private sector. The authors have developed their proposals concerning models of interaction and strengths of the above arrangements that apply to the organizational structure of the management of infrastructural projects as a step towards the formation of an advanced and progressive model of interaction between public and private sectors. Public-Private Partnership (PPP is the model in question. Great Britain is the pioneer of the public private partnership model that was later picked up in the USA, Canada, Australia and the EU constituent states. PPP and the construction industry have strong links in terms of the involvement of the private sector in the resolution of public problems of the urban infrastructure, namely, restructuring of airfields, railways, public healthcare facilities, kindergartens, schools, etc.

  20. The Approval, Construction and Operation of LAMOST Project%LAMOST工程的立项、建设与运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊峰; 王大洲

    2016-01-01

    本文梳理了我国在“九五”计划中实施的大型科学工程 LAMOST 巡天望远镜从概念设计到工程的立项审批和施工建设,直至最终完成的整个历史发展脉络,回顾了工程在演化过程中经历的困难以及取得的令人瞩目的成绩。据此,本文分析了大科学工程的特点,提出,大科学工程是基于科学又为了科学的工程、大科学工程是基于研究的创新性工程、大科学工程是资产专用性奇高的工程、大科学工程是以科学家为核心力量的工程、大科学工程是扎根于国际合作的工程。%This paper sorts out the whole historical development sequence of LAMOST (The Large Area Multi-object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) from concept formation to project approval and construction, until the project was completed. It reviews the difficulties and remarkable progress of the project in its process of evolution. Accordingly, this paper analyzes the characteristics of the construction project of large scale research facility and presents that such a project is based on science and made for science, that it is research-based innovative project, that it is a kind of project whose assets specificity is extremely high, that its core strength comes from scientific communities, and that it is rooted in international cooperation.

  1. 有线数字电视节目运营平台的构建%The Construction of Cable Digital TV Programs Operating Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩莹

    2012-01-01

    节目运营平台是业务运营系统的核心部分,包括内容发布、内容调度、录播管理、门户服务和图文管理几个部分,介绍这几个系统的功能与特点,构建起这个系统,运营商可利用节目内容优势拓展增值业务,以应对激烈的市场竞争。%This article focuses on the construction of the digital TV content operational platform.The platform has a digital TV content distribution,scheduling and management,and business access,business operations and other functions.It is composed to the content publishing,content scheduling system,recording and broadcasting management system,portal system,and picture and text management system.

  2. Design, construction, and operation of an actively controlled deep-sea CO2 enrichment experiment using a cabled observatory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, William J.; Walz, Peter M.; Peltzer, Edward T.; Barry, James P.; Herlien, Robert A.; Headley, Kent L.; Kecy, Chad; Matsumoto, George I.; Maughan, Thom; O'Reilly, Thomas C.; Salamy, Karen A.; Shane, Farley; Brewer, Peter G.

    2015-03-01

    We describe the design, testing, and performance of an actively controlled deep-sea Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (dp-FOCE) system for the execution of seafloor experiments relating to the impacts of ocean acidification on natural ecosystems. We used the 880 m deep MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research System) cable site offshore Monterey Bay, California for this work, but the Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) system concept is designed to be scalable and can be modified to be used in a wide variety of ocean depths and locations. The main frame is based on a flume design with active thruster control of flow and a central experimental chamber. The unit was allowed to free fall to the seafloor and connected to the cable node by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) manipulation. For operation at depth we designed a liquid CO2 containment reservoir which provided the CO2 enriched working fluid as ambient seawater was drawn through the reservoir beneath the more buoyant liquid CO2. Our design allowed for the significant lag time associated with the hydration of the dissolved CO2 molecule, resulting in an e-folding time, τ, of 97 s between fluid injection and pH sensing at the mean local T=4.31±0.14 °C and pHT of 7.625±0.011. The system maintained a pH offset of ~0.4 pH units compared to the surrounding ocean for a period of ~1 month. The unit allows for the emplacement of deep-sea animals for testing. We describe the components and software used for system operation and show examples of each. The demonstrated ability for active control of experimental systems opens new possibilities for deep-sea biogeochemical perturbation experiments of several kinds and our developments in open source control systems software and hardware described here are applicable to this end.

  3. A Human Reliability Analysis of Post- Accident Human Errors in the Low Power and Shutdown PSA of KSNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, J. H.; Jang, S. C

    2007-03-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, using the ANS low power and shutdown (LPSD) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Standard, evaluated the LPSD PSA model of the KSNP, Yonggwang Units 5 and 6, and identified the items to be improved. The evaluation results of human reliability analysis (HRA) of the post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP showed that 10 items among 19 items of supporting requirements for those in the ANS PRA Standard were identified as them to be improved. Thus, we newly carried out a HRA for post-accident human errors in the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP. Following tasks are the improvements in the HRA of post-accident human errors of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP compared with the previous one: Interviews with operators in the interpretation of the procedure, modeling of operator actions, and the quantification results of human errors, site visit. Applications of limiting value to the combined post-accident human errors. Documentation of information of all the input and bases for the detailed quantifications and the dependency analysis using the quantification sheets The assessment results for the new HRA results of post-accident human errors using the ANS LPSD PRA Standard show that above 80% items of its supporting requirements for post-accident human errors were graded as its Category II. The number of the re-estimated human errors using the LPSD Korea Standard HRA method is 385. Among them, the number of individual post-accident human errors is 253. The number of dependent post-accident human errors is 135. The quantification results of the LPSD PSA model for the KSNP with new HEPs show that core damage frequency (CDF) is increased by 5.1% compared with the previous baseline CDF It is expected that this study results will be greatly helpful to improve the PSA quality for the domestic nuclear power plants because they have sufficient PSA quality to meet the Category II of Supporting Requirements for the post

  4. Responsible construction?

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Eric; Lee,Angela; WU, SONG; Mathison, Gill

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the construction industry to innovate in order to improve its practice has been widely debated over the years. As more and more organisations in other sectors, globally, are addressing 21st century consumer challenges: encompassing fair-trade, ethically sourced and more recycled products; and are reporting on their corporate responsibility performance (such as Marks and Spencer's Plan A, The Co-operative, The Body Shop etc), isn't it about time the construction industry followe...

  5. A review on nitrogen and organics removal mechanisms in subsurface flow constructed wetlands: dependency on environmental parameters, operating conditions and supporting media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Tanveer; Sun, Guangzhi

    2012-12-15

    With the unique advantages of lower operational and maintenance cost, the applications of subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater have been increasing rapidly throughout the world. The removal of nitrogen and organics by such systems has gained substantial attention in recent years. In subsurface flow wetlands, the removal of pollutants often relies on a diverse range of co-existing physical, chemical and biological routes, which are vitally dependent on numerous environmental and operational parameters. This paper provides a comprehensive review of wetland structures, classic and novel nitrogen and organics removal mechanisms along with the key environmental parameters and operational conditions that enhance removal in subsurface flow wetland systems. The critical exploration identifies the major environmental parameters such as: pH, DO, and temperature, operational factors i.e. organic carbon availability, loading, feed mode, retention time, recirculation, harvesting, and the complex role (of both parameters) on classical nitrogen and organics removal pathways. Subsequently, the necessity of further extensive research on such factors, for promoting novel nitrogen removal routes in wetland systems has also been highlighted. The expansion of the review on the influence of the unconventional wetland matrix indicates that, the structural differences and inherent properties of these media can support substantial nitrogen and organics removal from wastewater, under optimal operating conditions. Overall, the critical review illustrates the necessity of a profound knowledge on the complicated inter-relationship between nitrogen and organics removal routes, governing environmental and operational parameters, and wetland matrix for improving the treatment performances of subsurface flow wetlands.

  6. Radioactive Air Emissions Notice of Construction Application for Installation and Operation of a Waste Retrieval System in Tanks 241-AN-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL, J.S.

    2000-05-15

    This document serves as a notice of construction (NOC) pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060, and as a request for approval to modify pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.07, for the installation and operation of one waste retrieval system in each of the following tanks; 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107. Pursuant to 40 CFR 61.09 (aXI), this application is also intended to provide anticipated initial start-up notification. It is requested that EPA approval of this application will also constitute EPA acceptance of the initial start-up notification. This NOC covers the installation and operation o f a waste retrieval system in tanks 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107, and the 241-AN-A/-B Valve Pits. Generally, this includes removal of existing equipment, installation of new equipment, and construction of new ancillary equipment and buildings between now and the year2011. Tanks 241-AN-101, -AN-102, -AN-103, -AN-104, -AN-105 and -AN-107 will provide waste feed for immobilization into a low activity waste (LAW) product.

  7. Design, construction and 13 K conduction-cooled operation of a 3 T 100 mm stainless steel cladding all-REBCO magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jae Young; Yoon, Sangwon; Hahn, Seungyong; Hwang, Young Jin; Kim, Jaemin; Shin, Kang Hwan; Cheon, Kyekun; Kim, Kwanglok; In, Sehwan; Hong, Yong-Ju; Yeom, Hankil; Lee, Hunju; Moon, Seung-Hyun; Lee, SangGap

    2017-10-01

    A conduction-cooled 3 T 100 mm winding bore multi-width and no-insulation (NI) all-REBCO magnet was designed, constructed and tested at 13 K. The magnet consists of a stack of double pancake (DP) coils wound with, for the first time, REBCO tapes having a 1 μm thick layer of stainless steel, named ‘metallic cladding’, that surrounds the tapes in a hermetic way to substantially reduce the NI charging delay. After construction, the magnet was cooled down to the target operating temperature of 13 K using a two-stage pulse-tube cryo-cooler. During charging–discharging tests up to 200 A, magnetic center field, voltage of each DP coil, power supply current, and magnet temperature were monitored. The charging time constant of the magnet was measured to be about 10.1 s, 13 times smaller than that of its NI counterpart. The magnet experienced, due to an unexpected power supply trip, a sudden discharge at a peak coil current density of 353 A mm2, yet it survived without any degradation. The results demonstrated strong potential of the metallic cladding NI-REBCO magnet for significant charging-delay reduction and self-protecting operation.

  8. Construction and Operation of Railway Bridges and Ferries in the Lower Volga Streamflow (End of 19th – First Half of 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OPALEV M.N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of operation of Russia’s first railway ferry and the process of bridge construction across the lower Volga streamflows at Ryazan-Ural (now Volga railway line in Saratov, Stalingrad (Volgograd and Astrakhan. River railway ferries “Saratovskaya pereprava” and “Saratovsky ledokol” were built in 1894 in England and water crafts “Vtoraya pereprava” (1909 and “Stalin” (1926 were floated out in Volga in Nizhny Novgorod, from the Sormov plant. As a rule, the organization of transportations by means of steam locomotives and waggons through Volga during the first half of the 20th century preceded the construction of capital metal railway bridges, such as Astrakhan (1909 and Saratov (1935, and also a combined railway-automobile bridge through the Volga (Stalingrad Hydro-Electric Power Station (1961. The article is devoted not only to the technical features of ferries, bridges, but their efficient use in peace time and war time. So, the carrying capacity of the Saratov railway ferry increased in more than three times from 1907 to 1916. The Ryazan-Ural railway ferries were actively used by new Bolshevist regime. After the railroad construction on the left bank of Volga in autumn and winter of 1941, railway ferries “Stalin” and “Saratovskaya pereprava” were used for the carriage of military trains and population evacuation from the western bank of Volga. The author describes one of the most heroic and tragic facts in the history of Stalingrad battle using the example of the special operation railway ferry flooding and its consequent reconstruction.

  9. The design, construction, and operation of a whole-body inhalation chamber for use in avian toxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Smits, Judit E G

    2008-01-01

    Environmental risk assessments are broadening to include evaluations of avian species exposed to gaseous and particulate materials (Mineau, 2002b; Irvine, 2004; Carmalt, 2005). Since the avian respiratory tract is fundamentally different from the respiratory tract of rodents, the effects of gaseous materials on birds cannot validly be extrapolated from data derived from rodent exposure studies (Briant & Driver, 1992; Brown et al., 1997). To address the lack of avian-specific lowest observable effect levels used to calculate reference concentrations for airborne pollutants, a system was designed to facilitate research on inhalation toxicology in small birds. Birds have long been used as early indicators of poor air quality (Brown et al., 1997), and various chambers have been designed for head only exposures of larger birds (Briant & Driver, 1992). Smaller birds with short tracheal lengths and hooked beaks however require less restrictive exposure apparatus, thus warranting the proposed design. The chamber described in this article was designed to accommodate a small falcon, the American kestrel, a species frequently used in toxicological risk assessments (Wiemeyer & Lincer, 1987a; Smits & Bortolotti, 2001; Bortolotti et al., 2003; Fisher et al., 2006). To accomplish this, a 41-L closed inhalation system capable of exposing 12 adult American kestrels was constructed primarily of galvanized steel, polyvinyl chloride, and copper tubing. Humidified air was passed over the birds and subsequently decontaminated by an activated carbon filter and released to a HEPA filtration system. The proposed inhalation chamber was successfully used in 2005 and 2006 to expose a total of 55 male American kestrels to benzene and toluene. Measurements of various biochemical endpoints associated with benzene and toluene toxicity allowed us to study the effects of airborne pollutants on small nondomesticated birds in a controlled laboratory setting.

  10. 铁路建设工程变更的实施与操作探讨%Discussion on Implementation and Operation of Railway Construction Project Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹明; 冯铭

    2012-01-01

    In the face of the strong competition in the construction market,the construction enterprises usually use low price bidding strategy in tender and bid period,the profit space is less and less.If you want to get the maximization of profit in the construction process,the construction enterprises should use the engineering change as the core to get benefits in the second time.Through the analysis and classification of the causes of the change to produce,this paper expounds the engineering change procedures and approval content,operation method and way.Furthermore,the existed risk and management problems are stated.%面对竞争激烈的工程建设市场,施工企业在施工招投标时普遍采用低价中标的策略,利润空间越来越小。若想在施工过程中取得利润的最大化,就要以工程变更为核心进行二次经营争取效益。然而工程建设中如确实需要变更,那么如何进行实施与操作是需要进行深入探讨研究的问题。通过对产生变更的原因分析与分类,阐述工程变更程序及报批内容、操作方法和途径,并对存在的风险和管理进行说明。

  11. Environmental assessment: Proposed construction of Refuge operational facilities, water management facilities, wildlife oriented interpretation/recreation development, road and water management facilities rehabilitation, and implementation of a vegetation control plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed action consists of the construction of facilities for refuge operation, water management, and wildlife-oriented interpretation and recreation; the...

  12. Addendum No. 29 to the Memorandum of Understanding for Collaboration in the Construction, the Maintenance and Operation of the ALICE Detector Participation of National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolucci, S

    2013-01-01

    Addendum No. 29 to the Memorandum of Understanding for Collaboration in the Construction, the Maintenance and Operation of the ALICE Detector Participation of National Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhubaneswar, India

  13. Environmental Assessment for the construction and operation of the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority regional waste management center at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a landfill and technology center for regionally-generated municipal solid waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The facility would serve the municipal solid waste disposal needs for SRS and at least nine of the surrounding counties who currently comprise the Three Rivers Solid Waste Authority (TRSWA). Additional counties could become included in the proposed action at some future date. Current Federal and state requirements do not afford individual counties and municipalities within the region encompassing SRS the ability to efficiently or economically operate modern waste management facilities. In addition, consolidation of regional municipal solid waste at one location would have the benefit of reducing the duplicity of environmental consequences associated with the construction and operation of county-level facilities. The option to seek a combined disposal and technology development facility based on a regionally-cooperative effort was selected as a viable alternative to the existing individual SRS or county disposal activities. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended, the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR Part 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact or prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS).

  14. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipongvises Suthirat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 % compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  15. Greenhouse Gases and Energy Intensity of Granite Rock Mining Operations in Thailand: A Case of Industrial Rock-Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipongvises, Suthirat; Chavalparit, Orathai; Sutthirat, Chakkaphan

    2016-12-01

    This paper is aimed to systematically assess greenhouse gases (GHGs) and energy intensity of the granite rock mining operations in Thailand and also identify a range of feasible options to minimize their GHG emissions. Mining factories A, B and C, located in the Eastern region of Thailand, were selected as research case studies. The results indicated that the 3-year average of GHGs emissions from factories A to C was 3387 718 kgCO2e per year with approximately 2.92 kgCO2e per ton of granite rock produced over 2012 to 2014. Of this, the carbon intensity of grid-electricity consumption for the crushed rock production was 1.84 kgCO2/kWh. Diesel fuel combustion for transport activities in the mining factories was the greatest contributor to GHGs emissions (68 %) compared to the purchased electricity and explosion process, with 31 % and 1 %, respectively. In-Pit Crushing and Conveying (IPCC) installation, haul truck payload optimization and management, and reduction in tire rolling resistance have shown potential to reduce carbon emissions accounted for 20 % to 70 %.

  16. Design, construction, and operation of a laboratory scale reactorfor the production of high-purity, isotopically enriched bulksilicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ager III, J.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-12-20

    The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.

  17. Carbon footprint of construction, operation and maintenance of waterways and traffic; Merenkulun ja liikenteen hiilijalanjaelki. Osa 1: Merenkulun hiilijalanjaelki, Osa 2: Tie-, rata- ja meriliikenteen hiilijalanjaeljet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illman, J.; Kumpulainen, A.; Pesola, A.; Vanhanen, J.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the Finnish Transport Agency launched a project to study the carbon footprint of the construction, use and maintenance of Finland's transport network infrastructure. This report presents the results of the second phase, where the carbon footprint was calculated for the coastal ports and fairways used for merchant shipping (part 1 of this report). In addition, the carbon footprint of traffic operating on the road and rail networks and on the coastal fairways was calculated (part 2 of this report). The carbon footprints of four Finnish coastal merchant shipping ports and the fairways leading into them were calculated during a 100-year period. Based on these four cases and statistics the rest of the coastal ports were categorised into four groups: passenger ports, unitized cargo ports, bulk ports and liquid bulk ports. Based on this categorisation the carbon footprint for the infrastructure of coastal merchant shipping was estimated. A carbon footprint tool was developed to enable the modelling of the impacts of different port and fairway planning parameters on the life-cycle emissions. The main source of emissions in the selected cases was the energy used during the use phase: the fuel used by the machinery or the electricity consumed during the operation of the port. In the construction of the examined ports and fairways, the materials used, their transportation and installation do not have a significant impact on the life-cycle emissions. The carbon footprint of Finland's coastal merchant shipping ports and fairways (35 ports and 3 230 km of fairways) during the 100-year period was estimated at 150 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. The emissions of ports vary between 1 900-15 000 tCO{sub 2}/a. The largest sources of emissions do not always originate from the use phase as in the selected cases. The emissions of construction and maintenance can be larger than of the use phase in ports that occupy a large area of land in relation to the amount of traffic flowing

  18. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the

  19. Framework for detailed studies on the construction and operation of repositories for spent nuclear fuel; Ramprogram foer detaljundersoekningar vid uppfoerande och drift av slutfoervar foer anvaent kaernbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-10-15

    This report presents a programme for the detailed investigations planned to be applied during construction and operation of the repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark. The report is part of SKB's application according to the Nuclear Activities Act. The detailed investigations shall provide relevant data on and site-descriptive models for the bedrock, soil deposits and eco-system of the site in order to facilitate a step-wise design and construction of the final repository. This shall be implemented in a manner that all demands on long-term safety are fulfilled, including accurate documentation of the construction work, and so that assessments of the environmental impact of the repository can be made. For the operational phase, the detailed investigations should also provide support to the deposition process with related decisions, thereby enabling fulfilment of the design premises for the siting and construction of deposition tunnels and deposition holes, as well as for deposition of canisters, and for the subsequent backfilling and closure of the repository. The Observational Method will be applied during the construction of the repository. This method entails establishing in advance acceptable limits of behaviour regarding selected geoscientific parameters and preparing a plan with measures to keep the outcome within these limits. Predictions of expected rock properties are established for each tunnel section. The outcome after excavation is compared with the acceptable range of outcomes. Information from detailed characterization will be of essential importance for application of the Observational Method and for adapting the repository to the prevailing rock properties. SKB has for the past several decades developed methods for site characterisation, applying both above- and underground investigation techniques. Experiences from this work, put into practice during the site investigations, has resulted in a solid knowledge and understanding of the

  20. 构建精细化和差异化运营的智能网络体系%Constructing a Smart Network with Refined and Differentiated Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雄燕; 甘震; 周光涛

    2012-01-01

    文章认为随着用户需求的提高、终端和业务的多样化、网络流量的增长以及产业竞争的加剧,构建精细化和差异化运营的智能网络体系是大势所趋.其中,网络实现广覆盖、高带宽、扁平化是基础,网络多维度感知、网络资源动态调配是核心手段,网络开放互动促进产业纵深是关键,基于用户体验的业务质量保证是强力保障.%Evolving user requirements, more diverse terminals and services, rapid growth in network traffic, and industry competition are challenging for operators. A strategy for operators is to construct a refined and differentiated operation intelligence network. Wide coverage, high bandwidth, and flat structure are the basic features of such a network. Multidimensional perception and dynamic allocation of network resources are the main methods. Network opening-up and interaction which can broaden the industry, and the user experience-based service quality is the insurance for the whole system.

  1. Design, construction, operation, and evaluation of a prototype culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 21, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed on the Prototype Culm Combustion Boiler/Heater Unit, Phase I - Engineering Design and Analysis, Phase II - Prototype Plant Construction and Phase III - Start-Up and Operation during the period October 1, 1981 through December 31, 1981. The objectives of the program as well as the technical progress and problem areas encountered during the reporting period are presented. Seven shakedown tests were run. Start-up and shakedown testing was completed. Four parametric tests were run. Performance data are presented with the exception of boiler efficiency which will be reported once chemical analyses are completed. Total boiler operation time through the end of this quarter - 1225 h, 50 min; operating time on culm and culm/limestone - 682 h, 43 min. Inspection revealed no problems with boiler tube wear. Sulfur capture greater than 94% was demonstrated (design is 88%). A turndown of better than 4 to 1 was shown (design is 2.5 to 1). Computer control of most of the loops has been successful and manual control was also demonstrated.

  2. BubbleZERO—Design, Construction and Operation of a Transportable Research Laboratory for Low Exergy Building System Evaluation in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Schlueter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the design, construction and operation of a novel building systems laboratory, the BubbleZERO—Zero Emission Research Operation. Our objective was to design a space to evaluate the performance of Swiss-developed low exergy building systems in the tropical climate of Singapore using an integrated design approach. The method we employed for evaluation in the tropics was to design and build a test bed out of the shipping containers that transported the prototype low exergy systems from Switzerland to Singapore. This approach resulted in a novel laboratory environment containing radiant cooling panels and decentralized air supply, along with a self-shading, inflated “bubble” skin, experimental low emissivity (LowE glazing, LED lighting, wireless sensors and distributed control. The laboratory evaluates and demonstrates for the first time in Singapore an integrated high-temperature cooling system with separate demand-controlled ventilation adapted for the tropics. It is a functional lab testing system in real tropical conditions. As such, the results showing the ability to mitigate the risk of condensation by maintaining a dew point below 18 °C by the separate decentralized ventilation are significant and necessary for potential future implementation in buildings. In addition, the control system provides new proof of concept for distributed wireless sensors and control for reliable automation of the systems. These key results are presented along with the integrated design process and real-life tropical operation of the laboratory.

  3. 核电厂远程停堆站事故准则的标准研究%Study on the Standard for Accident Criteria of Remote Shutdown Station of Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程波; 梅世柏; 周毅超; 张建波; 邹杰

    2015-01-01

    In the event that the safety functions determined by safety analysis cannot be conducted in main control room of nuclear power plant, the operators have to withdraw to the remote shutdown station for limited controlling and monitoring of the plant. Aimed at such situation, the accident situation of the nuclear power plant must to be considered. Related standards and regulations at home and abroad are analyzed and researched comprehensively, and the design criteria of the accidents to be handled in remote shutdown station are determined. The suggestions and comments for revising the standards and regulations of our country are proposed. The researching achievements provide guidance for designing remote shutdown station of subsequent nuclear power plants.%当核电厂主控制室失去完成由安全分析所确定的安全功能时,运行人员撤离到远程停堆站对核电厂进行有限控制和监测.针对主控制室不可用、需要转移到远程停堆站时需要考虑的核电厂事故情况,对国内外相关法规标准进行了全面分析研究,确定了核电厂远程停堆站的事故设计原则,并提出了国内相关标准的升版建议和意见. 研究成果为后续核电厂远程停堆站设计提供了指导.

  4. Procedure of Active Residual Heat Removal after Emergency Shutdown of High-Temperature-Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After emergency shutdown of high-temperature-gas-cooled reactor, the residual heat of the reactor core should be removed. As the natural circulation process spends too long period of time to be utilized, an active residual heat removal procedure is needed, which makes use of steam generator and start-up loop. During this procedure, the structure of steam generator may suffer cold/heat shock because of the sudden load of coolant or hot helium at the first few minutes. Transient analysis was carried out based on a one-dimensional mathematical model for steam generator and steam pipe of start-up loop to achieve safety and reliability. The results show that steam generator should be discharged and precooled; otherwise, boiling will arise and introduce a cold shock to the boiling tubes and tube sheet when coolant began to circulate prior to the helium. Additionally, in avoiding heat shock caused by the sudden load of helium, the helium circulation should be restricted to start with an extreme low flow rate; meanwhile, the coolant of steam generator (water should have flow rate as large as possible. Finally, a four-step procedure with precooling process of steam generator was recommended; sensitive study for the main parameters was conducted.

  5. Time Delay for the Initiation of an Emergency Shutdown at the Peruvian Nuclear Reactor RP-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon, A.; Ovalle, E.; Canaza, D.; Salazar, A.; Zapata, A.; Felix, J.; Arrieta, R.; Vela, M. [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima (Peru)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we show the measurement of the time delay for the initiation of an emergency shutdown state at the RP-10 Reactor. This time delay is the one corresponding to the delay between the detection of a signal of any fixed limit and the start of a protective action to get the reactor in a safety state. The experimental method used is based on monitoring two signals in an oscilloscope, one signal is the elected initiate event and the other is the de-energizing of electromagnets of the security bars. The time delay for each safety and control rods, was measured for seven energizing current values in a range of 36 - 52 mA. The results showed that the minimum value is (84 {+-} 1.26) ms and the maximum is (108 {+-} 1.60) ms. In all cases it is noted that, the delay time is less than the limit values prefixed down in the reactor safety report. (authors)

  6. On the Effective Operation of the Quality Assurance System in the Construction%论质量保证体系在施工中有效运行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艺

    2014-01-01

    In the current organizational activities in construction, quality assurance system is indispensable to ensure the quality of organizational means. From ideas to ensure the quality assurance system, the organization assurance, technical assurance, process control, and economic security in five areas, shallow to discuss the effective operation of the quality assurance system implementation.%在当前的施工组织活动中,质量保证体系是保证质量不可或缺的组织手段。从质量保证体系的思想保证、组织保证、技术保证、过程控制和经济保证五方面,浅要论述质量保证体系有效运行的实施。

  7. Creation of Polyurethane Injection Materials, Their Pilot-industrial Production, Development and Industrial Introduction of the Technology of Strengthening and Restoring the Operability of Damaged Constructions and Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marukha, V.І.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane and foam polyurethane fluid injection materials not conceding foreign analogues and technology technology of restoration and strengthening the operability of concrete and reinforced concrete structures and buildings damaged by cracks were developed. Normative and technical documentation on the injection materials and technological processes was created. The diagnosticrestoring complex for implementing the above technologies was designed, installed and utilized at the construction sites. The equipment is designed and manufactured; the technology of the research and industrial production of «A» and «B» components of injecting polyurethane materials is designed and developed. The pilot-scale batch is manufactured. Technological processes of preparation and application of the «A» and «B» componentsof the injecting materials in industrial conditions are worked out and implemented.

  8. The Dual Half-Edge—A Topological Primal/Dual Data Structure and Construction Operators for Modelling and Manipulating Cell Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Boguslawski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for building models that permit interior navigation, e.g., for escape route analysis. This paper presents a non-manifold Computer-Aided Design (CAD data structure, the dual half-edge based on the Poincaré duality that expresses both the geometric representations of individual rooms and their topological relationships. Volumes and faces are expressed as vertices and edges respectively in the dual space, permitting a model just based on the storage of primal and dual vertices and edges. Attributes may be attached to all of these entities permitting, for example, shortest path queries between specified rooms, or to the exterior. Storage costs are shown to be comparable to other non-manifold models, and construction with local Euler-type operators is demonstrated with two large university buildings. This is intended to enhance current developments in 3D Geographic Information Systems for interior and exterior city modelling.

  9. Safety doctrine synthesis for nuclear submarines construction and operation; Sintese de doutrina de seguranca para projeto e operacao de submarinos nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos; Veiga, Jorge Pinheiro da Costa [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: leosg@uol.com.br; Brinati, Hernani Luiz [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Naval

    2000-07-01

    The paper consists in an abstract of the thesis with the same title. This thesis intended to organize and to systematize a Global Safety Doctrine applicable to future national Nuclear Attack Submarines (SSN) considering both nuclear and naval aspects. This doctrine has the form of a set of basic principles, general criteria, specific requirements, design verification process procedures for construction and operation inspection, aiming the assurance of a high level of safety pattern to these warships. Consequently the doctrine would form a consistent and coherent basis for Nuclear Safety Authority (NSA) evaluate the social acceptability of SSN life cycle risks, considering the proposed Safety Objectives, in order to contribute to its competent decisions on submarine licensing. (author)

  10. Issues related to the construction and operation of a geological disposal facility for nuclear fuel waste in crystalline rock - the Canadian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, C.J.; Baumgartner, P.; Ohta, M.M.; Simmons, G.R.; Whitaker, S.H

    1997-12-01

    The siting, design, construction, operation, decommissioning, and closure of a geological facility for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste is a complex undertaking that will span many decades. Both technical and social issues must be taken into account simultaneously and many factors must be considered. Based on studies carried out in Canada and elsewhere, it appears that these factors can be accommodated and that geological disposal is both technically and socially feasible. But throughout the different stages of implementing disposal, technical and social issues will continue to arise and these will have to be dealt with successfully if progress is to continue. This paper discusses these issues and a proposed approach for dealing with them. (author)

  11. Trending Fibrinolytic Dysregulation: Fibrinolysis Shutdown in the Days After Injury Is Associated With Poor Outcome in Severely Injured Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, Christine M; Neal, Matthew D; McKenna, Christine J; Gaines, Barbara A

    2017-09-01

    To trend fibrinolysis after injury and determine the influence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and massive transfusion on fibrinolysis status. Admission fibrinolytic derangement is common in injured children and adults, and is associated with poor outcome. No studies examine fibrinolysis days after injury. Prospective study of severely injured children at a level 1 pediatric trauma center. Rapid thromboelastography was obtained on admission and daily for up to 7 days. Standard definitions of hyperfibrinolysis (HF; LY30 ≥3), fibrinolysis shutdown (SD; LY30 ≤0.8), and normal (LY30 = 0.9-2.9) were applied. Antifibrinolytic use was documented. Outcomes were death, disability, and thromboembolic complications. Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests were performed. Exploratory subgroups included massively transfused and severe TBI patients. In all, 83 patients were analyzed with median (interquartile ranges) age 8 (4-12) and Injury Severity Score 22 (13-34), 73.5% blunt mechanism, 47% severe TBI, 20.5% massively transfused. Outcomes were 14.5% mortality, 43.7% disability, and 9.8% deep vein thrombosis. Remaining in or trending to SD was associated with death (P = 0.007), disability (P = 0.012), and deep vein thrombosis (P = 0.048). Median LY30 was lower on post-trauma day (PTD)1 to PTD4 in patients with poor compared with good outcome; median LY30 was lower on PTD1 to PTD3 in TBI patients compared with non-TBI patients. HF without associated shutdown was not related to poor outcome, but extreme HF (LY30 >30%, n = 3) was lethal. Also, 50% of massively transfused patients in hemorrhagic shock demonstrated SD physiology on admission. All with HF (fc31.2%) corrected after hemostatic resuscitation without tranexamic acid. Fibrinolysis shutdown is common postinjury and predicts poor outcomes. Severe TBI is associated with sustained shutdown. Empiric antifibrinolytics for children should be questioned; thromboelastography-directed selective use should be considered for

  12. Study on the performance of the Particle Identification Detectors at LHCb after the LHC First Long Shutdown (LS1)

    CERN Document Server

    Fontana, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    During the First Long Shutdown (LS1), the LHCb experiment has introduced major modification in the data-processing procedure and modified part of the detector to deal with the increased energy and the increased heavy-hadron production cross-section. In this contribution we review the performance of the particle identification detectors at LHCb, Rich, Calorimeters, and Muon system, after the LS1

  13. Analysis on Construction and Operation of Hanzhong Veterinary Laboratories%陕西省汉中市兽医实验室建设和运行分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安鹏; 张智鹏; 唐显中

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010,a series of standardization constructions for veterinary laboratories at municipal and county-level in Hanzhong city were conducted in accordance with relevant requirements,great improvement has been made in hardware facilities,system development and personnel quality,eleven veterinary laboratories have passed through the province grade acceptance inspection and achieved the“veterinary laboratory examination certificate”. In order to understand comprehensively the veterinary laboratory construction,management and operation,investigation of vet-erinary laboratories in Hanzhong city were carried out. Relevant basic information and working status were recorded, and the existing problems were exposed,corresponding improvement measures were proposed,hoping to provide guidance to the standardization management and scientific operation of veterinary laboratories in the city.%从2010年开始,陕西省汉中市、县两级兽医实验室开展标准化建设,在硬件、体系和人员素质等方面均有了很大提高,其中有11个兽医实验室通过了省级验收,获得了《兽医实验室考核合格证》。为全面了解汉中市兽医实验室建设、管理以及运行情况,笔者对汉中市、县两级兽医实验室进行了调研,掌握了全市兽医实验室的基本情况、工作现状和存在的问题,并有针对性的提出了改进建议,希望能对地方兽医实验室规范化管理、科学化运行提供指导。

  14. Biological assessment of the effects of construction and operation of a depleted uranium hexafluoride conversion facility at the Paducah, Kentucky, site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2005-09-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) Management Program evaluated alternatives for managing its inventory of DUF{sub 6} and issued the ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'' (DUF{sub 6} PEIS) in April 1999 (DOE 1999). The DUF{sub 6} inventory is stored in cylinders at three DOE sites: Paducah, Kentucky; Portsmouth, Ohio; and East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. In the Record of Decision for the DUF{sub 6} PEIS, DOE stated its decision to promptly convert the DUF6 inventory to a more stable chemical form. Subsequently, the U.S. Congress passed, and the President signed, the ''2002 Supplemental Appropriations Act for Further Recovery from and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States'' (Public Law No. 107-206). This law stipulated in part that, within 30 days of enactment, DOE must award a contract for the design, construction, and operation of a DUF{sub 6} conversion plant at the Department's Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites, and for the shipment of DUF{sub 6} cylinders stored at ETTP to the Portsmouth site for conversion. This biological assessment (BA) has been prepared by DOE, pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Endangered Species Act of 1974, to evaluate potential impacts to federally listed species from the construction and operation of a conversion facility at the DOE Paducah site.

  15. Shutdown dose rates at ITER equatorial ports considering radiation cross-talk from torus cryopump lower port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Pampin, Raul [F4E, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Levesy, Bruno [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Moro, Fabio [ENEA, Via Enrico Fermi 45, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Suarez, Alejandro [ITER Organization, 13115 Route de Vinon sur Verdon, St Paul Lez Durance (France); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    Shutdown dose rates for planned maintenance purposes is an active research field in ITER. In this work the radiation (neutron and gamma) cross-talk between ports in the most conservative case foreseen in ITER is investigated: the presence of a torus cryopump lower port, mostly empty for pumping efficiency reasons. There will be six of those ports: #4, #6, #10, #12, #16 and #18. The equatorial ports placed above them will receive a significant amount of additional radiation affecting the shutdown dose rates during in situ maintenance activities inside the cryostat, and particularly in the port interspace area. In this study a general situation to all the equatorial ports placed above torus cryopump lower ports is considered: a generic diagnostics equatorial port placed above the torus cryopump lower port (LP#4). In terms of shutdown dose rates at equatorial port interspace after 10{sup 6} s of cooling time, 405 μSv/h has been obtained, of which 160 μSv/h (40%) are exclusively due to radiation cross-talk from a torus cryopump lower port. Equatorial port activation due to only “local neutrons” contributes 166 μSv/h at port interspace, showing that radiation cross-talk from such a lower port is a phenomenon comparable in magnitude to the neutron leakage though the equatorial port plug.

  16. Study on Optimization of Shutdown and Critical Model for WER-1O00%WER-1000型反应堆停堆及临界模式优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢宗健; 刘同先; 王金雨; 吴磊; 于颖锐

    2013-01-01

    On the premise of safety,economy is one of the important objectives of nuclear power plants.For VVER-1000,there are several cases of operation modes when the plant is offthe grid,such as the critical operation after refueling,the hot shutdown and critical operation,and the critical operation after test.For the purpose to reduce the time of the operations,the consumption of materials,and the amount of waste water produced,the optimization researches are carried out on these cases.The qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out,on the configurations of the control rod and boric acid,which are the important factors to influence the shutdown and critical operations.The general steps and the basic principles of the optimizations are described.Three cases are optimized.%在确保安全的前提下,经济性是核电厂的重要目标之一.VVER-1000型反应堆某些非并网运行的工况,如换料后重新临界、热停堆及临界、试验后返临界等操作,在操作所占用的时间、原材料的消耗量以及产生的废水量等方面可作优化.笔者对影响停堆及临界操作的重要因素,即控制棒和硼酸浓度的配置进行定性和定量的分析,得出优化的一般步骤和基本原则,并对3个案例实施了优化.

  17. The construction of the Insertable B-Layer and the $b$-tagging performance at high-\\pt of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00362129; La Rosa, Alessandro; Ferrere, Didier

    Although the recent discovery of the Higgs boson by the LHC experiments represented a major success of the Standard Model theory, several questions need still to be answered. The search of new physics particles beyond the Standard Model will require the LHC to collect a large amount of data. To achieve this goal the LHC collider went through a long shutdown, increasing both the energy and the luminosity. In particular the increase of luminosity will require the ATLAS Inner Detector to operate in a more track-dense environment, which mainly affects the ATLAS Pixel Detector. In order to cope with the high pile-up expected with the increase of luminosity the Pixel detector was then upgraded during the long shutdown with the insertion of a fourth innermost layer, the Insertable B-Layer (IBL). This thesis focuses on the construction of the IBL. This includes the loading of silicon pixel detector modules on the support staves, the quality assurance of these instrumented staves and the commissioning after the integr...

  18. LHC operation at higher energy and luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, G

    2013-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva) was commissioned and operated in the years 2009-2013 up to a beam energy of 4 TeV. A peak luminosity of 0.77 · 1034 cm−2s−1 was reached and an integrated luminosity of around 29 fb−1 was delivered to both ATLAS and CMS. This performance allowed the discovery of a scalar boson. The LHC is presently in a shutdown phase dedicated to consolidation and maintenance that will allow the restart of beam operation in early 2015 at an increased beam energy of 6.5 to 7TeV. Maximum acceptable pileup, effectiveness of electron-cloud scrubbing, and fast loss events are some of the issues that will shape the choice of operational parameters, cycle setup, and the commissioning strategy. The baseline choices and options for the restart after the shutdown are presented. In addition the roadmap for future performance upgrades is sketched.

  19. Quantitative Study of Operational Risk During the Construction Period of Chemical Plant%化工厂建设期作业风险定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯全; 刘华月

    2012-01-01

    为了有效地管理和控制化工厂建设期风险,分析了化工厂建设期的风险特征,针对施工作业在时间、空间的不断变化、相互叠加现象,以作业条件危险评价法模型为基础,建立了动态作业风险模型和叠加作业风险模型,运用该模型计算了示例化工厂建设期典型时段各单元前后期静态和动态风险值,确定了风险叠加的区域并计算了该时段各区域叠加风险值,绘制了叠加风险分布图,据此确定了该时段风险管理和控制重点部位,提出了重点风险部位的控制措施.依据该模型设计的基于GIS的风险管理系统,提高了预防各类事故的能力和施工安全管理的水平.%In order to manage and control the risk during the construction period in the chemical plant, the risk characteristics have been analyzed, in view of mutual accumulation of construction operational risk in time and space, establishing a dynamic and accumulative operational risk model based on the LEC model. The model is applied to calculate the static and dynamic risk score of each unit in a chemical plant during the typical construction period, and determine the risk accumulation area and score simultaneously. The accumulative risk distribution map was drawn, which can be an effective tool in view of the risk control and management of main parts. According to the model the risk management system was design on GIS, so that the ability of preventing the accidents and safety management ware get further improved.

  20. Emergency gas operation strategy and system establishment for large-scale disaster; Strategie d'operation en urgence et construction de systemes pour parer aux desastres de grande importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toshihira, Hara [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Yoshihisa, Shimizu [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Takashi, Imagawa [Toho Gas Co., Ltd (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Japan's gas companies have wide-ranging experience of earthquakes and other disasters and have for long put the lessons learned from these disasters to good use through regular reviews of their emergency gas operation strategies. However, the Great Hanshin Earthquake disaster of January 1995 made them acutely aware of the need for a more radical review of this strategy. Japan's big gas companies are currently devoting maximum resources to reviewing their emergency strategies and constructing the sorts of systems needed to deal with major disasters. In the first half of the present paper, we discuss the experience of Toho Gas, which has just finished work on a comprehensive group of systems, and explain the 'thinking behind the systems'. In the second half of the paper, we discuss some of the ways in which Tokyo Gas has been endeavoring to further refine and enhance its systems and introduce the reader to the latest emergency strategy support systems in the shape of the 'sub-center concept, training system construction, and damage estimation systems'. These should also make useful references for gas companies from other countries. (authors)