WorldWideScience

Sample records for construction operation shutdown

  1. Design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for solid radioactive wastes in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report is a part of the IAEA publications under its Programme on Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes and is addressed to administrative and technical authorities and specialists who consider the shallow-ground disposal of low- and intermediate-level solid radioactive wastes of short half-lives. The report emphasizes the technological aspects, however it briefly discusses the safety philosophy and regulatory considerations too. The design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of the repositories in shallow ground are considered in some detail, paying special attention to their interrelated aspects. In particular, a review is given of the following aspects: main design and construction considerations in relation to the natural features of the site; design and construction aspects during the repository development process; activities related to operational and post-operational stages of the repository; major steps in repository operation and essential activities in shutdown and operational and post-operational surveillance

  2. Site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report provides an overview and technical guidelines for considerations and for activities to be undertaken for safety assessment, site investigations, design, construction, operation, shutdown and surveillance of repositories for the disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in rock cavities. A generalized sequence of investigations is introduced which proceeds through region and site selection to the stage where the site is confirmed by detailed geoscientific investigations as being suitable for a waste repository. The different procedures and somewhat specific investigative needs with respect to existing mines are dealt with separately. General design, as well as specific requirements with respect to the different stages of design and construction, are dealt with. A review of activities related to the operational and post-operational stages of repositories in rock cavities is presented. The report describes in general terms the procedures related to different stages of disposal operation; also the conditions for shutdown together with essential shutdown and sealing activities and the related safety assessment requirements. Guidance is also given on the surveillance programme which will allow for inspection, testing, maintenance and security of a disposal facility during the operational phase, as well as for the post-operational stage for periods determined as necessary by the national authorities

  3. Maintenance, repair and operation (MRO) of shutdown facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, S.

    2006-01-01

    What level of maintenance does one apply to a shutdown facility? Well it depends on who you ask. Operations staff sees facilities that have completed their useful life cycle as a cost drain while Decommissioning staff sees this as the start of a new life cycle. Based on the decommissioning plan for the particular facility the building could complete another full life cycle while under decommissioning whether it is in storage with surveillance mode or under active decommissioning. This paper will explore how you maintain a facility and systems for many years after its useful life until final decommissioning is completed. When a building is declared redundant, who looks after it until the final decommissioning end state is achieved? At the AECL, Chalk River Labs site the safe shutdown and turnover process is one key element that initiates the decommissioning process. The real trick is orchestrating maintenance, repair and operation plans for a facility that has been poorly invested in during its last years of useful life cycle. To add to that usually shutdowns are prolonged for many years beyond the expected turnover period. During this presentation I will cover what AECL is doing to ensure that the facilities are maintained in a proper state until final decommissioning can be completed. All facilities or systems travel through the same life cycle, design, construction, commissioning, operation, shutdown and demolition. As we all know, nuclear facilities add one more interesting twist to this life cycle called Decommissioning that lands between shutdown and demolition. As a facility nears the shutdown phase, operations staff loose interest in the facility and stop investing in upgrades, repairs and maintenance but continue to invest and focus on maximizing operations. Facility maintenance standards produced by the International Facility Maintenance Association (IFMA) based on a survey done every year state that 2.2% of the total operating costs for the site should be

  4. Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility Interim Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Interim Operational Safety Requirements for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) Facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management of administrative controls to ensure safe operation of the facility

  5. Plant operational states analysis in low power and shutdown PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiandong; Qiu Yongping; Zhang Qinfang; An Hongzhen; Li Maolin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of Plant Operational States (POS) analysis is to disperse the continuous and dynamic process of low power and shutdown operation, which is the basis of developing event tree models for accident sequence analysis. According to the design of a 300 MW Nuclear Power Plant Project, operating experience and procedures of the reference plant, a detailed POS analysis is carried out based on relative criteria. Then, several kinds of POS are obtained, and the duration of each POS is calculated according to the operation records of the reference plant. The POS analysis is an important element in low power and shutdown PSA. The methodology and contents provide reference for POS analysis. (authors)

  6. Fuel supply shutdown facility interim operational safety requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besser, R.L.; Brehm, J.R.; Benecke, M.W.; Remaize, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    These Interim Operational Safety Requirements (IOSR) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) facility define acceptable conditions, safe boundaries, bases thereof, and management or administrative controls to ensure safe operation. The IOSRs apply to the fuel material storage buildings in various modes (operation, storage, surveillance)

  7. The Alternative Design Features for Safety Enhancement in Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae Cheol; Kim, Myung Ki; Chung, Bag Soon; Seo, Mi Ro

    2009-01-01

    PSA can be used to confirm that the new plant design is complied with the applicable safety goals, and to select among the alternate design options. A shutdown PSA provides insight for outage planning schedule, outage management practices, and design modifications. Considering the results of both LPSD PSA studies and operating experiences for low power and shutdown, the improvements can be proposed to reduce the high risk contribution. The improvements/enhancements during shutdown operation may be divided into categories such as hardware, administrative management, and operational procedure. This paper presents on an example how the risk related to an accidental situation can be reduced, focusing the hardware design changes for the newly designed NPPs

  8. Changing nuclear plant operating limits during startup and shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, E.C.; Carlson, R.W.; Ray, N.K.; Roarty, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    During startup and shutdown operation of pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants, a low pressure decay heat removal system is used to maintain core cooling. During these phases of operation, there are numerous operating practices and design limits to meet special and sometimes conflicting requirements unique to these operations. This paper evaluates the impact and interdependencies of recent issues on plant operation and design

  9. Operating and maintenance experience of Dhruva secondary shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, U.L.; Bharathan, R.

    1997-01-01

    Nine numbers of cadmium shut-off rods are used as primary fast acting shutdown devices while moderator dumping is used as secondary shutdown system. The secondary shutdown system in Dhruva reactor comprises of 3 dump valves and 3 control valves. Under normal operations, the control valves are used to control the moderator level and thereby the reactor power. Under Trip conditions the dump valves as well as the control valves open fully, dumping the moderator to the dump tank, thereby acting as secondary shutdown devices. While the failure of any of these valves to close fully is an incident, the failure of any of these valves to open on a demand is a safety related unusual occurrence and needs to be viewed seriously. During the last 11 years of operation of these valves, there was one incidence of a valve not closing fully and there were two instances of a valve not opening fully on demand. The possible causes, the corrective action taken to rehabilitate these valves and the elaborate system preparations undertaken to enable maintenance jobs are described. (author)

  10. Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Risk Results for Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae Cheol; Kim, Myung Ki; Chung, Bag Soon; Seo, Mi Ro; Hong, Sung Yull

    2006-01-01

    The Defense-In-Depth philosophy is a fundamental concept of nuclear safety. The objective of Defense-In- Depth (DID) evaluation is to assess the level of Defense- In-Depth maintained during the various plant maintenance activities. Especially for shutdown and outage operations, the Defense-In-Depth might be challenged due to the reduction in redundancy and diversity resulting from the maintenance. The qualitative defense-in-depth evaluation using deterministic trees such as SFAT (Safety Function Assessment Tree), can provide 'Safety' related information on the levels of defense-in-depth according to the plant configuration including the levels of redundancy and diversity. For the more reasonable color decision of SFAT, it is necessary to identify the risk impact of degradation of redundancy and diversity of mitigation systems. The probabilistic safety analysis for the shutdown status can provide risk information related on the degradation of redundancy and diversity level for the safety functions during outage. Insights from the both methods for the plant status can be the same or different. The results of DID approach and PSA for the shutdown state are compared in this paper

  11. High level waste facilities - Continuing operation or orderly shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, L.A.

    1998-04-01

    Two options for Environmental Impact Statement No action alternatives describe operation of the radioactive liquid waste facilities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The first alternative describes continued operation of all facilities as planned and budgeted through 2020. Institutional control for 100 years would follow shutdown of operational facilities. Alternatively, the facilities would be shut down in an orderly fashion without completing planned activities. The facilities and associated operations are described. Remaining sodium bearing liquid waste will be converted to solid calcine in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) or will be left in the waste tanks. The calcine solids will be stored in the existing Calcine Solids Storage Facilities (CSSF). Regulatory and cost impacts are discussed

  12. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Station Blackout in Shutdown Operating Mode in Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang-Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the loss of ultimate heat sink (LOUHS) in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal procedure. Also we performed the analysis of limiting scenarios that operator actions are not taken in shutdown LOUHS. Therefore, we verified the plant behavior and decided operator action to taken in time in order to protect the fuel of core with safety. From the analysis results of LOUHS, the fuel of core maintained without core uncovery for 73 minutes respectively for opened RCS states after the SBO occurred. Therefore, operator action for the emergency are required to take in 73 minutes for opened RCS state. Strategy is to cooldown by using spent fuel pool cooling system. This method required to change the plant design in some plant. In RCS boundary closed state, first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is first abnormal operating strategy in shutdown LOUHS is to remove the residual heat of core by steam dump flow and auxiliary feedwater of SG.

  13. Operating experiences of reactor shutdown system at MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotteeswaran, T.J.; Subramani, V.A.; Hariharan, K.

    1997-01-01

    The reactors in Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam are Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) similar to RAPS, Kota. The moderator heavy water is pumped into the calandria from dump tank to make the reactor critical. Later with the calandria level held constant at 92% FT, the further power changes are being done with the movement of adjuster rods. The moderator is held in calandria by means of helium gas pressure differential between top of calandria and dump tank located below. The shutdown of the reactor is effected by dumping the moderator water to dump tank by fast equalizing of helium gas pressure. In the revised mode of operation of moderator circuit after the moderator inlet manifold failure, the dump timing was observed to be more compared to the normal value. This was investigated and observed to be due to accumulation of D 2 O in the gas space above dump valves, which was affecting the helium equalizing flow. Also some of Indicating Alarm Meters (IAM) in protective system initiating the trip signals have failed in the unsafe mode. They have been modified to avoid the recurrence of the failures. (author)

  14. 40 CFR 60.1695 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1695 Section 60.1695 Protection of... Requirements § 60.1695 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15150 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 62.15150 Section 62.15150 Protection of... § 62.15150 What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and... municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or malfunction. (b) Each startup, shutdown, or...

  16. Basis for Interim Operation for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    This document establishes the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) for the Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility (FSS) as managed by the 300 Area Deactivation Project (300 ADP) organization in accordance with the requirements of the Project Hanford Management Contract procedure (PHMC) HNF-PRO-700, ''Safety Analysis and Technical Safety Requirements''. A hazard classification (Benecke 2003a) has been prepared for the facility in accordance with DOE-STD-1027-92 resulting in the assignment of Hazard Category 3 for FSS Facility buildings that store N Reactor fuel materials (303-B, 3712, and 3716). All others are designated Industrial buildings. It is concluded that the risks associated with the current and planned operational mode of the FSS Facility (uranium storage, uranium repackaging and shipment, cleanup, and transition activities, etc.) are acceptable. The potential radiological dose and toxicological consequences for a range of credible uranium storage building have been analyzed using Hanford accepted methods. Risk Class designations are summarized for representative events in Table 1.6-1. Mitigation was not considered for any event except the random fire event that exceeds predicted consequences based on existing source and combustible loading because of an inadvertent increase in combustible loading. For that event, a housekeeping program to manage transient combustibles is credited to reduce the probability. An additional administrative control is established to protect assumptions regarding source term by limiting inventories of fuel and combustible materials. Another is established to maintain the criticality safety program. Additional defense-in-depth controls are established to perform fire protection system testing, inspection, and maintenance to ensure predicted availability of those systems, and to maintain the radiological control program. It is also concluded that because an accidental nuclear criticality is not credible based on the low uranium enrichment

  17. Accident sequence analysis for a BWR [Boiling Water Reactor] during low power and shutdown operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Hake, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Most previous Probabilistic Risk Assessments have excluded consideration of accidents initiated in low power and shutdown modes of operation. A study of the risk associated with operation in low power and shutdown is being performed at Sandia National Laboratories for a US Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). This paper describes the proposed methodology for the analysis of the risk associated with the operation of a BWR during low power and shutdown modes and presents preliminary information resulting from the application of the methodology. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Plant Operation Station for HTR-PM Low Power and Shutdown operation Probabilistic safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tao; Tong Jiejuan

    2014-01-01

    Full range Probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is one of key conditions for nuclear power plant (NPP) licensing according to the requirement of nuclear safety regulatory authority. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Pebble-bed Module (HTR-PM) has developed construction design and prepared for the charging license application. So after the normal power operation PSA submitted for review, the Low power and Shutdown operation Probabilistic safety analysis (LSPSA) also begin. The results of LSPSA will together with prior normal power PSA results to demonstrate the safety level of HTR-PM NPP Plant Operation Station (POS) is one of important terms in LSPSA. The definition of POS lays the foundation for LSPSA modeling. POS provides initial and boundary conditions for the following event tree and fault tree model development. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-the-art of POS definition for HTR-PM LSPSA. As for the first attempt to the high temperature gas cooled reactor module plant, the methodology and procedure of POS definition refers to the LWR LSPSA guidance, and adds to plant initial status analysis due to the HTR-PM characteristics. A specific set of POS grouping vectors is investigate and suggested for HTR-PM NPP, which reflects the characteristics of plant modularization and on-line refueling. As a result, seven POSs are given according to the grouping vectors at the end of the paper. They will be used to the LSPSA modelling and adjusted if necessary. The papers ’work may provide reference to the analogous NPP LSPSA. (author)

  19. Shutdown and low-power operation at commercial nuclear power plants in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The report contains the results of the NRC Staff's evaluation of shutdown and low-power operations at US commercial nuclear power plants. The report describes studies conducted by the staff in the following areas: Operating experience related to shutdown and low-power operations, probabilistic risk assessment of shutdown and low-power conditions and utility programs for planning and conducting activities during periods the plant is shut down. The report also documents evaluations of a number of technical issues regarding shutdown and low-power operations performed by the staff, including the principal findings and conclusions. Potential new regulatory requirements are discussed, as well as potential changes in NRC programs. A draft report was issued for comment in February 1992. This report is the final version and includes the responses to the comments along with the staff regulatory analysis of potential new requirements

  20. PSA-operations synergism for the advanced test reactor shutdown operations PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for shutdown operations, cask handling, and canal draining is a successful example of the importance of good PSA-operations synergism for achieving a realistic and accepted assessment of the risks and for achieving desired risk reduction and safety improvement in a best and cost-effective manner. The implementation of the agreed-upon upgrades and improvements resulted in the reductions of the estimated mean frequency for core or canal irradiated fuel uncovery events, a total reduction in risk by a factor of nearly 1000 to a very low and acceptable risk level for potentially severe events

  1. 40 CFR 60.1205 - What happens to the operating requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? 60.1205 Section 60.1205 Protection of... requirements during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The operating requirements of this subpart apply at all times except during periods of municipal waste combustion unit startup, shutdown, or...

  2. Level 1 shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halada, P.; Cillik, I.; Stojka, T.; Kuzma, M.; Prochaska, J.; Vrtik, L.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results that have been applied within the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia. The SPSA project was realized by VUJE Trnava Inc., Slovakia in 2001-2002 years. The Level 1 SPSA study for Mochovce NPP Unit 1 covers internal events as well as internal (fires, floods and heavy load drop) and external (aircraft crash, extreme meteorological conditions, seismic event and influence of surrounding industry) hazards. Mochovce NPP consists of two operating units equipped with VVER 440/V213 reactors safety upgraded before construction finishing and operation start. 87 safety measures based on VVER 440 operational experience and international mission insights were implemented to enhance its operational and nuclear safety. The SPSA relates to full power PSA (FPSA) as a continuation of the effort to create a harmonized level 1 PSA model for all operational modes of the plant with the goal to use it for further purposes as follows: Real Time Risk Monitor, Maintenance Optimization, Technical Specifications Optimization, Living PSA. (author)

  3. Preparing for Decommissioning During Operation and After Final Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostova, Milena; Papaz, Dan; Pottelberg, Paul; Clement, Gilles; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Gouhier, Eric; Laurent, Gerard; Rondeau, Jean-Marie; Siefridt, Camille; Brendebach, Boris; Knaack, Michael; Ahn, Sangmyeon; Correa Sainz, Cristina; Carroll, Simon; Larsson, Arne; Norberg, Thomas; Stridsman, Henrik; Minges, Juergen; Boniface, Simon; Dunlop, Alister; Jassal, Raj; Moakes, Joanna; Abu-Eid, Rateb; Watson, Bruce; Devgun, Jas; McGrath, Richard; Glorennec, Christian; ); Weber, Inge; )

    2018-01-01

    The transition from an operating nuclear facility to the decommissioning phase is critical in the life cycle of every facility. A number of organisational and technical modifications are needed in order for the facility to meet new objectives and requirements, and a certain number of activities must be initiated to support the transition and preparation for the dismantling of the facility. Thorough preparation and planning is key for the success of global decommissioning and dismantling projects, both to minimise delays and undue costs and to ensure a safe and efficient decommissioning process. The aim of this report is to inform regulatory bodies, policy makers and planners about the relevant aspects and activities that should begin during the last years of operation and following the end of operation. Compiling lessons learnt from experiences and good practices in NEA member countries, the report supports the further optimisation of transition strategies, activities and measures that will ensure adequate preparation for decommissioning and dismantling

  4. Study on the identification of main drivers affecting the performance of human operators during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Jaewhan; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of human operator during LPSD operation is significantly important. • Human performance is affected by drivers such as procedure, training, and etc. • Main drivers during LPSD operation at domestic NPPs were suggested. • It is expected that it will be used for estimating human reliability during LPSD operation. - Abstract: In the past, many researchers believed that a reactor during low power and shutdown operation was sufficiently safe. This belief has been changed by the number of accidents during such types of operation, which is significantly high. Also, it was pointed out that one of the main differences between low power and shutdown operation and full power operation is the significance of human action because there are huge amounts of human actions due to extensive maintenance and testing while automatic control and safety functions may be disabled and procedures are insufficient or incomplete. This paper suggests the main drivers in performing human reliability analysis. For this study, we reviewed eight reports relating to human performance during low power and shutdown operation and applied a root cause analysis method for 53 human or human-related events at domestic nuclear power plants to derive the main drivers that affect the occurrence of those events. As a result, several main drivers were derived, such as procedures, training, experience of personnel, and workload/stress. It is expected that these main drivers will be used to perform human reliability analysis for low power and shutdown operation.

  5. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  6. Construction Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes construction minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. Optimization of startup and shutdown operation of simulated moving bed chromatographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suzhou; Kawajiri, Yoshiaki; Raisch, Jörg; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2011-06-24

    This paper presents new multistage optimal startup and shutdown strategies for simulated moving bed (SMB) chromatographic processes. The proposed concept allows to adjust transient operating conditions stage-wise, and provides capability to improve transient performance and to fulfill product quality specifications simultaneously. A specially tailored decomposition algorithm is developed to ensure computational tractability of the resulting dynamic optimization problems. By examining the transient operation of a literature separation example characterized by nonlinear competitive isotherm, the feasibility of the solution approach is demonstrated, and the performance of the conventional and multistage optimal transient regimes is evaluated systematically. The quantitative results clearly show that the optimal operating policies not only allow to significantly reduce both duration of the transient phase and desorbent consumption, but also enable on-spec production even during startup and shutdown periods. With the aid of the developed transient procedures, short-term separation campaigns with small batch sizes can be performed more flexibly and efficiently by SMB chromatography. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chu, T.L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented.

  9. Risk contribution from low power, shutdown, and other operational modes beyond full power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Brown, T.D.; Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (a pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (a boiling water reactor), were selected for study by Brookhaven National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories, respectively. The program objectives included assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power and comparing estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences, and other qualitative and quantitative results with full power accidents as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope included a Level 3 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for traditional internal events and a Level 1 PRA on fire, flooding, and seismically induced core damage sequences. A phased approach was used in Level 1. In Phase 1 the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to provide a better representation of the plant as it transitions from power to nonpower operation. This included a coarse screening analysis of all POSs to identify vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) potential frequencies of core damage accidents, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. In Phase 2, selected POSs from both Grand Gulf and Surry were chosen for detailed analysis. For Grand Gulf, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected. For Surry, three POSs representing the time the plant spends in midloop operation were chosen for analysis. These included POS 6 and POS 10 of a refueling outage and POS 6 of a drained maintenance outage. Level 1 and Level 2/3 results from both the Surry and Grand Gulf analyses are presented

  10. Guidance of reactor operators and TSC personnel with the severe accident management guidance under shutdown and low power conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haesendonck, M.F.; Prior, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    The Westinghouse Owners Group Severe Accident Management Guidance (WOG SAMG) was developed between 1991 and 1994. The primary goals for severe accident management that form the basis of the WOG SAMG are to terminate any radioactive releases to the environment; to prevent failure of any containment fission product boundary and to return the plant to a controlled stable condition. The WOG SAMG is primarily a TSC tool for mitigation of low probability core damage events. The philosophy is that control room operators should remain focused on the prevention of core damage, whereas the TSC personnel should concentrate on the mitigation of the severe accident. The symptom based package is built up as a structured process for choosing appropriate actions based on actual plant conditions. No detailed knowledge of severe accident phenomena is required. The scope of the WOG SAMG is limited to severe accidents resulting from initiating events occurring during full power operation. However, a number of studies such as the EdF EPS 1300 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), the shutdown Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for Surry, the BERA shutdown PRA for Beznau, the EPRI/ Westinghouse ORAM methodology etc. have shown that the frequency of core damage (a severe accident) during shutdown and low power operation can be of the same order of magnitude as for full power operation. The at-power SAMG is viewed as the resolution of the severe accident issue. Similarly, it is expected that as shutdown PRAs mature, the final resolution of the severe accident issue will lie in SAMG for low power and shutdown operation. Therefore in resolution of this issue, Westinghouse has developed the Shutdown Severe Accident Management Guidance (SSAMG) which gives guidance for both control room and TSC personnel to mitigate a severe accident under shutdown or low power conditions. In the last few years, many LWR plants have been implementing SAMG. In the US, all plants have developed SAMG, and many

  11. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan

    2016-01-01

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which

  12. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. In order to estimate the possibility of human error and identify its nature, human reliability analysis (HRA) methods have been implemented. For this, various HRA methods have been developed so far: techniques for human error rate prediction (THERP), cause based decision tree (CBDT), the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. Most HRA methods have been developed with a focus on full power operation of NPPs even though human performance may more largely affect the safety of the system during low power and shutdown (LPSD) operation than it would when the system is in full power operation. In this regard, it is necessary to conduct a research for developing HRA method to be used in LPSD operation. For the first step of the study, main drivers which affect the possibility of human error have been developed. Drivers

  13. Fuse and application of said fuse to the construction of an emergency shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taulier, H.H.L.; Brugeille, G.

    1978-01-01

    A fuse device for an automatic emergency shutdown system in fast reactors provides a coupling between a casing tube placed within a fuel can and a series of neutron-absorbing masses held together above the reactor core under normal operating conditions but released in free fall to the lower portion of the casing tube at the level of the reactor core as a result of melting of the fuse when operating characteristics such as temperature or neutron flux attain a level which exceeds a predetermined threshold

  14. Fuse and application of said fuse to the construction of an emergency shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taulier, H.H.L.; Brugeilles, G.

    1976-01-01

    A fuse device for an automatic emergency shutdown system in fast reactors provides a coupling between a casing tube placed within a fuel can and a series of neutron-absorbing masses held together above the reactor core under normal operating conditions. They are released in free fall to the lower portion of the casing tube at the level of the reactor core as a result of melting of the fuse when operating characteristics such as temperature or neutron flux attain a level which exceeds a predetermined threshold

  15. Control of radio-iodine at the German reprocessing plant WAK during operation and after shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, F.J.; Herrmann, B.; Kuhn, K.D. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (Germany)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    During 20 years of operation 207 metric tons of oxide fuel from nuclear power reactors with 19 kg of iodine-129 had been reprocessed in the WAK plant near Karlsruhe. In January 1991 the WAK Plant was shut down. During operation iodine releases of the plant as well as the iodine distribution over the liquid and gaseous process streams had been determined. Most of the iodine is evolved into the dissolver off-gas in volatile form. The remainder is dispersed over many aqueous, organic and especially gaseous process and waste streams. After shut down of the plant in January 1991, iodine measurements in the off-gas streams have been continued up to now. Whereas the iodine-129 concentration in the dissolver off-gas dropped during six months after shutdown by three orders of magnitude, the iodine concentrations in the vessel ventilation system of the PUREX process and the cell vent system decreased only by a factor of 10 during the same period. Iodine-129 releases of the liquid high active waste storage tanks did not decrease distinctly. The removal efficiencies of the silver impregnated iodine filters in the different off-gas streams of the WAK plant depend on the iodine concentration in the off-gas. The reason of the observed dependence of the DF on the iodine-129 concentration might be due to the presence of organic iodine compounds which are difficult to remove. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  16. ATLAS distributed computing operation shift teams experience during the discovery year and beginning of the long shutdown 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedov, Alexey; Girolamo, Alessandro Di; Negri, Guidone; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Schovancová, Jaroslava; Smirnov, Iouri; Vartapetian, Armen; Yu, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    ATLAS Distributed Computing Operation Shifts evolve to meet new requirements. New monitoring tools as well as operational changes lead to modifications in organization of shifts. In this paper we describe the structure of shifts, the roles of different shifts in ATLAS computing grid operation, the influence of a Higgs-like particle discovery on shift operation, the achievements in monitoring and automation that allowed extra focus on the experiment priority tasks, and the influence of the Long Shutdown 1 and operational changes related to the no beam period.

  17. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T.

    1995-04-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require {open_quotes}immediate{close_quotes} shutdown of the plant. In this paper, we present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion.

  18. Improving the action requirements of technical specifications: A risk-comparison of continued operation and plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1994-01-01

    When the systems needed to remove decay heat are inoperable or degraded, the risk of shutting down the plant may be comparable to, or even higher than, that of continuing power operation with the equipment inoperable while giving priority to repairs. This concern arises because the plant may not have sufficient capability for removing decay heat during the shutdown. However, Technical Specifications (TSs) often require ''immediate'' shutdown of the plant. In this paper, the authors present risk-based analyses of the various operational policy alternatives available in such situations, with an example application to the standby service water (SSW) system of a BWR. These analyses can be used to define risk-effective requirements for those standby safety systems under discussion

  19. Pilot Operation of Ex-core Neutron Sensors of Divers Shutdown System (DSS) Unit 2 Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakshtonis, Z.; Krivoshei, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Ignalina Safety Assessment, which was completed in December 1996, recommended the installation of a diverse shutdown system on the 2nd unit at Ignalina. During the PPR-2004 in the DSS project are created two independent shutdown systems by separating the absorber rods into two independent groups as follows: 1. One system (designated AZ) consists of the existing 24 BAZ rods and 49 AZ/BSM rods that together are used for reliable reactor shutdown (including Control and Protection System (CPS) circuit voiding accident). This system performs the emergency protection function. 2. The other system (designated BSM) comprises the remaining absorber rods and the 49 AZ/BSM rods. Thus 49 AZ/BSM rods are actuated from AZ initiating equipment as well as from BSM initiating equipment. The BSM system performs the normal reactor shutdown function and is able to ensure long-term maintenance of the reactor in the sub-critical state. Along with implementation of DSS was modernized existing Emergency Process Protection System, which was divided into two independent Sets of initiating equipment. The DSS is independent and diverse initiating equipment from the existing 1st Set equipment; with each set having its own independent in-core and ex-core sensors for measurement of neutron flux and process parameters. The 2nd Set of initiating equipment for measuring ex-core neutron flux, was modernized with new design of 4 Ex-Core detectors each have a single low level neutron flux detector and two high range neutron detectors. They are comprising: 1. A fission chamber which operates in pulse mode to cover the low flux levels. 2. A compensated ionisation chamber in current mode to operate at high flux level. This detector is doubled to give a measurement of the axial deviation. Two detectors are enough to produce the axial power deviation. The results of testing and analysis of pilot operation of ex-core neutron sensors of DSS will be shown on the Report. (author)

  20. Event data collection and database development during plant shutdown and low power operations at domestic and foreign reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. Y.; Park, J. H.; Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Jang, S. C.

    2003-01-01

    To reduce conservatism and to obtain completeness for Low Power and ShutDown(LPSD) PSA of nuclear plants, total of 625 event data have collected during shutdown and low power operations which have occurred during about 30 years at nuclear power plants of USA and European countries including 2 domestic events. To utilize efficiently these event data, a database program which is called LEDB (Low power and shutdown Event Database) was developed and all the event data collected were inserted in that program. By reviewing and analyzing these event data various way, a lot of very useful insights and ideas for preventing similar events from reoccurrence in domestic nuclear power plants can be obtained

  1. Emergency reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Morihiko.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To smoothen the emergency operation of the control rod in a BWR type reactor and to eliminate the external discharge of radioactively contaminated water. Constitution: A drain receiving tank is connected through a scram valve to the top of a cylinder which is containing a hydraulic piston connected to a trombone-shaped control rod and an accumulator is connected through another scram valve to the bottom of the cylinder. The respective scram valves are constructed to be opened by the reactor emergency shutdown signal from a reactor control system in such a manner that drain valve and a vent valve of the tank normally opened at the standby time are closed after approx. 10 seconds from the opening of the scram valves. In this manner, back pressure is not applied to the hydraulic piston at the emergency time, thereby smoothly operating the control rod. (Sikiya, K.)

  2. Government Shutdown: Operations of Department of Defense During a Lapse in Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    proactive in working with creditors to reschedule debt repayments under these circumstances… c. Military personnel: During a shutdown of DoD activities due...creditors to reschedule debt repayments under these circumstances. The key point that both the creditor and the soldier should remember is that the...including Uniformed Services Treatment Facilities) including doctors, nurses , medical technicians, dentists, and essential support personnel (cooks

  3. Development of Abnormal Operating Strategies for Loss of Ultimate Heat Sink (LOUHS) at Shutdown Mode in Westinghouse Type Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Duk-Joo; Lee, Seung-Chan; Sung, Je-Joong; Ha, Sang Jun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Su-Hyun [FNC Tech. Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Loss of all AC power is classified as one of multiple failure accident by regulatory guide of Korean accident management program. Therefore we need develop strategies for the abnormal operating procedure both of power operating and shutdown mode. This paper developed abnormal operating guideline for loss of all AC power by analysis of accident scenario in pressurized water reactor. This paper analyzed the extended SBO in shutdown operating mode and developed the operating strategy of the abnormal operation procedure. Operator action for the emergency are not required to take in 500 minutes and 60 minutes in intact and opened RCS state respectively.

  4. The accidents during shutdown conditions Temelin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, M.; Mlady, O.

    1996-01-01

    Two parallel activities oriented for the accidents during shutdown conditions are performed at Temelin NPP: Development of symptom based emergency operating procedures (EOPs) applicable for the accidents which could occur during operational modes 1 through 4; independent evaluation of plant safety as part of the Temelin Shutdown probabilistic assessment to define the accidents which could occur during mode 5 and 6 for which the EOPs must be extended. Both these activities are in progress now because Temelin plant is still in the construction phase

  5. CANDU passive shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R S; Olmstead, R A [AECL CANDU, Sheridan Park Research Community, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    CANDU incorporates two diverse, passive shutdown systems, independent of each other and from the reactor regulating system. Both shutdown systems function in the low pressure, low temperature, moderator which surrounds the fuel channels. The shutdown systems are functionally different, physically separate, and passive since the driving force for SDS1 is gravity and the driving force for SDS2 is stored energy. The physics of the reactor core itself ensures a degree of passive safety in that the relatively long prompt neutron generation time inherent in the design of CANDU reactors tend to retard power excursions and reduces the speed required for shutdown action, even for large postulated reactivity increases. All passive systems include a number of active components or initiators. Hence, an important aspect of passive systems is the inclusion of fail safe (activated by active component failure) operation. The mechanisms that achieve the fail safe action should be passive. Consequently the passive performance of the CANDU shutdown systems extends beyond their basic modes of operation to include fail safe operation based on natural phenomenon or stored energy. For example, loss of power to the SDS1 clutches results in the drop of the shutdown rods by gravity, loss of power or instrument air to the injection valves of SDS2 results in valve opening via spring action, and rigorous self checking of logic, data and timing by the shutdown systems computers assures a fail safe reactor trip through the collapse of a fluctuating magnetic field or the discharge of a capacitor. Event statistics from operating CANDU stations indicate a significant decrease in protection system faults that could lead to loss of production and elimination of protection system faults that could lead to loss of protection. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the passive shutdown systems employed by CANDU. (author). 4 figs, 3 tabs.

  6. Proceedings of workshop on reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    India has gained considerable experience in design, development, construction and operation of research and power reactors during the last four decades. Reactor shutdown system (RSS) is the most important engineered safety system of any reactor. A lot of technological developments have taken place to improve the reactor shutdown systems, particularly with advancement in reliability analysis and instrumentation and control. If the reactor is not shutdown, the fuel may melt, releasing radioactivity and possibly reactivity addition as in the case of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). Apart from radiological safety consequences, large investment has to be written off. The function of the RSS is to stop fission chain reaction and prevent breach of fuel. The design of RSS is multidisciplinary. It requires reactor physics analysis, design of absorber rods, drive mechanisms, safety logic to order shutdown and instrumentation to detect unsafe conditions. High reliability is essential and this requires two independent shutdown systems. This book contains the proceedings of the workshop on reactor shutdown system and papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Level 1 probabilistic risk assessment of low power and shutdown operations at a PWR: Phase 2 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Musicki, Z.; Wong, S.M.; Yang, J.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Su, R.F.; Holmes, B.; Siu, N.; Bley, D.; Lin, J.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident and other precursor events (e.g., Diablo Canyon), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) initiated an extensive project during 1989 to carefully examine the potential risks during Low Power and Shutdown (LP ampersand S) operations. Shortly after the program began, an event occurred at the Vogtle plant during shutdown, which further intensified the effort of the LP ampersand S program. In the LP ampersand S program, one pressurized water reactor (PWR), Surry, and one boiling water reactor (BWR), Grand Gulf, were selected, mainly because they were previously analyzed in the NUREG-1150 Study. The Level-1 Program is being performed in two phases. Phase 1 was dedicated to performing a coarse screening level-1 analysis including internal fire and flood. A draft report was completed in November, 1991. In the phase 2 study, mid-loop operations at the Surry plant were analyzed in detail. The objective of this paper is to present the approach of the phase 2 study and the preliminary results and insights

  8. An analysis of operational experience during low power and shutdown and a plan for addressing human reliability assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriere, M.; Luckas, W.; Whitehead, D.; Ramey-Smith, A.

    1994-06-01

    Recent nuclear power plant events (e.g. Chernobyl, Diablo Canyon, and Vogtle) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reports (e.g. NUREG-1449) have led to concerns regarding human reliability during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) conditions and limitations of human reliability analysis (HRA) methodologies in adequately representing the LP ampersand S environment. As a result of these concerns, the NRC initiated two parallel research projects to assess the influence of LP ampersand S conditions on human reliability through an analysis of operational experience at pressurized water reactors (PWRs) an boiling water reactors (BWRs). These research projects, performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory for PWRS, and Sandia National Laboratories for BWRs, identified unique aspects of human performance during LP ampersand S conditions and provided a program plan for research and development necessary to improve existing HRA methodologies. This report documents the results of the analysis of LP ampersand S operating experience and describes the improved HRA program plan

  9. Facility design, construction, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    France has been disposing of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM) since 1969 and now at the Centre de Stockage de l'Aube (CSA) since 1992. In France, several agencies and companies are involved in the development and implementation of LLW technology. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomic (CEA), is responsible for research and development of new technologies. The Agence National pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs is the agency responsible for the construction and operation of disposal facilities and for wastes acceptance for these facilities. Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires provides fuel services, including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, and fuel reprocessing, and is thus one generator of LLW. Societe pour les Techniques Nouvelles is an engineering company responsible for commercializing CEA waste management technology and for engineering and design support for the facilities. Numatec, Inc. is a US company representing these French companies and agencies in the US. In Task 1.1 of Numatec's contract with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Numatec provides details on the design, construction and operation of the LLW disposal facilities at CSM and CSA. Lessons learned from operation of CSM and incorporated into the design, construction and operating procedures at CSA are identified and discussed. The process used by the French for identification, selection, and evaluation of disposal technologies is provided. Specifically, the decisionmaking process resulting in the change in disposal facility design for the CSA versus the CSM is discussed. This report provides' all of the basic information in these areas and reflects actual experience to date

  10. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Toyokazu.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a highly reliable reactor shutdown device capable of checking its function irrespective of the state whether shutdown or operation in a gas-cooled type reactor. Constitution: A hopper is disposed above a guide tube inserted into the reactor core and particulate neutron absorbers are contained in the hopper. An opening for falling particles is disposed to the bottom of the hopper in opposition to the upper end of the guide pipe and the opening is closed by a plug suspended by way of a weld line so as to be capable of dropping. A power source for supplying electrical current to the weld line is disposed. Accordingly, if the current is supplied to the weld line, the line is cut by welding to fall the plug so that the neutron-absorbing particles fall from the opening into the guide pipe to shutdown the reactor, whereby high reliability is obtained for the operation. (Seki, T.)

  11. Shutdown requirements in licensing of research reactors and consequences for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Stein, J.

    1983-01-01

    Most countries start their nuclear life with the setup of a research reactor. Most countries have at this time no licensing authority established which can act on existing laws, rules and regulations. Thus, most countries have during this starting phase to rely on the regulations fixed by international institutions such as the IAEA (or by national institutions as the former NRC in US, which happens to take place more often from reasons below). This implies a specific responsibility for international regulations since they have to be very clear and unique. Moreover they have to be applicable to all plants they are set forth for and they have to give no unavoidable restrictions on the use of the plant. Additionally some recheck of the rules based on national rules in forth will be of help. The enrichment reduction for research reactors gave frequent cause to look at the existing IAEA-publications for research reactors. They are laid down in the safety series no. 35 edited 1971. I will only discuss here specific parts of these considerations or requirements. Since the authors' personal impressions are that the published considerations are neither that clear nor that less restrictive as necessary the subsequent discussion is carried out. One of the confusing points of the existing IAEA-regulations is the lengthy discussion of reactivity considerations for critical assemblies first, no similar separate discussion for research reactors and a second discussion titled 'control-rod considerations' under the main title 'considerations applying to critical assemblies and research reactor'. This discussion will be restricted to the latter since the critical assemblies with their timely Constance of maximum excess reactivity do not present any problem for all shut-down conditions

  12. Magnetic disconnect for secondary shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessor, D.L.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of studies to develop a magnetic holding clutch in the control rod drive line as an alternate shutdown device for the FFTF. Results indicate that a three-phase disconnect, hold, and backup shutdown system can be designed to operate satisfactorily. (U.S.)

  13. SYSTEM OF STANDARTIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS ARRANGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Pavel Pavlovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed article, management of construction operations is represented as a multi-level system; it is considered with the framework of projects including new construction, restructuring and overhaul of buildings and structures. The system of management of construction operations is to be composed of the following three constituent parts. They include a construction and assembling entity, project and operations, and a procurement base. Such matters as the quality of construction products, purchase (lease of building machinery and vehicles are incorporated into the level of the construction and assembling entity. The project level comprises such components of construction operations management as pre-construction preparation of a project, methods and forms of construction management, preparatory works, management of construction activities, real-time operations control, construction quality control, etc. The level of operations and the procurement base covers the needs for materials and equipment, their purchase and procurement, as well as the warehouse management. The main elements of the standardization system are identified. Standards of construction operations management are explained, including 1. General Provisions; 2. Preparation and performance of construction and assembling works; 3. New construction. Building site organization; 4. Demolition (dismantling of buildings and structures; 5. Rules of preparation for acceptance and commissioning of completed residential buildings. The prospects for the further development of the system of standardization of construction operations management are outlined

  14. Simulation of Darlington shutdown and regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report describes the development of a simulation of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station shutdown and regulating systems, DARSIM. The DARSIM program simulates the spatial neutron dynamics, the regulation of the reactor power, and Shutdown System 1, SDS1, and Shutdown System 2, SDS2, software. The DARSIM program operates in the interactive simulation (INSIM) program environment

  15. New Czechoslovak detector of leaking condenser tubes usable in both shutdown and reduced output operation of power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Varvarovsky, F.; Zachar, J.; Fratric, D.

    1986-01-01

    The main reason for penetration of undesirable admixtures from cooling water in the condensate is the inleakage of steam turbine condensers. Briefly assessed are the means and methods of detecting and locating condenser leaks used in the world and in power facilities in Czechoslovakia. Equipment was developed based on measuring the difference between the pressure in a temporarily closed condenser tube and ambient pressure, for leak testing of condenser tubes during operation and during shutdown of WWER-440 units. Two types of the equipment were tested in practice. Type VUEZ-PHN 85P meets the requirements of objective leak tests and those of leak location in condenser tubes and of leak detection in tube expansion in the tube plates of WWER-440 unit condensers, this as concerns sensitivity, the objectivity of results, the cost of tests, and minimal losses of power during the test. Type VUEZ-PHN 85P can be used for leak location in all tube type heat exchangers with access to tube outlets in which under- or overpressure can be achieved in the space between the tubes relative to ambient pressure during the test. (Z.M.) 5 figs., 4 tabs., 11 refs

  16. Accident sequences evaluation using SFATs for low power and shutdown operation of pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chansoo; Chung, Chang-Hyun; Yang, Huichang

    2004-01-01

    To maintain the level of defense-in-depth safety of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) during LP/SD operation, the qualitative risk evaluation methods such as Safety Function Assessment Trees (SFATs) are required. Therefore SFATs are suggested to assess and manage the PHWR safety in LP/SD. Before this study, safety functions of PHWR were classified into 7 groups; Reactivity Control, Core Cooling, Secondary Heat Removal, Primary Heat Transport Inventory, Essential Electrical Power, Cooling Water, and Containment Integrity. The SFATs for PHWR LP/SD operations were developed along with the Plant Outage Status (POS) variation, and totally 38 SFATs were developed for Wolsung Unit 2. For the verification of SFATs logics developed, top 5 accident sequences those contribute the CDF of PHWR were selected, and plant safety status were evaluated for those accident sequences. Accident sequences such as DCC-4 (Dual Control Computer Failure), CL4-16 (Total Loss of Class IV Power), and FWPV-11 (Loss of Feedwater Supply to SG due to Failure of Pumps/Values) were included. In this research the evaluation of plant safety status by accident sequences using SFATs and the verification of the SFATs were performed. Through the verification of SFAT logics, the enhancements to the internal logics of the SFATs were made, and the dependencies between safety systems and support systems were considered. It is expected the defense-in-depth evaluation model of PHW just as SFATs can be utilized in the configuration risk management program (CRMP) development and improve technical specifications development for Korean PHWRs. (author)

  17. Startup, Shutdown, & Malfunction (SSM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA issued a final action to ensure states have plans in place that are fully consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions concerning startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) operations.

  18. Internal Flooding Probabilistic Safety Assessment of an OPR-1000 Plant during Low Power and Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the electric power research institute (EPRI) published a guideline for the development of IF-PRA that addresses the requirements of the ASME/ANS RASa-2009 PRA consensus standard. The EPRI guideline delineates a level of detail and assessment complexity that has been significantly increased with respect to the guidance for IF assessment performed for the individual plant examination (IPE) to address Generic Letter 88- 20. The main differences include: A more systematic approach to the definition of flood area. The identification, screening and analysis of flooding sources and scenarios. The calculation of the initiating-event frequency (IEF) based on the actual length and characteristics of the piping. The inclusion of spatial effects such as spray from pipe leaks. The specific documentation associated with the plant walkdowns. Among these differences, this research focused on the third and fourth items when performing the internal flooding PSA. This is done by identifying the pipe and fluid characteristics, assessing the pipe pressure, characterizing the pipe (i.e., pipe diameter, length, etc.) and determining the pressure boundary failure frequency. The results were summed for the various piping systems within a given flood area to arrive at an overall internal flood initiating frequency for a given flood mode (i.e., spray, general flood, or major flood) for that particular area by each POS (Plant Operational State). In this initiating event frequency evaluations, the POS duration time is especially considered to get the real values for LPSD state. Characterizations of spray scenarios were evaluated to determine their impact on plant risk caused by internal flooding events.

  19. Behavior of antimony isotopes in the primary coolant of WWER-1000-type nuclear reactors in NPP Kozloduy during operation and shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrevski, Ivan D.; Zaharieva, Neli N.; Minkova, Katia F.; Gerchev, Nikolay B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the behavior of the antimony isotopes 122 Sb and 124 Sb in the coolant of the WWER reactors in the nuclear power plant Kozloduy (Bulgaria) during operation and shutdown. It is concluded that the chemical properties of their actual precursor, the isotope 121 Sb, determine the behavior of 122 Sb and 124 Sb during operation, load fluctuations, and shutdown as well as during the reactor coolant purification process. It is supposed that differences between the reactor bulk and the core fuel cladding surface chemistry as well as the presence of sub-cooled nucleate boiling at the fuel cladding may create conditions under which a local oxidizing environment may come into existence. (orig.)

  20. Construal operations of the English progressive construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    present paper provides an overview of construal operations that are likely to be at play in the construction of the aspectual and actional meaning components of the progressive construction. The discussion also involves instances of the progressive construction, which display low semantic compatibility...

  1. A study on the Safe Operation of RHRS during Shut-Down and Low Power Operations of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Moon Hun; Sung, Chang Kyung; Kim, Yang Suk; You, Sun Oh; Joo, In Chul [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    The main objective is to perform basic research for safe operation of RHRs, which is an important part in the safety analysis of nuclear reactors during a mid-loop operation of nuclear power plants. To achieve this objective, a series of experiments have been performed to simulate the wave phenomena of countercurrent flow that may occur in the hot legs during a mid-loop operation. The major contents and the scope are as follows, To collect and to analyse existing experimental works and also numerical works which have been carried out using large computer codes. To collect and to analyse existing works on the flow patterns of two-phase flows. To perform a series of experiments to simulate the wave phenomena for the countercurrent two-phase flow in hot legs. To obtain correlations for the interfacial friction factor and the flow patterns for a countercurrent flow from the experimentally measured parameters. To obtain the interfacial friction factor between the two-phases of air-water countercurrent flow in a horizontal pipe, a series of experiments have been performed using two different sections of 0.05 m in diameter, whose lengths are 2 m and 4 m, respectively. The results presented here can be used as the fundamental information to obtain the most important thermal-hydraulic parameters such as flow patterns and interfacial friction factors for air-water two-phase flows, which are necessary for safety analyses and operation of nuclear power plants during a mid-loop operation. 46 refs., 8 tabs., 35 figs., 3 ills. (author)

  2. TRIGA forced shutdowns analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Laslau, Florica

    2008-01-01

    The need for improving the operation leads us to use new methods and strategies. Probabilistic safety assessments and statistical analysis provide insights useful for our reactor operation. This paper is dedicated to analysis of the forced shutdowns during the first reactor operation period, between 1980 to 1989. A forced shutdown data base was designed using data on forced shutdowns collected from the reactor operation logbooks. In order to sort out the forced shutdowns the records have the following fields: - current number, date, equipment failed, failure type (M for mechanical, E for electrical, D for irradiation device, U for human factor failure; - scram mode, SE for external scram, failure of reactor cooling circuits and/or irradiation devices, SR for reactor scram, exceeding of reactor nuclear parameters, SB for reactor scram by control rod drop, SM for manual scram required by the abnormal reactor status; - scram cause, giving more information on the forced shutdown. This data base was processed using DBase III. The data processing techniques are presented. To sort out the data, one of the criteria was the number of scrams per year, failure type, scram mode, etc. There are presented yearly scrams, total operation time in hours, total unavailable time, median unavailable time period, reactor availability A. There are given the formulae used to calculate the reactor operational parameters. There are shown the scrams per year in the 1980 to 1989 period, the reactor operation time per year, the reactor shutdown time per year and the operating time versus down time per year. Total number of scrams in the covered period was 643 which caused a reactor down time of 4282.25 hours. In a table the scrams as sorted on the failure type is shown. Summarising, this study emphasized some problems and difficulties which occurred during the TRIGA reactor operation at Pitesti. One main difficulty in creating this data base was the unstandardized scram record mode. Some times

  3. Review of cause-based decision tree approach for the development of domestic standard human reliability analysis procedure in low power/shutdown operation probabilistic safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Jung, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    We review the Cause-Based Decision Tree (CBDT) approach to decide whether we incorporate it or not for the development of domestic standard Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) procedure in low power/shutdown operation Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). In this paper, we introduce the cause based decision tree approach, quantify human errors using it, and identify merits and demerits of it in comparision with previously used THERP. The review results show that it is difficult to incorporate the CBDT method for the development of domestic standard HRA procedure in low power/shutdown PSA because the CBDT method need for the subjective judgment of HRA analyst like as THERP. However, it is expected that the incorporation of the CBDT method into the development of domestic standard HRA procedure only for the comparision of quantitative HRA results will relieve the burden of development of detailed HRA procedure and will help maintain consistent quantitative HRA results

  4. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2014-01-01

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  5. Construction of Nijenhuis operators and dendriform trialgebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Leroux

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct Nijenhuis operators from particular bialgebras called dendriform-Nijenhuis bialgebras. It turns out that such Nijenhuis operators commute with TD-operators, a kind of Baxter-Rota operators, and are therefore closely related to dendriform trialgebras. This allows the construction of associative algebras, called dendriform-Nijenhuis algebras, made out of nine operations and presenting an exotic combinatorial property. We also show that the augmented free dendriform-Nijenhuis algebra and its commutative version have a structure of connected Hopf algebras. Examples are given.

  6. Enterprise risk management in international construction operations

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xianbo; Low, Sui Pheng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers an understanding of the implementation of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) for international construction operations. In an extended case study, it primarily focuses on Chinese construction firms (CCFs) based in Singapore. In this regard, the book explains the differences and similarities between Risk Management (RM), Project Risk Management (PRM) and ERM in the construction industry, and examines their linkages for international construction operations in a broader context. The explanation elaborates on how companies may adopt and implement RM, PRM and ERM as appropriate in their various operations, both in their home market as well as in overseas host markets. The book also reviews the whole spectrum of work relating to organizational behavior (OB) as one of the key underpinnings for companies to evaluate and implement ERM. It will benefit practitioners from the industry as well as academics interested in the implementation of ERM practices in international construction operat...

  7. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  8. Construction of vertex operators using operator formalism techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, B.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1989-01-01

    We derive vertex operators in oscillator form as an application of the conserved charges method developed by Vafa for the operator formalism in higher genus Riemann surfaces. This construction proves to be clear, direct and valid for the bosonic and fermionic strings as wells as for twisted strings on orbifolds. We discuss the method and construct vertex operators for the bosonic string moving on Z N orbifolds and for the fermionic string in the NSR formulation. (orig.)

  9. Public opinion concerning completion of Khmelnitsky-2 and Rovno-4 NPP's construction for compensation of Chernobyl NPP shut-down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvins'kij, L.L.; Novos'olov, G.M.; Majstrenko, O.V.; Sazonov, G.V.; Gryin, L.

    2001-01-01

    Interrogation of representation from non-government organizations and private persons from 46 countries about their opinion on completion of two NPP's construction revealed many comments about environmental effects, safety and economic aspects. These comments are analyzed by specialists

  10. Operations Management on The Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    2004-01-01

    this as a refreshing renewal and improvement of practical operations management at the site. However this paper will present a first step of development of a new approach to operations management at the building site, which at the same time builds on, and criticize lean construction for missing the point...... of the knowledge economy. This endeavour is carried out in two ways. First by a reading of the operations management literature. Juxtaposing this with lean construction extentions and the critique developed by other scholars. And also drawing on human resource management approaches. Second through a series......” scheme. In both directions it is revealed that the human resource and knowledge element of building processes is largely left untouched by lean construction methods. It is suggested to introduce at least two more dimensions of operations management at the site than the ones offered in lean construction...

  11. Identification of human-induced initiating events in the low power and shutdown operation using the commission error search and assessment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Jong Hyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School (KINGS), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Human-induced initiating events, also called Category B actions in human reliability analysis, are operator actions that may lead directly to initiating events. Most conventional probabilistic safety analyses typically assume that the frequency of initiating events also includes the probability of human-induced initiating events. However, some regulatory documents require Category B actions to be specifically analyzed and quantified in probabilistic safety analysis. An explicit modeling of Category B actions could also potentially lead to important insights into human performance in terms of safety. However, there is no standard procedure to identify Category B actions. This paper describes a systematic procedure to identify Category B actions for low power and shutdown conditions. The procedure includes several steps to determine operator actions that may lead to initiating events in the low power and shutdown stages. These steps are the selection of initiating events, the selection of systems or components, the screening of unlikely operating actions, and the quantification of initiating events. The procedure also provides the detailed instruction for each step, such as operator's action, information required, screening rules, and the outputs. Finally, the applicability of the suggested approach is also investigated by application to a plant example.

  12. Technical Assessment: WRAP 1 HVAC Passive Shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, D.E.; Nash, C.R.; Stroup, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    As the result of careful interpretation of DOE Order 6430.lA and other DOE Orders, the HVAC system for WRAP 1 has been greatly simplified. The HVAC system is now designed to safely shut down to Passive State if power fails for any reason. The fans cease functioning, allowing the Zone 1 and Zone 2 HVAC Confinement Systems to breathe with respect to atmospheric pressure changes. Simplifying the HVAC system avoided overdesign. Construction costs were reduced by eliminating unnecessary equipment. This report summarizes work that was done to define the criteria, physical concepts, and operational experiences that lead to the passive shutdown design for WRAP 1 confinement HVAC systems

  13. Shutdown risk monitoring in TEPCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroki; Masuda, Takahiro; Denda, Yasutaka; Yoneyama, Mitsuru; Imai, Shun-ichi; Miyata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    At present, we are introducing risk monitors into our all three nuclear power stations; Fukushima Daiichi, Fukushima Daini and Kashiwazaki Kariwa, with technical support of TEPSYS. By monitoring shutdown risk of each unit, we are trying to optimize risks during outage inspection, and raising staff's awareness for reactor safety. This paper presents our recent shutdown risk monitoring activities in Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Shutdown risk monitoring has been carried out for the past five outages of Fukushima Daiichi NPS. Daily-changing shutdown risk is evaluated in the form of core damage frequency (CDF [/day/reactor]). We also examine high-risk point of outage plan if CDF is greater than the threshold at anytime of outage. The results are delivered to operational and maintenance staff before outage. The threshold value is set ten times as much as CDF of unit in operation. As CDF exceeds the threshold, we try to either change the system configuration, or let workers pay more attention to their works during the high-risk period. We already have some examples of outage plan modification to reduce CDF using the risk monitoring information. Greater number of station staff tends to pay more attention to shutdown risk thanks to these activities. (author)

  14. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumiya, Hirohito; Endo, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Yasushi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor shutdown device capable of suppressing change of a core insertion amount relative to temperature change during normal operation and having a great extension amount due to thermal expansion and high mechanical strength. A control rod main body is contained vertically movably in a guide tube disposed in a reactor core. An extension member extends upward from the upper end of a control rod main body and suspends the control rod main body. A shrinkable member intervenes at a midway of the extension member and is made shrinkable. A temperature sensitive member contains coolants at the inside and surrounds the shrinkable member. Thus, if the temperature of external coolants rises abruptly, the shrinkable member is extended by thermal expansion of the coolants in the temperature sensitive member. Upon usual reactor startup, the coolants in the temperature sensitive member cause no substantial thermal expansion by temperature elevation from a cold shutdown temperature to a rated power operation temperature, and the shrinkable member maintains its original state, so that the control rod main body is not inserted into the reactor core. However, upon abrupt temperature elevation, the control rod main body is inserted into the reactor core. (I.S.)

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report

  16. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 7--12). Volume 2, Part 1B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specific shutdown accidents would be useful

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fires during mid-loop operations. Volume 3, Part 1, Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musicki, Z.; Chu, T.L.; Yang, J.; Ho, V.; Hou, Y.M.; Lin, J.; Siu, N.

    1994-07-01

    During l989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than fun power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in ' the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few. procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices E (Sections E.1--E.8). Volume 2, Part 3A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. The authors recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Main report (Chapters 1--6). Volume 2, Part 1A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1992-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document presents Chapters 1--6 of the report

  20. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations, Appendices A--D. Volume 2, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the Potential risks during low Power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the Plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this report is to document the approach utilized in the Surry plant and discuss the results obtained. A parallel report for the Grand Gulf plant is prepared by SNL. This study shows that the core-damage frequency during mid-loop operation at the Surry plant is comparable to that of power operation. We recognize that there is very large uncertainty in the human error probabilities in this study. This study identified that only a few procedures are available for mitigating accidents that may occur during shutdown. Procedures written specifically for shutdown accidents would be useful. This document, Volume 2, Pt. 2 provides appendices A through D of this report.

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Main report and appendices, Volume 6, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L.; Forester, J.; Johnson, J.

    1995-03-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively

  3. The Chernobyl plant shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Chernobylsk-1 reactor, operational in september 1977 has been stopped in november 1996; the Chernobylsk-2 reactor started in november 1978 is out of order since 1991 following a fire. The Chernobylsk-3 reactor began in 1981. During the last three years it occurs several maintenance operations that stop it. In june 2000, the Ukrainian authorities decided to stop it definitively on the 15. of december (2000). This file handles the subject. it is divided in four chapters: the first one gives the general context of the plant shutdown, the second chapter studies the supporting projects to stop definitively the nuclear plant, the third chapter treats the question of the sarcophagus, and the fourth and final chapter studies the consequences of the accident and the contaminated territories. (N.C.)

  4. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashurko, Yu.M.; Kuznetsov, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs

  5. Backup passive reactivity shutdown systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashurko, Yu M; Kuznetsov, L A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-01

    The paper reviews self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs) for liquid metal-cooled fast reactors (LMFRs). Principles of operation are described, advantages and drawbacks analyzed, and prospects for application in advanced fast reactors examined. Ways to improve reactor self-protection via reactivity feedback amplification and related problems are discussed. (author). 9 refs, 12 figs.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, D.W. [ed.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L. [and others

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1.

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Summary of results. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.W.; Staple, B.D.; Daniel, S.L.

    1995-07-01

    During 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry and Grand Gulf, were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). This report documents the work performed during the analysis of the Grand Gulf plant. A phased approach was used for the overall study. In Phase 1, the objectives were to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenario frequencies and risks, and to provide a foundation for a detailed Phase 2 analysis. It was in Phase 1 that the concept of plant operational states (POSs) was developed to allow the analysts to better represent the plant as it transitions from power operation to nonpower operation than was possible with the traditional technical specification divisions of modes of operation. This phase consisted of a coarse screening analysis performed for all POSs, including seismic and internal fire and flood for some POSs. In Phase 2, POS 5 (approximately cold shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the Phase 1 study. The scope of the Level 1 study includes plant damage state analysis and uncertainty analysis and is documented in a multi-volume NUREG/CR report (i.e., NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4, respectively. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. The Level 2/3 study of the traditional internal events is documented in Volume 6, and a summary of the results for all analyses is documented in Volume 1

  8. Human reliability analysis approach to level 1 PSA - shutdown and low power operation of Mochovce NPP, Unit 1, Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojka, Tibor; Holy, Jaroslav

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents general approach, used methods and form of documentation of the results as have been applied within the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) task of the shutdown and low power PSA (SPSA) study for Mochovce nuclear power plant, Unit 1, Slovakia. The paper describes main goals of the HRA task within the SPSA project, applied methods and data sources. Basic steps of the HRA task and human errors (HE) classification are also specified in its first part. The main part of the paper deals with pre-initiator human errors, human-induced initiators and response to initiator human errors. Since the expert judgment method (SLIM) was used for the last type of human errors probability assessment, also related activities are described including preparation works (performance shaping factors (PSFs) selection, development of PSF classification tables, preparation of aid tools for interview with plant experts), qualitative analysis (sources of information and basic steps) and quantitative analysis itself (human errors classification for final quantification including criteria used for the classification, description of structure of the spreadsheet used for quantification and treatment with dependencies). The last part of the paper describes form of documentation of the final results and provides some findings. (author)

  9. Current status of low power/shutdown PSA and accident sequence analysis for loss of RHR during mid-loop operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Choi, Young; Kim, Tae Woon; Jin, Young Ho

    1994-07-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been applied to only full-power operation of nuclear power plant (NPP), but some events which were recently occurred could reach severe plant damage state. Thus, various countries around the world have focused their interests on the evaluation for low power/shutdown (LP/S) operation. This report covers the main stream of LP/S PSA methodology, current status of LP/S PSA practices and results, and accident sequence analysis for loss of RHR during mid-loop operation. Therefore this report would be helpful for us to practice LP/S PSA for YGN 5,6 NPP which will be built in the near future. Also the results of accident sequence analysis show that operator's mis-diagnosis and failure of recovery action would initiate core damage during LP/S operation. In summary, overall environmental improvements (equipments, procedures, Tech Spec, etc, ...) and operating support system will be very useful to reduce risk during LP/S operation. (Author) 5 figs., 9 tabs

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fire events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report, Volume 3, presents the details of the analysis of core damage frequency due to fire during shutdown Plant Operational State 5 at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Insights from previous fire analyses (Peach Bottom, Surry, LaSalle) were used to the greatest extent possible in this analysis. The fire analysis was fully integrated utilizing the same event trees and fault trees that were used in the internal events analysis. In assessing shutdown risk due to fire at Grand Gulf, a detailed screening was performed which included the following elements: (a) Computer-aided vital area analysis; (b) Plant inspections; (c) Credit for automatic fire protection systems; (d) Recovery of random failures; (e) Detailed fire propagation modeling. This screening process revealed that all plant areas had a negligible (<1.0E-8 per year) contribution to fire-induced core damage frequency

  11. Perspectives on Low Power and Shutdown Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, Allen L.; Whitehead, Donnie W.; Wheeler, Timothy A.; Lehner, John; Chu, Tsong-Lun; Lois, Erasmai; Drouin, Mary

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results from a program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to examine the risks from low power and shutdown operations. Significant progress has been made by the industry in reducing such risks; however, important operational events continue to occur. Current perceptions of low power and shutdown risks are discussed in the paper along with an assessment of the current methods for understanding important events and quantifying their associated risk

  12. Biogas plants: Design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    At the big readiness of waste coming from the agricultural activities are looked for the production of Energy and Payments, the biogas like product of the organic decomposition under anaerobic conditions, their composition and characteristic. The elements that conform the design as the digester, the storage, the load tanks and it discharges and the conduction is described and analyzed. They are given a series of elements to obtain the characteristics of the system possible to place as: planning, calculations, evaluation, execution and operation. Lastly the steps are indicated that should be continued in the construction of the plant including planning for the work

  13. Using management of aging in German nuclear power plants - aspects of KTA 1403 pertaining to residual power operation, post-shutdown operation and residual operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreiro, Pablo; Bever, Thomas; Brast, Gerhard; Elsche, Bjoern; Reese, Sven H.; Grossmann, Patrick; Widera, Martin; Huettner, Frank; Linnemann, Thomas; Smit, Swen-Olaf; Zander, Ralf-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Management of aging in nuclear power plants originated in the United States of America and became a topic of debate in Germany from the late 1990s onward. On the basis of the existing plant-specific measures practiced comprehensively, KTA 1403, ''Management of Aging in Nuclear Power Plants'', was drafted and finalized in 2010. This publication first presents the context of AM with regard to German nuclear power plants, including references to national and international historical developments. Against this backdrop, the difference between management of aging and lifetime management is discussed next. This is followed by a description of the status of the AM process in nuclear power plants currently in operation, especially organizational plant-specific implementation. As a consequence of the decision by the German federal government to discontinue the peaceful use of nuclear power in Germany and the associated 13th amendment to the Atomic Energy Act of July 31, 2011, a considerable part of the German nuclear power plant park already lost its right of power operation. In this situation, aspects of AM are discussed for plants in the no-power, post-operation and residual operation phases. Finally, experience accumulated in plant-specific execution of the AM process on the basis of KTA 1403 is considered and summarized.

  14. Optimal shutdown management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottasso, C L; Croce, A; Riboldi, C E D

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of the open-loop pitch profile during emergency shutdowns. The problem is of interest in the design of wind turbines, as such maneuvers often generate design driving loads on some of the machine components. The pitch profile synthesis is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem, solved numerically using a direct single shooting approach. A cost function expressing a compromise between load reduction and rotor overspeed is minimized with respect to the unknown blade pitch profile. Constraints may include a load reduction not-to-exceed the next dominating loads, a not-to-be-exceeded maximum rotor speed, and a maximum achievable blade pitch rate. Cost function and constraints are computed over a possibly large number of operating conditions, defined so as to cover as well as possible the operating situations encountered in the lifetime of the machine. All such conditions are simulated by using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic model of the wind turbine, ensuring the accuracy of the evaluation of all relevant parameters. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the novel proposed formulation, by optimizing the pitch profile of a multi-MW wind turbine. Results show that the procedure can reliably identify optimal pitch profiles that reduce design-driving loads, in a fully automated way

  15. Optimal shutdown management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottasso, C. L.; Croce, A.; Riboldi, C. E. D.

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents a novel approach for the synthesis of the open-loop pitch profile during emergency shutdowns. The problem is of interest in the design of wind turbines, as such maneuvers often generate design driving loads on some of the machine components. The pitch profile synthesis is formulated as a constrained optimal control problem, solved numerically using a direct single shooting approach. A cost function expressing a compromise between load reduction and rotor overspeed is minimized with respect to the unknown blade pitch profile. Constraints may include a load reduction not-to-exceed the next dominating loads, a not-to-be-exceeded maximum rotor speed, and a maximum achievable blade pitch rate. Cost function and constraints are computed over a possibly large number of operating conditions, defined so as to cover as well as possible the operating situations encountered in the lifetime of the machine. All such conditions are simulated by using a high-fidelity aeroservoelastic model of the wind turbine, ensuring the accuracy of the evaluation of all relevant parameters. The paper demonstrates the capabilities of the novel proposed formulation, by optimizing the pitch profile of a multi-MW wind turbine. Results show that the procedure can reliably identify optimal pitch profiles that reduce design-driving loads, in a fully automated way.

  16. Constructed wetlands for pollution control: processes, performance, design and operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    .... Types of constructed wetland, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth...

  17. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1) and the other at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf). Both the Brookhaven and Sandia projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults--so-called ''internal initiators.'' This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling shutdown conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Surry Unit 1. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human error rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Surry have been adopted here, so that the results of the two studies can be as comparable as possible. Both the Brookhaven study and this study examine only two shutdown plant operating states (POSs) during refueling outages at Surry, called POS 6 and POS 10, which represent mid-loop operation before and after refueling, respectively. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POSs 6 and 10. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency of earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 6 and POS 10 is found to be low in absolute terms, less than 10 -6 /year

  18. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Internal events appendices K to M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forester, J.; Yakle, J.; Walsh, B.; Darby, J.; Whitehead, D.; Staple, B.; Brown, T.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides supporting documentation for various tasks associated with the performance of the probabilistic risk assessment for Plant Operational State 5 (approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications) during a refueling outage at Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as documented in Volume 2, Part 1 of NUREG/CR-6143. The report contains the following appendices: K - HEP Locator Files; L - Supporting Information for the Plant Damage State Analysis; M - Summary of Results from the Coarse Screening Analysis - Phase 1A

  19. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiko

    1990-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to reliably shutdown an LMFBR type reactor upon accident of the reactor. That is, curie point magnetic member is made annular so that it can be moved between the outer circumference of an electromagnet and the position above the electromagnet. This enables to enlarge the curie point magnetic member since it is no more necessary to be inserted it in a guide tube. Accordingly, attracting force upon normal operation is increased to remarkably improve the reliability against erronerous scram, etc. Further, since a required gap is formed between the curie point magnetic member and the electromagnet and the heat of coolants is efficiently transmitted to the curie point magnetic member, rapid scram is possible. Further, a position support mechanism is disposed to a part of a control element or at the inner side of the guiding tube for urging and actuating the armature to make it protrude above the top of the guiding tube. With such a constitution, since the armature can be adsorbed without inserting the curie point magnetic member and the electromagnet guide tube, the same effect as in the case of inserting them can be obtained. (I.S.)

  20. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T.

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry: Unit 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Pratt, W.T. [eds.; Musicki, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This document contains a summarization of the results and insights from the Level 1 accident sequence analyses of internally initiated events, internally initiated fire and flood events, seismically initiated events, and the Level 2/3 risk analysis of internally initiated events (excluding fire and flood) for Surry, Unit 1. The analysis was confined to mid-loop operation, which can occur during three plant operational states (identified as POSs R6 and R10 during a refueling outage, and POS D6 during drained maintenance). The report summarizes the Level 1 information contained in Volumes 2--5 and the Level 2/3 information contained in Volume 6 of NUREG/CR-6144.

  2. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.

  3. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix I, Volume 2, Part 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis

  4. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 5: Analysis of core damage frequency from seismic events for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Davis, P.R.; Ravindra, M.K.; Tong, W.H.

    1994-08-01

    In 1989 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to examine carefully the potential risks during low-power and shutdown operations. The program included two parallel projects, one at Sandia National Laboratories studying a boiling water reactor (Grand Gulf), and the other at Brookhaven National Laboratory studying a pressurized water reactor (Surry Unit 1). Both the Sandia and Brookhaven projects have examined only accidents initiated by internal plant faults---so-called ''internal initiators.'' This project, which has explored the likelihood of seismic-initiated core damage accidents during refueling outage conditions, is complementary to the internal-initiator analyses at Brookhaven and Sandia. This report covers the seismic analysis at Grand Gulf. All of the many systems modeling assumptions, component non-seismic failure rates, and human effort rates that were used in the internal-initiator study at Grand Gulf have been adopted here, so that the results of the study can be as comparable as possible. Both the Sandia study and this study examine only one shutdown plant operating state (POS) at Grand Gulf, namely POS 5 representing cold shutdown during a refueling outage. This analysis has been limited to work analogous to a level-1 seismic PRA, in which estimates have been developed for the core-damage frequency from seismic events during POS 5. The results of the analysis are that the core-damage frequency for earthquake-initiated accidents during refueling outages in POS 5 is found to be quite low in absolute terms, less than 10 -7 /year

  5. ORNL Isotopes Facilities Shutdown Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Patton, B.D.; Sears, M.B.

    1990-10-01

    This plan presents the results of a technical and economic assessment for shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) isotopes production and distribution facilities. On December 11, 1989, the Department of Energy (DOE), Headquarters, in a memorandum addressed to DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO), gave instructions to prepare the ORNL isotopes production and distribution facilities, with the exception of immediate facility needs for krypton-85, tritium, and yttrium-90, for safe shutdown. In response to the memorandum, ORNL identified 17 facilities for shutdown. Each of these facilities is located within the ORNL complex with the exception of Building 9204-3, which is located at the Y-12 Weapons Production Plant. These facilities have been used extensively for the production of radioactive materials by the DOE Isotopes Program. They currently house a large inventory of radioactive materials. Over the years, these aging facilities have inherited the problems associated with storing and processing highly radioactive materials (i.e., facilities' materials degradation and contamination). During FY 1990, ORNL is addressing the requirements for placing these facilities into safe shutdown while maintaining the facilities under the existing maintenance and surveillance plan. The day-to-day operations associated with the surveillance and maintenance of a facility include building checks to ensure that building parameters are meeting the required operational safety requirements, performance of contamination control measures, and preventative maintenance on the facility and facility equipment. Shutdown implementation will begin in FY 1993, and shutdown completion will occur by the end of FY 1994

  6. Nuclear reactor unit shutdown planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardais, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    In order to optimize the reactor maintenance shutdown efficiency and the reactor availability, an audit had been performed on the shutdown organization at EDF: management, skills, methods and experience feedback have been evaluated; several improvement paths have been identified: project management, introduction of shutdown management professionals, shutdown permanent industrialization, and experience feedback engineering

  7. Quantitative Safety Impact of Severe Accident Management Systems for EU-APR during Low Power Shutdown Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Hwang, Do Hun; Chang, Hyun-bin

    2016-01-01

    In order to enlarge and to diversify the export market of APR1400, the EU-APR design was developed based on the APR1400 design to comply with the latest version of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) revision D. The EU-APR design has the distinguished and advanced severe accident management systems taken from the APR1400 to obtain a containment integrity for the beyond design basis accident, such as the Passive Ex-vessel retaining and Cooling System (PECS), the Severe Accident Containment Spray System (SACSS) and the Containment Filtered Vent System (CFVS). The risk associated with the nuclear power plant can be identified through the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). In the EUR chapter 1 and 17 of volume 2, the Criteria for Limited Impact (CLI) should be applied to the Level 2 PSA as a risk metrics. The fraction of exceeding CLI for the EU-APR during LPSD operation was calculated as 4.52% of the CDF under the condition that all severe accident management systems are credited. The PECS, SACSS and CFVS are considered as the severe accident management system which is EU-APR dedicated system. The exemption of each system leads to increase the fraction of exceeding CLI to 54.18%, 89.74% and 21.32% respectively. In case if all these systems are unavailable, the fraction of exceeding CLI is increased to 100%. The most effective system is the SACSS that the system reduces containment pressure and temperature

  8. Quantitative Safety Impact of Severe Accident Management Systems for EU-APR during Low Power Shutdown Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung; Hwang, Do Hun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun-bin [Future and Challenge Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In order to enlarge and to diversify the export market of APR1400, the EU-APR design was developed based on the APR1400 design to comply with the latest version of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) revision D. The EU-APR design has the distinguished and advanced severe accident management systems taken from the APR1400 to obtain a containment integrity for the beyond design basis accident, such as the Passive Ex-vessel retaining and Cooling System (PECS), the Severe Accident Containment Spray System (SACSS) and the Containment Filtered Vent System (CFVS). The risk associated with the nuclear power plant can be identified through the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). In the EUR chapter 1 and 17 of volume 2, the Criteria for Limited Impact (CLI) should be applied to the Level 2 PSA as a risk metrics. The fraction of exceeding CLI for the EU-APR during LPSD operation was calculated as 4.52% of the CDF under the condition that all severe accident management systems are credited. The PECS, SACSS and CFVS are considered as the severe accident management system which is EU-APR dedicated system. The exemption of each system leads to increase the fraction of exceeding CLI to 54.18%, 89.74% and 21.32% respectively. In case if all these systems are unavailable, the fraction of exceeding CLI is increased to 100%. The most effective system is the SACSS that the system reduces containment pressure and temperature.

  9. Proposal of performance indicators/model for Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) at restart after a planned shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Nygren, Magnus

    2005-12-01

    the 323-event. This leads to a proposal of an ORV-model based on the concept of maintaining control. According to this, it is essential that an organisation (a system) knows how to respond (reaction), knows what to look for (observation, attention), and knows what to anticipate (prediction). While an organisation must possess those qualities to respond to an incident in the short term, a regulator must assess the organisation possesses those qualities in the long term. In terms of performance indicators, ten Common Performance Conditions are proposed. Each is assessed with regard to whether it can be the basis of practical measurements and whether it can be used concretely to induce an improvement to operational readiness. The re-analysis of the nine ORV events suggested that adequacy of organisation, adequacy of training and experience, availability of procedures and plans, and available time would be the most important performance indicators. Further work should look into detailed measurement methods, evaluation criteria, and means of intervention all based on an explicit model of safety as an organisational function

  10. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance

  11. Experimental and analytical studies of a passive shutdown heat removal system for advanced LMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineman, J.; Kraimer, M.; Lottes, P.; Pedersen, D.; Stewart, R.; Tessier, J.

    1988-01-01

    A facility designed and constructed to demonstrate the viability of natural convection passive heat removal systems as a key feature of innovative LMR Shutdown Heat Removal (SHR) systems is in operation at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) is being used to investigate the heat transfer performance of the GE/PRISM and the RI/SAFR passive designs. This paper presents a description of the NSTF, the pretest analysis of the Radiant Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) in support of the GE/PRISM IFR concept, and experiment results for the RVACS simulation. Preliminary results show excellent agreement with predicted system performance.

  12. Safety shutdown separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley; Farrell, Greg Robert

    2015-06-30

    The present invention pertains to electrochemical cells which comprise (a) an anode; (b) a cathode; (c) a solid porous separator, such as a polyolefin, xerogel, or inorganic oxide separator; and (d) a nonaqueous electrolyte, wherein the separator comprises a porous membrane having a microporous coating comprising polymer particles which have not coalesced to form a continuous film. This microporous coating on the separator acts as a safety shutdown layer that rapidly increases the internal resistivity and shuts the cell down upon heating to an elevated temperature, such as 110.degree. C. Also provided are methods for increasing the safety of an electrochemical cell by utilizing such separators with a safety shutdown layer.

  13. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  14. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D.

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP ampersand S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP ampersand S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP ampersand S configuration are given

  15. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risks for plant operational state 5 during a refueling outage. Supporting MELCOR calculations, Volume 6, Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kmetyk, L.N.; Brown, T.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the risk significance of low power and shutdown modes of operation, the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research at the NRC established programs to investigate the likelihood and severity of postulated accidents that could occur during low power and shutdown (LP&S) modes of operation at commercial nuclear power plants. To investigate the likelihood of severe core damage accidents during off power conditions, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) were performed for two nuclear plants: Unit 1 of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, which is a BWR-6 Mark III boiling water reactor (BWR), and Unit 1 of the Surry Power Station, which is a three-loop, subatmospheric, pressurized water reactor (PWR). The analysis of the BWR was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories while the analysis of the PWR was performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This multi-volume report presents and discusses the results of the BWR analysis. The subject of this part presents the deterministic code calculations, performed with the MELCOR code, that were used to support the development and quantification of the PRA models. The background for the work documented in this report is summarized, including how deterministic codes are used in PRAS, why the MELCOR code is used, what the capabilities and features of MELCOR are, and how the code has been used by others in the past. Brief descriptions of the Grand Gulf plant and its configuration during LP&S operation and of the MELCOR input model developed for the Grand Gulf plant in its LP&S configuration are given.

  16. Safety aspects of unplanned shutdowns and trips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The issue of unplanned shutdowns and trips is receiving increased attention worldwide in view of its importance to plant safety and availability. There exists significant variation in the number of forced shutdowns for nuclear power plants of the same type operating worldwide. The reduction of the frequency of these events will have safety benefits in terms of reducing the frequency of plant transients and the challenges to the safety systems, and the risks of possible incidents. This report provides an insight into the causes of unplanned shutdowns experienced in operating nuclear power plants worldwide, the good practices that have been found effective in minimizing their occurrence, and the measures that have been taken to reduce these events. Specific information on the experiences, approaches and practices of some countries in dealing with this issue is presented in Appendix A

  17. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Nuclear reactor shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.; Cooper, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    An improved nuclear reactor shutdown system is described comprising a temperature sensitive device connected to control the electric power supply to a magnetic latch holding a body of a neutron absorbing material. The temperature sensitive device is exposed to the reactor coolant so that when the reactor coolant temperature rises above a specific level, the temperature sensitive device will cause deenergization of the magnetic latch to allow the body of neutron absorbing material to enter the reactor core. (author)

  19. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.

  20. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit-1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendices F-H, Volume 2, Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.; Holmes, B.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis

  1. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events during mid-loop operations. Appendix E (Sections E.9-E.16), Volume 2, Part 3B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M.; Bley, D.; Johnson, D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis

  2. Component failures that lead to manual shutdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The data for this report are taken from a population of thirty-five LWRs, al of which differ appreciably in size, design, and age. Appendix A provides a graphical display of the number of manual shutdowns per operating year as a function of plant age, with the frequency adjusted to reflect plant availability

  3. Knowledge transfer from building operation to construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Chatzilazarou, Stamatia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how knowledge that derives from operation and maintenance of buildings can be stored and transferred in order to be reused in a future building project? Design/methodology/approach: The paper is theoretically based on knowledge management with a particular focus...... on interdepartmental knowledge transfer between departments responsible for operation and management and departments responsible for building projects in organisations with large and fast changing building portfolios. The paper includes a case study of the FM organisation of the Technical University of Denmark...... with data collection mainly by interviews with managers and staff in the relevant departments in this organisation. Findings: The case organisation seems to be aware of the importance of sharing and transferring their organisational knowledge. Over the last five years, the organisation has developed...

  4. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Swalley U.S. Department of State, Overseas Buildings Operations Toby Wilson U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Engineer R&D Center Jeff Wix AEC3 The...exchanged in COBIE. To map those information exchanges to the IFC model, the Information Delivery Manual (IDM) process [ Wix 2007] was also used. The...Folksonomy. Wikimedia Foundation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Folksonomy/, accessed 3 August 2007. Wix , Jeffrey. 2007. Information Delivery Manual

  5. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Evaluation of severe accident risk during mid-loop operations. Main report. Volume 6. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L.

    1995-05-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6

  7. AP1000 construction and operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.W.; Corletti, M.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    Market analysis of the U.S. electricity generating market indicates that the generating cost of competitive new generating capacity must be less than $0.03/kw-hr. When such factors as an attractive return on investment and payback period are considered for a new nuclear electric generating facility, this results in the requirement to have an overnight capital cost of approximately $1000/kw. Industry executives indicate that any new nuclear plant must be able to compete in the de-regulated generation wholesale marketplace and provide a return to the shareholders. Against this standard, the costs of advanced nuclear power plants currently available are still too high. In the United States, the Utility Requirements Document for advanced light water reactor plants included a cost goal that was based on the cost of coal generated electricity at the time the document was written. Since that time, the cost of new generating capacity and the overall operating cost of generating electricity has gone down. This is a result of low natural gas prices, more efficient plants in general and the current record breaking reductions in outage times and operating costs for nuclear plants. The plant designs resulting from the United States advanced light water reactor plant programs received Design Certification from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some are being deployed, with variations, in countries other than the United States. But they can not compete today with other sources of central station generation in the United States. (author)

  8. AP1000 construction and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.; Corletti, M.M.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    Market analysis of the U.S. electricity generating market indicates that the generating cost of competitive new generating capacity must be less than $0.03/kw-hr. When such factors as an attractive return on investment and payback period are considered for a new nuclear electric generating facility, this results in the requirement to have an overnight capital cost of approximately $1000/kw. Industry executives indicate that any new nuclear plant must be able to compete in the de-regulated generation wholesale marketplace and provide a return to the shareholders. Against this standard, the costs of advanced nuclear power plants currently available are still too high. In the United States, the Utility Requirements Document for advanced light water reactor plants included a cost goal that was based on the cost of coal generated electricity at the time the document was written. Since that time, the cost of new generating capacity and the overall operating cost of generating electricity has gone down. This is a result of low natural gas prices, more efficient plants in general and the current record breaking reductions in outage times and operating costs for nuclear plants. The plant designs resulting from the United States advanced light water reactor plant programs received Design Certification from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some are being deployed, with variations, in countries other than the United States. But they can not compete today with other sources of central station generation in the United States. (author)

  9. Shutdown Safety in NEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluhak, Mario; Senegovic, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Industry performance analysis since 2004 has revealed that 23% of the events reported to WANO occurred during outage periods. Given the fact that a plant is in the outage only 5 percent of the time, this emphasizes the importance of shutdown safety and measures station staffs undertake to maintain effective barriers to safety margins during the outage. Back in 1990s, the industry adopted guidance to meet safety requirements by focusing on safety functions. Both WANO and INPO released various documents, reports and guidelines to help accomplish those requirements. However, in the last decade inadequate 'defence in depth' has led to several events affecting shutdown safety and challenging one of the most important nuclear safety principles: 'The special characteristics of nuclear technology are taken into account in all decisions and actions. Reactivity control, continuity of core cooling, and integrity of fission product barriers are valued as essential, distinguishing attributes of nuclear station work environment'. NEK has recognized the importance of 'defence in depth'Industry performance analysis since 2004 has revealed that 23% of the events reported to WANO occurred during outage periods. Given the fact that a plant is in the outage only 5 percent of the time, this emphasizes the importance of shutdown safety and measures station staffs undertake to maintain effective barriers to safety margins during the outage. Back in 1990s, the industry adopted guidance to meet safety requirements by focusing on safety functions. Both WANO and INPO released various documents, reports and guidelines to help accomplish those requirements. However, in the last decade inadequate 'defence in depth' has led to several events affecting shutdown safety and challenging one of the most important nuclear safety principles: 'The special characteristics of nuclear technology are taken into account in all decisions and actions. Reactivity

  10. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. The US needs a high-flux, short-pulsed neutron source to provide the scientific and industrial research communities with a much more intense source of pulsed neutrons for neutron scattering research than is currently available, and to assure the availability of a state-of-the-art facility in the decades ahead. This next-generation neutron source would create new scientific and engineering opportunities. In addition, it would help replace the neutron science capacity that will be lost by the eventual shutdown of existing sources as they reach the end of their useful operating lives in the first half of the next century. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  11. Operating experience and construction status of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; DenHartog, P.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.

    1984-01-01

    The present Argonne Tandem-Linac accelerator has operated in a reliable manner during the past year. The accelerator system provided 4402 hours of experimental beam time with a wide variety of heavy-ions. Figure 1 shows the beams which have been provided during the past year. New beams accelerated by the linac include 300 MeV 82 Se and 390 MeV 109 Ag. In tests, the tandem accelerated 102 MeV 127 I. This is the heaviest beam ever accelerated by the Argonne tandem. The long-term performance of the niobium resonators appears to be good. No significant degradation of performance has been observed for most resonators over many years of use with the exceptions of problems caused by catastrophic vacuum accidents. Resonators whose performance has deteriorated after vacuum accidents have recently been restored to their original performance state by a simple technique. The technique used is to rinse the interior of the resonator with a sequence of baths of solvents and water

  12. Shutdown problems in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Some of the problems connected with a normal shutdown at the end of the burn phase (soft shutdown) and with a shutdown caused by disruptive instability (hard shutdown) have been considered. For a soft shutdown a cursory literature search was undertaken and methods for controlling the thermal wall loading were listed. Because shutdown computer codes are not widespread, some of the differences between start-up codes and shutdown codes were discussed along with program changes needed to change a start-up code to a shutdown code. For a hard shutdown, the major problems are large induced voltages in the ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils and high first wall erosion. A literature search of plasma-wall interactions was carried out. Phenomena that occur at the plasma-wall interface can be quite complicated. For example, material evaporated from the wall can form a virtual limiter or shield protecting the wall from major damage. Thermal gradients that occur during the interaction can produce currents whose associated magnetic field also helps shield the wall

  13. Risk impact of BWR technical specifications requirements during shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staple, B.D.; Kirk, H.K.; Yakle, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents an application of probabilistic models and risk based criteria for determining the risk impact of the Limiting Conditions of Operations (LCOs) in the Technical Specifications (TSs) of a boiling water reactor during shutdown. This analysis studied the risk impact of the current requirements of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STIs) in eight Plant Operational States (POSs) which encompass power operations, shutdown, and refueling. This report also discusses insights concerning TS action statements

  14. Night-time road construction operations synthesis of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    report synthesizes existing literature on nighttime construction operations, identifies gaps in the current state of knowledge, and summarizes research in progress studies that are planned or underway. The literature review and synthesis found the fo...

  15. Design, construction and operation features of high-rise structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylnik, Alexey; Mylnik, Vladimir; Zubeeva, Elena; Mukhamedzhanova, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article considers design, construction and operation features of high-rise facilities. The analysis of various situations, that come from improper designing, construction and operation of unique facilities, is carried out. The integrated approach is suggested, when the problems of choosing acceptable constructional solutions related to the functional purpose, architectural solutions, methods of manufacturing and installation, operating conditions for unique buildings and structures are being tackled. A number of main causes for the emergency destruction of objects under construction and operation is considered. A number of measures are proposed on the basis of factor classification in order to efficiently prevent the situations, when various negative options of design loads and emergency impacts occur.

  16. Controlled shutdown of a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Keskula, Donald H.

    2002-01-01

    A method is provided for the shutdown of a fuel cell system to relieve system overpressure while maintaining air compressor operation, and corresponding vent valving and control arrangement. The method and venting arrangement are employed in a fuel cell system, for instance a vehicle propulsion system, comprising, in fluid communication, an air compressor having an outlet for providing air to the system, a combustor operative to provide combustor exhaust to the fuel processor.

  17. Reactor shutdown device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Aono, Hidehiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Fujita, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi

    1996-02-20

    The present invention concerns a reactor shutdown device of a LMFBR type reactor, and provides a magnetic circuit having a sharp changing property of holding force relative to temperature change. Namely, a magnetic bridge is attached to a portion of the magnetic circuit. Then, required conditions are satisfied. Alternatively, even if the temperature dependent change of magnetic saturation of a temperature sensing alloy itself is somewhat moderated, the holding force from an erroneous dropping preventive temperature to a separating temperature can be abruptly reduced while keeping the holding force at a temperature lower than the erroneous dropping preventive temperature. Provision of the magnetic bridge increases the temperature dependent change of the holding force of the entire magnetic circuit. As a result, margin for the design of the temperature sensing alloy is extended. Actual design is enabled, and the range for selecting the temperature sensing alloy can be enlarged. (I.S.).

  18. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kiyoshi; Aono, Hidehiro; Fujita, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor shutdown device of a LMFBR type reactor, and provides a magnetic circuit having a sharp changing property of holding force relative to temperature change. Namely, a magnetic bridge is attached to a portion of the magnetic circuit. Then, required conditions are satisfied. Alternatively, even if the temperature dependent change of magnetic saturation of a temperature sensing alloy itself is somewhat moderated, the holding force from an erroneous dropping preventive temperature to a separating temperature can be abruptly reduced while keeping the holding force at a temperature lower than the erroneous dropping preventive temperature. Provision of the magnetic bridge increases the temperature dependent change of the holding force of the entire magnetic circuit. As a result, margin for the design of the temperature sensing alloy is extended. Actual design is enabled, and the range for selecting the temperature sensing alloy can be enlarged. (I.S.)

  19. Assessment of shutdown management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, A.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past several years, there has been a number of events that have occurred during nuclear plant outages. These events included losses of AC power, losses of decay heat removal capability, reductions in shutdown margin, and losses of reactor coolant system inventory. Individually, these events have not posed nor indicated an undue risk to public health and safety. Collectively however, they contributed to a perception that outage activities are not being controlled effectively. This paper reports that for many of these same reasons, events that occur during outages have also been of concern to the industry. These events can have a significant economic impact on a company in addition to their being disruptive to the conduct of an efficient outage. And while we have expended industry resources reviewing these events, we have not been fully effective at addressing the root cause of the problem

  20. Construction, testing, and initial operation of Fort St. Vrain PCRV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ople, F.S. Jr.; Neylan, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) Nuclear Generating Station is the first station in the USA to use a prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV). The PCRV was designed and constructed by General Atomic. Construction of the PCRV was completed in 1970; the pressure and leak tests were completed in 1971. The structural behavior of the PCRV has been monitored by installed instrumentation since start of construction. The highlights of the actual construction, testing, and initial operation of the PCRV, including a comparison of structural behavior, where possible, between observed data and analytical predictions. (U.S.)

  1. Fermionic construction of vertex operators for twisted affine algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frappat, L.; Sorba, P.; Sciarrino, A.

    1988-03-01

    We construct vertex operator representations of the twisted affine algebras in terms of fermionic (or parafermionic in some cases) elementary fields. The folding method applied to the extended Dynkin diagrams of the affine algebras allows us to determine explicitly these fermionic fields as vertex operators

  2. Startup, Shutdown, & Malfunction (SSM) Emissions at Industrial Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA issued a final action to ensure states have plans in place that are fully consistent with the Clean Air Act and recent court decisions concerning startup, shutdown and malfunction (SSM) operations.

  3. Low Power Shutdown PSA for CANDU Type Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yeon Kyoung; Kim, Myung Su [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    KHNP also have concentrated on full power PSA. Some recently constructed OPR1000 type plants and APR1400 type plants have performed the low power and shutdown (LPSD) PSA. The purpose of LPSD PSA is to identify the main contributors on the accident sequences of core damage and to find the measure of safety improvement. After the Fukushima accident, Korean regulatory agency required the shutdown severe accident management guidelines (SSAMG) development for safety enhancement. For the reliability of SSAMG, KHNP should develop the LPSD PSA. Especially, the LPSD PSA for CANDU type plant had developed for the first time in Korea. This paper illustrates how the LPSD PSA for CANDU type developed and the core damage frequency (CDF) is different with that of full power PSA. KHNP performed LPSD PSA to develop the SSAMG after the Fukushima accidents. The results show that risk at the specific operation mode during outage is higher than that of full power operation. Also, the results indicated that recovery failure of class 4 power at the POS 5A, 5B contribute dominantly to the total CDF from importances analysis. LPSD PSA results such as CDF with initiating events and POSs, risk results with plant damage state, and containment failure probability and frequency with POSs can be used by inputs for developing the SSAMG.

  4. AN ACD DIAGRAM DEVELOPED FOR SIMULATING A BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Zaeri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Success in the performance of construction projects can be substantially enhanced if plans are formulated more realistically, ahead of time. Planning includes identifying project activities, required resources, interdependencies, and also recognizing the uncertainties in the duration of activities. Inherent features of construction projects, such as high repetition, complexity and uniqueness on the one hand, and advances in technology and methodologies on the other, create more difficulties in planning construction delivery. This is true for bridge operations. This study presents an innovative incremental beam launching method with twin truss gantry. This construction method has significant advantages in terms of cost and speed of performance, but increases the level of planning and management required for the bridge operation. Further, because of the newness of the method, no specific Work Breakdown Structure nor conceptual framework has been developed as yet. The aim of the current study is to explore the use of a simulation-based tool (EZStrobe to facilitate the planning and management of a bridge construction operation (case study. The process followed in the development of a conceptual framework for the case study project is described. An Activity Cycle Diagram is produced alongside the conceptual framework and process models, with the intent of illustrating the key steps in the simulation modelling method. The developed models could assist in scheduling and controlling inherent construction features such as uncertainties, complexities, and repetitions in bridge construction projects, consequently improving their delivery.

  5. Document status for 1 and 2 Kozloduy NPP decommissioning activities -Phase 'Final Shutdown'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangev, A.; Boyadjiev, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Decommissioning process (D and D) is the final phase of each nuclear reactor life cycle. The first nuclear reactor generation has reached his expiration life date. Decommissioning working documentation had not been taken into account at the project and construction stage. The decommissioning activities, planning and legislation has to develop along their operation. Most of developed nuclear energetic countries have gathered good experience and have create their own decommissioning strategy. This report represents in brief an overview of different country's approaches and the Kozloduy NPP decommissioning activity intention in near future and reviews the D and D working document status for 1 and 2 Kozloduy NPP Units decommissioning. Kozloduy NPP D and D task to the moment is to plan the first stage of the decommissioning process - 'The Final Shutdown' and to prepare the working documents for the phase execution. The Final Shutdown of Kozloduy NPP - 1 is the termination of operation of the Units 1 and 2 and the electricity production cessation after their useful life exhaust. In accordance with the legal legislation in Bulgaria only the normal planned termination of operation on units 1 and 2 should be prescribed. The project results concern the initial condition of the equipment and systems, their preparation and sequence for defueling, decontamination and dismantling. A plan for activities' organization for D and D and Complex Characterization of the Site under consideration will contain the following documents: 1. Time-schedule for the sequence of activities during the stages of the Final Shutdown and Safe Enclosure preparation. Technical project for organization of work related to Final Shutdown; 2. Complex Characterization Programme for a condition investigation of the Units 1 and 2 equipment and systems. 3. Technical project for design modifications and dismantling of equipment and systems which violate the radiation and nuclear safety during the Final Shutdown

  6. Supplementary shutdown system of 220 MWe standard PHWR in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muktibodh, U.C.

    1997-01-01

    The design objective of the shutdown system is to make the reactor subcritical and hold it in that state for an extended period of time. This objective must be realised under all anticipated operational occurrences and postulated abnormal conditions even during most reactive state of the core. PHWR design criteria for shutdown stipulates requirement of two independent diverse and fast acting shutdown systems, either of which acting alone should meet the above objectives. This requirement would normally call for a large number of reactivity mechanism penetrations into the calandria. From the point of view of space availability at the reactivity mechanism area on top of calandria, for the relatively small core of 220 MWe PHWRs, and ease of maintenance realisation of the total worth by either of the shutdown systems acting alone was difficult. To overcome this engineering constraint and at the same time to satisfy the design criteria, a unique approach to meet the reactivity demands for shutdown was adopted. The reactivity requirements of the shutdown consists of fast and slow reactivity changes. For the shutdown system of 220 MWe PHWRs, the approach of realizing fast reactivity changes with dual redundant, diverse, fast acting shutdown systems aided by a slow acting shutdown system to counter delayed reactivity changes was conceived. The supplementary slow acting shutdown system is called upon to act after actuation of either of the two redundant fast acting systems and is referred to as Liquid Poison Injection System (LPIS). The system adds bulk amount of neutron poison (boric acid), equivalent to 45 mk, directly into the moderator through two nozzles in calandria using pneumatic pressure. This paper describes the design of LPIS as envisaged for the standardised 220 MWe PHWRs. (author)

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1C: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for plant operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Sections 11--14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.; Darby, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf

  8. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 2, Part 2: Internal Events Appendices A to H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, J.; Whitehead, D.; Staple, B.; Dandini, V.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power analyses performed on Grand Gulf

  9. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during Low Power and Shutdown Operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1. Volume 2, Part 1B: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage, Main report (Section 10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, D.; Darby, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-06-01

    This document contains the accident sequence analysis of internally initiated events for Grand Gulf, Unit 1 as it operates in the Low Power and Shutdown Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. The report documents the methodology used during the analysis, describes the results from the application of the methodology, and compares the results with the results from two full power performed on Grand Gulf. This document, Volume 2, Part 1B, presents chapters Section 10 of this report, Human Reliability Analysis

  10. Integrated safety analysis to operate while constructing Urenco USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrt, Rick; Su, Shiaw-Der; Lehman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The URENCO USA (UUSA) site in Lea County, New Mexico, USA is authorized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility under 10 CFR 70 (Ref 1). The facility employs the gas centrifuge process to separate natural uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feed material into a product stream enriched up to 5% U-235 and a depleted UF 6 stream containing approximately 0.2 to 0.34% U-235. Initial plant operations, with a limited number of cascades on line, commenced in the second half of 2010. Construction activities continue as each subsequent cascade is commissioned and placed into service. UUSA performed an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) to allow the facility to operate while constructing the remainder of the facility. The ISA Team selected the What-If/Checklist method based on guidance in NUREG-1513 (Ref 2) and AIChE Guidelines (Ref 3). Of the three methods recommended for high risk events HAZOP, What-If/Checklist, or Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), the What-If/Checklist lends itself best to construction activities. It combines the structure of a checklist with an unstructured 'brainstorming' approach to create a list of specific accident events that could produce an undesirable consequence. The What-If/Checklist for Operate While Constructing divides the UUSA site into seven areas and creates what-if questions for sixteen different construction activities, such as site preparation, external construction cranes, and internal construction lifts. The result is a total of 112 nodes, for which the Operate While Constructing ISA Team created hundreds of what-if questions. For each what-if question the team determined the likelihood, consequences, safeguards, and acceptability of risk. What-if questions with unacceptable risk are the accident sequences and their selected safeguards are the Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS). The final ISA identified four (4) new accident sequences that, unless

  11. The construction and operation of a low-cost poultry waste digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsberger, S C; Shih, J C

    1984-05-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed to treat the waste from 4000 caged laying hens on University Research Unit No. 2 at North Carolina State University. The system was built basically of a plastic lining with insulation, a heating system, a hot-water tank, and other metering equipment. It was operated at 50 degrees C and pH 7.5-8.0. The initiation of methane production was achieved using the indigenous microflora in the poultry waste. At an optimal loading rate (7.5 kg volatile solids/m(3) day), the PWD produced biogas (55% methane) at a rate of 4.0 m(3)/m(3) day. The PWD was biologically stable and able to tolerate temporary overloads and shutdowns. A higher loading rate failed to maintain a high gas production rate and caused drops in methane content and pH value. Under optimal conditions, a positive energy balance was demonstrated with a net surplus of 50.6% of the gross energy. For methane production, the PWD system was proved to be technically feasible. The simple design and inexpensive materials used for this model could significantly reduce the cost of digestion compared to more conventional systems. More studies are needed to determine the durability, the required maintenance of the system, and the most economical method of biogas and solid residue utilization.

  12. Reactor shutdown system of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindarajan, S.; Singh, Om Pal; Kasinathan, N.; Paramasivan Pillai, C.; Arul, A.J.; Chetal, S.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The shutdown system of PFBR is designed to assure a very high reliability by employing well known principles of redundancy, diversity and independence. The failure probability of the shutdown system limited to -6 / ry. Salient features of the shutdown system are: Two independent shutdown systems, each of them able to accommodate an additional single failure and made up of a trip system and an associated absorber rod group. Diversity between trip systems, rods and mechanisms. Initiation of SCRAM by two diverse physical parameters of the two shutdown systems for design events leading potentially to unacceptable conditions is the core. The first group of nine rods called control and safety rods (CSR) is used for both shutdown as well as power regulation. The second group consisting of three rods known as diverse safety rods (DSR) is used only for shutdown. Diversity between the two groups is ensured by varying the operating conditions of the electromagnets and the configurations of the mobile parts. The reactivity worth of the absorber rods have been chosen such that each group of rods would ensure cold shutdown on SCRAM even when the most reactive rod of the group fails to drop. Together the two groups ensure a shutdown margin of 5000 pcm. The speed and individual rod worth of the CSR is chosen from operational and safety considerations during reactor start up and raising of power. Required drop time of rods during SCRAM depends on the incident considered. For a severe reactivity incident of 3 $/s this has to be limited to 1s and is ensured by limiting electromagnet response time and facilitating drop by gravity. Design safety limits for core components have been determined and SCRAM parameters have been identified by plant dynamic analysis to restrict the temperatures of core components within the limits. The SCRAM parameters are distributed between the two systems appropriately. Fault tree analysis of the system has been carried out to determine the

  13. Safety analysis of Ignalina NPP during shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliatka, A.; Uspuras, E.

    2000-01-01

    The accident analysis for the Ignalina NPP with RBMK-1500 reactors at normal operating conditions and at minimum controlled power level (during startup of the reactor) has been performed in the frame of the project I n-Depth Safety Assessment of the Ignalina NPP , which was completed in 1996. However, the plant conditions during the reactor shutdown differ from conditions during reactor operation at full power (equipment status in protection systems, set points for actuation of safety and protection systems, etc.). Results of RELAP5 simulation of two worst initiating events during reactor shutdown - Pressure Header rupture in case of steam reactor cooldown as well as Pressure Header rupture in case of water reactor cooldown are discussed in the paper. Results of analysis shown that reactor are reliably cooled in both cases. Further analysis for all range of initial events during reactor shutdown and at shutdown conditions is recommended. (author)

  14. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  15. Construction and initial operation of the Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.L.; Bell, J.D.; Benson, R.D.

    1989-08-01

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron was designed on a physics basis for access to the second stability regime and on an engineering basis for independent fabrication of high-accuracy components. The actual construction, assembly, and initial operation of ATF are compared with the characteristics expected during the design of ATF. 31 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Research Trends on Benefits of Implementing Constructability, Operability, and Maintainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordestani Ghaleenoe, N.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite allocating huge budgets to civil engineering projects, detailed planning, and employing human resources, project managers still face time, cost, and quality constraints. Most of these challenges are due to a lack of integration of different project phases and the limitations of the presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the initial stages of the project. Considering the benefits of applying constructability, operability, and maintainability (COM concepts, many problems caused by lack of coordination, or duplications and weakness in management, and also time and extra costs due to lack of presence of construction and maintenance contractors in the early stages of the project are resolvable. In this regard, various studies have investigated the benefits of applying these concepts; however, there has been no comprehensive analysis of the benefits of COM. As a result of focus on the benefits of implementation of these concepts and evaluating the effect of each of these strategies and benefits, from different perspectives during various time periods, managers can increase project efficiency and productivity, and improve their performance, through using concepts and strategies of their implementation. This research aims to evaluate the trend of studies on the benefits of implementing constructability, operability, and maintainability in the construction industry. For that, the in-depth literature review method is applied. For qualitative analysis of the obtained information, descriptive analysis has been used. Then, the data was coded, and classified using Excel Software for quantitative data analysis. Finally, the charts presented were evaluated according to the classified fields of study. The necessity of performing such a study is significant because of the fact that a large share of a project’s problems, such as lack of plans’ integration and weakness of administrative system, and increasing time and cost, are due to

  17. Startup and shutdown of the PULSAR Tokamak Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.

    1994-01-01

    Start-up conditions are examined for a pulsed tokamak reactor that uses only inductive plasma current drive for startup, burn and shutdown. A zero-dimensional (profile-averaged) model that describes plasma power and particle balance equations is used to study several aspects of plasma startup and shutdown, including optimization of the startup pathway tradeoff of auxiliary startup heating power versus startup time, volt-second consumtion, thermal stability and partial-power operations

  18. Evolution of shutdown mechanism for PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Manjit; Govindarajan, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 500 MWe PHWR, there are two independent fast acting shutdown systems namely (1) mechanical shut-off rod system and (2) liquid poison injection system. Both systems are independently capable of keeping the reactor in sub-critical condition during long shutdown. Mechanical shut-off rod system being primary shutdown system calls for a very high reliability of operation as well as effectiveness, which are mainly governed by its ability to operate within a very short time and the magnitude of negative reactivity worth it can provide. Mechanical shut-off rods are normally parked above the core by shut-off rod drive mechanism. On receiving a scram signal, shut-off rods are released from the holding electromagnetic clutch and fall under gravity into the core. This paper discusses the salient features of mechanical shut-off rod system. A brief account of detailed design and development of sub-assemblies of shut-off rod drive mechanism is also presented. (author)

  19. Shutdown chemistry optimization at Maanshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuanlung; Chuang Benjamin; Su Kouhwa; Kao Jueiting

    2009-01-01

    At Maanshan PWRs, a significant piping radiation buildup caused by crud burst from fuel surface in the beginning of RFO used to be blamed as a contribution to high personal exposures during outage. Therefore, several modifications on shutdown chemistry procedures such as, early lithium removal, rapid boration, dissolved hydrogen removal, extended RCP operation, and maintaining maximum let down flow, have been consecutively conducted since no.1RFO-16, 2006. The important operational and chemical parameters of modified shutdown chemistry procedures adopted in no.2 RFO-17, 2008 and superiority in low reading (2 mSv/hr) from let down heat exchangers area radiation monitor over 11mSv/hr of no.1 RFO-16 at the same area will be addressed in this paper. At the end of no.2 RFO-17, low personal exposures of 765 man-mSv (TLD)verified the absence of crud burst during shutdown chemistry process and broke records of Maanshan NPP as well. Even with a new job on PZR pre-emptive dissimilar weld overlay which exhausting 17.37% of total 797 man-mSv(TLD) in the latest no.1 RFO-18, 659 man-mSv (TLD) made another record low in the history of Maanshan. (author)

  20. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J.; Best, Ralph E.; Ross, Steven B.; Buxton, Kenneth A.; England, Jeffery L.; McConnell, Paul E.

    2013-09-30

    This report fulfills the M2 milestone M2FT-13PN0912022, “Stranded Sites De-Inventorying Report.” In January 2013, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued the Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013). Among the elements contained in this strategy is an initial focus on accepting used nuclear fuel from shutdown reactor sites. This focus is consistent with the recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future, which identified removal of stranded used nuclear fuel at shutdown sites as a priority so that these sites may be completely decommissioned and put to other beneficial uses (BRC 2012). Shutdown sites are defined as those commercial nuclear power reactor sites where the nuclear power reactors have been shut down and the site has been decommissioned or is undergoing decommissioning. In this report, a preliminary evaluation of removing used nuclear fuel from 12 shutdown sites was conducted. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, and San Onofre. These sites have no other operating nuclear power reactors at their sites and have also notified the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission that their reactors have permanently ceased power operations and that nuclear fuel has been permanently removed from their reactor vessels. Shutdown reactors at sites having other operating reactors are not included in this evaluation.

  1. AUTOCAD IN THE OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT OF THE CONSTRUCTION SITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva Marina Vladimirovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Operational management of the construction is usually based on information analysis systems, which are aimed at the monitoring of working schedule and volumes as consistent with predicated schedules. The result of such systems’ operation is traditional information graphics (diagrams, charts, etc., which provides idea on the current state of the construction site and deviations from the planned settings. The author considers the visualization technology of construction of objects using an image of the situation on the AutoCAD drawings, converted into an interactive format. The article focuses on imperfections of the existing technologies of information support of the managers. The creation of unified IT platform is offered on the basis of CAD for creating an integrated information storage and visualization of the environment using electronic drawings and diagrams. Using interactive methods it is possible to illustrate the condition of almost any part of the construction project using these drawings and diagrams. E-drawings contain the basic information resources - estimates, plans, sections, specifications, technology, construction, etc. necessary for the calculation of indicators. The author proved that implementation of visualization is most efficient in case of electronic drawings in 3D format.

  2. LMFBR self-activated shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.S.; Barthold, W.P.; Eggen, D.T.; Huebotter, P.R.; Josephson, J.; Pizzica, P.A.; Turski, R.B.; van Erp, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Self-actuated shutdown systems (SASSs), fully contained within the dimensions of a fuel subassembly and installed in the core in judiciously chosen locations, can provide an important additional safety feature for LMFBRs. If actuated by phenomena inherent to the system and its immediate environment, these systems can contribute considerably to the total reliability of the overall plant protection system, in particular as regards protection against human error. It was shown that this type of shutdown system is capable of inserting a substantial amount of negative reactivity into the core with a relatively small impact on plant performance. Furthermore, it was shown that a coolable geometry can be maintained in LMFBRs of current design for a wide spectrum of accident initiators, and for a range of response times and insertion rates which appear to be achievable within practical design limits. Experiments showed that Curie-point-operated devices have considerable promise for application in self-actuated shutdown systems, in particular as regards meeting the requirements of testability and resettability

  3. Oscillator construction of su(n|m) Q-operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frassek, Rouven, E-mail: rfrassek@physik.hu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Lukowski, Tomasz, E-mail: lukowski@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Meneghelli, Carlo, E-mail: carlo@aei.mpg.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias, E-mail: matthias@aei.mpg.de [Institut fuer Mathematik und Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Johann von Neumann-Haus, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    We generalize our recent explicit construction of the full hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators of compact spin chains with su(n) symmetry to the supersymmetric case su(n|m). The method is based on novel degenerate solutions of the graded Yang-Baxter equation, leading to an amalgam of bosonic and fermionic oscillator algebras. Our approach is fully algebraic, and leads to the exact solution of the associated compact spin chains while avoiding Bethe ansatz techniques. It furthermore elucidates the algebraic and combinatorial structures underlying the system of nested Bethe equations. Finally, our construction naturally reproduces the representation, due to Z. Tsuboi, of the hierarchy of Baxter Q-operators in terms of hypercubic Hasse diagrams.

  4. Origins, and the construction, commissioning and operation of the SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    The SRS was initiated in 1973 and approved in 1975. It came into use in 1981. The paper describes the organizational framework at the different stages, the pre-approval, construction, commissioning and operational phases of the storage ring, the build-up of experimental stations, and future plans. The emphasis is on lessons which can be learned by those about to embark on such a project, rather than on a detailed historical account, and on managerial rather than physics matters

  5. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: construction, operation, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Acharya, Shreyasi; Adam, Jaroslav; Ahmad, Nazeer; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Bhom, Jihyun

    2018-01-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 G...

  6. Experience from construction and operation of Karachi nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, S.M.N.

    1977-01-01

    Pakistan's first nuclear power plant (KANUPP) is owned and operated by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). It uses a heavy water moderated and cooled natural uranium fuelled reactor. Total installed capacity is 137 MW(e). It was designed, constructed and commissioned by Canadian General Electric Co. Ltd. (CGE) as Prime Contractor. Construction started in mid-1966 and was completed in mid 1970; commissioning started in early 1970 and was completed at the end of 1972. Intensive on-the-job training for 20 engineers and 15 operators was provided by CGE in Canada. Ten engineers also worked in CGE's design offices. With this key group of engineers and technicians PAEC had no difficulty in taking over the plant from CGE after completion. The construction of the plant in a developing country presented special problems to CGE. The relatively small local construction firms had limited experience and equipment. Construction plant, equipment and tools were scarce. Fabrication and workshop facilities of limited scope were available but their quotations were relatively high. A scarcity of engineering, technical and skilled manpower for the construction of the project left as the only alternative on-site training for carefully recruited technicians. The results were most gratifying and compared favourably with CGE's Canadian experience. Welding, pipe fitting, tubing work and electrical connections were excellent. The local staff's productivity and dedication were very good. In the commissioning period, PAEC and CGE engineers and technicians worked as one team, testing and debugging the equipment and systems and demonstrating the contractual performance warranties. This period extended to approximately three years due to many technical problems resulting from equipment failures, environmental problems, system problems, plant loading limitations in view of the relatively small size of the grid system and special requirement of fuel conditioning to avoid premature fuel

  7. Reliability analysis of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; John Arul, A.; Pal Singh, Om; Suryaprakasa Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of reliability analysis of Shutdown System (SDS) of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Reliability analysis carried out using Fault Tree Analysis predicts a value of 3.5 x 10 -8 /de for failure of shutdown function in case of global faults and 4.4 x 10 -8 /de for local faults. Based on 20 de/y, the frequency of shutdown function failure is 0.7 x 10 -6 /ry, which meets the reliability target, set by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The reliability is limited by Common Cause Failure (CCF) of actuation part of SDS and to a lesser extent CCF of electronic components. The failure frequency of individual systems is -3 /ry, which also meets the safety criteria. Uncertainty analysis indicates a maximum error factor of 5 for the top event unavailability

  8. Design improvements, construction and operating experience with BWRs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchigasaki, G.; Yokomi, M.; Sasaki, M.; Aoki, R.; Hashimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    (1) The first domestic-made 1100-MW(e) BWR in Japan commenced commercial operation in April 1982. The unit is the leading one of the subsequent three in Fukushima Daini nuclear power station owned by the Tokyo Electric Power Company Inc. (Tepco). Based on the accumulated construction and operation experience of 500-MW(e) and 800-MW(e) class BWRs, improvements in various aspects during both the design and construction stages were introduced in core and fuel design with advanced gadolinia distribution, reactor feedwater treatment technology for crud reduction, a radwaste island, control and instrumentation to cope with the lessons learned through Three Mile Island assessment etc. (2) Based on many operating experiences with BWRs, an improved BWR core, which has easier operability and higher load factor than the conventional core, has been developed. The characteristic of the improved core is ''axially two-zoned uranium enrichment distribution''; the enrichment of the upper part of the fuel is slightly higher than that of the lower part. Through the improved core it became possible to optimize the axial power flattening and core reactivity control separately by axial enrichment distribution and burnable poison content. The improved fuels were loaded into operating BWRs and successfully proved the performance by this experience. (3) To shorten annual outage time, to reduce radiation exposure, to save manpower, and to achieve high reliability and safety of inspection operation, the remote automatic service and inspection equipment were developed in Japan. This paper presents the concept, distinctive features, and actual operation experience of the automatic refuelling machine, control-rod drive (CRD) remote-handling machine, improved main steam line isolation plug, and the automated ultrasonic inspection system with a computerized data processing unit, which have been developed by Hitachi, Ltd. with excellent results. (author)

  9. Constructive Representation Theory for the Feynman Operator Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, T L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we survey recent progress on the constructive theory of the Feynman operator calculus. We first develop an operator version of the Henstock-Kurzweil integral, and a new Hilbert space that allows us to construct the elementary path integral in the manner originally envisioned by Feynman. After developing our time-ordered operator theory we extend a few of the important theorems of semigroup theory, including the Hille-Yosida theorem. As an application, we unify and extend the theory of time-dependent parabolic and hyperbolic evolution equations. We then develop a general perturbation theory and use it to prove that all theories generated by semigroups are asympotic in the operator-valued sense of Poincar e. This allows us to provide a general theory for the interaction representation of relativistic quantum theory. We then show that our theory can be reformulated as a physically motivated sum over paths, and use this version to extend the Feynman path integral to include more general interaction...

  10. 30 CFR 285.620 - What is a Construction and Operations Plan (COP)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a Construction and Operations Plan (COP... Information Requirements Construction and Operations Plan for Commercial Leases § 285.620 What is a Construction and Operations Plan (COP)? The COP describes your construction, operations, and conceptual...

  11. Control rod shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Higashigawa, Yuichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a control rod terminating system in a BWR type nuclear power plant, which stops an induction electric motor as rapidly as possible to terminate the control rods. Namely, the control rod stopping system controls reactor power by inserting/withdrawing control rods into a reactor by driving them by the induction electric motor. The system is provided with a control device for controlling the control rods and a control device for controlling the braking device. The control device outputs a braking operation signal for actuating the braking device during operation of the control rods to stop the operation of the control rods. Further, the braking device has at least two kinds of breaks, namely, a first and a second brakes. The two kinds of brakes are actuated by receiving the brake operation signals at different timings. The brake device is used also for keeping the control rods after the stopping. Even if a stopping torque of each of the breaks is small, different two kinds of brakes are operated at different timings thereby capable of obtaining a large stopping torque as a total. (I.S.)

  12. Core shutdown report: Subcycle K-14.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gough, S.T.

    1992-05-01

    When a reactor is shut down, there is a set of rules that must be followed to guarantee that the reactor remains in a safe shutdown state. Some of these rules involve the cooling of heat generating assemblies before, during, and after charge-discharge (C ampersand D) operations. These rules ensure that C ampersand D operations will not endanger the integrity of the fuel or targets by allowing them to overheat. DPSOL 105-1225, Assembly Discharge and Forced Cooling Requirements, is the primary operations procedure that governs these cooling rules. The specific shutdown cooling limits that are input into this procedure are contained within this report

  13. Design and Construction of Operation Bridge for Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kwangsub; Choi, Jinbok; Lee, Jongmin; Oh, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The operation bridge contains a lower working deck mounted on a saddle that travels on rails. Upright members are mounted on the saddle to support the upper structure and two hoist monorails. The saddle contains an anti-derail system that is composed of seismic lugs and guide rollers. The operation bridge travels along the rails to transport the fuel assembly, irradiated object, and reactor components in the pools by using tools. Hoists are installed at the top girder. The hoist is suspended from the monorail by means of a motor driven trolley that runs along the monorail. Movements of hoist and trolley are controlled by using the control pendant switch. Processes of design and construction of the operation bridge for the research reactor are introduced. The operation bridge is designed under consideration of functions of handling equipment in the pool and operational limits for safety. Structural analysis is carried out to evaluate the structural integrity in the seismic events. Tests and inspections are also performed during fabrication and installation to confirm the function and safety of the operation bridge

  14. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzell, R N [Wylfa Power Station, Central Electricity Generating Board, Gwynedd (United Kingdom)

    1988-07-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  15. Design, construction and operating experience of boilers at Wylfa power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzell, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The report will describe the boilers, but will emphasise the problems encountered and the solutions. The boilers are 'once through' with start up drums. Some redundancy was provided but this advantage was lost due to downrating of gas temperature. The boilers are carbon steel suspended plattens (992 per reactor) tightly packed in the annular space between the core shielding and the spherical wall of the pressure vessel. This construction denies access to repair tube leaks. when a leak occurs the faulty platten has to be plugged off. This is done with the reactor at 60% power. The process will be described. Reactor 1 commenced operation in 1971, Reactor 2 in June 1971. Between 1972 and May 1984 21 leaks occurred which resulted in a major shutdown for investigation. This revealed the leaks were caused by gas flow induced vibration resulting in fretting of tubes in clips. Restraints and additional clamps were fitted. This has been successful but the modifications were extensive and in very difficult working conditions, the Reactor being shut down until May 1976. A family of leaks adjacent to personnel access ways commenced in Reactor 1 in 1975 which was later identified as erosion/corrosion on the water/steam side caused by the feed flow instability. This problem is common to both Reactors. Various modifications have been applied. Redistribution of feed flow using orifice plates and ferrules was only temporarily successful. Following extensive rig testing the feed water has been dosed with amino methyl proponal (AMP) since September 1983 with an immediate and sustained reduction in the leak rate. The amine provides protection through the steam/water phase. Rig testing continues to attain a better understanding of the erosion/corrosion. (author)

  16. Mechanic- and hydraulic shock-absorbers - layout, construction, operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem lies in the protection of the flexible supported power plant components against undesired sudden movements. Various shock absorbing systems are at disposal in this case: Mechanical and hydraulic shock absorbers, whose functioning systems are shown in figures. The operation experience showed a series of deficiencies, as demonstrated on various figures. In order to avoid them, some important recommendations are given. Requirements and layout are demonstrated according to todays' state-of-the-art. The admissible stresses, resulting from the summary of various specifications for the analytical evidence will be described. Development and construction will be explained in detail by means of pictures with cross sections of original shock absorbers. Todays' construction characteristics will be summarized. The final remark includes a request for generally valid guidelines. (orig.) [de

  17. Regulatory aspects of construction and operation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mission with respect to radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland consists of the following tasks: to assess proposed solutions and supervise the preparation for geological disposal of radioactive waste, to review the licence applications in accord with the stepwise implementation process; to supervise the transport of radioactive material to and from nuclear installations; to supervise surface facilities and underground installations of deep geological repositories; and to supervise the safety of staff and the public and their protection from radiation. Related nuclear legislation consists of the Nuclear Energy Act, the Radiological Protection Act including the corresponding Ordinances, and the Ordinance on the Decommissioning Fund and the Waste Disposal Fund for Nuclear Installations. Design, construction and operating principles for DGRs and requirements for the safety case have been developed recently by the Swiss regulatory body. The corresponding guideline specifies protection objectives, protection criteria and specific requirements for DGRs, defines the procedure to be followed for demonstrating the safety of a geological repository, and identifies requirements for the operation of facilities and for their closure. The Nuclear Energy Act stipulates a series of licences that must be obtained prior to completion of a DGR - starting with a general licence, followed by the licences for construction and operation, and finally the closure order

  18. Study of methodology for low power/shutdown fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhen; Li Zhaohua; Li Lin; Song Lei

    2014-01-01

    As a risk assessment technology based on probability, the fire PSA is accepted abroad by nuclear industry in its application in the risk assessment for nuclear power plants. Based on the industry experience, the fire-induced impact on the plant safety during low power and shutdown operation cannot be neglected, therefore fire PSA can be used to assess the corresponding fire risk. However, there is no corresponding domestic guidance/standard as well as accepted analysis methodology up to date. Through investigating the latest evolvement on fire PSA during low power and shutdown operation, and integrating its characteristic with the corresponding engineering experience, an engineering methodology to evaluate the fire risk during low power and shutdown operation for nuclear power plant is established in this paper. In addition, an analysis demonstration as an example is given. (authors)

  19. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00218666; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is the innermost layer of pixel detectors, and was installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm from the beam axis, between the existing Pixel detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D sensors and CMOS 130 nm technology. The IBL detector construction was completed within about two years (2012-2014), and the key features and challenges met during the IBL project are presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience at the LHC

  20. Vertex operator construction of superconformal ghosts and string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezawa, Z.F.; Nakamura, S.; Tezuka, A.

    1987-01-01

    Superconformal ghosts in string theories are characterized by the SU(1,1) Kac-Moody algebra with central charge -1/2. These ghost fields are constructed as the vertex operators realizing spinor representations of the Kac-Moody algebra. Representations of the canonical commutation relations of the superconformal ghosts are analyzed extensively. All irreducible representations are found to possess only the trivial inner product but for one exceptional case. Consequently, in superstring field theory it is necessary to consider reducible representations in general. Hilbert spaces with a non-trivial inner product are explicitly obtained upon which second quantization of superstring may be carried out. (orig.)

  1. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  2. Method of disposing of shut-down nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiser, H.

    1984-01-01

    A shut-down atomic power plant or a section thereof, particularly the nuclear reactor, is disposed of by sinking it to below ground level by constructing a caisson with cutting edges from the foundations of said plant or section or by excavating a pit therebelow

  3. Standardization of the time for the execution of HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. Y.; Lim, I. C.; Hwang, S. R.; Kang, T. J.; Youn, D. B.

    2003-01-01

    For the standardization of the time to execute HANARO start-up and shutdown procedures, code names were assigned to the individual procedures and the work time were investigated. The data recorded by the operators during start-up and shutdown were statistically analyzed. The analysis results will be used for the standardization of start-up and shutdown procedures and it will be reflected in the procedure document

  4. Submicron particle monitoring of paving and related road construction operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Baum, Lisa; Milek, Debra

    2012-01-01

    This study identified activities and sources that contribute to ultrafine and other submicron particle exposure that could trigger respiratory symptoms in highway repair workers. Submicron particle monitoring was conducted for paving, milling, and pothole repair operations in a major metropolitan area where several highway repair workers were identified as symptomatic for respiratory illness following exposures at the 2001 World Trade Center disaster site. Exposure assessments were conducted for eight trades involved in road construction using a TSI P-Trak portable condensation particle counter. Direct readings near the workers' breathing zones and observations of activities and potential sources were logged on 7 days on 27 workers using four different models of pavers and two types of millers. Average worker exposure levels ranged from 2 to 3 times background during paving and from 1 to 4 times background during milling. During asphalt paving, average personal exposures to submicron particulates were 25,000-60,000, 28,000-70,000, and 23,000-37,000 particles/ cm(3) for paver operators, screed operators, and rakers, respectively. Average personal exposures during milling were 19,000-111,000, 28,000-81,000, and 19,000 particles/cm(3) for the large miller operators, miller screed operators, and raker, respectively. Personal peak exposures were measured up to 467,000 and 455,000 particles/cm(3) in paving and milling, respectively. Several sources of submicron particles were identified. These included the diesel and electric fired screed heaters; engine exhaust from diesel powered construction vehicles passing by or idling; raking, dumping, and paving of asphalt; exhaust from the hotbox heater; pavement dust or fumes from milling operations, especially when the large miller started and stopped; and secondhand cigarette smoke. To reduce the potential for health effects in workers, over 40 recommendations were made to control exposures, including improved maintenance of

  5. Modeling startup and shutdown transient of the microlinear piezo drive via ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azin, A. V.; Bogdanov, E. P.; Rikkonen, S. V.; Ponomarev, S. V.; Khramtsov, A. M.

    2017-02-01

    The article describes the construction-design of the micro linear piezo drive intended for a peripheral cord tensioner in the reflecting surface shape regulator system for large-sized transformable spacecraft antenna reflectors. The research target -the development method of modeling startup and shutdown transient of the micro linear piezo drive. This method is based on application software package ANSYS. The method embraces a detailed description of the calculation stages to determine the operating characteristics of the designed piezo drive. Based on the numerical solutions, the time characteristics of the designed piezo drive are determined.

  6. Experience with after-shutdown decay heat removal - BWRs and PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugh, J.J.; Mollerus, F.J.; Booth, H.R.

    1992-01-01

    Boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) make use of residual heat removal systems (RHRSs) during reactor shutdown. RHRS operational events involving an actual loss or significant degradation of an RHRS during shutdown heat removal are often prompted or aggravated by complex, changing plant conditions and by concurrent maintenance operations. Events involving loss of coolant inventory, loss of decay heat removal capability, or inadvertent pressurization while in cold shutdown have occurred. Because fewer automatic protective fetures are operative during cold shutdowns, both prevention and termination of events depend heavily on operator action. The preservation of RHRS cooling should be an important priority in all shutdown operations, particularly where there is substantial decay heat and a reduced water inventory. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Basic national requirements for safe design, construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have to be save. Vendors and utilities operating such plants, are convinced that their plants meet this requirement. Who, however, is establishing the safety requirements to be met by those manufacturing and operating nuclear power plants. What are the mechanisms to control whether the features provided assure the required safety level. Who controls whether the required and planned safety features are really provided. Who is eventually responsible for assuring safety after commissioning of a nuclear power plant. These fundamental questions being raised in many discussions on safety and environmental protection are dealt with in the following sections: (1) Fundamental safety requirements on nuclear power plants, in which such items as risk, legal bases and licensing procedure are discussed, (2) Surveillance during construction, in which safety analysis report, siting, safety evaluation, document examination, quality assurance, and commissioning testing are dealt with, (3) Operating tests and conditions in which recurrent inspections, environmental protection during operation, investigation of abnormal occurences and backfitting requirements as reviewed, and (4) Safety philosophy and safety policy to conclude this presentation. The German approach to nuclear safety serves as an example for an effective way of assuring safe nuclear power. (orig.)

  8. CCF analysis of BWR reactor shutdown systems based on the operating experience at the TVO I/II in 1981-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.

    1996-04-01

    The work constitutes a part of the project conducted within the research program of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate SKI, aimed to develop the methods and data base for the Common Cause Failure (CCF) analysis of highly redundant reactor scram systems. The data analysis for the TVO I/II plant is focused on the hydraulic scram system, and control rods and drives. It covers operating experiences from 1981 through 1993. (9 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.)

  9. Decree no. 2002-447 of the 27 march 2002 authorizing the Normandy society of preserve and sterilization to realize definitive shutdowns and dismantling operations of the nuclear installation no. 152 situated on the territory of Osmanville (Calvados)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The decree presents the shutdown preliminary obligations, the installation quality, the prevention of radioactivity dissemination risk, the workers protection, the wastes management, the fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  10. Reactor shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masahiko

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease probability of troubles resulted from common cause. Constitution: Coolants from a high pressure plenum are normally flown through apertures to an inner cylinder of a coaxially joined double-walled guide pipe having a flow channel for the coolants between the outer cylinder and the inner cylinder to exert the pressure to the bottom of a piston disposed to the lower port of a control rod. The control rod is moved upwardly by the exertion of the buoyancy till the piston is engaged at the stopper. Upon scram, the driving mechanism falls to move the control rod downwardly, where the piston situates below the apertures and the pressure at the upper portion of the piston is increased by the pressure of the coolants flowing through the apertures while the pressure at the lower portion of the piston is decreased. Accordingly, a downward force is exerted to the piston to accelerate the scram operation. If the coolant flowrate is reduced, the buoyancy to the control rod is reduced to fall the control rod gravitationally. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Fluid shut-down system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barclay, F.W.; Frey, J.R.; Wilson, J.N.; Besant, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear reactor shut-down system is described which comprises a fluidic vortex valve for releasably maintaining a liquid neutron poison outside of the reactor core, the poison being contained by a reservoir and biased by pressure for flow into poison tubes within the reactor. The upper ends of the poison tubes communicate with the supply port of the vortex valve. A continuous gas flow into the control port maintains normal controlled operation. Shut-down is effected by interruption of the control input. One embodiment comprises three groups of poison tubes and one vortex valve associated with each group wherein shut-down is effected by poison release in two out of the three groups. Preferably, each vortex valve comprises three control ports which operate on a ''voting'' or two-out-of-three basis. (Official Gazette)

  12. LHC Report: The shutdown work nearing completion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The work planned for the LHC injector chain during the winter shutdown is nearing completion. The PS Booster (PSB) and PS will be closed to access next week, and the control of machine access will be transferred to the CERN Control Centre in preparation for the resumption of machine operation. Hardware tests are being performed in all the machines.   Tests are under way in the LHC tunnel. The technical teams are putting the finishing touches to the work planned for the winter shutdown. At the Linac2, the PS Booster and the PS, work will be completed next week and hardware tests will be carried out soon after. POPS, the new powering system for the PS, will be commissioned for the first time in the coming days after the necessary preliminary tests have been carried out. At the SPS, various magnets have been replaced over recent weeks and the performance tests on the main power supply and other hardware tests will be able to start shortly. After that, the machine will be ready for operation with b...

  13. Construction and operation of the Howard T. Ricketts Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Lonkhuyzen, R.; Stull, L.; Butler, J.; Chang, Y.; Allison, T.; O' Rourke, D.

    2006-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed to partially fund the construction of the Howard T. Ricketts (HTR) regional biocontainment laboratory (RBL) by the University of Chicago at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Illinois. The HTR Laboratory (HTRL) would be constructed, owned, and operated by the University of Chicago on land leased to it by DOE. The preferred project site is located north of Eastwood Drive and west of Outer Circle Road and is near the biological sciences building. This environmental assessment addresses the potential environmental effects resulting from construction and operation of the proposed facility. The proposed project involves the construction of a research facility with a footprint up to approximately 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}). The proposed building would house research laboratories, including Biosafety Level 2 and 3 biocontainment space, animal research facilities, administrative offices, and building support areas. The NIH has identified a need for new facilities to support research on potential bioterrorism agents and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, to protect the nation from such threats to public health. This research requires specialized laboratory facilities that are designed, managed, and operated to protect laboratory workers and the surrounding community from accidental exposure to agents. The proposed HTRL would provide needed biocontainment space to researchers and promote the advancement of knowledge in the disciplines of biodefense and emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Several alternatives were considered for the location of the proposed facility, as well as a no action alternative. The preferred alternative includes the construction of a research facility, up to 44,000 ft{sup 2} (4,088 m{sup 2}), at Argonne National Laboratory, a secure government location. Potential impacts to natural and cultural resources have been

  14. BR3/Vulcain Nuclear Power Station. Construction and Operational Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrer, J. [Belgonucleaire, S.A., Brussels (Belgium)

    1968-04-15

    A full-scale reactor experiment was set out as the main objective of the Vulcain research and development programme agreed in May 1962 between the UKAEA and BelgoNucleaire, manager of ''Syndicat Vulcain''. Vulcain uses variable moderation as the long-term method to control reactivity: the reactor is cooled and moderated by a mixture of heavy and light water, the D{sub 2}O content being stepwise reduced to permit power operation with all control rods completely out of the core. To carry out the Vulcain power experiment it was decided to modify the BR3 nuclear power plant located at Mol, Belgium, which had operated from 1962 to 1964 as a conventional PWR with outputs of 40.9 MW(th) and 11.45 MW(e). The BR3/Vulcain plant was started in December 1966 and since then is running with a load factor around 90%. It is the first time that such a reactor type has been built and operated and the experience gained by its design, construction, commissioning and operation has proven to be most valuable. D{sub 2}O is being used at a pressure (2000 lb/in{sup 2} abs.) never before achieved in a heavy-water reactor and the leak rate from the HP primary systems to the atmosphere has been kept to a negligible value, around 1 to 2 grams/h. Commissioning of the primary plant had been carried out with light water first without fuel, and thereafter with fuel, at which time the water was poisoned with boric acid. The reactor vessel contains experimental devices such as 65 in-pile instrumentation detectors and four hydraulically operated Zircaloy control rods. They required the interposition of a collar between the vessel and its lid. Refuelling is performed under boronated light water, the interchange between the primary water and the H{sub 2}O being carried out by means of a draining and spraying system. The reactor had been operated for two years before its modifications for Vulcain: many lessons have therefore been learned about working on irradiated systems. The BR3/Vulcain core has a

  15. The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer: from construction to operation

    CERN Document Server

    La Rosa, Alessandro; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) is a fourth layer of pixel detectors, and has been installed in May 2014 at a radius of 3.3 cm between the existing Pixel Detector and a new smaller radius beam-pipe. The new detector, built to cope with high radiation and occupancy, is the first large scale application of 3D detectors and CMOS 130nm technology. The IBL detector construction was achieved within about two years starting from mid-2012 to the May 2014 installation in ATLAS, a very tight schedule to meet the ATLAS installation and detector closure before starting the Run2 in Spring 2015. The key features and challenges met during the IBL project will be presented, as well as its commissioning and operational experience in LHC.

  16. The ALICE Transition Radiation Detector: Construction, operation, and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) was designed and built to enhance the capabilities of the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). While aimed at providing electron identification and triggering, the TRD also contributes significantly to the track reconstruction and calibration in the central barrel of ALICE. In this paper the design, construction, operation, and performance of this detector are discussed. A pion rejection factor of up to 410 is achieved at a momentum of 1 GeV/ c in p-Pb collisions and the resolution at high transverse momentum improves by about 40% when including the TRD information in track reconstruction. The triggering capability is demonstrated both for jet, light nuclei, and electron selection.

  17. Design, construction and operation of Ontario Hydro's CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.G.

    1981-06-01

    Ontario Hydro has been producing electricity commercially from nuclear power since 1968, using CANDU reactors which have proved enormously successful. The 206-MW Douglas Point station, nearly 10 times larger than the first Canadian power reactor, NPD-2, resulted from a cooperative effort between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., the provincial government of Ontario, and Ontario Hydro. This approach led to a basic working relationship between the parties, with Ontario Hydro acting as project manager and builder, and AECL acting as consultant with respect to the nuclear components. Before Douglas Point was fully commissioned Ontario Hydro was ready to commit itself to more nuclear stations, and work was started on the four-unit Pickering nuclear generating station. Multi-unit stations were adopted to achieve economies of scale, and the concept has been retained for all subsequent nuclear power plants constructed in the province. The organization of Ontario Hydro's project management, construction, and operation of nuclear generating stations is described. Performance of the existing stations and cost of the power they produce have been entirely acceptable

  18. 40 CFR 62.14645 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... Limits § 62.14645 What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during periods of CISWI unit startup, shutdown, or...

  19. 40 CFR 60.2918 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Performance Testing ...

  20. 40 CFR 60.2685 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? (a) The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each...

  1. 40 CFR 60.3025 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction? The emission limitations and operating limits apply at all times except during OSWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. Model Rule—Performance...

  2. Primary shutdown system monitoring unit for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Tahir Kamal; Balasubramanian, R.; Agilandaeswari, K.

    2013-01-01

    Shut off rods made up of neutron absorbing material are used as Primary Shutdown System. To reduce the power of the reactor under certain abnormal operating conditions, these rods must go down into the core within a specified time. Any malfunctioning in the movement of rods cannot be tolerated and Secondary Shutdown System (SSS) must be actuated within stipulated time to reduce the reactor power. A special safety critical, hardwired electronics unit has been designed to detect failure of PSS Shut off rods movements and generate trip signals for initiating SSS. (author)

  3. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Maintenance work is scheduled for the NICE home directory servers and the central Web servers. Users must, therefore, expect service interruptions. Unix batch services will be available but without access to HPSS or to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by email to: computer.operations@cern.ch Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files for eithe...

  4. CV activities on the LHC complex during the long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Deleval, S; Body, Y; Obrecht, M; Moccia, S; Peon, G

    2011-01-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the major projects and work foreseen to be performed during next long shutdown on cooling and ventilation plants. Several projects are needed following the experience of the last years when LHC was running, in particular the modifications in the water cooling circuits presently in overflow. Some other projects are linked to the CV consolidation plan. Finally, most of the work shall be done to respond to additional requests: SR buildings air conditioning, the need to be able to clean and maintain the LHC cooling towers without a complete stop of cooling circuits, the upgrade of the air conditioning of the CCC rack room cooling etc. For all these activities, the author will detail constraints and the impact on the schedule and on the operation of the plants that will however need to run for most of the shutdown duration. The consequence of postponing the long shutdown from 2012 to 2013 will be also covered.

  5. Experience in construction and operation of HWR plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madero, C.C.; Cosentino, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    ''ATUCHA I'', the first nuclear power plant in Argentina, is in commerical operation since 1974 with a high capacity factor. The reactor is based on the MZFR prototype designed by SIEMENS with natural uranium and heavy water and PWR technic. The plant was built by SIEMENS on a turnkey contract and was rated 340 MWe. The offer presented in that opportunity by KWU was based on two reactors (ATUCHA I type) inside one single containment, due to the limitation in power of the reactor. Subsequent changes in the nature of the contract resulted in an active participation of CNEA engineering groups in the erection and commissioning of the reactor. In 1978 the national government approved a nuclear power plan to install four 600 MWe HWR plants until 1995. To start implementing this program, CNEA called for tenders for the supply of components and services for the ATUCHA II plant, in connection with the establishment of a local engineering company and the supply and construction of a heavy water production plant. In 1980 a contract was signed with KWU and the local company ENACE was formed to act as architect engineer and site coordinator. The plant will be located in the ATUCHA I site and the reactor will be similar but double in power to that one. Following the schedule of the nuclear plan, CNEA has just started preliminary studies for the next nuclear plant. ENACE will be responsible for the preparation of an offer for an ATUCHA reactor type. Local engineering and manufacturing firms, upon request and coordination from CNEA, and evaluating the local capacity to participate in the design and construction of a CANDU type nuclear plant. Final decision on this fourth nuclear plant in Argentina will be taken middle 1983. (J.P.N.)

  6. Probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants for low power and shutdown modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    Within the past several years the results of nuclear power plant operating experience and performance of probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) for low power and shutdown operating modes have revealed that the risk from operating modes other than full power may contribute significantly to the overall risk from plant operations. These early results have led to an increased focus on safety during low power and shutdown operating modes and to an increased interest of many plant operators in performing shutdown and low power PSAs. This publication was developed to provide guidance and insights on the performance of PSA for shutdown and low power operating modes. The preparation of this publication was initiated in 1994. Two technical consultants meetings were conducted in 1994 and one in February 1999 in support of the development of this report

  7. Multi-unit shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, M.E.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Bruce Nuclear Generating Station 'B' consists of four 935 W CANDU units located on the east shore of Lake Huron in the province of Ontario, Canada. On July 25 and 26, 1989 three of the four operating units were shutdown due to boiler feedwater chemical excursions initiated by a process upset in the Water Treatment Plant that provides demineralized make-up water to all four units. The chemicals that escaped from an ion exchange vessel during a routine regeneration very quickly spread through the condensate make-up system and into the boiler feedwater systems. This resulted in boiler sulfate levels exceeding shutdown limits. A total of 260 GWH of electrical generation was unexpectedly made unavailable to the grid at a time of peak seasonal demand. This event exposed several unforeseen deficiencies and vulnerabilities in the automatic demineralized water make-up quality protection scheme, system designs, operating procedures and the ability of operating personnel to recognize and appropriately respond to such an event. The combination of these factors contributed towards turning a minor system upset into a major multi-unit shutdown. This paper provides the details of the actual event initiation in the Water Treatment Plant and describes the sequence of events that led to the eventual shutdown of three units and near shutdown of the fourth. The design inadequacies, procedural deficiencies and operating personnel responses and difficulties are described. The process of recovering from this event, the flushing out of system piping, boilers and the feedwater train is covered as well as our experiences with setting up supplemental demineralized water supplies including trucking in water and the use of rental trailer mounted demineralizing systems. System design, procedural and operational changes that have been made and that are still being worked on in response to this event are described. The latest evidence of the effect of this event on boiler tube

  8. Enhancing Efficiency of Safeguards at Facilities that are Shutdown or Closed-Down, including those being Decommissioned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Stern, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Colley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Marzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-15

    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards involves verification activities at a wide range of facilities in a variety of operational phases (e.g., under construction, start-up, operating, shutdown, closed-down, and decommissioned). Safeguards optimization for each different facility type and operational phase is essential for the effectiveness of safeguards implementation. The IAEA’s current guidance regarding safeguards for the different facility types in the various lifecycle phases is provided in its Design Information Examination (DIE) and Verification (DIV) procedure. 1 Greater efficiency in safeguarding facilities that are shut down or closed down, including those being decommissioned, could allow the IAEA to use a greater portion of its effort to conduct other verification activities. Consequently, the National Nuclear Security Administration’s Office of International Nuclear Safeguards sponsored this study to evaluate whether there is an opportunity to optimize safeguards approaches for facilities that are shutdown or closed-down. The purpose of this paper is to examine existing safeguards approaches for shutdown and closed-down facilities, including facilities being decommissioned, and to seek to identify whether they may be optimized.

  9. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  10. Construction and operation of a drift-collection calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Dawson, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Large areas planar drift chambers with long drift distance (up to 50 cm) have been developed for possible use in the new Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector. Design goals included fine sampling to determine the topology of complex events with several low-energy tracks. The large scale of the experiment (> 1000 metric tons) required large area inexpensive chambers, which also had good position resolution and multi-track separation. The chambers were to be installed between thin sheets of steel to form a finegrained detector. A second goal was the sampling of dE/dx with each position measurement, in order to determine the direction and particle identity of each track. In this paper we report on the construction and operation of a prototype dectector consisting of 50 chambers, separated by 3 mm-thick steel plates. Readout of drift time and pulse height from anode wires and an orthogonal grid of bussed cathode pads utilized 6-bit flash ADC's. This application of the drift-collection calorimeter technique to a nucleon decay detector follows the investigation by a number of groups of calorimeters for high energy detectors based on long drifting

  11. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements

  12. Order concerning a nuclear reactor shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Judgment of the State Administrative Court of Baden Wuerttemberg in head notes including: The authority of the Minister-President to give general guidelines includes the right to issue single directives; in matters of prime political significance he can take measures to realize such aims. - It is no extraneous consideration for the supervisory board under atomic energy law to point out in an order concerning a nuclear reactor shutdown that the disallowed operation of a nuclear plant conflicts with the obligation of the state to provide protection and constitutes a penal offence. Further a discourse on the assignment of discretionary powers under Paragraph 19 Section 3 Clause 2 No. 3 of the Atomic Energy Law. (HSCH) [de

  13. SEPRA - shutdown PSA for the OLKILUOTO nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, R.

    1995-01-01

    The utility TVO has extended the PSA study to the analysis of refueling, shutdown and startup. The Shutdown Event PRA (SEPRA) was reported to the authority in September 1992. The study consists of the analysis of leaks and loss of decay heat removal in the planned shutdown conditions. Special studies were performed for the cold pressurization, for local criticality events, for heavy load transport and for the transients during startup and shutdown. A remarkable effort was put to identify risks, i.e. to the qualitative analysis. The regular preventive maintenance tasks in the refueling outages were analyzed and the important tasks were selected for further studies. Besides the severe core damage risk the utility was interested in less grave consequences, e.g. the economic risks, causing significant extension of outages. The plant specific screening of initiators consisted of a study on the incident history and of interviewing the plant personnel on selected tasks. A number of thermohydraulic calculations were carried out to support the analysis of accident sequences. The operator actions after an initiating event were verified with the operating staff. The annual core damage risk from the refueling outage is about one forth of the total annual risk. The modifications decreased significantly the core damage frequency. It is foreseen that the SEPRA will form a basis of the procedure enhancement for the low power states. (author) 5 figs., 1 tab., 10 refs

  14. Study on secondary shutdown systems in Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalali, H.R.; Fadaei, A.H., E-mail: Fadaei_amir@aut.ac.ir; Gharib, M.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A study was undertaken to summarize the techniques for secondary shutdown systems (SSS). • Neutronic calculation performed for proposed systems as SSS. • Dumping the heavy water stored in the reflector vessel is capable to shut down reactor. • Neutronic and transient calculation was done for validating the selected SSS. • All calculation shown that this system has advantages in safety and neutron economy. - Abstract: One important safety aspect of any research reactor is the ability to shut down the reactor. Usually, research reactors, currently in operation, have a single shutdown system based on the simultaneous insertion of the all control rods into the reactor core through gravity. Nevertheless, the International Atomic Energy Agency currently recommends use of two shutdown systems which are fully independent from each other to guarantee secure shutdown when one of them fails. This work presents an investigative study into secondary shutdown systems, which will be an important safety component in the research reactor and will provide another alternative way to shut down the reactor emergently. As part of this project, a study was undertaken to summarize the techniques that are currently used at world-wide research reactors for recognizing available techniques to consider in research reactors. Removal of the reflector, removal of the fuels, change in critical shape of reactor core and insertion of neutron absorber between the core and reflector are selected as possible techniques in mentioned function. In the next step, a comparison is performed for these methods from neutronic aspects. Then, chosen method is studied from the transient behavior point of view. Tehran research reactor which is a 5 MW open-pool reactor selected as a case study and all calculations are carried out for it. It has 5 control rods which serve the purpose of both reactivity control and shutdown of reactor under abnormal condition. Results indicated that heavy

  15. Radio Frequency Identification in Construction Operation and Maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    As early as in 1995 it was stated that automatic identification of objects using RFID was a promising technology for the construction industry. However, 13 years later the applications of RFID in the construction industry are rare and mostly used in prototype projects or used for theft prevention...

  16. Round table: The New Constructions; New Build; IAEA Services Nuclear Power Reactor Technologies Construction and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choho, Tarik; Ward, Tony; Koshy, Thomas; )

    2014-01-01

    The first round-table of Atoms for the Future 2014 focused on the topic of 'The new construction'. Attendees had the opportunity to see Tarik Choho, Chief Commercial Executive Officer at AREVA, Tony Ward, Partner and Head of Power and Utilities at EY, as well as Thomas Koshy, Head of Nuclear Power technology Development Section at the IAEA, share their respective point of view and discuss together. They first started with their own presentation before sitting together at the discussion panel. Tarik Choho explained that there are many opportunities for new builds around the world, and especially in new comer countries. Thomas Koshy brought his expert point of view as an international regulator. He showed that the technology landscape also includes new designs as well as non-electricity generation uses. Those two aspects could bring both opportunities and challenges for licensing. Tony Ward showed how difficult it was to finance such a capitalistically intensive project as a new build, and how one could try to find an electricity retail price which is acceptable for both the general private consumer and the plant operator. All speakers agreed that preparation was core to a nuclear new build project. They also pointed out that every project involves more and more actors, and that it could be challenging to let everyone have the appropriate say

  17. Reactor Shutdown Mechanism by Top-mounted Hydraulic System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Haun; Cho, Yeong Garp; Choi, Myoung Hwan; Lee, Jin Haeng; Huh, Hyung; Kim, Jong In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    There are two types of reactor shutdown mechanisms in HANARO. One is the mechanism driven by a hydraulic system, and the other is driven by a stepping motor. In HANARO, there are four Control Rod Drive Mechanisms (CRDMs) with an individual step motor and four Shutoff (SO) Units with an individual hydraulic system located at the top of reactor pool. The absorber rods in SO units are poised at the top of the core by the hydraulic force during normal operation. The rods of SO units drop by gravity as the first reactor showdown mechanism when a trip is commended by the reactor protection system (RPS). The rods in CRDMs also drop by gravity together as a redundant shutdown mechanism. When a trip is commended by the reactor regulating system (RRS), the absorber rods of CRDM only drop; while the absorber rods of SO units stay at the top of the core by the hydraulic system. The reactivity control mechanisms of in JRTR, one of the new research reactor with plate type fuels, consist of four CRDMs driven by an individual step motor and two second shutdown drive mechanisms (SSDMs) driven by an individual hydraulic system as shown in Fig. 1. The CRDMs act as the first reactor shutdown mechanism and reactor regulating as well. The top-mounted SSDM driven by the hydraulic system for the JRTR is under design in KAERI. The SSDM provides an alternate and independent means of reactor shutdown. The second shutdown rods (SSRs) of the SSDM are poised at the top of the core by the hydraulic system during the normal operation and drop by gravity for the reactor trip. Based on the proven technology of the design, operation and maintenance for HANARO, the SSDM for the JRTR has been optimized by the design improvement from the experience and test. This paper aims for the introduction of the SSDM in the process of the basic design. The major differences of the shutdown mechanisms by the hydraulic system are compared between HANARO and JRTR, and the design features, system, structure and

  18. Evaluating delay factors in the construction and operation of port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Iran, between 30% and 40% of the total budget of the country `is allocated to this ... improper allocation of resources (24%), cash flows changes(28%), failure to ... Keywords: Delay Factors, Port Construction Projects, Project Management.

  19. Safety considerations for research reactors in extended shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    According to the IAEA Research Reactor Database, in the last 20 years, 367 research reactors have been shut down. Of these, 109 have undergone decommissioning and the rest are in extended shutdown with no clear definition about their future. Still other research reactors are infrequently operated with no meaningful utilization programme. These two situations present concerns related to safety such as loss of corporate memory, personnel qualification, maintenance of components and systems and preparation and maintenance of documentation. There are many reasons to shut down a reactor; these may include: - the need to carry out modifications in the reactor systems; - the need for refurbishment to extend the lifetime of the reactor; - the need to repair reactor structures, systems, or components; - the need to remedy technical problems; - regulatory or public concerns; - local conflicts or wars; - political convenience; - the lack of resources. While any one of these reasons may lead to shutdown of a reactor, each will present unique problems to the reactor management. The large variations from one research reactor to the next also will contribute to the uniqueness of the problems. Any option that the reactor management adopts will affect the future of the facility. Options may include dealing with the cause of the shutdown and returning to normal operation, extending the shutdown period waiting a future decision, or decommissioning. Such options are carefully and properly analysed to ensure that the solution selected is the best in terms of reactor type and size, period of shutdown and legal, economic and social considerations. This publication provides information in support of the IAEA safety standards for research reactors

  20. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesko, K.F.; Berriochoa, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, 'Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective', University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted

  1. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESKO KF; BERRIOCHOA MV

    2010-02-26

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business constructioin subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the WRPS contract, construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper descirbes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method (John E Schaufelberger, Len Holm, "Management of Construction Projects, A Constructor's Perspective", University of Washington, Prentice Hall 2002). This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (FY2009), where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are

  2. Decree no. 2005-79 from January 26, 2005, authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed to the definitive shutdown and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no.21, named Siloette research reactor, in the Grenoble city territory (Isere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    On May 26, 2003, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) addressed an authorization demand for the definitive shutdown and dismantling of the Siloette research reactor. After a technical and administrative instruction of this demand by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), a project of decree has been presented on July 6, 2004 at the permanent section of the inter-ministry commission of basic nuclear facilities. The commission gave its favourable judgment which is the object of this decree. (J.S.)

  3. Decree no. 2005-78 from January 26, 2005, authorizing the Atomic Energy Commission to proceed to the definitive shutdown and dismantling operations of the nuclear facility no.20, named Siloe reactor, in the Grenoble city territory (Isere)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    On March 19, 2003, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) addressed an authorization demand for the definitive shutdown and dismantling of the Siloe reactor. After a technical and administrative instruction of this demand by the French nuclear safety authority (ASN), a project of decree has been presented on July 6, 2004 at the permanent section of the inter-ministry commission of basic nuclear facilities. The commission gave its favourable judgment which is the object of this decree. (J.S.)

  4. Construction, start-up and operation of a continuously aerated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale SHARON reactor are discussed, along with the construction of the reactor. Special attention is given to the start-up in view of possible toxic effects of high nitrogen concentrations (up to 4 000 mgN·ℓ-1) on the nitrifier population and ...

  5. Construction and operation of a solar lighting system | Asuquo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A solar lighting system which can make a 3w lamp glow continuously for about one hour if the battery is fully charged has been constructed. The device can be used for small-scale lighting applications in remote areas that are far away from the power grid. The system has a panel to collect the sun's energy, a battery to store ...

  6. Reactor shut-down device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Fumio; Horikawa, Yuji.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns an externally disposed reactor shut-down device for an FBR type reactor using liquid sodium as coolants. An introducing pipe having an outlet port disposed at an upper portion thereof is disposed at a lower end of an upper guide tube. An extension tube, an L-shaped measuring wire support and a measuring wire are disposed at the inside of the guide tube. With such a constitution, low temperature coolants flown out from the lower guide tube of a control rod and a great amount of high temperature coolants flown out from the lower guide tube of a fuel assembly are introduced smoothly to the introducing tube having the measuring wire support disposed therein. Accordingly, the high temperature coolants can be prevented from flowing out to the outside of the introducing tube and coolants after mixing can be flown and hit against a curie point electromagnet efficiently. This can make the response to abnormal temperature rise of coolants satisfactory and can provide reliable reactor scram. (I.N.)

  7. Development of Start-up and Shutdown Procedure for the HANARO Fuel Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. K.; Sim, B. S.; Chi, D. Y.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Ahn, S. H.

    2009-06-01

    A start-up and shutdown procedure for the HANARO fuel test loop has been developed. This is a facility for fuel and material irradiation tests. The facility provides experimental conditions similar to the normal operational pressures and temperatures of commercial PWR and CANDU plants. The normal operation modes of the HANARO fuel test loop are classified into loop shutdown, cold stand-by 1, cold stand-by 2, hot stand-by, and hot operation. The operation modes depend on the fission power of test fuels and the coolant temperature at the inlet of the in-pile test section. The HANARO must maintain a shutdown mode if the HANARO fuel test loop is loop shutdown, cold stand-by 1, cold stand-by 2, or hot stand-by. As the HANARO becomes power operation mode, the operation mode of the HANARO fuel test loop comes to hot operation from hot stand-by. The procedure for the HANARO fuel test loop consists of four main parts such as check of initial conditions, stat-up operation procedure, shutdown operation procedure, and check lists for operations. Several hot test operations ensure that the procedure is appropriate

  8. Design philosophy of PFBR shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan Babu, V.; Vijayashree, R.; Govindarajan, S.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Muralikrishna, G.; Shanmugam, T.K.; Chetal, S.C.; Raghavan, K.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the overall design philosophy of shutdown system of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). It discusses design criteria, parameters calling for safety action, different safety actions and the concepts conceived for shutdown systems. In tune with the philosophy of defence-in-depth, additional passive shutdown features, viz., Self Actuating Device (SADE) and Curie Point Magnetic (CPM) switch and protective feature like absorber rod Stroke Limiting Device (SLD) are contemplated. It also discusses about suitability of Gas Expansion Module (GEM) as one of the safety devices in PFBR. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  9. Sustainability Criteria for Planning, Constructing, and Operating Contingency Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    common PREREQ 1 Walkable Streets yes Planning, Desi gn, Construction, OaM Medium use areas. Plan careft,j!y to accommodate simftar functions in the...apjly the specific LEED·ND criteria. Pay special attention to roads that connect LSA ~ife support areas) to common Walkable Streets yes Planning... Walkable Streets  Intent: ►To promote transportation efficiency. ►To promote walking by providing: • Safe •Appealing •Comfortable street

  10. COMPUTING SERVICES DURING THE ANNUAL CERN SHUTDOWN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    As in previous years, computing services run by IT division will be left running unattended during the annual shutdown. The following points should be noted. No interruptions are scheduled for local and wide area networking and the ACB, e-mail and unix interactive services. Unix batch services will be available but without access to manually mounted tapes. Dedicated Engineering services, general purpose database services and the Helpdesk will be closed during this period. An operator service will be maintained and can be reached at extension 75011 or by Email to computer.operations@cern.ch. Users should be aware that, except where there are special arrangements, any major problems that develop during this period will most likely be resolved only after CERN has reopened. In particular, we cannot guarantee backups for Home Directory files (for Unix or Windows) or for email folders. Any changes that you make to your files during this period may be lost in the event of a disk failure. Please note that all t...

  11. Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Drivetrains based on Measured Shut-down Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand; Buhl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    by initiating blade pitching to feather and also sometimes using the generator torqueas a brake mechanism. The shutdowns due to wind speed variation nearcut-out are predicted using an Inverse First Order Reliability Model(IFORM) whereby an expected annual frequency of normal shutdownsat cut-out is put forth...... normal operation and with shutdowns. The maximum coefficient of variation (CoV) due to varying wind conditions was found on the low speed shaft torsion, but the shutdowns by themselves were not seento significantly change the fatigue loads....

  12. Shutdowns/scrams at BWRs reported under new 1984 LER rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    Operating experience data from nuclear power plants are essential for safety and reliability analyses. The Licensee Event Reports (LERs), submitted to the NRC by nuclear power plant utilities, contain much of this data. One of the significant aspects of the new LER rule includes the requirement to report all plant shutdowns whereas prior to 1984, not all shutdowns were reported as LERs. This paper reviews the shutdowns and scrams occurring during the first six months of 1984 at BWRs as reported under the new LER rule. The review focused on systems involved, causes, and personnel interactions

  13. Development and study of a control and reactor shutdown device for FBR-type reactors with a modified open core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, S.

    1983-01-01

    The doctoral thesis at hand presents a newly designed control and shutdown device to be used for output control and fast shutdown of modified open core FBR-type reactors. The task was the design of a new control and shutdown device having economic and operation advantages, using reactor components time-tested under reactor conditions. This control and shutdown device was adapted to the specific needs concerning dimensions and design. The actuation is based on the magnetic-jack principle, which has been upgraded for the purpose. The principle is now combined with pneumatic acceleration. The improvements mainly concern a smaller number of piece parts and system simplification. (orig./RW) [de

  14. Construction of adjoint operators for coupled equations depending on different variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogenboom, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure is described for the construction of the adjoint operator matrix in case of coupled equations defining quantities that depend on different sets of variables. This case is not properly treated in the literature. From this procedure a simple rule can be deduced for the construction of such adjoint operator matrices

  15. 75 FR 76444 - Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... potential environmental impacts associated with construction and operation of the proposed Panoramic Survey... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for Construction and Operation of a Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) at the Summit...

  16. Operation environment construction of geological information database for high level radioactive waste geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Gao Min; Huang Shutao; Wang Shuhong; Zhao Yongan

    2014-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of data storage and management in HLW geological disposal, a targeted construction method for data operation environment was proposed in this paper. The geological information database operation environment constructed by this method has its unique features. And it also will be the important support for HLW geological disposal project and management. (authors)

  17. Assessment of Blasting Operations Effects During Highway Tunnel Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valašková Veronika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blasting operations are one of the fundamental parts of daily civil engineering. Drilling and blasting still remain the only possible ways of tunnelling in very adverse geological conditions. However, this method is a source of various disadvantages, the main one being tremors propagating through the geological environment which not only affect buildings, but also disturb the comfort of living in the vicinity of the source. Designing this procedure is mostly done using standardized empirical relations. This article shows the possibility of using a FEM technique in predicting blast effects. This approach is demonstrated in a simple case study on the impact of blasting operations on steel pipes.

  18. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  19. Constructing Secure Mobile Agent Systems Using the Agent Operating System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van t Noordende, G.J.; Overeinder, B.J.; Timmer, R.J.; Brazier, F.M.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Designing a secure and reliable mobile agent system is a difficult task. The agent operating system (AOS) is a building block that simplifies this task. AOS provides common primitives required by most mobile agent middleware systems, such as primitives for secure communication, secure and

  20. Construction, assembling and operation of an equipment for sodium purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquart, E.T.; Botbol, J.; Echenique, P.N.; Fruchtenicht, F.W.; Gil, D.A.; Perillo, P.; Vardich, R.N.; Vigo, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this work is the production of high purity metallic sodium for bench-scale, research studies. A stainless steel equipment was built and assembled, including high vacuum, heating and cooling systems. It was satisfactorily operated in two successive steps, filtration and vacuum distillation, with a good yield. (Author). 5 refs., 5 figs

  1. Optimal test intervals for shutdown systems for the Cernavoda nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gh.; Laslau, F.

    1993-01-01

    Cernavoda nuclear power station required a complete PSA study. As a part of this study, an important goal to enhance the effectiveness of the plant operation is to establish optimal test intervals for the important engineering safety systems. The paper presents, briefly, the current methods to optimize the test intervals. For this reason it was used Vesely methods to establish optimal test intervals and Frantic code to survey the influence of the test intervals on system availability. The applications were done on the Shutdown System no. 1, a shutdown system provided whit solid rods and on Shutdown System no. 2 provided with injecting poison. The shutdown systems receive nine total independent scram signals that dictate the test interval. Fault trees for the both safety systems were developed. For the fault tree solutions an original code developed in our Institute was used. The results, intended to be implemented in the technical specifications for test and operation of Cernavoda NPS are presented

  2. Risks Associated with Shutdown in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grlicarev, I.

    1996-01-01

    The selected set of risks associated with reactor shutdown in PWRs are outlined and discussed (e. g. outage planning, residual heat removal capability, rapid boron dilution, containment integrity, fire protection). The contribution of different outage strategies to overall core damage risk during shutdown is assessed for a particular basic outage plan. The factors which increase or minimize the probability of reactor coolant boiling or core damage are analysed. (author)

  3. Shutdown Chemistry Process Development for PWR Primary System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, K.B. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This study report presents the shutdown chemistry of PWR primary system to reduce and remove the radioactive corrosion products which were deposited on the nuclear fuel rods surface and the outside of core like steam generator channel head, RCS pipings etc. The major research results are the follows ; the deposition radioactive mechanism of corrosion products, the radiochemical composition, the condition of coolant chemistry to promote the dissolution of radioactive cobalt and nickel ferrite, the control method of dissolved hydrogen concentration in the coolant by the mechanical and chemical methods. The another part of study is to investigate the removal characteristics of corrosion product ions and particles by the demineralization system to suggest the method which the system could be operate effectively in shut-down purification period. (author). 19 refs., 25 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of the safety margins during shutdown for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, V.; Sadek, S.; Bajs, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the results of RELAP5/mod3.3 calculations of critical parameters during shutdown for NPP Krsko are presented. Conservative evaluations have been performed at NPP Krsko to determine the minimum configuration of systems required for the safe shutdown operation. Critical parameters in these evaluations are defined as the time to start of the boiling and the time of the core dry-out. In order to have better insight into the available margins, the best estimate code RELAP5/mod3.3 has been used to calculate the same parameters. The analyzed transient is the loss of the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system, which is used to remove decay heat during shutdown conditions. Several configurations that include open and closed Reactor Coolant System (RCS) were considered in the evaluation. The RELAP5/mod3.3 analysis of the loss of the RHR system has been performed for the following cases: 1) RCS closed and water solid, 2) RCS closed and partially drained, 3) Pressurizer manway open, Steam Generator (SG) U tubes partially drained, 4) Pressurizer and SG manways open, SG U tubes completely drained, 5) Pressurizer manway open, SGs drained, SG nozzle dams installed and 6) SG nozzle dams installed, pressurizer manway open, 1 inch break at RHR pump discharge in the loop with pressurizer. Both RHR trains were assumed in operation prior to start of the transient. The maximum average steady state temperature for all analyzed cases was limited to 333 K. (author)

  5. Reactor shutdown back-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Seizo; Sakashita, Motoaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent back flow of poison upon injection to a moderator recycling pipeway. Constitution: In a nuclear reactor comprising a moderator recycling system for recycling and cooling moderator through a control rod guide pipe and a rapid poison injection system for rapidly injecting a poison solution at high density into the moderator by way of the same control rod guide pipe as a reactor shutdown back-up system, a mechanism is provided for preventing the back flow of a poison solution at high density into the moderator recycling system upon rapid injection of poison. An orifice provided in the joining pipeway to the control rod guide pipe on the side of the moderator recycling system is utilized as the back flow preventing device for the poison solution and the diameter for the orifice is determined so as to provide a constant ratio between the pressure loss in the control rod guide pipe and the pressure loss in the moderator recycling system pipe line upon usual reactor operation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internally induced flooding events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandini, V.; Staple, B.; Kirk, H.; Whitehead, D.; Forester, J.

    1994-07-01

    An estimate of the contribution of internal flooding to the mean core damage frequency at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station was calculated for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Pursuant to this objective, flood zones and sources were identified and flood volumes were calculated. Equipment necessary for the maintenance of plant safety was identified and its vulnerability to flooding was determined. Event trees and fault trees were modified or developed as required, and PRA quantification was performed using the IRRAS code. The mean core damage frequency estimate for GGNS during POS 5 was found to be 2.3 E-8 per year

  7. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Surry, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal floods during mid-loop operations. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.

    1994-07-01

    The major objective of the Surry internal flood analysis was to provide an improved understanding of the core damage scenarios arising from internal flood-related events. The mean core damage frequency of the Surry plant due to internal flood events during mid-loop operations is 4.8E-06 per year, and the 5th and 95th percentiles are 2.2E-07 and 1.8E-05 per year, respectively. Some limited sensitivity calculations were performed on three plant improvement options. The most significant result involves modifications of intake-level structure on the canal, which reduced core damage frequency contribution from floods in mid-loop by about 75%

  8. Procedures for analysis of accidents in shutdown modes for WWER nuclear power plants. A publication of the extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER and RBMK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    Operational events occurring during shutdown conditions contribute significantly to the NPP risk due to the fact that both preventive and mitigatory capabilities of the plant are somehow degraded. The need for detailed information in the performance and review of accident analysis for WWER type NPPs was identified as a priority within IAEA Extrabudgetary Program on Safety of WWER and RBMK NPPs. The present guidelines were developed through two consultants meetings in 1995 and 1996. The guidelines establish a set of criteria for performing deterministic analysis of accidents, initiated by events occurring under shutdown conditions. This report is mostly relevant for licensing type calculations, and may to a certain extent, also used for development, improvement or justification of the plant limits and conditions, emergency operating procedures, operator training programs and probabilistic safety studies. The guidelines apply to all WWER plants in operation and/or under construction

  9. Updating of the program for simulation of Darlington shutdown and regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    This report describes the current status of the developments of a simulation of the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station shutdown and regulating systems, DARSIM done under contract to the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The DARSIM program simulates the spatial neutron dynamics, the regulation of the reactor power, and shutdown system 1 and shutdown system 2 software. The DARSIM program operates in the interactive simulation program environment. DARSIM was installed on the APOLLO computer at the AECB and a version for an IBM-PC was also provided for the exclusive use of the AECB. Shutdown system software was updated to incorporate the latest revisions in the functional specifications. Additional developments have been provided to assist in the use and interpretation of the DARSIM results

  10. Study on evaluation of construction reliability for engineering project based on fuzzy language operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu-Fang; Ma, Yi-Yi; Song, Ping-Ping

    2018-03-01

    System Reliability Theory is a research hotspot of management science and system engineering in recent years, and construction reliability is useful for quantitative evaluation of project management level. According to reliability theory and target system of engineering project management, the defination of construction reliability appears. Based on fuzzy mathematics theory and language operator, value space of construction reliability is divided into seven fuzzy subsets and correspondingly, seven membership function and fuzzy evaluation intervals are got with the operation of language operator, which provides the basis of corresponding method and parameter for the evaluation of construction reliability. This method is proved to be scientific and reasonable for construction condition and an useful attempt for theory and method research of engineering project system reliability.

  11. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  12. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  13. Failure of PWR-RHRS under cold shutdown conditions: Experimental results from the PKL test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandl, R.M.; Umminger, K.J.; Logt, J.V.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS) of a PWR is designed to transfer thermal energy from the core after plant shutdown and maintain the plant in cold shutdown or refuelling conditions for extended periods of time. Initial reactor cooling after shutdown is achieved by dissipating heat through the steam generators (SGs) and discharging steam to the condenser by means of the Turbine Bypass System (TBS). When the reactor coolant temperature has dropped to about 160C and pressure has been reduced to 30 bar the RHRS is placed into operation. it reduces the coolant temperature to 50C within 20 hours after shutdown. The time margin for establishing alternate methods of heat removal following a failure of the RHRS depends on the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) temperature, the decay heat rate and the amount of RCS inventory. During some shutdown operations the RCS may be partially drained (e. g. to perform SG inspections). Decreased primary system inventory can significantly reduce the time available to recover the RHRS's function prior to bulk boiling and possible core uncovery. In the PKL test facility, which simulates a 1,300 MWe 4-loop PWR on a scale 1:145, a failure of RHRS under cold shutdown conditions was performed. This presentation gives a brief description of the test facility followed by the test objectives and results of this experiment

  14. The licensing procedure for construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatore, J.E.L.

    1980-03-01

    The licensing procedure for the construction and operation of the nuclear power plants in Brazil is analysed, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency orientation. The risks related to the nuclear energy is also emphasized. (A.L.) [pt

  15. 75 FR 55631 - U. S. Rail Corporation-Construction and Operation Exemption-Brookhaven Rail Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... the proposed construction is to enable U. S. Rail to serve the BRT as a common carrier and to deliver... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35141] U. S. Rail Corporation--Construction and Operation Exemption-- Brookhaven Rail Terminal AGENCY: Surface Transportation...

  16. A Neo-Piagetian Theory of Constructive Operators: Applications to Perceptual-Motor Development and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, John I.

    The author presents an overview of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators, a process-structural theory based upon Piagetian constructs which has evolved to both explain and predict the temporal unfolding of behavior. An application is made of the theory to the demands of a discrete motor task and prediction of (a) the minimal age…

  17. Chiral measurements with the Fixed-Point Dirac operator and construction of chiral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenfratz, P.; Hauswirth, S.; Holland, K.; Joerg, T.; Niedermayer, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we examine the chiral properties of the parametrized Fixed-Point Dirac operator D FP , see how to improve its chirality via the Overlap construction, measure the renormalized quark condensate Σ-circumflex and the topological susceptibility χ t , and investigate local chirality of near zero modes of the Dirac operator. We also give a general construction of chiral currents and densities for chiral lattice actions

  18. First LHC Shutdown: Coordination and Schedule Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Coupard, J; Grillot, S

    2010-01-01

    The first LHC shutdown started in fall 2008, just after the incident on the 19th of September 2008. In addition to the typical work of a shutdown, a large number of interventions, related to the “consolidation after the incident” were performed in the LHC loop. Moreover the amount of work increased during the shutdown, following the recommendations and conclusions of the different working groups in charge of the safety of the personnel and of the machine. This paper will give an overview of the work performed, the organization of the coordination, emphasizing the new safety risks (electrical and cryogenic), and how the interventions were implemented in order to ensure both the safety of personnel and a minimized time window.

  19. Alternative Shutdown Panel. Amaraz Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Santa Maria Valin, J.

    2016-07-01

    Between 2010 and 2014 the Nuclear Power Plant of Almaraz conducted one of the most complex projects in its history: The installation of an Alternative Shutdown Panel with the capability to stop the plant in case of fire in the Control room or in the Cable room. This project represented a great economic and organizational effort for the plant, but at the same time has been a great improvement in the safety of the installation, which was demonstrated by the achievement of a major milestone in the history of Almaraz: The actual shutdown from outside of the Control room. (Author)

  20. FPGA Implementation of the stepwise shutdown system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotjonen, L.

    2012-07-01

    This report elaborates the design process of applications for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Brief introductions to EPGA technology and the design process are first given and then the design phases are walked through with the aid of a case study. FPGA is a programmable logic device that is programmed by the customer rather than the manufacturer. They are also usually re-programmable which enables updating their programming and otherwise modifying the design. There are also one-time programmable FPGAs that can be used when security issues require it. FPGA is said to be 'hardware designed like software', which means that the design process resembles software development but the end-product is considered a hardware application because the execution of the functions is entirely different from a microprocessor. This duality can give both the flexibility of software and the reliability of hardware. The FPGA design and verification and validation (V and V) methods for NPP safety systems have not yet matured because the technology is rather new in the field. Software development methods and stanfards can be used to some extent but the hardware aspects bring new challenges that cannot be tacled using purely software methods. International efforts are being made to development formal and consistent design and V and V methodology regulations for FPGA devices. A preventive safety function called Stepwise Shutdown System (SWS) was implemented on an Actel M1 IGLOO field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. SWS is used to drive a process into a normal state if the process measurements deviate from the desired operating values. This can happen in case of process disturbances. The SWS implementation processfrom the reguirements to the functional device is elaborated. The design is tested via simulation and hardware testing. The case study is to be further expanded as a part of a master's thesis. (orig.)

  1. FPGA Implementation of the stepwise shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotjonen, L.

    2012-01-01

    This report elaborates the design process of applications for field-programmable gate array (FPGA) devices. Brief introductions to EPGA technology and the design process are first given and then the design phases are walked through with the aid of a case study. FPGA is a programmable logic device that is programmed by the customer rather than the manufacturer. They are also usually re-programmable which enables updating their programming and otherwise modifying the design. There are also one-time programmable FPGAs that can be used when security issues require it. FPGA is said to be 'hardware designed like software', which means that the design process resembles software development but the end-product is considered a hardware application because the execution of the functions is entirely different from a microprocessor. This duality can give both the flexibility of software and the reliability of hardware. The FPGA design and verification and validation (V and V) methods for NPP safety systems have not yet matured because the technology is rather new in the field. Software development methods and standards can be used to some extent but the hardware aspects bring new challenges that cannot be tackled using purely software methods. International efforts are being made to development formal and consistent design and V and V methodology regulations for FPGA devices. A preventive safety function called Stepwise Shutdown System (SWS) was implemented on an Actel M1 IGLOO field-programmable gate array (FPGA) device. SWS is used to drive a process into a normal state if the process measurements deviate from the desired operating values. This can happen in case of process disturbances. The SWS implementation process from the requirements to the functional device is elaborated. The design is tested via simulation and hardware testing. The case study is to be further expanded as a part of a master's thesis. (orig.)

  2. Site Characterization Report ORGDP Diffusion Facilities Permanent Shutdown K-700 Power House and K-27 Switch Yard/Switch House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas R.J., Blanchard R.D.

    1988-06-13

    The K-700 Power House area, initially built to supply power to the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was shutdown and disassembled in the 1960s. This shutdown was initiated by TVA supplying economical power to the diffusion plant complex. As a result of world wide over production of enriched, reactor grade U{sup 235}, the K-27 switch yard and switch house area was placed in standby in 1985. Subsequently, as the future production requirements decreased, the cost of production increased and the separation technologies for other processes improved, the facility was permanently shutdown in December, 1987. This Site Characterization Report is a part of the FY-88 engineering Feasibility Study for placing ORGDP Gaseous Diffusion Process facilities in 'Permanent Shutdown'. It is sponsored by the Department of Energy through Virgil Lowery of Headquarters--Enrichment and through Don Cox of ORO--Enrichment Operations. The primary purpose of these building or site characterization reports is to document, quantify, and map the following potential problems: Asbestos; PCB containing fluids; Oils, coolants, and chemicals; and External contamination. With the documented quantification of the concerns (problems) the Engineering Feasibility Study will then proceed with examining the potential solutions. For this study, permanent shutdown is defined as the securing and/or conditioning of each facility to provide 20 years of safe service with minimal expenditures and, where feasible, also serving DOE's needs for long-term warehousing or other such low-risk use. The K-700 power house series of buildings were either masonry construction or a mix of masonry and wood. The power generating equipment was removed and sold as salvage in the mid 1960s but the buildings and auxiliary equipment were left intact. The nine ancillary buildings in the power house area use early in the Manhattan Project for special research projects, were left intact minus the original special equipment

  3. Point-form electrodynamics and the construction of conserved current operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    A general procedure for constructing conserved electromagnetic current operators in the presence of hadronic interactions is given. The four-momentum operator in point-form relativistic quantum mechanics is written as the sum of hadronic, photon, and electromagnetic four-momentum operators, where the electromagnetic four-momentum operator is generated from a vertex operator, in which a conserved current operator is contracted with the four-vector potential operator. The current operator is the sum of free, dynamically determined and model-dependent operators. The dynamically determined current operator is formed form a free current operator and the interacting hadronic four-momentum operator, in such a way that the sum of free and dynamically determined current operators is conserved with respect to the hadronic interactions. The model-dependent operator is a many-body current operator, formed as the commutator of an antisymmetric operator with the hadronic four-momentum operator. It is shown that such an operator is also conserved with respect to the hadronic interactions and also does not renormalize the charge. Refs. 9 (author)

  4. Kinetic analyses on startup and shutdown chemistry of BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domae, Masafumi; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Inagaki, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    are reduced with constant fraction of the concentrations. The input parameters in the model are temperature and the DO concentration, which vary with time. During the shutdown, the Ni 2+ concentration is dominant. After fitting parameters related to the Ni dissolution, time variation of pH and conductivity was successfully reproduced. It can be concluded that time variation of pH and conductivity during the shutdown is determined solely by Ni 2+ . After parameter fitting of the Cr dissolution during the startup, the time variation of the chromate concentration was reproduced. Parameters on the Ni dissolution were fitted so that the Ni inventory was not vanished in a short time and the maximum Ni 2+ concentration was similar to that of the chromate concentration. Based on the calculation results of the chromate concentration and the Ni 2+ concentration, conductivity and pH were calculated. It is concluded that water chemistry during the startup is determined by chromate and Ni 2+ . The other ionic species unlikely affect the conductivity and pH. Analyses of startup chemistry and shutdown chemistry may provide much information about corrosion products in the preceding operation cycle. For example, the present model analysis suggests possibility that quantity of corrosion products during the preceding cycle can be estimated. It is expected that the present results contribute to fundamental understanding of water chemistry not only in startup and shutdown, but also in full power operation. (authors)

  5. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal.

  6. Construction and operation of an industrial solid waste landfill at Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Waste Management, proposes to construct and operate a solid waste landfill within the boundary of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. The purpose of the proposed action is to provide PORTS with additional landfill capacity for non-hazardous and asbestos wastes. The proposed action is needed to support continued operation of PORTS, which generates non-hazardous wastes on a daily basis and asbestos wastes intermittently. Three alternatives are evaluated in this environmental assessment (EA): the proposed action (construction and operation of the X-737 landfill), no-action, and offsite shipment of industrial solid wastes for disposal

  7. Improvements of primary coolant shutdown chemistry and reactor coolant system cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudard, G.; Gilles, B.; Mesnage, F.; Cattant, F.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of a radiation exposure management program entitled >, EDF aims at decreasing the mass dosimetry of nuclear power plants workers. So, the annual dose per unit, which has improved from 2.44 m.Sv in 1991 to 1.08 in 2000, should target 0.8 mSv in the year 2005 term in order to meet the results of the best nuclear operators. One of the guidelines for irradiation source term reduction is the optimization of operation parameters, including reactor coolant system (RCS) chemistry in operation, RCS shutdown chemistry and RCS cleanup improvement. This paper presents the EDF strategy for the shutdown and start up RCS chemistry optimization. All the shutdown modes have been reviewed and for each of them, the chemical specifications will be fine tuned. A survey of some US PWRs shutdown practices has been conducted for an acid and reducing shutdown chemistry implementation test at one EDF unit. This survey shows that deviating from the EPRI recommended practice for acid and reducing shutdown chemistry is possible and that critical path impact can be minimized. The paper also presents some investigations about soluble and insoluble species behavior and characterization; the study focuses here on 110m Ag, 122 Sb, 124 Sb and iodine contamination. Concerning RCS cleanup improvement, the paper presents two studies. The first one highlights some limited design modifications that are either underway or planned, for an increased flow rate during the most critical periods of the shutdown. The second one focuses on the strategy EDF envisions for filters and resins selection criteria. Matching the study on contaminants behavior with the study of filters and resins selection criteria should allow improving the cleanup efficiency. (authors)

  8. Chemistry control at Bruce NGS 'B' from constructed to commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Pre-operational storage chemistry and flushing of the secondary side is described. The approach devised for Bruce NGS 'B' Unit 6 was unique for an Ontario Hydro Nuclear Unit. The significance of the improved Construction installation and Quality Assurance procedures, combined with those of Operations is identified. Secondary side chemistry during both commissioning and later operation is reported. It will be shown that the application of ALARA (As Low As is Reasonably Achievable) concept has resulted in tighter chemical specifications being met

  9. Quality assurance program plan fuel supply shutdown project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalf, I.L.

    1998-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Program plan (QAPP) describes how the Fuel Supply Shutdown (FSS) project organization implements the quality assurance requirements of HNF-MP-599, Project Hanford Quality Assurance Program Description (QAPD) and the B and W Hanford Company Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP), FSP-MP-004. The QAPP applies to facility structures, systems, and components and to activities (e.g., design, procurement, testing, operations, maintenance, etc.) that could affect structures, systems, and components. This QAPP also provides a roadmap of applicable Project Hanford Policies and Procedures (PHPP) which may be utilized by the FSS project organization to implement the requirements of this QAPP

  10. On line testing of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramnath, S.; Swaminathan, P.; Sreenivasan, P.

    1997-01-01

    For ensuring high reliability and availability, safety related Instrumentation channels are triplicated. Solid state electronics can fail in safe or unsafe mode. Hence, it is necessary to supervise the safety related Instrumentation channels from sensor to final shutdown system. Microprocessor/ Microcontroller/ ASIC based online supervision systems are detailed in this paper. (author)

  11. A selective study of Information technologies to improve operations efficiency in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konikov Alexandr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, information technologies (IT are used in almost every production industry. While the aspects of IT are well studied and discussed in relevant monographs, articles, web sources, etc., this paper reviews the performance improvement options in the construction industry by leveraging IT. From a wide range of information technologies the author has picked the most relevant solutions, from his point of view, based on several considerations, the most important one being the lack of adequate attention to these technologies specifically in the construction industry. The paper covers the following technologies: Big Data (a smart technology for high-speed processing of huge and diverse data arrays; situation centers (SC for construction and operations projects (SCs are successfully used in other industries for operating control of sophisticated facilities; data warehouses (DW for the construction industry (DWs are viewed as a standalone project rather than a supplement to Data Mining or Big Data; operational and dispatch radio communication service (radio communication can ensure instant connectivity between several subscribers; VSAT (a satellite technology for prompt connection of a distant construction site with the 'outer world' when no alternatives are available. The paper briefly presents the essence of each technology, describes the pre-requisites for its use in construction, outlines the key advantages, limits and shortcomings, and lists construction projects where it shall be worthwhile to use a specific technology projects.

  12. BWR startup and shutdown activity transport control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, S.E., E-mail: sgarcia@epri.com [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, California (United States); Giannelli, J.F.; Jarvis, A.J., E-mail: jgiannelli@finetech.com, E-mail: ajarvis@finetech.com [Finetech, Inc., Parsippany, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This paper summarizes BWR industry experience on good practices for controlling the transport of corrosion product activity during shutdowns, particularly refueling outages, and for startup chemistry control to minimize IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracking). For shutdown, overall goals are to minimize adverse impacts of crud bursts and the time required to remove activated corrosion products from the reactor coolant during the shutdown process prior to refueling, and to assist plants in predicting and controlling radiation exposure during outages. For startup, the overall goals are to highlight conditions during early heatup and startup when sources of reactor coolant oxidants are high, when there is a greater likelihood for chemical excursions associated with refueling outage work activities, and when hydrogen injection is not available to mitigate IGSCC due to system design limitations. BWR water chemistry has changed significantly in recent years with the adoption of hydrogen water chemistry, zinc addition and noble metal chemical applications. These processes have, in some instances, resulted in significant activity increases during shutdown evolutions, which together with reduced time for cleanup because of shorter outages, has consequently increased outage radiation exposure. A review several recent outages shows that adverse effects from these conditions can be minimized, leading to the set of good practice recommendations for shutdown chemistry control. Most plants lose the majority of their hydrogen availability hours during early startup because feedwater hydrogen injection systems were not originally designed to inject hydrogen below 20% power. Hydrogen availability has improved through modifications to inject hydrogen at lower power levels, some near 5%. However, data indicate that IGSCC is accelerated during early startup, when dissolved oxygen and hydrogen peroxide levels are high and reactor coolant temperatures are in the 300 to 400 {sup o

  13. Electrospun Nanofibers for Sandwiched Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide Separators with the Thermal Shutdown Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Dezhi; Shi, Chuan; Huang, Shaohua; Qiu, Xiaochun; Wang, Huan; Zhan, Zhan; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Jinbao; Sun, Daoheng; Lin, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    Nanofibers fabricated by the electrospinning process have been used to construct sandwich-type Polyimide/Poly (vinylidene fluoride)/Polyimide (PI/PVDF/PI) separators with the thermal shutdown function for lithium ion batteries. This architecture uses the good thermal stability of PI as the top and bottom structure layers. Under high temperature operations, the middle layer made of PVDF nanofibers can melt and form a pore-free film to shut down the battery operation. The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of the PI/PVDF/PI separator are superior to those of commercial polyolefin separators at 476% and 3.46 mS cm −1 , respectively, resulting better battery performances in terms of impedance, discharge capacity and cycle life. Under high temperature treatments above 170 °C, the self-shutdown function of the PI/PVDF/PI has been observed within 10 minutes, which could serve as the safety mechanism to defend the thermal runaway issue of lithium ion batteries. The effects of heating temperature and different time on the morphologies of each layer and electrolyte uptake of the separator are characterized as well

  14. Training simulator for advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) shutdown sequence equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankland, J.P.; Nixon, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    Successful shutdown of nuclear plant is of prime importance for both safety and economic reasons and large sums of money are spent on equipment to make shutdowns fully automatic, thus removing the possibility of operator errors. While this aim can largely be realized, one must consider the possibility of automatic equipment or plant failures when operators are required to take manual action, and off-line training facilities should be available to operating staff to minimize the risk of incorrect actions being taken. This paper presents the practice adopted at Hunterston 'B' Nuclear Power Station to solve this problem and concerns the computer-based training simulator for the Reactor Shutdown Sequence Equipment (RSSE) which was commissioned in January 1977. The plant associated with shutdown is briefly described and the reasoning which shows the need for a simulator is outlined. The paper also gives details of the comprehensive facilities available on the simulator and goes on to describe the form that shutdown training takes and the experience gained at this time. (author)

  15. Causes of extended shutdown state of 'RA' research reactor in Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Kolundzija, V.; Ljubenov, V.; Cupac, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the causes and reasons for extended shutdown state of RA research reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute of Nuclear Sciences. Technical and legal matters that led to decision to stop RA reactor operation in 1984 and further problems related to maintenance and preparation for continuation of operation are given. Influence of nuclear policy of Yugoslav government and the 'Vinca' Institute at prolongation of the reactor shutdown state, as consequence of changing of nuclear programme in the country and the world are discussed and underlined. An overview of the legislation in the field of nuclear safety and regulatory control of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Yugoslavia is presented. (author)

  16. Identification of passive shutdown system parameters in a metal fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilim, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses periodic testing of the passive shutdown system in a metal fueled liquid metal reactor which has been proposed as a Technical Specification requirement. In the approach to testing considered in this paper, perturbation experiments performed at normal operation are used to predict an envelope that bounds reactor response to flowrate, inlet temperature and external reactivity forcing functions. When the envelope for specific upsets lies within safety limits, one concludes that the passive shutdown system is operation properly for those upsets. Simulation results for the EBR-II reactor show that the response envelope for loss of flow and rod reactivity insertion events does indeed bound these events

  17. Classification and Construction of Invertible Linear Differential Operators on a One-Dimensional Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Chetverikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invertible linear differential operators with one independent variable are investigated. The problem of description of such operators is important, because it is connected with transformations and the classification of control systems, in particular, with the flatness problem.Each invertible linear differential operator represents a square matrix of scalar differential operators. Its product with an operator-column is an operator-column whose order does not exceed the sum of orders of initial operators. The operators-columns, the product with which leads to order fall, i.e. the order of the product is less than sum of orders of factors, are interesting for the description of invertible operators. In this paper the classification of invertible operators is based on dimensions dk,p of intersections of modules Gp and Fk for various k and p, where Gp is the module of all operators-columns of order not above p, and Fk is the module of compositions of the invertible operator with all operators-columns of order not above k. The invertible operators that have identical sets of numbers dk,p form one class.In the paper the general properties of tables of numbers dk,p for invertible operators are investigated. A correspondence between invertible operators and elementary-geometrical models which in the paper are named by d-schemes of squares is constructed. The invertible operator is ambiguously defined by its d-scheme of squares. The mathematical structure that must be set for its unique definition and an algorithm for the construction of the invertible operator are offered.In the proof of the main result, methods of the theory of chain complexes and their spectral sequences are used. In the paper all necessary concepts of this theory are formulated and the corresponding facts are proved.Results of the paper can be used for solving problems in which invertible linear differential operators are arisen. Namely, it is necessary to formulate the conditions on

  18. BIM-Integrated Construction Operation Simulation for Just-In-Time Production Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional construction planning, which depends on historical data and heuristic modification, prevents the integration of managerial details such as productivity dynamics. Specifically, the distance between planning and execution brings cost overruns and duration extensions. To minimize variations, this research presents a Building Information Modeling (BIM-integrated simulation framework for predicting productivity dynamics at the construction planning phase. To develop this framework, we examined critical factors affecting productivity at the operational level, and then forecast the productivity dynamics. The resulting plan includes specific commands for retrieving the required information from BIM and executing operation simulations. It consists of the following steps: (1 preparing a BIM model to produce input data; (2 composing a construction simulation at the operational level; and (3 obtaining productivity dynamics from the BIM-integrated simulation. To validate our framework, we applied it to a structural steel model; this was due to the significance of steel erections. By integrating BIM with construction operation simulations, we were able to create reliable construction plans that adapted to project changes. Our results show that the developed framework facilitates the reliable prediction of productivity dynamics, and can contribute to improved schedule reliability, optimized resource allocation, cost savings associated with buffers, and reduced material waste.

  19. 40 CFR 52.271 - Malfunction, startup, and shutdown regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Malfunction, startup, and shutdown..., startup, and shutdown regulations. (a) The following regulations are disapproved because they would permit... malfunctions and/or fail to sufficiently limit startup and shutdown exemptions to those periods where it is...

  20. Effect of dc-power-system reliability on reactor-shutdown cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Baranowsky, P.W.; Hickman, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The DC power systems in a nuclear power plant provide control and motive power to valves, instrumentation, emergency diesel generators, and many other components and systems during all phases of plant operation including abnormal shutdowns and accident situations. A specific area of concern is the adequacy of the minimum design requirements for DC power systems, particularly with regard to multiple and common cause failures. This concern relates to the application of the single failure criterion for assuring a reliable DC power supply which may be required for the functionability of shutdown cooling systems. The results are presented of a reliability based study performed to assess the adequacy of DC power supply design requirements for currently operating light water reactors with particular attention to shutdown cooling requirements

  1. Explicit construction of quasiconserved local operator of translationally invariant nonintegrable quantum spin chain in prethermalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2017-12-01

    We numerically construct translationally invariant quasiconserved operators with maximum range M , which best commute with a nonintegrable quantum spin chain Hamiltonian, up to M =12 . In the large coupling limit, we find that the residual norm of the commutator of the quasiconserved operator decays exponentially with its maximum range M at small M , and turns into a slower decay at larger M . This quasiconserved operator can be understood as a dressed total "spin-z " operator, by comparing with the perturbative Schrieffer-Wolff construction developed to high order reaching essentially the same maximum range. We also examine the operator inverse participation ratio of the operator, which suggests its localization in the operator Hilbert space. The operator also shows an almost exponentially decaying profile at short distance, while the long-distance behavior is not clear due to limitations of our numerical calculation. Further dynamical simulation confirms that the prethermalization-equilibrated values are described by a generalized Gibbs ensemble that includes such quasiconserved operator.

  2. Experience from the construction and operation of Tarapur and Rajasthan Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.C.; Pardiwala, T.F.; Kothare, V.V.; Rao, M.H.P.; Nanjundeswaran, K.

    1977-01-01

    India's experience in construction and operation of nuclear power stations so far covers two BWR and four PHWR Units in three power stations. Two more PHWR units are at an early stage of construction. The twin unit Tarapur Station (2x210 MWe BWR) was built as a turnkey project which restricted participation of Indian engineers in design and construction considerably. The contrasting approach adopted for Rajasthan Station (2x220 MWe PHWR) involved Indian personnel and contractors fully in construction and commissioning, with Canadians providing supervisory assistance in Rajasthan I and essentially consultative help for Rajasthan II. Subsequent stations are wholly Indian efforts. Tarapur went into commercial operation in 1969, 60 months after breaking of ground. Construction was essentially uneventful, major problems faced being stress corrosion induced cracks in the reactor lining and complete change of steam generator tubes. In its seven years of operations, Tarapur has faced several problems mainly arising from rather early designs, indifferent fuel performance, constraints of twin-unit approach and operations in an inadequately developed grid system apart from those generally stemming from assimilation of an advanced technology in a developing country. The Station has undergone six refuellings during this period. Most of the problems have been overcome by design changes, system augmentations and experience and the Station operation since mid 1974 have generally been steady at around 90% of the rated capacity. Construction of Rajasthan I at a remote and isolated site proceeded relatively slowly. Local availability of skilled and semi-skilled manpower was poor, affecting construction. Inadequate roads impeded movements of overdimensioned components. Observing strict Quality Assurance standards required several major rectifications at site. Rajasthan I went on line in 1973 after overcoming major turbine bearing problems during commissioning. Since then, while

  3. Spherical and plane integral operators for PDEs construction, analysis, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sabelfeld, Karl K

    2013-01-01

    The book presents integral formulations for partial differential equations, with the focus on spherical and plane integral operators. The integral relations are obtained for different elliptic and parabolic equations, and both direct and inverse mean value relations are studied. The derived integral equations are used to construct new numerical methods for solving relevant boundary value problems, both deterministic and stochastic based on probabilistic interpretation of the spherical and plane integral operators.

  4. Development of new construction technologies for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Susumu; Itoh, Daisuke; Ichizono, Katsuyuki

    1995-01-01

    In order to proceed rationally with the construction of a nuclear power station, the followings are the subject to solve beside reducing the construction cost: shortening the construction period, improving the quality, and securing safety in the construction work. As a measure to solve the matters, we correctly construct the plant mainly applying 'all-weather proof construction method' and 'pre-assembled large-block construction method'. Furthermore, as the plant construction control system, we perform a construction work applying the design change management system, pre-assessment for safety, and the whole facility check. As a result of our effort, it was attained that when we compare the matured plant with the first unit, the construction cost is reduced by 30%, the construction period is shortened by 12 months, site manpower is decreased by 30%, and the plant had no sudden shutdowns even during the trial operation period. (author)

  5. Conceptual design and analysis of roads and road construction machinery for initial lunar base operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sines, Jeffrey L.; Banks, Joel; Efatpenah, Keyanoush

    1990-01-01

    Recent developments have made it possible for scientists and engineers to consider returning to the Moon to build a manned lunar base. The base can be used to conduct scientific research, develop new space technology, and utilize the natural resources of the Moon. Areas of the base will be separated, connected by a system of roads that reduce the power requirements of vehicles traveling on them. Feasible road types for the lunar surface were analyzed and a road construction system was designed for initial lunar base operations. A model was also constructed to show the system configuration and key operating features. The alternate designs for the lunar road construction system were developed in four stages: analyze and select a road type; determine operations and machinery needed to produce the road; develop machinery configurations; and develop alternates for several machine components. A compacted lunar soil road was selected for initial lunar base operations. The only machinery required to produce this road were a grader and a compactor. The road construction system consists of a main drive unit which is used for propulsion, a detachable grader assembly, and a towed compactor.

  6. Changing priorities of codes and standards -- quality engineering: Experiences in plant construction, maintenance, and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, D.D.; Suleski, P.F.; Meier, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Application of the ASME Code across various fossil and nuclear plants necessitates a Company approach adapted by unique status of each plant. This arises from State Statutes, Federal Regulations and consideration of each plant's as-built history over a broad time frame of design, construction and operation. Additionally, the National Board Inspection Code accompanies Minnesota Statutes for plants owned by Northern States Power Company. This paper addresses some key points on NSP's use of ASME Code as a principal mechanical standard in plant design, construction and operation. A primary resource facilitating review of Code provisions is accurate status on current plant configuration. As plant design changes arise, the Code Edition/Addenda of original construction and installed upgrades or replacements are considered against available options allowed by current standards and dialog with the Jurisdictional Authority. Consistent with the overall goal of safe and reliable plant operation, there are numerous Code details and future needs to be addressed in concert with expected plant economics and planned outages for implementation. The discussion begins in the late 60's with new construction of Monticello and Prairie Island (both nuclear), through Sherburne County Units 1 through 3 (fossil), and their changes, replacements or repairs as operating plants

  7. Defense Infrastructure: Actions Needed to Enhance Oversight of Construction Projects Supporting Military Contingency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    supporting documentation for reviews that the U.S. Forces-Afghanistan conducted beginning in November 2011 of planned or ongoing contingency ...12 Contingency basing includes the planning , designing, constructing, operating, managing, and transitioning or closing of a non-enduring location...2016). Background Definition of “ Contingency Construction” Project Page 7 GAO-16-406 Defense Infrastructure statutory authority

  8. 78 FR 75359 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Assessment for Construction and Operation of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Orange, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waterfront facility handling and storing Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) at its Orange, Texas facility. The... LHG marine traffic in the associated waterway. INVISTA, S.a.r.l. located in Orange, Texas submitted an...

  9. The primary ion source for construction and optimization of operation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synowiecki, A.; Gazda, E.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of primary ion source for SIMS has been presented. The influence of individual operation parameters on the properties of ion source has been investigated. Optimization of these parameters has allowed to appreciate usefulness of the ion source for SIMS study. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  10. 47 CFR 25.133 - Period of construction; certification of commencement of operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Period of construction; certification of commencement of operation. 25.133 Section 25.133 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.133 Period...

  11. Developmental Differences in Motor Task Integration: A Test of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todor, John I.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the ability of Pascual-Leone's Theory of Constructive Operators to predict the minimum age or maturational level at which integration of a motor task could be achieved. Subjects were 114 elementary school children ranging in age from 5 to 12. (Author/MP)

  12. Canonical construction of differential operators intertwining representations of real semisimple Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.

    1986-11-01

    Let G be a real linear connected semisimple Lie group. We present a canonical construction of the differential operators intertwining elementary (≡ generalized principal series) representations of G. The results are easily extended to real linear reductive Lie groups. (author). 20 refs

  13. Costs of construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants - determinant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da

    1981-01-01

    A study about the construction costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant, including direct costs, equipment costs, installation and indirect costs such as: engineering, job-training and administration is presented. The operation and maintenance costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant and costs of energy generation are still studied. (E.G.) [pt

  14. MCR2S unstructured mesh capabilities for use in shutdown dose rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eade, T.; Stonell, D.; Turner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Advancements in shutdown dose rate calculations will be needed as fusion moves from experimental reactors to full scale demonstration reactors in order to ensure the safety of personnel. • The MCR2S shutdown dose rate tool has been modified to allow shutdown dose rates calculations using an unstructured mesh. • The unstructured mesh capability of MCR2S was used on three shutdown dose rate models, a simple sphere, the ITER computational benchmark and the DEMO computational benchmark. • The results showed a reasonable agreement between an unstructured mesh approach and the CSG approach and highlighted the need to carefully choose the unstructured mesh resolution. - Abstract: As nuclear fusion progresses towards a sustainable energy source and the power of tokamak devices increases, a greater understanding of the radiation fields will be required. As well as on-load radiation fields, off-load or shutdown radiation field are an important consideration for the safety and economic viability of a commercial fusion reactor. Previously codes such as MCR2S have been written in order to predict the shutdown dose rates within, and in regions surrounding, a fusion reactor. MCR2S utilises a constructive solid geometry (CSG) model and a superimposed structured mesh to calculate 3-D maps of the shutdown dose rate. A new approach to MCR2S calculations is proposed and implemented using a single unstructured mesh to replace both the CSG model and the superimposed structured mesh. This new MCR2S approach has been demonstrated on three models of increasing complexity. These models were: a sphere, the ITER computational shutdown dose rate benchmark and the DEMO computational shutdown dose rate benchmark. In each case the results were compared to MCR2S calculations performed using MCR2S with CSG geometry and a superimposed structured mesh. It was concluded that the results from the unstructured mesh implementation of MCR2S compared well to the CSG structured mesh

  15. Ten years of cryo-magnetic W7-X test facility construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, B.; Dispau, G.; Donati, A.; Genini, L.; Gournay, J.F.; Kuster, O.; Molinie, F.; Schild, T.; Touzery, R.; Vieillard, L.; Walter, C.

    2011-01-01

    The construction, commissioning, and operation phases of the W7-X cryo-magnetic test facility in CEA Saclay lasted ten years. The large diversity of equipments called, specialties involved and problems solved attest the expertise that was required to operate the test facility and test the coils. Nearly one hundred cryogenic tests were performed on the seventy W7-X coils, at a rate always increasing, using two cryostats each holding two coils. This paper presents the test facility and its operation first, the cryogenic difficulties that were confronted with their solutions, the electro-magnetic difficulties encountered along with corrective actions, and finally the instrumentation and data acquisition aspects. (authors)

  16. The use of digital computers in CANDU shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.S.; Komorowski, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the application of computers in CANDU shutdown systems. A general description of systems that are already in service is presented along with a description of a fully computerized shutdown system which is scheduled to enter service in 1987. In reviewing the use of computers in the shutdown systems there are three functional areas where computers have been or are being applied. These are (i) shutdown system monitoring, (ii) parameter display and testing and (iii) shutdown initiation. In recent years various factors (References 1 and 2) have influenced the development and deployment of systems which have addressed two of these functions. At the present time a system is also being designed which addresses all of these areas in a comprehensive manner. This fully computerized shutdown system reflects the previous design, and licensing experience which was gained in earlier applications. Prior to describing the specific systems which have been designed a short summary of CANDU shutdown system characteristics is presented

  17. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru

    1987-01-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie a certain class of quantum integrable systems. (orig.)

  18. Surface facilities for geological deep repositories - Measures against dangers during construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-09-01

    This brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses the measures that are to be taken to address the dangers encountered during the construction and operation of deep geological repositories for nuclear wastes. Firstly, the operation of such repositories during the emplacement of nuclear wastes is discussed and examples of possible repositories for fuel rods and highly-radioactive waste are presented. Various emission-protection issues and safety measures to be taken during construction of such repositories are looked at as is the protection of ground water. Safety considerations during the operational phase are discussed, including inclusion methods used for the wastes and radiation protection. The handling of radioactive wastes, the recognition of dangers and measures to be taken to counteract them are discussed. Various possible accidents are looked at

  19. Field theoretical construction of an infinite set of quantum commuting operators related with soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu; Yamanaka, Itaru.

    1986-08-01

    The quantum version of an infinite set of polynomial conserved quantities of a class of soliton equations is discussed from the point of view of naive continuum field theory. By using techniques of two dimensional field theories, we show that an infinite set of quantum commuting operators can be constructed explicitly from the knowledge of its classical counterparts. The quantum operators are so constructed as to coincide with the classical ones in the ℎ → 0 limit (ℎ; Planck's constant divided by 2π). It is expected that the explicit forms of these operators would shed some light on the structure of the infinite dimensional Lie algebras which underlie certain class of quantum integrable systems. (author)

  20. Construction techniques and operation principles of Geiger-Mueller counters using external cathode (Mazetype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevegnani, F.X.

    1988-01-01

    The construction techniques for external cathode (Maze) and internal cathode Geiger-Muller counters are described, showing the operation principles and the used material nature. More than 200 counter types were evaluated analysing their characteristics. The influence of several types of guard-rings was studied, for optimizing counter operation conditions. Plateaus of the order of 700 V with slope of 0,3%/100 V for the net counting rate, and 1400 V with a slope of 0,8/100 V for total counts using total pressure of 10 cmHg, were obtained. A counter for β detection, using blown glass window in one of the edges of the cylinder was constructed. Counters of long life using materials such as, mica, adhesive glues, etc., were obtained. The results shown that the best counter operation occurs when it is empty in a vacuum of 10 -5 mmHg. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Technical data for concentrated solar power plants in operation, under construction and in project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Pelay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents technical data for concentrated solar power (CSP plants in operation, under construction and in project all over the world in the form of tables. These tables provide information about plants (e.g., name of the CSP plant, country of construction, owner of the plant, aim of the plant and their technical characteristics (e.g., CSP technology, solar power, area of the plant, presence and type of hybridization system, electricity cost, presence and type of TES, power cycle fluid, heat transfer fluid, operating temperature, operating pressure, type of turbine, type and duration of storage, etc.. Further interpretation of the data and discussions on the current state-of-the-art and future trends of CSP can be found in the associated research article (Pelay et al., 2017 [1].

  2. Report of a consultants meeting on accidents during shutdown conditions for WWER nuclear power plants. Extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    The main objectives of the meeting were to exchange information on the operational occurrences, studies performed and countermeasures taken for the accidents during shutdown for WWERs, and to define the necessity and directions of the further activities which may promote the improvement of WWER safety under shutdown conditions. The consultants have discussed some aspects concerning vulnerability of safety functions during shutdown conditions, several steps required to performed accident analysis and selected operational aspects for shutdown conditions. The discussion was supported by an evaluation of selected operational occurrences. The consultants have agreed that the discussion during the meeting in major parts is relevant to all the WWER designs (i.e. WWER-1000, WWER-440/213 and WWER-440/230). As for the plant conditions, the consultants have agreed to bound the discussion mainly by the cold shutdown and refuelling modes. Refs, figs, tabs

  3. Dynamic Analysis of a Floating Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Under Emergency Shutdown Using Hydrodynamic Brake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, K.; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Moan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency shutdown is always a challenge for an operating vertical axis wind turbine. A 5-MW vertical axis wind turbine with a Darrieus rotor mounted on a semi-submersible support structure was examined in this study. Coupled non-linear aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of the floating vertical...... axis wind turbine were carried out for emergency shutdown cases over a range of environmental conditions based on correlated wind and wave data. When generator failure happens, a brake should be applied to stop the acceleration of the rotor to prevent the rotor from overspeeding and subsequent disaster...

  4. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.; Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J.

    2015-09-01

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  5. TRACG-CFD analysis of ESBWR reactor water cleanup shutdown cooling system mixing coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallardo, J. [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico); Marquino, W.; Mistreanu, A.; Yang, J., E-mail: euqrop@hotmail.com [General Electric Hitachi Nuclear Energy, Wilmington, 28401 North Carolina (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The ESBWR is a 1520 nominal [M We] Generation III+ natural circulation boiling water reactor designed to high levels of safety utilizing features that have been successfully used before in operating BWRs, as well as standard features common to A BWR. In September of 2014, the US NRC has certified the ESBWR design for use in the USA. The RWCU/Sdc is an auxiliary system for the ESBWR nuclear island. Basic functions it performs include purifying the reactor coolant during normal operation and shutdown and providing shutdown cooling and cooldown to cold shutdown conditions. The performance of the RWCU system during shutdown cooling is directly related to the temperature of the water removed through the outlets, which is coupled with the vessel and F W temperatures through a thermal mixing coefficient. The complex three-dimensional (3-D) geometry of the BWR downcomer and lower plenum has a great impact on the flow mixing. Only a fine mesh technique like CFD can predict the 3-D temperature distribution in the RPV during shutdown and provide the RWCU/Sdc system inlet temperature. Plant shutdown is an unsteady event by nature and was modeled as a succession of CFD steady-state simulations. It is required to establish the mixing coefficient (which is a function of the heat balance and the core flow) during the operation of the RWCU system in the multiple shutdown cooling modes, and therefore a range of core flows needs to be estimated using quasi steady states obtained with TRACG. The lower end of that range is obtained from a system with minimal power decay heat and core flow; while the higher end corresponds to the power at the beginning of RWCU/Sdc operation when the cooldown is transferred to the RWCU/Sdc after the initial depressurization via the turbine bypass valves. Because the ESBWR RWCU/Sdc return and suction designs provide good mixing, the uniform mixing energy balance was found to be an adequate alternative for deriving the mixing coefficient. The CFD mass flow

  6. Impact of shutdown risk on risk-based assessment of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriot, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the current work performed by the Research and Development Division of EDF concerning risk-based assessment of Operating Technical Specifications (OTS). The current risk-based assessment of OTS at EDF is presented. Then, the level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of unit 3 of the Paluel nuclear power station (called PSA 1300) is described. It is fully computerized and takes into account the risk in shutdown states. A case study is presented. It shows that the fact of considering shutdown risk suggests that the current OTS should be modified

  7. Global shutdown dose rate maps for a DEMO conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leichtle, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sanz, J.; Catalan, J.P.; Juarez, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of R2S-method on high-resolution full torus sector mesh for DEMO. • Absorbed dose rates after shutdown for a variely of RH equipment at typical locations. • Idenification of radiation levels at several port based locations. - Abstract: For the calculations of highly reliable shutdown dose rate (SDR) maps in fusion devices like a DEMO plant, the Rigorous-2-step (R2S) method is nowadays routinely applied using high-resolution decay gamma sources from initial high-resolution neutron flux meshes activating all materials in the system. This approach has been utilized in the present paper with the objective to provide SDR results relevant for RH systems of a conceptual DEMO design developed in the EU. The primary objective was to assess specific locations of interest for RH equipment inside the vessel and along the extension of maintenance ports. To this end, a provisional DEMO MCNP model has been used, featuring HCLL-type blankets, tungsten/copper divertor, manifolds, vacuum vessel with ports and toroidal field coils. The operational scenario assumed 2.1 GW fusion power and a life-time of 20 years with plant availability of 30%, where removable parts will be extracted after 5.2 years. Results of absorbed dose rate distributions for several relevant materials are presented and discussed in terms of the different contributions from the various activated components.

  8. Global shutdown dose rate maps for a DEMO conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leichtle, D., E-mail: dieter.leichtle@f4e.europa.eu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology KIT, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanz, J.; Catalan, J.P.; Juarez, R. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia(UNED), E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, C/ Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Application of R2S-method on high-resolution full torus sector mesh for DEMO. • Absorbed dose rates after shutdown for a variely of RH equipment at typical locations. • Idenification of radiation levels at several port based locations. - Abstract: For the calculations of highly reliable shutdown dose rate (SDR) maps in fusion devices like a DEMO plant, the Rigorous-2-step (R2S) method is nowadays routinely applied using high-resolution decay gamma sources from initial high-resolution neutron flux meshes activating all materials in the system. This approach has been utilized in the present paper with the objective to provide SDR results relevant for RH systems of a conceptual DEMO design developed in the EU. The primary objective was to assess specific locations of interest for RH equipment inside the vessel and along the extension of maintenance ports. To this end, a provisional DEMO MCNP model has been used, featuring HCLL-type blankets, tungsten/copper divertor, manifolds, vacuum vessel with ports and toroidal field coils. The operational scenario assumed 2.1 GW fusion power and a life-time of 20 years with plant availability of 30%, where removable parts will be extracted after 5.2 years. Results of absorbed dose rate distributions for several relevant materials are presented and discussed in terms of the different contributions from the various activated components.

  9. Assessment of the impact of nuclear power plant construction and operation on small regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    This study addresses the problem of the comprehensive, quantitative evaluation of the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the construction and operation of nuclear power plant on a given region. A theoretical model of the regional impacts is constructed employing input-output methods that are extended to include ecologic as well as economic effects. Thus, the regional model explicitly incorporates environmental feedback as a consequence of economic activity. The model is then employed to estimate the impact of the construction and operation of a nuclear power facility on a small region in South Carolina. Measures of economic and environmental effects include estimates of changes in output, income, employment, local government revenue and expenditure, external costs of environmental decay, pollution loads, and common-property resource usage. Results indicate that, in the South Carolina case study, significant gains in social welfare accrued to the region due to the construction and operation of the nuclear power facility. Further, the theoretical method developed herein provides a comprehensive method of objectively assessing various types of impacts on a region as small as several contiguous counties or even a single county

  10. Analysis of activation and shutdown contact dose rate for EAST neutral beam port

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuqing; Wang, Ji; Zhong, Guoqiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Jinfang; Xie, Yahong; Wu, Bin; Hu, Chundong

    2017-12-01

    For the safe operation and maintenance of neutral beam injector (NBI), specific activity and shutdown contact dose rate of the sample material SS316 are estimated around the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) neutral beam port. Firstly, the neutron emission intensity is calculated by TRANSP code while the neutral beam is co-injected to EAST. Secondly, the neutron activation and shutdown contact dose rates for the neutral beam sample materials SS316 are derived by the Monte Carlo code MCNP and the inventory code FISPACT-2007. The simulations indicate that the primary radioactive nuclides of SS316 are 58Co and 54Mn. The peak contact dose rate is 8.52 × 10-6 Sv/h after EAST shutdown one second. That is under the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design values 1 × 10-5 Sv/h.

  11. 40 CFR 60.2120 - What happens during periods of startup, shutdown, and malfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens during periods of startup... 1, 2001 Emission Limitations and Operating Limits § 60.2120 What happens during periods of startup... during CISWI unit startups, shutdowns, or malfunctions. (b) Each malfunction must last no longer than 3...

  12. 25 CFR 226.28 - Shutdown, abandonment, and plugging of wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Cessation of Operations § 226.28 Shutdown, abandonment... production of oil and/or gas has been demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Superintendent. Lessee shall... the means by which the well bore is to be protected, and the contemplated eventual disposition of the...

  13. Design, construction, and operation of the contact size reduction facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, D.E.; Reeves, S.R.; Valenti, P.J.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and initial operation of the Contact-Handled Size Reduction Facility (CSRF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project. The facility was constructed to size reduce contaminated tanks, piping, and other metallic scrap and package the scrap for disposal. In addition, the CSRF has the capability to decontaminate scrap prior to disposal. The anticipated result of decontaminating the scrap is to reduce waste classified as transuranic or low-level Class B and C to Class A or release for unrestricted use as nonradioactive equipment. 10 figs., 1 tab

  14. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  15. Experience Gained From the Construction, Test and Operation of the Large 4-T CMS Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Hervé, A; Curé, B; Fabbricatore, P; Gaddi, A; Kircher, F; Sgobba, S

    2008-01-01

    The 4-T, 6-m free bore CMS solenoid has been successfully tested, operated and mapped at CERN during the autumn of 2006; R&D studies started in 1993 and the construction proper in 1997. The main parameters of this 100 MUS$ project (including yoke) were then considered beyond what was thought possible, as the total stored magnetic energy reaches 2.6 GJ for a specific magnetic energy density exceeding 11 kJ/kg of cold mass. During this period, the international design and construction team had to make several important technical choices, in particular mechanical, to maximize the chances of reaching the nominal induction of 4 Tesla. The paper will review these choices in the light of what is presently known and examine if better solutions would be possible today for constructing a new large high-field thin solenoid for a future detector magnet.

  16. Case study of restaurant successfully designed, constructed, and operated for excellent dining acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollard, Paul; Des Jardins, Stephen

    2005-09-01

    Prior to the construction of La Provence Restaurant in Roseville, California in 2004, the owner, Stephen Des Jardins, traveled with his cook, architect, and engineer to the Provence Region of France to study the cuisine, architecture, and acoustics of the local restaurants. This information was incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of his restaurant, with acoustical design assistance provided by the author, Paul Bollard. The result of the owner's painstaking attention to detail is a restaurant which has received very positive reviews for its architecture, quality of food, service, and acoustic ambience. This paper documents the measures included in the construction of the restaurant to ensure that the building acoustics enhance the dining experience, rather than detract from it. Photographs of acoustic treatments are included, as are reverberation time (RT60) test results and ambient noise level measurement results.

  17. Construction and operation of biogas plants. Bau und Betrieb von Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, F. von

    1985-01-01

    Biogas utilisation in agriculture has increased considerably as a consequence of the energy crisis. So far, energy production was the most important aspect, and the high-quality natural fertilizer offered by the fermentation residues was commonly neglected. This fertilizer is an effective substitute for commercial fertilizers and thus contributes to the reduction of environmental pollution. The book discusses the chemical and biological mechanisms, the criteria of selection for plants and materials, optimum gas production techniques, uses of the product gas, and the advantages and properties of the biofertilizer produced. Planning procedures, design, construction, function and performance of several biogas production plants now in operation are described. Hints are given for do-it-yourself construction, as are cost-benefit calculations and decision aids for construction.

  18. Hazard Classification for Fuel Supply Shutdown Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BENECKE, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Final hazard classification for the 300 Area N Reactor fuel storage facility resulted in the assignment of Nuclear Facility Hazard Category 3 for the uranium metal fuel and feed material storage buildings (303-A, 303-B, 303-G, 3712, and 3716). Radiological for the residual uranium and thorium oxide storage building and an empty former fuel storage building that may be used for limited radioactive material storage in the future (303-K/3707-G, and 303-E), and Industrial for the remainder of the Fuel Supply Shutdown buildings (303-F/311 Tank Farm, 303-M, 313-S, 333, 334 and Tank Farm, 334-A, and MO-052)

  19. A Fast Shutdown Technique for Large Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.; Schmidt, G.L.; Hill, K.; Jardin, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    A practical method is proposed for the fast shutdown of a large ignited tokamak. The method consists of injecting a rapid series of 30-50 deuterium pellets doped with a small ( 0.0005%) concentration of Krypton impurity, and simultaneously ramping the plasma current and shaping fields down over a period of several seconds using the poloidal field system. Detailed modeling with the Tokamak Simulation Code using a newly developed pellet mass deposition model shows that this method should terminate the discharge in a controlled and stable way without producing significant numbers of runaway electrons. A partial prototyping of this technique was accomplished in TFTR

  20. Rodded shutdown system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Govi, A.R.

    1978-01-01

    A top mounted nuclear reactor diverse rodded shutdown system utilizing gas fed into a pressure bearing bellows region sealed at the upper extremity to an armature is described. The armature is attached to a neutron absorber assembly by a series of shafts and connecting means. The armature is held in an uppermost position by an electromagnet assembly or by pressurized gas in a second embodiment. Deenergizing the electromagnet assembly, or venting the pressurized gas, causes the armature to fall by the force of gravity, thereby lowering the attached absorber assembly into the reactor core

  1. [Construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao-Hui, Zheng; Jun, Qin; Li, Chen; Hong, Zhu; Li, Tang; Zu-Wu, Tu; Ming-Xing, Zeng; Qian, Sun; Shun-Xiang, Cai

    2016-10-09

    To analyze the construction and operation status of management system of laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions in Hubei Province, so as to provide the reference for the standardized detection and management of schistosomiasis laboratories. According to the laboratory standard of schistosomiasis at provincial, municipal and county levels, the management system construction and operation status of 60 schistosomiasis control institutions was assessed by the acceptance examination method from 2013 to 2015. The management system was already occupied over all the laboratories of schistosomiasis control institutions and was officially running. There were 588 non-conformities and the inconsistency rate was 19.60%. The non-conformity rate of the management system of laboratory quality control was 38.10% (224 cases) and the non-conformity rate of requirements of instrument and equipment was 23.81% (140 cases). The management system has played an important role in the standardized management of schistosomiasis laboratories.

  2. A team leadership approach to managing the transition from construction to operations for an environmental project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.W.

    1994-06-01

    This presentation describes a team approach, at the totalproject level that focused team members with common objectives, for the transition to start-up and operation of the project. The Integrated Management Team (IMT) approach has been successful for this US Department of Energy (DOE) environmental restoration project at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The $53.8-million project will collect, treat, and dispose of low-level mixed waste water discharges from the Hanford Site. Construction is scheduled for completion in September 1994 and facility start-up in June 1995. The project challenge is for leadership that is committed to the transition from construction to operation of the environmental restoration project

  3. Three integrated photovoltaic/sound barrier power plants. Construction and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.; Froelich, A.; Clavadetscher, L.

    2002-01-01

    After an international ideas competition by TNC Switzerland and Germany in 1996, six companies where given the opportunity to construct a prototype of their newly developed integrated PV-sound barrier concepts. The main goal was to develop highly integrated concepts, allowing the reduction of PV sound barrier systems costs, as well as the demonstration of specific concepts for different noise situations. This project is strongly correlated with a German project. Three of the concepts of the competition are demonstrated along a highway near Munich, constructed in 1997. The three Swiss installations had to be constructed at different locations, reflecting three typical situations for sound barriers. The first Swiss installation was the world first Bi-facial PV-sound barrier. It was built on a highway bridge at Wallisellen-Aubrugg in 1997. The operational experience of the installation is positive. But due to the different efficiencies of the two cell sides, its specific yield lies somewhat behind a conventional PV installation. The second Swiss plant was finished in autumn 1998. The 'zig-zag' construction is situated along the railway line at Wallisellen in a densely inhabited area with some local shadowing. Its performance and its specific yield is comparatively low due to a combination of several reasons (geometry of the concept, inverter, high module temperature, local shadows). The third installation was constructed along the motor way A1 at Bruettisellen in 1999. Its vertical panels are equipped with amorphous modules. The report show, that the performance of the system is reasonable, but the mechanical construction has to be improved. A small trial field with cells directly laminated onto the steel panel, also installed at Bruettisellen, could be the key development for this concept. This final report includes the evaluation and comparison of the monitored data in the past 24 months of operation. (author)

  4. The History of the Construction and Operation of the German KNK II Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1994-11-01

    The report gives a historical review of the German KNK fast breeder project, from its beginnings in 1957 up to permanent plant shutdown in 1991. The original design was for the sodium cooled thermal reactor KNK I, which was commissioned on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The conversion into a fast nuclear power plant however was a process, which had to overcome considerable licensing difficulties. KNK II attained high fuel element burnups, and the completion of the fuel cycle was achieved. Various technical problems encountered in specific components are described in detail. After the termination of the SNR 300 fast breeder project in Kalkar for political reasons, KNK II was shutdown in August 1991

  5. Using game technologies to improve the safety of construction plant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongling; Li, Heng; Chan, Greg; Skitmore, Martin

    2012-09-01

    Many accidents occur world-wide in the use of construction plant and equipment, and safety training is considered by many to be one of the best approaches to their prevention. However, current safety training methods/tools are unable to provide trainees with the hands-on practice needed. Game technology-based safety training platforms have the potential to overcome this problem in a virtual environment. One such platform is described in this paper - its characteristics are analysed and its possible contribution to safety training identified. This is developed and tested by means of a case study involving three major pieces of construction plant, which successfully demonstrates that the platform can improve the process and performance of the safety training involved in their operation. This research not only presents a new and useful solution to the safety training of construction operations, but illustrates the potential use of advanced technologies in solving construction industry problems in general. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Legal preconditions for the construction and operation of district gas mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joachim, H

    1977-06-01

    The course of procedure in connection with the construction of district gas mains is outlined. This includes acquisition of main rights under private law and expropriation law, special problems such as peculiarities of land or landscape, road crossings, facilities of the Federal railway, agriculture etc., operational problems such as protection zones, building territories within the area of the main layout, drainage effects, high-pressure pipes, etc.

  7. Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2. Application for construction permits and operating licenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An application to construct and operate Black Fox Station, Units 1 and 2, is presented. The two BWR type reactors will have a rated core thermal power of 3579 MW(t) and a net electrical power of approximately 1150 MW(e). The facility will be located in Inola Township, 23 miles east of Tulsa on the east side of the Verdigris River in Rogers County, Oklahoma

  8. Subsurface flow constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater from different sources. Design and operation

    OpenAIRE

    Torrens Armengol, Antonina

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to examine the viability of the subsurface constructed wetlands for the treatment of wastewater derived from three different sources (treatment ponds, pig farms and car wash facilities), and to evaluate the influence of design (size, type and depth of media, presence of Phragmites australis) and operational parameters (hydraulic load, dosing and feeding modes) on treatment efficiency and hydraulic behavior. Several studies were done in the framework of different ...

  9. Spaceborne construction and operations planning - Decision rules for selecting EVA, telerobot, and combined work-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey H.

    1992-01-01

    An approach is presented for selecting an appropriate work-system for performing construction and operations tasks by humans and telerobots. The decision to use extravehicular activity (EVA) performed by astronauts, extravehicular robotics (EVR), or a combination of EVA and EVR is determined by the ratio of the marginal costs of EVA, EVR, and IVA. The approach proposed here is useful for examining cost trade-offs between tasks and performing trade studies of task improvement techniques (human or telerobotic).

  10. Design, construction, and operations experience with the SWSA 6 [Solid Waste Storage Area] Tumulus Disposal Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Van Cleve, J.E.; Wylie, A.N.; Williams, L.C.; Bolinsky, J.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts are underway at the Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge to improve the performance of radioactive waste disposal facilities. An engineered disposal concept demonstration involving placement of concrete encased waste on a monitored concrete pad with an earthen cover is being conducted. The design, construction, and operations experience with this project, the SWSA 6 Tumulus Disposal Demonstration, is described. 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Assessing the effect of nuclear power installation construction and operation on the socio-economic sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvirova, E.

    1984-01-01

    A demographic analysis is made of the area within 25 km from the Dukovany nuclear power plant. The problem is discussed of sources and requirements for manpower for the construction and operation of the power plant. It was found that the capacity of creches and nursery schools for children of power plant employees is inadequate, as are health care facilities for personnel. (E.S.)

  12. Does modern helicopter construction reduce noise exposure in helicopter rescue operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Thomas; Jansing, Paul; Schöffl, Volker; van Der Giet, Simone

    2013-01-01

    During helicopter rescue operations the medical personnel are at high risk for hearing damage by noise exposure. There are two important factors to be taken into account: first, the extreme variability, with some days involving no exposure but other days with extreme exposure; second, the extreme noise levels during work outside the helicopter, e.g. during winch operations. The benefit of modern, less noisier constructions and the consequences for noise protection are still unknown. We estimated the noise exposure of the personnel for different helicopter types used during rescue operations in the Alps and in other regions of the world with special regard to the advanced types like Eurocopter EC 135 to compare the benefit of modern constructions for noise protection with earlier ones. The rescue operations over 1 year of four rescue bases in the Alps (Raron and Zermatt in Switzerland; Landeck and Innsbruck in Austria, n = 2731) were analyzed for duration of rescue operations (noise exposure). Noise levels were measured during rescue operations at defined points inside and outside the different aircraft. The setting is according to the European standard (Richtlinie 2003/10/EG Amtsblatt) and to Class 1 DIN/IEC 651. With both data sets the equivalent noise level L(eq8h) was calculated. For comparison it was assumed that all rescue operations were performed with a specific type of helicopter. Then model calculations for noise exposure by different helicopter types, such as Alouette IIIb, Alouette II 'Lama', Ecureuil AS350, Bell UH1D, Eurocopter EC135, and others were performed. Depending on modern technologies the situation for the personnel has been improved significantly. Nevertheless noise prevention, which includes noise intermissions in spare time, is essential. Medical checks of the crews by occupational medicine (e.g. 'G20' in Germany) are still mandatory.

  13. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility] reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations

  14. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source Facility. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  15. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed, spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulator ring and a second target. This document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this FEIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. The No-Action Alternative describes the expected condition of the environment if no action were taken. Four siting alternatives for the Spallation Neutron Source are evaluated: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, (preferred alternative); Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL; Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY; and Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

  16. Operational Work System Design and Staff Performance in the Nigerian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ejikeme Isichei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study investigated the impact of operational work system design on staff performance in selected construction firms in Nigeria. Research Design & Methods: The study used primary data gathered with the use of a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire format administered to 138 respondents. A hypothesis was postulated to test the significance of the research problem. Data analysis was carried out using correlation and multiple regression analysis which proved the significance of the alternative hypothesis as a result of testing the hypothesis. Findings: The findings show that there is a significant relationship between operational work system design and staff performance. The study concludes that operational job design can be advanced as a motivation tool, which is non-monetary in nature, to improve staff performance. Implications & Recommendations: A key drive to improve performance is the satisfaction of staff coupled with an outstanding operational job design which takes into consideration the total physical and mental well-being of staff and its interaction with other organisational factors. The study recommends, among others, that there should be active participation of staff in the design of work in the organisation. Contribution & Value Added: The study provides an empirical approach to enhancing performance in the construction industry and thereby developing an indigenous firm to compete favourably on a growing market.

  17. Construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source: Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    DOE proposes to construct and operate a state-of-the-art, short-pulsed spallation neutron source comprised of an ion source, a linear accelerator, a proton accumulator ring, and an experiment building containing a liquid mercury target and a suite of neutron scattering instrumentation. The proposed Spallation Neutron Source would be designed to operate at a proton beam power of 1 megawatt. The design would accommodate future upgrades to a peak operating power of 4 megawatts. These upgrades may include construction of a second proton accumulation ring and a second target. Volume 1 of this document analyzes the potential environmental impacts from the proposed action and the alternatives. The analysis assumes a facility operating at a power of 1 MW and 4 MW over the life of the facility. The two primary alternatives analyzed in this EIS are: the proposed action (to proceed with building the Spallation Neutron Source) and the No-Action Alternative. This volume contains the following appendices: (A) SNS accident source terms for EIS input; (B) Reports on the selection of alternative sites for the SNS; (C) Letters of consultation on protected species and cultural resources; (D) Ecological resource survey reports and summaries; (E) Descriptions of ORNL research projects in the Walker Branch Watershed; (F) Atmospheric dispersion and dose calculations for normal and accident conditions; (G) Projected air quality modeling effects at NOAA's Walker Branch Monitoring Tower

  18. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1995. Report about operation, construction, and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Report about Operation, Construction, and Planning in 18 European Countries Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1995. The ''Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1995'' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1995, 214 (1994: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,010 (176,322) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation in seventeen countries, and 26 (30) units with 24,786 (28,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (245) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,796 (204,408) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1048 TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1994; 792 TWh of this aggregate was converted in 137 units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 77%, has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 75% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 5%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power plants are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  19. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35116] R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and Operation Exemption--In Clearfield County, PA.... 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc. (RJCP) to construct and operate 10.8...

  20. Guidebook on design, construction and operation of pilot plants for uranium ore processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The design, construction and operation of a pilot plant are often important stages in the development of a project for the production of uranium concentrates. Since building and operating a pilot plant is very costly and may not always be required, it is important that such a plant be built only after several prerequisites have been met. The main purpose of this guidebook is to discuss the objectives of a pilot plant and its proper role in the overall project. Given the wide range of conditions under which a pilot plant may be designed and operated, it is not possible to provide specific details. Instead, this book discusses the rationale for a pilot plant and provides guidelines with suggested solutions for a variety of problems that may be encountered. This guidebook is part of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing being prepared by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management. 42 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Study on the construction and its operating characteristics of Marx high voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W.K.; Yook, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    This study is to investigate the operating characteristics of a Marx high voltage pulse generator, which is designed and fabricated for the purpose of constructing a linear theta-pinch plasma generating facility. The Marx generator consists of a 2 kJ capacitor bank of maximum output voltage of 200kV, a set of main spark switch, a triggring system, and high voltage charging power supply. The experimental results show that the operating characteristics of the generator can be controlled through varying nitrogen pressure as a filling gas. The output pulse of the generator is achieved close to the estimated voltage with the rise time of 3*m seconds. The stability of the generator is also very satisfactory within operating range of main spark switch. (Author)

  2. Problems of economic assessment of social impacts of construction anO operation of nuctear power plant in the area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koudelka, F.

    1984-01-01

    The impacts of nuclear power plant construction and operation are divided into economic, demographic, on town planning, historic, etc. Further subdivision is performed according to the intensity of construction impacts, to the sequence and quality of impact and to the effects in space and time. The area of environmental impacts is classified into the protective area and the areas of immediate, limited and broad impact. The methods of the evaluation of nuclear power plant construction and operation impacts are discussed. (E.S.)

  3. Republic of Korea: Design Study for Passive Shutdown System of the PGSFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    There have been no experiences of implementing a passive shutdown system in operating or operated SFRs around the world. However, new SFRs are considered to adopt a self-actuated shutdown system (SASS) in the future to provide an alternate means of passively shutting down the reactor. The Prototype Gen-IV SFR (PGSFR) developed by KAERI also adopts this system for the same reason. This passive shutdown design concept is combined with a group of secondary control rod drive mechanisms (SCRDM). The system automatically releases the control rod assembly (CRA) around the set temperature, and then drops the CRA by gravity without any external control signals and any actuating power in an emergency of the reactor. This paper describes the parametric design study of a passive shutdown system, which consists of a thermal expansion device, an electromagnet, and a secondary control rod assembly head. The conceptual design values of each component are also suggested. Parametric calculations are performed to check the suitability of the performance requirements of the thermal expansion device and electromagnets

  4. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, J.M.

    1974-12-01

    For Belgium and Luxembourg, the authorization procedure varies according to the class in which the installation concerned falls (assigned according to the degree of hazard involved classes I, II or III). Moreover, separate authorizations are needed, one for construction and another for operation of class I and II installations. With respect to Germany also, two such separate authorizations are needed, but there is no specific procedure relating to the potential extent of hazard involved in the installation concerned. In France, the basic nuclear installations are subject to a special procedure. Furthermore, the construction and operation of these installations are also subject to two separate authorizations. While the latter two authorizations are required in Italy for the main nuclear installations, no system of classified installations exists according to extent of hazard involved. Similar legislation is applicable in the Netherlands. Neither does such a system of classified installations exist in the United Kingdom. Moreover, there is only one single authorization (the site licence), which is successively adapted during construction. On the other hand, in Denmark and Ireland, no detailed legislation has been developed on the subject

  5. Environmental assessment report: Nuclear Test Technology Complex. [Construction and operation of proposed facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonnessen, K.; Tewes, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) is planning to construct and operate a structure, designated the Nuclear Test Technology Complex (NTTC), on a site located west of and adjacent to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NTTC is designed to house 350 nuclear test program personnel, and will accommodate the needs of the entire staff of the continuing Nuclear Test Program (NTP). The project has three phases: land acquisition, facility construction and facility operation. The purpose of this environmental assessment report is to describe the activities associated with the three phases of the NTTC project and to evaluate potential environmental disruptions. The project site is located in a rural area of southeastern Alameda County, California, where the primary land use is agriculture; however, the County has zoned the area for industrial development. The environmental impacts of the project include surface disturbance, high noise levels, possible increases in site erosion, and decreased air quality. These impacts will occur primarily during the construction phase of the NTTC project and can be mitigated in part by measures proposed in this report.

  6. Licensing procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC member states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, J.M.

    1976-08-01

    For Belgium and Luxembourg, the authorization procedure varies according to the Class in which the installation concerned falls (assigned according to the degree of hazard involved: Classes I, II or III). Moreover, separate authorizations are needed, one for construction and another for operation of Class I and II installations. With respect to Germany also, two such separate authorization are needed, but there is no specific procedure relating to the potential extent of hazard involved in the installation concerned. In France, the 'basic' nuclear installations are subject to a special procedure. Furthermore, the construction and operation of these installations are also subject to two separate authorizations. While the latter two authorizations are required in Italy for the main nuclear installations, no system of 'classified' installations exists according to extent of hazard involved. Similar legislation is applicable in the Netherlands. Neither does such a system of 'classified' installations exist in the United Kingdom. Moreover, there is only one single authorization (the 'site licence'), which is succesively adapted during construction. On the other hand, in Denmark and Ireland, no detailed legislation has been developed on the subject

  7. Management of refuelling, modifications and accidental shut-down of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This document is the appendix of HAF 0300 (91) 'Code on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plant Operation', which was promulgated by the National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA) on March 2, 1994, and has the same legal effect. This appendix is applicable to establish the administrative management procedures for refuelling, modifications and accidental shut-down in the period of operation of pressurized water thermal neutron reactor of nuclear power plants. The NNSA shall be responsible for interpretation of this document

  8. Shutdown risk management applied at Philadelphia Electric Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, William J.; True, Douglas E.; Wilson, Thomas; Truax, William

    2004-01-01

    interactive reliance upon risk models but with clear, well founded analytical bases. This methodology is being expanded to address both forced outage and at-power configurations. The result will provide a consistent framework which relies upon appropriate models for each configuration but presents consistent understandable information to management and decision makers. The use of such tools clearly represents an opportunity to improve the decision making process and enhance overall operational effectiveness. This paper includes examples of shutdown, at-power, and forced outage situations and presents management guidance appropriate for such cases. Several analytical methods currently being used are presented. (author)

  9. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL's existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required

  10. Procedure guide of design, construction of prototypes, calibration and sure operation of nucleonic control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados Perez, H.; Griffith Martinez, J.; Desdin Garcia, L.F.; Rodriguez Cardona, R.L.; Molina, G.; Sebastian Calvo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This Guide was elaborated in the mark of the project RLA/8/024 ARCAL XLII 'Industrial Applications of the Tracer Technology and Nucleonic Control Systems'. Its objective is to establish the approaches for the design, the construction, the selection and the procedures for the sure operation of the Nucleonic Control Systems (NCS) in the industry. The NCS is used to control processes to high speeds, materials with extreme conditions or with noxious chemical properties, susceptible materials of being damaged by contact and packed products. In this document is defined the scope of the procedure. The SCN are classified according to: type of radiations, the mobility of the components, the degree of the beams collimation; and in function of the security. The design and construction criteria of the nuclear meters and of the systems of control nucleonic are exposed

  11. Construction and operation of replacement hazardous waste handling facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0423, for the construction and operation of a replacement hazardous waste handling facility (HWHF) and decontamination of the existing HWHF at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Berkeley, California. The proposed facility would replace several older buildings and cargo containers currently being used for waste handling activities and consolidate the LBL`s existing waste handling activities in one location. The nature of the waste handling activities and the waste volume and characteristics would not change as a result of construction of the new facility. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC. 4321 et seq. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required.

  12. Evaluation of the energy required for constructing and operating a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buende, R.

    1982-09-01

    The energy required for constructing and operating a tokamak fusion power plant is appraised with respect to the energy output during the lifetime of the plant. A harvesting factor is deduced as a relevant figure of energetic merit and is used for a comparison between fusion, fission, and coal-fired power plants. Because fusion power plants involve considerable uncertainties the comparison is supplemented by a sensitivity analysis. In comparison with Light Water Reactor plants fusion power plants appear to be rather favourable in this respect. The energy required for providing the fuel is relatively low for fusion plants, thus overcompensating the considerable higher amount of energy necessary for constructing the fusion power plant. (orig.)

  13. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, M.C.; Jones, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software

  14. Construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Calibration of instruments used to detect and measure ionizing radiation has been conducted over the last 20 years at Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) Radiation Calibration Facility, Building 348. Growth of research facilities, projects in progress, and more stringent Department of Energy (DOE) orders which involve exposure to nuclear radiation have placed substantial burdens on the existing radiation calibration facility. The facility currently does not meet the requirements of DOE Order 5480.4 or American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N323-1978, which establish calibration methods for portable radiation protection instruments used in the detection and measurement of levels of ionizing radiation fields or levels of radioactive surface contaminations. Failure to comply with this standard could mean instrumentation is not being calibrated to necessary levels of sensitivity. The Laboratory has also recently obtained a new neutron source and gamma beam irradiator which can not be made operational at existing facilities because of geometry and shielding inadequacies. These sources are needed to perform routine periodic calibrations of radiation detecting instruments used by scientific and technical personnel and to meet BNL's substantial increase in demand for radiation monitoring capabilities. To place these new sources into operation, it is proposed to construct an addition to the existing radiation calibration facility that would house all calibration sources and bring BNL calibration activities into compliance with DOE and ANSI standards. The purpose of this assessment is to identify potential significant environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of an improved radiation calibration facility at BNL

  15. Information management system for design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolch, M.C. (Duke Power Co. (US)); Jones, C.R. (S. Levy Inc. (US))

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the principal requirements and features of a computerized information management system (IMS) believed to be a necessary part of the program to design, build and operate the next generation of nuclear power plants in the United States. This way a result of extensive review and input from an industry group studying future nuclear power plant construction improvements. The needs of the power plant constructor, owner and operator for such a computerized technical data base are described in terms of applications and scope and timing of turnover of the IMS by the plant designer. The applications cover the full life cycle of the plant including project control, construction activities, quality control, maintenance and operation. The scope of the IMS is also described in terms of the technical data to be included, hardware and software capabilities and training. The responsibilities of the plant designer for developing the IMS and generating the technical data base is defined as part of the plant process. The requirements to be met include a comprehensive plant data model and computer system hardware and software.

  16. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A constructional engineering project study aimed at clarification of the feasibility of a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (type B repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set derived from the geological, rock mechanical and topographical characterictics of one of Nagra's planned exploration areas. Final storage is effected in subterranean rock caverns accessed by horizontal tunnel. The reception area also is sited below the surface. Storage is conceived in such a way that, after closure of the repository, maintenance and supervision can be dispensed with and a guarantee of high long-term safety can nevertheless be provided. The envisaged repository consists of an entry tunnel for road vehicles and a reception area with a series of caverns for receiving waste, for additional technical facilities and for the production of the concrete back-fill material. The connecting tunnel is serviced by a tunnel railway and the actual repository area consists of several storage caverns. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of 200'000 m3 of solidified low- and intermediate-level waste. Valanginian marl is assumed as the host rock, although it would also be basically possible to house the proposed installations in other host rocks. The excavated material will total around 1'000'000 m3. The construction time for the whole installation is estimated as about 7 years and a working team of around 30 people will be required for the estimated 60-year operational duration. The project described in the present report justifies the conclusion that construction of a repository for low-and intermediate-level radioactive waste is feasible with present-day technology. This conclusion takes into consideration quantitative and operational constraints as well as geological and hydrogeological data relevant to constructional engineering. The latter are derived from a model data-set based on a specific locality

  17. Pre-operative simulation of periacetabular osteotomy via a three-dimensional model constructed from salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukushima Kensuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Periacetabular osteotomy (PAO is an effective joint-preserving procedure for young adults with developmental dysplasia of the hip. Although PAO provides excellent radiographic and clinical results, it is a technically demanding procedure with a distinct learning curve that requires careful 3D planning and, above all, has a number of potential complications. We therefore developed a pre-operative simulation method for PAO via creation of a new full-scale model. Methods: The model was prepared from the patient’s Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM formatted data from computed tomography (CT, for construction and assembly using 3D printing technology. A major feature of our model is that it is constructed from salt. In contrast to conventional models, our model provides a more accurate representation, at a lower manufacturing cost, and requires a shorter production time. Furthermore, our model realized simulated operation normally with using a chisel and drill without easy breakage or fissure. We were able to easily simulate the line of osteotomy and confirm acetabular version and coverage after moving to the osteotomized fragment. Additionally, this model allowed a dynamic assessment that avoided anterior impingement following the osteotomy. Results: Our models clearly reflected the anatomical shape of the patient’s hip. Our models allowed for surgical simulation, making realistic use of the chisel and drill. Our method of pre-operative simulation for PAO allowed for the assessment of accurate osteotomy line, determination of the position of the osteotomized fragment, and prevented anterior impingement after the operation. Conclusion: Our method of pre-operative simulation might improve the safety, accuracy, and results of PAO.

  18. Current status of experimental breeder reactor-II [EBR-II] shutdown planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M. D.; Griffin, C. D.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Earle, O. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor--II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory--West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was shutdown in September, 1994 as mandated by the US Department of Energy. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the Sodium Process Facility. The sodium environment and the EBR-II configuration, combined with the radiation and contamination associated with thirty years of reactor operation, posed problems specific to liquid metal reactor deactivation. The methods being developed and implemented at EBR-II can be applied to other similar situations in the US and abroad

  19. Magnetic latch trigger for inherent shutdown assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.S.

    1976-01-01

    An inherent shutdown assembly for a nuclear reactor is provided. A neutron absorber is held ready to be inserted into the reactor core by a magnetic latch. The latch includes a magnet whose lines of force are linked by a yoke of material whose Curie point is at the critical temperature of the reactor at which the neutron absorber is to be inserted into the reactor core. The yoke is in contact with the core coolant or fissionable material so that when the coolant or the fissionable material increase in temperature above the Curie point the yoke loses its magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic link is broken, thereby causing the absorber to be released into the reactor core. 6 claims, 3 figures

  20. A review on the sustainability of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Hu, Zhen; Liang, Shuang; Fan, Jinlin; Liu, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as a green technology to treat various wastewaters for several decades. CWs offer a land-intensive, low-energy, and less-operational-requirements alternative to conventional treatment systems, especially for small communities and remote locations. However, the sustainable operation and successful application of these systems remains a challenge. Hence, this paper aims to provide and inspire sustainable solutions for the performance and application of CWs by giving a comprehensive review of CWs' application and the recent development on their sustainable design and operation for wastewater treatment. Firstly, a brief summary on the definition, classification and application of current CWs was presented. The design parameters and operational conditions of CWs including plant species, substrate types, water depth, hydraulic load, hydraulic retention time and feeding mode related to the sustainable operation for wastewater treatments were then discussed. Lastly, future research on improving the stability and sustainability of CWs were highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010) provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D) was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity). A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups) from healthy controls. The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding. PMID:25976478

  2. The Shutdown Dissociation Scale (Shut-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary model of the defense cascade by Schauer and Elbert (2010 provides a theoretical frame for a short interview to assess problems underlying and leading to the dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder. Based on known characteristics of the defense stages “fright,” “flag,” and “faint,” we designed a structured interview to assess the vulnerability for the respective types of dissociation. Most of the scales that assess dissociative phenomena are designed as self-report questionnaires. Their items are usually selected based on more heuristic considerations rather than a theoretical model and thus include anything from minor dissociative experiences to major pathological dissociation. The shutdown dissociation scale (Shut-D was applied in several studies in patients with a history of multiple traumatic events and different disorders that have been shown previously to be prone to symptoms of dissociation. The goal of the present investigation was to obtain psychometric characteristics of the Shut-D (including factor structure, internal consistency, retest reliability, predictive, convergent and criterion-related concurrent validity.A total population of 225 patients and 68 healthy controls were accessed. Shut-D appears to have sufficient internal reliability, excellent retest reliability, high convergent validity, and satisfactory predictive validity, while the summed score of the scale reliably separates patients with exposure to trauma (in different diagnostic groups from healthy controls.The Shut-D is a brief structured interview for assessing the vulnerability to dissociate as a consequence of exposure to traumatic stressors. The scale demonstrates high-quality psychometric properties and may be useful for researchers and clinicians in assessing shutdown dissociation as well as in predicting the risk of dissociative responding.

  3. Evaluation of residual life of material of power plant construction elements after long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osasyuk, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    Existing methods are analyzed for estimation of residual resource of elements of constructions, working in creep conditions. A suggested and experimentally verified new method of residual durability forecasting is described permitting the value of the supplementary resource to be specified according to the real state of the material after preoperation. Evaluation results are given for residual life of steam lines received by different methods and advantages of the technique proposed are shown. Reliability of the new technique is confirmed by steam line operation at thermal power plants

  4. Quality of the current low power and shutdown PSA practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Seung Cheol; Park, Jin Hee; Lim, Ho Gon; Kim, Tae Woon

    2004-01-01

    A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for the low-power and shutdown (LPSD) modes in a Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP) has been performed for the purpose of estimating the LPSD risk and identifying the vulnerabilities of LPSD operations. Both the operational experience and PSA results indicate that the risks from LPSD operations could be comparable with those from power operations. However, the application of the LPSD risk insights to risk-informed decision making has been slow to be adopted in practice. It is largely due to the question of whether the current LPSD PSA practice is appropriate for application to risk-informed decision making or not. Such a question has to do with the quality of the current LPSD PSA practice. In this paper, we have performed self-assessment of the KSNP LPSD PSA quality based on the ANS Standard (draft as of 13 Sep. 2002). The aims of the work are to find the LPSD PSA technical areas insufficient for application to risk-informed decision making and to efficiently allocate the limited research resources to improve the LPSD PSA model quality. Many useful findings regarding the current LPSD PSA quality are presented in this paper

  5. Certificate for Safe Emergency Shutdown of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Svenstrup, Mikael; Pedersen, Andreas Søndergaard

    2013-01-01

    To avoid damage to a wind turbine in the case of a fault or a large wind gust, a detection scheme for emergency shutdown is developed. Specifically, the concept of a safety envelope is introduced. Within the safety envelope, the system can be shutdown without risking structural damage to the turb...

  6. Letter report seismic shutdown system failure mode and effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KECK, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Supply Ventilation System Seismic Shutdown ensures that the 234-52 building supply fans, the dry air process fans and vertical development calciner are shutdown following a seismic event. This evaluates the failure modes and determines the effects of the failure modes

  7. Gribov horizon and i-particles: About a toy model and the construction of physical operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baulieu, L.; Dudal, D.; Vandersickel, N.; Guimaraes, M. S.; Sorella, S. P.; Huber, M. Q.; Zwanziger, D.

    2010-01-01

    Restricting the functional integral to the Gribov region Ω leads to a deep modification of the behavior of Euclidean Yang-Mills theories in the infrared region. For example, a gluon propagator of the Gribov type, (k 2 /k 4 +γ 4 ), can be viewed as a propagating pair of unphysical modes, called here i-particles, with complex masses ±iγ 2 . From this viewpoint, gluons are unphysical and one can see them as being confined. We introduce a simple toy model describing how a suitable set of composite operators can be constructed out of i-particles whose correlation functions exhibit only real branch cuts, with associated positive spectral density. These composite operators can thus be called physical and are the toy analogy of glueballs in the Gribov-Zwanziger theory.

  8. Construction of a magnetostrictive hysteresis operator using a tripod-like primitive hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, A. A.; Abd-El-Hafiz, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    It is well known that accurate modeling of magnetostrictive hysteresis is crucial to different industrial applications. Although several magnetostrictive models have been developed in the past, the accuracy-efficiency balance has always been crucial. Recently, the possibility of constructing a primitive vector hysteresis operator using a tri-node Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) was demonstrated. Based upon the fact that mechanical stress along a certain direction results in dimensional deformation, this paper introduces a novel extension to the aforementioned recently developed approach. More specifically, a stress-driven evolution of a tri-node HNN hysteresis operator pair is proposed, thus yielding a tripod-like HNN pair having different input offset values. Model identification, sample simulation results and comparison with experimental measurements are given in the paper.

  9. Technical Meeting on Passive Shutdown Systems for Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Reactors. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    A major focus of the design of modern fast reactor systems is on inherent and passive safety. Specific systems to improve reactor safety performance during accidental transients have been developed in nearly all fast reactor programs, and a large number of proposed systems have reached various stages of maturity. This Technical Meeting on Passive Shutdown Systems for Fast Reactors, which was recommended by the Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), addressed Member States’ expressed need for information exchange on projects and programs in the field, as well as for the identification of priorities based on the analysis of technology gaps to be covered through R&D activities. This meeting was limited to shutdown systems only, and did not include other passive features such as natural circulation decay heat removal systems etc.; however the meeting catered to passive shutdown safety devices applicable to all types of fast neutron systems. It was agreed to initiate a new study and produce a Nuclear Energy Series (NES) Technical Report to collect information about the existing operational systems as well as innovative concepts under development. This will be a useful source for member states interested in gaining technical expertise to develop passive shutdown systems as well as to highlight the importance and development in this area

  10. Development of self-actuated shutdown system using curie point electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Jin Ho

    1999-01-01

    An innovative concept for a passive reactor shutdown system, so called self-actuated shutdown system (SASS), is inevitably required for the inherent safety in liquid metal reactor, which is designed with the totally different concept from the usual reactor shutdown system in LWR. SASS using Curie point electromagnet (CPEM) was selected as the passive reactor shutdown system for KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor). A mock-up of the SASS was designed, fabricated and tested. From the test it was confirmed that the mockup was self-actuated at the Curie point of the temperature sensing material used in the mockup. An articulated control rod was also fabricated and assembled with the CPEM to confirm that the control rod can be inserted into core even when the control rod guide tube is deformed due to earthquake. The operability of SASS in the actual sodium environment should be confirmed in the future. All the design and test data will be applied to the KALIMER design. (author)

  11. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  12. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  13. 77 FR 29701 - Impact of Construction (Under a Combined License) of New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... New Nuclear Power Plant Units on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... construct and operate new nuclear power plants (NPPs) on multi-unit sites to provide an evaluation of the... License) of New Nuclear Power Plants on Operating Units at Multi-Unit Sites (Package). ML112630039 Federal...

  14. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Greg; Marotz, Brian L.; Dunnigan, James (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2002-09-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness.

  15. Construction and initial operation of MHD PbLi facility at UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolentsev, S., E-mail: sergey@fusion.ucla.edu; Li, F.-C.; Morley, N.; Ueki, Y.; Abdou, M.; Sketchley, T.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • New MHD PbLi loop has been constructed and tested at UCLA. • Pressure diagnostics system has been developed and successfully tested. • Ultrasound Doppler velocimeter is tested as velocity diagnostics. • Experiments on pressure drop reduction have been performed. • Experiments on MHD flow in a duct with SiC flow channel insert are underway. -- Abstract: A magnetohydrodynamic flow facility MaPLE (Magnetohydrodynamic PbLi Experiment) that utilizes molten eutectic alloy lead–lithium (PbLi) as working fluid has been constructed and tested at University of California, Los Angeles. The loop operation parameters are: maximum magnetic field 1.8 T, PbLi temperature up to 350 °C, maximum PbLi flow rate with/without a magnetic field 15/50 l/min, maximum pressure head 0.15 MPa. The paper describes the loop itself and its major components, basic operation procedures, experience of handling PbLi, initial loop testing, flow diagnostics and current and near-future experiments. The obtained test results of the loop and its components have demonstrated that the new facility is fully functioning and ready for experimental studies of magnetohydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer phenomena in PbLi flows and also can be used in mock up testing in conditions relevant to fusion applications.

  16. Advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). Design, construction, operation and maintenance experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idesawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The ABWR has experienced all phases of design, construction, operation and maintenance at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Units No.6 and 7 and confirmed that originally intended development targets have been achieved with highly satisfactory results. This is the fruit of a project that collected wisdom from various sources under a international cooperative organization, with Tokyo Electric Power Company taking the leading role from the onset. These two units have not only demonstrated that ABWRs have superior performance as the first standard units of advanced light water reactor but also aroused a hope for the big potential advantages that ABWRs can provide us. The ABWR has already been awarded a U.S. standard license for having proved that it can comply with the requirements of international regulatory systems with an ample margin. There are also many construction programs with ABWRs progressing both domestically and abroad, suggesting that it has won recognition as an international standard plant. We will do our utmost to perfect the operation and maintenance records of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Units No.6 and 7, which is the top runner among ABWRs, and to make known the superiority of this reactor to the world. (J.P.N.)

  17. Project Guarantee 1985. Repository for high-level radioactive waste: construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An engineering project study aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of constructing a deep repository for high-level waste (Type C repository) has been carried out; the study is based on a model data-set representing typical geological and rock mechanical conditions as found outside the so-called Permocarboniferous basin in the regions under investigation by Nagra in Cantons Aargau, Schaffhausen, Solothurn and Zuerich. The repository is intended for disposal of high-level waste and any intermediate-level waste from re-processing in which the concentration of long-lived alpha-emitters exceeds the permissible limits set for a Type B repository. Final disposal of high-level waste is in subterranean, horizontally mined tunnels and of intermediate-level waste in underground vertical silos. The repository is intended to accomodate a total of around 6'000 HWL-cylinders (gross volume of around 1'200 m3) and around 10'000 m3 of intermediate-level waste. The total excavated volume is around 1'100'000 m3 and a construction time for the whole repository (up to the beginning of emplacement) of around 15 years is expected. For the estimated 50-year emplacement operations, a working team of around 60 people will be needed and a team of around 160 for the simultaneous tunnelling operations and auxiliary work. The project described in the present report permits the conclusion that construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste and, if necessary, spent fuel-rods is feasible with present-day technology

  18. Proposal of performance indicators/model for Operational Readiness Verification (ORV) at restart after a planned shutdown; Framtagning av bedoemningsfaktorer/modell foer utvaerdering av driftklarhetsverifiering (DKV) infoer uppstart efter revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Nygren, Magnus [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Computer and Information Science

    2005-12-15

    analysis of the 323-event. This leads to a proposal of an ORV-model based on the concept of maintaining control. According to this, it is essential that an organisation (a system) knows how to respond (reaction), knows what to look for (observation, attention), and knows what to anticipate (prediction). While an organisation must possess those qualities to respond to an incident in the short term, a regulator must assess the organisation possesses those qualities in the long term. In terms of performance indicators, ten Common Performance Conditions are proposed. Each is assessed with regard to whether it can be the basis of practical measurements and whether it can be used concretely to induce an improvement to operational readiness. The re-analysis of the nine ORV events suggested that adequacy of organisation, adequacy of training and experience, availability of procedures and plans, and available time would be the most important performance indicators. Further work should look into detailed measurement methods, evaluation criteria, and means of intervention all based on an explicit model of safety as an organisational function.

  19. Tank Operations Contract Construction Management Methodology. Utilizing The Agency Method Of Construction Management To Safely And Effectively Complete Nuclear Construction Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leso, K.F.; Hamilton, H.M.; Farner, M.; Heath, T.

    2010-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  20. TANK OPERATIONS CONTRACT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT METHODOLOGY UTILIZING THE AGENCY METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT TO SAFELY AND EFFECTIVELY COMPLETE NUCLEAR CONSTRUCTION WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LESO KF; HAMILTON HM; FARNER M; HEATH T

    2010-01-14

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has faced significant project management challenges in managing Davis-Bacon construction work that meets contractually required small business goals. The unique challenge is to provide contracting opportunities to multiple small business construction subcontractors while performing high hazard work in a safe and productive manner. Previous to the Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC contract, Construction work at the Hanford Tank Farms was contracted to large companies, while current Department of Energy (DOE) Contracts typically emphasize small business awards. As an integral part of Nuclear Project Management at Hanford Tank Farms, construction involves removal of old equipment and structures and installation of new infrastructure to support waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment Plant. Utilizing the optimum construction approach ensures that the contractors responsible for this work are successful in meeting safety, quality, cost and schedule objectives while working in a very hazardous environment. This paper describes the successful transition from a traditional project delivery method that utilized a large business general contractor and subcontractors to a new project construction management model that is more oriented to small businesses. Construction has selected the Agency Construction Management Method. This method was implemented in the first quarter of Fiscal Year (FY) 2009, where Construction Management is performed by substantially home office resources from the URS Northwest Office in Richland, Washington. The Agency Method has allowed WRPS to provide proven Construction Managers and Field Leads to mentor and direct small business contractors, thus providing expertise and assurance of a successful project. Construction execution contracts are subcontracted directly by WRPS to small or disadvantaged contractors that are mentored and supported by DRS personnel. Each small

  1. Outcomes of an international initiative for harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manna Giustino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many probabilistic safety assessment studies completed to the date have demonstrated that the risk dealing with low power and shutdown operation of nuclear power plants is often comparable with the risk of at-power operation, and the main contributors to the low power and shutdown risk often deal with human factors. Since the beginning of the nuclear power generation, human performance has been a very important factor in all phases of the plant lifecycle: design, commissioning, operation, maintenance, surveillance, modification, decommissioning and dismantling. The importance of this aspect has been confirmed by recent operating experience. This paper provides the insights and conclusions of a workshop organized in 2007 by the IAEA and the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, on Harmonization of low power and shutdown probabilistic safety assessment for WWER nuclear power plants. The major objective of the workshop was to provide a comparison of the approaches and the results of human reliability analyses and gain insights in the enhanced handling of human factors.

  2. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2005-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks (MFWP) uses a combination of techniques to collect physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered and threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities designed to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  3. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Libby, MT)

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  4. RECAP, Replacement Energy Cost for Short-Term Reactor Plant Shut-Down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Daun, C.J.; Jusko, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RECAP (Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package) determines the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or de-ratings of one or more nuclear reactors. Replacement energy cost refers to the change in generating-system production cost that results from shutting down a reactor. The cost calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1988-1991 for all 117 nuclear electricity-generating units in the U.S. RECAP is menu-driven, allowing the user to define specific case studies in terms of parameters such as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or de-rating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through use of a present-worth calculation option. 2 - Method of solution: The user selects a set of units for analysis, defines a shutdown (or de-rating) period, and specifies any planned maintenance outages, delays in unit start-ups, or changes in default capacity factors. The program then determines which seasonal cost numbers to apply, estimates total and daily costs, and makes the appropriate adjustments for multiple outages if they are encountered. The change in production cost is determined from the difference between the total variable costs (variable fuel cost, variable operation and maintenance cost, and purchased energy cost) when the reactor is available for generation and when it is not. Changes in reference-year dollars are based on gross national product (GNP) price deflators or on optional use inputs. Once RECAP has completed the initial cost estimates for a case study (or series of case studies), present-worth analysis can be conducted using different reference-year dollars and discount rates, as specified by the user. The program uses

  5. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  6. THE SIMULATION DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND REGENERATION WAYS OF REINFORCED - CONCRETE CONSTRUCTIONS OF BRIDGES IN PROVIDING THEIR OPERATING RELIABILITY AND LONGEVITY

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Savchinskiy

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of existing diagnostic methods and regeneration ways of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges the recommendations on introduction of new modern technologies of renewal of reinforced-concrete constructions of bridges in providing their operating reliability and longevity are offered.

  7. Design and construction of automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device PLC based

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminto; Slamet Santosa; Eko Priyono

    2012-01-01

    The automatic operating system of double chamber plasma nitriding device has been done. The system is used for operating double chamber plasma nitriding automatically as according to the standard operating procedure by pressing push button on the human machine interface (HMI). The system consists of hardware and software. The hardware was constructed using main components T100MD1616+ PLC module and supported by temperature signal conditioner module, Wheatstone bridge module, isolated amplifier module and EMS 30A H Bridge motor driver module. A software program that is planted on T100MD1616+ PLC using ladder diagrams and Tbasic program. Test system functions performed by inserting a set values of temperature and pressure by pressing the button on the human machine interface (HMI). The test results show that the temperature control with a set of values 100 °C obtained stable coverage of 98 °C to 102 °C, (Δ ± 2 °C) with a 2% tolerance and the output voltage of the DAC is 2.436 volts to 2.913 volts. The pressure control with a set of values 2.169 x 10 -1 mbar obtained stable coverage of 1.995 x 10 -1 mbar to 2.205 x 10 -1 mbar, (Δ ± 0.105 x 10 -1 mbar) with a 5% tol. (author)

  8. Nuclear power plants in Europe 1996. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1996. The 'Nuclear Power Plants in Europe 1996' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1996, 216 (1995: 215) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 177,916 (177,010) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 24 (26) units with 23,086 (24,786) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 240 (241) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 201,002 (201,796) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1067 (1048) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1995; 802 (792) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (137) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 36%. Lithuania, with 86 (77)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 76 (75)% and Belgium with 56%. The lowest percentage, only 4 (5)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power are operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  9. 1997: Nuclear power plants in Europe. Report on operation, construction and planning in 18 European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen European countries operate and build, respectively, nuclear power plants in 1997. The '1997: Nuclear Power Plants in Europe' atw report singles out the main events and lines of development. As per August 1997, 216 (1996: 216) nuclear generating units (which means power reactors for the purposes of this report) with an aggregate 180, 184 (177, 916) MWe installed gross capacity are in operation and 22 (24) units with 20,054 (23,086) MWe are under construction in seven countries. This adds up to a total of 238 (240) nuclear generating units with an aggregate 200,238 (201,002) MWe. In the nuclear power plants in Europe, some 1138 (1067) TWh of nuclear power was converted into electric power in 1996: 806 (802) TWh of this aggregate was converted in 142 (142) units in the European Union (EU). In the EU the share of nuclear power in the public supply of electricity was 35,4 (36,0)%. Lithuania, with 83,4 (85,6)% has the highest share of nuclear power in Europe, followed by France with 77,4 (76,0)% and Belgium with 57,2 (55,5)%. The lowest percentage, only 4,8 (3,8)%, is recorded in the Netherlands. As a consequence of electricity imports, nuclear power holds considerable shares in the public electricity supply also of countries in which no nuclear power is operated, such as Italy or Austria. (orig.) [de

  10. Application of PSA to reduce frequency of unplanned shutdown of the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanipanichskul, P.

    1988-08-01

    The relative importance of all the operating and safety systems of the reactor TRR-1/M1 as well as the major failure modes of the systems are pointed out. The average unavailability of the reactor is 3·3 E-2 per cycle of operation which is in the range value of the actual reactor shutdown recorded during normal operation. Some guidance for annual maintenance and also suggestions for system development to increase safety systems reliability are determined. PSA was applied to improve the safety systems reliability of an operating research reactor. Refs, tabs

  11. Nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilibin, K.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having a reactor core and a reactor coolant flowing therethrough, a temperature responsive, self-actuated nuclear reactor shutdown control rod assembly, comprising: an upper drive line terminating at its lower end with a substantially cylindrical wall member having inner and outer surfaces; a lower drive line having a lower end adapted to be attached to a neutron absorber; a ring movable disposed about the outer surface of the wall member of the upper drive line; thermal actuation means adapted to be in heat exchange relationship with coolant in an associated reactor core and in contact with the ring, and balls located within the openings in the upper drive line. When reactor coolant approaches a predetermined design temperature the actuation means moves the ring sufficiently so that the balls move radially out from the recess and into the space formed by the second portion of the ring thereby removing the vertical support for the lower drive line such that the lower drive line moves downwardly and inserts an associated neutron absorber into an associated reactor core resulting in automatic reduction of reactor power

  12. Feasibility of Construction of the Continuously Operating Geodetic GPS Network of Sinaloa, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, G. E.; Jacobo, C.

    2011-12-01

    This research is based on the study and analysis of feasibility for the construction of the geodetic network for GPS continuous operation for Sinaloa, hereafter called (RGOCSIN). A GPS network of continuous operation is defined as that materialized structure physically through permanent monuments where measurements to the systems of Global Positioning (GPS) is performed continuously throughout a region. The GPS measurements in this network are measurements of accuracy according to international standards to define its coordinates, thus constituting the basic structure of geodetic referencing for a country. In this context is that in the near future the RGOCSIN constitutes a system state only accurate and reliable georeferencing in real-time (continuous and permanent operation) and will be used for different purposes; i.e., in addition to being fundamental basis for any lifting topographic or geodetic survey, and other areas such as: (1) Different construction processes (control and monitoring of engineering works); (2) Studies of deformation of the Earth's crust (before and after a seismic event); (3) GPS meteorology (weather forecasting); (4) Demarcation projects (natural and political); (5) Establishment of bases to generate mapping (necessary for the economic and social development of the state); (6) Precision agriculture (optimization of economic resources to the various crops); (7) Geographic information systems (Organization and planning activities associated with the design and construction of public services); (8) Urban growth (possible settlements in the appropriate form and taking care of the environmental aspect), among others. However there are criteria and regulations according to the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, http://www.inegi.org.mx/) that must be met; even for this stage of feasibility of construction that sees this project as a first phase. The fundamental criterion to be taken into account according to INEGI is a

  13. Effects of construction and operation of a satellite power system upon the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    This is the final report of an initial assessment of magnetospheric effects of the construction and operation of a satellite power system. This assessment effort is based on application of present scientific knowledge rather than on original scientific research. As such, it appears that mass and energy injections of the system are sufficient to modify the magnetosphere substantially, to the extent of possibly requiring mitigation measures for space systems but not to the extent of causing major redirection of efforts and concepts. The scale of the SPS is so unprecedentedly large, however, that these impressions require verification (or rejection) by in-depth assessment based on scientific treatment of the principal issues. Indeed, it is perhaps appropriate to state that present ignorance far exceeds present knowledge in regard to SPS magnetospheric effects, even though we only seek to define the approximate limits of magnetospheric modifications here

  14. Study on the construction and operation for management system of municipal domestic wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Wang Shuqiang; Chen Jingxin

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, the quantity of our country's municipal domestic wastes increase rapidly, but the waste disposal still has problems, such as the simple way of processing, wasting the resources, the serious environmental pollution and so on. By holding waste minimization as the center, the developed countries have formed perfect waste management system. Based on analyzing the status quo and problems of processing in our country, on the principle of benefit, scale,waste minimization, reclamation and hazard-free treatment, according to the recycling model of processing, the article has constructed our country's domestic wastes management system, proposed the measures of promoting the operation of system. It has realized the transformation of waste management system from terminal disposal to source reduction,achieved the goals, including domestic wastes categorizing and reclaiming, industrialization and non-pollution processing,and finally brought sustainable development for resources, environment, economy and society.

  15. Economic viability of the construction and operation of a biomass gasificator for poultry houses heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanatta, Fabio Luiz; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Tinoco, Ilda de Fatima Ferreira; Martin, Samuel; Melo, Lucas D.; Bueno, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: fzanatta@vicosa.ufv.br

    2008-07-01

    In all poultry farms, at least in the first days of life of the chicken, it is necessary to heat the environment to obtain a good development of the chicken and good economics results. However, this additional heat generation is sometimes neglected or not well executed, because of the costs that this practice could bring. This research has the objective of analyze the costs of construction and operation of a Biomass Gasificator for Poultry Houses Heating in comparison with a direct furnace system. The fuel used in both systems was firewood of eucalyptus. For so much, economic analyzes was make considering the costs of the gasification systems implementation in substitution of the traditional system used in the company (direct furnace system). For the viability the adopted method was the partial budget and the complementary investments were analyzed through the cash flow elaboration and of determination of indicator of economic feasibility. (author)

  16. Social and legal aspects of preparing the construction and operation of a nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curin, K.

    1989-01-01

    The main activities are described involved in creating territorial, technical and economic conditions for the building of nuclear power plants. The basic precondition is the prognostic evaluation of national requirements for power in each planning time stage. From this proceeds the need of a range of power sources with a definition of their types and their incorporation in the power system and of possible power supply to the district heating system. As for nuclear power plants the building should be divided into three stages: from planning investments to the issuance of an investment intent, the stage of construction and that of operation. A detailed description is presented of the activities of all participants in building nuclear power plants in Czechoslovak conditions. Attention is devoted to the aspects of reliability and safety of nuclear power plants and to the effect of the respective activities on reliability and safety. (Z.M.). 1 tab

  17. Criteria for remote shutdown for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    This Standard provides design criteria which require that: (1) specific controls and monitoring equipment shall be provided for achieving and maintaining the plant in a safe shutdown condition; (2) these controls be installed at a location (or locations) that is physically remote from the control room and cable spreading areas; (3) simultaneous control from both locations shall be prevented by administrative controls or devices for transfer of control from the control room to the remote location(s); and (4) the remote controls be used as defense-in-depth measure in addition to the control room shutdown controls and as a minimum shall provide for one complete channel of shutdown equipment

  18. CAREM-25 Reactor Second Shutdown System Consolidation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenez, Marcelo; Zanocco, Pablo; Schlamp, Miguel

    2000-01-01

    CAREM Reactor Second Shutdown System (SSS) injects boron into the primary circuit in case of First Shutdown System failure in order to stop the nuclear reaction and to maintain the core in a safe condition during cold shutdown.It also has another safety function which is to inject water in the primary system at any pressure in case of LOCA.Different system requirements are analyzed during a SSS spurious trip and LOCA's transients.Two different alternatives are presented for the stand by condition pressurized system, they are solid mode and hot water layer. Both cases fulfill the design requirements from the safety point of view

  19. The history of the construction und operation of the KNK II German Fast Breeder Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the German KNK fast breeder project from its beginnings in 1957 until permanent shutdown in 1991. The initial design provided for a sodium-cooled, but thermal reactor. Already during the commissioning of KNK I on the premises of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center modification into a fast nuclear power plant was decided. Considerable difficulties in licensing had to be overcome. KNK II reached high burnup values in the fuel elements and closing of the fuel cycle was achieved. A number of technical problems concerning individual components are described in detail. After the politically motivated discontinuation of the SNR 300 fast breeder project at Kalkar, KNK II was shut down for good in August 1991. (orig.) [de

  20. Construction and operation of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.A.; Norris, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and anticipated operation of a lagoon-type methane recovery system for the Cal Poly Dairy. The initial design was based upon the present and anticipated herd size, 300 to 600 cows, heifers and calves. The lagoon design meets USDA-NRCS standards, and accounts for limitations of the site, primarily shallow sandstone bedrock. The new lagoon, which has a liquid volume of 14,000 m 3 , was constructed next to an existing lagoon. The new lagoon was covered with a flexible membrane incorporating buoyant material so that the cover floats on the surface, and a gas collection system. The predicted output of the lagoon for the present population of approximately 350 cows, heifers and calves is estimated to average up to 320 m 3 of biogas per day. The biogas will fuel a micro-turbine electric generator, and produce up to 23 kW in parallel with the utility system. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. This project will provide environmental benefits-odor control by capturing the odorous gases that result from dairy manure storage; methane, a significant greenhouse gas is kept out of the atmosphere; and water pollution is reduced through the reduction in organic matter in the lagoon. Economic benefits include electricity and process heat, together worth up to 16,000 US dollars per year. (author)

  1. Making the error-controlling algorithm of observable operator models constructive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Jie; Jaeger, Herbert; Thon, Michael

    2009-12-01

    Observable operator models (OOMs) are a class of models for stochastic processes that properly subsumes the class that can be modeled by finite-dimensional hidden Markov models (HMMs). One of the main advantages of OOMs over HMMs is that they admit asymptotically correct learning algorithms. A series of learning algorithms has been developed, with increasing computational and statistical efficiency, whose recent culmination was the error-controlling (EC) algorithm developed by the first author. The EC algorithm is an iterative, asymptotically correct algorithm that yields (and minimizes) an assured upper bound on the modeling error. The run time is faster by at least one order of magnitude than EM-based HMM learning algorithms and yields significantly more accurate models than the latter. Here we present a significant improvement of the EC algorithm: the constructive error-controlling (CEC) algorithm. CEC inherits from EC the main idea of minimizing an upper bound on the modeling error but is constructive where EC needs iterations. As a consequence, we obtain further gains in learning speed without loss in modeling accuracy.

  2. Reindeer habitat use in relation to two small wind farms, during preconstruction, construction, and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Anna; Alam, Moudud

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide there is a rush toward wind power development and its associated infrastructure. In Fennoscandia, large-scale wind farms comprising several hundred windmills are currently built in important grazing ranges used for Sámi reindeer husbandry. In this study, reindeer habitat use was assessed using reindeer fecal pellet group counts in relation to two relatively small wind farms, with 8 and 10 turbines, respectively. In 2009, 1,315 15-m 2 plots were established and pellet groups were counted and cleaned from the plots. This was repeated once a year in May, during preconstruction, construction, and operation of the wind farms, covering 6 years (2009-2014) of reindeer habitat use in the area. We modeled the presence/absence of any pellets in a plot at both the local (wind farm site) and regional (reindeer calving to autumn range) scale with a hierarchical logistic regression, where spatial correlation was accounted for via random effects, using vegetation type, and the interaction between distance to wind turbine and time period as predictor variables. Our results revealed an absolute reduction in pellet groups by 66% and 86% around each wind farm, respectively, at local scale and by 61% at regional scale during the operation phase compared to the preconstruction phase. At the regional, scale habitat use declined close to the turbines in the same comparison. However, at the local scale, we observed increased habitat use close to the wind turbines at one of the wind farms during the operation phase. This may be explained by continued use of an important migration route close to the wind farm. The reduced use at the regional scale nevertheless suggests that there may be an overall avoidance of both wind farms during operation, but further studies of reindeer movement and behavior are needed to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind this suggested avoidance.

  3. Corrosion product behaviour in the Loviisa nuclear power plant primary coolant: measures taken to lower radiation levels by modified shutdown procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaernstroem, R.T.

    1983-01-01

    The primary circuit chemistry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant differs in some respects from the concepts commonly used in PWRs. In general, Loviisa 1, which is now in its sixth cycle, and Loviisa 2, which is in its second refuelling and maintenance shutdown (October 1982), are very clean compared with several other PWRs and it seems to be possible to keep the radiation levels low and even reduce them by using correct chemistry during operation; the shutdown conditions seem to have great influence on this matter. These modified shutdown conditions and their influence on radiation levels, dose rates and radwaste buildup are discussed. (author)

  4. Radiochemical guidelines and process specifications for reactor shutdown: the EDF strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, D.; Wintergerst, M.; Meylogan, Th.; Rocher, A.; Sagot, M.J.; Bonelli, V.; Bonnefon, J.; Dupont, B.

    2012-09-01

    Changes to French nuclear regulations made in June 2006 [1.] have made it necessary for EDF to modify its ruling principles. These modifications required the restructuring of radiochemical guidelines to better reflect their impact on nuclear safety, the environment and radioprotection. In accordance with these aims, a new authoritative document has been produced. This ruling document identifies all parameters with a potential impact on nuclear safety, radiological releases to the environment and personnel dose rates. These diagnostic and control parameters have been identified for a reactor in production and for a reactor during shutdown. For parameters related to a reactor in production, some indicators are used to evaluate impacts on availability, radioprotection and the environment during shutdown and on outage and to anticipate mitigation ways. On the other side, several parameters related to the stages of shutdown were also directly evaluated in order to minimize the impacts. This paper describes the EDF methodology used to establish operational documents: radiochemical guidelines and process specifications, and includes the following: - description of monitored parameters and their associated areas of risk; - justification of target values, frequencies of inspection and the required actions for the monitored parameters. The sizing methodology is based on theoretical studies and on EDF operational experience analysis. By implementing in the operational and technical specifications requirements linked to nuclear safety, radioprotection and environment respect, EDF will benefit from an improved compromise between these areas as well as an increased focus. (authors)

  5. Construction of an integrated down-converter for operation at 200 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digby, J.W.

    1999-05-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum known as the terahertz region (100 GHz to 10 THz). Traditionally, terahertz radiation was the preserve of specialist applications in astronomy, atmospheric studies and plasma diagnostics. However, potential or actual applications in such diverse fields as medicine, security, communications and military applications are now emerging. At present there are very few devices and systems that operate in this spectral region and those which exist are expensive and difficult to manufacture. For the potential of terahertz radiation to be realised by industry, a low-cost (i.e. 'manufacturable') method of constructing terahertz systems is needed; new methods of generating radiation at terahertz frequencies are also urgently required. This thesis presents the development of a novel technique for producing passive and active devices and systems for use at terahertz frequencies. This novel approach utilises standard semiconductor techniques to fabricate metal-pipe waveguides directly onto semiconductor wafers. As standard semiconductor techniques are used, it provides a possible low-cost and highly manufacturable method of producing terahertz devices and systems. The key processes that are needed to produce components and devices for terahertz systems have been developed and presented in this work. Metal-pipe rectangular waveguides for use at W-band (70 GHz - 110 GHz) and G-band (140 GHz - 220 GHz) have been fabricated and S-parameter measurements have been performed on them using a specially designed test fixture. The measured attenuation for these waveguides is approximately 0.2 dB to 5 dB per guide wavelength for W-band and 0.6 dB per guide wavelength for G-band; these results suggest that these components could be used in practical systems. A method of interfacing with terahertz systems and free-space is needed in real applications, so a horn antenna has been designed which can be

  6. Settlement substantiation of the passive devices shutdown fast reactors by trip the absorbing rod in case of anticipated accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portianoy, A.G.; Serdun, E.N.; Sorokin, A.P.; Uhov, V.A.; Egorov, V.S.

    2000-01-01

    Results of improvement of the passive device shutdown fast reactors BN-600 (PDSR) are considered. The device works (lets off a neutron absorber) at increase of coolant temperature above 660 deg. C (650 deg. C). The PDSR working element represents a design of a sylphon-container type, filled with aluminium (magnesium) and operates (extended) under melting it at the expense of energy of a compressed high-temperature spring, and/or increases of a volume (6% of aluminium) at melting, and/or increases of a volume at further growth of a temperature. Account of the characteristics of PDSR working elements is carried out. Mathematical models, describing dependence of the basic of the characteristics (sluggishness, size of lengthening) from the constructive factors and modes of anticipated accident, are received. Is shown, that the PDSR characteristics provide an emergency stop of the reactor BN-600 in a case of a heaviest anticipated accident prior to the beginning sodium boiling in a core. The developed PDSR have a number of advantages before known, for example, magnetic with a Curie point, first of all, at the expense of significant efforts generation, multichannels of operation and weak dependence on the operational factors, first of all, neutron fluence. (author)

  7. A physiological exploration on operational stance and occupational musculoskeletal problem manifestations amongst construction labourers of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arijit; Sahu, Subhashis

    2018-03-29

    A huge number of labourers engaged in construction industry in India both in organized and unorganized sectors. The construction labourers most often work for an extended period of time and they are compelled to uphold altered static and dynamic operational stance in awkward positions during the complete period of work which raises the demand on the musculoskeletal system and may lead to work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). This study is intended to explore the operational stance and occupation related musculoskeletal manifestations amongst the construction labourers. One sixty four male labourers from different construction sites of West Bengal was randomly taken for this study. A modified Nordic questionnaire on MSD and the 12 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) were administered on the construction labourers. Rapid Entire Body Assessment [REBA] and Ovako Work Analysis System [OWAS] methods were applied to analyze the operational stance. Finally, discomfort levels of the specific operational stance were calculated by the use of risk level and BPD scale. From the study it was revealed that most of the construction labourers habitually in awkward operational stance and were affected by altering musculoskeletal manifestations like pain in low back, neck, and wrist. It has been also found that there is a significant (pconstruction labourers in unorganized sectors.

  8. The design, construction, and operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment System (IRTS) Drum Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, B.; Russillo, A.; Frank, D.; Garland, D.

    1989-12-01

    This report describes the design, construction, and the operation of the Integrated Radwaste Treatment Systems (IRTS) Drum Cell at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), West Valley, New York. The IRTS Drum Cell was designed to provide a shielded, secure storage area for the remote handling and placement of low-level Class C radioactive waste produced in the IRTS. The Drum Cell was designed to contain up to approximately 8,804 drums from decontaminated supernatant processing. This waste is to be poured into 0.27m 3 in a temperature controlled environment to ensure the cement will not be subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. A Temporary Weather Structure (TWS), a pre-engineered building, now encloses the Drum Cell and associated equipment so that remote waste-handling and placement operations can continue without regard to weather conditions. The Drum Cell was designed so that this TWS could be removed and the low-level waste entombed in place. Final disposition of this low-level waste is currently being evaluated in an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  9. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-01-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President's Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project

  10. Construction, commissioning and initial operation of 2400W refrigerator and cold test stand for CDM testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubbs, J.D.; Kreinbrink, K.

    1994-01-01

    Air Products and CVI collaborated to design, construct and commission a refrigerator, test stands and integrated control system for the General Dynamics Collider Dipole Magnet Cold Test Facility (CTF) in Hammond, LA. The original project schedule required the cold test facility to be operational within 17 months of the notice to proceed. Midway through the project, changes in General Dynamics magnet testing requirements necessitated doubling the plant capacity, but the on stream date for the initial capacity increment could not be relaxed. The Air Products/CVI team had to adapt the project execution strategy to mitigate the schedule impact of the expansion in a cost effective manner without impacting system functionality, quality or safety. An equally challenging aspect of the job was that the (CTF) was being designed while several major systems that would interface with the CTF were being engineered. General Dynamics, Air Products and CVI had to work very closely to manage the interface issues. The teams efforts were very successful. The Hammond refrigerator/liquifier was started up on schedule. The first two test stands are currently being commissioned and will be on stream just six weeks later than the pre-expansion schedule target and all four test stands will be operational in time to support General Dynamics magnet testing requirements

  11. Production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkach Evgeniya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies is to justify the feasibility of recycling different types of industrial waste instead of conventional expensive raw materials in production of environmentally friendly aerated concrete with required construction and operational properties. The impact of wastes from various industries on the environmental condition of affected areas, as well as the results of their environmental assessment were analyzed to determine whether these wastes could be used in production of high-performance building materials. The assessment of industrial wastes in aerated concrete production suggests that industrial wastes of hazard class IV can be recycled to produce aerated concrete. An environmentally friendly method for large-scale waste recycling, including a two-step environmentally sustainable mechanism, was developed. The basic quality indicators of the modified aerated concrete proved that the environmental safety could be enhanced by strengthening the structure, increasing its uniformity and improving thermal insulation properties. The modified non-autoclaved aerated concrete products with improved physical and operational properties were developed. They have the following properties: density – D700; class of concrete – B3.5; thermal transmittance coefficient – 0.143 W/(m·°C; frost resistance – F75.

  12. 77 FR 33782 - License Amendment To Construct and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... and Operate New In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery Facility; Uranium One Americas; Ludeman AGENCY: Nuclear... provided the first time that a document is referenced. The Ludeman facility In Situ Leach Uranium Recovery... request to amend Source Material License SUA-1341 to construct and operate a new in situ leach uranium...

  13. Italy: Analysis of Solutions for Passively Actuated Safety Shutdown Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgazzi, L.

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at different special shutdown systems specifically engineered for prevention of severe accidents, to be implemented on Fast Reactors, with main focus on the investigation of the performance of the self-actuated shutdown systems in Sodium Fast Reactors. The passive shut-down systems are designed to shut-down system only by inherent passive reactivity feedback mechanism, under unprotected accident conditions, implying failure of reactor protection system. They are conceived to be self-actuated without any signal elaboration, since the actuation of the system is triggered by the effects induced by the transient like material dilatation, in case of overheating of the coolant for instance, according to Fast Reactor design to meet the safety requirements

  14. Loss of shutdown cooling during degassing in Doel 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The presentation describes loss of shutdown cooling event during degassing in Doel 1 reactor, including description of Doel 1 features,status of plant prior to incident, event sequence and incident causes

  15. Management of accidental scenarios involving the loss of RHRS under shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradell, V.; Villanueva, J.F.; Martorell, S.; Carlos, S.; Pelayo, F.; Mendizabal, R.; Sol, I.

    2009-01-01

    Results from current Probabilistic Safety Assessment studies of Nuclear Power Plants show the importance of some risky scenarios with the plant at low power and shutdown conditions as compared to the accident scenarios with the plant operating at full power. Technical Specifications establish the Limiting Conditions for operation to assure the plant integrity in each Plant Operational State (POS). Moreover, the plant configuration may differ from the beginning to the end of a certain Plant Operational State, so the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) established could be revised as, depending on the plant configuration, the transient evolution may be slightly different. For a PWR plant, one of the most risky accidental sequences in shutdown is the loss of the residual heat removal system, Using the information provided by the plant low power probabilistic safety analysis (LPSA), which should address the Limiting Conditions for Operation imposed by the current Technical Specification, two situations are distinguished: Main Reactor Cooling System (RCS) fully filled with water and RCS partially filled. In addition, while the primary system is partially filled in Cold Shutdown, two different plant configurations can be distinguished, which depend on the particular POS: RCS open and closed. For each case, the corresponding Technical Specification establishes the path to evacuate the residual heat generated. This paper explores the possibility of having alternative or complementary sources for heat removal others than the ones established in the Technical Specification. Especial attention is paid to the role of Steam Generators as an effective heat sink and the possibility of restart of the redundant RHR train. Such alternatives will influence LPSA implementation results. To perform this analysis the loss of the RHR system in a PWR plant has been simulated using RELAP-5 considering the plant in different plant operational states. One of the main results of this work

  16. Regulatory Considerations for the Long Term Cooling Safe Shutdown Requirements of the Passive Residual Heat Removal Systems in Advanced Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, S. K.; Bae, S. H.; Kim, Y. S.; Hwang, Min Jeong; Bang, Young Seok; Hwang, Taesuk

    2016-01-01

    USNRC approved safe shutdown at 215.6 .deg. C for a safe and long term cooling state for the redundant passive RHRSs by SECY-94-084. USNRC issued COLA(Combined Construction and Operating License) for the Levy County NP Unit-1/2 for the AP1000 passive RHRSs in 2014. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power(KHNP) is developing APR+ and adopted Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System(PAFS) as a new passive RHRS design. Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS) has been developing regulatory guides for the advanced safety design features of the advanced ALWRs which has plan to construct in near future in Korea[5]. Safety and regulatory issues as well as the safe shut down requirements of the passive RHRS are discussed and considerations in developing regulatory guides for the passive RHRS are presented herein. Passive RHRSs have been introduced as new safety design features for the advanced reactors under development in Korea. These passive RHRSs have potential advantages over existing active RHRS, however, their functions are limited due to inherent ability of passive heat removal processes. It is high time to evaluate the performance of the passive PRHRs and develop regulatory guides for the safety as well as the performance analyses of the passive RHRS

  17. Brief account of the design philosophy for third Qinshan NPP shutdown safety system based on practical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Qinshan CANDU power plant is uses the Canadian proven CANDU6 nuclear power technology. It has two characteristic: 1. heavy water-as moderator and coolant; 2. natural uranium as the fuel and change fuel during normal operating. CANDU6 include four special safety system: the No.1 shutdown system (SDS No.1), the No.2 shutdown system (SDS No.2), the containment system, the emergency core cooling system (ECCS). QinShan CANDU power plant is the first commercial PHWR nuclear power plant in China. And some aspect is not similar to everybody. The intention of the article is to introduce the basic design and functions. (authors)

  18. Evaluation of induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distribution after shutdown in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Koichi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Satoh, Satoshi; Hayashi, Katsumi; Yamada, Koubun; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Iida, Hiromasa

    1997-03-01

    Induced activity, decay heat and dose rate distributions after shutdown were estimated for 1MWa/m{sup 2} operation in ITER. The activity in the inboard blanket one day after shutdown is 1.5x10{sup 11}Bq/cm{sup 3}, and the average decay heating rate 0.01w/cm{sup 3}. The dose rate outside the 120cm thick concrete biological shield is two order higher than the design criterion of 5{mu}Sv/h. This indicates that the biological shield thickness should be enhanced by 50cm in concrete, that is, total thickness 170cm for workers to enter the reactor room and to perform maintenance. (author)

  19. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC’s Injector Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, J A

    2014-01-01

    During the long shutdown 1 (LS1), several maintenance, consolidation and upgrade activities have been carried out in LHC’s injector chain. Each machine has specific vacuum requirements and different history, which determine the present status of the vacuum components, their maintenance and consolidation needs. The present work presents the priorities agreed at the beginning of the LS1 period and their implementation. Of particular relevance are the interventions in radioactive controlled areas where several leaks due to stress corrosions stopped the operations in the past years. The strategy to reduce the collective dose is presented, in particular the use of remote controlled robots. An important part of the work performed during this period involves supporting other teams (acceptance tests, new equipment installation, etc.). Finally, as a result of the LS1 experience, a medium to long term strategy is depicted, focusing on the preparation of the next shutdown (LS2) and the integration of LINAC4 in the in...

  20. Containment closure time following loss of cooling under shutdown conditions of YGN units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling. The thermal hydraulic analyses were performed for the five cases of RCS configurations under the worst event scenario, unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior. From the analyses results, times to boil, times to core uncovery and times to core heat up were estimated to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. These data provide useful information to the abnormal procedure to cope with the event. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  1. Containment closure time following loss of cooling under shutdown conditions of YGN units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling. The thermal hydraulic analyses were performed for the five cases of RCS configurations under the worst event scenario, unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior. From the analyses results, times to boil, times to core uncovery and times to core heat up were estimated to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. These data provide useful information to the abnormal procedure to cope with the event

  2. Development and validation of the shutdown cooling system CATHENA model for Gentilly-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, H.; Hasnaoui, C.; Sabourin, G.; Chapados, S.

    2008-01-01

    A CATHENA representation of the Gentilly-2 Shutdown Cooling system has been developed for Hydro-Quebec. The model includes the SDCS circuit piping, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. The model is integrated in the G2 CATHENA overall plant model and coupled with the plant control software simulator TROLG2 to allow the simulation of various plant operational modes using the SDCS. Results have been obtained for normal cooling of the primary heat transport system following a planned shut down (transition from full power to shutdown) and for two special SDCS configurations that were used on September 14 and 15, 2006 at Gentilly-2. The results show close match with values measured at Gentilly-2 during either steady or transient states. (author)

  3. Development and validation of the shutdown cooling system CATHENA model for Gentilly-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecuyer, H.; Hasnaoui, C. [Nucleonex Inc., Westmount, Quebec (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Chapados, S. [Hydro-Quebec, Unite Analyse et Fiabilite, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    A CATHENA representation of the Gentilly-2 Shutdown Cooling system has been developed for Hydro-Quebec. The model includes the SDCS circuit piping, valves, pumps and heat exchangers. The model is integrated in the G2 CATHENA overall plant model and coupled with the plant control software simulator TROLG2 to allow the simulation of various plant operational modes using the SDCS. Results have been obtained for normal cooling of the primary heat transport system following a planned shut down (transition from full power to shutdown) and for two special SDCS configurations that were used on September 14 and 15, 2006 at Gentilly-2. The results show close match with values measured at Gentilly-2 during either steady or transient states. (author)

  4. Experience from the construction and operation of the STAR PXL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E.C.; Contin, G.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.H.; Woodmansee, S.; Schambach, J.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new silicon based vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed at the Soleniodal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2014 heavy ion run to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities of STAR in the heavy flavor domain. The HFT consists of four concentric cylinders around the STAR interaction point composed of three different silicon detector technologies based on strips, pads and for the first time in an accelerator experiment CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS) . The two innermost layers at a radius of 2.8 cm and 8 cm from the beam line are constructed with 400 high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders mounted on 10 thin carbon fiber sectors giving a total silicon area of 0.16 m 2 . Each sensor consists of a pixel array of nearly 1 million pixels with a pitch of 20.7 μm with column-level discriminators, zero-suppression circuitry and output buffer memory integrated into one silicon die with a sensitive area of ∼ 3.8 cm 2 . The pixel (PXL) detector has a low power dissipation of 170 mW/cm 2 , which allows air cooling. This results in a global material budget of 0.5% radiation length per layer for detector used in this run. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion allows for the installation and integration of the pixel sub detector within a 12 hour period during an on-going STAR run. The detector specifications, experience from the construction and operation, lessons learned and initial measurements of the PXL performance in the 200 GeV Au-Au run will be presented

  5. Experience from the construction and operation of the STAR PXL detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E. C.; Contin, G.; Schambach, J.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H. H.; Woodmansee, S.

    2015-04-01

    A new silicon based vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed at the Soleniodal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2014 heavy ion run to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities of STAR in the heavy flavor domain. The HFT consists of four concentric cylinders around the STAR interaction point composed of three different silicon detector technologies based on strips, pads and for the first time in an accelerator experiment CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS) . The two innermost layers at a radius of 2.8 cm and 8 cm from the beam line are constructed with 400 high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders mounted on 10 thin carbon fiber sectors giving a total silicon area of 0.16 m2. Each sensor consists of a pixel array of nearly 1 million pixels with a pitch of 20.7 μm with column-level discriminators, zero-suppression circuitry and output buffer memory integrated into one silicon die with a sensitive area of ~ 3.8 cm2. The pixel (PXL) detector has a low power dissipation of 170 mW/cm2, which allows air cooling. This results in a global material budget of 0.5% radiation length per layer for detector used in this run. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion allows for the installation and integration of the pixel sub detector within a 12 hour period during an on-going STAR run. The detector specifications, experience from the construction and operation, lessons learned and initial measurements of the PXL performance in the 200 GeV Au-Au run will be presented.

  6. Construction, start-up and operation of Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornicek, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The Labor Safety Inspectorate have been supervising the construction of the Dukovany nuclear power plant since the construction start in 1977. It was found that in concreting the reactor building walls with concrete mixes, the regulations were not observed on the highest level for the concrete mix drop, and on the gap processing and concrete treatment when concreting was interrupted. Thus, concreting was halted until the conditions for concreting were met. Attention was focused on the protection of the hermetic casing from damage, which had very often happened. A number of shortcomings were detected in storing technology parts. The cleanliness was inspected of the facilities being assembled. The inspections also revealed shortcomings in sealed space tightness. The inspections of assembly and testing of facilities showed failures of the facilities themselves (control valves, electric motors, filter and pump sealing) and of the assembly process. Faults were also detected in electrical equipment. Only a very small part of the installation showed lifetime as specified by Decree 105/1982 Coll. laws on safety assurance in the nuclear power industry. Missing data in documentation led to delays in the start-up stages. The State Surveillance Body also inspected the results of equipment testing. Prior to physical start-up, all production facilities and buildings were inspected, labor safety was inspected for all personnel in communicating corridors, staircases, manholes and onservice and handling posts. Shortcomings were removed. The organization of assembly work was a considerable problem if staff from more organizations had to work together in the same workplace. A list of tasks is presented of State Surveillance Body in operation, maintenance, outages, repairs, and troubleshooting in a nuclear power plant. (J.B.)

  7. Prevention device for rapid reactor core shutdown in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshi, Yuji; Karatsu, Hiroyuki.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To surely prevent rapid shutdown of a nuclear reactor upon partial load interruption due to rapid increase in the system frequency. Constitution: If a partial load interruption greater than the sum of the turbine by-pass valve capacity and the load setting bias portion is applied in a BWR type power plant, the amount of main steams issued from the reactor is decreased, the thermal input/output balance of the reactor is lost, the reactor pressure is increased, the void is collapsed, the neutron fluxes are increased and the reactor power rises to generate rapid reactor shutdown. In view of the above, the turbine speed signal is compared with a speed setting value in a recycling flowrate control device and the recycling pump is controlled to decrease the recycling flowrate in order to compensate the increase in the neutron fluxes accompanying the reactor power up. In this way, transient changes in the reactor core pressure and the neutron fluxes are kept within a setting point for the rapid reactor shutdown operation thereby enabling to continue the plant operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Retrofit of AECL CAN6 seals into the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.; Metcalfe, R.; Brown, G.

    1997-01-01

    The existing mechanical seals in the shutdown cooling (SDC) pumps at the eight-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station have caused as least seven forced outages in the last fifteen years. The SDC pumps were originally intended to run only during shutdowns, mostly at low pressure, except for short periods during routine testing of SDC isolation valves while the plant is operating at full pressure to verify that the emergency core injection system is available. Unfortunately, in practice, some SDC pumps must be run much more frequently than this to prevent overheating or freezing of components in the system while the plant is at power. This more severe service has decreased seal lifetime from about 8000 running hours to about 3000 running hours. Rather than tackling the difficult task of eliminating on-power running of the pumps, Pickering decided to install a more robust seal design that could withstand this. Through the process of competitive tender, AECL's CAN6 seal was chosen. This seal has a successful history in similarly demanding conditions in boiling water reactors in the USA. To supplement this and demonstrate there would be no 'surprises,' a 2000-hour test program was conducted. Testing consisted of simulating all the expected conditions, plus some special tests under abnormal conditions. This has given assurance that the seal will operate reliably in the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps. (author)

  9. Electricity-market price and nuclear power plant shutdown: Evidence from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Zarnikau, J.; Olson, A.; Jones, R.; Chait, M.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Japan's Fukushima nuclear disaster, triggered by the March 11, 2011 earthquake, has led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. To maintain resource adequacy for a grid's reliable operation, one option is to expand conventional generation, whose marginal unit is typically fueled by natural-gas. Two timely and relevant questions thus arise for a deregulated wholesale electricity market: (1) what is the likely price increase due to a nuclear plant shutdown? and (2) what can be done to mitigate the price increase? To answer these questions, we perform a regression analysis of a large sample of hourly real-time electricity-market price data from the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) for the 33-month sample period of April 2010–December 2012. Our analysis indicates that the 2013 shutdown of the state's San Onofre plant raised the CAISO real-time hourly market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH, and that the price increases could have been offset by a combination of demand reduction, increasing solar generation, and increasing wind generation. - Highlights: • Japan's disaster led to calls for shutting down existing nuclear plants. • We perform a regression analysis of California's real-time electricity-market prices. • We estimate that the San Onofre plant shutdown has raised the market prices by $6/MWH to $9/MWH. • The price increases could be offset by demand reduction and renewable generation increase

  10. Retrofit of AECL CAN6 seals into the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.; Metcalfe, R.; Brown, G.; Kiameh, P.; Burchett, P.

    1997-01-01

    The existing mechanical seals in the shutdown cooling (SDC) pumps at the eight-unit Pickering Nuclear Generating Station have caused at least seven forced outages in the last fifteen years. The SDC pumps were originally intended to run only during shutdowns, mostly at low pressure, except for short periods during routine testing of SDC isolation valves while the plant is operating at full pressure to verify that the emergency core injection system is available. Unfortunately, in practice, some SDC pumps must be run much more frequently than this to prevent overheating or freezing of components in the system while the plant is at power. This more severe service has decreased seal lifetime from about 8000 running hours to about 3000 running hours. Rather than tackling the difficult task of eliminating on-power running of the pumps, Pickering decided to install a more robust seal design that could withstand this. Through the process of competitive tender, AECL's CAN6 seal was chosen. This seal has a successful history in similarly demanding conditions in boiling water reactors in the USA. To supplement this and demonstrate there would be no 'surprises,' a 2000-hour test program was conducted. Testing consisted of simulating all the expected conditions, plus some special tests under abnormal conditions. This has given assurance that the seal will operate reliably in the Pickering shutdown cooling pumps. (author)

  11. Construct validity in Operations Management by using Rasch Measurement Theory. The case of the construct “motivation to implement continuous improvement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sanchez-Ruiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Construct design and validation is a common practise in the Operations Management field. In this sense, the aim of this study is to present Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT as richful and useful methodology in order to validate constructs. In order to do so, the measurement controversy in the social science is presented; then, RMT is explained as a solution for this measurement issue; after that, the different applications of RMT are described and, finally, the different stages of the validation process are presented. Thus, this work aims to serve as a guide for those researchers interested in the methodology. Therefore, a specific case is included: the validation of the construct “motivation to implement continuous improvement”.

  12. Libby Mitigation Program, 2007 Annual Progress Report: Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, J.; Garrow, L.

    2009-05-26

    and fish habitat in basin streams and lakes. 'Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan.

  13. A Study on the Risk Reduction Effect by MLCS (Mid-loop Level Control System) of EUAPR using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Keunsung; Choi, Sunmi; Kim, Eden

    2016-01-01

    The EU-APR design has been developed in order to expand and diversify the global nuclear power market of APR1400. For the improvement of shutdown risk for the EUAPR, the mid-loop level control system (MLCS) is considered during mid-loop operation for the EU-APR, which is not incorporated into SKN 3 and 4 (APR1400 Type) in Korea. Commonly, the risk associated with the NPP can be identified through the PSA. Thus, this paper discusses the low power and shutdown (LPSD) risk reduction effect by MLCS using the Low-Power and Shutdown PSA Result. LPSD level 1 PSA models for EU-APR have been developed. The risk reduction effect by MLCS is discussed. Because the loss of shutdown cooling function during mid-loop is one of the most vulnerable events, the MLCS have a significant influence on CDF in LPSD PSA. The shutdown risk of domestic power plants would likely be reduced if the MLCS is adopted in all operating NPPs in Korea during the mid-loop operation. It is expected that this work will contribute to reduce shutdown risk of domestic power plants

  14. Equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator in algebraic dynamics algorithm for partial differential evolution equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We give an equivalent construction of the infinitesimal time translation operator for partial differential evolution equation in the algebraic dynamics algorithm proposed by Shun-Jin Wang and his students. Our construction involves only simple partial differentials and avoids the derivative terms of δ function which appear in the course of computation by means of Wang-Zhang operator. We prove Wang’s equivalent theorem which says that our construction and Wang-Zhang’s are equivalent. We use our construction to deal with several typical equations such as nonlinear advection equation, Burgers equation, nonlinear Schrodinger equation, KdV equation and sine-Gordon equation, and obtain at least second order approximate solutions to them. These equations include the cases of real and complex field variables and the cases of the first and the second order time derivatives.

  15. Effects of golf course construction and operation on water chemistry of headwater streams on the Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jennifer G.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of golf course construction and operation on the water chemistry of Shield streams, we compared the water chemistry in streams draining golf courses under construction (2) and in operation (5) to streams in forested reference locations and to upstream sites where available. Streams were more alkaline and higher in base cation and nitrate concentrations downstream of operational golf courses. Levels of these parameters and total phosphorus increased over time in several streams during golf course construction through to operation. There was evidence of inputs of mercury to streams on two of the operational courses. Nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) concentrations were significantly related to the area of unmanaged vegetation in a 30 x 30 m area on either side of the sampling sites, and to River Bank Quality Index scores, suggesting that maintaining vegetated buffers along the stream on golf courses will reduce in-stream nutrient concentrations. - Golf course construction and operation had a significant impact on alkalinity, nitrogen and base cation concentrations of streams

  16. Economic and ecological assessment of impact of construction and operation of nuclear power plant as large capital construction project with respect to control of national economy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucek, M.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of costs and environmental impacts of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants is concentrated into two problem areas: 1. the calculation of capital and operation costs for the prevention and minimization of envirommental damage and restoration of the environment, 2. the calculation of damage to the environment of nuclear power plant construction and operation. The ecological cost benefit of capital costs is assessed. In Czechoslovakia there does not exist any method for converting cost effectiveness of investments into environmental protection. This problem is incorporated in the general method of assessing capital cost benefit. The relations are given for total socio-economic capital cost benefit and cost benefit of investments into environmental protection. Ecological investment is not exempted from the investment fund and from the point of view of content may be devided into net and gross ecological investment and from the point of view of time into preventive and compensation ecological investment. In the USSR the method has beem developed of the ecological and economic evaluation of projects for the construction and reconstruction of production units which proceeds from the evaluation of the negative environmental impact of wastes. The basic relations are given of the benefit of ecological investments. (E.S.)

  17. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin

    2015-01-01

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization

  18. Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands systems operating in batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rocha Bastos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a study conducted for a period of seven months on the effectiveness of constructed wetland systems for the treatment of dairy wastewater aiming at removing, nitrogen and phosphorus. Six experimental systems were assembled with a net volume of 115 L using HDPE tanks, with length/width ratio of 2:1. In three of the systems, gravel 0 was used as substrate, while gravel 0 and sand was used in the three others, in the percentage of 80% and 20%, respectively. The systems were operated in batch cycles of 48 hours, applying 7.5 L of influent per cycle. Four of the experimental units were cultivated, and two kept as controls. The selected species chosen were the macrophytes, Typha domingensis and Hedychium coronarium. The removal efficiency concerning nitrogen compounds showed to be quite promising with values ranging from 29.4 to 73.4%, while phosphorus removal from the beds was lower, reaching efficiencies between 18.61 and 34.3%, considered good values, since the removal of these substances is quite difficult through conventional treatment.

  19. Final environmental impact statement, construction and operation of the Spallation Neutron Source. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    DOE issued the ''Draft Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of the Spallation Neutron Source'' in December 1998. This document was made available for review by federal agencies; tribal governments; the state of Tennessee, New Mexico, Illinois, and New York; local governments; and the general public. DOE invited comments on the accuracy and adequacy of the DEIS and any other matters pertaining to environmental review of the document. The formal review and comment period extended from December 24, 1998 until February 8, 1999. DOE considered all comments submitted after the review and comment period. This appendix to the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains the 206 comments received and the DOE responses to these comments. It consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the contents of this appendix and discusses the general methodology DOE used for documenting, considering, and responding to the review comments on the DEIS. Chapter 2 summarizes the principal issues of public concern collectively reflected by the comments and presents DOE's responses to these issues. The full texts of the comments on the DEIS are presented in Chapter 3. Chapter 4 contains DOE's written responses to these comments and the locations of textual changes in the FEIS that were made in response to the comments

  20. Treatment of industrial effluents in constructed wetlands: challenges, operational strategies and overall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shubiao; Wallace, Scott; Brix, Hans; Kuschk, Peter; Kirui, Wesley Kipkemoi; Masi, Fabio; Dong, Renjie

    2015-06-01

    The application of constructed wetlands (CWs) has significantly expanded to treatment of various industrial effluents, but knowledge in this field is still insufficiently summarized. This review is accordingly necessary to better understand this state-of-the-art technology for further design development and new ideas. Full-scale cases of CWs for treating various industrial effluents are summarized, and challenges including high organic loading, salinity, extreme pH, and low biodegradability and color are evaluated. Even horizontal flow CWs are widely used because of their passive operation, tolerance to high organic loading, and decolorization capacity, free water surface flow CWs are effective for treating oil field/refinery and milking parlor/cheese making wastewater for settlement of total suspended solids, oil, and grease. Proper pretreatment, inflow dilutions through re-circulated effluent, pH adjustment, plant selection and intensifications in the wetland bed, such as aeration and bioaugmentation, are recommended according to the specific characteristics of industrial effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On the factorial and construct validity of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory: conceptual and operational concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markland, D; Hardy, L

    1997-03-01

    The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) has been gaining acceptance in the sport and exercise domain since the publication of research by McAuley, Duncan, and Tammen (1989) and McAuley, Wraith, and Duncan (1991), which reported confirmatory support for the factorial validity of a hierarchical model of intrinsic motivation. Authors of the present study argue that the results of these studies did not conclusively support the hierarchical model and that the model did not accurately reflect the tenets of cognitive evaluation theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) from which the IMI is drawn. It is also argued that a measure of perceived locus of causality is required to model intrinsic motivation properly. The development of a perceived locus of causality for exercise scale is described, and alternative models, in which perceived competence and perceived locus of causality are held to have causal influences on intrinsic motivation, are compared with an oblique confirmatory factor analytic model in which the constructs are held at the same conceptual level. Structural equation modeling showed support for a causal model in which perceived locus of causality mediates the effects of perceived competence on pressure-tension, interest-enjoyment, and effort-importance. It is argued that conceptual and operational problems with the IMI, as currently used, should be addressed before it becomes established as the instrument of choice for assessing levels of intrinsic motivation.

  2. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  3. A Study on the Construct Validity of Safety Culture Oversight Model for Nuclear Power Operating Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Choi, Young Sung; Oh, Jang Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea, the safety policy statement declared in 1994 by government stressed the importance of safety culture and licensees were encouraged to manage and conduct their self-assessments. A change in regulatory position about safety culture oversight was made after the event of SBO cover-up in Kori unit 1 and several subsequent falsification events. Since then KINS has been developing licensee's safety culture oversight system including conceptual framework of oversight, prime focus area for oversight, and specific details on regulatory expectations, all of which are based on defence-in-depth (DiD) safety enhancement approach. Development and gathering of performance data which is related to actual 'safety' of nuclear power plant are needed to identify the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Authors consider this study as pilot which has a contribution on verifying the construct validity of the model and the effectiveness of survey based research. This is the first attempt that the validity of safety culture oversight model has been investigated with empirical data obtained from Korean nuclear power operating organization.

  4. Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EC Member States, including supervision and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaducci, Sandro; Didier, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This report is an updating of the report EUR 5284, Authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations within the EEC Member States, prepared in 1974 by J.M. Didier and Associates. Recent developments regarding the authorization procedure for the construction and operation of nuclear installations have taken place in Italy (introduction of a site approval procedure) and in Denmark (adoption of an overall legislation on the subject, however not yet in force). With respect to supervision and control of nuclear installations during construction and operation, competences of, as well as their exercise by, supervisory authorities in all EC Member States, with the exception of Ireland, are also analysed in the current study

  5. A Continuing Education Short Course and Engineering Curriculum to Accelerate Workforce Development in Wind Power Plant Design, Construction, and Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinjum, James [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2012-11-29

    Significant advances in wind turbine technology and wind turbine power plant capabilities are appearing in the U.S. Sites that only 10 years ago might have been overlooked are being considered for build out. However, the development of a skilled workforce in the engineering fields and construction trades lags the potential market, especially if the industry is expected to site, design, construct, and operate sufficient wind power plant sites to meet the potential for 20% wind energy by 2030. A select few firms have penetrated the engineer-procure-construction (EPC) market of wind power plant construction. Competition and know-how in this market is vital to achieve cost-effective, design-construct solutions. The industry must produce or retrain engineers, contractors, and technicians to meet ambitious goals. Currently, few universities offer undergraduate or graduate classes that teach the basics in designing, building, and maintaining wind power plants that are safe, efficient, and productive.

  6. Environmental assessment for construction and operation of a Human Genome Laboratory at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) proposes to construct and operate a new laboratory for consolidation of current and future activities of the Human Genome Center (HGC). This document addresses the potential direct, indirect, and cumulative environmental and human-health effects from the proposed facility construction and operation. This document was prepared in accordance the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (United States Codes 42 USC 4321-4347) (NEPA) and the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Final Rule for NEPA Implementing Procedures [Code of Federal Regulations 10CFR 1021].

  7. Environmental assessment for the construction and operation of waste storage facilities at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    DOE is proposing to construct and operate 3 waste storage facilities (one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for RCRA waste, one 42,000 ft 2 waste storage facility for toxic waste (TSCA), and one 200,000 ft 2 mixed (hazardous/radioactive) waste storage facility) at Paducah. This environmental assessment compares impacts of this proposed action with those of continuing present practices aof of using alternative locations. It is found that the construction, operation, and ultimate closure of the proposed waste storage facilities would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA; therefore an environmental impact statement is not required

  8. The design, construction, and operation of long-distance high-voltage electricity transmission technologies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J. C.; Kavicky, J. A.; Picel, K. C.

    2008-03-03

    This report focuses on transmission lines, which operate at voltages of 115 kV and higher. Currently, the highest voltage lines comprising the North American power grid are at 765 kV. The grid is the network of transmission lines that interconnect most large power plants on the North American continent. One transmission line at this high voltage was built near Chicago as part of the interconnection for three large nuclear power plants southwest of the city. Lines at this voltage also serve markets in New York and New England, also very high demand regions. The large power transfers along the West Coast are generally at 230 or 500 kV. Just as there are practical limits to centralization of power production, there are practical limits to increasing line voltage. As voltage increases, the height of the supporting towers, the size of the insulators, the distance between conductors on a tower, and even the width of the right-of-way (ROW) required increase. These design features safely isolate the electric power, which has an increasing tendency to arc to ground as the voltage (or electrical potential) increases. In addition, very high voltages (345 kV and above) are subject to corona losses. These losses are a result of ionization of the atmosphere, and can amount to several megawatts of wasted power. Furthermore, they are a local nuisance to radio transmission and can produce a noticeable hum. Centralized power production has advantages of economies of scale and special resource availability (for instance, hydro resources), but centralized power requires long-distance transfers of power both to reach customers and to provide interconnections for reliability. Long distances are most economically served at high voltages, which require large-scale equipment and impose a substantial footprint on the corridors through which power passes. The most visible components of the transmission system are the conductors that provide paths for the power and the towers that keep these

  9. Self-actuated shutdown system for a commercial size LMFBR. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1978-08-01

    A Self-Actuated Shutdown System (SASS) is defined as a reactor shutdown system in which sensors, release mechanisms and neutron absorbers are contained entirely within the reactor core structure, where they respond inherently to abnormal local process conditions, by shutting down the reactor, independently of the plant protection system (PPS). It is argued that a SASS, having a response time similar to that of the PPS, would so reduce the already very low probability of a failure-to-scram event that costly design features, derived from core disruptive accident analysis, could be eliminated. However, the thrust of the report is the feasibility and reliability of the in-core SASS hardware to achieve sufficiently rapid shutdown. A number of transient overpower and transient undercooling-responsive systems were investigated leading to the selection of a primary candidate and a backup concept. During a transient undercooling event, the recommended device is triggered by the associated rate of change of pressure, whereas the alternate concept responds to the reduction in core pressure drop and requires calibration and adjustment by the operators to accommodate changes in reactor power.

  10. Design of shutdown system no.2 liquid poison injection system for 500 MWe PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, S.; Balasubrahmanian, A.K.; Pillai, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Defence in depth and two group system concepts form the basic design philosophy for the shutdown systems. There are two independent, diverse and fast acting shutdown systems provided for the 500 MWe PHWR. The design is based on fail-safe principle, sufficient component redundancy and on-line testing. Liquid poison injection system, as shutdown system 2, is newly developed for the 500 MWe PHWRs. The system operates by rapidly injecting gadolinium nitrate solution into bulk moderator using stored helium pressure thereby inserting negative reactivity. A high pressure helium supply tank which provides the energy for system actuation, is connected, through an array of fast acting valves in series-parallel arrangement, to the individual poison tanks storing gadolinium nitrate solution. The valves, belonging to three different channels of reactor Protection System 2, are the only active components in the system. The valves are fail safe and are periodically tested on-line without actually firing the system. The system comprising of in-core assemblies and the external process system has been engineered. Experimental work is being carried out by BARC for design validation and data generation. This paper describes the conceptual development, design basis, design parameters and detailed engineering of the system. (author)

  11. The Upgrade of the CMS RPC System during the First LHC Long Shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Tytgat, M.; Verwilligen, P.; Zaganidis, N.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Shopova, M.; Sultanov, G.; Assran, Y.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Colaleo, A.; Iaselli, G.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, M.; Pugliese, G.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colafranceschi, S.; Felli, F.; Piccolo, D.; Saviano, G.; Carrillo, C.; Berzano, U.; Gabusi, M.; Vitulo, P.; Kang, M.; Lee, K.S.; Park, S.K.; Shin, S.; Sharma, A.

    2012-01-01

    The CMS muon system includes in both the barrel and endcap region Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC). They mainly serve as trigger detectors and also improve the reconstruction of muon parameters. Over the years, the instantaneous luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider gradually increases. During the LHC Phase 1 (~first 10 years of operation) an ultimate luminosity is expected above its design value of 10^34/cm^2/s at 14 TeV. To prepare the machine and also the experiments for this, two long shutdown periods are scheduled for 2013-2014 and 2018-2019. The CMS Collaboration is planning several detector upgrades during these long shutdowns. In particular, the muon detection system should be able to maintain a low-pT threshold for an efficient Level-1 Muon Trigger at high particle rates. One of the measures to ensure this, is to extend the present RPC system with the addition of a 4th layer in both endcap regions. During the first long shutdown, these two new stations will be equipped in the region |eta|<1.6 with...

  12. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) Methodology and Application to the Shutdown Cooling System for APR-1400 Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faragalla, Mohamed M.; Emmanuel, Efenji; Alhammadi, Ibrahim; Awwal, Arigi M.; Lee, Yong Kwan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Shutdown Cooling System (SCS) is a safety-related system that is used in conjunction with the Main Steam and Main or Auxiliary Feedwater Systems to reduce the temperature of the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) in post shutdown periods from the hot shutdown operating temperature to the refueling temperature. In this paper RCM methodology is applied to (SCS). RCM analysis is performed based on evaluation of Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FME and CA) on the component, system and plant. The Logic Tree Analysis (LTA) is used to determine the optimum maintenance tasks. The main objectives of RCM is the safety, preserve the System function, the cost-effective maintenance of the plant components and increase the reliability and availability value. The RCM methodology is useful for improving the equipment reliability by strengthening the management of equipment condition, and leads to a significant decrease in the number of periodical maintenance, extended maintenance cycle, longer useful life of equipment, and decrease in overall maintenance cost. It also focuses on the safety of the system by assigning criticality index to the various components and further selecting maintenance activities based on the risk of failure involved. Therefore, it can be said that RCM introduces a maintenance plan designed for maximum safety in an economical manner and making the system more reliable. For the SCP, increasing the number of condition monitoring tasks will improve the availability of the SCP. It is recommended to reduce the number of periodic maintenance activities.

  13. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Adrian, E-mail: adrian.williams@oxfordtechnologies.co.uk [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sanders, Stephen [Oxford Technologies Ltd., 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Weder, Gerard [Tree-C Technology BV, Buys Ballotstraat 8, 6716 BL Ede (Netherlands); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bastow, Roger; Allan, Peter; Hazel, Stuart [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  14. Evolving the JET virtual reality system for delivering the JET EP2 shutdown remote handling tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Adrian; Sanders, Stephen; Weder, Gerard; Bastow, Roger; Allan, Peter; Hazel, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The quality, functionality and performance of the virtual reality (VR) system used at JET for preparation and implementation of remote handling (RH) operations has been progressively enhanced since its first use in the original JET remote handling shutdown in 1998. As preparation began for the JET EP2 (Enhanced Performance 2) shutdown it was recognised that the VR system being used was unable to cope with the increased functionality and the large number of 3D models needed to fully represent the JET in-vessel components and tooling planned for EP2. A bespoke VR software application was developed in collaboration with the OEM, which allowed enhancements to be made to the VR system to meet the requirements of JET remote handling in preparation for EP2. Performance improvements required to meet the challenges of EP2 could not be obtained from the development of the new VR software alone. New methodologies were also required to prepare source, CATIA models for use in the VR using a collection of 3D software packages. In collaboration with the JET drawing office, techniques were developed within CATIA using polygon reduction tools to reduce model size, while retaining surface detail at required user limits. This paper will discuss how these developments have played an essential part in facilitating EP2 remote handling task development and examine their impact during the EP2 shutdown.

  15. Self-actuated shutdown system for a commercial size LMFBR. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupen, C.F.G.

    1978-08-01

    A Self-Actuated Shutdown System (SASS) is defined as a reactor shutdown system in which sensors, release mechanisms and neutron absorbers are contained entirely within the reactor core structure, where they respond inherently to abnormal local process conditions, by shutting down the reactor, independently of the plant protection system (PPS). It is argued that a SASS, having a response time similar to that of the PPS, would so reduce the already very low probability of a failure-to-scram event that costly design features, derived from core disruptive accident analysis, could be eliminated. However, the thrust of the report is the feasibility and reliability of the in-core SASS hardware to achieve sufficiently rapid shutdown. A number of transient overpower and transient undercooling-responsive systems were investigated leading to the selection of a primary candidate and a backup concept. During a transient undercooling event, the recommended device is triggered by the associated rate of change of pressure, whereas the alternate concept responds to the reduction in core pressure drop and requires calibration and adjustment by the operators to accommodate changes in reactor power

  16. Direct approach to operator conformal constructions: from fermions to primary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.

    1989-01-01

    I discuss the direct solution of Sugawara and coset constructions, including a path to construction of the primary fields. The basic tools are (1) a construction of affine-conformal highest-weight states, pretensors and tensors form quantum-irreducible representations of the currents of affine g, and (2) construction of primary fields by factorization and boosting of the pretensors. Large classes of pretensors are easily obtained in fermionic constructions, and guesswork is minimized with factorization of bosonized fermionic pretensors: The simplest case constructs conformal-weights h g =mN(n--N)/2n of SU m (n) and h K =mN(n--N)/n of SU m (n)direct-product SU m (n)/SU 2m (n) and extension to simply-laced g is clear. More general cases are left for future study. copyright Academic Prss, Inc. 1989

  17. Military Construction of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Operations Facility, Columbus, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The audit objectives were to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Columbus Center properly planned and programmed the FY 1996 proposed military construction project and whether...

  18. Global (and Local) Analyticity for Second Order Operators Constructed from Rigid Vector Fields on Products of Tori

    OpenAIRE

    Tartakoff, David S.

    1994-01-01

    We prove global analytic hypoellipticity on a product of tori for partial differential operators which are constructed as rigid (variable coefficient) quadratic polynomials in real vector fields satisfying the H\\"ormander condition and where $P$ satisfies a `maximal' estimate. We also prove an analyticity result that is local in some variables and global in others for operators whose prototype is $$ P= \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_1}}\\right)^2 + \\left({\\partial \\over {\\partial x_2}}\\righ...

  19. Studies on sustainability of simulated constructed wetland system for treatment of urban waste: Design and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, A K; Bankoti, N S; Rai, U N

    2016-03-15

    New system configurations and wide range of treatability make constructed wetland (CW) as an eco-sustainable on-site approach of waste management. Keeping this view into consideration, a novel configured three-stage simulated CW was designed to study its performance efficiency and relative importance of plants and substrate in purification processes. Two species of submerged plant i.e., Potamogeton crispus and Hydrilla verticillata were selected for this study. After 6 months of establishment, operation and maintenance of simulated wetland, enhanced reduction in physicochemical parameters was observed, which was maximum in the planted CW. The percentage removal (%) of the pollutants in three-stage mesocosms was; conductivity (60.42%), TDS (67.27%), TSS (86.10%), BOD (87.81%), NO3-N (81.28%) and PO4-P (83.54%) at 72 h of retention time. Submerged macrophyte used in simulated wetlands showed a significant time dependent accumulation of toxic metals (p ≤ 0.05). P. crispus accumulated the highest Mn (86.36 μg g(-1) dw) in its tissue followed by Cr (54.16 μg g(-1) dw), Pb (31.56 μg g(-1) dw), Zn (28.06 μg g(-1) dw) and Cu (25.76 μg g(-1) dw), respectively. In the case of H. verticillata, it was Zn (45.29), Mn (42.64), Pb (22.62), Cu (18.09) and Cr (16.31 μg g(-1) dw). Thus, results suggest that the application of simulated CW tackles the water pollution problem more efficiently and could be exploited in small community level as alternative and cost effective tools of phytoremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EOS: A project to investigate the design and construction of real-time distributed Embedded Operating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.; Essick, Ray B.; Johnston, Gary; Kenny, Kevin; Russo, Vince

    1987-01-01

    Project EOS is studying the problems of building adaptable real-time embedded operating systems for the scientific missions of NASA. Choices (A Class Hierarchical Open Interface for Custom Embedded Systems) is an operating system designed and built by Project EOS to address the following specific issues: the software architecture for adaptable embedded parallel operating systems, the achievement of high-performance and real-time operation, the simplification of interprocess communications, the isolation of operating system mechanisms from one another, and the separation of mechanisms from policy decisions. Choices is written in C++ and runs on a ten processor Encore Multimax. The system is intended for use in constructing specialized computer applications and research on advanced operating system features including fault tolerance and parallelism.

  1. Co-operation an competition in the construction industry of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doree, Andries G.; Holmen, Elsebeth; Caerteling, Jasper; Greenwood, D

    2003-01-01

    In 2002, a Parliamentary Enquiry Committee exposed widespread collusion practices in the Dutch construction industry. The construction industry in the Netherlands is in turmoil and is seen as not living up to the standards that society requires. There seems to be a culture and an environment that

  2. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the construction and operation of Claiborne Enrichment Center, Homer, Louisiana (Docket No. 70-3070)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, A. [Science Applications International Corp., Germantown, MD (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This two-volume Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) was prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in accordance with regulation 10 CFR Part 51, which implements the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Volume 1 contains the assessment of the potential environmental impacts for licensing the construction and operation of a proposed gaseous centrifuge enrichment facility to be built in Claiborne Parish, Louisiana, by Louisiana Energy Services, LP. (LES). The proposed facility would have a production capacity of about 866 metric tons annually of up to 5 weight percent enriched UF{sub 6}, using a proven centrifuge technology. Included in the assessment are construction, both normal operations and potential accidents (internal and external events), and the eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D)- of the site. Issues addressed include the purpose and need for the facility, the alternatives to the proposed action, potential disposition of the tails, the site selection process, and environmental justice. The NRC staff concludes that the facility can be constructed and operated with small and acceptable impacts on the public and the environment. The FEIS supports issuance of a license to the applicant, Louisiana Energy Services, to authorize construction and operation of the proposed facility.

  4. Environmental impact assessment of a package type IFAS reactor during construction and operational phases: a life cycle approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Singh, Rana Pratap; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study. The results showed that among all the inputs, the use of stainless steel in the construction phase caused the highest impact on environment, followed by electricity consumption in raw materials production. The impact of the construction phase on toxicity impact indicators was found to be significant compared to all operational phases. Among the seven operational phases of this study, the dissolved oxygen phase III, having a concentration of ∼4.5 mg/L, showed the highest impact on abiotic depletion, acidification, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water eco-toxicity, marine aquatic eco-toxicity, terrestrial eco-toxicity, and photochemical oxidation. However, better effluent quality in this phase reduced the eutrophication load on environment.

  5. 25 CFR 502.22 - Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction and maintenance of the gaming facility, and the operation of that gaming is conducted in a manner which adequately protects the environment and the public health and safety. 502.22 Section 502.22 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION...

  6. Regulatory principles, criteria and guidelines for site selection, design, construction and operation of uranium tailings retention systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coady, J.R.; Henry, L.C.

    1978-01-01

    Principles, criteria and guidelines developed by the Atomic Energy Control Board for the management of uranium mill tailings are discussed. The application of these concepts is considered in relation to site selection, design and construction, operation and decommissioning of tailings retention facilities

  7. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 52 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Combined Licenses To Construct and Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. N Appendix N to Part 52—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix N to Part 50 - Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To Construct and Licenses To Operate Nuclear Power Reactors of Identical Design at Multiple Sites N Appendix N... FACILITIES Pt. 50, App.N Appendix N to Part 50—Standardization of Nuclear Power Plant Designs: Permits To...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1003 - Overhead protection for operators of agricultural and industrial tractors used in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH... possibility of operator injury resulting from overhead hazards such as flying and falling objects, and at the... used in construction work (see 29 CFR 1926.1002(b) and (j)). In the case of machines to which 29 CFR...

  10. Main trends in scientific-research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosinets, V.N.

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to main trends in research works during construction and operation of uranium mines and open cuts of Priargunsky mine-chemical association. Develops and introduced principally new design solutions and technologies in the field of open mining, underground mining, as well as in-situ and heap leaching, are described

  11. PSA for the shutdown mode for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The meeting, which was attended by more than 75 participants from 20 countries, provided a broad discussion forum where all the currently active major shutdown PSA programmes were reviewed. The meeting also addressed the issues related to actual performance of shutdown PSA studies as well as insight gained from the studies. This document, which was prepared during the TCM, contains the results of extensive discussions which were held in specific working groups. The papers presented at the meeting provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art of shutdown risk assessment and remedial measures taken to reduce the risk in outages. It is hoped that this document will be very useful to all individuals with interest in increasing safety during outages at NPPs. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Potential improvement of CANDU NPP safety margins by shortening the response time of shutdown systems using FPGA based implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jingke She, E-mail: jshe2@uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Jin Jiang, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of the safety margin improvement through thermalhydraulic simulation and analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hardware-in-the-loop simulation of realizing the improvement by an FPGA-based SDS1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Verification of potential operating power upgrade without endangering the plant safety. - Abstract: The relationship between the peak values of critical reactor variables, such as neutronic power, inside a CANDU reactor and the speed of the response of its shutdown system has been analyzed in the event of a large loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The advantage of shortening the response time of the shutdown action has been demonstrated in term of the improved safety margin. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) platform has been chosen to implement such a shutdown system. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations have been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this concept. Furthermore, connections between the speed of response of the shutdown system and the nominal operating power level of the reactor have been drawn to support for potential power upgrade for existing power plants.

  13. Evaluation of reactivity shutdown margin for nuclear fuel reload optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Hing-Ip; Maldonado, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    The FORMOSA-P code is a nuclear fuel management optimization package that combines simulated annealing (SA) and nodal generalized perturbation theory (GPT). Recent studies at Electricite de France (EdF-Clamart) have produced good results for power-peaking minimizations under multiple limiting control rod configurations. However, since the reactivity shutdown margin is not explicitly treated as an objective or constraint function, then any optimal loading patterns (LPs) are not guaranteed to yield an adequate shutdown margin (SDM). This study describes the implementation of the SDM calculation within a FORMOSA-P optimization. Maintaining all additional computational requirements to a minimum was a key consideration

  14. Evaluation of reactivity shutdown margin for nuclear fuel reload optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engrand, P.; Wong, H. I.; Maldonado, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    The FORMOSA-P code is a nuclear fuel management optimization package which combines simulated annealing (SA) and nodal generalized perturbation theory (GPT). Recent studies at Electricite de France have produced good results for power peaking minimizations under multiple limiting control rod configurations. However, since the reactivity shutdown margin is not explicitly treated as an objective or constraint function, then any optimal loading patterns (LPs) are not guaranteed to yield an adequate shutdown margin (SDM). This study describes the implementation of the SDM calculation within a FORMOSA-P optimization. Maintaining all additional computational requirements to a minimum was a key consideration. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Elementary calculation of the shutdown delay of a pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvon, J.

    1949-04-01

    This study analyzes theoretically the progress of the shutdown of a nuclear pile (reactor) when a cadmium rod is introduced instantaneously. For simplification reasons, the environment of the pile is considered as homogenous and only thermal neutrons are considered (delayed neutrons are neglected). Calculation is made first for a plane configuration (plane vessel, plane multiplier without reflector, and plane multiplier with reflector), and then for a cylindrical configuration (multiplier without reflector, multiplier with infinitely thick reflector, finite cylindrical piles without reflector and with reflector). The self-sustain conditions are calculated for each case and the multiplication length and the shutdown delay are deduced. (J.S.)

  16. The Bulgaria before shut-down of next two blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobak, D.

    2005-01-01

    The Ministry of Trade and Industry of United Kingdom in the frame of realization of programmes for the Middle and East Europe in the area of nuclear energetics during October 5 - 7, 2005 in Kozloduj has organized the Second International Conference on the theme 'Liquidation, social and economic changes'. In this paper author informs about Kozloduj NPP and plans for shut-down of this NPP as well as consequences of the shut-down. One of them the increase of unemployment and social impact for this region are presented

  17. BWR shutdown analyzer using artificial intelligence (AI) techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype alarm system for detecting abnormal reactor shutdowns based on artificial intelligence technology is described. The system incorporates knowledge about Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) plant design and component behavior, as well as knowledge required to distinguish normal, abnormal, and ATWS accident conditions. The system was developed using a software tool environment for creating knowledge-based applications on a LISP machine. To facilitate prototype implementation and evaluation, a casual simulation of BWR shutdown sequences was developed and interfaced with the alarm system. An intelligent graphics interface for execution and control is described. System performance considerations and general observations relating to artificial intelligence application to nuclear power plant problems are provided

  18. Network design and operational modelling for construction green supply chain management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Zhou Dong Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on studying organizational structure of Construction Green Supply Chain Management (CGSCM, a mathematical programming model of CGSCM was proposed. The model aimed to maximize the aggregate profits of normalized construction logistics, the reverse logistics and the environmental performance. Numerical experiments show that the proposed approach can improve the aggregate profit effectively. In addition, return ratio, subsidies from governmental organizations, and environmental performance were analyzed for CGSCM performance. Herein, the proper return, subsidy and control strategy could optimize construction green supply chain.

  19. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    Geophysical Institute/International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001), available electronically at http://www.gi.alaska.edu/services/library/pipeline.html codes. The Association of Oil Pipe Lines (AOPL) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) jointly provide an overview covering the life cycle of design, construction, operations, maintenance, economic regulation, and deactivation of liquid pipelines (AOPL/API 2007).

  20. The legal position of the operator and the constructor as regards construction of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartorelli, Claudio

    1976-01-01

    Implementation of the Italian nuclear power programme requires that ENEL (the Italian State Electricity Agency) should solve a series of problems which are not only political, technical and financial, but also legal. The latter include the different positions held by constructors and operators in the nuclear law field. Although the operator must necessarily entrust construction work by contract to specialized agencies, the constructor as a person proper is completely ignored by the legislation in force, while the operator, as the holder of the construction licence is responsible with regard to all the provisions concerning controls, tests, inspections, etc. In recent years ENEL has frequently concluded ''turnkey'' contracts, but in future, given the desirability of diversifying the orders, ENEL may adopt a different policy, and negotiate different contracts with the suppliers of various components. (N.E.A.)

  1. Environmental assessment for the construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Waste Segregation Facility at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction, operation and decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of the Waste Segregation Facility (WSF) for the sorting, shredding, and compaction of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) located near Aiken, South Carolina. The LLW to be processed consists of two waste streams: legacy waste which is currently stored in E-Area Vaults of SRS and new waste generated from continuing operations. The proposed action is to construct, operate, and D ampersand D a facility to process low-activity job-control and equipment waste for volume reduction. The LLW would be processed to make more efficient use of low-level waste disposal capacity (E-Area Vaults) or to meet the waste acceptance criteria for treatment at the Consolidated Incineration Facility (CIF) at SRS

  2. Under niche construction: an operational bridge between ecology, evolution, and ecosystem science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthews, B.; De Meester, L.; Jones, C.G.; Ibelings, B.W.; Bouma, T.J.; Nuutinen, V.; van de Koppel, J.; Odling-Smee, J.

    2014-01-01

    All living organisms modify their biotic and abiotic environment. Niche construction theory posits that organism-mediated modifications to the environment can change selection pressures and influence the evolutionary trajectories of natural populations. While there is broad support for this

  3. Long-term Stabilization of Disturbed Slopes Resulting from Construction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Highway construction disturbs soil, which must be stabilized to prevent migration of soil particles into water bodies. Stabilization is enforced by law, regulation, and a permit system. Stabilization is most efficiently attained by reestablishment of...

  4. Smooth Operator - Mobile Information Technology for Improved Flow at the Construction Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2010-01-01

    is used; mobility is classified as remote, local or micro. Furthermore an extensive literature study is employed along with both market screening for systems and case studies of companies adopting as well as rejecting the technology. Both within research communities, software manufacturers......Mobile information technology (IT) seems an ideal innovation to promote effectiveness of the construction process, particularly at the construction site; research has over the last 15 years focused on solutions, potentials and barriers with this field. This paper aim at the duality between research...... and industry for an updated and forward looking comprehension, and view of tendencies, of the roles and potentials of mobile IT at the construction site including potential for further research. Qualitative and interpretive methodology inspired by information systems and sociology of research and construction...

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Removing Used Nuclear Fuel from Shutdown Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buxton, Kenneth A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McConnell, Paul E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Massaro, Lawrence M. [Fermi Research Alliance (FRA), Batavia, IL (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    A preliminary evaluation of removing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from 13 shutdown nuclear power plant sites was performed. At these shutdown sites the nuclear power reactors have been permanently shut down and the sites have been decommissioned or are undergoing decommissioning. The shutdown sites were Maine Yankee, Yankee Rowe, Connecticut Yankee, Humboldt Bay, Big Rock Point, Rancho Seco, Trojan, La Crosse, Zion, Crystal River, Kewaunee, San Onofre, and Vermont Yankee. The evaluation was divided into four components: Characterization of the SNF and greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC waste) inventory A description of the on-site infrastructure at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the near-site transportation infrastructure and transportation experience at the shutdown sites An evaluation of the actions necessary to prepare for and remove SNF and GTCC waste. The primary sources for the inventory of SNF and GTCC waste were the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel inventory database, industry publications such as StoreFUEL, and government sources such as the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The primary sources for information on the conditions of on-site infrastructure and near-site transportation infrastructure and experience included information collected during site visits, information provided by managers at the shutdown sites, Facility Interface Data Sheets compiled for DOE in 2005, Services Planning Documents prepared for DOE in 1993 and 1994, industry publications such as Radwaste Solutions, and Google Earth. State staff, State Regional Group representatives, a Tribal representative, and a Federal Railroad Administration representative have participated in nine of the shutdown site visits. Every shutdown site was found to have at least one off-site transportation mode option for removing its SNF and GTCC waste; some have multiple options. Experience removing large components during reactor decommissioning provided an

  6. Socio-demographic and economic aspects of nuclear power plant construction and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 have been inputted in INIS. The papers deal with the economic, social and ecological consequences of the construction of nuclear power plants. Various approaches are listed to the economic evaluation of the said consequences. The question is discussed of the efficiency of investments for the construction of nucliear power plants as are the probiems of sitting large projects. (E.S.)

  7. Enhancement of organizational and technical solutions regarding anchoring of completed construction facilities of underground railway system to operating control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Г. Козин

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stages of practical realization of measures prescribed by requirements documents regarding anchoring of capital structures of underground railway system to operating control are considered in the article. On the basis of algorithm structure analysis, which includes obtaining a permit for putting into operation and cadastre works execution a range of solutions was proposed concerning optimization of construction project owner and operating organization activities with the purpose of terms reduction of capital structures handover to operation. The results of work of a commission responsible for completed underground railway system objects acceptance and putting into operation were analyzed. Considering example of object «Second entrance hall area of «Sportivnaya» station the statistical data of revealed snagging items is consolidated and dynamics of corrective actions is provided.Proposed solutions laid the foundation for corrections of requirements documents and were accepted for realization in the process of works acceptance of Saint-Petersburg underground railway system objects.

  8. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing during the LHC long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  9. Evolution of the ATLAS Distributed Computing system during the LHC Long shutdown

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing project (ADC) was established in 2007 to develop and operate a framework, following the ATLAS computing model, to enable data storage, processing and bookkeeping on top of the WLCG distributed infrastructure. ADC development has always been driven by operations and this contributed to its success. The system has fulfilled the demanding requirements of ATLAS, daily consolidating worldwide up to 1PB of data and running more than 1.5 million payloads distributed globally, supporting almost one thousand concurrent distributed analysis users. Comprehensive automation and monitoring minimized the operational manpower required. The flexibility of the system to adjust to operational needs has been important to the success of the ATLAS physics program. The LHC shutdown in 2013-2015 affords an opportunity to improve the system in light of operational experience and scale it to cope with the demanding requirements of 2015 and beyond, most notably a much higher trigger rate and event pileu...

  10. The Design, Construction and Operation of a 75 kW Two-Stage Gasifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist

    2003-01-01

    The Two-Stage Gasifier was operated for several weeks (465 hours) and of these 190 hours continuously. The gasifier is operated automatically unattended day and night, and only small adjustments of the feeding rate were necessary once or twice a day. The operation was successful, and the output...... as expected. The engine operated well on the produced gas, and no deposits were observed in the engine afterwards. The bag house filter was an excellent and well operating gas cleaning system. Small amounts of deposits consisting of salts and carbonates were observed in the hot gas heat exchangers. The top...

  11. Inventory of radioactive corrosion products on the primary surfaces and release during shutdown in Ringhals 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronsson, O.

    1994-01-01

    In Ringhals 2 a retrospective study using gamma scans of system surfaces, fuel crud sampling and reactor coolant analyses during operation and shutdown has been done. The data have been used to prepare a balance of activity inventory. The inventory has been fairly stable from 1986 to 1993, expressed as a gamma source term. The steam generator replacement in 1989 removed some 40-50% of the Co-60 inventory in the reactor system. After the steam generator replacement, the gamma source term has got an increasing contribution from Co-58, absolutely as well as relatively. The reason for this is probably the switch from high pH operation to modified pH operation. Corrosion from fresh alloy 690 surfaces in the new steam generators is probably another contributing factor. The inventory and production rate of Co-60 is decreasing over the years. It has also been found that clean-up of the reactor coolant during start-up, operation, and shutdown as well as the fuel pool during refuelling removes about the same amounts of Co-60. (author). 11 figs., 15 refs

  12. Chronology of the beryllium replacement shutdown at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohring, M.W.

    1984-04-01

    In addition to the permanent beryllium reflector, several other components were replaced. The outer shroud and lower tracks were replaced. The new control rod access plugs and the upper tracks were installed. Replacement of collimator tubes for HB-1 and -2 are tentatively slated for the next permanent beryllium changeout. Inspection of the reactor vessel, the vessel-to-nozzle welds, core support structure, and vessel internal cladding showed them to be in acceptable condition. The highest, accumulative radiation doses received by Reactor Operations personnel during the shutdown, in mrem, were 665, 606, and 560; the highest for P and E personnel were 520, 505, and 475

  13. Requirements Analysis Study for Master Pump Shutdown System Project Development Specification [SEC 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document has been updated during the definitive design portion of the first phase of the W-314 Project to capture additional software requirements and is planned to be updated during the second phase of the W-314 Project to cover the second phase of the Project's scope. The objective is to provide requirement traceability by recording the analysis/basis for the functional descriptions of the master pump shutdown system. This document identifies the sources of the requirements and/or how these were derived. Each requirement is validated either by quoting the source or an analysis process involving the required functionality, performance characteristics, operations input or engineering judgment

  14. Safety and regulation aspects of nuclear facilities shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, B.

    1977-01-01

    Technical dispositions that safety authorities will accept after shutdown of a nuclear installation and reglementation to use are examined. The different solutions from surveillance and maintenance, after removal of fissile materials and radioactive fluids, to dismantling are discussed especially for reactors. In each case the best solution has to be studied to ensure protection of public health and environment [fr

  15. Seismic qualification of SPX1 shutdown systems - tests and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, D.; Buland, P.

    1988-01-01

    The SUPERPHENIX 1 shutdown system is composed of two main systems: the Complementary Shutdown System SAC (Systeme d'Arret Complementaire) and the Primary Shutdown System (SCP) (Systeme de Commande Principal). In case of a seismic event, the insertability of the different shutdown systems has to be demonstrated. Tests have been performed on the SAC and have shown that this system was not sensitive to the seismic excitation (the drop time increases of 10% at SSE level). For the SCP, as an analytical demonstration was felt difficult to achieve, it was decided to perform a full scale testing program. These tests have been performed for the two types of SCP which are present in Superphenix: SCP 1 (Creusot Loire design), SCP 2 (Novatome design). As there was no existing facility in France to test this kind of slender structure (21 metres high) a new facility named VESUBIE was designed and installed in an existing pit located at the Saclay nuclear research center. The objectives of the tests were the following: to demonstrate insertability of control rod; to demonstrate absence of seismic induced damage to the SCP; to measure increase of scram time; to measure seismic induced stresses; to obtain data for code correlation. After completion of the tests, measurements have been correlated with results obtained from a non-linear finite element model. Time history correlations were achieved for SCP 1. Afterwards a calculation was performed in hot condition to find if there was some effect of temperature on SCP seismic response. 2 refs, 8 figs

  16. 300 Area fuel supply shutdown facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 300 Area Fuel Supply Shutdown Facilities on the Hanford Site. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and Emergency Planning Zone, is demonstrated

  17. Small leak shutdown, location, and behavior in LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper summarizes an experimental study of small leaks tested under LMFBR steam generator conditions. Defected tubes were exposed to flowing sodium and steam. The observed behavior of the defected tubes is reported along with test results of shutdown methods. Leak location methods were investigated. Methods were identified to open plugged defects for helium leak testing and detect plugged leaks by nondestructive testing

  18. Oak Ridge Research reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Research Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. The paper outlines routine maintenance activities and surveillance tests performed April through September, 1990, on the reactor instrumentation and controls, process system, and the gaseous waste filter system. Preparations are being made to transfer the facility to the Remedial Action Program. 6 tabs

  19. Summary of Session 5 and 6 'Long Shutdown 1'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordry, F; Foraz, K [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    This paper summarizes the sessions devoted to Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) in the LHC, injectors and experiments. The time frame and start date were discussed, with the main activities from powering tests prior to warm-up up to physics were presented. The session finished with a discussion on the maximum reasonable energy. (author)

  20. Reactor protection and shut-down system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klar

    1980-01-01

    The reactor protection system being a part of the reactor safety system. The requirements on the reactor protection system are: high safety with regard to signal processing, high availability, self-reporting of faults etc. The functional sections of the reactor protection system are the analog section, the logic section and the generating of output signals. Description of the operation characteristics and of the extension of function. (orig.)