WorldWideScience

Sample records for construction cost analysis

  1. Analysis of nuclear-power construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, G.L.; Borcherding, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of regression analysis for estimating construction costs. The estimate is based on an historical data base and quantification of key factors considered external to project management. This technique is not intended as a replacement for detailed cost estimates but can provide information useful to the cost-estimating process and to top management interested in evaluating project management. The focus of this paper is the nuclear-power construction industry but the technique is applicable beyond this example. The approach and critical assumptions are also useful in a public-policy situation where utility commissions are evaluating construction in prudence reviews and making comparisons to other nuclear projects. 13 references, 2 figures

  2. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  3. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Cost and programmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonflue, F. W.; Cooper, W.

    1980-01-01

    Cost and programmatic elements of the space construction systems analysis study are discussed. The programmatic aspects of the ETVP program define a comprehensive plan for the development of a space platform, the construction system, and the space shuttle operations/logistics requirements. The cost analysis identified significant items of cost on ETVP development, ground, and flight segments, and detailed the items of space construction equipment and operations.

  5. Analysis of Trends in Housing Construction Cost in Nigeria from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The upward trends in housing construction costs have been a major issue in the economy as a whole. The research uses typical 3 - bedroom bungalow in Lagos to analyze the trends in housing construction cost from 2000 to 2009. The basic question for this research is whether the inflation in housing construction costs ...

  6. Oil and gas pipeline construction cost analysis and developing regression models for cost estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaduri, Ravi Kiran

    In this study, cost data for 180 pipelines and 136 compressor stations have been analyzed. On the basis of the distribution analysis, regression models have been developed. Material, Labor, ROW and miscellaneous costs make up the total cost of a pipeline construction. The pipelines are analyzed based on different pipeline lengths, diameter, location, pipeline volume and year of completion. In a pipeline construction, labor costs dominate the total costs with a share of about 40%. Multiple non-linear regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of pipelines for various cross-sectional areas, lengths and locations. The Compressor stations are analyzed based on the capacity, year of completion and location. Unlike the pipeline costs, material costs dominate the total costs in the construction of compressor station, with an average share of about 50.6%. Land costs have very little influence on the total costs. Similar regression models are developed to estimate the component costs of compressor station for various capacities and locations.

  7. Canadian nuclear power plant construction cost forecast and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequence of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of the situation to take place in the future. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A data base is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of forty years are generated and applications of alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts to uncertainty assessment are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the very first ever done for Canadian NGS constructions

  8. NPP construction cost in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The structure of capital costs during NPP construction in Canada is considered. Capital costs comprise direct costs (cost of the ground and ground rights, infrastructure, reactor equipment, turbogenerators, electrotechnical equipment, auxiliary equipment), indirect costs (construction equipment and services, engineering works and management services, insurance payments, freight, training, operating expenditures), capital per cents for the period of construction and cost of heavy water storages. It proceeds from the analysis of the construction cost structure for a NPP with the CANDU reactor of unit power of 515, 740 and 880 MW, that direct costs make up on the average 62%

  9. Improvement of the cost-benefit analysis algorithm for high-rise construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gafurov Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific nature of high-rise investment projects entailing long-term construction, high risks, etc. implies a need to improve the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis. An improved algorithm is described in the article. For development of the improved algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects, the following methods were used: weighted average cost of capital, dynamic cost-benefit analysis of investment projects, risk mapping, scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis of critical ratios, etc. This comprehensive approach helped to adapt the original algorithm to feasibility objectives in high-rise construction. The authors put together the algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects on the basis of risk mapping and sensitivity analysis of critical ratios. The suggested project risk management algorithms greatly expand the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis in investment projects, namely: the “Project analysis scenario” flowchart, improving quality and reliability of forecasting reports in investment projects; the main stages of cash flow adjustment based on risk mapping for better cost-benefit project analysis provided the broad range of risks in high-rise construction; analysis of dynamic cost-benefit values considering project sensitivity to crucial variables, improving flexibility in implementation of high-rise projects.

  10. Improvement of the cost-benefit analysis algorithm for high-rise construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Andrey; Skotarenko, Oksana; Plotnikov, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    The specific nature of high-rise investment projects entailing long-term construction, high risks, etc. implies a need to improve the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis. An improved algorithm is described in the article. For development of the improved algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects, the following methods were used: weighted average cost of capital, dynamic cost-benefit analysis of investment projects, risk mapping, scenario analysis, sensitivity analysis of critical ratios, etc. This comprehensive approach helped to adapt the original algorithm to feasibility objectives in high-rise construction. The authors put together the algorithm of cost-benefit analysis for high-rise construction projects on the basis of risk mapping and sensitivity analysis of critical ratios. The suggested project risk management algorithms greatly expand the standard algorithm of cost-benefit analysis in investment projects, namely: the "Project analysis scenario" flowchart, improving quality and reliability of forecasting reports in investment projects; the main stages of cash flow adjustment based on risk mapping for better cost-benefit project analysis provided the broad range of risks in high-rise construction; analysis of dynamic cost-benefit values considering project sensitivity to crucial variables, improving flexibility in implementation of high-rise projects.

  11. Analysis of Cost of Rework on Time and Cost Performance of Building Construction Projects in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chidiebere Eze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rework is a menace that leads to undesired and unnecessary loss of efforts, it degrades project cost and schedule performance of construction projects, both at design and construction phases. This study therefore, analyzed the impact of cost of rework on time and cost performance of building construction projects in Nigerian, using selected commercial building project within the country’s capital. A pro forma was adopted for gathering data on rework cost, project cost and time of selected building projects, while structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the likely measures for reducing rework incidences from construction professionals that were involved in the delivery of the identified projects. Regression analysis, relative importance index and Kruskal-Walis test were employed for data analysis. The study revealed a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project cost of delivering commercial buildings, as an average of 3.53% impact on the initial project cost, 46.60% contribution to cost overrun, and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. For the project delivery time, a significant relationship between the cost of rework and initial and final project duration, as an average of 7.35% impact on the initial delivery time, extra 19 days and p-value of 0.000 was observed on all assessed projects. Team building and education, management commitment, employee involvement, were some of the best possible measures to minimized rework problems.

  12. A Conceptual Cost Benefit Analysis of Tailings Matrices Use in Construction Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Ali A.; Elektorowicz Maria

    2016-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive research program, new tailings matrices are formulated of combinations of tailings and binder materials. The research program encompasses experimental and numerical analysis of the tailings matrices to investigate the feasibility of using them as construction materials in cold climates. This paper discusses a conceptual cost benefit analysis for the use of these new materials. It is shown here that the financial benefits of using the proposed new tailings matrices i...

  13. A Conceptual Cost Benefit Analysis of Tailings Matrices Use in Construction Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ali A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of a comprehensive research program, new tailings matrices are formulated of combinations of tailings and binder materials. The research program encompasses experimental and numerical analysis of the tailings matrices to investigate the feasibility of using them as construction materials in cold climates. This paper discusses a conceptual cost benefit analysis for the use of these new materials. It is shown here that the financial benefits of using the proposed new tailings matrices in terms of environmental sustainability are much higher when compared to normal sand matrices.

  14. EPR project construction cost control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, D.; Pouget-Abadie, X.; Dufour, A.; Kauffmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    The EPR project is now managed by EDF in cooperation with the German Utilities. The main engineering activities for this period are related to the preparation of construction project management, deepening of some safety issues, definition of the project technical reference. The EPR project concerns the so-called reference unit, that is an isolated first-off unit, with unit electrical power of about 1500 MW. The construction costs evaluated are those of the nuclear island, the conventional island, site facilities, installation work and the administrative buildings. The EPR project construction cost evaluation method applies to all the equipment installed and commissioned. It requires the availability of a preliminary project detailed enough to identify the bill of quantities. To these quantities are then assigned updated unit prices that are based either on cost bases for similar and recent facilities or taken from request for quotation for similar equipment or result from gains due to contractual conditions benefiting from simplifications in the functional and technical specifications. The input and output data are managed in a model that respects the breakdown on which the evaluation method is based. The structural organization of this method reflects a functional breakdown on the one hand (nuclear island, conventional island, common site elements) and on the other hand a breakdown according to equipment or activity (civil engineering, mechanics, electricity, instrumentation and control). This paper discusses the principle and the method of construction cost evaluation carried out, the cost data base and input and output parameters as well as results and oncoming cost analysis tasks. (author)

  15. Comprehensive investigation into historical pipeline construction costs and engineering economic analysis of Alaska in-state gas pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Zhenhua

    This study analyzes historical cost data of 412 pipelines and 220 compressor stations. On the basis of this analysis, the study also evaluates the feasibility of an Alaska in-state gas pipeline using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Analysis of pipeline construction costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary by diameter, length, volume, year, and location. Overall average learning rates for pipeline material and labor costs are 6.1% and 12.4%, respectively. Overall average cost shares for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, and right of way (ROW) are 31%, 40%, 23%, and 7%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate pipeline component costs for different lengths, cross-sectional areas, and locations. An analysis of inaccuracy in pipeline cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation of pipeline cost components is biased except for in the case of total costs. Overall overrun rates for pipeline material, labor, miscellaneous, ROW, and total costs are 4.9%, 22.4%, -0.9%, 9.1%, and 6.5%, respectively, and project size, capacity, diameter, location, and year of completion have different degrees of impacts on cost overruns of pipeline cost components. Analysis of compressor station costs shows that component costs, shares of cost components, and learning rates for material and labor costs vary in terms of capacity, year, and location. Average learning rates for compressor station material and labor costs are 12.1% and 7.48%, respectively. Overall average cost shares of material, labor, miscellaneous, and ROW are 50.6%, 27.2%, 21.5%, and 0.8%, respectively. Regression models are developed to estimate compressor station component costs in different capacities and locations. An investigation into inaccuracies in compressor station cost estimation demonstrates that the cost estimation for compressor stations is biased except for in the case of material costs. Overall average

  16. Social cost in construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çelik, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.celik@emu.edu.tr [Department of Civil Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, T.R. North Cyprus, Via Mersin 10 (Turkey); Kamali, Saeed, E-mail: saeedkamali2002@gmail.com [Civil Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Arayici, Yusuf, E-mail: yusuf.arayici@hku.edu.tr [Department of Civil Engineering, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Gaziantep (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Despite the fact that completion of construction projects has a direct positive impact on the growth of national and local economies as well as humans' wellbeing, construction projects, especially in the urban areas, generate serious environmental nuisances for the adjacent residents and have unintentional adverse impacts on their surrounding environment. Construction causative adverse impacts on the neighbouring communities are known as the social costs. This study aims to present a state-of-the-art overview of social costs in construction industry in terms of definition, consideration, classification and quantification. Furthermore, it is aimed to bring the construction social cost phenomenon for the agenda of Environmental Impact Assessors.

  17. Social cost in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Tolga; Kamali, Saeed; Arayici, Yusuf

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that completion of construction projects has a direct positive impact on the growth of national and local economies as well as humans' wellbeing, construction projects, especially in the urban areas, generate serious environmental nuisances for the adjacent residents and have unintentional adverse impacts on their surrounding environment. Construction causative adverse impacts on the neighbouring communities are known as the social costs. This study aims to present a state-of-the-art overview of social costs in construction industry in terms of definition, consideration, classification and quantification. Furthermore, it is aimed to bring the construction social cost phenomenon for the agenda of Environmental Impact Assessors.

  18. An Analysis of Cost Premiums and Losses Associated with USAF Military Construction (MILCON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    construction firms ( Molenaar et al. 1999). The design-build+ method is a form of DB which brings the contractor into the planning phase early to help...of firm fixed prices requires the contractor to commit to a set price early in the design process ( Molenaar et al. 1999). Both firm fixed and cost...Research The performance of MILCON projects based on execution method has been investigated in terms of cost, performance, and schedule. Molenaar

  19. Feasibility of perpetual pavement stage construction in China: A life cycle cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyin Guo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of pavement design and management is to build sustainable pavement structure with minimum costs during its whole life. There are many uncertainties in the process of pavement design pertaining many of its variables, such as future traffic estimation, long time behavior of materials, future weights and types of traveling vehicles, availability of funds etc. Therefore, it is important to apply pavement stage construction technique during the process of pavement design and management to minimize the risk associated with these uncertainties. From the beginning of 2000, the research and application of perpetual asphalt pavement (PP technology has been deployed in China. The semi rigid base for asphalt pavement has been normally considered as typical component of high class highways in the design according to the Chinese experience since 1997. The research objective is to apply pavement stage construction for the evaluation of life cycle costs of Chinese perpetual and traditional semi rigid pavements using operational pavement management system in addition to examine its suitability for design and construction of more economical and durable flexible pavements. It has been found that the stage construction of asphalt layers in PP over semi rigid pavement foundation will create more sustainable and trusted pavement structures in spite of 2–5% increase in present total cost.

  20. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  1. Analysis of selected factors that generate the costs of accidents at work using the Polish construction industry as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoła Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents analysis of selected factors that generate the costs of accidents at work using the Polish construction industry as an example. The individual components of the cost of accidents have been identified. Using the statistical data published by the Central Statistical Office, the impact on the size of the cost of accidents at work of such factors as the lost time of an injured person, the lost time of other people involved in the removal of accident effects and also material losses caused by an accident, was analysed. On the basis of the conducted analysis, conclusions regarding economic losses due to accidents were formulated.

  2. 25 CFR 700.467 - Construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction costs. 700.467 Section 700.467 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Discretionary Funds § 700.467 Construction costs. Construction costs and costs relating to construction such as...

  3. A cost-benefit analysis of tracking and tracing systems in road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voordijk, Johannes T.; Akintoye, A

    2001-01-01

    A major problem in road construction is the lack of timely and accurate information about the location and productivity of equipment. As a result, the productivity rate of certain types of construction equipment is low and equipment has to be hired in from third parties. Lack of co-ordination

  4. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  5. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Canesi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy. The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  6. 874 CONSTRUCTION COST MODELS FOR HIGHRISE OFFICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... will not only reduce the stress on estimators but also enhance the accuracy of cost estimates. The resulting 11 ... cost estimating process to work together to ..... construction estimators in Hong. Kong. Construction Management.

  7. Construction Cost Management in Resource Based Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elazzazy, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Resource Based Economy tested according to criteria formulated from the construction cost management best practices. A cost management plan modeled to demonstrate the possibility of construction management under a new socio-economic system, which counts the consumed natural resources by construction as the dry cost to the environment.

  8. A comparative analysis of methods to represent uncertainty in estimating the cost of constructing wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2002-08-01

    Prediction of construction cost of wastewater treatment facilities could be influential for the economic feasibility of various levels of water pollution control programs. However, construction cost estimation is difficult to precisely evaluate in an uncertain environment and measured quantities are always burdened with different types of cost structures. Therefore, an understanding of the previous development of wastewater treatment plants and of the related construction cost structures of those facilities becomes essential for dealing with an effective regional water pollution control program. But deviations between the observed values and the estimated values are supposed to be due to measurement errors only in the conventional regression models. The inherent uncertainties of the underlying cost structure, where the human estimation is influential, are rarely explored. This paper is designed to recast a well-known problem of construction cost estimation for both domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants via a comparative framework. Comparisons were made for three technologies of regression analyses, including the conventional least squares regression method, the fuzzy linear regression method, and the newly derived fuzzy goal regression method. The case study, incorporating a complete database with 48 domestic wastewater treatment plants and 29 industrial wastewater treatment plants being collected in Taiwan, implements such a cost estimation procedure in an uncertain environment. Given that the fuzzy structure in regression estimation may account for the inherent human complexity in cost estimation, the fuzzy goal regression method does exhibit more robust results in terms of some criteria. Moderate economy of scale exists in constructing both the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants. Findings indicate that the optimal size of a domestic wastewater treatment plant is approximately equivalent to 15,000 m3/day (CMD) and higher in Taiwan

  9. Construction and operation costs of constructed wetlands treating wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkika, Dimitra; Gikas, Georgios D; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A

    2014-01-01

    Design data from nine constructed wetlands (CW) facilities of various capacities (population equivalent (PE)) are used to estimate construction and operation costs, and then to derive empirical equations relating the required facility land area and the construction cost to PE. In addition, comparisons between the costs of CW facilities based on various alternative construction materials, i.e., reinforced concrete and earth structures (covered with either high density polyethylene or clay), are presented in relation to the required area. The results show that earth structures are economically advantageous. The derived equations can be used for providing a preliminary cost estimate of CW facilities for domestic wastewater treatment.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) for nutrient reduction in drainage discharge from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...... reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW...

  12. Weight and cost analysis of large wind turbine rotors constructed from conventional materials and from advanced composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Holten, Th

    1982-07-01

    Cost calculations and cost analyses of the blades and the (teetering) hubs of large wind turbines. The blades are of different shapes, construction and materials (aluminium, steel and glass reinforced plastics). Teetering hubs are heavy and complicated steel constructions, necessary to minimize material fatigue. In large wind turbines with a diameter of 60 to 100 m or even more the rotor mass (hubs and blades together) may vary from 46,000 to 216,000 kg. Costs are estimated to be DFL. 16/kg, both for teetering hubs and/or blades made of glass reinforced plastics. Due to lack of experience and of exact knowledge of the loads appearing during operation under field conditions the uncertainty factor may be 10% to 15%.

  13. CONSTRUCTION COST PREDICTION USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita K Magdum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Construction cost prediction is important for construction firms to compete and grow in the industry. Accurate construction cost prediction in the early stage of project is important for project feasibility studies and successful completion. There are many factors that affect the cost prediction. This paper presents construction cost prediction as multiple regression model with cost of six materials as independent variables. The objective of this paper is to develop neural networks and multilayer perceptron based model for construction cost prediction. Different models of NN and MLP are developed with varying hidden layer size and hidden nodes. Four artificial neural network models and twelve multilayer perceptron models are compared. MLP and NN give better results than statistical regression method. As compared to NN, MLP works better on training dataset but fails on testing dataset. Five activation functions are tested to identify suitable function for the problem. ‘elu' transfer function gives better results than other transfer function.

  14. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  15. New plant construction cost and schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    The presentation covers the following topics: cost structure; capital costs; variation of capital costs; trends in power plant construction; studies of costs completion; periods and risks. Nuclear plant costs have recently risen so rapidly that vendors are not willing to publicly commit to cost estimates: ∼ $2000/Kw overnight costs in 2006 in the US market > $4000/Kw and in 2008 in the US market > $6000/Kw in 2008 in emerging markets. There is vendors pricing uncertainty. Current contract models may not apply. Current construction projects have problems: Olkiluoto-3 is reported to be 50% over budget and two years behind schedule, increasing perceptions that nuclear costs will continue to increase rapidly; Price of materials is a big volatile unknown, which may decrease Labor could become more available due to limited number of new projects; Lack of debt/credit to finance new project may decrease demand of new construction

  16. Analysis of Correlations between the Level of Partnering Relations and their Influence on the Time, Cost, Quality and Safety of Implementation of Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper uses the developed model of the influence of partnering relations on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. On its basis, a questionnaire has been created and a preliminary survey has been conducted. The paper presents an analysis of correlations between the level of partnering relations in the context of the partnering measures indicated in the model and their influence on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. The analysis was conducted based on the data collected in 52 construction projects. The values of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient have been calculated for the examined relations. The analysis allowed for indicating the measures of partnering whose improvement most often brings benefits with regard to the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. Among the 80 analysed correlations, the ones identified as strong were: 15 relations connected with the time, 8 with the cost, 5 with the quality and 1 with the safety of implementation of construction projects.

  17. Safety cost management in construction companies: A proposal classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alonso, M; Ibarrondo-Dávila, M P; Rubio, M C

    2016-06-16

    Estimating health and safety costs in the construction industry presents various difficulties, including the complexity of cost allocation, the inadequacy of data available to managers and the absence of an accounting model designed specifically for safety cost management. Very often, the costs arising from accidents in the workplace are not fully identifiable due to the hidden costs involved. This paper reviews some studies of occupational health and safety cost management and proposes a means of classifying these costs. We conducted an empirical study in which the health and safety costs of 40 construction worksites are estimated. A new classification of the health and safety cost and its categories is proposed: Safety and non-safety costs. The costs of the company's health and safety policy should be included in the information provided by the accounting system, as a starting point for analysis and control. From this perspective, a classification of health and safety costs and its categories is put forward.

  18. Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovering, Jessica R.; Yip, Arthur; Nordhaus, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature on the construction costs of nuclear power reactors has focused almost exclusively on trends in construction costs in only two countries, the United States and France, and during two decades, the 1970s and 1980s. These analyses, Koomey and Hultman (2007); Grubler (2010), and Escobar-Rangel and Lévêque (2015), study only 26% of reactors built globally between 1960 and 2010, providing an incomplete picture of the economic evolution of nuclear power construction. This study curates historical reactor-specific overnight construction cost (OCC) data that broaden the scope of study substantially, covering the full cost history for 349 reactors in the US, France, Canada, West Germany, Japan, India, and South Korea, encompassing 58% of all reactors built globally. We find that trends in costs have varied significantly in magnitude and in structure by era, country, and experience. In contrast to the rapid cost escalation that characterized nuclear construction in the United States, we find evidence of much milder cost escalation in many countries, including absolute cost declines in some countries and specific eras. Our new findings suggest that there is no inherent cost escalation trend associated with nuclear technology. - Highlights: •Comprehensive analysis of nuclear power construction cost experience. •Coverage for early and recent reactors in seven countries. •International comparisons and re-evaluation of learning. •Cost trends vary by country and era; some experience cost stability or decline.

  19. Construction engineering inspection direct cost survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to provide a rationale to Georgia Department of Transportation : (GDOT) for Direct Costs in terms of salary and wages charged by qualified independent : contractors performing Construction Engineering Inspection (CEI) s...

  20. Construction of a low-cost luximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, L. S.; de Macedo, J. A.; de Araújo, M. S. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    This paper proposes the construction of an electronic instrument called digital luximeter, combining simplicity and low cost, making it simpler and cheaper than those on the market. Its construction tends to facilitate dissemination and access to this type of measuring instrument between high school teachers and educational institutions, making it ideal to be a science lab.

  1. AES, Automated Construction Cost Estimation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    A - Description of program or function: AES (Automated Estimating System) enters and updates the detailed cost, schedule, contingency, and escalation information contained in a typical construction or other project cost estimates. It combines this information to calculate both un-escalated and escalated and cash flow values for the project. These costs can be reported at varying levels of detail. AES differs from previous versions in at least the following ways: The schedule is entered at the WBS-Participant, Activity level - multiple activities can be assigned to each WBS-Participant combination; the spending curve is defined at the schedule activity level and a weighing factor is defined which determines percentage of cost for the WBS-Participant applied to the schedule activity; Schedule by days instead of Fiscal Year/Quarter; Sales Tax is applied at the Line Item Level- a sales tax codes is selected to indicate Material, Large Single Item, or Professional Services; a 'data filter' has been added to allow user to define data the report is to be generated for. B - Method of solution: Average Escalation Rate: The average escalation for a Bill of is calculated in three steps. 1. A table of quarterly escalation factors is calculated based on the base fiscal year and quarter of the project entered in the estimate record and the annual escalation rates entered in the Standard Value File. 2. The percentage distribution of costs by quarter for the Bill of Material is calculated based on the schedule entered and the curve type. 3. The percent in each fiscal year and quarter in the distribution is multiplied by the escalation factor for the fiscal year and quarter. The sum of these results is the average escalation rate for that Bill of Material. Schedule by curve: The allocation of costs to specific time periods is dependent on three inputs, starting schedule date, ending schedule date, and the percentage of costs allocated to each quarter. Contingency Analysis: The

  2. Theoretical and methodological aspects of assessing economic effectiveness of nuclear power plant construction using cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravcik, A.

    1984-01-01

    The cost benefit of investments is devided into social and economic benefits. The postulates are discussed for the assessment of the cost benefit of capital costs of nuclear power plants. The relations are given for total cost benefit of capital costs expressed by the total profit rate of capital costs, and the absolute effectiveness exoressed by the socio-economic benefit of capital costs. The absolute cost benefit of capital costs is characterized by several complex indexes. Comparable capital cost benefit is used for assessing the effectiveness of interchangeable variants of solution. The minimum calculated costs serve as the criterion for selecting the optimal variant. (E.S.)

  3. Identifying factors causing cost overrun of the construction projects ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swapnil P Wanjari

    Cost overrun in India; ANOVA; factor analysis; construction projects. 1. Introduction ... gramme Implementation in India [2], projects of public .... case if a respondent never came across of such factor. ..... The co-relation matrix for variables of cost overruns was ..... There are various problems observed due to communication.

  4. Identifying Contractors’ Planned Quality Costs in Indonesian Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti F. Marzuki

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a very competitive construction industry, quality costs have to be measured to be able to identify potential quality problem areas and to focus attention on work output improvement opportunities. The awareness of contractors on the importance of quality costs could be reflected in the extent of their quality costs planning. This paper presents an identification of planned quality costs in three construction projects executed by two large Indonesian contractors, a state-owned company and a private company in Jakarta. The objective is to enable the contractors to elaborate their quality costs planning and thereby improve their work output based on the findi ngs. Quality costs are first grouped into three categories: prevention, appraisal, and failure costs. Based on the works of previous researchers, a list of quality management activities that should be covered in each quality costs category is then created. The contractors’ planned quality costs data for each category are identified and collected through interviews and questionnaire surveys that refer to the list. Quality costs are expressed as a percentage of contract value. It is revealed that although large contractors already have certain knowledge on quality costs in construction projects, these costs are not planned in a structured way through an analysis of systematic quality costs records. Through cost categorization it is also shown that higher prevention and appraisal costs lead to lower failure costs. It is then concluded that a lot of work is still to be done by the contractors to set up a quality costs recording system which can serve as a basis for their quality improvement planning.

  5. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  6. Construction cost forecast model : model documentation and technical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Construction cost indices are generally estimated with Laspeyres, Paasche, or Fisher indices that allow changes : in the quantities of construction bid items, as well as changes in price to change the cost indices of those items. : These cost indices...

  7. Construction of VLCC marine oil storage cost index system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Li, Yule; Lu, Jinshu; Wu, Wenfeng; Zhu, Faxin; Chen, Tian; Qin, Beichen

    2018-04-01

    VLCC as the research object, the basic knowledge of VLCC is summarized. According to the phenomenon that VLCC is applied to offshore oil storage gradually, this paper applies the theoretical analysis method to analyze the excess capacity from VLCC, the drop of oil price, the aging VLCC is more suitable for offshore storage The paper analyzes the reason of VLCC offshore oil storage from three aspects, analyzes the cost of VLCC offshore storage from the aspects of manpower cost and shipping cost, and constructs the cost index system of VLCC offshore oil storage.

  8. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  9. AP1000 construction and operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, J.W.; Corletti, M.M. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Thompson, M

    2001-07-01

    Market analysis of the U.S. electricity generating market indicates that the generating cost of competitive new generating capacity must be less than $0.03/kw-hr. When such factors as an attractive return on investment and payback period are considered for a new nuclear electric generating facility, this results in the requirement to have an overnight capital cost of approximately $1000/kw. Industry executives indicate that any new nuclear plant must be able to compete in the de-regulated generation wholesale marketplace and provide a return to the shareholders. Against this standard, the costs of advanced nuclear power plants currently available are still too high. In the United States, the Utility Requirements Document for advanced light water reactor plants included a cost goal that was based on the cost of coal generated electricity at the time the document was written. Since that time, the cost of new generating capacity and the overall operating cost of generating electricity has gone down. This is a result of low natural gas prices, more efficient plants in general and the current record breaking reductions in outage times and operating costs for nuclear plants. The plant designs resulting from the United States advanced light water reactor plant programs received Design Certification from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some are being deployed, with variations, in countries other than the United States. But they can not compete today with other sources of central station generation in the United States. (author)

  10. AP1000 construction and operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.W.; Corletti, M.M.; Thompson, M.

    2001-01-01

    Market analysis of the U.S. electricity generating market indicates that the generating cost of competitive new generating capacity must be less than $0.03/kw-hr. When such factors as an attractive return on investment and payback period are considered for a new nuclear electric generating facility, this results in the requirement to have an overnight capital cost of approximately $1000/kw. Industry executives indicate that any new nuclear plant must be able to compete in the de-regulated generation wholesale marketplace and provide a return to the shareholders. Against this standard, the costs of advanced nuclear power plants currently available are still too high. In the United States, the Utility Requirements Document for advanced light water reactor plants included a cost goal that was based on the cost of coal generated electricity at the time the document was written. Since that time, the cost of new generating capacity and the overall operating cost of generating electricity has gone down. This is a result of low natural gas prices, more efficient plants in general and the current record breaking reductions in outage times and operating costs for nuclear plants. The plant designs resulting from the United States advanced light water reactor plant programs received Design Certification from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some are being deployed, with variations, in countries other than the United States. But they can not compete today with other sources of central station generation in the United States. (author)

  11. Construction costs of nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandel, H

    1976-03-01

    It is assumed that the demand for electrical energy will continue to rise and that nuclear power will increasingly supply the base-load of electricity generation in the industrialized world. The author identifies areas where techniques and practices to control costs can be improved. Nuclear power offers an alternative to liquid and gaseous fossil fuels and contributes to a relative stability in the price of electric energy. Nuclear power plants can now generate power more cheaply than other thermal power plants down into the upper middle load sector, as indicated in calculations based on a construction time of six years for nuclear plants and four years for others. Special legal provisions, different conditions of financing and taxation, varying methods of power generation cost accounting, and the nonuniform layout of the plant in the various countries make it difficult to compare power generation costs. The author uses mostly experiences gained in the Federal Republic of Germany for some calculations for comparison; he cites lack of standardization and over-long licensing times as major factors in the recent rapid escalation of nuclear power costs and suggests that adoption of standard reactor designs, encouragement of a vigorous and competitive European nuclear industry, and streamlining of licensing procedures to improve the situation. (MCW)

  12. Construction and Test of Low Cost X-Ray Tomography Scanner for Physical-Chemical Analysis and Nondestructive Inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Jose Martins Jr. de; Martins, Antonio Cesar Germano

    2009-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) refers to the cross-sectional imaging of an object measuring the transmitted radiation at different directions. In this work, we describe the development of a low cost micro-CT X-ray scanner that is being developed for nondestructive testing. This tomograph operates using a microfocus X-ray source and contains a silicon photodiode as detectors. The performance of the system, by its spatial resolution, has been estimated through its Modulation Transfer Function-MTF and the obtained value at 10% of MTF is 661 μm. It was built as a general purpose nondestructive testing device.

  13. Cost-benefit analysis of the construction of different flexible pavement structures considering the axle load and type of binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Dotto Bueno

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The status of Brazilian highways reflects a deficient pavement performance when they are subjected to loadings imposed by heavy traffic. Current legislation, as enacted by Contran (National Traffic Council, has increased the axle weight limit for cargo vehicles by up to 10%. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine a cost-benefit ratio by using different types of structures, asphalt binders and load intensities. Typical pavements were determined and then analyzed by the software AEMC (SisPav to obtain the horizontal tensile strain (εt values at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer and, later, the NFATIGUE value. It was found that the increase in weight, within values covered by legislation, might result in a reduction of approximately 50% in the NFATIGUE value for the pavement structures analyzed. As for economic impact, the same weight increase caused a mean increase of 120% in the cost of repeated loading on pavement structures (R$ NFATIGUE-1. It was also observed that structures with more robust asphalt concrete layers can provide the best R$ NFATIGUE-1 ratios. The best results for granular materials were found with thinner layers, associated with a thicker coating. The benefits of modified binders were shown by the analyses of the best structural options: both the polymer-modified binder and the rubber asphalt binder offer significant structural and economic improvements to the structure.

  14. Development of a simple estimation tool for LMFBR construction cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1999-01-01

    A simple tool for estimating the construction costs of liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), 'Simple Cost' was developed in this study. Simple Cost is based on a new estimation formula that can reduce the amount of design data required to estimate construction costs. Consequently, Simple cost can be used to estimate the construction costs of innovative LMFBR concepts for which detailed design has not been carried out. The results of test calculation show that Simple Cost provides cost estimations equivalent to those obtained with conventional methods within the range of plant power from 325 to 1500 MWe. Sensitivity analyses for typical design parameters were conducted using Simple Cost. The effects of four major parameters - reactor vessel diameter, core outlet temperature, sodium handling area and number of secondary loops - on the construction costs of LMFBRs were evaluated quantitatively. The results show that the reduction of sodium handling area is particularly effective in reducing construction costs. (author)

  15. REDUCTION OF COST AND TIME CONSUMPTION IN WELL-CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Zelenika

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A Contractor usually utilizes the available drilling equipment when constructing just one single well. Drilling cost and time consumption in constructing the well MB-1, using the percussion method, and the well MB-2, using the conventional rotary drilling method, call for a separate analysis in order to justify the investment cost for the acquisition of additional equipment for a single well only. The wells, located in a karst vrtača close to an estavelle near Tomislavgrad, with a diameter of 500 mm and approximately 80 m deep, have been accomplished with a low rate of penetration using the conventional Cable tool and resp. Rotary Drilling Method. In this paper results of analyses for the given circumstances are shown: both the efficiency and cost of the mentioned drilling methods performed by the crews of »Geotehnika d.d.« Zagreb, as well as the justifiability of investments in new equipment are evaluated.

  16. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    of fuel delivered to Summit via LC-130 at a price of $32/gal. (Lever et al. 2016), the cost for constructing and maintaining the skiway for the 2014...CRREL TR-16-9 18 The costs associated with the Twin Otter include a day rate plus an hourly mission rate, a per passenger rate, airport fees, fuel, a...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 9 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Co ld

  17. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  18. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubic, Jr., William L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  19. Electric utility power plant construction costs, 1st Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    New UDI report combines historical construction costs for more than 1,000 coal, oil, gas, nuclear and geothermal units that have entered commercial operation since 1966 and projected power plant construction costs for about 400 utility-owned generating units scheduled to enter commercial operation during the next 20 years. Key design characteristics and equipment suppliers, A/E, constructor and original installed cost data. Direct construction costs without AFUDC are provided where known. Historical construction cost data are also provided for about 130 utility-owned hydroelectric, gas turbine, combined-cycle and diesel units (these data are generally for units entering service after 1980)

  20. Factors influencing cost over-run in Indian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindrela Devi A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction cost is the most important criteria of project success and hence the construction project performance is generally expressed in terms of cost and its variance from the budget. In spite of having extant literature, cost estimation methods, cost indices etc., construction projects rarely meet the budgeted cost. This research study focuses on the construction cost overrun and to identify the various factors that affects the construction cost performance. Based on an extensive literature review and input from industry experts, sixty eight factors that causes cost overrun were identified for investigation. Further, a structured questionnaire survey was conducted among the industry experts and the collected data has been analysed statistically. It is concluded that the factors namely scope creep, construction delays, rework and practise of awarding the contract to the lowest bidder are most significant factors for construction cost overrun in non-infrastructural Indian projects. The relative importance of the listed factors used to guide the project team in addressing the cost related risks involved in the projects. The findings are expected to bridge the gap in the current construction cost management practices.

  1. Modern Methods for Cost Management in Construction Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesároš Peter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost management should be seen as an essential function of enterprises which perform their activities in current market environment. One of the main factors affecting the level of achieved profit and favourable market position is cost structure. The company's ability to obtain necessary and reliable information on their own cost, subsequent processing and effective cost management is crucial for achieving success. This study focuses on cost management and the use of modern methods of cost management in construction enterprises. The aim of this paper is to identify approaches to cost management in Slovak construction enterprises, based on own empirical research.

  2. Cost-derived indices for building design and construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also as multiples of gfi, substructure cost index, sci and roofing cost index, rci could predict componental costs of substructure and roofing for phased development purposes. Keywords: Cost Indices, Building Design, Building Construction Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems, Vol.

  3. 23 CFR 140.907 - Overhead and indirect construction costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... accounting principles; (2) The costs included in the distribution are limited to costs actually incurred by...), part 31, Contract Cost Principles and Procedures, relating to contracts with commercial organizations... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Overhead and indirect construction costs. 140.907...

  4. Drilling cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Drilling assumes greater importance in present day uranium exploration which emphasizes to explore more areas on the basis of conceptual model than merely on surface anomalies. But drilling is as costly as it is important and consumes a major share (50% to 60%) of the exploration budget. As such the cost of drilling has great bearing on the exploration strategy as well as on the overall cost of the project. Therefore, understanding the cost analysis is very much important when planning or intensifying an exploration programme. This not only helps in controlling the current operations but also in planning the budgetary provisions for future operations. Also, if the work is entrusted to a private party, knowledge of in-house cost analysis helps in fixing the rates of drilling in different formations and areas to be drilled. Under this topic, various factors that contribute to the cost of drilling per meter as well as ways to minimize the drilling cost for better economic evaluation of mineral deposits are discussed. (author)

  5. 874 CONSTRUCTION COST MODELS FOR HIGHRISE OFFICE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... cost-significant items, 15 priced bills of quantities of high rise office building pro ects executed or awarded in Nigeria between 2002 and 2011 were analysed. The study found that11 (29. %) out of 3 bill items were cost-significant accounting for 2.2% of total value of the work. The implication of the finding is ...

  6. SUBSURFACE CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.E. Kramer

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify appropriate construction methods and develop a feasible approach for construction and development of the repository subsurface facilities. The objective of this analysis is to support development of the subsurface repository layout for License Application (LA) design. The scope of the analysis for construction and development of the subsurface Repository facilities covers: (1) Excavation methods, including application of knowledge gained from construction of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). (2) Muck removal from excavation headings to the surface. This task will examine ways of preventing interference with other subsurface construction activities. (3) The logistics and equipment for the construction and development rail haulage systems. (4) Impact of ground support installation on excavation and other construction activities. (5) Examination of how drift mapping will be accomplished. (6) Men and materials handling. (7) Installation and removal of construction utilities and ventilation systems. (8) Equipping and finishing of the emplacement drift mains and access ramps to fulfill waste emplacement operational needs. (9) Emplacement drift and access mains and ramps commissioning prior to handover for emplacement operations. (10) Examination of ways to structure the contracts for construction of the repository. (11) Discussion of different construction schemes and how to minimize the schedule risks implicit in those schemes. (12) Surface facilities needed for subsurface construction activities

  7. Salt marsh construction costs and shrimp production

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Continuing wetland loss in Galveston Bay, Texas (USA) has led to the development of various salt marsh restoration projects. These constructed wetlands often attempt...

  8. Cost analysis of small hydroelectric power plants components and preliminary estimation of global cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basta, C.; Olive, W.J.; Antunes, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of cost for each components of Small Hydroelectric Power Plant, taking into account the real costs of these projects is shown. It also presents a global equation which allows a preliminary estimation of cost for each construction. (author)

  9. Costs of occupational injuries in construction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waehrer, Geetha M; Dong, Xiuwen S; Miller, Ted; Haile, Elizabeth; Men, Yurong

    2007-11-01

    This paper presents costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries for the construction industry using 2002 national incidence data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and a comprehensive cost model that includes direct medical costs, indirect losses in wage and household productivity, as well as an estimate of the quality of life costs due to injury. Costs are presented at the three-digit industry level, by worker characteristics, and by detailed source and event of injury. The total costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries in the construction industry were estimated at $11.5 billion in 2002, 15% of the costs for all private industry. The average cost per case of fatal or nonfatal injury is $27,000 in construction, almost double the per-case cost of $15,000 for all industry in 2002. Five industries accounted for over half the industry's total fatal and nonfatal injury costs. They were miscellaneous special trade contractors (SIC 179), followed by plumbing, heating and air-conditioning (SIC 171), electrical work (SIC 173), heavy construction except highway (SIC 162), and residential building construction (SIC 152), each with over $1 billion in costs.

  10. Project control integrating cost and schedule in construction

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pico, Wayne J

    2013-01-01

    The key to successful project control is the fusing of cost to schedule whereby the management of one helps to manage the other. Project Control: Integrating Cost and Schedule in Construction explores the reasons behind and the methodologies for proper planning, monitoring, and controlling both project costs and schedule. Filling a current void the topic of project control applied to the construction industry, it is essential reading for students and professionals alike.

  11. Organizational analysis of construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Will

    1989-01-01

    This research project is about the analysis of construction project organizations. The work is based on organizational theory and is a development of Linear Responsibility Analysis (LRA). The aim is to assess the extent to which project success is affected by organizational structure. The analysis of four public sector case studies raises several issues. First is the need for a systematic model of describing and analysing construction project environments. A framework has been developed that ...

  12. Categorization of potential project cost overrun factors in construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, P.; Abdullah, A. H.; Nagapan, S.; Sohu, S.; Kasvar, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Cost overrun has been severely hit down the economy and reputations for many construction industry around the world. Many project management tools developed to control the budget of a project. However, the cost management is still considered poor as there are many cost overrun issues occurred in the construction industry. Thus, this paper aims to identify and cluster the potential construction project cost overrun factors according to their originating groups using the thematic approach. Basically, through literature review, all the potential factors that may cause cost overrun were screened thoroughly before they were clustered into seven (7) groups of the originating factors, namely project, contract, client, contractor, consultant, labour and external. Each potential factor was explained clearly with some examples based on the Malaysian case studies to illustrate the cost overrun scenario. These findings may aid in the future to highlight on how to mitigate the critical potential factors of cost overrun to reduce or overcome its impact on all the stakeholders involved.

  13. Construction cost impact analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy mandatory performance standards for new federal commercial and multi-family, high-rise residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Massa, F.V.; Hadley, D.L.; Halverson, M.A.

    1993-12-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted a project to demonstrate use of its Energy Conservation Voluntary Performance Standards for Commercial and Multi-Family High-Rise Residential Buildings; Mandatory for New Federal Buildings; Interim Rule (referred to in this report as DOE-1993). A key requisite of the legislation requires DOE to develop commercial building energy standards that are cost effective. During the demonstration project, DOE specifically addressed this issue by assessing the impacts of the standards on (1) construction costs, (2) builders (and especially small builders) of multi-family, high-rise buildings, and (3) the ability of low-to moderate-income persons to purchase or rent units in such buildings. This document reports on this project

  14. Constructive real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Allen A

    1967-01-01

    This text introduces the methods of applied functional analysis and applied convexity. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students of mathematics, science, and technology, it focuses on the solutions to two closely related problems. The first concerns finding roots of systems of equations and operative equations in a given region. The second involves extremal problems of minimizing or maximizing functions defined on subsets of finite and infinite dimensional spaces. Rather than citing practical algorithms for solving problems, this treatment provides the tools for studying problem-related algorithms.Topics include iterations and fixed points, metric spaces, nonlinear programming, polyhedral convex programming, and infinite convex programming. Additional subjects include linear spaces and convex sets and applications to integral equations. Students should be familiar with advanced calculus and linear algebra. As an introduction to elementary functional analysis motivated by application, this vol...

  15. Cost diviation in road construction projects: The case of Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the statistical relationship between actual and estimated cost of road construction projects using data from road construction projects awarded in the West Bank in Palestine over the years 2004–2008. The study is based on a sample of 169 road construction projects. Based on this data, regression models are developed. The findings reveal that 100% of projects suffer from cost diverge, it is found that 76% of projects have cost under estimation while 24% have cost over estimation. The discrepancy between estimated and actual cost has an average of 14.6%, ranging from -39% to 98%. The relation between the project size (length and width and the cost diverge is discussed.

  16. Cost Based Value Stream Mapping as a Sustainable Construction Tool for Underground Pipeline Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Gunduz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with application of Value Stream Mapping (VSM as a sustainable construction tool on a real construction project of installation of underground pipelines. VSM was adapted to reduce the high percentage of non-value-added activities and time wastes during each construction stage and the paper searched for an effective way to consider the cost for studied construction of underground pipeline. This paper is unique in its way that it adopts cost implementation of VSM to improve the productivity in underground pipeline projects. The data was observed and collected from site during construction, indicating the cycle time, value added and non-value added of each construction stage. The current state was built based on these details. This was an eye-opening exercise and a process management tool as a trigger for improvement. After the current state assessment, a future state is attempted by Value Stream Mapping tool balancing the resources using a Line of Balance (LOB technique. Moreover, a sustainable cost estimation model was developed during current state and future state to calculate the cost of underground pipeline construction. The result shows a cost reduction of 20.8% between current and future states. This reflects the importance of the cost based Value Stream Mapping in construction as a sustainable measurement tool. This new tool could be utilized in construction industry to add the sustainability and effective cost management.

  17. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthélemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an econometric analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States based on overnight costs data. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using change in expected electricity demand as instrument. We argue that the construction of nuclear reactors can benefit from standardization gains through two channels. First, short term coordination benefits can arise when the diversity of nuclear reactors' designs under construction is low. Second, long term benefits can occur due to learning spillovers from past constructions of similar reactors. We find that construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect–Engineer. In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. -- Highlights: •This paper analyses the determinants of nuclear reactors construction costs and lead-time. •We study short term (coordination gains) and long term (learning by doing) benefits of standardization in France and the US. •Results show that standardization of nuclear programs is a key factor for reducing construction costs. •We also suggest that technological progress has contributed to construction costs escalation

  18. Belowground advantages in construction cost facilitate a cryptic plant invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Joshua S; Wheaton, Christine N; Mozdzer, Thomas J

    2014-04-30

    The energetic cost of plant organ construction is a functional trait that is useful for understanding carbon investment during growth (e.g. the resource acquisition vs. tissue longevity tradeoff), as well as in response to global change factors like elevated CO2 and N. Despite the enormous importance of roots and rhizomes in acquiring soil resources and responding to global change, construction costs have been studied almost exclusively in leaves. We sought to determine how construction costs of aboveground and belowground organs differed between native and introduced lineages of a geographically widely dispersed wetland plant species (Phragmites australis) under varying levels of CO2 and N. We grew plants under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2, as well as under two levels of soil nitrogen. We determined construction costs for leaves, stems, rhizomes and roots, as well as for whole plants. Across all treatment conditions, the introduced lineage of Phragmites had a 4.3 % lower mean rhizome construction cost than the native. Whole-plant construction costs were also smaller for the introduced lineage, with the largest difference in sample means (3.3 %) occurring under ambient conditions. In having lower rhizome and plant-scale construction costs, the introduced lineage can recoup its investment in tissue construction more quickly, enabling it to generate additional biomass with the same energetic investment. Our results suggest that introduced Phragmites has had an advantageous tissue investment strategy under historic CO2 and N levels, which has facilitated key rhizome processes, such as clonal spread. We recommend that construction costs for multiple organ types be included in future studies of plant carbon economy, especially those investigating global change. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  19. Dynamic cost control information system for nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongqing; Liu Wei

    1998-01-01

    The authors first introduce the cost control functions of some overseas popular project management software at present and the specific ways of cost control of nuclear power plant construction in China. Then the authors stress the necessity of cost and schedule control integration and present the concept of dynamic cost control, the design scheme of dynamic cost control information system and the data structure modeling. Based on the above, the authors can develop the system which has the functions of dynamic estimate, cash flow management and cost optimization for nuclear engineering

  20. Improvement of Cost Calculation in Constructions – Application of the Standard Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Breuer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Grace to the analysis of several commercial companies effectively performed “on the field”, we could remark the necessity to change the method of cost calculation, our motivation being related to the simplification of calculations and the reduction of the labour volume, but especially the necessity to know in due time the deviations occurred as well as the causes having led to their apparition. The importance of knowing the deviations in due time results from the very basic characteristics of the constructions execution, i.e. the performance of works during several budgetary years, which leads to the modifications of prices and materials, the introduction of new technologies, and to the performance of open air activities, making the execution of constructions works be influenced by the atmospheric condition. But the most important aspect of knowing the deviations is the correct determination of expenses and their inscribing in the corresponding period, in view of determining the result of the budgetary year. Our proposal for the enhancement of the method of cost calculation in constructions is the application of the standard cost method in the variant “single standard cost”.

  1. Assessment of Cost Variation in Solid and Hollow Floor Construction in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwaseun Sunday Dosumu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in construction methods between different forms of slabs construction tend to result into variation in the cost of the slabs for any building project. Thus, this study aims at assessing the variation in construction cost among various construction methods available for hollow and solid floors in construction projects within Lagos State. The research design for this study was a survey design approach and the population of the study are active professionals (Architects, Civil Engineers, Builders, Quantity Surveyors, Consultant and contractors because they are the major participants in the construction activities of the construction industry in Lagos State, Nigeria. The research is based on 46 returned questionnaires out of the 60 that was administered. The data from the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive tools such as frequencies, percentage and mean values. The hypotheses were tested with paired sample t-test and it was found that the system or method of slab construction well known to the respondents is cast in situ, precast and semi-precast. The study also shows that the cost of in-situ solid slabs are higher than that of hollow slab which is an indication that solid slab construction is more expensive than hollow slab construction provided the hollow slab is a one-way hollow floor and not waffle floor. In pre cast solid slab construction the cost of transportation of units to sites, cost of expertise required in the construction process and the cost of fabrication off site are the three highest and most expensive aspects of precast solid slab while cost of erection and placement and the cost of grouting and topping if required are less expensive. Therefore there is difference in the cost of construction between the solid and hollow slabs but the difference is not appreciable. The study's major recommendation is that, adequate and careful analysis must be done in the choice of floor system being adopted for any

  2. Analysis of methods for evaluating environmental costs: a view from environmental accounting research. case: construction of highway, vía al mar Cartagena-Barranquilla section 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Julio Vergara Arrieta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This document is the first breakthrough in the research project entitled “Measurement and assessment of social and environmental costs of Dual Carriageway Vía al Mar Cartagena- Barranquilla section 1 Barrio Crespo – Entrance Villages Tierra Baja and Puerto Rey” funded by the University of San Buenaventura Cartagena. In it the conclusions of the search and theoretical-critical analysis of the different methods, methodologies or techniques that address the issue of valuation of environmental quality in order to develop the first approaches to valuation exercise environmental costs are collected. The position for the present analysis is adopted from an investigative standpoint of accounting field, based on performing and / or environmental reality heterodox approaches.

  3. A Semantics-Based Approach to Construction Cost Estimating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    A construction project requires collaboration of different organizations such as owner, designer, contractor, and resource suppliers. These organizations need to exchange information to improve their teamwork. Understanding the information created in other organizations requires specialized human resources. Construction cost estimating is one of…

  4. Nuclear reactors' construction costs: The role of lead-time, standardization and technological progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelemy, Michel; Escobar Rangel, Lina

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides the first comparative analysis of nuclear reactor construction costs in France and the United States. Studying the cost of nuclear power has often been a challenge, owing to the lack of reliable data sources and heterogeneity between countries, as well as the long time horizon which requires controlling for input prices and structural changes. We build a simultaneous system of equations for overnight costs and construction time (lead-time) to control for endogeneity, using expected demand variation as an instrument. We argue that benefits from nuclear reactor program standardization can arise through short term coordination gains, when the diversity of nuclear reactors' technologies under construction is low, or through long term benefits from learning spillovers from past reactor construction experience, if those spillovers are limited to similar reactors. We find that overnight construction costs benefit directly from learning spillovers but that these spillovers are only significant for nuclear models built by the same Architect-Engineer (A- E). In addition, we show that the standardization of nuclear reactors under construction has an indirect and positive effect on construction costs through a reduction in lead-time, the latter being one of the main drivers of construction costs. Conversely, we also explore the possibility of learning by searching and find that, contrary to other energy technologies, innovation leads to construction costs increases. (authors)

  5. Quality Cost in the Construction Industry ' Preliminary Findings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Che Ali

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key areas being emphasis in ISO 9001 Quality Management System (QMS is performance measurement towards continual improvement. Among the primary measuring tools is quality cost approach. Quality cost has been well practice in manufacturing sector but slowly gain its importance in construction industry. In fact Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK has reckoned quality cost as one of the tool and technique in few of its management processes. In view of such circumstances that has prompted an effort to undertake a study to ascertain the level of knowledge and practice on quality cost in Malaysian construction landscape. The targeted group of respondents was the personnel in the project management team. Capitalizing Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB National Electronic Tendering Initiatives (NETI road shows which were held in year 2007 throughout the country, the author was able to garner 263 respondents representing the project management team. Subsequently the data gathered from the completed forms were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS software. General findings indicated that the level of knowledge and practice on quality cost among the project management team were relatively low. One of the main contributing factors was poor knowledge in the area related to quality cost. Despite of such scenario most of the respondents showed their interest in acquiring knowledge in the field of quality cost. Hence quality cost approach is at the infancy stage in Malaysian construction industry.

  6. An Environmentally Oriented Constructive Cost Model In Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model was designed to assist software developers in Nigeria to estimate software effort, duration and cost as a result of the difficulties in understanding the parameters of the traditional Constructive Cost Model II (COCOMO II) , which was designed for a specif ic environment, using Source Lines of Code (SLOC) . Results ...

  7. Low-cost satellite mechanical design and construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisjolie-Gair, Nathaniel; Straub, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a discussion of techniques for low-cost design and construction of a CubeSat mechanical structure that can serve as a basis for academic programs and a starting point for government, military and commercial large-scale sensing networks, where the cost of each node must be minimized to facilitate system affordability and lower the cost and associated risk of losing any node. Spacecraft Design plays a large role in manufacturability. An intentionally simplified mechanical design is presented which reduces machining costs, as compared to more intricate designs that were considered. Several fabrication approaches are evaluated relative to the low-cost goal.

  8. Probabilistic cost estimating of nuclear power plant construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, W.C.; Perry, L.W.; Postula, F.D.

    1978-01-01

    This paper shows how to identify and isolate cost accounts by developing probability trees down to component levels as justified by value and cost uncertainty. Examples are given of the procedure for assessing uncertainty in all areas contributing to cost: design, factory equipment pricing, and field labor and materials. The method of combining these individual uncertainties is presented so that the cost risk can be developed for components, systems and the total plant construction project. Formats which enable management to use the probabilistic cost estimate information for business planning and risk control are illustrated. Topics considered include code estimate performance, cost allocation, uncertainty encoding, probabilistic cost distributions, and interpretation. Effective cost control of nuclear power plant construction projects requires insight into areas of greatest cost uncertainty and a knowledge of the factors which can cause costs to vary from the single value estimates. It is concluded that probabilistic cost estimating can provide the necessary assessment of uncertainties both as to the cause and the consequences

  9. Evaluation of construction cost of pyro-partitioning plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Kensuke; Kurata, Masateru; Inoue, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the construction cost of a pyro-partitioning plant. The plant capacity was chosen to accommodate processing of the HLLW generated by PUREX reprocessing of 800 ton of spent LWR fuel. The block flow diagram and mass balance obtained from our previous experimental data were used to produce a detailed process-flow diagram and to design the plant. In this evaluation, the plant was estimated to cover an area of about 90 m x 70 m, and to cost $576 million for construction. This study shows that the cost of process equipments, such as reaction vessels, accountability tanks and so on, is just about 13% of total construction cost. On the other hand, the cost of process robots and the equipments for key measurement point (KMP) is major part in the cost of in-cell equipment. So it is clear that the construction cost can be reduced by reducing the number of material balance area (MBA) and KMP. (author)

  10. Using Intelligent Techniques in Construction Project Cost Estimation: 10-Year Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Osman Elfaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimation is the most important preliminary process in any construction project. Therefore, construction cost estimation has the lion’s share of the research effort in construction management. In this paper, we have analysed and studied proposals for construction cost estimation for the last 10 years. To implement this survey, we have proposed and applied a methodology that consists of two parts. The first part concerns data collection, for which we have chosen special journals as sources for the surveyed proposals. The second part concerns the analysis of the proposals. To analyse each proposal, the following four questions have been set. Which intelligent technique is used? How have data been collected? How are the results validated? And which construction cost estimation factors have been used? From the results of this survey, two main contributions have been produced. The first contribution is the defining of the research gap in this area, which has not been fully covered by previous proposals of construction cost estimation. The second contribution of this survey is the proposal and highlighting of future directions for forthcoming proposals, aimed ultimately at finding the optimal construction cost estimation. Moreover, we consider the second part of our methodology as one of our contributions in this paper. This methodology has been proposed as a standard benchmark for construction cost estimation proposals.

  11. Odelouca Dam Construction: Numerical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, A.; Maranha, J. R.; Caldeira, L.

    2012-01-01

    Odelouca dam is an embankment dam, with 76 m height, recently constructed in the south of Portugal. It is zoned with a core consisting of colluvial and residual schist soil and with soil-rockfill mixtures making up the shells (weathered schist with a significant fraction of coarse sized particles). This paper presents a numerical analysis of Odelouca Dam`s construction. The material con-stants of the soil model used are determined from a comprehensive testing programme carried out in the C...

  12. Cost benefit analysis vs. referenda

    OpenAIRE

    Martin J. Osborne; Matthew A. Turner

    2007-01-01

    We consider a planner who chooses between two possible public policies and ask whether a referendum or a cost benefit analysis leads to higher welfare. We find that a referendum leads to higher welfare than a cost benefit analyses in "common value" environments. Cost benefit analysis is better in "private value" environments.

  13. Factors causing cost variation for constructing wastewater projects in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost is one of the major considerations throughout the project management life cycle and can be regarded as one of the most important parameters of a project and the driving force of project success. Despite its proven importance, it is common to see a construction project failing to achieve its objectives within the specific cost. Cost variation is a very frequent phenomenon and is almost associated with nearly constructing all wastewater projects. Maintaining steady cost projection on wastewater projects had been recently an issue of serious concern, both to the client and project contractors. Cost deviation from initial cost plan had been prevalent on construction sites. However, little or no effort has been made to curtail the phenomenon, this research work attempts to identify, investigate and rank factors perceived to affect cost variation in the Egyptian wastewater projects with respect to their relative importance so as to proffer possible ways of coping with this phenomenon. To achieve this objective, author invited practitioners and experts, comprising a statistically representative sample, to participate in a structured questionnaire survey. Brain storming was taken into consideration, through which a number of cost variation factors were identified for constructing wastewater projects. Totally 52 factors were short-listed to be made part of the questionnaire survey and the survey was conducted with experts and representatives from private, public and local general construction firms. The data were analyzed using Relative Importance Index, ranking and simple percentages. It was analytically discovered that factors such as: (1 Lowest bidding procurement method; (2 Additional work; (3 Bureaucracy in bidding/tendering method; (4 Wrong method of cost estimation; and (5 Funding problems were critical for causing cost variation, while (1 Inaccurate cost estimation; (2 Mode of financing and payment for completed work; (3 Unexpected ground

  14. Application research of cost construction on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yanfeng; Bi Sheng; Liu Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the theoretical basis systems for the cost component on radioactive waste management. Through the decomposition production of various types of project content, analysis of the cost elements of operating activities, study subjects at reason-able cost and expense. On the basis of the formation of radioactive waste management costs of the various operating structure Into, and established a comprehensive system of price system. (authors)

  15. Low cost construction technologies and materials - case study Mozambuique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cost or affordable construction technologies and materials are often touted as a panacea in meeting the ever growing demand for rapid housing delivery in developing economies. Mozambique as with most of the developing world, from both historical...

  16. Construction of cost effective homebuilt spin coater for coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the construction of a cost effective and low power consumption spin coater from a direct current (DC) brushless motor. The DC mechanical component is widdely available in the central processing unit (CPU) cooler. This set up permits simple operation where the DC voltage can be controlled manually in order to ...

  17. CANDU 9 - reducing capital costs through advanced construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, K.; Yu, S.; Hopwood, J.

    1996-01-01

    Reducing costs is a clear priority in nuclear markets where capital reaches billions and financing is hard-won. To address that priority, AECL introduced the use of advanced construction techniques. This has been one of the key thrusts behind its development of CANDU 9. (author)

  18. [Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: activity based costing (ABC analysis)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Kastratović, Dragana A; Vučović, Dragan S; Milaković, Branko D; Miličić, Biljana R

    2011-01-01

    Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC) analysis. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment.) of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, "each cost object (service or unit)" of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  19. LHC Civil Engineering Construction Contracts Cost Monitoring and Budget Forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Skelton, K

    2000-01-01

    The Civil Engineering project for the LHC is estimated at 350 MCHF, of which about 316 MCHF is for the construction contracts. These contracts are based on a system of remeasurement whereby the consultant estimates the quantities required for the construction of each structure and the contractor commits himself to the unit price, which define the initial tender price. There are many factors that affect the final price for these contracts, from increases or decreases in quantities of the estimated amounts in the original bill of quantities to variations to the contract. This paper will look at how these factors change costs at the individual level of a structure to the overall costs of the contract. It will look at how the Civil Engineering Group monitors these changes to calculate cash flows and final costs and how this information is used as a basis for budget forecasts.

  20. Cost Improvement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    Cc) Ul y Cli U;ra ISO or.) . ............ t cc fl .9 it it ý I oli CC) I it cli L3 I HIM .......... 114 t4l t.r IM...Burroughz Cost AFIT/LSQ AV785-6280 Curve Programs Prof. Jeff Daneman Z-100 Cost Curve ASD/ACCR AV785- 8583 Programs Capt Arthur Mills * *- PROGRAMS CONCEPT

  1. Real analysis a constructive approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bridger, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A unique approach to analysis that lets you apply mathematics across a range of subjects This innovative text sets forth a thoroughly rigorous modern account of the theoretical underpinnings of calculus: continuity, differentiability, and convergence. Using a constructive approach, every proof of every result is direct and ultimately computationally verifiable. In particular, existence is never established by showing that the assumption of non-existence leads to a contradiction. The ultimate consequence of this method is that it makes sense-not just to math majors but also to students from a

  2. Permeable treatment wall design and cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manz, C.; Quinn, K.

    1997-01-01

    A permeable treatment wall utilizing the funnel and gate technology has been chosen as the final remedial solution for one industrial site, and is being considered at other contaminated sites, such as a closed municipal landfill. Reactive iron gates will be utilized for treatment of chlorinated VOCs identified in the groundwater. Alternatives for the final remedial solution at each site were evaluated to achieve site closure in the most cost effective manner. This paper presents the remedial alternatives and cost analyses for each site. Several options are available at most sites for the design of a permeable treatment wall. Our analysis demonstrates that the major cost factor's for this technology are the design concept, length, thickness, location and construction methods for the reactive wall. Minimizing the amount of iron by placement in the most effective area and construction by the lowest cost method is critical to achieving a low cost alternative. These costs dictate the design of a permeable treatment wall, including selection of a variety of alternatives (e.g., a continuous wall versus a funnel and gate system, fully penetrating gates versus partially penetrating gates, etc.). Selection of the appropriate construction methods and materials for the site can reduce the overall cost of the wall

  3. Validation of generic cost estimates for construction-related activities at nuclear power plants: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, G.; Sciacca, F.; Claiborne, E.; Watlington, B.; Riordan, B.; McLaughlin, M.

    1988-05-01

    This report represents a validation study of the cost methodologies and quantitative factors derived in Labor Productivity Adjustment Factors and Generic Methodology for Estimating the Labor Cost Associated with the Removal of Hardware, Materials, and Structures From Nuclear Power Plants. This cost methodology was developed to support NRC analysts in determining generic estimates of removal, installation, and total labor costs for construction-related activities at nuclear generating stations. In addition to the validation discussion, this report reviews the generic cost analysis methodology employed. It also discusses each of the individual cost factors used in estimating the costs of physical modifications at nuclear power plants. The generic estimating approach presented uses the /open quotes/greenfield/close quotes/ or new plant construction installation costs compiled in the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) as a baseline. These baseline costs are then adjusted to account for labor productivity, radiation fields, learning curve effects, and impacts on ancillary systems or components. For comparisons of estimated vs actual labor costs, approximately four dozen actual cost data points (as reported by 14 nuclear utilities) were obtained. Detailed background information was collected on each individual data point to give the best understanding possible so that the labor productivity factors, removal factors, etc., could judiciously be chosen. This study concludes that cost estimates that are typically within 40% of the actual values can be generated by prudently using the methodologies and cost factors investigated herein

  4. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  5. An analysis of decommissioning costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teunckens, L.; Loeschhorn, U.; Yanagihara, S.; Wren, G.; Menon, S.

    1992-01-01

    Within the OECD/NEA Cooperative Programme on Decommissioning a Task Group was set up early in 1989 to identify the reasons for the large variations in decommissioning cost estimates. The Task Group gathered cost data from 12 of the 14 projects in the Programme to form the basis of their analysis. They included reactors being decommissioned to various stages as well as fuel cycle facilities. The projects were divided into groups of projects with similar characteristics ('models') to facilitate the analysis of the cost distribution in each group of projects and the cost data was progressively refined by a dialogue between the Task Group and the project managers. A comparative analysis was then performed and project specific discrepancies were identified. The Task Group's report is summarized on the results of the comparative analysis as well as the lessons learnt by the Task Group in the acquisition and analysis of cost data from international decommissioning projects. (author) 5 tabs

  6. Construction QA/QC systems: comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willenbrock, J.H.; Shepard, S.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis which compares the quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) systems adopted in the highway, nuclear power plant, and U.S. Navy construction areas with the traditional quality control approach used in building construction is presented. Full participation and support by the owner as well as the contractor and AE firm are required if a QA/QC system is to succeed. Process quality control, acceptance testing and quality assurance responsibilities must be clearly defined in the contract documents. The owner must audit these responsibilities. A contractor quality control plan, indicating the tasks which will be performed and the fact that QA/QC personnel are independent of project time/cost pressures should be submitted for approval. The architect must develop realistic specifications which consider the natural variability of material. Acceptance criteria based on the random sampling technique should be used. 27 refs

  7. Trend-Analysis and Research Direction in Construction Management Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    Planning and scheduling, both in the form of pre-assembly construction as well as increase in cost and time are all themes that haven’t been studies in a trend-analysis, with the purpose of finding gaps and research directions in the literature. The aim of this paper is therefor to analyze...... of Construction Engineering and Management....

  8. Modeling of Construction Cost of Villas in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Mohsin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a model for estimating construction cost of villas is presented. The model takes into account four major factors affecting villa's cost, namely: built up area, number of toilets, number of bedrooms and the number of stories. A field survey was conducted to collect information required for such model using data collection form designed by the researchers. Information about 150 villas was collected from six well experienced consultants in the field of villa design and supervision in Oman. Collected data was analyzed to develop suggested model which consists of two main levels of estimate. The first level is at the conceptual design stage where the client presents his/her need of space and basic information about the available plot for construction. The second level of cost estimation is carried out after the preliminary design stage where the client has to decide on the finishes and type of structure. At the second level of estimation, the client should be able to decide whether to precede for construction or not, according to his/her budget. The model is general and can be used anywhere and was validated for accepted degree of confidence using the actual cost of the 112 executed villa projects in Oman. The villas included in this study were owned by clients from both high and low income brackets and had different types of finishing material. The developed equations showed good correlation between the selected variables and the actual cost with R2  = 0.79 in the case of conceptual estimate and R2  = 0.601 for preliminary estimate.

  9. Chapter 17. Engineering cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbee, Charles V.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, life cycle costing (LCC) was adopted by the federal government. LCC is a method of evaluating all the costs associated with acquisition, construction and operation of a project. LCC was designed to minimize costs of major projects, not only in consideration of acquisition and construction, but especially to emphasize the reduction of operation and maintenance costs during the project life. Authors of engineering economics texts have been very reluctant and painfully slow to explain and deal with LCC. Many authors devote less than one page to the subject. The reason for this is that LCC has several major drawbacks. The first of these is that costs over the life of the project must be estimated based on some forecast, and forecasts have proven to be highly variable and frequently inaccurate. The second problem with LCC is that some life span must be selected over which to evaluate the project, and many projects, especially renewable energy projects, are expected to have an unlimited life (they are expected to live for ever). The longer the life cycle, the more inaccurate annual costs become because of the inability to forecast accurately.

  10. Cost analysis of light water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooz, W.E.

    1978-06-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the capital costs of light water reactor (LWR) electrical power plants. The objective is twofold: to determine what factors are statistically related to capital costs and to produce a methodology for estimating these costs. The analysis in the study is based on the time and cost data that are available on U.S. nuclear power plants. Out of a total of about 60 operating plants, useful capital-cost data were available on only 39 plants. In addition, construction-time data were available on about 65 plants, and data on completed construction permit applications were available for about 132 plants. The cost data were first systematically adjusted to constant dollars. Then multivariate regression analyses were performed by using independent variables consisting of various physical and locational characteristics of the plants. The dependent variables analyzed were the time required to obtain a construction permit, the construction time, and the capital cost

  11. Life cycle cost analysis rehabilitation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluates data from CDOTs Cost Data books and Pavement Management Program. Cost : indices were used to normalize project data to year 2014. Data analyzed in the study was obtained from : the CDOTs Cost Data books and the Pavement Man...

  12. Evaluation of pavement life cycle cost analysis: Review and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Babashamsi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The cost of road construction consists of design expenses, material extraction, construction equipment, maintenance and rehabilitation strategies, and operations over the entire service life. An economic analysis process known as Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA is used to evaluate the cost-efficiency of alternatives based on the Net Present Value (NPV concept. It is essential to evaluate the above-mentioned cost aspects in order to obtain optimum pavement life-cycle costs. However, pavement managers are often unable to consider each important element that may be required for performing future maintenance tasks. Over the last few decades, several approaches have been developed by agencies and institutions for pavement Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA. While the transportation community has increasingly been utilising LCCA as an essential practice, several organisations have even designed computer programs for their LCCA approaches in order to assist with the analysis. Current LCCA methods are analysed and LCCA software is introduced in this article. Subsequently, a list of economic indicators is provided along with their substantial components. Collecting previous literature will help highlight and study the weakest aspects so as to mitigate the shortcomings of existing LCCA methods and processes. LCCA research will become more robust if improvements are made, facilitating private industries and government agencies to accomplish their economic aims. Keywords: Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA, Pavement management, LCCA software, Net Present Value (NPV

  13. Cost effectiveness of DH-network construction. Final report; Kaukolaempoeverkon rakentamisen kehittaeminen; Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivistoe, V.M. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland)

    1993-12-31

    Construction cost of DH networks were analyzed in the study. Basing on the analysis, those areas of construction activities were selected, where cost effectiveness could be improved. According to the study, the civil works` cost form about half of the total construction cost on small diameter networks and 30..40 % of the cost of larger sizes. The impact of the design on the construction cost should be emphasized. According to the study it is possible to find significant reduction in the construction cost by increased use of twin pipe where the both carrier pipes are included in the same insulation casing. In small network sizes the reduction of cost achievable by the above is about 30..35 % and in larger sizes about 10 % (DN 125..DN 200) when comparing with a design by individual pipes. The use of twin pipe also causes savings in thermal loss. In sizes DN 65 and up, the saving in heat loss is about 90..95 FIM/m which represents about half of the total savings when compared with design by individual pipes. The possibility of prestressing the twin pipe element at factory in order to shorten the installation time at site was also studied and test pipes was also done. By factory prestressing it would be possible to avoid preheating of pipes at construction site. The trench could be backfilled immediately after pipe laying, welding and inspections. Theoretically and based on test pipes done the prestressing of twin pipe element looks very promising. When factory prestressing would be used, the open time of the trench is reduced significantly and for instance the disturbance to traffic is smaller. As well the use of labour and machinery at site could be more effective

  14. Probabilistic prediction of expected ground condition and construction time and costs in road tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoodzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground condition and construction (excavation and support time and costs are the key factors in decision-making during planning and design phases of a tunnel project. An innovative methodology for probabilistic estimation of ground condition and construction time and costs is proposed, which is an integration of the ground prediction approach based on Markov process, and the time and cost variance analysis based on Monte-Carlo (MC simulation. The former provides the probabilistic description of ground classification along tunnel alignment according to the geological information revealed from geological profile and boreholes. The latter provides the probabilistic description of the expected construction time and costs for each operation according to the survey feedbacks from experts. Then an engineering application to Hamro tunnel is presented to demonstrate how the ground condition and the construction time and costs are estimated in a probabilistic way. In most items, in order to estimate the data needed for this methodology, a number of questionnaires are distributed among the tunneling experts and finally the mean values of the respondents are applied. These facilitate both the owners and the contractors to be aware of the risk that they should carry before construction, and are useful for both tendering and bidding.

  15. Combinatorial designs constructions and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stinson, Douglas R

    2004-01-01

    Created to teach students many of the most important techniques used for constructing combinatorial designs, this is an ideal textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in combinatorial design theory. The text features clear explanations of basic designs, such as Steiner and Kirkman triple systems, mutual orthogonal Latin squares, finite projective and affine planes, and Steiner quadruple systems. In these settings, the student will master various construction techniques, both classic and modern, and will be well-prepared to construct a vast array of combinatorial designs. Design theory offers a progressive approach to the subject, with carefully ordered results. It begins with simple constructions that gradually increase in complexity. Each design has a construction that contains new ideas or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas previously introduced. A new text/reference covering all apsects of modern combinatorial design theory. Graduates and professionals in computer science, applie...

  16. PPICA, Power Plant Investment Cost Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This software package contains two modules: - CAPITAL1 calculates investment costs from overnight costs, based on the capital structure of the utility (debt/equity ratio), return and interest rates according to the type of securities involved, and a standard-shaped curve of capital outlays during construction of a power plant. - FCRATE1 calculates the year-by-year revenue requirements to cover the capital-related charges incurred by the new investment and their economic equivalent: the levelled fixed-charge rate and capital contribution to the levelled unit power generation cost per kWh. They are proposed as an alternative to the corresponding modules CAPITAL and FCRATE, included in the LPGC (Levelled Power Generation Cost) suite of codes developed by ORNL and US-DOE. They perform the same type of analysis and provide the same results. 2 - Methods: Results output from CAPITAL1, in terms of the initial investment at startup and the fraction thereof that is allowable for tax depreciation, can be transferred automatically as data input to FCRATE1. Other user-defined data are: the project life, the time horizon of the economic analysis (which does not necessarily coincide with the project life), the plant load factor (lifetime average), the tax rate applicable to utility's income, the tax depreciation scheme and the tax charge accounting method (normalised or flow- through). The results of CAPITAL1 and FCRATE1 are expressed both in current money and in constant money of a reference year. Inflation rate and escalation rate of construction expenditures during construction period, and of fixed charges during service life are defined by the user. The discount rate is set automatically by the programme, equal to the weighted average tax-adjusted cost of money. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: CAPITAL1 and FCRATE1 are 'alternatives', not 'substitutes', to the corresponding programs CAPITAL and FCRATE of the LPGC

  17. Payroll costs not identified by phase in construction work done with no third subcontracted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Antonio González Franco

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Social Insurance Regulations applicable to the construction companies with regard to meeting high work requires the owner to generate high for each construction phase and thus to check the amounts of materials, machinery and equipment, as well as labor applied at the same stage, all in order to validate that it complies 100% with the payment of worker-employer contributions by the employer, guidelines in the specific case of SMEs practice becomes more complex, controls as these companies have no proof phased costs in two areas in particular, as are exercised costs of materials and workmanship for housing, which is why this research aims to solve the problem of generating clear guidelines to comply with the verification of payment of contributions in the field of labor when it is exerciseddirectly, and through the application of direct interviews and questionnaires to the units of analysis consists of businessmen, representatives, directors or business accountants SMEs construction, staff of the National Chamber of construction Industry and the Mexican Social Security Institute head of the Department of construction, who will answer questions the same instrument provides, and with this it was determined that in fact the perception of these SMEs is required to leave a standard criterion for testing and would be more appropriate apportionment of costs proportionately based on hire dates and termination dates of the work keeping track of costs identifying overall, leaving an identification number in the working papers for further review by the authority.

  18. Extensive analysis of hydrogen costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guinea, D M; Martin, D; Garcia-Alegre, M C; Guinea, D [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Arganda, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Automatica Industrial; Agila, W E [Acciona Infraestructuras, Alcobendas, Madrid (Spain). Dept. I+D+i

    2010-07-01

    Cost is a key issue in the spreading of any technology. In this work, the cost of hydrogen is analyzed and determined, for hydrogen obtained by electrolysis. Different contributing partial costs are taken into account to calculate the hydrogen final cost, such as energy and electrolyzers taxes. Energy cost data is taken from official URLs, while electrolyzer costs are obtained from commercial companies. The analysis is accomplished under different hypothesis, and for different countries: Germany, France, Austria, Switzerland, Spain and the Canadian region of Ontario. Finally, the obtained costs are compared to those of the most used fossil fuels, both in the automotive industry (gasoline and diesel) and in the residential sector (butane, coal, town gas and wood), and the possibilities of hydrogen competing against fuels are discussed. According to this work, in the automotive industry, even neglecting subsidies, hydrogen can compete with fossil fuels. Hydrogen can also compete with gaseous domestic fuels. Electrolyzer prices were found to have the highest influence on hydrogen prices. (orig.)

  19. Discourse Analysis and Social Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of social constructivism as a general movement and how it has been applied in particular to scientific knowledge precedes a review of investigations into the role language and linguistic activities have in the social construction of knowledge. A 39-citation unannotated bibliography is included. (CB)

  20. Costs of construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants - determinant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R.A. da

    1981-01-01

    A study about the construction costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant, including direct costs, equipment costs, installation and indirect costs such as: engineering, job-training and administration is presented. The operation and maintenance costs of the Angra-1 nuclear power plant and costs of energy generation are still studied. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Evaluation of ways and procedures to reduce construction cost and increase competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Construction cost inflation is affecting many state highway agencies including the Texas Department of : Transportation While some of this increase can be attributed to factors such as soaring cost of energy, : reports of large variations in cost of ...

  2. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  3. Modularized construction, structural design and analysis of CANDU 3 plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, J K; Wollin, S; Selvadurai, S; Saudy, A M [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    CANDU 3 is rated at 450 MW electric, and is a smaller and advanced version of CANDU reactors successfully operating in Canada and abroad. The design uses modularization to minimize the construction schedule and thereby reduce cost. The paper (which is published only as a long summary), deals with the concept of modularization, and with stress analysis of the various civil structures.

  4. Modularized construction, structural design and analysis of CANDU 3 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, J.K.; Wollin, S.; Selvadurai, S.; Saudy, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    CANDU 3 is rated at 450 MW electric, and is a smaller and advanced version of CANDU reactors successfully operating in Canada and abroad. The design uses modularization to minimize the construction schedule and thereby reduce cost. The paper (which is published only as a long summary), deals with the concept of modularization, and with stress analysis of the various civil structures

  5. Ecological network analysis: network construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fath, B.D.; Scharler, U.M.; Ulanowicz, R.E.; Hannon, B.

    2007-01-01

    Ecological network analysis (ENA) is a systems-oriented methodology to analyze within system interactions used to identify holistic properties that are otherwise not evident from the direct observations. Like any analysis technique, the accuracy of the results is as good as the data available, but

  6. Comparative evaluation of low cost materials as constructed wetland filling media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Henrique J. O.; Vaz, Mafalda M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.

    2017-11-01

    Three waste materials from civil construction activities were assessed as low cost alternative filling materials used in Constructed Wetlands (CW). CW are green processes for wastewater treatment, whose design includes an appropriate selection of vegetation and filling material. The sustainability of such processes may be incremented using recovered wastes as filling materials. The abilities of the materials to support plant growth and to contribute to pollutants removal from wastewater were assessed and compared to expanded clay, a filling usually used in CW design. Statistical analysis, using one-way ANOVA and Welch's ANOVA, demonstrate that limestone fragments are a better choice of filling material than brick fragments and basalt gravel.

  7. Bypassing BDD Construction for Reliability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Poul Frederick; Nikolskaia, Macha; Rauzy, Antoine

    2000-01-01

    In this note, we propose a Boolean Expression Diagram (BED)-based algorithm to compute the minimal p-cuts of boolean reliability models such as fault trees. BEDs make it possible to bypass the Binary Decision Diagram (BDD) construction, which is the main cost of fault tree assessment....

  8. Synthesis on construction unit cost development : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Availability of historical unit cost data is an important factor in developing accurate project cost estimates. : State highway agencies (SHAs) collect data on historical bids and/or production rates, crew sizes and mixes, : material costs, and equip...

  9. Self construction in schizophrenia: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Trudy; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002) employ a dialogical theory of self in their writings on self disruption in schizophrenia. It is argued here that this theory could be enriched by incorporating a discursive and social constructionist model of self. Harr's model enables researchers to use subject positions to identify self construction in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia that the dialogical model, using analysis of narrative, does not as easily recognize. The paper presents a discourse analysis of self construction in eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews are analysed, wherein focus falls on how participants construct self in talk through the use of subject positioning. The findings indicate that Harr's theory of self and the implied method of discourse analysis enables more subtle and nuanced constructions of self to be identified than those highlighted by Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002). The analysis of subject positions revealed that participants constructed self in the form of Harr's (The singular self: An introduction to the psychology of personhood, 1998, London: Sage) self1, self2, and self3. The findings suggest that there may be constructions of self used by people diagnosed with schizophrenia that are not recognized by the current research methods focusing on narrative. The paper argues for the recognition of these constructions and by implication a model of self that takes into account different levels of visibility of self construction in talk.

  10. Lectures on constructive mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kushner, B A

    1984-01-01

    The basis of this book was a special course given by the author at the Mechanics-Mathematics Faculty of Moscow University. The material presumes almost no previous knowledge and is completely understandable to a reader who is in command of a standard course of mathematical analysis. There are an extensive bibliography and indexes which will be helpful to students.

  11. Construction cost impacts related to manpower, material, and equipment factors in contractor firms perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husin, Saiful; Abdullah, Riza, Medyan; Afifuddin, Mochammad

    2017-11-01

    Risk can be defined as consequences which possible happened inscrutably. Although an activity has planned as good as possible, but it keep contains uncertainty. Implementation of construction project was encountering various risk impacts from a number of risk factors. This study was intended to analyze the impacts of construction cost to for contractor firms as construction project executor related to the factors of manpower, material and equipment. The study was using data obtained from questionnaires distributed to 15 large qualification contractor firms. The period of study classified into conflict period (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction period (2005-2009), and post rehabilitation and reconstruction period (2010-present). The statistical analysis of severity index and variance used to analyze the data. The three risk factors reviewed generally affected the cost in a medium impact. The high impact occurred in minor variables, which are `increase in material prices', `theft of materials', and `the fuel scarcity'. In overall, the three risk factors and the observed period contributed significant impact on construction costs.

  12. 19 CFR 351.407 - Calculation of constructed value and cost of production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.407 Calculation of constructed value and cost of production. (a) Introduction. This... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of constructed value and cost of...

  13. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartikainen, T.

    1995-12-31

    In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced. A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object. Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown. A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. (author)

  14. Prevailing Wage Regulations and School Construction Costs: Evidence from British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilginsoy, Cihan; Philips, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Examines effects of prevailing wage laws on school construction costs, using final cost data from six British Columbia school districts. When controlling for factors such as construction business cycle, number of competitors, and school type, there was no significant unit cost change following the Skill Development and Fair Wage Policy Act.…

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF AN ENTITY FROM CONSTRUCTION SECTOR USING DASHBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN BRICIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper deals with the analysis of performances of economic entities from the construction sector from Romania. The necessary data for preparation and analysis up through dashboard of the economic entity are provided by managerial accounting through Target Costing method. The way of implementing and observing of stages which are completed in managerial accounting through Target Costing method are also presented in the paper based on the existing literature. For data analysis it was used a questionnaire based on three questions whose results were analyzed and which formed the basis of our entire course of scientific approach. The paper ends with the authors' conclusions about the performance analysis of economic entities in a construction project using dashboard showing the benefits of its long-term decisions.

  16. Theoretical framework of the causes of construction time and cost overruns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, K.; Abdullah, A. H.; Nagapan, S.; Suhoo, S.; Khan, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Any construction practitioner fundamental goal is to complete the projects within estimated duration and budgets, and expected quality targets. However, time and cost overruns are regular and universal phenomenon in construction projects and the construction projects in Malaysia has no exemption from the problems of time overrun and cost overrun. In order to accomplish the successful completion of construction projects on specified time and within planned cost, there are various factors that should be given serious attention so that issues such as time and cost overrun can be addressed. This paper aims to construct a framework for the causes of time overrun and cost overrun in construction projects of Malaysia. Based on the relevant literature review, causative factors of time overrun and cost overrun in Malaysian construction projects are summarized and the theoretical frameworks of the causes of construction time overrun and cost overrun is constructed. The developed frameworks for construction time and cost overruns based on the existing literature will assist the construction practitioners to plan the efficient approaches for achieving successful completion of the projects.

  17. Analysis of Air Force Wartime Contracted Construction Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    KPIs ) identified in current literature. Chan’s meta-analysis of KPIs found that time and cost are the primary objective indicators of a successful...Smith, Currie & Hancock, 2009). 46 Key performance indicators ( KPI ) were also used as input factors to analyze differences between contracts...Chan, et al. (2002) performed a meta-analysis of KPIs , as determined by construction researchers. They found that the most predictive performance

  18. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiveness of innovation project by providing cost-management services at all stages of investment project, identifying opportunities for reducing them, thereby contributing to sustainable development of construction organization over time. It has been concluded that the more specific the program of activities of construction organization, the more accurate the process of identification of costs becomes, the more efficient is the management of costs, targeted at saving resources, reducing the self cost of construction works.

  19. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  20. National Variation in Urethroplasty Cost and Predictors of Extreme Cost: A Cost Analysis with Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Catherine R.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Sanford, Thomas; Alwaal, Amjad; Gaither, Thomas W.; McAninch, Jack W.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    To determine which factors are associated with higher costs of urethroplasty procedure and whether these factors have been increasing over time. Identification of determinants of extreme costs may help reduce cost while maintaining quality.We conducted a retrospective analysis using the 2001-2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The HCUP-NIS captures hospital charges which we converted to cost using the HCUP cost-to-charge ratio. Log cost linear ...

  1. Assessing the costs attributed to project delay during project pre-construction stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This project for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) developed a simple but sound : methodology for estimating the cost of delaying most types of highway projects. Researchers considered the : cost of delays during the pre-construction pha...

  2. User costs as one of main advantages of precast concrete application in highway construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Radan

    2017-09-01

    Road user cost primarily refer to the monetized components of road (re)construction impacts, such as the user delay costs, vehicle operating costs, crash costs and emission costs. Objective of this paper is to analyze and appraise the advantages and benefits of the innovative prefabrication approach in contrast to traditional cast-in-place construction method. The goal is to reduce these additional costs borne by motorists and the community at-large as a result of road construction activity to their minimum through application of the prefabrication. Assessing two basic possible approaches to highway infrastructure construction - casting the road pavements and structures either in place or precast off the site - it can be concluded that the initial capital investment costs do not vary much. Substantial differences can be recognized when comparing their life-cycle costs and an extent to which their construction process affects the public, environment and the local economy. Prefabrication of any structure component off-site offers major construction time and user cost savings in comparison with the traditional cast-in-place methods of construction. Precast prestressed road pavements’ technology and precasting bridges’ parts and elements offers dramatic increase in durability, while it also substantially decreases construction time and resulting user costs.

  3. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ming; Wu, Guangdong

    2014-01-01

    Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illus...

  4. Stochastic cost estimating in repository life-cycle cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzemos, S.; Dippold, D.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual development, the design, and the final construction and operation of a nuclear repository span many decades. Given this lengthy time frame, it is quite challenging to obtain a good approximation of the repository life-cycle cost. One can deal with this challenge by using an analytic method, the method of moments, to explicitly assess the uncertainty of the estimate. A series expansion is used to approximate the uncertainty distribution of the cost estimate. In this paper, the moment methodology is derived and is illustrated through a numerical example. The range of validity of the approximation is discussed. The method of moments is compared to the traditional stochastic cost estimating methods and found to provide more and better information on cost uncertainty. The tow methods converge to identical results as the number of convolved variables increases and approaches the range where the central limit theorem is valid

  5. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  6. Attack Graph Construction for Security Events Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Alexeevich Chechulin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to investigation of the attack graphs construction and analysis task for a network security evaluation and real-time security event processing. Main object of this research is the attack modeling process. The paper contains the description of attack graphs building, modifying and analysis technique as well as overview of implemented prototype for network security analysis based on attack graph approach.

  7. Cost Indexing and Unit Price Adjustments for Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    This project was focused on the assimilation of information regarding unit price adjustment clauses, or PACs, : that are offered for construction materials at the state Departments of Transportation (DOTs). It is intended to : provide the South Carol...

  8. Cost effectiveness analysis in radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Ducloux, T.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the cost effectiveness of radiopharmaceuticals and their quality control. Materials and methods: this retrospective study was made in the Nuclear Medicine Department of the University Hospital of Limoges. Radiopharmaceutical costs were obtained with adding the price of the radiotracer, the materials, the equipments, the labour, the running expenses and the radioisotope. The costs of quality control were obtained with adding the price of labour, materials, equipments, running expenses and the cost of the quality control of 99m Tc eluate. Results: during 1998, 2106 radiopharmaceuticals were prepared in the Nuclear Medicine Department. The mean cost effectiveness of radiopharmaceutical was 1430 francs (846 to 4260). The mean cost effectiveness of quality control was 163 francs (84 to 343). The rise of the radiopharmaceutical cost induced by quality control was 11%. Conclusion: the technical methodology of quality control must be mastered to optimize the cost of this operation. (author)

  9. The Causes and Costs of Modifications to Military Construction Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    issue of contract modifications in federal construction. The first was written by Henry J. Turowski at the Naval Postgraduate 3chool in Monterrey and...Postgraduate School, Monterrey , December 1980). 12. Henry J. Rowland, "The Causes and Effects of Change Orders on the Construction Process", (Master’s thesis...The creation of a separate review cell does not imply completely divorcing review from design. These functions are closely intertwined. The review

  10. Cost analysis of reliability investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1981-01-01

    Taking Epsteins testing theory as a basis, premisses are formulated for the selection of cost-optimized reliability inspection plans. Using an example, the expected testing costs and inspection time periods of various inspection plan types, standardized on the basis of the exponential distribution, are compared. It can be shown that sequential reliability tests usually involve lower costs than failure or time-fixed tests. The most 'costly' test is to be expected with the inspection plan type NOt. (orig.) [de

  11. Cost Risk Analysis Based on Perception of the Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Wood, Darrell A.; Moore, Arlene A.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    In most cost estimating applications at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), it is desirable to present predicted cost as a range of possible costs rather than a single predicted cost. A cost risk analysis generates a range of cost for a project and assigns a probability level to each cost value in the range. Constructing a cost risk curve requires a good estimate of the expected cost of a project. It must also include a good estimate of expected variance of the cost. Many cost risk analyses are based upon an expert's knowledge of the cost of similar projects in the past. In a common scenario, a manager or engineer, asked to estimate the cost of a project in his area of expertise, will gather historical cost data from a similar completed project. The cost of the completed project is adjusted using the perceived technical and economic differences between the two projects. This allows errors from at least three sources. The historical cost data may be in error by some unknown amount. The managers' evaluation of the new project and its similarity to the old project may be in error. The factors used to adjust the cost of the old project may not correctly reflect the differences. Some risk analyses are based on untested hypotheses about the form of the statistical distribution that underlies the distribution of possible cost. The usual problem is not just to come up with an estimate of the cost of a project, but to predict the range of values into which the cost may fall and with what level of confidence the prediction is made. Risk analysis techniques that assume the shape of the underlying cost distribution and derive the risk curve from a single estimate plus and minus some amount usually fail to take into account the actual magnitude of the uncertainty in cost due to technical factors in the project itself. This paper addresses a cost risk method that is based on parametric estimates of the technical factors involved in the project being costed. The engineering

  12. Capital Cost Optimization for Prefabrication: A Factor Analysis Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High capital cost is a significant hindrance to the promotion of prefabrication. In order to optimize cost management and reduce capital cost, this study aims to explore the latent factors and factor analysis evaluation model. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore potential variables and then questionnaire survey was employed to collect professionals’ views on their effects. After data collection, exploratory factor analysis was adopted to explore the latent factors. Seven latent factors were identified, including “Management Index”, “Construction Dissipation Index”, “Productivity Index”, “Design Efficiency Index”, “Transport Dissipation Index”, “Material increment Index” and “Depreciation amortization Index”. With these latent factors, a factor analysis evaluation model (FAEM, divided into factor analysis model (FAM and comprehensive evaluation model (CEM, was established. The FAM was used to explore the effect of observed variables on the high capital cost of prefabrication, while the CEM was used to evaluate comprehensive cost management level on prefabrication projects. Case studies were conducted to verify the models. The results revealed that collaborative management had a positive effect on capital cost of prefabrication. Material increment costs and labor costs had significant impacts on production cost. This study demonstrated the potential of on-site management and standardization design to reduce capital cost. Hence, collaborative management is necessary for cost management of prefabrication. Innovation and detailed design were needed to improve cost performance. The new form of precast component factories can be explored to reduce transportation cost. Meanwhile, targeted strategies can be adopted for different prefabrication projects. The findings optimized the capital cost and improved the cost performance through providing an evaluation and optimization model, which helps managers to

  13. Fast-track, low-cost construction starts with the owner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.

    1992-01-01

    As we approach the threshold of a new round of ordering of base load generating capacity after a 15-year hiatus, power pant owners are taking a long, hard look at construction. The last round of base load construction was plagued with construction cost overruns and delays. Billions of dollars in cost overruns, many attributable to construction delays, were not allowed to be placed in utilities' rate bases. Those problems will not be tolerated in the next round. During the past few years the construction climate has changed. Non-utility power producers have demonstrated and ability to build small power plants-including many steam plants burning solid fuels-quickly and at surprisingly low costs. In this paper the cost-plus approach traditionally taken by more utilities, who will lead in the base-load construction phase, is being seriously questioned

  14. VHTR Construction Ripple Effect using Inter-Industry Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the exact cost due to insufficient reference data and experience. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence. We proposed a ripple effect analysis method using a time series and inter-industry table. As a result, we can predict that a 600MWth x 4 module VHTR reactor construction will bring about a 43771 employment effect, 24160 billion KRW production effect, and 4472 billion added value effect for 22 years. It is necessary to use the sub-account values of an inter-industry table to obtain a more precise effect result. However, the methodology can be applied with minor modification to another reactor type.

  15. VHTR Construction Ripple Effect using Inter-Industry Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. H.; Lee, K. Y.; Shin, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    As a part of a VHTR economic analysis, we have studied the VHTR construction cost and operation and maintenance cost. However, it is somewhat difficult to expect the exact cost due to insufficient reference data and experience. As a result, we propose quantitative analysis techniques for ripple effects such as the production inducement effect, added value inducement effect, and employment inducement effect for VHTR 600MWt x 4 module construction and operation ripple effect based on NOAK. This paper presents a new method for the ripple effect and preliminary ripple effect consequence. We proposed a ripple effect analysis method using a time series and inter-industry table. As a result, we can predict that a 600MWth x 4 module VHTR reactor construction will bring about a 43771 employment effect, 24160 billion KRW production effect, and 4472 billion added value effect for 22 years. It is necessary to use the sub-account values of an inter-industry table to obtain a more precise effect result. However, the methodology can be applied with minor modification to another reactor type.

  16. Effect of construction time, interest rate, and inflation on the capital cost of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, P.S.; Greybeck, E.M.; Omberg, R.P.

    1981-09-01

    Cost estimates for nuclear power plants currently under construction are on the order of four billion dollars. It will be shown, in this paper, that this is a direct consequence of relatively high inflation rates and relatively long construction times. If either inflation rates or construction times, or a combination thereof, should decrease significantly, cost estimates for nuclear power plants could return to approximately two billion dollars

  17. Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2010-01-01

    The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future.......The future use of Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis is discussed in this paper. A more complete analysis including not only the traditional factors and user costs, but also factors which are difficult to include in the analysis is needed in the future....

  18. CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST.

    OpenAIRE

    Trinca, RB; Perles, CE; Volpe, PLO

    2009-01-01

    CONSTRUCTION OF A DIFFERENTIAL ISOTHERMAL CALORIMETER OF HIGH SENSITIVITY AND LOW COST The high cost of sensitivity commercial calorimeters may represent an obstacle for many calorimetric research groups. This work describes (fie construction and calibration of a batch differential heat conduction calorimeter with sample cells volumes of about 400 mu L. The calorimeter was built using two small high sensibility square Peltier thermoelectric sensors and the total cost was estimated to be about...

  19. Planning Costs in Certain Stage of the Life Cycle of Investment Activity of Construction Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Iakymchuk Iryna M.

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses the issues related to planning costs in certain stages of the life-cycle of investment activity of construction organization. It has been specified that cost management based on the life-cycle model of the investment project, which is being implemented by a construction organization, allows for a consistent improvement in the efficiency of the innovation process on the basis of a clear planning, as well as cost forecasting. This approach allows for the long-term effectiv...

  20. A project management quality cost information system for the construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Love, PED; Irani, Z

    2003-01-01

    A prototype Project Management Quality Cost System (PROMQACS) was developed to determine quality costs in construction projects. The structure and information requirements that are needed to provide a classification system of quality costs were identified and discussed. The developed system was tested and implemented in two case study construction projects to determine the information and management issues needed to develop PROMQACS into a software program. In addition, the system was used to...

  1. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for

  2. Department of the Army Cost Analysis Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    .... The specific goal of this manual is to help the cost analyst serve the customer. This is done by providing reference material on cost analysis processes, methods, techniques, structures, and definitions...

  3. Alternative ceramic circuit constructions for low cost, high reliability applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modes, Ch.; O'Neil, M.

    1997-01-01

    The growth in the use of hybrid circuit technology has recently been challenged by recent advances in low cost laminate technology, as well as the continued integration of functions into IC's. Size reduction of hybrid 'packages' has turned out to be a means to extend the useful life of this technology. The suppliers of thick film materials technology have responded to this challenge by developing a number of technology options to reduce circuit size, increase density, and reduce overall cost, while maintaining or increasing reliability. This paper provides an overview of the processes that have been developed, and, in many cases are used widely to produce low cost, reliable microcircuits. Comparisons of each of these circuit fabrication processes are made with a discussion of advantages and disadvantages of each technology. (author)

  4. Design and construction of a low cost 50-watt capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the design and construction of a stand-by mode 50-Watt Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) as an alternative power supply for electrical and electronic appliances from local materials. The development of this UPS system (a system consisting of battery source, inverter, and switching unit) is to provide ...

  5. RECTIFIED ETHANOL PRODUCTION COST ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola J Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of the most important factors of the total production costs in bioethanol production. The most influential factors are: total investment costs, price of raw materials (price of biomass, enzymes, yeast, and energy costs. Taking into account these factors, a procedure for estimation total production costs was establish. In order to gain insight into the relationship of production and selling price of bioethanol, price of bioethanol for some countries of the European Union and the United States are given.

  6. Modern methods of cost saving of the production activity in construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silka, Dmitriy

    2017-10-01

    Every time economy faces recession, cost saving questions acquire increased urgency. This article shows how companies of the construction industry have switched to the new kind of economic relations over recent years. It is specified that the dominant type of economic relations does not allow to quickly reorient on the necessary tools in accordance with new requirements of economic activity. Successful experience in the new environment becomes demanded. Cost saving methods, which were proven in other industries, are offered for achievement of efficiency and competitiveness of the companies. Analysis is performed on the example of the retail sphere, which, according to the authoritative analytical reviews, is extremely innovative on both local and world economic levels. At that, methods, based on the modern unprecedentedly high opportunities of communications and informational exchange took special place among offered methods.

  7. Analysis on optimization of the critical path for civil construction period of Fangjiashan nuclear island constructed under EPC mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yongqing; Wu Youcong; Qiu Jinhong

    2011-01-01

    Based on the actual situation of nuclear island civil construction in Fangjiashan nuclear power plant and combined with the arrangement of the construction schedule, the analysis on optimization of the critical path for civil construction period is conducted. The result shows that on the premise of not increasing the contract price and the total engineering cost based on the original 57-month construction period, the construction period can be shorten to 21 month through strengthening the schedule control, keeping the critical work in a reasonable duration and rearranging the link between programmers. In addition, in view of the economic analysis, if we increase the mechanical engagement and adopt special method, the 2-month construction period can be even shortened to 20 months. (authors)

  8. Risk Consideration and Cost Estimation in Construction Projects Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudius A. Peleskei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects usually involve high investments. It is, therefore, a risky adventure for companies as actual costs of construction projects nearly always exceed the planed scenario. This is due to the various risks and the large uncertainty existing within this industry. Determination and quantification of risks and their impact on project costs within the construction industry is described to be one of the most difficult areas. This paper analyses how the cost of construction projects can be estimated using Monte Carlo Simulation. It investigates if the different cost elements in a construction project follow a specific probability distribution. The research examines the effect of correlation between different project costs on the result of the Monte Carlo Simulation. The paper finds out that Monte Carlo Simulation can be a helpful tool for risk managers and can be used for cost estimation of construction projects. The research has shown that cost distributions are positively skewed and cost elements seem to have some interdependent relationships.

  9. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  10. Investigating outfitting density as a cost driver in submarine construction

    OpenAIRE

    Terwilliger, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Through the Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), the National Shipbuilding Research Program (NSRP) completed a study in 1992 where the NSRP identified the top-level parameters that have an effect on the cost of naval shipbuilding. These parameters, identified in the study Evaluating the Producibility of Ship Design Alternatives, are arrangements, simplicity, material, standardization and fabrication requirements. Since 2011, the Budget...

  11. Measuring coalition functioning: refining constructs through factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    Internal and external coalition functioning is an important predictor of coalition success that has been linked to perceived coalition effectiveness, coalition goal achievement, coalition ability to support evidence-based programs, and coalition sustainability. Understanding which aspects of coalition functioning best predict coalition success requires the development of valid measures of empirically unique coalition functioning constructs. The goal of the present study is to examine and refine the psychometric properties of coalition functioning constructs in the following six domains: leadership, interpersonal relationships, task focus, participation benefits/costs, sustainability planning, and community support. The authors used factor analysis to identify problematic items in our original measure and then piloted new items and scales to create a more robust, psychometrically sound, multidimensional measure of coalition functioning. Scales displayed good construct validity through correlations with other measures. Discussion considers the strengths and weaknesses of the refined instrument.

  12. Robust Optimization for Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are generally subject to uncertainty, which influences the realization of time-cost tradeoff in project management. This paper addresses a time-cost tradeoff problem under uncertainty, in which activities in projects can be executed in different construction modes corresponding to specified time and cost with interval uncertainty. Based on multiobjective robust optimization method, a robust optimization model for time-cost tradeoff problem is developed. In order to illustrate the robust model, nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II is modified to solve the project example. The results show that, by means of adjusting the time and cost robust coefficients, the robust Pareto sets for time-cost tradeoff can be obtained according to different acceptable risk level, from which the decision maker could choose the preferred construction alternative.

  13. Cost-effectiveness Analysis for Technology Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, A; Naware, S S

    2008-01-01

    In a developing country with limited resources, it is important to utilize the total cost visibility approach over the entire life-cycle of the technology and then analyse alternative options for acquiring technology. The present study analysed cost-effectiveness of an "In-house" magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan facility of a large service hospital against outsourcing possibilities. Cost per unit scan was calculated by operating costing method and break-even volume was calculated. Then life-cycle cost analysis was performed to enable total cost visibility of the MRI scan in both "In-house" and "outsourcing of facility" configuration. Finally, cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to identify the more acceptable decision option. Total cost for performing unit MRI scan was found to be Rs 3,875 for scans without contrast and Rs 4,129 with contrast. On life-cycle cost analysis, net present value (NPV) of the "In-house" configuration was found to be Rs-(4,09,06,265) while that of "outsourcing of facility" configuration was Rs-(5,70,23,315). Subsequently, cost-effectiveness analysis across eight Figures of Merit showed the "In-house" facility to be the more acceptable option for the system. Every decision for acquiring high-end technology must be subjected to life-cycle cost analysis.

  14. An analysis of nuclear power plant operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the results of a statistical analysis of nonfuel operating costs for nuclear power plants. Most studies of the economic costs of nuclear power have focused on the rapid escalation in the cost of constructing a nuclear power plant. The present analysis found that there has also been substantial escalation in real (inflation-adjusted) nonfuel operating costs. It is important to determine the factors contributing to the escalation in operating costs, not only to understand what has occurred but also to gain insights about future trends in operating costs. There are two types of nonfuel operating costs. The first is routine operating and maintenance expenditures (O and M costs), and the second is large postoperational capital expenditures, or what is typically called ''capital additions.'' O and M costs consist mainly of expenditures on labor, and according to one recently completed study, the majoriy of employees at a nuclear power plant perform maintenance activities. It is generally thought that capital additions costs consist of large maintenance expenditures needed to keep the plants operational, and to make plant modifications (backfits) required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Many discussions of nuclear power plant operating costs have not considered these capital additions costs, and a major finding of the present study is that these costs are substantial. The objective of this study was to determine why nonfuel operating costs have increased over the past decade. The statistical analysis examined a number of factors that have influenced the escalation in real nonfuel operating costs and these are discussed in this report. 4 figs, 19 tabs

  15. Model reduction by weighted Component Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae H.; Skelton, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Component Cost Analysis considers any given system driven by a white noise process as an interconnection of different components, and assigns a metric called 'component cost' to each component. These component costs measure the contribution of each component to a predefined quadratic cost function. A reduced-order model of the given system may be obtained by deleting those components that have the smallest component costs. The theory of Component Cost Analysis is extended to include finite-bandwidth colored noises. The results also apply when actuators have dynamics of their own. Closed-form analytical expressions of component costs are also derived for a mechanical system described by its modal data. This is very useful to compute the modal costs of very high order systems. A numerical example for MINIMAST system is presented.

  16. Cost analysis methodology of spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report deals with the cost analysis of interim spent fuel storage; however, it is not intended either to give a detailed cost analysis or to compare the costs of the different options. This report provides a methodology for calculating the costs of different options for interim storage of the spent fuel produced in the reactor cores. Different technical features and storage options (dry and wet, away from reactor and at reactor) are considered and the factors affecting all options defined. The major cost categories are analysed. Then the net present value of each option is calculated and the levelized cost determined. Finally, a sensitivity analysis is conducted taking into account the uncertainty in the different cost estimates. Examples of current storage practices in some countries are included in the Appendices, with description of the most relevant technical and economic aspects. 16 figs, 14 tabs

  17. A cost analysis: processing maple syrup products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil K. Huyler; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    A cost analysis of processing maple sap to syrup for three fuel types, oil-, wood-, and LP gas-fired evaporators, indicates that: (1) fuel, capital, and labor are the major cost components of processing sap to syrup; (2) wood-fired evaporators show a slight cost advantage over oil- and LP gas-fired evaporators; however, as the cost of wood approaches $50 per cord, wood...

  18. A cost summary applicable to seismic construction and maintenance of nuclear safety related piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of costs applicable to nuclear power plant piping for an earthquake defined as 0.2 SSE-PGA as a function of three eras of initial construction: 1967--1974, 1974--1981 and 1981--1990. Costs have been presented for both new construction and maintenance in operating plants using both the original PSAR-FSAR design criteria and current SRP requirements. It is recommended that the cost information contained in this report be considered in evaluating the cost benefit relationships associated with current and proposed future changes in seismic design procedures applicable to safety-related piping systems

  19. Management of construction cost contingency covering upside and downside risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Adel Eldosouky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Many contractors are of the opinion that adding contingency funds to the tender price of a project may lead to loss of the tender. This research is a trial to put an end to this incorrect opinion. A more mature attitude to risk would recognize that contingency exists to be spent in order to avoid or minimize threats and to exploit or maximize opportunities. This research proposes an approach for determination and monitoring of Cost Contingency Reserve (CCR for a project. Control of CCR is interfaced with Earned Value Management. Application to a real project is carried out. Post-mitigation simulations show that value of CCR is 2.88% of project cost but there is a potential saving due to opportunities. The project is monitored after eight months from its assumed start date with one assumed emergent risk. The final results are as follows: CCR is enough to cover project current and residual threats and the contractor has a considerable amount of money that will be transferred to his margin at project closure assuming the project will not be exposed to additional emergent risks. A contractor can balance project upside risks and its downsides to increase his chance to win tender of the project.

  20. Iliac crest autograft versus alternative constructs for anterior cervical spine surgery: Pros, cons, and costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Grafting choices available for performing anterior cervical diskectomy/fusion (ACDF) procedures have become a major concern for spinal surgeons, and their institutions. The “gold standard”, iliac crest autograft, may still be the best and least expensive grafting option; it deserves to be reassessed along with the pros, cons, and costs for alternative grafts/spacers. Methods: Although single or multilevel ACDF have utilized iliac crest autograft for decades, the implant industry now offers multiple alternative grafting and spacer devices; (allografts, cages, polyether-etherketone (PEEK) amongst others). While most studies have focused on fusion rates and clinical outcomes following ACDF, few have analyzed the “value-added” of these various constructs (e.g. safety/efficacy, risks/complications, costs). Results: The majority of studies document 95%-100% fusion rates when iliac crest autograft is utilized to perform single level ACDF (X-ray or CT confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months). Although many allograft studies similarly quote 90%-100% fusion rates (X-ray alone confirmed at 6-12 postoperative months), a recent “post hoc analysis of data from a prospective multicenter trial” (Riew KD et. al., CSRS Abstract Dec. 2011; unpublished) revealed a much higher delayed fusion rate using allografts at one year 55.7%, 2 years 87%, and four years 92%. Conclusion: Iliac crest autograft utilized for single or multilevel ACDF is associated with the highest fusion, lowest complication rates, and significantly lower costs compared with allograft, cages, PEEK, or other grafts. As spinal surgeons and institutions become more cost conscious, we will have to account for the “value added” of these increasingly expensive graft constructs. PMID:22905321

  1. Design and construction of a low cost solar simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supranto; Daud, W.R.W.; Sopian, K.; Othman, M.Y.; Yatim, B.

    2000-01-01

    A solar simulator has been designed and constructed for indoor testing for solar collectors. The simulator consists of 45 halogen lamps. Each lamp has a rated power of a 300 watts. The lamps in ten rows where each row consists of 4 to 5 lamps. The lamps occupied area 6 m 2 . Dimmers are used to control the amount of lamp intensities. The spacing between the lamps and the collector is about 150 cm. The intensities of the lamps are measured using a pyranometer. The intensity contours or mappings for minimum and maximum average pyranometer readings about 280 to 640 W/m 2 are produced, with errors are about of 3.16 % to 4.5 %. (Author)

  2. Cost Consideration and a Possible Construction Timeline of the CEPC-SPPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Weiren [Fermilab

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses the cost consideration and a possible construction timeline of the CEPC-SPPC study based on a preliminary conceptual design that is being carried out at the Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) in China.

  3. On information and communication technology and production cost in construction industry: evidence from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vlist, A.J; Vrolijk, M.H.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2014-01-01

    The interplay between information and communication technology (ICT) and the competitiveness of construction firms is considered. More specifically, the question is whether firms that invest in information and communication technology have a production cost advantage. The economics literature

  4. Designing to target cost: one approach to design/construction integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    One approach to a more integrated construction delivery process is the concept of ‘designing to target cost’ of which the first examples of application within a lean construction framework have recently been seen. This paper introduces the main principles of the design to target cost method...... and discusses the applicability of this approach to construction. The low degree of organizational and technical continuity from one construction project to the next limits the applicability of the design for target cost approach when compared to its origin in product development of mass manufactured artefacts....... It can be argued that design to target cost may also provide a frame for developing the supply chain towards better coordination and collaboration. Thus methods of design to target cost may serve to facilitate the development of a more integrated supply chain....

  5. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  6. Cost analysis of in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Z; Laufer, N; Levy, R; Ben-Shushan, D; Mor-Yosef, S

    1995-08-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) has become a routine tool in the arsenal of infertility treatments. Assisted reproductive techniques are expensive, as reflected by the current "take home baby" rate of about 15% per cycle, implying the need for repeated attempts until success is achieved. Israel, today is facing a major change in its health care system, including the necessity to define a national package of health care benefits. The issue of infertility and whether its treatment should be part of the "health basket" is in dispute. Therefore an exact cost analysis of IVF is important. Since the cost of an IVF cycle varies dramatically between countries, we sought an exact breakdown of the different components of the costs involved in an IVF cycle and in achieving an IVF child in Israel. The key question is not how much we spend on IVF cycles but what is the cost of a successful outcome, i.e., a healthy child. This study intends to answer this question, and to give the policy makers, at various levels of the health care system, a crucial tool for their decision-making process. The cost analysis includes direct and indirect costs. The direct costs are divided into fixed costs (labor, equipment, maintenance, depreciation, and overhead) and variable costs (laboratory tests, chemicals, disposable supplies, medications, and loss of working days by the couples). The indirect costs are the costs of premature IVF babies, hospitalization of the IVF pregnant women in a high risk unit, and the cost of complications of the procedure. According to our economic analysis, an IVF cycle in Israel costs $2,560, of which fixed costs are about 50%. The cost of a "take home baby" is $19,267, including direct and indirect costs.

  7. Static analysis of an office desk construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Novotný

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is a static analysis of a desk construction and the determination of its probable mechanical behaviour using Finite Element Method. The construction was modelled and numerically analysed in Autocad Inventor 2011 and the stability of the entire desk was calculated with the size and placement of the loading force based on the standards and cited literature. Possible locations and directions of the deformation were analysed and a solution for its prevention was proposed and the stability of the desk as well as the extreme position of the stand were calculated. The verification of the obtained results in an accredited furniture testing lab is planned using a prototype of the office desk.

  8. Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WÜLFINGEN, 2007. Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current research on metaphor and gender and sketch the central topics of the cognitive theory of metaphor and develop a revision of this theory. It is hoped that this will enhance further research in metaphor analysis concerning the construction of gender. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902167

  9. National Variation in Urethroplasty Cost and Predictors of Extreme Cost: A Cost Analysis With Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Catherine R; Osterberg, E Charles; Sanford, Thomas; Alwaal, Amjad; Gaither, Thomas W; McAninch, Jack W; McCulloch, Charles E; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2016-08-01

    To determine which factors are associated with higher costs of urethroplasty procedure and whether these factors have been increasing over time. Identification of determinants of extreme costs may help reduce cost while maintaining quality. We conducted a retrospective analysis using the 2001-2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The HCUP-NIS captures hospital charges which we converted to cost using the HCUP cost-to-charge ratio. Log cost linear regression with sensitivity analysis was used to determine variables associated with increased costs. Extreme cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of expenditure, analyzed with logistic regression, and expressed as odds ratios (OR). A total of 2298 urethroplasties were recorded in NIS over the study period. The median (interquartile range) calculated cost was $7321 ($5677-$10,000). Patients with multiple comorbid conditions were associated with extreme costs [OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.04, P = .02] compared with patients with no comorbid disease. Inpatient complications raised the odds of extreme costs (OR 3.2, CI 2.14-4.75, P costs (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.2-2.64, P = .005). Variations in patient age, race, hospital region, bed size, teaching status, payor type, and volume of urethroplasty cases were not associated with extremes of cost. Cost variation for perioperative inpatient urethroplasty procedures is dependent on preoperative patient comorbidities, postoperative complications, and surgical complexity related to graft usage. Procedural cost and cost variation are critical for understanding which aspects of care have the greatest impact on cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. ANN Based Approach for Estimation of Construction Costs of Sports Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Juszczyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimates are essential for the success of construction projects. Neural networks, as the tools of artificial intelligence, offer a significant potential in this field. Applying neural networks, however, requires respective studies due to the specifics of different kinds of facilities. This paper presents the proposal of an approach to the estimation of construction costs of sports fields which is based on neural networks. The general applicability of artificial neural networks in the formulated problem with cost estimation is investigated. An applicability of multilayer perceptron networks is confirmed by the results of the initial training of a set of various artificial neural networks. Moreover, one network was tailored for mapping a relationship between the total cost of construction works and the selected cost predictors which are characteristic of sports fields. Its prediction quality and accuracy were assessed positively. The research results legitimatize the proposed approach.

  11. Model of investment appraisal of high-rise construction with account of cost of land resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolelova, Ella; Shibaeva, Marina; Trukhina, Natalya

    2018-03-01

    The article considers problems and potential of high-rise construction as a global urbanization. The results of theoretical and practical studies on the appraisal of investments in high-rise construction are provided. High-rise construction has a number of apparent upsides in modern terms of development of megapolises and primarily it is economically efficient. Amid serious lack of construction sites, skyscrapers successfully deal with the need of manufacturing, office and living premises. Nevertheless, there are plenty issues, which are related with high-rise construction, and only thorough scrutiny of them allow to estimate the real economic efficiency of this branch. The article focuses on the question of economic efficiency of high-rise construction. The suggested model allows adjusting the parameters of a facility under construction, setting the tone for market value as well as the coefficient for appreciation of the construction net cost, that depends on the number of storey's, in the form of function or discrete values.

  12. Design, construction and testing of a low-cost flat plate solar energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A low-cost flat plate solar energy collector has been designed and constructed with locally available materials such as mild steel and black paint of absorptance 0.94. On testing, an average daily efficiency of 55.6% was obtained. The methods are simple and illustrate the fact that construction of efficient collectors are ...

  13. A managerial accounting analysis of hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, W G

    1976-01-01

    Variance analysis, an accounting technique, is applied to an eight-component model of hospital costs to determine the contribution each component makes to cost increases. The method is illustrated by application to data on total costs from 1950 to 1973 for all U.S. nongovernmental not-for-profit short-term general hospitals. The costs of a single hospital are analyzed and compared to the group costs. The potential uses and limitations of the method as a planning and research tool are discussed.

  14. Monitoring and Controlling Engineering and Construction Management Cost Performance Within the Corps of Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    COST MANAGEMENT The CMIF approach addresses total costs but does not permit the analysis of indirect costs. We found that indirect costs vary...responsibility USACE/divisions Increasing CMIF Districts/divisions level of by fund type detail G&A, technical indirect, burden Districts by fund type

  15. Investor's experience with keeping fixed costs during the construction of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, P.

    1990-01-01

    The introduction of fixed costs in the construction of the Temelin nuclear power plant should secure stabilization of budget cost and prevent its increase. The differences between the fixed costs method and the procedure used so far are briefly described. The introduction of fixed costs was to be followed by the corresponding legal regulations; however, the legal adjustment has not been carried out in the desired completeness. The reason is the difference in understanding the notion of fixed costs by the investor, the contractor and the designer. Another problem is the difference in the level and the detail of the initial project design and of the Soviet implementation designs. The investor believes that the introduction of fixed costs has not yet met with the desired response by organizations participating in the construction. (J.P.)

  16. FACTORS AFFECTING COST PERFORMANCE IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS WITHIN KELANTAN STATE IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    ABDELNASER OMRAN; SITI NORHYDAYATON BINTI MAMAT

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the factors affecting cost performance of construction projects in Kelantan State located in the east-coast part of Malaysia. It draws on relevant previous research in the theory of work on cost performance. Thirty-three contractors companies with different working grades in the state of Kelantan were participated in the study. Data were collected from the contractors using a questionnaire survey. The results indicated that the success factors affecting the cost perfor...

  17. The System Cost Model: A tool for life cycle cost and risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, K.; Lundeen, A.; Shropshire, D.; Sherick, M.

    1996-01-01

    In May of 1994, Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) in Idaho Falls, Idaho and subcontractors began development of the System Cost Model (SCM) application. The SCM estimates life cycle costs of the entire US Department of Energy (DOE) complex for designing; constructing; operating; and decommissioning treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) facilities for mixed low-level, low-level, and transuranic waste. The SCM uses parametric cost functions to estimate life cycle costs for various treatment, storage, and disposal modules which reflect planned and existing waste management facilities at DOE installations. In addition, SCM can model new TSD facilities based on capacity needs over the program life cycle. The user can provide input data (default data is included in the SCM) including the volume and nature of waste to be managed, the time period over which the waste is to be managed, and the configuration of the waste management complex (i.e., where each installation's generated waste will be treated, stored, and disposed). Then the SCM uses parametric cost equations to estimate the costs of pre-operations (designing), construction, operations and maintenance, and decommissioning these waste management facilities. The SCM also provides transportation costs for DOE wastes. Transportation costs are provided for truck and rail and include transport of contact-handled, remote-handled, and alpha (transuranic) wastes. A complement to the SCM is the System Cost Model-Risk (SCM-R) model, which provides relative Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES and H) risk information. A relative ES and H risk basis has been developed and applied by LITCO at the INEL. The risk basis is now being automated in the SCM-R to facilitate rapid risk analysis of system alternatives. The added risk functionality will allow combined cost and risk evaluation of EM alternatives

  18. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  19. FORECAST: Regulatory effects cost analysis software annual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, B.; Sciacca, F.W.

    1991-11-01

    Over the past several years the NRC has developed a generic cost methodology for the quantification of cost/economic impacts associated with a wide range of new or revised regulatory requirements. This methodology has been developed to aid the NRC in preparing Regulatory Impact Analyses (RIAs). These generic costing methods can be useful in quantifying impacts both to industry and to the NRC. The FORECAST program was developed to facilitate the use of the generic costing methodology. This PC program integrates the major cost considerations that may be required because of a regulatory change. FORECAST automates much of the calculations typically needed in an RIA and thus reduces the time and labor required to perform these analysis. More importantly, its integrated and consistent treatment of the different cost elements should help assure comprehensiveness, uniformity, and accuracy in the preparation of needed cost estimates

  20. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  1. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Leasing Versus Purchasing Computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arceneaux, Alan

    1997-01-01

    .... In constructing this model, several factors were considered, including: The purchase cost of computer equipment, annual lease payments, depreciation costs, the opportunity cost of purchasing, tax revenue implications and various leasing terms...

  2. MEMS cost analysis from laboratory to industry

    CERN Document Server

    Freng, Ron Lawes

    2016-01-01

    The World of MEMS; Chapter 2: Basic Fabrication Processes; Chapter 3: Surface Microengineering. High Aspect Ratio Microengineering; Chapter 5: MEMS Testing; Chapter 6: MEMS Packaging. Clean Rooms, Buildings and Plant; Chapter 8: The MEMSCOST Spreadsheet; Chapter 9: Product Costs - Accelerometers. Product Costs - Microphones. MEMS Foundries. Financial Reporting and Analysis. Conclusions.

  3. Construction of road network vulnerability evaluation index based on general travel cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Jun-qiang; Zhai, Jing; Li, Qian-wen; Zhao, Lin

    2018-03-01

    With the development of China's economy and the continuous improvement of her urban road network, the vulnerability of the urban road network has attracted increasing attention. Based on general travel cost, this work constructs the vulnerability evaluation index for the urban road network, and evaluates the vulnerability of the urban road network from the perspective of user generalised travel cost. Firstly, the generalised travel cost model is constructed based on vehicle cost, travel time, and traveller comfort. Then, the network efficiency index is selected as an evaluation index of vulnerability: the network efficiency index is composed of the traffic volume and the generalised travel cost, which are obtained from the equilibrium state of the network. In addition, the research analyses the influence of traffic capacity decrease, road section attribute value, and location of road section, on vulnerability. Finally, the vulnerability index is used to analyse the local area network of Harbin and verify its applicability.

  4. Accounting for the inaccuracies in demand forecasts and construction cost estimations in transport project evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen

    2014-01-01

    For decades researchers have claimedthat particularly demand forecasts and construction cost estimations are assigned with/affected by a large degree of uncertainty. Massively, articles,research documents and reports agree that there exists a tendencytowards underestimating the costs...... in demand and cost estimations and hence the evaluation of transport infrastructure projects. Currently, research within this area is scarce and scattered with no commonagreement on how to embed and operationalise the huge amount of empiricaldata that exist within the frame of Optimism Bias. Therefore...... convertingdeterministic benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) into stochasticinterval results. A new data collection (2009–2013) forms the empirical basis for any risk simulation embeddedwithin the so-calledUP database (UNITE project database),revealing the inaccuracy of both construction costs and demandforecasts. Accordingly...

  5. When Construction Material Traders Goes Electronic: Analysis of SMEs in Malaysian Construction Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Dzul Fahmi Nordin; Rosmini Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzed the perception of e-commerce application services by construction material traders in Malaysia. Five attributes were tested: usability, reputation, trust, privacy and familiarity. Study methodology consists of survey questionnaire and statistical analysis that includes reliability analysis, factor analysis, ANOVA and regression analysis. The respondents were construction material traders, including hardware stores in Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur. Find...

  6. Green Infrastructure Siting and Cost Effectiveness Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Parcel scale green infrastructure siting and cost effectiveness analysis. You can find more details at the project's website.

  7. Application of Boosting Regression Trees to Preliminary Cost Estimation in Building Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonseok Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the recent data mining techniques available, the boosting approach has attracted a great deal of attention because of its effective learning algorithm and strong boundaries in terms of its generalization performance. However, the boosting approach has yet to be used in regression problems within the construction domain, including cost estimations, but has been actively utilized in other domains. Therefore, a boosting regression tree (BRT is applied to cost estimations at the early stage of a construction project to examine the applicability of the boosting approach to a regression problem within the construction domain. To evaluate the performance of the BRT model, its performance was compared with that of a neural network (NN model, which has been proven to have a high performance in cost estimation domains. The BRT model has shown results similar to those of NN model using 234 actual cost datasets of a building construction project. In addition, the BRT model can provide additional information such as the importance plot and structure model, which can support estimators in comprehending the decision making process. Consequently, the boosting approach has potential applicability in preliminary cost estimations in a building construction project.

  8. Analisis Kecelakaan Kerja Pada Proyek Bangunan Gedung (Analysis of Work Accident on Building Construction Projects)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdiansyah, Deni; Winarno, Setya; M, Faisol A

    2009-01-01

    Work accidents and fatalities often happen in construction industry, thus a study on this matter to promote safety management needs a thorough analysis of their elements. The purpose of this paper is to identify various types of accidents, cost of accident and insurance premium, and also the correlation between the types of accidents and their costs. The data was collected from thirty construction projects around Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta province and surrounding areas. These data included t...

  9. Incremental ALARA cost/benefit computer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamby, P.

    1987-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company has developed and is testing an enhanced Fortran Computer Program to be used for cost/benefit analysis of Radiation Reduction Projects at its six nuclear power facilities and Corporate Technical Support Groups. This paper describes a Macro-Diven IBM Mainframe Program comprised of two different types of analyses-an Abbreviated Program with fixed costs and base values, and an extended Engineering Version for a detailed, more through and time-consuming approach. The extended engineering version breaks radiation exposure costs down into two components-Health-Related Costs and Replacement Labor Costs. According to user input, the program automatically adjust these two cost components and applies the derivation to company economic analyses such as replacement power costs, carrying charges, debt interest, and capital investment cost. The results from one of more program runs using different parameters may be compared in order to determine the most appropriate ALARA dose reduction technique. Benefits of this particular cost / benefit analysis technique includes flexibility to accommodate a wide range of user data and pre-job preparation, as well as the use of proven and standardized company economic equations

  10. Cost analysis of youth violence prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.

  11. Environmentally based Cost-Benefit Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnell, M.

    1993-11-01

    The fundamentals of the basic elements of a new comprehensive economic assessment, MILA, developed in Sweden with inspiration from the Total Cost Assessment-model are presented. The core of the MILA approach is an expanded cost and benefit inventory. But MILA also includes a complementary addition of an internal waste stream analysis, a tool for evaluation of environmental conflicts in monetary terms, an extended time horizon and direct allocation of costs and revenues to products and processes. However, MILA does not ensure profitability for environmentally sound projects. Essentially, MILA is an approach of refining investment and profitability analysis of a project, investment or product. 109 refs., 38 figs

  12. Cost-benefit analysis: reality or illusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, G.W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The problems encountered in the application of cost-benefit analysis to the setting of acceptable radiation exposure levels are discussed, in particular the difficulty of assigning a monetary value to human life or disability, and the fact that the customary optimization of cost-benefit is not consistent with the ICRP dose limitation system, especially the ALARA principle. It is concluded that the present ICRP recommendations should remain the basis of exposure control while a carefully limited use of cost-benefit analysis may be helpful in some cases. (U.K.)

  13. Application Of The Work Breakdown Structure In Determining Cost Buffers In Construction Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Połoński M.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methods of determining the location of cost buffers and corresponding contingency costs in the CPM schedule based on its work breakdown structure. Application of correctly located cost buffers with appropriately established reserve costs is justified by the common overrunning of scheduled costs in construction projects. Interpolated cost buffers (CB as separate tasks have been combined with relevant summary tasks by the start–to–start (SS relationship, whereas the time of their execution has been dynamically connected with the time of accomplishment of particular summary tasks using the “paste connection” option. Besides cost buffers linked with the group of tasks assigned to summary tasks, a definition of the cost buffer for the entire project (PCB has been proposed, i.e. as one initial task of the entire project. Contingency costs corresponding to these buffers, depending on the data that the planner has at his disposal, can be determined using different methods, but always depend on the costs of all tasks protected by each buffer. The paper presents an exemplary schedule for a facility and the method of determining locations and cost for buffers CB and PCB, as well as their influence on the course of the curve illustrating the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS. The proposed solution has been adjusted and presented with consideration of the possibilities created by the scheduling software MS Project, though its general assumptions may be implemented with application of other similar specialist tools.

  14. Cost estimation using ministerial regulation of public work no. 11/2013 in construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumsari, Putri; Juliastuti; Khalifah Al'farisi, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    One of the first tasks in starting a construction project is to estimate the total cost of building a project. In Indonesia there are several standards that are used to calculate the cost estimation of a project. One of the standards used in based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. However in a construction project, contractor often has their own cost estimation based on their own calculation. This research aimed to compare the construction project total cost using calculation based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013 against the contractor’s calculation. Two projects were used as case study to compare the results. The projects were a 4 storey building located in Pantai Indah Kapuk area (West Jakarta) and a warehouse located in Sentul (West Java) which was built by 2 different contractors. The cost estimation from both contractors’ calculation were compared to the one based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. It is found that there were differences between the two calculation around 1.80 % - 3.03% in total cost, in which the cost estimation based on Ministerial Regulation was higher than the contractors’ calculations.

  15. Risk, innovation, electricity infrastructure and construction cost overruns: Testing six hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Gilbert, Alex; Nugent, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the frequency and magnitude of cost and time overruns occurring during the construction of 401 electricity projects built between 1936 and 2014 in 57 countries. In aggregate, these projects required approximately $820 billion in investment, and amounted to 325,515 MW of installed capacity and 8495 km of transmission lines. We use this sample of projects to test six hypotheses about construction cost overruns related to (1) diseconomies of scale, (2) project delays, (3) technological learning, (4) regulation and markets, (5) decentralization and modularity, and (6) normalization of results to scale. We find that nuclear reactors are the riskiest technology in terms of mean cost escalation as a percentage of budget and frequency; that hydroelectric dams stand apart for their mean cost escalation in total dollars; that many of the hypotheses grounded in the literature appear wrong; and that financing, partnerships, modularity, and accountability may have more to do with overruns than technology. - Highlights: • Many hypotheses about construction overruns grounded in the literature appear wrong. • Nuclear reactors are the most prone to cost overruns as a percentage of budget and frequency. • Hydroelectric dams stand apart for their mean cost escalation in total dollars. • Solar and wind energy systems are least at risk to cost overruns

  16. Determination of maximum possible capital costs for NPP construction by foreign construction data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of coal power plants and gas power plants are discussed. Important place in the discussion is due to the analysis of possible development of the nuclear power. Basic factors controlling profitableness and competitiveness of different projects are summarized. Competitiveness of the Russian nuclear power in the world is justified [ru

  17. Use of cost-effective construction technologies in India to mitigate climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, N. [Forum of Scientists, Engineers and Technologists, Kolkata (India)

    2008-01-10

    Concentration of greenhouse gases plays a major role in raising the earth's temperature. Carbon dioxide, produced from burning of fossil fuels, is the principle greenhouse gas and efforts are being made at international level to reduce its emission through adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The UN Conference on Environment and Development, 1992 made a significant development in this field by initiating the discussion on sustainable development under the Agenda 21. Cost-effective construction technologies can bring down the embodied energy level associated with production of building materials by lowering use of energy-consuming materials. This embodied energy is a crucial factor for sustainable construction practices and effective reduction of the same would contribute in mitigating global warming. The cost-effective construction technologies would emerge as the most acceptable case of sustainable technologies in India both in terms of cost and environment.

  18. Forecasting Construction Cost Index based on visibility graph: A network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Ashuri, Baabak; Shyr, Yu; Deng, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Engineering News-Record (ENR), a professional magazine in the field of global construction engineering, publishes Construction Cost Index (CCI) every month. Cost estimators and contractors assess projects, arrange budgets and prepare bids by forecasting CCI. However, fluctuations and uncertainties of CCI cause irrational estimations now and then. This paper aims at achieving more accurate predictions of CCI based on a network approach in which time series is firstly converted into a visibility graph and future values are forecasted relied on link prediction. According to the experimental results, the proposed method shows satisfactory performance since the error measures are acceptable. Compared with other methods, the proposed method is easier to implement and is able to forecast CCI with less errors. It is convinced that the proposed method is efficient to provide considerably accurate CCI predictions, which will make contributions to the construction engineering by assisting individuals and organizations in reducing costs and making project schedules.

  19. Construction Analysis during the Design Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Harink, J.M.J.; Martens, B.; Brown, A.

    2005-01-01

    4D CAD systems are used by contractors for visually checking the construction process. To enable simulation of the construction process, the construction planner links building components from a CAD model with the activities from a project planning. In this paper we describe a method to generate a

  20. Ordering Strategy Analysis of Prefabricated Component Manufacturer in Construction Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hongxiong; Chung, Jacky K. H.; Chen, Yuhong; Pan, Yifan; Mei, Zhiling; Sun, Xiongle

    2018-01-01

    Firstly, the characteristics and present situations of the prefabricated construction supply chain are analyzed; inventory cost models for construction material of every phase order, one-off order, and fractionated order are built based on traditional EOQ model and construction supply chain theory. Next, the order decision is represented in binary numbers 0 and 1, in which 0 stands for “no order” and 1 for “order.” The analysis uses the genetic algorithm, sets the objective function, and unde...

  1. Cost Management Practices and Strategic Perspectives: a study in the construction industry of the State of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Lauro Brito de; Machado, Esmael Almeida; Panhoca, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the cost management practices of building industry companies of Paraná that follow the typology of Porter´s strategies. The sample comprises member companies of the Association of Construction Industries of the State of Paraná (PR-SINDUSCON) operating in the segment of residential buildings. The data were collected by means of questionnaires sent to 317 SINDUSCON members. 69 were returned and 54 used for our research. Exploratory Factorial Analysis ...

  2. Cost analysis and estimating tools and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Nussbaum, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Changes in production processes reflect the technological advances permeat­ ing our products and services. U. S. industry is modernizing and automating. In parallel, direct labor is fading as the primary cost driver while engineering and technology related cost elements loom ever larger. Traditional, labor-based ap­ proaches to estimating costs are losing their relevance. Old methods require aug­ mentation with new estimating tools and techniques that capture the emerging environment. This volume represents one of many responses to this challenge by the cost analysis profession. The Institute of Cost Analysis (lCA) is dedicated to improving the effective­ ness of cost and price analysis and enhancing the professional competence of its members. We encourage and promote exchange of research findings and appli­ cations between the academic community and cost professionals in industry and government. The 1990 National Meeting in Los Angeles, jointly spo~sored by ICA and the National Estimating Society (NES),...

  3. A reply to “Historical construction costs of global nuclear power reactors”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Hultman, Nathan E.; Grubler, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    present data on the overnight costs of more than half of nuclear reactors built worldwide since the beginning of the nuclear age. The authors claim that this consolidated data set offers more accurate insights than previous country-level assessments. Unfortunately, the authors make analytical choices that mask nuclear power's real construction costs, cherry pick data, and include misleading data on early experimental and demonstration reactors. For those reasons, serious students of such issues should look elsewhere for guidance about understanding the true costs of nuclear power. - Highlights: • claim to accurately assess nuclear plant costs over time. • The authors err by relying on overnight costs, which exclude interest. • The authors cherry pick data (e.g, ignoring problems with French nuclear data). • The article's cherry picked data don’t even support the article's own conclusions. • Lovering et al. is not a reliable source for costs of nuclear power.

  4. Data Flow in Relation to Life-Cycle Costing of Construction Projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biolek, Vojtěch; Hanák, Tomáš; Marović, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Life-cycle costing is an important part of every construction project, as it makes it possible to take into consideration future costs relating to the operation and demolition phase of a built structure. In this way, investors can optimize the project design to minimize the total project costs. Even though there have already been some attempts to implement BIM software in the Czech Republic, the current state of affairs does not support automated data flow between the bill of costs and applications that support building facility management. The main aim of this study is to critically evaluate the current situation and outline a future framework that should allow for the use of the data contained in the bill of costs to manage building operating costs.

  5. A Refined Basket of Goods Approach for Comparing Construction Costs between Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Best

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most comparisons of construction industry performance requirethat construction costs be converted to a common base. Existingmechanisms for such conversions produce unreliable results.A proposed method for producing industry-specifi c conversionfactors was tested using a single building type. A basket ofmaterials and labour was identifi ed and weighted to refl ect the costshare of each item in a completed project. Prices for the basketwere gathered in three cities and simple construction specifi cconversion indices were calculated based on the constructionpurchasing power of each currency. The construction purchasingpower parities (CPPPs showed marked differences from otheravailable conversion mechanisms such as exchange rates andgeneral purchasing power parities (PPPs that have been used inprevious international comparison studies. While the study waslimited in scope, and is only the fi rst stage of a longer process, thesubstantial differences in comparative costs based on purchasingpower illustrate the problems inherent in international costcomparisons. For example, comparing Singapore and Sydney,Singapore costs appear to be only 40% of those in Sydney (basedon exchange rates about two-thirds the cost of Sydney (usinggeneral PPPs or almost the same (using the preliminary CPPPs.These results illustrate the problems of converting costs fromlocal currencies to a single base currency and suggest that furtherdevelopment is needed to improve the reliability of outcomes.

  6. A Nonlinear Multiobjective Bilevel Model for Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem in a Large-Scale Construction Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.

  7. New technologies for lower-cost design and construction of new nuclear power plants. Annex 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.; Bryan, R.E.; Harmon, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    Electric Power Research Institute studies indicate that in order to be competitive with gas-fired electric power plant capital costs, new nuclear plant capital cost in the USA must be decreased by at least 35% to 40% relative to costs of some Advanced Light Water Reactors designed in the early 1990s. To address this need, the U. S. Department of Energy is sponsoring three separate projects under its Nuclear Energy Research Initiative. These projects are the Risk-Informed Assessment of Regulatory and Design Requirements for Future Nuclear Power Plants, the Smart Equipment Nuclear Power Plant Program, and the Design, Procure, Construct, Install and Test Program. The goal of the Design-Construction program is reduction of the complete nuclear plant design-procure-construct-install-test cycle schedule and cost. A 3D plant model was combined with a construction schedule to produce a 4D visualization of plant construction, which was then used to analyze plant construction methods. Insights include the need for concurrent engineering, a plant-wide central database, and use of the World-Wide WEB. The goal of Smart Equipment program is to design, develop, and evaluate the methods for implementing smart equipment and predictive maintenance technology. 'Smart' equipment means components and systems that are instrumented and monitored to detect incipient failures in order to improve their reliability. The resulting smart equipment methods will be combined with a more risk-informed regulatory approach to allow plant designers to (1) simplify designs without compromising overall reliability and safety and (2) maintain more reliable plants at lower cost. Initial results show that rotating equipment such as charging pumps would benefit most from smart instrumentation and that the technique of Bayesian Belief Networks would be most appropriate for providing input to a health monitoring system. (author)

  8. Development of cost-benefit analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Tsuyoshi; Mishima, Tetsuya; Yuyama, Tomonori; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    In order to promote the FDR development, it is necessary to see various benefits brought by introduction of FBR from multiple perspectives and have a good grasp of such benefits quantitatively and an adequate R and D investment scale which corresponds with them. In this study, the structured prototype in the previous study was improved to be able to perform cost-benefit analysis. An example of improvement made in the system is addition of subroutine used for comparison between new energy and benefits brought by introduction of FBR with special emphasis on addition of logic for analyzing externality about the new energy. Other improvement examples are modification of the Conventional Year Expense Ratio method of power generation cost to Average Durable Year Cost method, addition of database function and turning input data into database, and reviewing idea on cost by the type of waste material and price of uranium. The cost-benefit analysis system was also restructured utilizing Microsoft ACCESS so that it should have a data base function. As the result of the improvement mentioned above, we expect that the improved cost-benefit analysis system will have higher generality than the system before; therefore, great deal of benefits brought by application of the system in the future is expected. (author)

  9. Building Construction Progress Monitoring Using Unmanned Aerial System (uas), Low-Cost Photogrammetry, and Geographic Information System (gis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognot, J. R.; Candido, C. G.; Blanco, A. C.; Montelibano, J. R. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring the progress of building's construction is critical in construction management. However, measuring the building construction's progress are still manual, time consuming, error prone, and impose tedious process of analysis leading to delays, additional costings and effort. The main goal of this research is to develop a methodology for building construction progress monitoring based on 3D as-built model of the building from unmanned aerial system (UAS) images, 4D as-planned model (with construction schedule integrated) and, GIS analysis. Monitoring was done by capturing videos of the building with a camera-equipped UAS. Still images were extracted, filtered, bundle-adjusted, and 3D as-built model was generated using open source photogrammetric software. The as-planned model was generated from digitized CAD drawings using GIS. The 3D as-built model was aligned with the 4D as-planned model of building formed from extrusion of building elements, and integration of the construction's planned schedule. The construction progress is visualized via color-coding the building elements in the 3D model. The developed methodology was conducted and applied from the data obtained from an actual construction site. Accuracy in detecting `built' or `not built' building elements ranges from 82-84 % and precision of 50-72 %. Quantified progress in terms of the number of building elements are 21.31% (November 2016), 26.84 % (January 2017) and 44.19 % (March 2017). The results can be used as an input for progress monitoring performance of construction projects and improving related decision-making process.

  10. Applying Interpretive Structural Modeling to Cost Overruns in Construction Projects in the Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alzebdeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost overruns in construction projects are a problem faced by project managers, engineers, and clients throughout the Middle East.  Globally, several studies in the literature have focused on identifying the causes of these overruns and used statistical methods to rank them according to their impacts. None of these studies have considered the interactions among these factors. This paper examines interpretive structural modelling (ISM as a viable technique for modelling complex interactions among factors responsible for cost overruns in construction projects in the Sultanate of Oman. In particular, thirteen interrelated factors associated with cost overruns were identified, along with their contextual interrelationships. Application of ISM leads to organizing these factors in a hierarchical structure which effectively demonstrates their interactions in a simple way. Four factors were found to be at the root of cost overruns: instability of the US dollar, changes in governmental regulations, faulty cost estimation, and poor coordination among projects’ parties. Taking appropriate actions to minimize the influence of these factors can ultimately lead to better control of future project costs. Thisstudy is of value to managers and decision makers because it provides a powerful yet very easy to apply approach for investigating the problem of cost overruns and other similar issues.

  11. Construction costs, payback times, and the leaf economics of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D; Ellison, Aaron M

    2009-09-01

    Understanding how different plant species and functional types "invest" carbon and nutrients is a major goal of plant ecologists. Two measures of such investments are "construction costs" (carbon needed to produce each gram of tissue) and associated "payback times" for photosynthesis to recover construction costs. These measurements integrate among traits used to assess leaf-trait scaling relationships. Carnivorous plants are model systems for examining mechanisms of leaf-trait coordination, but no studies have measured simultaneously construction costs of carnivorous traps and their photosynthetic rates to determine payback times of traps. We measured mass-based construction costs (CC(mass)) and photosynthesis (A(mass)) for traps, leaves, roots, and rhizomes of 15 carnivorous plant species grown under greenhouse conditions. There were highly significant differences among species in CC(mass) for each structure. Mean CC(mass) of carnivorous traps (1.14 ± 0.24 g glucose/g dry mass) was significantly lower than CC(mass) of leaves of 267 noncarnivorous plant species (1.47 ± 0.17), but all carnivorous plants examined had very low A(mass) and thus, long payback times (495-1551 h). Our results provide the first clear estimates of the marginal benefits of botanical carnivory and place carnivorous plants at the "slow and tough" end of the universal spectrum of leaf traits.

  12. Construction and Characterization of a Compact, Portable, Low-Cost Colorimeter for the Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clippard, Carrie M.; Hughes, William; Chohan, Balwant S.; Sykes, Danny G.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost and portable colorimeter was constructed featuring a low-voltage programmable color light sensor-to-frequency converter, a CMOS 8-bit microcontroller, and an LCD display. The instrument has successfully facilitated the introduction and application of spectroscopy to groups of middle school, high school, and undergraduate students. A…

  13. 2007 Effect of Changes in Layout Shape on Unit Construction Cost

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ezra

    The shape of a building layout is the spatial attribute that defines the outline of the building. ... The results of this study indicate that perimeter-to-floor ratio, unit construction ... Design variables have been defined as the .... The objective of this paper is to explore the effect ... preparation of cost estimate, changing of design.

  14. Critical Analysis on Construction Workforce Sustainability in Developed Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Michael; Tam, Vivian; Fung, Ivan; Liu, Henry

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry in the developed economy has suffered a shortage of workforce which triggers project cost escalation and project delay and suppresses the whole economy. This paper aims to explore the perceptions of the general public and construction workers towards workforce shortage in the Hong Kong construction industry and identifies the critical factors affecting their intention to join the industry. Triangulation approach was adopted in this study and a street survey was condu...

  15. Construction cost prediction model for conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Subhi Alshamrani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature lacks in initial cost prediction models for college buildings, especially comparing costs of sustainable and conventional buildings. A multi-regression model was developed for conceptual initial cost estimation of conventional and sustainable college buildings in North America. RS Means was used to estimate the national average of construction costs for 2014, which was subsequently utilized to develop the model. The model could predict the initial cost per square feet with two structure types made of steel and concrete. The other predictor variables were building area, number of floors and floor height. The model was developed in three major stages, such as preliminary diagnostics on data quality, model development and validation. The developed model was successfully tested and validated with real-time data.

  16. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Alaily, T.M.; El-Nimr, M.K.; Saafan, S.A.; Kamel, M.M.; Meaz, T.M.; Assar, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability. - Highlights: • A low cost automated vibrating sample magnetometer VSM has been constructed. • The VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. • The VSM has been calibrated and tested by using some measured ferrite samples. • Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability

  17. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Alaily, T.M., E-mail: toson_alaily@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); El-Nimr, M.K.; Saafan, S.A.; Kamel, M.M.; Meaz, T.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Assar, S.T. [Engineering Physics and Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt)

    2015-07-15

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability. - Highlights: • A low cost automated vibrating sample magnetometer VSM has been constructed. • The VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. • The VSM has been calibrated and tested by using some measured ferrite samples. • Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability.

  18. Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.

  19. Construction cost estimation of spherical storage tanks: artificial neural networks and hybrid regression—GA algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabzadeh, Vida; Niaki, S. T. A.; Arabzadeh, Vahid

    2017-10-01

    One of the most important processes in the early stages of construction projects is to estimate the cost involved. This process involves a wide range of uncertainties, which make it a challenging task. Because of unknown issues, using the experience of the experts or looking for similar cases are the conventional methods to deal with cost estimation. The current study presents data-driven methods for cost estimation based on the application of artificial neural network (ANN) and regression models. The learning algorithms of the ANN are the Levenberg-Marquardt and the Bayesian regulated. Moreover, regression models are hybridized with a genetic algorithm to obtain better estimates of the coefficients. The methods are applied in a real case, where the input parameters of the models are assigned based on the key issues involved in a spherical tank construction. The results reveal that while a high correlation between the estimated cost and the real cost exists; both ANNs could perform better than the hybridized regression models. In addition, the ANN with the Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm (LMNN) obtains a better estimation than the ANN with the Bayesian-regulated learning algorithm (BRNN). The correlation between real data and estimated values is over 90%, while the mean square error is achieved around 0.4. The proposed LMNN model can be effective to reduce uncertainty and complexity in the early stages of the construction project.

  20. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  1. SUBSTANTIATION OF THE COST OF HOUSING CONSTRUCTION INCLUDING THE FACTOR OF INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF TERRITORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZAIATS Yi. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. For planning and organization of urban construction is necessary to analyze the use of areas. Territorial resources of the city, being used for construction and other urban purposes, consists of plots of land: disposable, reserved and undeveloped in previous years of construction in progress; residential districts and blocks of obsolete housing fund; industrial and municipal and warehouse enterprises being used irrationally or stopped to work; the defence department, where the amortized warehouses and other main funds are that are not used by purpose; agricultural enterprises where the obsolete industrial funds, haying, nurseries, greenhouses. The number of free areas suitable for future urban development is extremely limited. However a considerable part of the territories of almost all functional zones is used inefficiently. Purpose. Formalization of a factor of investment attractiveness of territories for the further identification and research of the connection between it and the cost of housing construction is necessary. Conclusion. The identification of regularities of influence of the factor of investment attractiveness of territories on the cost of construction of high-rise buildings allow to obtain a quantitative estimate of this effect and can be used in the development of the methodology of substantiation of the expediency and effectiveness of the implementation of highrise construction projects, based on organizational and technological aspects.

  2. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI PART ONE: METHODS COST-EFFECTIVENESS FOR GENERALIZED ANALYSIS 1. 2. What is Generalized Cost-Effectiveness Analysis? . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Undertaking...

  3. A reactor-level analysis of busbar costs for US nuclear plants, 1970-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomey, Jonathan; Hultman, Nathan E.

    2007-01-01

    We present a reactor-by-reactor analysis of historical busbar costs for 99 nuclear reactors in the United States, and compare those costs with recent projections for next-generation US reactors. We argue that cost projections far different from median historical costs require more justification than estimates that lie close to those medians. Our analysis suggests that some recent projections of capital costs, construction duration, and total operations and maintenance costs are quite low-far enough from the historical medians that additional scrutiny may be required to justify using such estimates in current policy discussions and planning

  4. [Cost analysis for navigation in knee endoprosthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerha, O; Kirschner, S; Günther, K-P; Lützner, J

    2009-12-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most frequent procedures in orthopaedic surgery. The outcome depends on a range of factors including alignment of the leg and the positioning of the implant in addition to patient-associated factors. Computer-assisted navigation systems can improve the restoration of a neutral leg alignment. This procedure has been established especially in Europe and North America. The additional expenses are not reimbursed in the German DRG system (Diagnosis Related Groups). In the present study a cost analysis of computer-assisted TKA compared to the conventional technique was performed. The acquisition expenses of various navigation systems (5 and 10 year depreciation), annual costs for maintenance and software updates as well as the accompanying costs per operation (consumables, additional operating time) were considered. The additional operating time was determined on the basis of a meta-analysis according to the current literature. Situations with 25, 50, 100, 200 and 500 computer-assisted TKAs per year were simulated. The amount of the incremental costs of the computer-assisted TKA depends mainly on the annual volume and the additional operating time. A relevant decrease of the incremental costs was detected between 50 and 100 procedures per year. In a model with 100 computer-assisted TKAs per year an additional operating time of 14 mins and a 10 year depreciation of the investment costs, the incremental expenses amount to 300-395 depending on the navigation system. Computer-assisted TKA is associated with additional costs. From an economical point of view an amount of more than 50 procedures per year appears to be favourable. The cost-effectiveness could be estimated if long-term results will show a reduction of revisions or a better clinical outcome.

  5. [Cost analysis of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombos, T; Suess, O; Brock, M

    2002-01-01

    A number of studies demonstrate that a significant reduction of postoperative neurological deficits can be achieved by applying intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IOM) methods. A cost analysis of IOM is imperative considering the strained financial situation in the public health services. The calculation model presented here comprises two cost components: material and personnel. The material costs comprise consumer goods and depreciation of capital goods. The computation base was 200 IOM cases per year. Consumer goods were calculated for each IOM procedure respectively. The following constellation served as a basis for calculating personnel costs: (a) a medical technician (salary level BAT Vc) for one hour per case; (b) a resident (BAT IIa) for the entire duration of the measurement, and (c) a senior resident (BAT Ia) only for supervision. An IOM device consisting of an 8-channel preamplifier, an electrical and acoustic stimulator and special software costs 66,467 euros on the average. With an annual depreciation of 20%, the costs are 13,293 euros per year. This amounts to 66.46 euros per case for the capital goods. For reusable materials a sum of 0.75 euro; per case was calculated. Disposable materials were calculate for each procedure respectively. Total costs of 228.02 euro; per case were,s a sum of 0.75 euros per case was calculated. Disposable materials were calculate for each procedure respectively. Total costs of 228.02 euros per case were, calculated for surgery on the peripheral nervous system. They amount to 196.40 euros per case for spinal interventions and to 347.63 euros per case for more complex spinal operations. Operations in the cerebellopontine angle and brain stem cost 376.63 euros and 397.33 euros per case respectively. IOM costs amount to 328.03 euros per case for surgical management of an intracranial aneurysm and to 537.15 euros per case for functional interventions. Expenses run up to 833.63 euros per case for operations near the

  6. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Pagan, Carmen P.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is generally performed within two arenas: (1) Production testing for certification and acceptance, and (2) Developmental testing for prototype or experimental purposes. The customer base consists of NASA programs, DOD programs, and commercial programs. Resources in place to perform on-site testing include both civil servants and contractor personnel, hardware and software including data acquisition and control, and 6 test stands with a total of 14 test positions/cells. For several business reasons there is the need to augment understanding of the test costs for all the various types of test campaigns. Historical propulsion test data was evaluated and analyzed in many different ways with the intent to find any correlation or statistics that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost estimates and projections. The analytical efforts included timeline trends, statistical curve fitting, average cost per test, cost per test second, test cost timeline, and test cost envelopes. Further, the analytical effort includes examining the test cost from the perspective of thrust level and test article characteristics. Some of the analytical approaches did not produce evidence strong enough for further analysis. Some other analytical approaches yield promising results and are candidates for further development and focused study. Information was organized for into its elements: a Project Profile, Test Cost Timeline, and Cost Envelope. The Project Profile is a snap shot of the project life cycle on a timeline fashion, which includes various statistical analyses. The Test Cost Timeline shows the cumulative average test cost, for each project, at each month where there was test activity. The Test Cost Envelope shows a range of cost for a given number of test(s). The supporting information upon which this study was performed came from diverse sources and thus it was necessary to

  7. Construction Project Success ranking through the Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyar Zahedi-Seresht

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to rank construction projects' success in a post delivery phase. To attain this objective, a data envelopment analysis (DEA approach is used. The model's output is a project success index which is calculated based on five project success criteria. These criteria which are determined by a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey are time performance, cost performance, quality, HSE, and customer satisfaction. The input factors which have effects on the output measures are Organizational Sponsorship, Project Manager Competency, Customer Organization, Project Operational Environment and Organizational Experience. The tool adopted to determine these factors is questionnaire. This model is applied for 9 projects with different importance of output and input factors and the reasonable result is achieved for ranking these projects.

  8. Design windows and cost analysis on helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Y.; Imagawa, S.; Sagara, A.

    2007-01-01

    The LHD type helical reactors are characterized by a large major radius but slender helical coil, which give us different approaches for power plants from tokamak reactors. For searching design windows of helical reactors and discussing their potential as power plants, we have developed a mass-cost estimating model linked with system design code (HeliCos), thorough studying the relationships between major plasma parameters and reactor parameters, and weight of major components. In regard to cost data we have much experience through preparing ITER construction. To compare the weight and cost of magnet systems between tokamak and helical reactors, we broke down magnet systems and cost factors, such as weights of super conducting strands, conduits, support structures, and winding unit costs, through estimating ITER cost data basis. Based on FFHR2m1 deign we considered a typical 3 GWth helical plant (LHD type) with the same magnet size, coil major radius Rc 14 m, magnetic energy 120 GJ, but increasing plasma densities. We evaluated the weight and cost of magnet systems of 3 GWth helical plant, the total magnet weights of 16,000ton and costs of 210 BYen, which are similar values of tokamak reactors (10,200 ton, 110 BYen in ITER 2002 report, and 21,900 ton, 275 BYen in ITER FDR1999). The costs of strands and winding occupy 70% of total magnet costs, and influence entire power plants economics. The design windows analysis and comparative economics studies to optimize the main reactor parameters have been carried out. Economics studies show that it is misunderstanding to consider helical coils are too large and too expensive to achieve power plants. But we should notice that the helical reactor design windows and economics are very sensitive to allowable blanket space (depend on ergodic layer conditions) and diverter configuration for decreasing heat loads. (orig.)

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency.

  10. E-COCOMO: The Extended COst Constructive MOdel for Cleanroom Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mistakes create rework. Rework takes time and increases costs. The traditional software engineering methodology defines the ratio of Design:Code:Test as 40:20:40. As we can easily see that 40% time and efforts are used in testing phase in traditional approach, that means we have to perform rework again if we found some bugs in testing phase. This rework is being performed after Design and code phase. This rework will increase the cost exponentially. The cleanroom software engineering methodology controls the exponential growth in cost by removing this rework. It says that "do the work correct in first attempt and move to next phase after getting the proof of correctness". This new approach minimized the rework and reduces the cost in the exponential ratio. Due to the removal of testing phase, the COCOMO (COst COnstructive MOdel used for the traditional engineering is not directly applicable in cleanroom software engineering. The traditional cost drivers used for traditional COCOMO needs to be revised. We have proposed the Extended version of COCOMO (i.e. E-COCOMO in which we have incorporated some new cost drivers. This paper explains the proposed E-COCOMO and the detailed description of proposed new cost driver.

  11. Construction and Operation Costs of Wastewater Treatment and Implications for the Paper Industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Kunyu; Wu, Jian; Yu, Fang; Guo, Jingli

    2016-11-15

    This paper aims to develop a construction and operation cost model of wastewater treatment for the paper industry in China and explores the main factors that determine these costs. Previous models mainly involved factors relating to the treatment scale and efficiency of treatment facilities for deriving the cost function. We considered the factors more comprehensively by adding a regional variable to represent the economic development level, a corporate ownership factor to represent the plant characteristics, a subsector variable to capture pollutant characteristics, and a detailed-classification technology variable. We applied a unique data set from a national pollution source census for the model simulation. The major findings include the following: (1) Wastewater treatment costs in the paper industry are determined by scale, technology, degree of treatment, ownership, and regional factors; (2) Wastewater treatment costs show a large decreasing scale effect; (3) The current level of pollutant discharge fees is far lower than the marginal treatment costs for meeting the wastewater discharge standard. Key implications are as follows: (1) Cost characteristics and impact factors should be fully recognized when planning or making policies relating to wastewater treatment projects or technology development; (2) There is potential to reduce treatment costs by centralizing wastewater treatment via industrial parks; (3) Wastewater discharge fee rates should be increased; (4) Energy efficient technology should become the future focus of wastewater treatment.

  12. Rapid, low-cost, image analysis through video processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.A.; Marrs, R.W.; Grantham, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    Remote Sensing now provides the data necessary to solve many resource problems. However, many of the complex image processing and analysis functions used in analysis of remotely-sensed data are accomplished using sophisticated image analysis equipment. High cost of this equipment places many of these techniques beyond the means of most users. A new, more economical, video system capable of performing complex image analysis has now been developed. This report describes the functions, components, and operation of that system. Processing capability of the new video image analysis system includes many of the tasks previously accomplished with optical projectors and digital computers. Video capabilities include: color separation, color addition/subtraction, contrast stretch, dark level adjustment, density analysis, edge enhancement, scale matching, image mixing (addition and subtraction), image ratioing, and construction of false-color composite images. Rapid input of non-digital image data, instantaneous processing and display, relatively low initial cost, and low operating cost gives the video system a competitive advantage over digital equipment. Complex pre-processing, pattern recognition, and statistical analyses must still be handled through digital computer systems. The video system at the University of Wyoming has undergone extensive testing, comparison to other systems, and has been used successfully in practical applications ranging from analysis of x-rays and thin sections to production of color composite ratios of multispectral imagery. Potential applications are discussed including uranium exploration, petroleum exploration, tectonic studies, geologic mapping, hydrology sedimentology and petrography, anthropology, and studies on vegetation and wildlife habitat

  13. Cost-effectiveness Analysis with Influence Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Díez, F J

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is used increasingly in medicine to determine whether the health benefit of an intervention is worth the economic cost. Decision trees, the standard decision modeling technique for non-temporal domains, can only perform CEA for very small problems. To develop a method for CEA in problems involving several dozen variables. We explain how to build influence diagrams (IDs) that explicitly represent cost and effectiveness. We propose an algorithm for evaluating cost-effectiveness IDs directly, i.e., without expanding an equivalent decision tree. The evaluation of an ID returns a set of intervals for the willingness to pay - separated by cost-effectiveness thresholds - and, for each interval, the cost, the effectiveness, and the optimal intervention. The algorithm that evaluates the ID directly is in general much more efficient than the brute-force method, which is in turn more efficient than the expansion of an equivalent decision tree. Using OpenMarkov, an open-source software tool that implements this algorithm, we have been able to perform CEAs on several IDs whose equivalent decision trees contain millions of branches. IDs can perform CEA on large problems that cannot be analyzed with decision trees.

  14. Cost benefit analysis of reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost/benefit analysis of reactor safety systems is a possibility appropriate to deal with reactor safety. The Commission of the European Communities supported a study on the cost-benefit or cost effectiveness of safety systems installed in modern PWR nuclear power plants. The following systems and their cooperation in emergency cases were in particular investigated in this study: the containment system (double containment), the leakage exhaust and control system, the annulus release exhaust system and the containment spray system. The benefit of a safety system is defined according to its contribution to the reduction of the radiological consequences for the environment after a LOCA. The analysis is so far performed in two different steps: the emergency core cooling system is considered to function properly, failure of the emergency core cooling system is assumed (with the possible consequence of core melt-down) and the results may demonstrate the evidence that striving for cost-effectiveness can produce a safer end result than the philosophy of safety at any cost. (orig.)

  15. Costs Analysis of Iron Casts Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kukla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues of costs analysis of iron casts manufacturing using automated foundry lines. Particular attention was paid to departmental costs, conversion costs and costs of in-plant transport. After the Pareto analysis had been carried out, it was possible to set the model area of the process and focus on improving activities related to finishing of a chosen group of casts. In order to eliminate losses, the activities realised in this domain were divided into activities with added value, activities with partially added value and activities without added value. To streamline the production flow, it was proposed to change the location of workstations related to grinding, control and machining of casts. Within the process of constant improvement of manufacturing processes, the aspect of work ergonomics at a workstation was taken into account. As a result of the undertaken actions, some activities without added value were eliminated, efficiency was increased and prime costs of manufacturing casts with regard to finishing treatment were lowered.

  16. PERSONNEL COSTS IN THE CZECH CONSTRUCTION SECTOR: INVESTIGATING THE EFFECT OF COMPANY SIZE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Paulišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available : Managing personnel costs is important in all companies, especially in those whose production is labor intensive. The construction sector therefore qualifies as a suitable area for analyzing issues associated with these costs. The aim of this study is to find out whether company size affects personnel cost management under various circumstances. Four research hypotheses focus on the relationships among and the relative importance of personnel costs, use of standards, range of employee benefits offered, and economic actions taken when faced with an economic crisis. The evaluation of hypotheses is supported by using the chi-square test of independence with the aim of confirming or rejecting the statistical significance of relationships between the examined categorical variables. Results have confirmed a significant effect of company size. Several research implications and suggested future research directions are also presented in the conclusion of this paper.

  17. Use of virtual environments to reduce the construction costs of the next generation nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    The near term deployment of the next generation of reactors will only be successful if they are built on time and without the costly overruns experienced in the previous generation. One critical factor in achieving these goals is to ensure the design is optimized for constructability. In this work the authors explored the effectiveness of full-scale virtual reality simulation in the optimization of the design and construction of the next generation of nuclear reactors. The research tested the suitability of immersive virtual reality display technology in aiding engineers in evaluating potential cost reductions that can be realized by the optimization of design and installation and construction sequences. The intent of this research is to see if this type of technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups and desktop simulations. Using a fully-immersive five sided virtual reality system, known as a CAVE, the authors constructed a series of virtual mockups that represented two next generation nuclear power plants, the Westinghouse AP-1000 and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). These virtual mockups were then tested as a design tool to help locate and correct problem areas, to optimize the construction sequence, and to assist with familiarizing trades people with the performance of maintenance activities. A series of experiments were performed to assess the usefulness of these virtual mockups in accomplishing these tasks. (authors)

  18. Construction and calibration of a low cost and fully automated vibrating sample magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alaily, T. M.; El-Nimr, M. K.; Saafan, S. A.; Kamel, M. M.; Meaz, T. M.; Assar, S. T.

    2015-07-01

    A low cost vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) has been constructed by using an electromagnet and an audio loud speaker; where both are controlled by a data acquisition device. The constructed VSM records the magnetic hysteresis loop up to 8.3 KG at room temperature. The apparatus has been calibrated and tested by using magnetic hysteresis data of some ferrite samples measured by two scientifically calibrated magnetometers; model (Lake Shore 7410) and model (LDJ Electronics Inc. Troy, MI). Our VSM lab-built new design proved success and reliability.

  19. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-02-28

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project.

  20. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions Through the Use of Virtual Environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timothy Shaw; Vaugh Whisker

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this multi-phase project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. The project will test the suitability of immersive virtual reality technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups. This report presents the results of the completed project

  1. Least cost analysis of renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosgrove-Davies, M.; Cabraal, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology for evaluating dispersed and centralized rural energy options on a least cost basis. In defining the load to be served, each supply alternative must provide equivalent levels of service. The village to be served is defined by the number of loads, load density, distance from the nearest power distribution line, and load growth. Appropriate rural energy alternatives are identified and sized to satisfy the defined load. Lastly, a net present value analysis (including capital, installation, O and M, fuel, and replacement costs, etc.) is performed to identify the least cost option. A spreadsheet-based analytical tool developed by the World Bank's Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE) incorporates this approach and has been applied to compare photovoltaic solar home systems with other rural energy supply options in Indonesia. Load size and load density are found to be the critical factors in choosing between a grid and off-grid solution

  2. Re-analysis as a Comparison of Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Gläser

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available An interesting methodological aspect of secondary analysis is that it enables comparisons between constructions that constitute qualitative data analysis. This comparison is even more focused if a reanalysis is conducted, that means an analysis that reexamines both the primary study's data and the primary study's research question. In this article, a reanalysis is described that used interviews from the archive at the Special Collaborative Centre 186 (Sfb 186. One of the primary study's results was formulated as a hypothesis and subsequently "tested" by conducting a qualitative content analysis of the interviews. A comparison of primary study and reanalysis reveals critical decisions which may lead the data analyses to different results. These decisions are usually made implicitly and will show up only if contradictions between results are explained. As a second result of the comparison, typical threats to primary and secondary analyses are discussed. Primary studies seem to suffer from a "closure pressure", that it is a necessity to make sense of the data at all costs. This may stimulate researchers to close gaps in their data by speculation and to neglect contradicting evidence. Secondary analyses are thematically and methodically restricted by the primary study's data collection. Finally, the reanalysis confirmed that it is possible to use interviews from archives: The losses of information due to archiving and anonymisation seemed to have no significant influence on the reanalysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0003257

  3. Making choices in health: WHO guide to cost effectiveness analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan Torres Edejer, Tessa

    2003-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 6. Uncertainty in cost-effectiveness analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 7. 8. Policy uses of Generalized CEA...

  4. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiacai; Zhao, Wenjian

    2016-11-08

    There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method.

  5. Cost-Sharing of Ecological Construction Based on Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Cooperative Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacai Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There exist some fuzziness and uncertainty in the process of ecological construction. The aim of this paper is to develop a direct and an effective simplified method for obtaining the cost-sharing scheme when some interested parties form a cooperative coalition to improve the ecological environment of Min River together. Firstly, we propose the solution concept of the least square prenucleolus of cooperative games with coalition values expressed by trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Then, based on the square of the distance in the numerical value between two trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, we establish a corresponding quadratic programming model to obtain the least square prenucleolus, which can effectively avoid the information distortion and uncertainty enlargement brought about by the subtraction of trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Finally, we give a numerical example about the cost-sharing of ecological construction in Fujian Province in China to show the validity, applicability, and advantages of the proposed model and method.

  6. Methodology for reducing energy and resource costs in construction of trenchless crossover of pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toropov, V. S.

    2018-05-01

    The paper suggests a set of measures to select the equipment and its components in order to reduce energy costs in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well in the constructing the trenchless pipeline crossings of various materials using horizontal directional drilling technology. A methodology for reducing energy costs has been developed by regulating the operation modes of equipment during the process of pulling the working pipeline into a drilled and pre-expanded well. Since the power of the drilling rig is the most important criterion in the selection of equipment for the construction of a trenchless crossover, an algorithm is proposed for calculating the required capacity of the rig when operating in different modes in the process of pulling the pipeline into the well.

  7. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  8. Open-source digital technologies for low-cost monitoring of historical constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Basto, Camilo; Pelà, Luca; Chacón Flores, Rolando Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows new possibilities of using novel, open-source, low-cost platforms for the structural health monitoring of heritage structures. The objective of the study is to present an assessment of increasingly available open-source digital modeling and fabrication technologies in order to identify the suitable counterparts of the typical components of a continuous static monitoring system for a historical construction. The results of the research include a simple case-study, which is pre...

  9. Application and Mechanics Analysis of Multi-Function Construction Platforms in Prefabricated-Concrete Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meihua; Li, Rongshuai; Zhang, Wenze

    2017-11-01

    Multi-function construction platforms (MCPs) as an “old construction technology, new application” of the building facade construction equipment, its efforts to reduce labour intensity, improve labour productivity, ensure construction safety, shorten the duration of construction and other aspects of the effect are significant. In this study, the functional analysis of the multi-function construction platforms is carried out in the construction of the assembly building. Based on the general finite element software ANSYS, the static calculation and dynamic characteristics analysis of the MCPs structure are analysed, the simplified finite element model is constructed, and the selection of the unit, the processing and solution of boundary are under discussion and research. The maximum deformation value, the maximum stress value and the structural dynamic characteristic model are obtained. The dangerous parts of the platform structure are analysed, too. Multiple types of MCPs under engineering construction conditions are calculated, so as to put forward the rationalization suggestions for engineering application of the MCPs.

  10. Measuring the environmental costs of tidal power plant construction: A choice experiment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joo-Suk; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Korea is considering the construction of a tidal power plant (TPP) at Garolim Bay. However, as the construction of the Garolim TPP (GTPP) is expected to entail some environmental damage, it has become an increasingly important topic for public debate. Using a choice experiment (CE) approach, this study attempts to measure the economic cost that results from the environmental damage caused by the construction of GTPP. The CE is used to measure the environmental costs of individual attributes, including the reduction in the area of the tidal flat, the degradation of seawater quality, and the destruction of marine life. The results indicate that the annual willingness to pay (WTP) per household for mitigating the environmental damage that results from the worst-possible situation in relation to the present situation is about 96,042 Korean won (USD 101.1) in the seven biggest cities (off-site regions) and 18,584 Korean won (USD 19.6) in Seosan and Taean (on-site regions). This study is expected to provide policy-makers with quantitative information that will be useful to decide whether or not GTPP should be constructed.

  11. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  12. PLACE OF PRODUCTION COSTS SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia CHEREDNYCHENKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic conditions require the development and implementation of an adequate system of production costs, which would ensure a steady profit growth and production volumes in a highly competitive, constantly increasing input prices and tariffs. This management system must be based on an integrated production costs system analysis (PCSA, which would provide all operating costs management subsystems necessary information to design and make better management decisions. It provides a systematic analysis of more opportunities in knowledge, creating conditions of integrity mechanism knowledge object consisting of elements that show intersystem connections, each of which has its own defined and limited objectives, relationship with the environment.

  13. Metaphor Analysis and the Construction of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolf Schmitt

    2009-01-01

    Recently there has been an increasing number of studies on the construction of gender based on metaphors (KOLLER, 2004a, 2004b, 2005; ANDERSON VASBY & HORN SHEELER, 2005; EBELING & SCHMITZ, 2006; BOCK VON WÜLFINGEN, 2007). Many of these studies seem to have overlooked one of the most thoroughly developed theories of metaphor, LAKOFF and JOHNSON's so-called cognitive theory of metaphor or limited themselves to LAKOFF and JOHNSON's first book from 1980. In this article I explore current researc...

  14. Food Irradiation Update and Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Natick). Significant contributions were made by Dr. Irwin Taub and Mr. Christopher Rees of the Technology Acquisition Division, Food Engineering...stability. 5 Food Irradiation Update C-ost Analysis I. Introduction In the book The Physioloqy of Taste (1825), one of the pioneers of gastronomy ...review of the utility that radiation preserved foods might offer the military food service system. To date, this technology has seen limited use in the

  15. Design Optimization and Construction of the Thyratron/PFN Based Cost Model Modulator for the NLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, Roland F

    1999-01-01

    As design studies and various R and D efforts continue on Next Linear Collider (NLC) systems, much R and D work is being done on X-Band klystron development, and development of pulse modulators to drive these X-Band klystrons. A workshop on this subject was held at SLAC in June of 1998, and a follow-up workshop is scheduled at SLAC June 23-25, 1999. At the 1998 workshop, several avenues of R and D were proposed using solid state switching, induction LINAC principles, high voltage hard tubes, and a few more esoteric ideas. An optimized version of the conventional thyratron-PFN-pulse transformer modulator for which there is extensive operating experience is also a strong candidate for use in the NLC. Such a modulator is currently under construction for base line demonstration purposes. The performance of this ''Cost Model'' modulator will be compared to other developing technologies. Important parameters including initial capital cost, operating maintenance cost, reliability, maintainability, power efficiency, in addition to the usual operating parameters of pulse flatness, timing and pulse height jitter, etc. will be considered in the choice of a modulator design for the NLC. This paper updates the progress on this ''Cost Model'' modulator design and construction

  16. The integration of price/cost modelling and construction planning - the automated generation of construc­tion operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Bowen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that traditional price/cost models are unrelated to the construction process renders them largely unsuited to the provision of meaningful price/cost advice. The nature and lengthiness of the construction planning process has precluded its incorporation into price/cost modelling during the pre-tender phase of the traditional building procurement process. The nub of the modelling problem has been how to integrate the complex process of construction planning into the pre-tender price/cost modelling process. In this paper the authors propose the synthesis of artificial intelligence techniques and construction planning techniques, resulting in a conceptual framework for a network-based cost modelling system for use by quantity surveyors in the cost modelling of buildings.

  17. Cost benefit analysis for occupational radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruthers, G.F.; Rodgers, R.C.; Donohue, J.P.; Swartz, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of system design, many decisions must be made concerning different aspects of that particular system. The design of systems and components in a nuclear power plant has the added faction of occupational exposure experienced as a result of that design. This paper will deal with the different methods available to factor occupational exposure into design decisions. The ultimate goal is to have exposures related to the design 'As Low As Reasonably Achievable' or ALARA. To do this an analysis should be performed to show that the cost of reducing exposures any further cannot be justified in a cost-benefit analysis. In this paper examples will be given that will show that it is possible to change to a design which would increase occupational exposure somewhat but would increase the benefit over the cost of the extra exposure received. It will also be shown that some changes in design or additional equipment could be justified due to a reduction in exposure while some changes could not be justified on a reduction in exposure aspect alone but are justified on a time saving aspect such as during a refueling outage. (author)

  18. Some Observations on Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Terry G.

    1979-01-01

    The general nature of cost-effectiveness analysis is discussed, analytical frameworks for conducting cost-effectiveness studies are described, and some of the problems inherent in measuring educational costs and in assessing program effectiveness are addressed. (Author/IRT)

  19. Identifying The Effective Factors for Cost Overrun and Time Delay in Water Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mirzai Matin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Water construction projects in Iran frequently face problems which cause cost overrun and time delay, the two most common issues in construction projects in general. The objective of this survey is to identify and quantify these problems and thus help in avoiding them. This survey represents a collection of the most significant problems found in the literature, classified into 11 groups according to their source. The questionnaire form used contains 84 questions which were answered by random engineers who work in water construction projects. The Relative Importance Weight (RIW method is used to weight the importance of each one of the 84 problems. The focus of this survey is on overall top ten issues which are: bureaucracy in bidding method, inflation, economical condition of the government, not enough information gathered and surveys done before design, monthly payment difficulties, material cost changes, law changes by the government, financial difficulties, mode of financing and payment for completed work and changes made by the owner. A section for each of these issues provides additional information about them. In the full text of this survey the same weighting method is used to classify the main groups, and the results show that issues related to the groups of government, owner and consultant has the most significant impact. The last part of this survey describes the point of view of the engineers who took part in this survey and the recommendations they made.

  20. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  1. Early cost estimating for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahamid

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop early cost estimating models for road construction projects using multiple regression techniques, based on 131 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. As the cost estimates are required at early stages of a project, considerations were given to the fact that the input data for the required regression model could be easily extracted from sketches or scope definition of the project. 11 regression models are developed to estimate the total cost of road construction project in US dollar; 5 of them include bid quantities as input variables and 6 include road length and road width. The coefficient of determination r2 for the developed models is ranging from 0.92 to 0.98 which indicate that the predicted values from a forecast models fit with the real-life data. The values of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of the developed regression models are ranging from 13% to 31%, the results compare favorably with past researches which have shown that the estimate accuracy in the early stages of a project is between ±25% and ±50%.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of FBR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S [Japan Energy Economic Research Inst., Tokyo

    1975-07-01

    In several countries of the world, both financial and human resources are being invested to the development of fast breeder reactors. Quantitative determination of the benefit which will be expected as the reqard to these efforts of research and development - this is the purpose of the present study. It is cost-benefit analysis. The instances of this analysis are given, namely the work in The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, and also the one by U.S.AEC. The effect of the development of fast breeder reactors is evaluated in this way ; and problems in the analysis method are indicated. These two works in Japan and the U.S. were performed before the so-called oil crisis.

  3. Cost-benefit analysis of FBR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shinji

    1975-01-01

    In several countries of the world, both financial and human resources are being invested to the development of fast breeder reactors. Quantitative determination of the benefit which will be expected as the reqard to these efforts of research and development - this is the purpose of the present study. It is cost-benefit analysis. The instances of this analysis are given, namely the work in The Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, and also the one by U.S.AEC. The effect of the development of fast breeder reactors is evaluated in this way ; and problems in the analysis method are indicated. These two works in Japan and the U.S. were performed before the so-called oil crisis. (Mori, K.)

  4. Constructive Analysis : A Study in Epistemological Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    , and develops a framework for a kind of analysis that is more in keeping with recent psychological research on categorization. Finally, it is shown that this kind of analysis can be applied to the concept of justification in a manner that furthers the epistemological goal of providing intellectual guidance.......The present study is concerned the viability of the primary method in contemporary philosophy, i.e., conceptual analysis. Starting out by tracing the roots of this methodology to Platonic philosophy, the study questions whether such a methodology makes sense when divorced from Platonic philosophy...

  5. Application and development analysis of nuclear power plant modular construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Modular Construction is currently one of the major development trends for the nuclear power plant construction technology worldwide. In the first-of-a-kind AP1000 Nuclear Power Project practiced in China, the large-scale structural modules and mechanical modules have been successfully fabricated, assembled and installed. However, in the construction practice of the project, some quality issues are identified with the assembly and installation process of large-scale structural modules in addition to the issue of incomplete supply of mechanical modules, which has failed to fully demonstrate the features and merits of modular construction. This paper collects and consolidates the issues of modular construction of AP1000 first of a kind reactor, providing root cause analysis in the aspects of process design, quality control, site construction logic, interface management in the process of module fabrication, assembly and installation; modular construction feasibility assessment index is proved based on the quantification and qualitative analysis of the impact element. Based on the modular construction feasibility, NPP modular construction improvement suggestions are provided in the aspect of modular assembly optimization definition, tolerance control during the fitting process and the construction logic adjustment. (author)

  6. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... intends to calculate three metrics. Life-cycle cost. Simple payback period. Cash flow. Life-cycle cost... exceed costs) will be considered cost effective. The payback period and cash flow analyses provide... of LCC analysis is the summing of costs and benefits over multiple years, it requires that cash flows...

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of wetland restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubgaard, Alex

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to identify value for money solutions to government policies or projects. Environmental policy appraisal is typically complicated by the fact that thre are a number of feasible solutions to a decision problem - each yielding a different mix of environ...... is to illustrate the application of CBA within the field of river restoration. The Skjern River restoration project in Denmark is used as an empirical example of how these methods can be applied in the wetland restoration context....

  9. A low-cost EDXRF analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahdeman, J.E.; Watson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The article deals with an EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) system, the Spectrace (sup TM) 4020 (Tractor X-ray). The Spectra analysis software is both powerful and flexible enough to handle a wide variety of applications. The instrument was designed to be economical by integrating the major system components into a single unit. This practical approach to hardware has cut the cost per unit. The software structure of the Spectra 4020 is presented in a flow chart. The article also contains a diagram of the hardware configuration of the instrument

  10. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors.

  11. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors

  12. Construction of low-cost, Mod-OA wood composite wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Two sixty-foot, low-cost, wood composite blades for service on 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbines were constructed. The blades were constructed of epoxy resin-bonded Douglas fir veneers for the leading edge sections, and paper honeycombcored, birch plywood faced panels for the afterbody sections. The blades were joined to the wind turbine hub by epoxy resin-bonded steel load take-off studs embedded into the root end of the blades. The blades were installed on the 200 kW Mod-OA wind turbine facility at Kahuku, Hawaii, The blades completed nearly 8,000 hours of operation over an 18 month period at an average power of 150 kW prior to replacement with another set of wood composite blades. The blades were replaced because of a corrosion failure of the steel shank on one stud. Inspections showed that the wood composite structure remained in excellent condition.

  13. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  14. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  15. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  16. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  17. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  18. Japanese Cost Accounting Systems - analysis of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Winter

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at providing an insight into Japanese cost accounting. Firstly, the development of cost accounting in Japan is delineated. Subsequently, the cost accounting systems codified in the Japanese cost accounting standard are analysed based on the classification according to Hoitsch/Schmitz. Lastly, a critical appraisal of the cost accounting systems of the Japanese cost accounting standard as well as a comparison to German and American cost accounting systems are conducted.

  19. Design, construction and commissioning of a simple, low cost permanent magnet quadrupole doublet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.; Parcell, S.K.; Arnott, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of new beam line developments at the Australian National Medical Cyclotron, a permanent magnet quadrupole doublet was designed and built entirely in house. The design proceeded from the classical work by Halbach et al. but emphasised the 'low cost' aspect by using simple rectangular NdFeB blocks and simple assembly techniques. Numerical simulations using the (2-D) Gemini code were performed to check the field strength and homogeneity predictions of analytical calculations. This paper gives the reasons for the selection of a permanent magnet, the design and construction details of the quadrupole doublet and its field measurement results. (authors)

  20. Construction Performance Optimization toward Green Building Premium Cost Based on Greenship Rating Tools Assessment with Value Engineering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latief, Yusuf; Berawi, Mohammed Ali; Basten, Van; Riswanto; Budiman, Rachmat

    2017-07-01

    Green building concept becomes important in current building life cycle to mitigate environment issues. The purpose of this paper is to optimize building construction performance towards green building premium cost, achieving green building rating tools with optimizing life cycle cost. Therefore, this study helps building stakeholder determining building fixture to achieve green building certification target. Empirically the paper collects data of green building in the Indonesian construction industry such as green building fixture, initial cost, operational and maintenance cost, and certification score achievement. After that, using value engineering method optimized green building fixture based on building function and cost aspects. Findings indicate that construction performance optimization affected green building achievement with increasing energy and water efficiency factors and life cycle cost effectively especially chosen green building fixture.

  1. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  2. Modelling User-Costs in Life Cycle Cost-Benefit (LCCB) analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2008-01-01

    The importance of including user's costs in Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis of structures is discussed in this paper. This is especially for bridges of great importance. Repair or/and failure of a bridge will usually result in user costs greater than the repair or replacement costs of the bridge...

  3. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.; Phillips, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Analysis of cost and performance of physical security systems can be a complex, multi-dimensional problem. There are a number of point tools that address various aspects of cost and performance analysis. Increased interest in cost tradeoffs of physical security alternatives has motivated development of an architecture called Cost and Performance Analysis (CPA), which takes a top-down approach to aligning cost and performance metrics. CPA incorporates results generated by existing physical security system performance analysis tools, and utilizes an existing cost analysis tool. The objective of this architecture is to offer comprehensive visualization of complex data to security analysts and decision-makers

  4. MELCOR DB Construction for the Severe Accident Analysis DB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y. M.; Ahn, K. I.

    2011-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been constructing a severe accident analysis database (DB) under a National Nuclear R and D Program. In particular, an MAAP (commercial code being widely used in industries for integrated severe accident analysis) DB for many scenarios including a station blackout (SBO) has been completed. This paper shows the MELCOR DB construction process with examples of SBO scenarios, and the results will be used for a comparison with the MAAP DB

  5. Development of computer software for pavement life cycle cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The life cycle cost analysis program (LCCA) is designed to automate and standardize life cycle costing in Virginia. It allows the user to input information necessary for the analysis, and it then completes the calculations and produces a printed copy...

  6. Constructing storyboards based on hierarchical clustering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasebe, Satoshi; Sami, Mustafa M.; Muramatsu, Shogo; Kikuchi, Hisakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are growing needs for quick preview of video contents for the purpose of improving accessibility of video archives as well as reducing network traffics. In this paper, a storyboard that contains a user-specified number of keyframes is produced from a given video sequence. It is based on hierarchical cluster analysis of feature vectors that are derived from wavelet coefficients of video frames. Consistent use of extracted feature vectors is the key to avoid a repetition of computationally-intensive parsing of the same video sequence. Experimental results suggest that a significant reduction in computational time is gained by this strategy.

  7. Comparison of Cement-Based and Polymer-Based Concrete Pipes for Analysis of Cost Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Bozkurt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As the variety of materials utilized in construction industry has expanded, new techniques have been used in order to optimize the quality and efficiency of output. Therefore, recent innovations taking place in the construction industry led researchers to increase the mechanical efficiency of the output more than the cost effectiveness of it. However, especially professionals experiencing in the industry look into the cost effectiveness of the work. In other words, they also want researchers to justify the innovative techniques economically. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of the cost efficiency of polymer concrete used to manufacture durable and long-lasting reinforced concrete structures.

  8. International comparison of the economy of constructing nuclear power plants by using the method of referred investment costs in Czechoslovakia and in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, P.; Jelen, J.

    1989-01-01

    The method of referred investment costs was applied to a comparison of the economy of constructing the nuclear power plant at Temelin, Czechoslovakia, with that for the hypothetic nuclear power plant at Middletown, USA. For a reasonably adopted Czechoslovak crown/USD rate, the obtained costs for building the Temelin power plant are 50% higher than those for building the reference Middletown power plant. This compares rather favorably with the general level of investment costs in Czechoslovakia under the present economic conditions. The analysis performed shows that savings in investment costs should be sought in the fields of technological modernization of preparatory work and in all construction work, with the aim to reduce particularly live work. (P.A.). 12 tabs., 8 refs

  9. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Management of Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall...

  10. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine... (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  11. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  12. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  13. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  14. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  15. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price...

  16. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  17. 40 CFR 35.6585 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 35.6585... Response Actions Procurement Requirements Under A Cooperative Agreement § 35.6585 Cost and price analysis. (a) General. The recipient must conduct and document a cost or price analysis in connection with...

  18. Cost Analysis of Leed Certified United States Navy Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    be accumulated in order to offset initial investment costs - St = Savings in operational costs in year t associated with a given alternative - ∆I0...ior Non-Structural Elements er.o• 2 1 Construction Waste ManagenMnt Oivort 50% fro m Disposal Crocllt 22 Construction Waste Managemen t , Divert 75... Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding

  19. Cost analysis of reinforced concrete slabs and columns

    OpenAIRE

    Spuś, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The construction industry is increasingly looking for solutions that are both simple and effective and that provide cost savings, speed and flexibility of execution. Two-way slabs are a form of construction unique to reinforced concrete comparing with the other major structural materials. It is an efficient, economical, and widely used structural system. The present dissertation aims to analyze and compare costs between four types of slabs: waffle slab with recuperate molds, flat slabs wit...

  20. THE IMPACT OF THE BASIC ASSETS EFFICIENCY ON THE OF CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS COST PRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. Zeynalov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In article are considered problems of the analysis of the influence mode to usages and conditions of the building technology and facilities to mechanizations on prime cost produced building product. It is offered original scheme intercropping the factors, in accordance with influence of the working expenses of the facilities of the lab our on prime cost of the building product. The offered methods of the estimation physical wear-out level of the building technology and competitiveness of the active part of production assets of the building enterprise.

  1. Analysis and modeling of rail maintenance costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Bakhshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Railroad maintenance engineering plays an important role on availability of roads and reducing the cost of railroad incidents. Rail is of the most important parts of railroad industry, which needs regular maintenance since it covers a significant part of total maintenance cost. Any attempt on optimizing total cost of maintenance could substantially reduce the cost of railroad system and it can reduce total cost of the industry. The paper presents a new method to estimate the cost of rail failure using different cost components such as cost of inspection and cost of risk associated with possible accidents. The proposed model of this paper is used for a real-world case study of railroad transportation of Tehran region and the results have been analyzed.

  2. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  3. A Methodology for Constructing Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for Climate Action in Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As drivers of climate action, cities are taking measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, which if left unabated pose a challenge to meeting long-term climate targets. The economics of climate action needs to be at the forefront of climate dialogue to prioritize investments among competing mitigation measures. A marginal abatement cost (MAC curve is an effective visualization of climate action that initiates a technical and economic discussion of the cost-effectiveness and abatement potential of such actions among local leaders, policy makers, and climate experts. More commonly demonstrated for countries, MAC curves need to be developed for cities because of their heterogeneity, which vary in their urban activities, energy supply, infrastructure stock, and commuting patterns. The methodology for constructing bottom-up MAC curves for cities is presented for technologies that offer fuel switching and/or energy efficiencies, while considering technology lifetimes, city-specific electricity and fuel prices, and emission intensities. Resulting MAC curves are unique to every city, and chart the pathway towards low-carbon growth by prioritizing measures based on cost-effectiveness. A case study of Toronto’s climate targets demonstrates the prioritization of select technologies. Leveraging MAC curves to support climate programs enables cities to strategically invest in financing climate action and designing incentives.

  4. Estimation of Costs and Durations of Construction of Urban Roads Using ANN and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Peško

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Offer preparation has always been a specific part of a building process which has significant impact on company business. Due to the fact that income greatly depends on offer’s precision and the balance between planned costs, both direct and overheads, and wished profit, it is necessary to prepare a precise offer within required time and available resources which are always insufficient. The paper presents a research of precision that can be achieved while using artificial intelligence for estimation of cost and duration in construction projects. Both artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM are analysed and compared. The best SVM has shown higher precision, when estimating costs, with mean absolute percentage error (MAPE of 7.06% compared to the most precise ANNs which has achieved precision of 25.38%. Estimation of works duration has proved to be more difficult. The best MAPEs were 22.77% and 26.26% for SVM and ANN, respectively.

  5. BIM cost analysis of transport infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Andrey; Chelyshkov, Pavel; Grossman, Y.; Khromenkova, A.

    2017-10-01

    The article describes the method of analysis of the energy costs of transport infrastructure objects using BIM software. The paper consideres several options of orientation of a building using SketchUp and IES VE software programs. These options allow to choose the best direction of the building facades. Particular attention is given to a distribution of a temperature field in a cross-section of the wall according to the calculation made in the ELCUT software. The issues related to calculation of solar radiation penetration into a building and selection of translucent structures are considered in the paper. The article presents data on building codes relating to the transport sector, on the basis of which the calculations were made. The author emphasizes that BIM-programs should be implemented and used in order to optimize a thermal behavior of a building and increase its energy efficiency using climatic data.

  6. An improved set of standards for finding cost for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines have helped standardize methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, allowing different interventions to be compared and enhancing the generalizability of study findings. There is agreement that all relevant services be valued from the societal perspective using a long-term time horizon and that more exact methods be used to cost services most affected by the study intervention. Guidelines are not specific enough with respect to costing methods, however. The literature was reviewed to identify the problems associated with the 4 principal methods of cost determination. Microcosting requires direct measurement and is ordinarily reserved to cost novel interventions. Analysts should include nonwage labor cost, person-level and institutional overhead, and the cost of development, set-up activities, supplies, space, and screening. Activity-based cost systems have promise of finding accurate costs of all services provided, but are not widely adopted. Quality must be evaluated and the generalizability of cost estimates to other settings must be considered. Administrative cost estimates, chiefly cost-adjusted charges, are widely used, but the analyst must consider items excluded from the available system. Gross costing methods determine quantity of services used and employ a unit cost. If the intervention will affect the characteristics of a service, the method should not assume that the service is homogeneous. Questions are posed for future reviews of the quality of costing methods. The analyst must avoid inappropriate assumptions, especially those that bias the analysis by exclusion of costs that are affected by the intervention under study.

  7. Vaginal Construction and Treatment Providers' Experiences: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roen, Katrina; Creighton, Sarah M; Hegarty, Peter; Liao, Lih-Mei

    2018-06-01

    To investigate specialist clinicians' experiences of treating vaginal agenesis. Semi-structured interviews. Twelve hospitals in Britain and Sweden. Thirty-two health professionals connected to multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) including medical specialists and psychologists. Theoretical thematic analysis of recorded verbatim data. The gynecologist and psychologist interviewees share certain observations including the importance of psychological readiness for and appropriate timing of treatment. Three overlapping themes are identified in our theoretical analysis of the MDT clinicians' talk: (1) the stigma of vaginal agenesis and the pressure to be "normal" can lead patients to minimize the time, effort, physical discomfort, and emotional cost inherent in treatment. (2) Under pressure, treatment might be presented to patients with insufficient attention to the potential psychological effect of the language used. Furthermore, the opportunity to question what is "normal" in sex is generally not taken up. It can be challenging to help the women to transcend their medicalized experiences to come to experiencing their bodies as sexual and enjoyable. (3) The reality of treatment demands, which are not always adequately processed before treatment, can lead to discontinuation and even disengagement with services. The MDT clinicians in this study emphasized the importance of psychological input in vaginal construction. However, such input should proactively question social norms about how women's genitalia should appear and function. Furthermore, rather than steering patients (back) to treatment, the entire MDT could more explicitly question social norms and help the women to do the same. By shifting the definition of success from anatomy to personal agency, the clinical focus is transformed from treatment to women. Copyright © 2018 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Life-Cycle Cost Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic Power System And Diesel Generator System For Remote Residential Application In Nigeria. ... like capital cost, and diesel fuel costs are varied. The results show the photovoltaic system to be more cost-effective at low-power ranges of electrical energy supply.

  9. Moche CAPE Formula: Cost Analysis of Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Joanne Spiers

    The Moche Cost Analysis of Public Education (CAPE) formula was developed to identify total and per pupil costs of regular elementary education, regular secondary education, elementary special education, and secondary special education. Costs are analyzed across five components: (1) comprehensive costs (including transportation and supplemental…

  10. Social costs of road crashes : an international analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, W. & Stipdonk, H.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income

  11. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  12. Cost Analysis of Renewable Energy-Based Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldez Miner, Julieta I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, Shruti [University of Denver; Gao, David Wenzhong [University of Denver

    2017-11-16

    This paper analyzes the cost composition of microgrid construction as well as the influencing key factors. The Microgrid Cost Study aims at identifying the average cost of a typical microgrid project. The project is limited to the vicinity of U.S. and hence takes into account of only existing microgrid projects in U.S. The project's objective is to find cost of microgrid and its individual components for next 5 years. This will help in R&D for future microgrid projects as well as help investors/developers/researchers get an idea about the cost of their projects that they might want to start in near future.

  13. Cost of and soil loss on "minimum-standard" forest truck roads constructed in the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith

    1984-01-01

    A "minimum-standard" forest truck road that provides efficient and environmentally acceptable access for several forest activities is described. Cost data are presented for eight of these roads constructed in the central Appalachians. The average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,119. The range was $5,048 to $14,424. Soil loss was measured from several...

  14. Factoral analysis of the cost of preparing oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avdeyeva, L A; Kudoyarov, G Sh; Shmatova, M F

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical statistics methods (basically correlational and regression analysis) are used to study the factors which form the level of cost of preparing oil with consideration of the mutual influence of the factors. Selected as the claims for inclusion into a mathematical model was a group of five a priori justified factors: the water level of the oil being extracted (%); the specific expenditure of deemulsifiers; the volume of oil preparation; the quality of oil preparation (the salt content) and the level of use of the installations' capacities (%). To construct an economic and mathematical model of the cost of the technical preparation (SPP) of the oil, all the unions which make up the Ministry of the Oil Industry were divided into two comparable totalities. The first group included unions in which the oil SPP was lower than the branch average and the second, unions in which the SPP was higher than the branch wide cost. Using the coefficients of regression, special elasticity coefficients and the fluctuation indicators, the basic factors were finally identified which have the greatest influence on the formation of the oil SPP level separately for the first and second groups of unions.

  15. Cost Accounting and Analysis for University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.; Cooper, Michael D.

    The approach to library planning studied in this report is the use of accounting models to measure library costs and implement program budgets. A cost-flow model for a university library is developed and listed with historical data from the Berkeley General Library. Various comparisons of an exploratory nature are made of the unit costs for…

  16. Bayesian-network-based safety risk analysis in construction projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Limao; Wu, Xianguo; Skibniewski, Miroslaw J.; Zhong, Jingbing; Lu, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a systemic decision support approach for safety risk analysis under uncertainty in tunnel construction. Fuzzy Bayesian Networks (FBN) is used to investigate causal relationships between tunnel-induced damage and its influential variables based upon the risk/hazard mechanism analysis. Aiming to overcome limitations on the current probability estimation, an expert confidence indicator is proposed to ensure the reliability of the surveyed data for fuzzy probability assessment of basic risk factors. A detailed fuzzy-based inference procedure is developed, which has a capacity of implementing deductive reasoning, sensitivity analysis and abductive reasoning. The “3σ criterion” is adopted to calculate the characteristic values of a triangular fuzzy number in the probability fuzzification process, and the α-weighted valuation method is adopted for defuzzification. The construction safety analysis progress is extended to the entire life cycle of risk-prone events, including the pre-accident, during-construction continuous and post-accident control. A typical hazard concerning the tunnel leakage in the construction of Wuhan Yangtze Metro Tunnel in China is presented as a case study, in order to verify the applicability of the proposed approach. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and its application potential. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages between FBN and fuzzy fault tree analysis (FFTA) as risk analysis tools is also conducted. The proposed approach can be used to provide guidelines for safety analysis and management in construction projects, and thus increase the likelihood of a successful project in a complex environment. - Highlights: • A systemic Bayesian network based approach for safety risk analysis is developed. • An expert confidence indicator for probability fuzzification is proposed. • Safety risk analysis progress is extended to entire life cycle of risk-prone events. • A typical

  17. Making Hay When It Rains: The Effect Prevailing Wage Regulations, Scale Economies, Seasonal, Cyclical and Local Business Patterns Have On School Construction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari-Rad, Hamid; Philips, Peter; Prus, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Examines several alternative ways for school districts to reduce the construction costs of new facilities. Finds that spacing out the start of facility construction projects and building during economic downturns in the construction industry offer the best options for construction cost savings. (PKP)

  18. Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soli T. Khericha

    2006-01-01

    This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T and FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T and FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation

  19. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  20. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  2. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  3. Investigation on the Factors Influencing Construction Time and Cost Overrun for High-Rise Building Projects In Penang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Haslinda, A.; Xian, T. Wei; Norfarahayu, K.; Muhamad Hanafi, R.; Fikri, H. Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Time and cost overruns have become one prominent issue for most construction projects around the world. Project costing and timeframe extension had been causing a lot of wastage and loss of opportunity for many parties involved. Therefore, this research was carried out to investigate the factors influencing time and cost overruns for high-rise construction projects in Penang, Malaysia. A set of questionnaires survey was distributed to the project managers who had been or currently involved in the high-rise building projects in Penang to get their input and perceptions for each factor identified as well as its frequency of occurrence. In order to rank all the factors gathered, the mean index of the most distinguishing factors and its frequency of occurrence were multiplied to get the severity index. The results revealed that for time overrun, the most predominant causes were due to design changes, inadequate planning and scheduling and poor labor productivity. Meanwhile, the predominant causes of cost overrun were poor pre-construction budget and material cost planning, inaccurate quantity take-off and materials cost increased by inflation. The significance of establishing the issues related to time and cost overruns for the high-rise building construction project is to provide a greater insight and understanding on the causes of delays, particularly among the main project players: contractors, client, and consultants.

  4. Cost Analysis of NEDU’s Helium Reclaimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    T ITLE (and Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED COST ANALYSIS OF NEDU’S HELIUM RECLAIMER . Survey 6 . PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMSER 7...telephone conversation). 5. Charles T. Horngren , "Introduction tu Management Accounting " Fourth Edition. 3 . .4m mmnssmmlm~ • FIGURE 1 PRESENT, FUTURE AND...FEET COST OF PERIODIC MAINTENANCE OF HELIUM ELECTRIiC COST COST OF TOTAL RECLAIMED POWER NEW COST PRESENT WORTH YEAR N PER YEAR ( S /1000 FT

  5. The influence of management and construction methods in the repair costs of Spain’s low-volume road network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutiquio Gallego

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the entire process of the implementation of the Spanish low volume road network, including the design criteria, the construction techniques and the management policies during all the periods. The current situation of low volume roads in Spain was analyzed with respect to the legal framework and their actual condition. In addition, the budget required for the repair of 41 low volume roads throughout Spain was calculated in order to statistically analyze the influence of the pavement materials and the period of construction. The main conclusions were that low volume roads constructed during the 1970´s are currently those in the best state of repair and those requiring the lower repair costs, even lower than those constructed after 1980´s. In addition, low volume roads constructed with higher quality materials and using standardized techniques required five times lower repair costs than those made of lower quality materials.

  6. Construction delays causing risks on time and cost - a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidambaram Ramanathan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increase in the number of construction projects experiencing extensive delays leading to exceeding initial time and cost budget.  This paper reviews 41 studies around the world which surveyed the delay factors and classified them into Groups.  The main purpose of this paper is to review literature, each of which have categorized the causes that are responsible for time delays and cost overrun in projects. The collected list has 113 causes for delays categorized in to 18 different groups.  Most of the researches have analysed the responses from the Questionnaire survey.    The collected data are used to rank the problem.  The data are further used to investigate and analyse Important Index, Frequency Index, Severity Index, Relative Important Index, Relative Importance Weight, Weighted Average, Mean, Standard Deviation and Variance.  The collective comparison has revealed that the ranking given by all the researchers is not the same.  Further each and every study has different rank ratings for the different group of the delays.  This review paper attempts to provide an updated compilation of the earlier studies on ranking of the delay causers, which are never similar and constant for universal projects.  It is concluded that a separate study is required for identifying the factors causing delay for projects operated in Sabah, East Malaysia.

  7. The construction and operation of a low-cost poultry waste digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsberger, S C; Shih, J C

    1984-05-01

    A simple and low-cost poultry waste digester (PWD) was constructed to treat the waste from 4000 caged laying hens on University Research Unit No. 2 at North Carolina State University. The system was built basically of a plastic lining with insulation, a heating system, a hot-water tank, and other metering equipment. It was operated at 50 degrees C and pH 7.5-8.0. The initiation of methane production was achieved using the indigenous microflora in the poultry waste. At an optimal loading rate (7.5 kg volatile solids/m(3) day), the PWD produced biogas (55% methane) at a rate of 4.0 m(3)/m(3) day. The PWD was biologically stable and able to tolerate temporary overloads and shutdowns. A higher loading rate failed to maintain a high gas production rate and caused drops in methane content and pH value. Under optimal conditions, a positive energy balance was demonstrated with a net surplus of 50.6% of the gross energy. For methane production, the PWD system was proved to be technically feasible. The simple design and inexpensive materials used for this model could significantly reduce the cost of digestion compared to more conventional systems. More studies are needed to determine the durability, the required maintenance of the system, and the most economical method of biogas and solid residue utilization.

  8. A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model

  9. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  10. Construction safety and waste management an economic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2015-01-01

    This monograph presents an analysis of construction safety problems and on-site safety measures from an economist’s point of view. The book includes examples from both emerging countries, e.g. China and India, and developed countries, e.g. Australia and Hong Kong. Moreover, the author covers an analysis on construction safety knowledge sharing by means of updatable mobile technology such as apps in Androids and iOS platform mobile devices. The target audience comprises primarily researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  11. Game Theory Analysis of Bidding for A Construction Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kembłowski, Marian W.; Grzyl, Beata; Siemaszko, Agata

    2017-10-01

    The authors are concerned with a bidding problem. There are two companies (P1 and P2) bidding for a highway construction project. In order to be more competitive, P1 considers buying a new gravel pit near the construction site. The basic cost of the pit is known to both companies. However, there is also an additional, hidden, cost (C) known only to P1. P2 is uncertain whether the hidden cost is C = 0 or C = x. P1 plans to bid for the job, but has to decide whether to buy the gravel pit. P2, not having a complete knowledge about C, thus not knowing the strategy choice of P1, has to decide if to bid for the job. In effect we have two payoff matrices, one for the additional cost C = 0, and the other one for C = x. If the probability of P2 bidding for the project can be estimated by propagating intelligence information through a Bayesian Belief Network, the best strategy for P1 can be readily determined. Otherwise, the solution calls for changing this game of incomplete information (players may or may not know some information about the other players, e.g., their “type,” their strategies, payoffs) into a game of imperfect information (players are simply unaware of the actions chosen by other players). This is achieved by introducing an additional “Nature” node which for this problem determines with some probability “p” the additional cost C= 0 (thus, C = x with probability 1-p). The solution of this game turns out to depend on the probability “p”. For some values of p the game is solved with pure strategies, whereas for other values the game is in equilibrium when the players randomly mix their strategies.

  12. Small-Scale Smart Grid Construction and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface, Nicholas James

    The smart grid (SG) is a commonly used catch-phrase in the energy industry yet there is no universally accepted definition. The objectives and most useful concepts have been investigated extensively in economic, environmental and engineering research by applying statistical knowledge and established theories to develop simulations without constructing physical models. In this study, a small-scale version (SSSG) is constructed to physically represent these ideas so they can be evaluated. Results of construction show data acquisition three times more expensive than the grid itself although mainly due to the incapability to downsize 70% of data acquisition costs to small-scale. Experimentation on the fully assembled grid exposes the limitations of low cost modified sine wave power, significant enough to recommend pure sine wave investment in future SSSG iterations. Findings can be projected to full-size SG at a ratio of 1:10, based on the appliance representing average US household peak daily load. However this exposes disproportionalities in the SSSG compared with previous SG investigations and recommended changes for future iterations are established to remedy this issue. Also discussed are other ideas investigated in the literature and their suitability for SSSG incorporation. It is highly recommended to develop a user-friendly bidirectional charger to more accurately represent vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. Smart homes, BEV swap stations and pumped hydroelectric storage can also be researched on future iterations of the SSSG.

  13. Analysis of selected employee's care components in the large construction company

    OpenAIRE

    Šefčíková, Soňa

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the bachelor thesis is to give a construction company AB (which does not want to be identified) recommendations for current offer of the employee benefits. Based on expert interviews with the Compensation and benefits director and the analysis of employee benefits there have been identified limitations, which are eliminated by offering of specific amendment proposals and by the calculation of the company costs caused by the change. Bachelor thesis is divided into two parts. The in...

  14. Constructing the truth: from 'confusion of tongues' to 'constructions in analysis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Jacques

    2006-04-01

    The author hypothesizes that the papers Freud wrote in the period 1934-9 constitute a final turning point in his work resulting from an attempt to work through, by means of self-analysis, early traumatic elements reactivated by the conditions of his life in the 1930s. The author emphasizes that the ups and downs of Freud's relationship with Sándor Ferenczi and the mourning which followed his death in 1933 played an important role in this traumatic situation. He suggests that through these last works, Freud pursued a posthumous dialogue with Ferenczi. This working through led Freud, in Moses and monotheism, to an ultimate revision of his theory of trauma, a revision which the author examines in full, in the light of the works of the Egyptologist, Jan Assmann. A new analytical paradigm emerges: that of constructions in analysis developed in the article of the same name. The activity of construction appears as an alternative to the mutual analysis proposed by Ferenczi and is closely bound up with the notion of historical truth. In psychoanalysis, it would mean constructing a historical truth whose anchoring in the material truth of the past is essential, though it should not be confused with it.

  15. An Analysis of the IOM Cost Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    During the 1972-73 academic year, the National Institute of Medicine (IOM) undertook a study of the cost of education of those health professionals supported through federal capitation grants. The methodology of the study is described and the patterns of costs of pharmacy education are compared with those in another profession. (LBH)

  16. Department of the Army Cost Analysis Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    SECTION I - AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) ................................................................179 SECTION II - AUTOMATED...Management & Comptroller) endorsed the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) model and since it is widely used to prepare POEs, CCAs and...CRB IPT (in ACEIT ) will be the basis for information contained in the CAB. Any remaining unresolved issues from the IPT process will be raised at the

  17. Sustainability Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Roof Waterproofing Methods Considering LCCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a construction project, selection of an appropriate method in the planning/design stage is very important for ensuring effective project implementation and success. Many companies have adopted the life cycle cost (LCC method, one of the methods for analyzing economic efficiency, for appropriate decision-making in the basic/detailed design stage by estimating overall costs and expenses generated over the entire project. This paper presents an LCC method for calculating the LCC of CO2 (LCCO2, based on materials committed during the lifecycle of a structure for each roof waterproofing method and adding this cost to the LCC for comparative analysis. Thus, this technique presents the LCC that includes the cost of CO2 emission. The results show that in terms of initial construction cost, asphalt waterproofing had the highest CO2 emission cost, followed by sheet waterproofing. LCCO2 did not greatly influence the initial construction cost and maintenance cost, as it is relatively smaller than the LCC. However, when the number of durable years was changed, the LCC showed some changes.

  18. Critical analysis of procurement techniques in construction management sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Suman Tiwari Suresh; Chan, Shiau Wei; Faraz Mubarak, Muhammad

    2018-04-01

    Over the last three decades, numerous procurement techniques have been one of the highlights of the Construction Management (CM) for ventures, administration contracting, venture management as well as design and construct. Due to the development and utilization of those techniques, various researchers have explored the criteria for their choice and their execution in terms of time, cost and quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of giving an account on the relationship between the procurement techniques and the progressed related issues, for example, supply chain, sustainability, innovation and technology development, lean construction, constructability, value management, Building Information Modelling (BIM) as well as e-procurement. Through chosen papers from the reputable CM-related academic journals, the specified scopes of these issues are methodically assessed with the objective to explore the status and trend in procurement related research. The result of this paper contributes theoretically as well as practically to the researchers and industrialist in order to be aware and appreciate the development of procurement techniques.

  19. A multifactorial analysis of the Russian adversity impersonal construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kizach, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The adversity impersonal construction involves two arguments: an accusative and an instrumental. The order of these two elements is investigated with the help of 669 examples taken from a Russian corpus, and the analysis shows that the primary determinants of the word order are the pronominality...

  20. Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in March/April 2004. The 37 revised full papers and 6 revised tool demonstration papers presented were car...

  1. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  2. Communicating uncertainty in cost-benefit analysis : A cognitive psychological perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouter, N.; Holleman, M.; Calvert, S.C.; Annema, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on a cognitive psychological theory, this paper aims to improve the communication of uncertainty in Cost-Benefit Analysis. The theory is based on different cognitive-personality and cognitive-social psychological constructs that may help explain individual differences in the processing of

  3. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul; Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul

    2006-01-01

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure

  4. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  5. Integrated safety analysis to operate while constructing Urenco USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohrt, Rick; Su, Shiaw-Der; Lehman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The URENCO USA (UUSA) site in Lea County, New Mexico, USA is authorized by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility under 10 CFR 70 (Ref 1). The facility employs the gas centrifuge process to separate natural uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feed material into a product stream enriched up to 5% U-235 and a depleted UF 6 stream containing approximately 0.2 to 0.34% U-235. Initial plant operations, with a limited number of cascades on line, commenced in the second half of 2010. Construction activities continue as each subsequent cascade is commissioned and placed into service. UUSA performed an Integrated Safety Analysis (ISA) to allow the facility to operate while constructing the remainder of the facility. The ISA Team selected the What-If/Checklist method based on guidance in NUREG-1513 (Ref 2) and AIChE Guidelines (Ref 3). Of the three methods recommended for high risk events HAZOP, What-If/Checklist, or Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), the What-If/Checklist lends itself best to construction activities. It combines the structure of a checklist with an unstructured 'brainstorming' approach to create a list of specific accident events that could produce an undesirable consequence. The What-If/Checklist for Operate While Constructing divides the UUSA site into seven areas and creates what-if questions for sixteen different construction activities, such as site preparation, external construction cranes, and internal construction lifts. The result is a total of 112 nodes, for which the Operate While Constructing ISA Team created hundreds of what-if questions. For each what-if question the team determined the likelihood, consequences, safeguards, and acceptability of risk. What-if questions with unacceptable risk are the accident sequences and their selected safeguards are the Items Relied on For Safety (IROFS). The final ISA identified four (4) new accident sequences that, unless

  6. Analysis of automotive tire construction. Jidosha tire no kozo kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, K. (Toyo Tire and Rubber Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan))

    1993-06-15

    This paper introduces features and trends of analyzing performance and construction of automotive tires. Tires are demanded of high durability, high motion performance, good comfort performance for vibration and noise, and low fuel consumption performance. A feature of analyzing the construction is to execute a modelling assuming that a tire has air-rigid flexible structure and rubber materials show hyperelastic behavior, hypothesizing a strain energy density function. In addition, a tire is highly incompressible. Visco elasticity and anti-friction performance are also important points. Rubber and cord layers have elastic characteristic of three-dimensional perpendicular anisotropy as well as non-linearity with which characteristics change according to transformation. A structural analysis must cover from static analysis to steady dynamic analysis, non-steady dynamic analysis, and eigenvalue analysis. Thermal analysis of tires simulates phenomena by combining dynamical analysis with thermal analysis. Super-computers have now come to be used for formulating equilibrium equations using finite element methods, developing finite elements, and performing heat or visco elasticity analysis and applied analysis. 35 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Cost Analysis in Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Teusink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost in shoulder surgery has taken on a new focus with passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. As part of this law, there is a provision for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs and the bundled payment initiative. In this model, one entity would receive a single payment for an episode of care and distribute funds to all other parties involved. Given its reproducible nature, shoulder arthroplasty is ideally situated to become a model for an episode of care. Currently, there is little research into cost in shoulder arthroplasty surgery. The current analyses do not provide surgeons with a method for determining the cost and outcomes of their interventions, which is necessary to the success of bundled payment. Surgeons are ideally positioned to become leaders in ACOs, but in order for them to do so a methodology must be developed where accurate costs and outcomes can be determined for the episode of care.

  8. Brain Network Analysis: Separating Cost from Topology Using Cost-Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestet, Cedric E.; Nichols, Thomas E.; Bullmore, Ed T.; Simmons, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i) differences in weighted costs and (ii) differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration. PMID:21829437

  9. Brain network analysis: separating cost from topology using cost-integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric E Ginestet

    Full Text Available A statistically principled way of conducting brain network analysis is still lacking. Comparison of different populations of brain networks is hard because topology is inherently dependent on wiring cost, where cost is defined as the number of edges in an unweighted graph. In this paper, we evaluate the benefits and limitations associated with using cost-integrated topological metrics. Our focus is on comparing populations of weighted undirected graphs that differ in mean association weight, using global efficiency. Our key result shows that integrating over cost is equivalent to controlling for any monotonic transformation of the weight set of a weighted graph. That is, when integrating over cost, we eliminate the differences in topology that may be due to a monotonic transformation of the weight set. Our result holds for any unweighted topological measure, and for any choice of distribution over cost levels. Cost-integration is therefore helpful in disentangling differences in cost from differences in topology. By contrast, we show that the use of the weighted version of a topological metric is generally not a valid approach to this problem. Indeed, we prove that, under weak conditions, the use of the weighted version of global efficiency is equivalent to simply comparing weighted costs. Thus, we recommend the reporting of (i differences in weighted costs and (ii differences in cost-integrated topological measures with respect to different distributions over the cost domain. We demonstrate the application of these techniques in a re-analysis of an fMRI working memory task. We also provide a Monte Carlo method for approximating cost-integrated topological measures. Finally, we discuss the limitations of integrating topology over cost, which may pose problems when some weights are zero, when multiplicities exist in the ranks of the weights, and when one expects subtle cost-dependent topological differences, which could be masked by cost-integration.

  10. Variance analysis refines overhead cost control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J C; Suver, J D

    1992-02-01

    Many healthcare organizations may not fully realize the benefits of standard cost accounting techniques because they fail to routinely report volume variances in their internal reports. If overhead allocation is routinely reported on internal reports, managers can determine whether billing remains current or lost charges occur. Healthcare organizations' use of standard costing techniques can lead to more realistic performance measurements and information system improvements that alert management to losses from unrecovered overhead in time for corrective action.

  11. Global cost analysis on adaptation to sea level rise based on RCP/SSP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, N.; Tamura, M.; Yotsukuri, M.; Kuwahara, Y.; Yokoki, H.

    2017-12-01

    Low-lying areas are the most vulnerable to sea level rise (SLR) due to climate change in the future. In order to adapt to SLR, it is necessary to decide whether to retreat from vulnerable areas or to install dykes to protect them from inundation. Therefore, cost- analysis of adaptation using coastal dykes is one of the most essential issues in the context of climate change and its countermeasures. However, few studies have globally evaluated the future costs of adaptation in coastal areas. This study tries to globally analyze the cost of adaptation in coastal areas. First, global distributions of projected inundation impacts induced by SLR including astronomical high tide were assessed. Economic damage was estimated on the basis of the econometric relationship between past hydrological disasters, affected population, and per capita GDP using CRED's EM-DAT database. Second, the cost of adaptation was also determined using the cost database and future scenarios. The authors have built a cost database for installed coastal dykes worldwide and applied it to estimating the future cost of adaptation. The unit costs of dyke construction will increase with socio-economic scenario (SSP) such as per capita GDP. Length of vulnerable coastline is calculated by identifying inundation areas using ETOPO1. Future cost was obtained by multiplying the length of vulnerable coastline and the unit cost of dyke construction. Third, the effectiveness of dyke construction was estimated by comparing cases with and without adaptation.As a result, it was found that incremental adaptation cost is lower than economic damage in the cases of SSP1 and SSP3 under RCP scenario, while the cost of adaptation depends on the durability of the coastal dykes.

  12. Clinical process analysis and activity-based costing at a heart center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridderstolpe, Lisa; Johansson, Andreas; Skau, Tommy; Rutberg, Hans; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Cost studies, productivity, efficiency, and quality of care measures, the links between resources and patient outcomes, are fundamental issues for hospital management today. This paper describes the implementation of a model for process analysis and activity-based costing (ABC)/management at a Heart Center in Sweden as a tool for administrative cost information, strategic decision-making, quality improvement, and cost reduction. A commercial software package (QPR) containing two interrelated parts, "ProcessGuide and CostControl," was used. All processes at the Heart Center were mapped and graphically outlined. Processes and activities such as health care procedures, research, and education were identified together with their causal relationship to costs and products/services. The construction of the ABC model in CostControl was time-consuming. However, after the ABC/management system was created, it opened the way for new possibilities including process and activity analysis, simulation, and price calculations. Cost analysis showed large variations in the cost obtained for individual patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. We conclude that a process-based costing system is applicable and has the potential to be useful in hospital management.

  13. Cost Control Strategies for Zero Energy Buildings: High-Performance Design and Construction on a Budget (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    There is mounting evidence that zero energy can, in many cases, be achieved within typical construction budgets. To ensure that the momentum behind zero energy buildings and other low-energy buildings will continue to grow, this guide assembles recommendations for replicating specific successes of early adopters who have met their energy goals while controlling costs. Contents include: discussion of recommended cost control strategies, which are grouped by project phase (acquisition and delivery, design, and construction) and accompanied by industry examples; recommendations for balancing key decision-making factors; and quick reference tables that can help teams apply strategies to specific projects.

  14. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  15. Cost-effective analysis of PET application in NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aichun; Liu Jianjun; Sun Xiaoguang; Shi Yiping; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PET and CT application for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Methods: Using decision analysis method the diagnostic efficiency of PET and CT for diagnosis of NSCLC in china was analysed. And also the value of cost for accurate diagnosis (CAD), cost for accurate staging (CAS) and cost for effective therapy (CAT) was calculated. Results: (1) For the accurate diagnosis, CT was much more cost-effective than PET. (2) For the accurate staging, CT was still more cost-effective than PET. (3) For the all over diagnostic and therapeutic cost, PET was more cost-effective than CT. (4) The priority of PET to CT was for the diagnosis of stage I NSCLC. Conclusion: For the management of NSCLC patient in China, CT is more cost-effective for screening, whereas PET for clinical staging and monitoring therapeutic effect. (authors)

  16. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  17. Integrated constructed wetland systems: design, operation, and performance of low-cost decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, L L; Bailey, E; Jansen, P; Houke, L; Smith, S

    2007-01-01

    Several different types of constructed wetland systems are being used as decentralized treatment systems including surface-flow, subsurface-flow, vertical-flow, and hybrid systems. Archetypical wetland systems have design strengths and weaknesses, and therefore it should be possible to design combined (integrated) systems to optimize a number of important treatment processes. This study provides comparative efficacy data for two integrated wetland treatment systems (IWTS) designed to enhance treatment of medium strength wastewater generated from a pilot-scale intensive fish farm. Results from the twenty eight months study included consistently high removal of COD (84% +) and ammonia nitrogen (93%) in both systems. Initially, phosphorus removal was also high (>90%) in both systems, but removal efficacy declined significantly over time. Nitrate removal was significantly better in the system that provided sequential aerobic and anoxic environments. Short hydraulic retention times coupled with sustained removal of COD and ammonia indicate that the ReCip components could be a least-cost wastewater treatment technology in the decentralized market sector.

  18. Blind polarization demultiplexing by constructing a cost function for coherent optical PDM-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenming; Chen, Minghua; Chen, Hongwei; Yi, Xingwen; Yang, Sigang; Xie, Shizhong

    2015-07-13

    We propose a training symbols-free polarization demultiplexing method by constructing a cost function (CCF-PDM) for coherent optical PDM-OFDM. This method is applicable for high-speed, wide-bandwidth OFDM signals, different subcarrier modulation formats and long-haul transmission. It shows comparable performance with that of conventional method but without overhead and converges fast. Since the neighboring subcarriers experience similar polarization effects, we set the initial matrix parameters by the neighboring subcarrier to reduce the number of iteration for the gradient algorithm and prevent swapping the data of the two orthogonal polarizations. We verify this method in experiment by transmitting 66.6-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 4QAM subcarrier modulation over 5440 km SSMF and 133.3-Gb/s PDM-OFDM signal with 16QAM subcarrier modulation over 960 km SSMF respectively. We compare its performance with that of training symbols. We also analyze the convergence speed of this method.

  19. Governance Based on Cost Analysis (Unit Cost Analysis for Vocational Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Situmeang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to calculate unit cost to produce one middle-level vocational school graduate (in Indonesian terms known as "Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan” abbreviated as SMK. The calculation is required because operational grant funds (in Indonesian terms known as antuan Operasional Sekolah abbreviated as BOS are distributed so far to the same extent in all areas of Indonesia and for all majors. This is most likely less than optimal because in fact there are very basic characteristics differences including; Economic capacity of each region, the cost standard for each region, and the type of department in the school. Based on this, the researcher assumed that cost analysis should be done by considering these things as a basis to provide BOS funds tailored to specific characteristics. The data to be analyzed in this research is North Sumatra province data. This research is conducted in two stages, which in this report only completed the first phase which is a survey in North Sumatra region. Stages of survey to obtain data which then analyzed with related data such as community income, learning outcomes through the value of national examinations, tuition fee, and conditions of learning facilities. The research is funded by the ministries of research, technology and higher education through competing grant schemes for fiscal year 2017 and 2018. The result of correlation analysis between the variables shows that there is a strong relationship between the average income with average tuition paid by the community and between average tuition paid by the community with Quality Level of Education Facilities. The result of correlation analysis also shows a moderate relationship between the average tuition with learning outcomes measured through average national exam and relationship between quality level of education facilities with average national exam. While the relationship between average income with average national exam does not have a strong

  20. Malaria community health workers in Myanmar: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyaw, Shwe Sin; Drake, Tom; Thi, Aung; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Hlaing, Thaung; Smithuis, Frank M; White, Lisa J; Lubell, Yoel

    2016-01-25

    Myanmar has the highest malaria incidence and attributed mortality in South East Asia with limited healthcare infrastructure to manage this burden. Establishing malaria Community Health Worker (CHW) programmes is one possible strategy to improve access to malaria diagnosis and treatment, particularly in remote areas. Despite considerable donor support for implementing CHW programmes in Myanmar, the cost implications are not well understood. An ingredients based micro-costing approach was used to develop a model of the annual implementation cost of malaria CHWs in Myanmar. A cost model was constructed based on activity centres comprising of training, patient malaria services, monitoring and supervision, programme management, overheads and incentives. The model takes a provider perspective. Financial data on CHWs programmes were obtained from the 2013 financial reports of the Three Millennium Development Goal fund implementing partners that have been working on malaria control and elimination in Myanmar. Sensitivity and scenario analyses were undertaken to outline parameter uncertainty and explore changes to programme cost for key assumptions. The range of total annual costs for the support of one CHW was US$ 966-2486. The largest driver of CHW cost was monitoring and supervision (31-60% of annual CHW cost). Other important determinants of cost included programme management (15-28% of annual CHW cost) and patient services (6-12% of annual CHW cost). Within patient services, malaria rapid diagnostic tests are the major contributor to cost (64% of patient service costs). The annual cost of a malaria CHW in Myanmar varies considerably depending on the context and the design of the programme, in particular remoteness and the approach to monitoring and evaluation. The estimates provide information to policy makers and CHW programme planners in Myanmar as well as supporting economic evaluations of their cost-effectiveness.

  1. The Cost Analysis of Corrosion Protection Solutions for Steel Components in Terms of the Object Life Cycle Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel materials, due to their numerous advantages - high availability, easiness of processing and possibility of almost any shaping are commonly applied in construction for carrying out basic carrier systems and auxiliary structures. However, the major disadvantage of this material is its high corrosion susceptibility, which depends strictly on the local conditions of the facility and the applied type of corrosion protection system. The paper presents an analysis of life cycle costs of structures installed on bridges used in the road lane conditions. Three anti-corrosion protection systems were considered, analyzing their essential cost components. The possibility of reducing significantly the costs associated with anti-corrosion protection at the stage of steel barriers maintenance over a period of 30 years has been indicated. The possibility of using a new approach based on the life cycle cost estimation in the anti-corrosion protection of steel elements is presented. The relationship between the method of steel barrier protection, the scope of repair, renewal work and costs is shown. The article proposes an optimal solution which, while reducing the cost of maintenance of road infrastructure components in the area of corrosion protection, allows to maintain certain safety standards for steel barriers that are installed on the bridge.

  2. The Cost Analysis of Corrosion Protection Solutions for Steel Components in Terms of the Object Life Cycle Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Dariusz; Grzyl, Beata; Kristowski, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Steel materials, due to their numerous advantages - high availability, easiness of processing and possibility of almost any shaping are commonly applied in construction for carrying out basic carrier systems and auxiliary structures. However, the major disadvantage of this material is its high corrosion susceptibility, which depends strictly on the local conditions of the facility and the applied type of corrosion protection system. The paper presents an analysis of life cycle costs of structures installed on bridges used in the road lane conditions. Three anti-corrosion protection systems were considered, analyzing their essential cost components. The possibility of reducing significantly the costs associated with anti-corrosion protection at the stage of steel barriers maintenance over a period of 30 years has been indicated. The possibility of using a new approach based on the life cycle cost estimation in the anti-corrosion protection of steel elements is presented. The relationship between the method of steel barrier protection, the scope of repair, renewal work and costs is shown. The article proposes an optimal solution which, while reducing the cost of maintenance of road infrastructure components in the area of corrosion protection, allows to maintain certain safety standards for steel barriers that are installed on the bridge.

  3. A study in cost analysis of aggregate production as depending on drilling and blasting design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilim, Niyazi; Çelik, Arif; Kekeç, Bilgehan

    2017-10-01

    Since aggregate production has vital importance for many engineering projects-such as construction, highway and plant-mixed concrete production-this study was undertaken to determine how the costs for such production are affected by the design of drilling and blasting processes used. Aggregates are used in the production of concrete and asphalt, which are critical resources for the construction sector. The ongoing population increase and the growth of living standards around the world drive the increasing demand for these products. As demand grows, competition has naturally arisen among producers in the industry. Competition in the market has directly affected prices, which leads to the need for new measures and cost analysis on production costs. The cost calculation is one of the most important parameters in mining activities. Aggregate production operations include drilling, blasting, secondary crushing (if necessary), loading, hauling and crushing-screening, and each of these factors affects cost. In this study, drilling and blasting design parameters (such as hole diameter, hole depth, hole distance and burden) were investigated and evaluated for their effect on the total cost of quarrying these products, based on a particular quarry selected for this research. As the result of evaluation, the parameters actually driving costs have been identified, and their effects on the cost have been determined. In addition, some suggestions are presented regarding production design which may lead to avoiding increased production costs.

  4. An introduction to constructed wetlands (reed beds) sustainable low cost wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    The use of 'conventional' wastewater treatment technology (trickling filters and activated sludge) in developing countries has often been unsuccessful due to high cost, complex operating requirements and expensive maintenance procedures. Typical examples of such projects are wastewater plants in Islamabad and Karachi. Actually the conventional systems, such as trickling filters and activated sludge plants were developed to address the concerns about organic pollution of natural water bodies in western temperate climates, rather than the reduction of organic matter as well as pathogens which is often a priority in developing countries. Pakistan, being a developing country cannot and should not follow the western technology blindly but needs the use of a ppropriate technology . Appropriate technology is defined as a treatment system which meets the following criteria: Affordable: Total amount costs, including capital, operation, maintenance and depreciation are within the user's ability to pay. Operable: Operation of the system is possible with locally available labor and support. Reliable: Effluent quality requirements can be met consistently. Currently there are a limited number of appropriate technologies for small communities, which should be considered by a community and their designers. These include conventional and non-conventional systems such as stabilization ponds or lagoons, slow sand filters, land treatment systems, and wetlands (natural or constructed). The non-conventional systems often utilize 'ecological' treatment mechanism (such as aquatic systems or wetlands) and do not have the mechanical parts or energy requirements of conventional systems. Waste Stabilization Ponds are one such solution but sometimes are constrained by land availability, topography, and are not environment friendly. In such locations, natural or constructed wetlands (Reed Beds) could provide an alternative technology. It is what we call a LOW technology, rather than HI TECH

  5. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  6. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  7. Integrated Cost and Schedule Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Construction: Leveraging Strategic Advantages to Owners and EPC Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsoo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the owners expect that the cost and time for nuclear power plant construction would decrease with new entrants into the market, there will be severer competition in the nuclear industry. In order to achieve performance improvement and to attain competitive advantages under the globalized competition, practitioners and researchers in the nuclear industry have recently exerted efforts to develop an advanced and efficient management methodology for the nuclear mega-projects. Among several candidates, integrated cost and schedule control system is of great concern because it can effectively manage the three most important project performances including cost, time, and quality. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to develop a project numbering system (PNS of integrated cost and schedule control system for nuclear power plant construction. Distinct attributes of nuclear power plant construction were investigated first in order to identify influencing variables that characterize real-world implementation of advanced cost and schedule controls. A scenario was then developed and analysed to simulate a case-project. By using this case-project, proposed management requirements, management methods, measurement techniques, data structure, and data collection methods for integrated cost and schedule PNS were illustrated. Finally, findings and implications are outlined, and recommendations for further research are presented.

  8. Cost benefit analysis in diagnostic radiology: glossary and definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Cost efficiency analyses in clinical radiology require the application of methods and techniques that are not yet part of the academic qualifications of the specialists. The procedures used are borrowed from economics, decision theory, applied social sciences, epidemiology and statistics. Many expressions hail from the angloamerican literature and are presently not yet germanized unequivocally. This survey is intended to present main terms of cost efficiency analysis in the English version as well as a German translation, to give a clear definition and, if necessary, explanatory notes, and to illustrate their application by means of concrete radiologic examples. The selection of the terms is based on the hierarchical models of health technology assessment resp. clinical outcome research by Fryback and Thronbury resp. Maisey and Hutton. In concrete terms, both the differences between benefit, outcomes, and utility and the differences between effectiveness, efficacy and efficiency and the differences between direct, indirect, intangible, and marginal costs are explained. True cost efficiency analysis is compared with cost effectiveness analysis, cost identification analysis, cost minimization analysis, and cost utility analysis. Applied social sciences are represented by the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and the QALY conception. From decision theory both the analysis of hypothetical alternatives and the Markov model are taken. Finally, sensitivity analysis and the procedures of combined statistical evaluation of comparable results (meta-analysis) are quoted. (orig.) [de

  9. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    CPA - Cost and Performance Analysis - is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance analysis tools: ACEIT (Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools) and ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security). ACE is an existing DOD PC-based tool that supports cost analysis over the full life cycle of a system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. Through CPA, the cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making the data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and subsystem levels. The structure of the cost spreadsheets incorporates an activity-based approach to cost estimation. Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting philosophy used by industry to trace direct and indirect costs to the products or services of a business unit. By tracing costs through security sensors and procedures and then mapping the contributions of the various sensors and procedures to system effectiveness, the CPA architecture can provide security managers with information critical for both operational and strategic decisions. The architecture, features and applications of the CPA prototype are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs

  10. Construct exploit constraint in crash analysis by bypassing canary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Huang, Shuguang; Huang, Hui; Chang, Chao

    2017-08-01

    Selective symbolic execution is a common program testing technology. Developed on the basis of it, some crash analysis systems are often used to test the fragility of the program by constructing exploit constraints, such as CRAX. From the study of crash analysis based on symbolic execution, this paper find that this technology cannot bypass the canary stack protection mechanisms. This paper makes the improvement uses the API hook in Linux. Experimental results show that the use of API hook can effectively solve the problem that crash analysis cannot bypass the canary protection.

  11. Social cost-benefit analysis and nuclear futures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    The usefulness of cost-benefit analysis in making nuclear power investment decisions is considered. The essence of social cost-benefit analysis is outlined and shown to be unavoidably value-laden. As a case study six issues relevant to the decision to build on oxide fuel reprocessing plant (THORP) are examined. The potential practical value of using cost-benefit analysis as an aid to decision-making is considered for each of these issues. It is concluded that cost-benefit approach is of limited value in the nuclear power case because of its inapplicability to such issues as the liberty of the individual and nuclear weapons proliferation. (author)

  12. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisnant, R.A.; Sherring, C.

    1993-08-01

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  13. Management of End-Stage Ankle Arthritis: Cost-Utility Analysis Using Direct and Indirect Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Simon, Matthew S; Hamid, Kamran S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-07-15

    Total ankle replacement and ankle fusion are costly but clinically effective treatments for ankle arthritis. Prior cost-effectiveness analyses for the management of ankle arthritis have been limited by a lack of consideration of indirect costs and nonoperative management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of operative and nonoperative treatments for ankle arthritis with inclusion of direct and indirect costs in the analysis. Markov model analysis was conducted from a health-systems perspective with use of direct costs and from a societal perspective with use of direct and indirect costs. Costs were derived from the 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars; effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Model transition probabilities were derived from the available literature. The principal outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In the direct-cost analysis for the base case, total ankle replacement was associated with an ICER of $14,500/QALY compared with nonoperative management. When indirect costs were included, total ankle replacement was both more effective and resulted in $5900 and $800 in lifetime cost savings compared with the lifetime costs following nonoperative management and ankle fusion, respectively. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, surgical management of ankle arthritis was preferred for patients younger than ninety-six years and total ankle replacement was increasingly more cost-effective in younger patients. Total ankle replacement, ankle fusion, and nonoperative management were the preferred strategy in 83%, 12%, and 5% of the analyses, respectively; however, our model was sensitive to patient age, the direct costs of total ankle replacement, the failure rate of total ankle replacement, and the probability of arthritis after ankle fusion. Compared with nonoperative treatment for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis, total ankle

  14. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-15

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  15. Risk analysis within environmental impact assessment of proposed construction activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Zvijáková, Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment is an important process, prior to approval of the investment plan, providing a detailed examination of the likely and foreseeable impacts of proposed construction activity on the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a specific methodology for the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts of selected constructions – flood protection structures using risk analysis methods. The application of methodology designed for the process of environmental impact assessment will develop assumptions for further improvements or more effective implementation and performance of this process. The main objective of the paper is to improve the implementation of the environmental impact assessment process. Through the use of risk analysis methods in environmental impact assessment process, the set objective has been achieved. - Highlights: This paper is informed by an effort to develop research with the aim of: • Improving existing qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the impacts • A better understanding of relations between probabilities and consequences • Methodology for the EIA of flood protection constructions based on risk analysis • Creative approaches in the search for environmentally friendly proposed activities.

  16. Standardization: using comparative maintenance costs in an economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Roger Nelson

    1987-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis investigates the use of comparative maintenance costs of functionally interchangeable equipments in similar U.S. Navy shipboard applications in an economic analysis of standardization. The economics of standardization, life-cycle costing, and the Navy 3-M System are discussed in general. An analysis of 3-M System maintenance costs for a selected equipment, diesel engines, is conducted. The potential use of comparative ma...

  17. An analysis of electric utility embedded power supply costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahal, M.; Brown, D.

    1998-01-01

    There is little doubt that for the vast majority of electric utilities the embedded costs of power supply exceed market prices, giving rise to the stranded cost problem. Beyond that simple generalization, there are a number of crucial questions, which this study attempts to answer. What are the regional patterns of embedded cost differences? To what extent is the cost problem attributable to nuclear power? How does the cost of purchased power compare to the cost of utility self-generation? What is the breakdown of utility embedded generation costs between operating costs - which are potentially avoidable--and ownership costs, which by definition are ''sunk'' and therefore not avoidable? How will embedded generation costs and market prices compare over time? These are the crucial questions for states as they address retail-restructuring proposal. This study presents an analysis of generation costs, which addresses these key questions. A computerized costing model was developed and applied using FERC Form 1 data for 1995. The model analyzed embedded power supply costs (i.e.; self-generation plus purchased power) for two groups of investor-owned utilities, 49 non-nuclear vs. 63 nuclear. These two subsamples represent substantially the entire US investor-owned electric utility industry. For each utility, embedded cost is estimated both at busbar and at meter

  18. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... reopening of the time period for submitting comments on the request for information on Building Energy Codes... the request for information on Building Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket number EERE-2011...

  19. Cost-benefit analysis and non-utilitarian ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowry, R.J.; Peterson, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly understood to be intimately connected with utilitarianism and incompatible with other moral theories, particularly those that focus on deontological concepts such as rights. We reject this claim and argue that cost-benefit analysis can take moral rights as well as

  20. How (not) to Lie with Benefit-Cost Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Farrow

    2013-01-01

    Benefit-cost analysis is seen by some as a controversial activity in which the analyst can significantly bias the results. This note highlights some of the ways that analysts can "lie" in a benefit-cost analysis but more importantly, provides guidance on how not to lie and how to better inform public decisionmakers.

  1. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some...

  2. Cost analysis and cost justification of automated data processing in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, G E

    1983-03-01

    Prospective cost analysis of alternative data processing systems can be facilitated by proper selection of the costs to be analyzed and realistic appraisal of the effect on staffing. When comparing projects with dissimilar cash flows, techniques such as analysis of net present value can be helpful in identifying financial benefits. Confidence and accuracy in prospective analyses will increase as more retrospective studies are published. Several accounts now in the literature describe long-term experience with turnkey laboratory information systems. Acknowledging the difficulty in longitudinal studies, they all report favorable effects on labor costs and recovery of lost charges. Enthusiasm is also expressed for the many intangible benefits of the systems. Several trends suggest that cost justification and cost effectiveness will be more easily demonstrated in the future. These are the rapidly decreasing cost of hardware (with corresponding reduction in service costs) and the entry into the market of additional systems designed for medium to small hospitals. The effect of broadening the sales base may be lower software prices. Finally, operational and executive data management and reporting are destined to become the premier extensions of the LIS for cost justification. Aptly applied, these facilities can promote understanding of costs, control of costs, and greater efficiency in providing laboratory services.

  3. Analysis of costs of transrectal prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandella, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Literature reports mortality and morbidity data from prostatic carcinoma which permit a better use of some routine diagnostic tools such as transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy. The aim of this work is to quantify the overall cost of transrectal ultrasound biopsy of the prostate (TRUSB) and to assess the economic impact of current procedures for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma. The total cost of TRUSB was calculated with reference to 247 procedures performed in 2008. The following cost factors were evaluated: personnel, materials, maintenance/depreciation of the equipment, energy consumption, and hospital overheads. A literature review was also carried out to check if our extrapolated costs corresponded to those of other authors worldwide, and to consider them in the wider framework of the economic effectiveness of strategies for early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate. The overall cost of TRUSB (8 samples) was EUR 249,000, obtained by adding together the costs of: personnel (EUR 160,000); materials (EUR 59,000); equipment maintenance and depreciation (EUR 12,400); energy consumption (EUR0,1); hospital overheads (EUR 17,500). With extended or saturation biopsies the cost increases for the more time needed by pathologists and can be calculated as EUR 300,000. The literature review points out TRUSB as an invasive tool for diagnosing prostatic carcinoma, clinically and economically controversial. Post-mortem data report the presence of cancer cells in the prostate of 50% of 70-year-old men, while extrapolations calculate a morbidity rate from prostatic carcinoma in 9.5% of 50-year-old men. It is therefore obvious that randomized prostatic biopsies, methods apart, have a good probability of being positive. This probability varies with the patient's age, the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA), the density of PSA/cm3 of prostate volume (PSAD), and the detection by digital exploration and/or positive transrectal ultrasound. CONCLUSIONS. Despite the severe

  4. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  5. Life cycle cost estimation and systems analysis of Waste Management Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shropshire, D.; Feizollahi, F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents general conclusions from application of a system cost analysis method developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Waste Management Division (WM), Waste Management Facilities Costs Information (WMFCI) program. The WMFCI method has been used to assess the DOE complex-wide management of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. The Idaho Engineering Laboratory, along with its subcontractor Morrison Knudsen Corporation, has been responsible for developing and applying the WMFCI cost analysis method. The cost analyses are based on system planning level life-cycle costs. The costs for life-cycle waste management activities estimated by WMFCI range from bench-scale testing and developmental work needed to design and construct a facility, facility permitting and startup, operation and maintenance, to the final decontamination, decommissioning, and closure of the facility. For DOE complex-wide assessments, cost estimates have been developed at the treatment, storage, and disposal module level and rolled up for each DOE installation. Discussions include conclusions reached by studies covering complex-wide consolidation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities, system cost modeling, system costs sensitivity, system cost optimization, and the integration of WM waste with the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning secondary wastes

  6. Cost-identification analysis of total laryngectomy: an itemized approach to hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedhia, Raj C; Smith, Kenneth J; Weissfeld, Joel L; Saul, Melissa I; Lee, Steve C; Myers, Eugene N; Johnson, Jonas T

    2011-02-01

    To understand the contribution of intraoperative and postoperative hospital costs to total hospital costs, examine the costs associated with specific hospital services in the postoperative period, and recognize the impact of patient factors on hospital costs. Case series with chart review. Large tertiary care teaching hospital system. Using the Pittsburgh Head and Neck Organ-Specific Database, 119 patients were identified as having total laryngectomy with bilateral selective neck dissection and primary closure from 1999 to 2009. Cost data were obtained for 112 patients. Costs include fixed and variable costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Mean total hospital costs were $29,563 (range, $10,915 to $120,345). Operating room costs averaged 24% of total hospital costs, whereas room charges, respiratory therapy, laboratory, pharmacy, and radiology accounted for 38%, 14%, 8%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. Median length of stay was 9 days (range, 6-43), and median Charlson comorbidity index score was 8 (2-16). Patients with ≥1 day in the intensive care unit had significantly higher hospital costs ($46,831 vs $24,601, P cost differences with stratification based on previous radiation therapy ($27,598 vs $29,915 with no prior radiation, P = .62) or hospital readmission within 30 days ($29,483 vs $29,609 without readmission, P = .97). This is one of few studies in surgery and the first in otolaryngology to analyze hospital costs for a relatively standardized procedure. Further work will include cost analysis from multiple centers with investigation of global cost drivers.

  7. comparative cost and strength analysis of cement and aggregate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-02

    Jul 2, 2012 ... and a mix design of 1:1.5:3 batching by weight was adopted. ... study suggests that; the cost of construction and concrete production can be reduced if cement and ... duction is relatively high due to the manufacture of its.

  8. Qualitative and quantitative cost estimation : a methodology analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aram, S.; Eastman, C.; Beetz, J.; Issa, R.; Flood, I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of ongoing research with the goal of designing a framework and a knowledge-based system for 3D parametric model-based quantity take-off and cost estimation in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry. The authors have studied and analyzed

  9. Cost benefit analysis of power plant database integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilber, B.E.; Cimento, A.; Stuart, R.

    1988-01-01

    A cost benefit analysis of plant wide data integration allows utility management to evaluate integration and automation benefits from an economic perspective. With this evaluation, the utility can determine both the quantitative and qualitative savings that can be expected from data integration. The cost benefit analysis is then a planning tool which helps the utility to develop a focused long term implementation strategy that will yield significant near term benefits. This paper presents a flexible cost benefit analysis methodology which is both simple to use and yields accurate, verifiable results. Included in this paper is a list of parameters to consider, a procedure for performing the cost savings analysis, and samples of this procedure when applied to a utility. A case study is presented involving a specific utility where this procedure was applied. Their uses of the cost-benefit analysis are also described

  10. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions

  11. Relationship between degree of risk, cost and level of compliance to occupational health and safety regulations in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Olukemi Windapo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of statutory health and safety (H&S regulations in managing construction project risks. The study examines whether the decision made by contractors to comply with the regulations, the cost of compliance and savings of H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the degree or level of risk, which the regulations are trying to prevent. The rationale for the examination stems from previous studies which establish that building designers and contractors perceive the cost of complying with regulations as additional burdens, which they have to conform to, and which are in some cases unnecessary, and also the fact that construction related injuries and fatalities are on the increase. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a descriptive survey and H&S site audit by the Master Builder Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC were used as the measurements of risk, level of compliance to regulations, cost of compliance and savings. By correlating the quantitative and qualitative data, there is empirical evidence to support a negative relationship between the degree of risk, level and cost of compliance and cost savings. Based on the study’s findings, this paper concludes that the decision made by contractors to comply with H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the perceived cost saving on account of compliance and that cost savings are influenced by the probability of accident occurrence which is an element of the degree of risk which the regulation is trying to prevent or control. 

  12. Relationship between degree of risk, cost and level of compliance to occupational health and safety regulations in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Olukemi Windapo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of statutory health and safety (H&S regulations in managing construction project risks. The study examines whether the decision made by contractors to comply with the regulations, the cost of compliance and savings of H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the degree or level of risk, which the regulations are trying to prevent. The rationale for the examination stems from previous studies which establish that building designers and contractors perceive the cost of complying with regulations as additional burdens, which they have to conform to, and which are in some cases unnecessary, and also the fact that construction related injuries and fatalities are on the increase. Qualitative and quantitative data obtained from a descriptive survey and H&S site audit by the Master Builder Association of the Western Cape (MBAWC were used as the measurements of risk, level of compliance to regulations, cost of compliance and savings. By correlating the quantitative and qualitative data, there is empirical evidence to support a negative relationship between the degree of risk, level and cost of compliance and cost savings. Based on the study’s findings, this paper concludes that the decision made by contractors to comply with H&S regulatory requirements is influenced by the perceived cost saving on account of compliance and that cost savings are influenced by the probability of accident occurrence which is an element of the degree of risk which the regulation is trying to prevent or control.

  13. An Analysis of Construction Accident Factors Based on Bayesian Network

    OpenAIRE

    Yunsheng Zhao; Jinyong Pei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have an analysis of construction accident factors based on bayesian network. Firstly, accidents cases are analyzed to build Fault Tree method, which is available to find all the factors causing the accidents, then qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes the factors with Bayesian network method, finally determines the safety management program to guide the safety operations. The results of this study show that bad condition of geological environment has the largest posterio...

  14. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C-3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H; VanBerkel, Y; Baxter, R; DenHertog, J; Dijkstra, P; Gifford, RM; Griffin, KL; Roumet, C; Roy, J

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO2, These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings, Both average responses

  15. The effect of elevated CO2 on the chemical composition and construction costs of leaves of 27 C3 species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Berkel, Y. van; Baxter, B.; Hertog, J. den; Dijkstra, P.; Gifford, R.M.; Griffin, K.L.; Roumet, C.; Roy, J.; Wong, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    We determined the proximate chemical composition as well as the construction costs of leaves of 27 species, grown at ambient and at a twice-ambient partial pressure of atmospheric CO₂. These species comprised wild and agricultural herbaceous plants as well as tree seedlings. Both average

  16. Construction of a low cost wind energy generator; Construcao de um gerador de energia eolica de baixo custo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Jonathan Penha de; Almeida, Silvio Carlos Anibal de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: jonathan_penha@poli.ufrj.br, silvioa@gmail.com

    2010-07-01

    This project presents a low cost wind electric power generator constituted of cheap and easy access materials. The necessary materials are presented for it construction and the expected efficiency, having as reference the city of Fernando de Noronha, Brazil. The elaboration of the generator was initially developed as alternative energy source during blackout.

  17. Labor productivity adjustment factors. A method for estimating labor construction costs associated with physical modifications to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    This report develops quantitative labor productivity adjustment factors for the performance of regulatory impact analyses (RIAs). These factors will allow analysts to modify ''new construction'' labor costs to account for changes in labor productivity due to differing work environments at operating reactors and at reactors with construction in progress. The technique developed in this paper relies on the Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) for baseline estimates of the direct labor hours and/or labor costs required to perform specific tasks in a new construction environment. The labor productivity cost factors adjust for constraining conditions such as working in a radiation environment, poor access, congestion and interference, etc., which typically occur on construction tasks at operating reactors and can occur under certain circumstances at reactors under construction. While the results do not portray all aspects of labor productivity, they encompass the major work place conditions generally discernible by the NRC analysts and assign values that appear to be reasonable within the context of industry experience. 18 refs

  18. Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2014-01-01

    they breakdown costs. This is followed by an in depth analysis of stakeholders’ needs for financial information derived from the 4C project stakeholder consultation.The stakeholders’ needs analysis indicated that models should:• support accounting, but more importantly they should enable budgeting• be able......his report ’D3.1—Evaluation of Cost Models and Needs & Gaps Analysis’ provides an analysis of existing research related to the economics of digital curation and cost & benefit modelling. It reports upon the investigation of how well current models and tools meet stakeholders’ needs for calculating...... andcomparing financial information. Based on this evaluation, it aims to point out gaps that need to be bridged in order to increase the uptake of cost & benefit modelling and good practices that will enable costing and comparison of the costs of alternative scenarios—which in turn provides a starting point...

  19. Cost benefit analysis for optimization of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1984-01-01

    ICRP recommends three basic principles for radiation protection. One is the justification of the source. Any use of radiation should be justified with regard to its benefit. The second is the optimization of radiation protection, i.e. all radiation exposure should be kept as low as resonably achievable. And the third principle is that there should be a limit for the radiation dose that any individual receives. Cost benefit assessment or cost benefit analysis is one tool to achieve the optimization, but the optimization is not identical with cost benefit analysis. Basically, in principle, the cost benefit analysis for the optimization of radiation protection is to find the minimum sum of the cost of protection and some cost of detriment. (Mori, K.)

  20. Analysis and management of risks experienced in tunnel construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Pamukcu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, first of all, the definitions of "risk", "risk analysis", "risk assessment" and "risk management" were made to avoid any confusions about these terms and significance of risk analysis and management in engineering projects was emphasized. Then, both qualitative and quantitative risk analysis techniques were mentioned and within the scope of the study, Event Tree Analysis method was selected in order to analyze the risks regarding TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine operations in tunnel construction. After all hazards that would be encountered during tunnel construction by TBM method had been investigated, those hazards were undergoing a Preliminary Hazard Analysis to sort out and prioritize the risks with high scores. When the risk scores were taken into consideration, it was seen that the hazards with high risk scores could be classified into 4 groups which are excavation + support induced accidents, accidents stemming from geologic conditions, auxiliary works, and project contract. According to these four classified groups of initiating events, Event Tree Analysis was conducted by taking into care 4 countermeasures apart from each other. Finally, the quantitative and qualitative consequences of Event Tree Analyses, which were undertaken for all initiating events, were investigated and interpreted together by making comparisons and referring to previous studies.

  1. Nuclear power company activity based costing management analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dan

    2012-01-01

    With Nuclear Energy Industry development, Nuclear Power Company has the continual promoting stress of inner management to the sustainable marketing operation development. In view of this, it is very imminence that Nuclear Power Company should promote the cost management levels and built the nuclear safety based lower cost competitive advantage. Activity based costing management (ABCM) transfer the cost management emphases from the 'product' to the 'activity' using the value chain analysis methods, cost driver analysis methods and so on. According to the analysis of the detail activities and the value chains, cancel the unnecessary activity, low down the resource consuming of the necessary activity, and manage the cost from the source, achieve the purpose of reducing cost, boosting efficiency and realizing the management value. It gets the conclusion from the detail analysis with the nuclear power company procedure and activity, and also with the selection to 'pieces analysis' of the important cost related project in the nuclear power company. The conclusion is that the activities of the nuclear power company has the obviously performance. It can use the management of ABC method. And with the management of the procedure and activity, it is helpful to realize the nuclear safety based low cost competitive advantage in the nuclear power company. (author)

  2. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    associated with commercial boat lifts were obtained through a market survey based on products advertised for sale to the general public. The information...from the market survey and knowledge of specific boat maintenance items susceptible to cost reduction using a boat lift were then compared to identify...transferred to the Boat Inventory Manager ( BIM ). Custodians are responsible for maintaining boats and small craft in good working order at all times

  3. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, Geoff

    2002-11-01

    equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste arising from the

  4. Cost-Effectiveness/Cost-Benefit Analysis of Newborn Screening for Severe Combined Immune Deficiency in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yao; Thompson, John D; Kobrynski, Lisa; Ojodu, Jelili; Zarbalian, Guisou; Grosse, Scott D

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the expected cost-effectiveness and net benefit of the recent implementation of newborn screening (NBS) for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Washington State. We constructed a decision analysis model to estimate the costs and benefits of NBS in an annual birth cohort of 86 600 infants based on projections of avoided infant deaths. Point estimates and ranges for input variables, including the birth prevalence of SCID, proportion detected asymptomatically without screening through family history, screening test characteristics, survival rates, and costs of screening, diagnosis, and treatment were derived from published estimates, expert opinion, and the Washington NBS program. We estimated treatment costs stratified by age of identification and SCID type (with or without adenosine deaminase deficiency). Economic benefit was estimated using values of $4.2 and $9.0 million per death averted. We performed sensitivity analyses to evaluate the influence of key variables on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of net direct cost per life-year saved. Our model predicts an additional 1.19 newborn infants with SCID detected preclinically through screening, in addition to those who would have been detected early through family history, and 0.40 deaths averted annually. Our base-case model suggests an ICER of $35 311 per life-year saved, and a benefit-cost ratio of either 5.31 or 2.71. Sensitivity analyses found ICER values <$100 000 and positive net benefit for plausible assumptions on all variables. Our model suggests that NBS for SCID in Washington is likely to be cost-effective and to show positive net economic benefit. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Benefit-cost analysis of OHER research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesse, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This research was undertaken to estimate societal benefits and costs of selected past research performed for OHER. Three case studies of representative OHER and DOE research were performed. One of these, the acid rain case study, included research conducted in another office in DOE. The other two cases were the OHER marine research program and the OHER project that developed high-purity germanium used in radiation detectors. The acid rain case study looked at research benefits and costs of furnace sorbent injection and duct injection, technologies that might reduce acid deposition precursors. Both appeared to show benefits in excess of costs. They examined in detail one of the marine research program's accomplishments, the increase in environmental information used by the Outer Continental Shelf leasing program to manage bidding for off-shore oil drilling. The results of an econometric model showed that, environmentally, marine research supported by OHER is unequivocally linked to government and industry leasing decisions. Finally, the germanium case study indicated that benefits of germanium radiation detectors were significant

  6. Societal costs in displaced transverse olecranon fractures: using decision analysis tools to find the most cost-effective strategy between tension band wiring and locked plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Tittu; Washington, Travis; Srivastava, Karan; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C; Hakeos, William

    2017-11-01

    Tension band wiring (TBW) and locked plating are common treatment options for Mayo IIA olecranon fractures. Clinical trials have shown excellent functional outcomes with both techniques. Although TBW implants are significantly less expensive than a locked olecranon plate, TBW often requires an additional operation for implant removal. To choose the most cost-effective treatment strategy, surgeons must understand how implant costs and return to the operating room influence the most cost-effective strategy. This cost-effective analysis study explored the optimal treatment strategies by using decision analysis tools. An expected-value decision tree was constructed to estimate costs based on the 2 implant choices. Values for critical variables, such as implant removal rate, were obtained from the literature. A Monte Carlo simulation consisting of 100,000 trials was used to incorporate variability in medical costs and implant removal rates. Sensitivity analysis and strategy tables were used to show how different variables influence the most cost-effective strategy. TBW was the most cost-effective strategy, with a cost savings of approximately $1300. TBW was also the dominant strategy by being the most cost-effective solution in 63% of the Monte Carlo trials. Sensitivity analysis identified implant costs for plate fixation and surgical costs for implant removal as the most sensitive parameters influencing the cost-effective strategy. Strategy tables showed the most cost-effective solution as 2 parameters vary simultaneously. TBW is the most cost-effective strategy in treating Mayo IIA olecranon fractures despite a higher rate of return to the operating room. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost Benefit Analysis: Bypass of Prešov city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margorínová Martina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes decision making process based on economic evaluation, i.e. Cost Benefit Analysis for motorway bypass of the Prešov city. Three variants were evaluated by means of the Highway Development and Management Tool (HDM-4. HDM-4 is a software system for evaluating options for investing in road transport infrastructure. Vehicle operating costs and travel time costs were monetized with the use of the software. The investment opportunities were evaluated in terms of Cost Benefit Analysis results, i.e. economic indicators.

  8. A non-stationary cost-benefit analysis approach for extreme flood estimation to explore the nexus of 'Risk, Cost and Non-stationarity'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is commonly used for engineering planning and design problems in practice. However, previous cost-benefit based design flood estimation is based on stationary assumption. This study develops a non-stationary cost-benefit based design flood estimation approach. This approach integrates a non-stationary probability distribution function into cost-benefit analysis, and influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost (including flood damage and construction costs) and design flood estimation can be quantified. To facilitate design flood selections, a 'Risk-Cost' analysis approach is developed, which reveals the nexus of extreme flood risk, expected total cost and design life periods. Two basins, with 54-year and 104-year flood data respectively, are utilized to illustrate the application. It is found that the developed approach can effectively reveal changes of expected total cost and extreme floods in different design life periods. In addition, trade-offs are found between extreme flood risk and expected total cost, which reflect increases in cost to mitigate risk. Comparing with stationary approaches which generate only one expected total cost curve and therefore only one design flood estimation, the proposed new approach generate design flood estimation intervals and the 'Risk-Cost' approach selects a design flood value from the intervals based on the trade-offs between extreme flood risk and expected total cost. This study provides a new approach towards a better understanding of the influence of non-stationarity on expected total cost and design floods, and could be beneficial to cost-benefit based non-stationary design flood estimation across the world.

  9. Analysis of costs-benefits tradeoffs of complex security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Essential to a systems approach to design of security systems is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative designs. While the concept of analysis of costs and benefits is straightforward, implementation can be at the least tedious and, for complex designs and alternatives, can become nearly intractable without the help of structured analysis tools. PACAIT--Performance and Cost Analysis Integrated Tools--is a prototype tool. The performance side of the analysis collates and reduces data from ASSESS, and existing DOE PC-based security systems performance analysis tool. The costs side of the analysis uses ACE, an existing DOD PC-based costs analysis tool. Costs are reported over the full life-cycle of the system, that is, the costs to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. Results are collected in Microsoft reg-sign Excel workbooks and are readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and path-element levels

  10. Demonstrating Principles of Spectrophotometry by Constructing a Simple, Low-Cost, Functional Spectrophotometer Utilizing the Light Sensor on a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosker, Bill S.

    2018-01-01

    A highly simplified variation on the do-it-yourself spectrophotometer using a smartphone's light sensor as a detector and an app to calculate and display absorbance values was constructed and tested. This simple version requires no need for electronic components or postmeasurement spectral analysis. Calibration graphs constructed from two…

  11. Aagesta-BR3 Decommissioning Cost. Comparison and Benchmarking Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, Geoff [NAC International, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    25 is equipment. The BR3 work packages described in this report add up to something like 83,000 labour hours plus about MSEK 13 of investments and consumables costs. At Swedish average team labour rates 83,000 hours would equate to about MSEK 52. Adding the investment cost of MSEK 13 gives a total of about MSEK 65. This of course is quite close to the Aagesta figure but it would be wrong to draw immediate, firm conclusions based on these data. Such a comparison should take into account, inter alia: The number and relative sizes of the equipment decontaminated and dismantled at Aagesta and BR3. The assumed productivity in the Aagesta estimate compared to the actual BR3 figures. The physical scale of the Aagesta reactor is somewhat larger than the BR3 reactor, so all other things being equal, one might expect the Aagesta decommissioning cost estimate to be higher than for BR3. Aagesta has better access overall, which should help to constrain costs. The productivity ratio for workers at BR3 on average was high - generally 80 per cent or more, so this is unlikely to be exceeded at Aagesta and might not be equalled, which would tend to push the Aagesta cost up relative to the BR3 situation. There is an additional question of the possible extra work performed at BR3 due to the R and D nature of the project. The BR3 data analysed has tried to strip away any such 'extra' work but nevertheless there may be some residual effect on the final numbers. Analysis and comparison of individual work packages has raised several conclusions, as follows: The constructed cost for Aagesta using BR3 benchmark data is encouragingly close to the Aagesta estimate value but it is not clear that the way of deriving the Aagesta estimate for decontamination was entirely rigorous. The reliability of the Aagesta estimate on these grounds therefore might reasonably be questioned. A significant discrepancy between the BR3 and Aagesta cases appears to exist in respect of the volumes of waste

  12. Social costs of road crashes: An international analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Wim; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). Costs are expressed as a proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP). Differences between countries are described and explained. These are partly a consequence of differences in the road safety level, but there are also methodological explanations. Countries may or may not correct for underreporting of road crashes, they may or may not use the internationally recommended willingness to pay (WTP)-method for estimating human costs, and there are methodological differences regarding the calculation of some other cost components. The analysis shows that the social costs of road crashes in HICs range from 0.5% to 6.0% of the GDP with an average of 2.7%. Excluding countries that do not use a WTP- method for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in average costs of 3.3% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.1% to 2.9%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a WTP study of the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The average share of fatalities in the costs is 23% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be

  13. Cost Analysis of Treating Neonatal Hypoglycemia with Dextrose Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Matthew J; Harding, Jane E; Edlin, Richard

    2018-04-03

    To evaluate the costs of using dextrose gel as a primary treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours after birth compared with standard care. We used a decision tree to model overall costs, including those specific to hypoglycemia monitoring and treatment and those related to the infant's length of stay in the postnatal ward or neonatal intensive care unit, comparing the use of dextrose gel for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia with placebo, using data from the Sugar Babies randomized trial. Sensitivity analyses assessed the impact of dextrose gel cost, neonatal intensive care cost, cesarean delivery rate, and costs of glucose monitoring. In the primary analysis, treating neonatal hypoglycemia using dextrose gel had an overall cost of NZ$6863.81 and standard care (placebo) cost NZ$8178.25; a saving of NZ$1314.44 per infant treated. Sensitivity analyses showed that dextrose gel remained cost saving with wide variations in dextrose gel costs, neonatal intensive care unit costs, cesarean delivery rates, and costs of monitoring. Use of buccal dextrose gel reduces hospital costs for management of neonatal hypoglycemia. Because it is also noninvasive, well tolerated, safe, and associated with improved breastfeeding, buccal dextrose gel should be routinely used for initial treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12608000623392. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  15. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Sample economic analyses: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required

  16. Military construction program economic analysis manual: Text and appendixes: Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This manual enables the US Air Force to comprehensively and systematically analyze alternative approaches to meeting its military construction requirements. The manual includes step-by-step procedures for completing economic analyses for military construction projects, beginning with determining if an analysis is necessary. Instructions and a checklist of the tasks involved for each step are provided; and examples of calculations and illustrations of completed forms are included. The manual explains the major tasks of an economic analysis, including identifying the problem, selecting realistic alternatives for solving it, formulating appropriate assumptions, determining the costs and benefits of the alternatives, comparing the alternatives, testing the sensitivity of major uncertainties, and ranking the alternatives. Appendixes are included that contain data, indexes, and worksheets to aid in performing the economic analyses. For reference, Volume 2 contains sample economic analyses that illustrate how each form is filled out and that include a complete example of the documentation required. 6 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Nurse manager succession planning: A cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tracy; Evans, Jennifer L; Tooley, Stephanie; Shirey, Maria R

    2018-03-01

    This commentary presents a cost-benefit analysis to advocate for the use of succession planning to mitigate the problems ensuing from nurse manager turnover. An estimated 75% of nurse managers will leave the workforce by 2020. Many benefits are associated with proactively identifying and developing internal candidates. Fewer than 7% of health care organisations have implemented formal leadership succession planning programmes. A cost-benefit analysis of a formal succession-planning programme from one hospital illustrates the benefits of the programme in their organisation and can be replicated easily. Assumptions of nursing manager succession planning cost-benefit analysis are identified and discussed. The succession planning exemplar demonstrates the integration of cost-benefit analysis principles. Comparing the costs of a formal nurse manager succession planning strategy with the status quo results in a positive cost-benefit ratio. The implementation of a formal nurse manager succession planning programme effectively reduces replacement costs and time to transition into the new role. This programme provides an internal pipeline of future leaders who will be more successful than external candidates. Using an actual cost-benefit analysis equips nurse managers with valuable evidence depicting succession planning as a viable business strategy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Gap Analysis Approach for Construction Safety Program Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanet Aksorn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To improve construction site safety, emphasis has been placed on the implementation of safety programs. In order to successfully gain from safety programs, factors that affect their improvement need to be studied. Sixteen critical success factors of safety programs were identified from safety literature, and these were validated by safety experts. This study was undertaken by surveying 70 respondents from medium- and large-scale construction projects. It explored the importance and the actual status of critical success factors (CSFs. Gap analysis was used to examine the differences between the importance of these CSFs and their actual status. This study found that the most critical problems characterized by the largest gaps were management support, appropriate supervision, sufficient resource allocation, teamwork, and effective enforcement. Raising these priority factors to satisfactory levels would lead to successful safety programs, thereby minimizing accidents.

  19. Lexical and constructional organization of argument structure: a contrastive analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. In this chapter I outline some principles for a contrastive analysis of basic clausal expressions in English and Spanish. They are formulated within a general framework of Cognitive Linguistics. The proposed principles for cross-linguistic variation are a challenge to the principles...... of parametric variation in syntax as envisioned in Chomsky (1981) and defended by Snyder (2001). From a theory-internal point of view, they lead to a reinterpretation of Talmy's descriptive typology of macro-events (Talmy 1991, 2000). Particularly, they solve a serious flaw in Talmy's typology due to his......) lexical constructions (e.g. Croft 2001; Fillmore 1988; Goldberg 1995, 2006). In addition, clausal expressions are, according to some CXG-frameworks (e.g. Croft 2001), supposed to be built on language-specific construction types. I hypothesize that languages may differ according to the level...

  20. Construction balance analysis of dose rate medium brachytherapy TDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandi Parapak

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important part of brachytherapy instrument design activities is analyze by determining the centroid point of construction in order to maintain the balance of brachytherapy instrument, either during operation as well as when transported. Operation of brachytherapy is not only done in one place so it is necessary to balance the analysis of the forces at the time did not move, moved on the horizontal floor and sloping floor. Calculation approach who is done to calculate the weight of mechanical components on each module, and then calculate the centroid of each module, for the balance of forces analysis performed with the assumption at the time of brachytherapy in the position of not moving on a horizontal floor, moved from a place to another on the horizontal floor and on the floor with sloping angle 30°. Base on the results of this analysis are expected to balance the four wheels can move without slipping at the time of decline or incline. Also, results of analysis can be used in designing a mobile construction brachytherapy taking into consideration the aesthetic ideal, easy to operate, ensure the safety of equipment, operator and patient. (author)

  1. Functional Interaction Network Construction and Analysis for Disease Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guanming; Haw, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Network-based approaches project seemingly unrelated genes or proteins onto a large-scale network context, therefore providing a holistic visualization and analysis platform for genomic data generated from high-throughput experiments, reducing the dimensionality of data via using network modules and increasing the statistic analysis power. Based on the Reactome database, the most popular and comprehensive open-source biological pathway knowledgebase, we have developed a highly reliable protein functional interaction network covering around 60 % of total human genes and an app called ReactomeFIViz for Cytoscape, the most popular biological network visualization and analysis platform. In this chapter, we describe the detailed procedures on how this functional interaction network is constructed by integrating multiple external data sources, extracting functional interactions from human curated pathway databases, building a machine learning classifier called a Naïve Bayesian Classifier, predicting interactions based on the trained Naïve Bayesian Classifier, and finally constructing the functional interaction database. We also provide an example on how to use ReactomeFIViz for performing network-based data analysis for a list of genes.

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis and the Democratic Ideal

    OpenAIRE

    Karine Nyborg; Inger Spangen

    1997-01-01

    In traditional cost-benefit analyses of public projects, every citizen’s willingness to pay for a project is given an equal weight. This is sometimes taken to imply that cost-benefit analysis is a democratic method for making public decisions, as opposed to, for example, political processes involving log-rolling and lobbying from interest groups. Politicians are frequently criticized for not putting enough emphasis on the cost-benefit analyses when making decisions. In this paper we discuss t...

  3. Cost Per Flying Hour Analysis of the C-141

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Government Printing Office, 1996. Horngren , Charles T. Cost Accounting : A Managerial Emphasis (Eighth Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1994. Hough...standard accounting techniques. This analysis of AMC’s current costs and their applicability to the price charged to the customer shall be the focus of... Horngren et al.,1994:864). There are three generally recognized methods of determining a transfer price (Arnstein and Gilabert, 1980:189). Cost based

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  5. Health Care Analysis for the MCRMC Insurance Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    incentive to reduce utilization  Subsidy to leave TRICARE and use other private health insurance  Increases in TRICARE premiums and co-pays  This...analysis develops the estimated cost of providing health care through a premium -based insurance model consistent with an employer-sponsored benefit...State  Income  Plan premium data  Contract cost data 22 May 2015 9 Agenda  Overview  Background  Data  Insurance Cost Estimate Methodology

  6. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia K Ostermann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group.Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache.Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14-7,414.29] than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98-6,064.13]; p<0.0001 with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48-3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31-3,204.37] and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90-1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52-882.21]. Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant.Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system.

  7. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; phomeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  8. Cost Benefit Analysis: Cost Benefit Analysis for Human Effectiveness Research: Bioacoustic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-21

    APPENDIX A. ACRONYMS ACCES Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System ACEIT Automated Cost estimating Integrated Tools AFSC Air Force...documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed by Tecolote, Inc. The factor used was 14 percent of PMP. 1.3 System Engineering/ Program...The data source is the ASC Aeronautical Engineering Products Cost Factor Handbook which is documented in the ACEIT cost estimating tool developed

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Diagnosis of Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehortúa, Sara C; Lugo, Luz H; Ceballos, Mateo; Orozco, Esteban; Castro, Paula A; Arango, Juan C; Mateus, Heidi E

    2018-03-09

    To determine the cost-effectiveness ratio of different courses of action for the diagnosis of Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in Colombia. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the Colombian health system perspective. Decision trees were constructed, and different courses of action were compared considering the following tests: immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot (WB), multiplex polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and the complete sequencing of the dystrophin gene. The time horizon matched the duration of sample extraction and analysis. Transition probabilities were obtained from a systematic review. Costs were constructed with a type-case methodology using the consensus of experts and the valuation of resources from consulting laboratories and the 2001 Social Security Institute cost manual. Deterministic sensitivity and scenario analyses were performed with one or more unavailable alternatives. Costs were converted from Colombian pesos to US dollars using the 2014 exchange rate. In the base case, WB was the dominant strategy, with a cost of US $419.07 and a sensitivity of 100%. This approach remains the dominant strategy down to a 98.2% sensitivity and while costs do not exceed US $837.38. If WB was not available, IHC had the best cost-effectiveness ratio, followed by MLPA and sequencing. WB is a cost-effective alternative for the diagnosis of patients suspected of having Duchenne or Becker muscular dystrophy in the Colombian health system. The IHC test is rated as the second-best detection method. If these tests are not available, MLPA followed by sequencing would be the most cost-effective alternative. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Baseline Assessment of the Department of the Army Cost Estimating and Analysis (CE/A) and Cost Management (CM) Capabilities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    .../A) and cost management (CM) capabilities. In particular, it supports the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army- Cost AND Economics' mission to provide DA with cost, performance and economic analysis in the form of expertise, models, data...

  11. Cost analysis of hospitalized Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hübner, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: -associated diarrhea (CDAD causes heavy financial burden on healthcare systems worldwide. As with all hospital-acquired infections, prolonged hospital stays are the main cost driver. Previous cost studies only include hospital billing data and compare the length of stay in contrast to non-infected patients. To date, a survey of actual cost has not yet been conducted.Method: A retrospective analysis of data for patients with nosocomial CDAD was carried out over a 1-year period at the University Hospital of Greifswald. Based on identification of CDAD related treatment processes, cost of hygienic measures, antibiotics and laboratory as well as revenue losses due to bed blockage and increased length of stay were calculated.Results: 19 patients were included in the analysis. On average, a CDAD patient causes additional costs of € 5,262.96. Revenue losses due to extended length of stay take the highest proportion with € 2,555.59 per case, followed by loss in revenue due to bed blockage during isolation with € 2,413.08 per case. Overall, these opportunity costs accounted for 94.41% of total costs. In contrast, costs for hygienic measures (€ 253.98, pharmaceuticals (€ 22.88 and laboratory (€ 17.44 are quite low.Conclusion: CDAD results in significant additional costs for the hospital. This survey of actual costs confirms previous study results.

  12. Special waste disposal in Austria - cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntscher, H.

    1983-01-01

    The present situation of special waste disposal in Austria is summarized for radioactive and nonradioactive wastes. A cost benefit analysis for regulary collection, transport and disposal of industrial wastes, especially chemical wastes is given and the cost burden for the industry is calculated. (A.N.)

  13. A Comparative Cost Analysis of Picture Archiving and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: An incremental cost analysis for chest radiographs,, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging brain scans with and without contrast were performed. The overall incremental cost for PACS in comparison with a conventional radiology site was determined. The net present value was also determined to ...

  14. Infrastructures and Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    2012-01-01

    Design and maintenance of infrastructures using Life-Cycle Cost-Benefit analysis is discussed in this paper with special emphasis on users costs. This is for several infrastructures such as bridges, highways etc. of great importance. Repair or/and failure of infrastructures will usually result...

  15. Constructing hotel brands: A multimodal analysis of luxury hotel homepages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Wen Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As e-marketing has become the dominant marketing mode in the hospitality industry, this study investigates how two luxury hotels represent and promote themselves through their major e-commerce platforms (i.e. hotel-owned websites. The verbal and visual texts of 51 website homepages owned by these two hotel chains are compiled and analyzed by drawing upon the corpus linguistic approach for verbal analysis and Kress and van Leeuwen’s (2006 visual grammar framework for image analysis. The findings indicate that despite some similarities in their web-mediated communication strategies, each hotel firm has discursive strategies that reveal diverging attitudes in their choices of various semiotic resources to construct their own brand identities. This study contributes to the academic literature on web-mediated tourism discourse by showing how a multimodal analysis can add insights to brand formulation.

  16. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkki-Brännström Anni-Maria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs. LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan, but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years, LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price

  17. Life cycle cost analysis of commercial buildings with energy efficient approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilima N. Kale

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In any construction project, cost effectiveness plays a crucial role. The Life Cycle Cost (LCC analysis provides a method of determining entire cost of a structure over its expected life along with operational and maintenance cost. LCC can be improved by adopting alternative modern techniques without much alteration in the building. LCC effectiveness can be calculated at various stages of entire span of the building. Moreover this provides decision makers with the financial information necessary for maintaining, improving, and constructing facilities. Financial benefits associated with energy use can also be calculated using LCC analysis. In the present work, case study of two educational buildings has been considered. The LCC of these buildings has been calculated with existing condition and with proposed energy efficient approach (EEA using net present value method. A solar panel having minimum capacity as well as solar panel with desired capacity as per the requirements of the building has been suggested. The comparison of LCC of existing structure with proposed solar panel system shows that 4% of cost can be reduced in case of minimum capacity solar panel and 54% cost can be reduced for desired capacity solar panel system, along with other added advantages of solar energy.

  18. A New Cost-Effective Diode Laser Polarimeter Apparatus Constructed by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Pedro; Sotomayor, Joo; Ribeiro, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a diode laser polarimeter apparatus by undergraduate students is described. The construction of the modular apparatus by undergraduate students gives them an insight into how it works and how the measurement of a physical or chemical property is conducted. The students use the polarimeter to obtain rotation angle values for the…

  19. Development of hospital data warehouse for cost analysis of DPC based on medical costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaga, F; Kumamoto, I; Uto, Y

    2007-01-01

    To develop a data warehouse system for cost analysis, based on the categories of the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system, in which medical costs were estimated by DPC category and factors influencing the balance between costs and fees. We developed a data warehouse system for cost analysis using data from the hospital central data warehouse system. The balance data of patients who were discharged from Kagoshima University Hospital from April 2003 to March 2005 were determined in terms of medical procedure, cost per day and patient admission in order to conduct a drill-down analysis. To evaluate this system, we analyzed cash flow by DPC category of patients who were categorized as having malignant tumors and whose DPC category was reevaluated in 2004. The percentages of medical expenses were highest in patients with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and particularly in patients with malignant tumors of the liver and intrahepatic bile duct. Imaging tests degraded the percentages of medical expenses in Kagoshima University Hospital. These results suggested that cost analysis by patient is important for hospital administration in the inclusive evaluation system using a case-mix index such as DPC.

  20. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-01-01

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups

  1. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Construction Cost Reductions through the use of Virtual Environments: Task 1 Completion Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whisker, V.E.; Baratta, A.J.; Shaw, T.S.; Winters, J.W.; Trikouros, N.; Hess, C.

    2002-11-26

    OAK B204 The objective of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using full-scale virtual reality simulation in the design, construction, and maintenance of future nuclear power plants. Specifically, this project will test the suitability of Immersive Projection Display (IPD) technology to aid engineers in the design of the next generation nuclear power plant and to evaluate potential cost reductions that can be realized by optimization of installation and construction sequences. The intent is to see if this type of information technology can be used in capacities similar to those currently filled by full-scale physical mockups.

  2. Schedule Risk Analysis Of Southern Mainway Construction In Jember Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, K.; Wiguna, I. P. A.; Adi, T. J. W.

    2017-11-01

    In Jember Regency, it has been built Southern Cross Road (JLS) as part of regional project. On the implementation of previous construction, there were still some events which gave negative impact to the project. The purpose of this research is to analyze risk and its effect on schedule at the construction phase of JLS at Jember Regency. Risk identification process is carried out by site survey, literature studies and supporting data. The use of Probability and Impact Matrix were aimed to obtain the level of risk. Based on the analysis, it was obtained six highest risk that could affecting schedule, such as difficult access locations, heavy rains, increases of material price, broken road pavement work, change order, and work accident. Risk responses were proposed by applying agreement to guarantee stock and price of materials, prioritized drainage, and constructing bridge to solve difficult access. An intense coordination in the site, routine checks of quality, manufacturing of retailing walls were also needed to reduce possibility of distruption to pavement work. To avoid work accident, it is needed to socialize about harsh terrain condition, mutual allertness among supervisor, worker and the others, and also all personals must comply with savety rules.

  3. IMAGE CONSTRUCTION TO AUTOMATION OF PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pavlova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The search for a solution of automation of the process of assessment of a psychological analysis of the person drawings created by it from an available set of some templates are presented at this article. It will allow to reveal more effectively infringements of persons mentality. In particular, such decision can be used for work with children who possess the developed figurative thinking, but are not yet capable of an accurate statement of the thoughts and experiences. For automation of testing by using a projective method, we construct interactive environment for visualization of compositions of the several images and then analyse

  4. Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2004, held in Barcelona, Spain in March/April 2004. The 37 revised full papers and 6 revised tool demonstration papers presented were...... carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 162 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on theorem proving, probabilistic model checking, testing, tools, explicit state and Petri nets, scheduling, constraint solving, timed systems, case studies, software, temporal logic, abstraction...

  5. Determinants of Trade Credit: A Preliminary Analysis on Construction Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Barbuta-Misu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a preliminary analysis of the correlations between trade credit and some selected measures of financial performance for a sample of 958 firms acting in the construction sector. The examined period covers 2004-2013. The sample derived from Amadeus database contains firms that have sold and bought on credit. Results showed that larger firms offered and used more credit than counterparties. Firms offered and used in same time credit, but not in same level. Firms with higher return on assets and profit margin used and offered less credit from suppliers, respectively to clients. Moreover, more liquid firms used less trade payables.

  6. Tools and Algorithms for Construction and Analysis of Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tools and Algorithms for the Construction and Analysis of Systems, TACAS 2000, held as part of ETAPS 2000 in Berlin, Germany, in March/April 2000. The 33 revised full papers presented together with one invited...... paper and two short tool descriptions were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 107 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on software and formal methods, formal methods, timed and hybrid systems, infinite and parameterized systems, diagnostic and test generation, efficient...

  7. Prestressed and reinforced concrete containments. Analysis - design - construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellenbach, G.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear reactors performing in the German Federal Republic to date were supplied with steel containments. The first reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete containments, respectively, are going to be used for the nuclear power plants Kalkar and Gundremmingen (KRB II) as well as for the HTR plant. Because of their function and nature of loading these structures, similarly to the prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels, belong to the special structures of civil engineering. Yet, they are substantially different from the prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels. The problems connected with analysis, design, and construction of these structures are new as well. (orig.) [de

  8. A MANAGERIAL AND COST ACCOUNTING APPROACH OF CUSTOMER PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARDOS Ildiko Reka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last years many organizations realized that market orientation is essential to their success. Satisfying the needs of customers, offering them products and services which meet their desires and demands, customer loyalty can increase profitability for long term. After analyzing the existing journal literature in this field we would like to emphasize that managerial accounting, cost calculation methods and techniques, the analysis of costs provides relevant information when analyzing the customer’s profitability. We pay special attention on cost systems. An activity based costing approach takes customer profitability to new levels of accuracy and usefulness, provides the basis for creating, communicating and delivering value to the customers.

  9. Cost analysis of hybrid adaptive routing protocol for heterogeneous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NONITA SHARMA

    Event detection; wireless sensor networks; hybrid routing; cost benefit analysis; proactive routing; reactive routing. 1. ... additional energy, high processing power, etc. are deployed to extend the .... transmit to its parent node. (2) Reactive ...

  10. sensitivity analysis on flexible road pavement life cycle cost model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of sensitivity analysis on a developed flexible pavement life cycle cost model using varying discount rate. The study .... organizations and specific projects needs based. Life-cycle ... developed and completed urban road infrastructure corridor ...

  11. Analysis of Defense Industry Consolidation Effects on Program Acquisition Costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoff, Russell V

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis examines whether cost changes are evident following consolidation within the defense industry by conducting a regression analysis of Major Defense Acquisition Programs across 13 broad defense market sectors...

  12. Electric vehicle life cycle cost analysis : final research project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project compared total life cycle costs of battery electric vehicles (BEV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and vehicles with internal combustion engines (ICE). The analysis considered capital and operati...

  13. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine

  14. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative Requirements for Grants and Cooperative Agreements With Institutions of Higher Education, Hospitals, and Other... quotations submitted, market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review...

  15. Technical support for GEIS: radioactive waste isolation in geologic formations. Volume 18. Facility construction feasibility and costs by rock type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    The results of a study that compared the general engineering feasibility and unit costs associated with sinking shafts and mining storage rooms in the four rock types (salt, granite, shale, basalt) are presented in this volume. The report includes a discussion of the general effects of rock characteristics on shaft and mine design, the application of these design considerations to the specific designs developed for the Draft GEIS, shaft and mine construction techniques, and the unit cost comparison. The repository designs upon which this comparison was based are presented in other volumes of this series

  16. Sealing versus Nonsealing: Cost-benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshula N Deshpande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries still remains the second most prevalent disease after common cold, out of which occlusal caries is the most profound one. In India, more than 40% of children are found to be affected by dental caries. Occlusal surfaces of the teeth are most susceptible sites for caries development due to their morphology. They are least benefited from fluoride application. Various efforts have been made by the preventive means to decline the rate of caries, one of which being sealant application. Sealants have come into existence long back since 1971 when first pit and fissure sealant Nuva-Caulk came into existence. There have been piles of literature stating the benefits that arrive from sealing the teeth. However, one crucial point that is being missed most of the times is the cost-effectiveness of the sealant. There are various schools of thoughts, regarding this that is controversial ones. Some of the analysts believe that always sealing may be a bit costlier, but it reduces subsequent dental treatments and hence saves money as well as time. However, some believe that why to unnecessarily seal the teeth in all cases even when the child is not at a risk to develop caries. Hence, we need to foresee both the sides of equation. For best clinical practice and decision-making, we need to have a balance of best evidence, clinical judgment, and the most important, patient needs and preferences.

  17. Analysis of Logistics Costs of the Ukrainian Semiconductor Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popova Viktoriya D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is analysis of logistics costs in production of semiconductor materials using example of two Ukrainian enterprises. The article studies influence of logistics management and logistics costs upon formation of the final cost value (price of a commodity (service. It gives an assessment of logistics costs of Ukrainian semiconductor enterprises and establishes its structure by types of main expenditure items: material, transport, production and storehouse. It establishes the generalised quantitative structure of logistics costs of Ukrainian semiconductor enterprises with various forms of ownership under conditions of a situational growth of cost value of products and reduction of profitability of production, caused by common crisis tendencies in economy. Prospects of further studies in this direction are analysis of costs in production of semiconductor products and establishment of the specific feature of their grouping and classifying from the point of view of logistics and justification of the model of assessment of cost value of products, which takes into account mutually contradictory influence of direct logistics costs and logistics management upon the final result.

  18. Learning Together; part 2: training costs and health gain - a cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Katherine; Riches, Wendy; Macaulay, Chloe; Spicer, John

    2017-01-01

    Learning Together is a complex educational intervention aimed at improving health outcomes for children and young people. There is an additional cost as two doctors are seeing patients together for a longer appointment than a standard general practice (GP) appointment. Our approach combines the impact of the training clinics on activity in South London in 2014-15 with health gain, using NICE guidance and standards to allow comparison of training options. Activity data was collected from Training Practices hosting Learning Together. A computer based model was developed to analyse the costs of the Learning Together intervention compared to usual training in a partial economic evaluation. The results of the model were used to value the health gain required to make the intervention cost effective. Data were returned for 363 patients booked into 61 clinics across 16 Training Practices. Learning Together clinics resulted in an increase in costs of £37 per clinic. Threshold analysis illustrated one child with a common illness like constipation needs to be well for two weeks, in one Practice hosting four training clinics for the clinics to be considered cost effective. Learning Together is of minimal training cost. Our threshold analysis produced a rubric that can be used locally to test cost effectiveness at a Practice or Programme level.

  19. Can delivery systems use cost-effectiveness analysis to reduce healthcare costs and improve value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Lucy A; Savitz, Samuel T

    2016-01-01

    Understanding costs and ensuring that we demonstrate value in healthcare is a foundational presumption as we transform the way we deliver and pay for healthcare in the U.S. With a focus on population health and payment reforms underway, there is increased pressure to examine cost-effectiveness in healthcare delivery. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic analysis comparing the costs and effects (i.e. health outcomes) of two or more treatment options. The result is expressed as a ratio where the denominator is the gain in health from a measure (e.g. years of life or quality-adjusted years of life) and the numerator is the incremental cost associated with that health gain. For higher cost interventions, the lower the ratio of costs to effects, the higher the value. While CEA is not new, the approach continues to be refined with enhanced statistical techniques and standardized methods. This article describes the CEA approach and also contrasts it to optional approaches, in order for readers to fully appreciate caveats and concerns. CEA as an economic evaluation tool can be easily misused owing to inappropriate assumptions, over reliance, and misapplication. Twelve issues to be considered in using CEA results to drive healthcare delivery decision-making are summarized. Appropriately recognizing both the strengths and the limitations of CEA is necessary for informed resource allocation in achieving the maximum value for healthcare services provided.

  20. Qualitative content analysis from the lean construction perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'how organisations working together' overcome complexities and deliver value ... Dr Fidelis A. Emuze, Research Associate, Built Environment Research Centre .... applications in construction. Safety. Safety systems in construction. Logistics.

  1. Proposals for software analysis of cost effectiveness and cost-benefit for optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Lombard, J.; Lefaure, C.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this report is to present the principles of decision making software for radiation protection option, applying ALARA principle. The choice of optimum options is performed by applying the models of cost effectiveness and cost-benefit. Options of radiation protection are described by two indicators: a simple economic indicator: cost of radiation protection; and dosimetry indicator: collective dose related to protection. For both analyses the software enables sensitivity analysis. It would be possible to complete the software by integrating a module which would take into account combinations of two options since they are not independent

  2. Costs and benefits of railway urban logistics: a prospective social cost benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Feliu, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework to assess urban rail logistics suitability via a socio-economic cost benefit analysis. Firstly, we propose an overview on the basic notions of CBA and SCBA. Secondly, we identify and present the main types of costs and benefits or railway urban logistics services and the related final delivery services using low emission road vehicles to serve customers where the rail systems cannot. Thirdly, as an example of application, we propose to assess a scenario...

  3. BIM – New rules of measurement ontology for construction cost estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H. Abanda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available For generations, the process of cost estimation has been manual, time-consuming and error-prone. Emerging Building Information Modelling (BIM can exploit standard measurement methods to automate cost estimation process and improve inaccuracies. Structuring standard measurement methods in an ontologically and machine readable format for a BIM software can greatly facilitate the process of improving inaccuracies in cost estimation. This study explores the development of an ontology based on New Rules of Measurement (NRM for cost estimation during the tendering stages. The methodology adopted is methontology, one of the most widely used ontology engineering methodologies. To ensure the ontology is fit for purpose, cost estimation experts are employed to check the semantics, descriptive logic-based reasoners are used to syntactically check the ontology and a leading 4D BIM modelling software is used on a case study building to test/validate the proposed ontology.

  4. Integrating Life-cycle Assessment into Transport Cost-benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manzo, Stefano; Salling, Kim Bang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional transport Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) commonly ignores the indirect environmental impacts of an infrastructure project deriving from the overall life-cycle of the different project components. Such indirect impacts are instead of key importance in order to assess the long......-term sustainability of a transport infrastructure project. In the present study we suggest to overcome this limit by combining a conventional life-cycle assessment approach with standard transport cost-benefit analysis. The suggested methodology is tested upon a case study project related to the construction of a new...... fixed link across the Roskilde fjord in Frederikssund (Denmark). The results are then compared with those from a standard CBA framework. The analysis shows that indirect environmental impacts represent a relevant share of the estimated costs of the project, clearly affecting the final project evaluation...

  5. Analysis of costs structure of the industrial enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy V. Kovtunenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Costs are an important factor that affects the economic activities of an industrial enterprise, because they affect the profits of the enterprise on production efficiency and competitiveness. The article aims to summarize approaches of the definition of “costs”, classification costs of the enterprise according to different characteristics and cost structure of industrial enterprises. Each scientist has his own opinion on the choice of the structure and classification of costs, which is based on his own experience and experience of other scientists. Economically justified classification of costs is an important factor for analysis and costs accounting. This paper examines the concept of “costs” in the interpretation of various authors based on research of scientists that highlight the main features of the classification of costs, give the cost structure of industrial enterprises. Based on the study it can be concluded that the standard classification of costs is not for all companies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a classification of costs according to the main features of the company.

  6. Cost risk analysis of radioactive waste management Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, J.

    2006-12-01

    This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)

  7. Efficient Solutions and Cost-Optimal Analysis for Existing School Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Maria Congedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recast of the energy performance of buildings directive (EPBD describes a comparative methodological framework to promote energy efficiency and establish minimum energy performance requirements in buildings at the lowest costs. The aim of the cost-optimal methodology is to foster the achievement of nearly zero energy buildings (nZEBs, the new target for all new buildings by 2020, characterized by a high performance with a low energy requirement almost covered by renewable sources. The paper presents the results of the application of the cost-optimal methodology in two existing buildings located in the Mediterranean area. These buildings are a kindergarten and a nursery school that differ in construction period, materials and systems. Several combinations of measures have been applied to derive cost-effective efficient solutions for retrofitting. The cost-optimal level has been identified for each building and the best performing solutions have been selected considering both a financial and a macroeconomic analysis. The results illustrate the suitability of the methodology to assess cost-optimality and energy efficiency in school building refurbishment. The research shows the variants providing the most cost-effective balance between costs and energy saving. The cost-optimal solution reduces primary energy consumption by 85% and gas emissions by 82%–83% in each reference building.

  8. The determinants of hospital cost: a cost-volume-profit analysis of health services in the occupied territories: Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mustafa Z; Jaber, Samer; Smith, Pamela C; Hartmann, Michael; Bongyu, Moye

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the unit costs of a multi-service hospital in Palestine for the period 2005-2007. We investigate the cost structure of the Rafidya Hospital located in Nablus city, for both inpatient and outpatient departments. This study uses cost-volume-profit (CVP) analysis, also known as breakeven analysis. CVP analysis requires examining total costs, along with fixed and variable costs. CVP analysis illuminates how changes in assumptions about cost behaviour and the relevant range in which those assumptions are valid affect the relationships among revenues, variable costs and fixed costs at various production levels. For the hospital of interest, we find that fixed costs account for 70% of total costs, and variable costs were 30% of total costs. Inpatient departments accounted for 86% of total costs, and outpatient departments were 14% of total costs. Results of the breakeven analysis illustrate that several departments charge sufficient fees to cover all unit costs. Results provide useful information about unit cost based on four categories: (1) unit cost per admission of each department, (2) unit cost per patient day of each department, (3) unit cost per admission with annual capital cost of each department and (4) unit cost per patient day with annual capital cost. Our results provide hospital cost information that can be used by decision-makers to provide and expand healthcare services, in an effort to increase sustainability and profitability. The use of cost analysis by administrators and regulators will improve the quality of financial information, as well as enhance the efficient use of scarce resources.

  9. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  10. A cost benefit analysis of outsourced laboratory services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J A

    1995-11-01

    As healthcare moves toward increased capitation, hospital administrators must be aware of all costs associated with patient services. This article describes the cost benefit analysis process used by northern Indiana hospital consumers during 1994-1995 to evaluate a local laboratory service outsource provider, South Bend Medical Foundation (SBMF). In an effort to meet the best interests of the community at large, three competing hospitals, medical leadership, and the local outsource provider joined forces to ensure that cost effective quality services would be provided. Laboratory utilization patterns for common DRGs were also analyzed. The team created a reconfiguration analysis to help develop benchmark figures for consideration in future contract negotiations.

  11. Utilization of BIM for automation of quantity takeoffs and cost estimation in transport infrastructure construction projects in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitásek, Stanislav; Matějka, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The article deals with problematic parts of automated processing of quantity takeoff (QTO) from data generated in BIM model. It focuses on models of road constructions, and uses volumes and dimensions of excavation work to create an estimate of construction costs. The article uses a case study and explorative methods to discuss possibilities and problems of data transfer from a model to a price system of construction production when such transfer is used for price estimates of construction works. Current QTOs and price tenders are made with 2D documents. This process is becoming obsolete because more modern tools can be used. The BIM phenomenon enables partial automation in processing volumes and dimensions of construction units and matching the data to units in a given price scheme. Therefore price of construction can be estimated and structured without lengthy and often imprecise manual calculations. The use of BIM for QTO is highly dependent on local market budgeting systems, therefore proper push/pull strategy is required. It also requires proper requirements specification, compatible pricing database and software.

  12. The cost of blood collection in Greece: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulakis, Vassilis; Stamoulis, Kostas; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the cost of production of 1 unit of blood from a National Health Service perspective in Greece. In agreement with guidelines, the cost of blood production in this study accounted only for the resources expended for collection, processing, laboratory testing, and storage. Hence, the costs associated with donor recruitment, pretransfusion preparation, transfusion administration, follow-up management of adverse events, and other long-term relevant costs were not taken into consideration. The indirect cost of blood donations for donors (productivity loss) was also considered. A questionnaire was used to collect data regarding personnel time, annual blood quantities collected, percentage of wastage, utilization of consumables, institutional overhead, information technology expenditure, medical equipment utilized, nuclear acid tests, and other factors. Data gathered by 53 hospitals across the country were assessed. A model was constructed with economic data collected by the National School of Public Health and the Ministry of Health. All data refer to the year 2013. The weighted mean direct cost of producing 1 unit of blood was estimated at €131.49 (SD, €22.12; minimum/maximum, €94.96-€239.20). The mean total indirect cost was estimated at €34 per unit of blood. The cost distribution was positively skewed (skewness, 1.642 [0.327]). The major cost component was the cost of personnel, accounting for 32.5% of total costs, and the average of blood unit wastage was estimated at 4.90%. There were no differences between the cost of producing 1 unit of blood in Athens compared with the rest of the country (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.341). This study suggests that the cost of producing 1 unit of blood is not insignificant. These figures need to be complemented with those concerning the cost of transfusion to have a complete picture of producing and using 1 unit of blood locally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All

  13. Projections of cost and on-site manual-labor requirements for constructing electric-generating plants, 1980-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report represents part of a continuing effort by the Federal Government to forecast the capital and labor required for constructing electric generating capacity additions necessary to accommodate projected economic and population growth in the US and its regions. Information is included on anticipated additions to electric generating capacity, labor requirements for these additions, capital cost requirements, and forecasting models. Coal-fired, nuclear, hydro, and pumped storage power plants are considered in these forecasts

  14. Constructive analysis of two dimensional Fermi systems at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Long

    2013-01-01

    We consider a dilute Fermion system in continuum two spatial dimensions with short-range interaction. We prove nonperturbatively that at low temperature the renormalized perturbation expansion has non-zero radius of convergence. The convergence radius shrinks when the energy scale goes to the infrared cutoff. The shrinking rate of the convergence radius is established to be dependent of the sign of the coupling constant g by a detailed analysis of the so-called ladder contributions. We prove further that the self-energy of the model is uniformly of C 1 , but not C 2 in the analytic domain of the theory. The proofs are based on renormalization of the Fermi surface and multiscale analysis employing mathematical renormalization group technique. Tree expansion is introduced to reorganize perturbation expansion nicely. Finally we apply these techniques to construct a half-filled Hubbard model on honeycomb bilayer lattice with local interaction.

  15. Construction and cost experience regarding the 2nd pool house for spent fuel storage facility in the Atucha Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Atucha I second pool house storage for spent fuel is designed as an extension of the Atucha I power station. The two are linked by civil structure, controlling circuits, electrical and compressed air and water supplies, low level wastes disposal, ventilation under pressure maintenance, and, most important, the ability to transfer spent and new fuel in both directions. Because the second pool house is, by location and design, an extension of the existing installation, and since there is no design departure, regarding storage and transfer of fuel from that of the original installation, the rules and regulations applied for its construction were the same as those valid for the Atucha I construction. The requirement not to exceed a four-year period for construction and commissioning was determined by the need to have storage room for the Atucha I fuel. Argentina will meet the 1982 target by having the installation available during the second half of 1981. The second pool house is a wet storage location with a capacity of 1000 tons metallic uranium. It was designed by the Kraftwerk Union of West Germany along the same lines as the 440-ton storage location originally built with the station. The Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina has managed the construction and participated in project and design stages. As in the original pool, the 6 m long assemblies are stacked in double tiers. The cost figures which are mentioned differ from previously released figures and are not the final ones. With civil construction almost finished and mechanical erection started, the present estimates should not differ by more than 10% from the final figures. The installation has an investment cost of 61 million dollars, (1980), and, depending on the amortization time span considered, a total yearly cost per kg of capacity of metallic uranium, ranging between 5.5 and 9.3 dollars per kg

  16. Construction risks of nuclear power plants for use in cost-effectiveness considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock-Werthmann, W.

    1986-08-01

    The construction risk study is concerned with a nuclear power station of 1300 MW(e) design output. The risk figures obtained demonstrate that construction risks of nuclear power plants form a substantial share of the total risk from all steps of the nuclear fuel cycle. When compared with other risk figures it is apparent that only the fatalities caused by the extraction of uranium are of similar magnitude. (55 references). (DG)

  17. Digital vs conventional radiography: cost and revenue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalla Palma, L.; Cuttin, R.; Rimondini, A.; Grisi, G.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the operating and investment costs of two radiographic systems, a conventional and a digital one, and to evaluate the cost/revenue ratio of the two systems. The radiological activity over 1 year for chest and skeletal exams was evaluated: 13,401 chest and 7,124 skeletal exams were considered. The following parameters of variable costs were evaluated: the difference between variable proportional costs of the two technologies, the effective variable cost of any size film, including the chemicals, and for different sizes of digital film, variable costs of chest plus skeletal exams performed with the two techniques. Afterwards the economical effect was considered taking into account depreciation during a time of utilization ranging between 8 and 4 years. In the second part of the analysis the total cost and the revenues of the two technologies were determined. The comparison between the digital and conventional systems has shown the following aspects: 1. Digital radiography system has a much higher investment cost in comparison with the conventional one. 2. Operating costs of digital equipment are higher or lower depending on the film size used. Evaluating chest X-ray we reach a breakeven point after 1 year and 10,000 exams only if displayed over 8 x 10-in. film and after 30,000 if displayed over a 11 x 14-in. film. 3. The total cost (variable cost, technology cost, labour cost) of digital technology is lower than that of the conventional system by 20 % on average using 8 x 10-in. film size. 4. Digital technology also allows lesser film waste and lesser film per exam (orig.)

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatments for vertebral compression fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edidin, Avram A; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Schmier, Jordana K; Kemner, Jason E; Kurtz, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) can be treated by nonsurgical management or by minimally invasive surgical treatment including vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the cost to Medicare for treating VCF-diagnosed patients by nonsurgical management, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty. We hypothesized that surgical treatments for VCFs using vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty would be a cost-effective alternative to nonsurgical management for the Medicare patient population. Cost per life-year gained for VCF patients in the US Medicare population was compared between operated (kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty) and non-operated patients and between kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients, all as a function of patient age and gender. Life expectancy was estimated using a parametric Weibull survival model (adjusted for comorbidities) for 858 978 VCF patients in the 100% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). Median payer costs were identified for each treatment group for up to 3 years following VCF diagnosis, based on 67 018 VCF patients in the 5% Medicare dataset (2005-2008). A discount rate of 3% was used for the base case in the cost-effectiveness analysis, with 0% and 5% discount rates used in sensitivity analyses. After accounting for the differences in median costs and using a discount rate of 3%, the cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty patients ranged from $US1863 to $US6687 and from $US2452 to $US13 543, respectively, compared with non-operated patients. The cost per life-year gained for kyphoplasty compared with vertebroplasty ranged from -$US4878 (cost saving) to $US2763. Among patients for whom surgical treatment was indicated, kyphoplasty was found to be cost effective, and perhaps even cost saving, compared with vertebroplasty. Even for the oldest patients (85 years of age and older), both interventions would be considered cost effective in terms of cost per life-year gained.

  19. VE of construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-10-15

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.

  20. VE of construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-10-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic of VE of construction industry including doing away with mannerism, necessity of cost reduction, management method of cost reduction, thinking of idea, target of VE, starting VE activity, technical method of VE of construction industry such as thinking of idea with brainstorming, function trade method, new brainstorming, MM method, morphology analysis and lateral thinking, cases of VE of construction industry.