WorldWideScience

Sample records for constraint measures developed

  1. Hydrogeologic Constraints on Yucatan's Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehring, D O; Butler, J H

    1974-11-15

    The Republic of Mexico has an ambitious and effective national water program. The Secretaria de Recursos Hidraulicos (SRH), whose director has cabinet rank in the federal government, is one of the most professionally distinguished government agencies of its kind in the Americas. Resources for the Future, Inc., has been assisting the World Bank with a water planning study which the Bank is undertaking jointly with the Mexican government. The study is intended to provide guidelines for the development of government policies and projects designed to bring about the most efficient use of Mexico's water resources. However, to date, their study has not been directed toward the growing problems of the northern Yucatáan Peninsula which are discussed here. LeGrand (13) suggested that man has inherited a harsh environment in carbonate terranes. In the case of the northern Yucatán Peninsula, the physical environment creates a set of hydrogeologic constraints to future economic and social development. Planning for intermediate and long-range land use on the peninsula must be related directly to the limited and fragile groundwater source. Continued contamination will make future aquifer management a difficult challenge for federal, state, and territorial agencies. We conclude that any strategy for long-range land use in the study area should include establishment of a regional aquifermonitoring network for long-term measurements of key hydrogeologic parameters, including precipitation, evapotranspiration, water table elevations, and water quality. Information from this network would flow into a central facility for storage, interpretation, and analysis. At present the SRH is collecting some of these data. Expansion of the existing program to provide sound information for regional planning will greatly benefit present as well as future generations. If such a program is implemented, it will represent a model for regional planning in other tropical and subtropical karstic

  2. Pose measurement method based on geometrical constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zimiao Zhang; Changku Sun; Pengfei Sun; Peng Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ The pose estimation method based on geometric constraints is studied.The coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are calculated to obtain the pose of an object on the basis of the geometric constraints formed by the connective lines of the feature points and the coordinates of the feature points on the CCD image plane; during the solution process,the scaling and orthography projection model is used to approximate the perspective projection model.%The pose estimation method based on geometric constraints is studied. The coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are calculated to obtain the pose of an object on the basis of the geometric constraints formed by the connective lines of the feature points and the coordinates of the feature points on the CCD image plane; during the solution process, the scaling and orthography projection model is used to approximate the perspective projection model. The initial values of the coordinates of the five feature points in the camera coordinate system are obtained to ensure the accuracy and convergence rate of the non-linear algorithm. In accordance with the perspective projection characteristics of the circular feature landmarks, we propose an approach that enables the iterative acquisition of accurate target poses through the correction of the perspective projection coordinates of the circular feature landmark centers. Experimental results show that the translation positioning accuracy reaches ±0.05 mm in the measurement range of 0-40 mm, and the rotation positioning accuracy reaches ±0.06° in the measurement range of 4°-60°.

  3. HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Omer; Mania, Data; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: omer@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: mania@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points from Simon et al., Gaztanaga et al., Stern et al., and Moresco et al. to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. The inclusion of the eight new measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen and Ratra. These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data, which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize, however, that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly evolving dark energy.

  4. Hubble parameter measurement constraints on dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points, from Gazta\\~{n}aga et al. (2009), Stern et al. (2010), and Moresco et al. (2012), to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. This is the largest set of H(z) data considered to date. The inclusion of the 8 new Moresco et al. (2012) measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen & Ratra (2011b). These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data (Suzuki et al. 2012), which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize however that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model cu...

  5. Measuring Constraint-Set Utility for Partitional Clustering Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian; Wagstaff, Kiri L.; Basu, Sugato

    2006-01-01

    Clustering with constraints is an active area of machine learning and data mining research. Previous empirical work has convincingly shown that adding constraints to clustering improves the performance of a variety of algorithms. However, in most of these experiments, results are averaged over different randomly chosen constraint sets from a given set of labels, thereby masking interesting properties of individual sets. We demonstrate that constraint sets vary significantly in how useful they are for constrained clustering; some constraint sets can actually decrease algorithm performance. We create two quantitative measures, informativeness and coherence, that can be used to identify useful constraint sets. We show that these measures can also help explain differences in performance for four particular constrained clustering algorithms.

  6. Supply Side Constraints on Export Development in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Freckleton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta que afectan al desarollo de la exportación en Jamaica. El análisis se basa en un examen de exportadores jamaicanos no tradicionales. Los resultados indican que los exportadores jamaicanos hacen frente a impedimientos significativos por el lado de la oferta incluyendo la falta de acceso a capital, insuficiencia de innovaciones, altos costos energéticos y deficiencias infraestructurales. El artículo concluye que en el caso de los países en vías de desarollo afectados por impedimientos por el lado de la oferta se hace necesario tomar medidas que les permitan la ventaja de acceder a los mercados disponibles. En el caso de Jamaica, las medidas requeridas para aliviar los impedimientos por el lado de la oferta incluyen el establecimiento de instituciones financieras de riesgo, el estímulo de la innovación y el desarrollo de la infraestructura. English: This article examines the supply side constraints affecting export development in Jamaica. The analysis is based on a survey of non-traditional exporters. The results of the survey indicates that Jamaican exporters face significant supply side constraints including lack of access to capital, insufficient innovation, high energy costs and infrastructural deficiencies. The article concludes that in the cases of those developing countries facing binding supply side constraints, measures to relax such constraints are necessary to allow them to take full advantage of available market access. In the case of Jamaica, measures required to relax supply side constraints include establishment of venture capital institutions, stimulation of innovation and upgrading of infrastructure.

  7. MARICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA: Prospects and Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Rimmer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariculture is an important component of Indonesian fisheries and aquaculture production, directly contributing an estimated US$ 320 million in 2008. Because most mariculture production is focussed on producing for export markets, mariculture production is an important source of foreign earnings for the Indonesian economy. This paper reviews the current status and prospects for continuing development of mariculture in Indonesia. Currently the major mariculture commodity in Indonesia is seaweed for carrageenan production. Seaweed production accounts for 98% of total Indonesian mariculture production and 84% of value. The other major commodity groups are marine finfish and pearl oysters. Commodities being developed for mariculture in Indonesia include abalone and spiny lobsters. Prospects for continued development of mariculture in Indonesia appear positive. Indonesia has several advantages for mariculture development, including many potential mariculture sites, a stable tropical climate, and does not suffer from cyclonic storms. The Government of Indonesia is planning to increase aquaculture production substantially over the next four years, including mariculture production. Globally, demand for seafood products is expanding due to increasing population and increased per capita consumption of fish products. Constraints to the continued development of mariculture in Indonesia include: limited seed supply, particularly of species which cannot be economically produced in hatcheries, such as spiny lobsters; need to develop more efficient production systems for some marine finfish; the need to improve environmental sustainability by improving feeds and reducing environmental impacts; and market issues relating to environmental sustainability.

  8. Precision Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Barberio, E; Bourilkov, D; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Clare, R; D'Hondt, J; de la Cruz, B; de Jong, P; Della Ricca, G; Dierckxsens, M; Duchesneau, D; Duckeck, G; Elsing, M; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hansen, J B; Hawkings, R; Jezequel, St; Jones, R W L; Kawamoto, T; Lançon, E; Liebig, W; Malgeri, L; Mele, S; Minard, M N; Mönig, K; Parkes, C; Parzefall, U; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Renton, P B; Riemann, S; Sachs, K; Strässner, A; Strom, D; Tenchini, R; Teubert, F; Thomson, M A; Todorova-Nová, S; Valassi, A; Venturi, A; Voss, H; Ward, C P; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wynhoff, St

    2007-01-01

    This note presents constraints on Standard Model parameters using published and preliminary precision electroweak results measured at the electron-positron colliders LEP and SLC. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably CDF and D{\\O}at the Tevatron. Constraints on the input parameters of the Standard Model are derived from the results obtained in high-$Q^2$ interactions, and used to predict results in low-$Q^2$ experiments, such as atomic parity violation, M{\\o}ller scattering, and neutrino-nucleon scattering.

  9. Tractable Counterparts of Distributionally Robust Constraints on Risk Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, K.S.; den Hertog, D.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study distributionally robust constraints on risk measures (such as standard deviation less the mean, Conditional Value-at-Risk, Entropic Value-at-Risk) of decision-dependent random variables. The uncertainty sets for the discrete probability distributions are defined using statisti

  10. Tractable Counterparts of Distributionally Robust Constraints on Risk Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, K.S.; den Hertog, D.; Melenberg, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study distributionally robust constraints on risk measures (such as standard deviation less the mean, Conditional Value-at-Risk, Entropic Value-at-Risk) of decision-dependent random variables. The uncertainty sets for the discrete probability distributions are defined using

  11. Improving Constraints on Proton Structure using CMS measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Saranya Samik

    2015-01-01

    Production of electroweak bosons, heavy quarks and jets in proton-proton collisions probe different aspects of QCD and are sensitive to the details of proton structure, expressed by parton distribution functions (PDFs). Precise measurements of cross sections of these processes are used by the CMS experiment to demonstrate the impact of the LHC data on the PDFs and their precision. The measurements of muon charge asymmetry in W-boson production at a center-of-mass of 7 and 8 TeV is used to improve the constraints on the valence-quark distributions, while the associated production of W-boson and charm quark provides information on the s-quark distribution in the proton. Production of inclusive jets, as measured by CMS at center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, provides important constraints on the gluon distribution.

  12. Constraints of tourism development in Port Harcourt tourism beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The study examines constraints of tourism development in Port ... was analyzed using descriptive statistics in form of percentages, frequencies, tables, and charts, while Chi-square was used to test for significance of relationships.

  13. Constraints on Cosmological Parameters: Combining Planck With Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    The recent measurements from Planck have set a new high bar for accuracy in the measurement of cosmological parameters. In parallel, new and increasingly accurate measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, Type Ia supernovae, and the Hubble Constant offer independent probes of various cosmological parameters. The increased accuracy in cosmic microwave background fluctuation measurements make direct comparisons with other methods even more critical, given the intrinsic physical degeneracies amongst different cosmological parameters in the acoustic oscillation spectrum. There has been fundamental progress over the last couple of decades in measuring extragalactic distances. I will discuss the current limits, and the prospects for reaching 1% uncertainty in measurement of the Hubble constant, which, combined with measurements from Planck, will be critical for providing independent constraints on dark energy, the geometry, and matter density of the universe.

  14. Credit constraints, entrepreneurial talent, and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, Milo

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we formalize the view that economic development requires high rates of productive entrepreneurship, and this requires an e¢ cient matching between entrepreneurial talent and production technologies. We …rst explore the role of …nancial development in promoting such e¢ cient allocation of talent, which results in higher production, job creation and social mobility. We then show how di¤er- ent levels of …nancial development may endogenously arise in a sett...

  15. REPRODUCTIVE CONSTRAINTS IN THE RUSSIAN INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodion R. Tokov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main factors restraining the activity of industrial development at the present stage of Russian reforms. Special attention is paid to innovation activity of organizations, industries, business confidence, high level of taxation, the lack of funds and lack of demand on the domestic market.

  16. FOREIGN-EXCHANGE CONSTRAINTS AND DEVELOPING-COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LENSINK, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a model of developing countries in which a foreign exchange constraint and imported intermediates are central features, The model is used to carry out different scenarios with respect to developing countries' economic performance in the 1990s, A baseline simulation shows that the

  17. Constraints on proton structure from precision atomic physics measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Brodsky, S J; Hiller, J R; Hwang, D S

    2004-01-01

    The ground-state hyperfine splittings in hydrogen and muonium are extremely well measured. The difference between them, after correcting for the different magnetic moments of the muon and proton and for reduced mass effects, is due solely to the structure of the proton - the large QED contributions for a pointlike nucleus essentially cancel. A major contribution to the rescaled hyperfine difference is proportional to the Zemach radius, a fundamental measure of the proton which can be computed as an integral over the product of the elastic electric and magnetic form factors of the proton. The remaining proton structure corrections, the polarization contribution from inelastic states in the spin-dependent virtual Compton amplitude and the proton size dependence of the relativistic recoil corrections, have small uncertainties. The resulting high precision determination of the Zemach radius (1.013 +/- 0.016) fm from atomic physics provides an important constraint on fits to accelerator measurements of the proton ...

  18. Psychosocial constraints on the development of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold J; Rosenblum, Katherine L

    2006-12-01

    Although resilience is usually thought to reside in individuals, developmental research is increasingly demonstrating that characteristics of the social context may be better predictors of resilience. When the relative contribution of early resilience and environmental challenges to later child mental health and academic achievement were compared in a longitudinal study from birth to adolescence, indicators of child resilience, such as the behavioral and emotional self-regulation characteristic of good mental health, and the cognitive self-regulation characteristic of high intelligence contributed to later competence. However, the effects of such individual resilience did not overcome the effects of high environmental challenge, such as poor parenting, antisocial peers, low-resource communities, and economic hardship. The effects of single environmental challenges become very large when accumulated into multiple risk scores even affecting the development of offspring in the next generation.

  19. Rigorous bounds on aerosol optical properties from measurement and/or model constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert; Fierce, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sparse-particle aerosol models are an attractive alternative to sectional and modal methods for representation of complex, generally mixed particle populations. In the quadrature method of moments (QMOM) a small set of abscissas and weights, determined from distributional moments, provides the sparse set. Linear programming (LP) yields a generalization of the QMOM that is especially convenient for sparse particle selection. In this paper we use LP to obtain rigorous, nested upper and lower bounds to aerosol optical properties in terms of a prescribed Bayesian-like sequence of model or simulated measurement constraints. Examples of such constraints include remotely-sensed light extinction at different wavelengths, modeled particulate mass, etc. Successive reduction in bound separation with each added constraint provides a quantitative measure of its contextual information content. The present study is focused on univariate populations as a first step towards development of new simulation algorithms for tracking the physical and optical properties of multivariate particle populations.

  20. Brain evolution and development: adaptation, allometry and constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic traits are products of two processes: evolution and development. But how do these processes combine to produce integrated phenotypes? Comparative studies identify consistent patterns of covariation, or allometries, between brain and body size, and between brain components, indicating the presence of significant constraints limiting independent evolution of separate parts. These constraints are poorly understood, but in principle could be either developmental or functional. The developmental constraints hypothesis suggests that individual components (brain and body size, or individual brain components) tend to evolve together because natural selection operates on relatively simple developmental mechanisms that affect the growth of all parts in a concerted manner. The functional constraints hypothesis suggests that correlated change reflects the action of selection on distributed functional systems connecting the different sub-components, predicting more complex patterns of mosaic change at the level of the functional systems and more complex genetic and developmental mechanisms. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but make different predictions. We review recent genetic and neurodevelopmental evidence, concluding that functional rather than developmental constraints are the main cause of the observed patterns. PMID:27629025

  1. Modeling and Measurement Constraints in Fault Diagnostics for HVAC Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Massieh; Auslander, David M.; Bartlett, Peter L.; Haves, Philip; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-05-30

    Many studies have shown that energy savings of five to fifteen percent are achievable in commercial buildings by detecting and correcting building faults, and optimizing building control systems. However, in spite of good progress in developing tools for determining HVAC diagnostics, methods to detect faults in HVAC systems are still generally undeveloped. Most approaches use numerical filtering or parameter estimation methods to compare data from energy meters and building sensors to predictions from mathematical or statistical models. They are effective when models are relatively accurate and data contain few errors. In this paper, we address the case where models are imperfect and data are variable, uncertain, and can contain error. We apply a Bayesian updating approach that is systematic in managing and accounting for most forms of model and data errors. The proposed method uses both knowledge of first principle modeling and empirical results to analyze the system performance within the boundaries defined by practical constraints. We demonstrate the approach by detecting faults in commercial building air handling units. We find that the limitations that exist in air handling unit diagnostics due to practical constraints can generally be effectively addressed through the proposed approach.

  2. Constraints on proton structure from precision atomic physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-10

    The ground-state hyperfine splittings in hydrogen and muonium are extremely well measured. The difference between them, after correcting for the different magnetic moments of the muon and proton and for reduced mass effects, is due solely to the structure of the proton - the large QED contributions for a pointlike nucleus essentially cancel. A major contribution to the rescaled hyperfine difference is proportional to the Zemach radius, a fundamental measure of the proton which can be computed as an integral over the product of the elastic electric and magnetic form factors of the proton. The remaining proton structure corrections, the polarization contribution from inelastic states in the spin-dependent virtual Compton amplitude and the proton size dependence of the relativistic recoil corrections, have small uncertainties. The resulting high precision determination of the Zemach radius (1.013 {+-} 0.016) fm from atomic physics provides an important constraint on fits to accelerator measurements of the proton electric and magnetic form factors. Conversely, the authors use the muonium data to extract an 'experimental' value for the QED corrections to the hyperfine splitting of hydrogenic atoms. There is a significant discrepancy between measurement and theory which is in the same direction as a corresponding discrepancy in positronium.

  3. Constraints on the development of biotechnology in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewanika, M M; Mulenga, K D

    1996-09-01

    Biotechnology can play an essential role in fostering the economic and social development of developing countries like Zambia. However, due to a number of constraints, Zambia is not in a position to exploit the emerging opportunities from biotechnology. Prominent among these constraints are the lack of a biotechnology policy, an insufficient number of trained personnel, a poor science and technology base and very little basic research in universities and research institutions. The challenge Zambia must overcome is to establish a capacity and capability to innovate its own biotechnology as well as to adapt biotechnologies developed elsewhere to the Zambian conditions and environment. Despite all the hurdles and setbacks Zambia will face as she endeavours to enter the world of biotechnology, Zambia cannot afford to be a mere spectator as the rest of the world invests and benefits from the promise of biotechnology.

  4. Measuring Semantic and Structural Information for Data Oriented Workflow Retrieval with Cost Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglong Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of data oriented workflows (DOWs can reduce the cost of workflow system development and control the risk of project failure and therefore is crucial for accelerating the automation of business processes. Reusing workflows can be achieved by measuring the similarity among candidate workflows and selecting the workflow satisfying requirements of users from them. However, due to DOWs being often developed based on an open, distributed, and heterogeneous environment, different users often can impose diverse cost constraints on data oriented workflows. This makes the reuse of DOWs challenging. There is no clear solution for retrieving DOWs with cost constraints. In this paper, we present a novel graph based model of DOWs with cost constraints, called constrained data oriented workflow (CDW, which can express cost constraints that users are often concerned about. An approach is proposed for retrieving CDWs, which seamlessly combines semantic and structural information of CDWs. A distance measure based on matrix theory is adopted to seamlessly combine semantic and structural similarities of CDWs for selecting and reusing them. Finally, the related experiments are made to show the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach.

  5. Entropy of Bit-Stuffing-Induced Measures for Two-Dimensional Checkerboard Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Vaarby, Torben Strange

    2007-01-01

    A modified bit-stuffing scheme for two-dimensional (2-D) checkerboard constraints is introduced. The entropy of the scheme is determined based on a probability measure defined by the modified bit-stuffing. Entropy results of the scheme are given for 2-D constraints on a binary alphabet....... The constraints considered are 2-D RLL (d, infinity) for d = 2, 3 and 4 as well as for the constraint with a minimum 1-norm distance of 3 between Is. For these results the entropy is within 1-2% of an upper bound on the capacity for the constraint. As a variation of the scheme, periodic merging arrays are also...

  6. Materials Science Constraints on the Development of Aluminium Reduction Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, James; McIntosh, Grant; Etzion, Ronny

    The Hall-Heroult process for the production of Aluminium metal is some 125 years old. The process is energy constrained by the need to shed around half of the (electrical) energy supplied to the cell as waste heat. The molten cryolite electrolyte is sufficiently aggressive that the only reliable method of protecting the side wall of the cell is to maintain a frozen layer of electrolyte at the hot face of the sidewall. Thus the lack of a cryolite resistant sidewall is but one of several materials science constraints which still limit the energy efficiency of the process. An inert anode and non-consumable cathode are also significant challenges which limit cell life and energy efficiency. Thus there are major challenges in both materials development and new conceptual cell designs to improve the efficiency of this process.

  7. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development.

  8. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  9. Constraints in the development of contraceptives for men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.P.Purl; KamalaGopalkrishnan; K.S.Iyer

    2000-01-01

    Considerable efforts have been made to develop a male contraceptive and the studies have provided very useful information in this field. At least five different strategies to develop a male contraceptive have been pursued, namely: inhibition of sperm production, interference with sperm function, interruption of sperm transport, prevention of sperm deposition, and prevention of sperm-egg interaction. Of all these approaches, inhibition of sperm production by using androgens either alone or in combination with progestins have given the most encouraging results. A number of clinical trials substantiate that it is indeed possible to have a reversible, effective and safe hormonal method of contraception. A postmeiotic and epididymal approach to interfere with sperm function or the secretory and metabolic processes of the epididymis is another attractive option of male contraceptive development. A number of chemical compounds have been identified which interfere with sperm function in the epididymis without affecting sperm production, however, the compounds evaluated so far were found to be toxic. Interruption of sperm transport through the vas either by vasectomy or percutaneous intravasal injection of liquids which form cure-in-place plugs is also an attractive option. However, reversibility of the methods is of concern in their wide scale use. The major constraint in developing a long-acting male contraceptive seems to be the need for greater investment for product development. The clinical trials for evaluating the efficacy and safety of the new products and formulations stretch over several years and require enormous financial commitment. Nevertheless, the long-term gain of having a long-acting reversible contraceptive for men is far greater than the financial commitments over few years. Male attitude towards using methods of family planning is much more favourable than originally believed. The pharmaceutical industry as well as the health care providers theretbre

  10. Enhancement of flow measurements using fluid-dynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, H.; Seitz, T.; Tropea, C.

    2017-09-01

    Novel experimental modalities acquire spatially resolved velocity measurements for steady state and transient flows which are of interest for engineering and biological applications. One of the drawbacks of such high resolution velocity data is their susceptibility to measurement errors. In this paper, we propose a novel filtering strategy that allows enhancement of the noisy measurements to obtain reconstruction of smooth divergence free velocity and corresponding pressure fields which together approximately comply to a prescribed flow model. The main step in our approach consists of the appropriate use of the velocity measurements in the design of a linearized flow model which can be shown to be well-posed and consistent with the true velocity and pressure fields up to measurement and modeling errors. The reconstruction procedure is then formulated as an optimal control problem for this linearized flow model. The resulting filter has analyzable smoothing and approximation properties. We briefly discuss the discretization of the approach by finite element methods and comment on the efficient solution by iterative methods. The capability of the proposed filter to significantly reduce data noise is demonstrated by numerical tests including the application to experimental data. In addition, we compare with other methods like smoothing and solenoidal filtering.

  11. General quantum constraints on detector noise in continuous linear measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haixing

    2017-01-01

    In quantum sensing and metrology, an important class of measurement is the continuous linear measurement, in which the detector is coupled to the system of interest linearly and continuously in time. One key aspect involved is the quantum noise of the detector, arising from quantum fluctuations in the detector input and output. It determines how fast we acquire information about the system and also influences the system evolution in terms of measurement backaction. We therefore often categorize it as the so-called imprecision noise and quantum backaction noise. There is a general Heisenberg-like uncertainty relation that constrains the magnitude of and the correlation between these two types of quantum noise. The main result of this paper is to show that, when the detector becomes ideal, i.e., at the quantum limit with minimum uncertainty, not only does the uncertainty relation takes the equal sign as expected, but also there are two new equalities. This general result is illustrated by using the typical cavity QED setup with the system being either a qubit or a mechanical oscillator. Particularly, the dispersive readout of a qubit state, and the measurement of mechanical motional sideband asymmetry are considered.

  12. From Higgs measurements to constraints on new physics with Lilith

    CERN Document Server

    Bernon, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV are constrained by a wealth of experimental results targeting different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson. In order to assess the compatibility of a non-Standard Model-like Higgs boson with all available results, we present Lilith, a new public tool that makes use of signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron.

  13. Constraints on Mimas' interior from Cassini ISS libration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeddine, R; Rambaux, N; Lainey, V; Charnoz, S; Richard, A; Rivoldini, A; Noyelles, B

    2014-10-17

    Like our Moon, the majority of the solar system's satellites are locked in a 1:1 spin-orbit resonance; on average, these satellites show the same face toward the planet at a constant rotation rate equal to the satellite's orbital rate. In addition to the uniform rotational motion, physical librations (oscillations about an equilibrium) also occur. The librations may contain signatures of the satellite's internal properties. Using stereophotogrammetry on Cassini Image Science Subsystem (ISS) images, we measured longitudinal physical forced librations of Saturn's moon Mimas. Our measurements confirm all the libration amplitudes calculated from the orbital dynamics, with one exception. This amplitude depends mainly on Mimas' internal structure and has an observed value of twice the predicted one, assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. After considering various possible interior models of Mimas, we argue that the satellite has either a large nonhydrostatic interior, or a hydrostatic one with an internal ocean beneath a thick icy shell. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Cross-border infrastructure constraints, regulatory measures and economic integration of the Dutch - German gas market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Mulder, M.

    2013-01-01

    We estimate to which extent regulatory measures in the Dutch market have reduced the vulnerability of this market to constraints in the cross-border infrastructure with Germany, which is the largest Dutch neighbouring market. We measure this vulnerability by the degree the markets are integrated, i.

  15. On-site Labour Productivity of New Zealand Construction Industry: Key Constraints and Improvement Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is key to the survival and growth of any organisation, industry or nation. Some factors constrain the achievement of the set project objectives in the New Zealand building and construction industry and are responsible for the reported steady decline of productivity and performance. This study aims to identify the key constraints to on-site labour productivity and improvement measures. Using the descriptive survey method, views of some project managers, contractors and subcontractors in New Zealand were canvassed via pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys at the qualitative and quantity data gathering stages, respectively. Multi-attribute technique was used to analyse the quantitative data. Results showed that the key external constraints to on-site labour productivity comprise, in order of decreasing impact, statutory compliance, unforeseen events and wider external dynamics. The internal constraints, which contribute 67 percent of the onsite productivity issues, comprise reworks, level of skill and experience of the workforce, adequacy of method of construction, buildability issues, and inadequate supervision and coordination. . The factors underlying each broad category of external and internal constraints are reported. The relative levels of impact of the identified constraints are expected to guide the project team in addressing the constraints in a cost-effective manner.

  16. An integrated model to measure service management and physical constraints' effect on food consumption in assisted-living facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Chun; Shanklin, Carol W

    2008-05-01

    The United States is experiencing remarkable growth in the elderly population, which provides both opportunities and challenges for assisted-living facilities. The objective of this study was to explore how service management influences residents' actual food consumption in assisted-living facilities. Physical factors influencing residents' service evaluation and food consumption also were investigated. A total of 394 questionnaires were distributed to assisted-living residents in seven randomly selected facilities. The questionnaire was developed based on an in-depth literature review and pilot study. Residents' perceived quality evaluations, satisfaction, and physical constraints were measured. Residents' actual food consumption was measured using a plate waste technique. A total of 118 residents in five facilities completed both questionnaires and food consumption assessments. Descriptive, multivariate analyses and structural equation modeling techniques were employed. Service management, including food and service quality and customer satisfaction, was found to significantly influence residents' food consumption. Physical constraints associated with aging, including a decline in health status, chewing problems, sensory loss, and functional disability, also significantly influenced residents' food consumption. A significant relationship was found between physical constraints and customer satisfaction. Foodservice that provides good food and service quality increases customer satisfaction and affects residents' actual food consumption. Physical constraints also influence residents' food consumption directly, or indirectly through satisfaction. The findings suggest that food and nutrition professionals in assisted-living should consider the physical profiles of their residents to enhance residents' satisfaction and nutrient intake. Recommendations for exploring residents' perspectives are discussed.

  17. Measurement of WW production with the ATLAS detector and constraints on associated triple gauge couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, JB; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the WW diboson production cross section in proton proton interactions with the ATLAS experiment is presented. The measurement is performed using W boson fully leptonical decays including ee, emu and mumu final states associated with large missing energy. Measured total and differential cross sections of WW production are compared to NLO predictions of the standard model. Leading lepton pT distribution is used to place constraints on anomalous triple gauge boson couplings.

  18. Satellite Carbon Monoxide Measurements as Top-Down Constraints on Fire Trace Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasibhatla, P.; Randerson, J.; van der Werf, G.; Giglio, L.; Collatz, J.; Defries, R.; Morton, D.

    2008-12-01

    There has been considerable progress in recent years in characterizing trace gas emissions from vegetation fires on a global scale. This progress has been driven by the availability of remotely-sensed vegetation and fire products, combined with the development of global-scale, process-based terrestrial biogeochemistry models that explicitly include fire. Nevertheless, significant uncertainties remain in our understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of trace gas emissions from fires, and in the underlying climatic and human factors that drive this variability. Here, we examine the extent to which remote sensing measurements of atmospheric trace gas concentrations can provide additional constraints of emissions from fires. Specifically, we focus on using the multi-year record of carbon monoxide measurements from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform in an inverse modeling framework to elucidate the reduction in uncertainty in fire emissions at regional scales afforded by these measurements. We further examine the sensitivity of our estimates to various aspects of the inverse modeling set-up in an attempt to characterize the robustness of the derived uncertainty estimates, with a specific emphasis on regions with high deforestation rates in South America and Equatorial Asia.

  19. A Combined View of Sterile-Neutrino Constraints from CMB and Neutrino Oscillation Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bridle, Sarah; Evans, Justin; Fernandez, Susana; Guzowski, Pawel; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We perform a comparative analysis of constraints on sterile neutrinos from the Planck experiment and from current and future neutrino oscillation experiments (MINOS, IceCube, SBN). For the first time, we express the Planck constraints on $N_{\\rm eff}$ and $m_{\\rm eff}^{\\rm sterile}$ from the Cosmic Microwave Background in the parameter space used by oscillation experiments using both mass-squared differences and mixing angles. In a model with a single sterile neutrino species and using standard assumptions, we find that the Planck data and the oscillation experiments measuring muon-neutrino disappearance have similar sensitivity.

  20. Effect of Measurement Errors on Predicted Cosmological Constraints from Shear Peak Statistics with LSST

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, D; Chang, C; May, M; Kahn, S M; AlSayyad, Y; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Connolly, A; Gibson, R R; Gilmore, K; Grace, E; Haiman, Z; Hannel, M; Huffenberger, K M; Jernigan, J G; Jones, L; Krughoff, S; Lorenz, S; Marshall, S; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Peng, E; Peterson, J; Rasmussen, A P; Shmakova, M; Sylvestre, N; Todd, N; Young, M

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of peak counts in reconstructed shear maps contain information beyond the power spectrum, and can improve cosmological constraints from measurements of the power spectrum alone if systematic errors can be controlled. We study the effect of galaxy shape measurement errors on predicted cosmological constraints from the statistics of shear peak counts with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use the LSST image simulator in combination with cosmological N-body simulations to model realistic shear maps for different cosmological models. We include both galaxy shape noise and, for the first time, measurement errors on galaxy shapes. We find that the measurement errors considered have relatively little impact on the constraining power of shear peak counts for LSST.

  1. Interpreting aerosol lifetimes using the GEOS-Chem model and constraints from radionuclide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B.; Pierce, J. R.; Martin, R. V.

    2014-04-01

    mean lifetime of 3.9 days for the 137Cs emissions injected with a uniform spread through the model's Northern Hemisphere boundary layer. Simulated e-folding times were insensitive to emission parameters (altitude, location, and time), suggesting that these measurement-based e-folding times provide arobust constraint on simulated e-folding times. Despite the reasonable global mean agreement of GEOS-Chem with measurement e-folding times, site by site comparisons yield differences of up to a factor of two, which suggest possible deficiencies in either the model transport, removal processes or the representation of 137Cs removal, particularly in the tropics and at high latitudes. There is an ongoing need to develop constraints on aerosol lifetimes, but these measurement-based constraints must be carefully interpreted given the sensitivity of mean lifetimes and e-folding times to both mixing and removal processes.

  2. Graph-based stochastic control with constraints: A unified approach with perfect and imperfect measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Agha-mohammadi, Ali-akbar

    2013-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of stochastic optimal control (possibly with imperfect measurements) in the presence of constraints. We propose a computationally tractable framework to address this problem. The method lends itself to sampling-based methods where we construct a graph in the state space of the problem, on which a Dynamic Programming (DP) is solved and a closed-loop feedback policy is computed. The constraints are seamlessly incorporated to the control policy selection by including their effect on the transition probabilities of the graph edges. We present a unified framework that is applicable both in the state space (with perfect measurements) and in the information space (with imperfect measurements).

  3. Formalization of taxon-based constraints to detect inconsistencies in annotation and ontology development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungall Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gene Ontology project supports categorization of gene products according to their location of action, the molecular functions that they carry out, and the processes that they are involved in. Although the ontologies are intentionally developed to be taxon neutral, and to cover all species, there are inherent taxon specificities in some branches. For example, the process 'lactation' is specific to mammals and the location 'mitochondrion' is specific to eukaryotes. The lack of an explicit formalization of these constraints can lead to errors and inconsistencies in automated and manual annotation. Results We have formalized the taxonomic constraints implicit in some GO classes, and specified these at various levels in the ontology. We have also developed an inference system that can be used to check for violations of these constraints in annotations. Using the constraints in conjunction with the inference system, we have detected and removed errors in annotations and improved the structure of the ontology. Conclusions Detection of inconsistencies in taxon-specificity enables gradual improvement of the ontologies, the annotations, and the formalized constraints. This is progressively improving the quality of our data. The full system is available for download, and new constraints or proposed changes to constraints can be submitted online at https://sourceforge.net/tracker/?atid=605890&group_id=36855.

  4. Is investment–cashflow sensitivity a good measure of financial constraints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Wan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since Fazzari et al. (1988, investment–cashflow sensitivity has been one of the most important indicators for testing and measuring the external financial constraints of corporations. This study analyzes the effect of changes in the relative cost of internal and external financing on investment decisions in response to tax changes. China’s 2004 VAT reform decreased companies’ effective tax rates, leading to an increase in operating cashflow. This, in turn, reduced the internal cost of financing and the value of the tax shield and increased the cost of debt financing. This study shows that in the case of the VAT reform, investment–cashflow sensitivity increased significantly, whereas cash holdings–cashflow sensitivity and borrowing-slack sensitivity did not significantly change. We conclude that investment–cashflow sensitivity is not an effective measure of financial constraints under information asymmetry, but cash–cashflow sensitivity and borrowing-slack sensitivity may be useful alternatives.

  5. Constraints on new phenomena through Higgs coupling measurements with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo Montoya, German David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson opens many perspectives to explore physics beyond the Standard Model. This talk describes constraints of new physics in a number of models using the combined measurements of the coupling strength of the 125 GeV Higgs particle using the entire ATLAS run-I data. The various models presented include an additional real electroweak singlet, two Higgs doublet models, a simplified Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, and a Higgs portal to dark matter.

  6. Improving the Effectiveness of Educational Development: Concerns, Constraints and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The organization and role of higher education research and development units (HERDUs) are described, and international perspectives on educational development theory and practices are examined. Factors constraining educational development operations in HERDUs are discussed, and recommendations for addressing current concerns are offered. (MSE)

  7. Green space development in shrinking cities – opportunities and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Rößler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Green space development means both a strategy and a need to cope with the spatial transformation of cities as a consequence of socio-demographic change. This paper focuses on the opportunities and challenges of planning and implementing green spaces in shrinking cities. Based on a doctoral thesis, empirical results regarding the relevance of green spaces and strategies in the process of urban restructuring will be discussed. Concerned cities develop specific framework concepts to face spatial transformation. It is assumed that in shrinking cities the influence of green spaces and as well as their significance for urban form will change. Results of case studies in shrinking cities of Eastern Germany will be discussed with regard to their strategies and the instruments facing the challenges of green space development. The presented findings might be also relevant for urban development in (partially growing cities, enhancing green space development as a part of sustainable cities.

  8. Development and growth in synanthropic species: plasticity and constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj-Fišer, Simona; Čelik, Tatjana; Lokovšek, Tjaša; Šuen, Klavdija; Šiling, Rebeka; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2014-07-01

    Urbanization poses serious extinction risks, yet some species thrive in urban environments. This may be due to a pronounced developmental plasticity in these taxa, since phenotypically, plastic organisms may better adjust to unpredictable urban food resources. We studied phenotypic plasticity in Nuctenea umbratica, a common European forest and urban vegetation spider. We subjected spiderlings to low (LF), medium (MF) and high (HF) food treatments and documented their growth and developmental trajectories into adulthood. Spiders from the three treatments had comparable numbers of instars and growth ratios, but differed in developmental periods. Longest developing LF spiders (♀ = 390, ♂ = 320 days) had the smallest adults, but MF (♀ = 300, ♂ = 240 days) and HF (♀ = 240, ♂ = 210 days) spiders reached comparable adult sizes through shorter development. While males and females had comparable instar numbers, females had longer development, higher growth ratios, adult sizes and mass; and while males adjusted their moulting to food availability, female moulting depended on specific mass, not food treatment. We discussed the patterns of Nuctenea sex-specific development and compared our results with published data on two other Holarctic urban colonizers ( Larinioides sclopetarius, Zygiella x- notata) exhibiting high plasticity and fast generation turn-over. We conclude that despite relatively unconstrained developmental time in the laboratory enabling Nuctenea to achieve maximal mass and size—main female fitness proxies—their relatively fixed growth ratio and long generation turn-over may explain their lower success in urban environments.

  9. A Case Study of Obsolescence Management Constraints During Development of Sustainment-Dominated Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Jonathan

    This case study focused on obsolescence management constraints that occur during development of sustainment-dominated systems. Obsolescence management constraints were explored in systems expected to last 20 years or more and that tend to use commercial off-the-shelf products. The field of obsolescence has received little study, but obsolescence has a large cost for military systems. Because developing complex systems takes an average of 3 to 8 years, and commercial off-the-shelf components are typically obsolete within 3 to 5 years, military systems are often deployed with obsolescence issues that are transferred to the sustainment community to determine solutions. The main problem addressed in the study was to identify the constraints that have caused 70% of military systems under development to be obsolete when they are delivered. The purpose of the study was to use a qualitative case study to identify constraints that interfered with obsolescence management occurring during the development stages of a program. The participants of this case study were managers, subordinates, and end-users who were logistics and obsolescence experts. Researchers largely agree that proactive obsolescence management is a lower cost solution for sustainment-dominated systems. Program managers must understand the constraints and understand the impact of not implementing proactive solutions early in the development program lifecycle. The conclusion of the study found several constraints that prevented the development program from early adoption of obsolescence management theories, specifically pro-active theories. There were three major themes identified: (a) management commitment, (b) lack of details in the statement of work, and (c) vendor management. Each major theme includes several subthemes. The recommendation is future researchers should explore two areas: (a) comparing the cost of managing obsolescence early in the development process versus the costs of managing later, (b

  10. External constraints in Korea`s long-term nuclear development -A search for their resolution-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Duk Min [IFANS (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    Korea`s long-term nuclear development is subject to the external constraints. The most decisive legal constraint is the South-North Joint Declaration of denuclearization in 1991. In order to meet the conditions for the long-term nuclear development, this study proposed and analyzed various policy alternatives to adjust the constraints of the joint declaration. Finally, the long-term approach to the issue, the use of ASIATOM initiative, a strong national commitment to the denuclearization and consolidating cooperation with countries who have adopted nuclear recycle policy were suggested as ideas on how to advance the long-term nuclear research and development under the present situations. (Author) 13 refs., 5 tabs.

  11. Anti-Measurement Matrix Uncertainty for Robust Sparse Signal Recovery with The Mixed l2 and l1 Norm Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yipeng

    2010-01-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) is a technique for estimating a sparse signal from the random measurements and the measurement matrix. Traditional sparse signal recovery methods have seriously degeneration with the measurement matrix uncertainty (MMU). Here the MMU is modeled as a bounded additive error. An anti-uncertainty constraint in the form of a mixed l2 and l1 norm is deduced from the sparse signal model with MMU. Then we combine the sparse constraint with the anti-uncertainty constraint to get an anti-uncertainty sparse signal recovery operator. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed operator has a better reconstructing performance with the MMU than traditional methods.

  12. EAST equilibrium current profile reconstruction using polarimeter-interferometer internal measurement constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, J. P.; Lao, L. L.; Liu, H. Q.; Ding, W. X.; Zeng, L.; Luo, Z. P.; Ren, Q. L.; Huang, Y.; Huang, J.; Brower, D. L.; Hanada, K.; Chen, D. L.; Sun, Y. W.; Shen, B.; Gong, X. Z.; Xiao, B. J.; Wan, B. N.

    2017-03-01

    The first equilibrium reconstruction of EAST current-density profile based on internal Faraday rotation measurements provided by the POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) diagnostic is demonstrated using the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code. EFIT incorporates 11 simultaneous line-integrated density and Faraday effect measurements from POINT to self-consistently reconstruct the equilibrium toroidal current density profile using a Faraday rotation reconstruction algorithm. It is shown that the POINT measurements can be applied to improve the accuracy of core plasma current density and q profile on EAST. Comparisons of magnetic surfaces and the q profile reconstructed using external magnetic data against those using magnetic and POINT data are presented. Equilibrium reconstructions using POINT data are found to be consistent with sawtooth phenomena. The sensitivity of equilibrium reconstruction to POINT measurements indicates Faraday rotation provides important constraints for determining the current profile.

  13. Investigating Constraint-Based Approaches for the Development of Agile Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    presen ...fra mented in T state‐space planning pr n or partia operations All these a and. e environm constraints ynchronizin tion measur the current...is expressed with a time‐parameterized differential inclusion ∈ , for all 0, where the set‐ valued map is defined

  14. Small business in Russia: everyday issues and development constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Mikhailovna Kozyreva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the data of “Russian longitudinal monitoring survey of economic situation and public health NRU HSE” (RLMS-HSE and considers current issues and specifics of social well-being of entrepreneurs engaged in small business – managers of micro-enterprises and individual entrepreneurs as one of the least protected professional groups who face great difficulties in organizing their business. The analysis confirms that numerous lingering problems impeding their work cause a reduction in the level of entrepreneurial activity, significantly worsen the social well-being of entrepreneurs and force many of them to change professional and life plans. The study reveals that social well-being of entrepreneurs engaged in small business is complex and uncertain; it is a consequence of an inconsistency between conditions of life and work, and the heterogeneity of this category of employees. They feel happy more often than wage workers. However, possessing a relatively high level of job satisfaction and life satisfaction in general, and having higher self-assessment of professional skills, small-scale entrepreneurs are less concerned with the low prestige of their work and their lack of wide power and authority in comparison to other categories of employed persons; they are cautious in establishing relationships with other people and they have a comparatively low level of law-abidance. The article proves that one of the conditions for successful functioning and development of small business consists in a balanced combination of entrepreneurial activity, initiative and efficient state governance. However, today, entrepreneurial ability, which should be the main driving force of the new Russian economy, is used extremely inefficiently, which is evident from the abnormally low level of entrepreneurial activity of citizens. And only about half of those who want to start their own business or establish their own company succeed. Only a small

  15. "Water as a development constraint : the case of Lwebitakuli subcounty, Sembabule district, Uganda"

    OpenAIRE

    Kaliisa, Rogers

    2012-01-01

    This is a qualitative study that explores people‟s perspectives of water as a constraint to socio-economic development in Lwebitakuli sub-county, Sembabule District, South western Uganda. Three main research questions were explored: What are the features of socio-economic development in Lwebitakuli? What is the role of water in development? How do people perceive or describe water as a development concern? And what strategies has government, NGOs and community members adopted to cope with...

  16. Leggett-type nonlocal realistic inequalities without any constraint on the geometrical alignment of measurement settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Ashutosh; Home, Dipankar; Majumdar, A. S.

    2011-11-01

    Leggett-type nonlocal realistic inequalities that have been derived to date are all contingent upon suitable geometrical constraints to be strictly satisfied by the spatial arrangement of the relevant measurement settings. This undesirable restriction is removed in the present work by deriving appropriate forms of nonlocal realistic inequalities, one of which involves the fewest number of settings compared to all such inequalities derived earlier. The way such inequalities would provide a logically firmer basis for a clearer testing of a Leggett-type nonlocal realistic model vis-à-vis quantum mechanics is explained.

  17. Multiple shooting applied to robust reservoir control optimization including output constraints on coherent risk measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codas, Andrés; Hanssen, Kristian G.; Foss, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    The production life of oil reservoirs starts under significant uncertainty regarding the actual economical return of the recovery process due to the lack of oil field data. Consequently, investors and operators make management decisions based on a limited and uncertain description of the reservoir....... In this work, we propose a new formulation for robust optimization of reservoir well controls. It is inspired by the multiple shooting (MS) method which permits a broad range of parallelization opportunities and output constraint handling. This formulation exploits coherent risk measures, a concept...

  18. Orbital plane constraint applicable for in-situ measurement of sub-millimeter-size debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumoto, Masahiro; Fujita, Koki; Hanada, Toshiya; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kitazawa, Yukihito

    2017-03-01

    Space debris smaller than 1 mm in size still have enough energy to cause a fatal damage on a spacecraft, but such tiny debris cannot be followed or tracked from the ground. Therefore, IDEA the project for In-situ Debris Environmental Awareness, which aims to detect sub-millimeter-size debris using a group of micro satellites, has been initiated at Kyushu University. First, this paper reviews the previous study on the nature of orbits on which debris may be detected through in-situ measurements proposed in the IDEA project. Second, this paper derives a simple equation that constrains the orbital plane on which debris is detected through in-situ measurements. Third, this paper also investigates the nature and sensitivity of this simple constraint equation to clear how frequently impacts have to be confirmed to reduce the measurement error. Finally, this paper introduces a torus model to describe the collision flux observed from the previous study approximately. This collision flux approximation agrees rather well with the observed collision flux. It is concluded, therefore, that the simple constraint equation and collision flux approximation introduced in this paper can replace the analytical method adopted by the previous study to conduct a further investigation more effectively.

  19. HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON THE COSMOLOGICAL DECELERATION-ACCELERATION TRANSITION REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: omer@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We compile a list of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble parameter between redshifts 0.07 {<=} z {<=} 2.3 and use this to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. These H(z) measurements by themselves require a currently accelerating cosmological expansion at about, or better than, 3{sigma} confidence. The mean and standard deviation of the six best-fit model deceleration-acceleration transition redshifts (for the three cosmological models and two Hubble constant priors we consider) are z{sub da} = 0.74 {+-} 0.05, in good agreement with the recent Busca et al. determination of z{sub da} = 0.82 {+-} 0.08 based on 11 H(z) measurements between redshifts 0.2 {<=} z {<=} 2.3, almost entirely from baryon-acoustic-oscillation-like data.

  20. Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises and Their Constraints: A Story from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulus T. H. Tambunan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to discuss recent development of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs and their current problems in Indonesia, based on analysis of secondary data on their performance focusing on their contribution to gross domestic product (GDP and productivity, and their constraints. It shows that their GDP share is larger than that of large enterprises (LEs. But it is mainly because their number is huge, while their productivity is low. Their main constraints are mainly high cost of raw materials, marketing difficulties, and lack of capital.

  1. Constraints on methane emissions in North America from future geostationary remote-sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserez, Nicolas; Henze, Daven K.; Rooney, Brigitte; Perkins, Andre; Wecht, Kevin J.; Turner, Alexander J.; Natraj, Vijay; Worden, John R.

    2016-05-01

    The success of future geostationary (GEO) satellite observation missions depends on our ability to design instruments that address their key scientific objectives. In this study, an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is performed to quantify the constraints on methane (CH4) emissions in North America obtained from shortwave infrared (SWIR), thermal infrared (TIR), and multi-spectral (SWIR+TIR) measurements in geostationary orbit and from future SWIR low-Earth orbit (LEO) measurements. An efficient stochastic algorithm is used to compute the information content of the inverted emissions at high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.7°) in a variational framework using the GEOS-Chem chemistry-transport model and its adjoint. Our results show that at sub-weekly timescales, SWIR measurements in GEO orbit can constrain about twice as many independent flux patterns than in LEO orbit, with a degree of freedom for signal (DOF) for the inversion of 266 and 115, respectively. Comparisons between TIR GEO and SWIR LEO configurations reveal that poor boundary layer sensitivities for the TIR measurements cannot be compensated for by the high spatiotemporal sampling of a GEO orbit. The benefit of a multi-spectral instrument compared to current SWIR products in a GEO context is shown for sub-weekly timescale constraints, with an increase in the DOF of about 50 % for a 3-day inversion. Our results further suggest that both the SWIR and multi-spectral measurements on GEO orbits could almost fully resolve CH4 fluxes at a spatial resolution of at least 100 km × 100 km over source hotspots (emissions > 4 × 105 kg day-1). The sensitivity of the optimized emission scaling factors to typical errors in boundary and initial conditions can reach 30 and 50 % for the SWIR GEO or SWIR LEO configurations, respectively, while it is smaller than 5 % in the case of a multi-spectral GEO system. Overall, our results demonstrate that multi-spectral measurements from a geostationary satellite

  2. Is investment-cashflow sensitivity a good measure of financial constraints?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hualin; Wan; Kai; Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Since Fazzari et al.(1988),investment-cashflow sensitivity has been one of the most important indicators for testing and measuring the external financial constraints of corporations.This study analyzes the effect of changes in the relative cost of internal and external financing on investment decisions in response to tax changes.China’s2004 VAT reform decreased companies’ effective tax rates,leading to an increase in operating cashflow.This,in turn,reduced the internal cost of financing and the value of the tax shield and increased the cost of debt financing.This study shows that in the case of the VAT reform,investment-cashflow sensitivity increased significantly,whereas cash holdings-cashflow sensitivity and borrowing-slack sensitivity did not significantly change.We conclude that investment-cashflow sensitivity is not an effective measure of financial constraints under information asymmetry,but cash-cashflow sensitivity and borrowing-slack sensitivity may be useful alternatives.

  3. Constraints of recreational sport participation: measurement invariance and latent mean differences across sex and physical activity status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing Dong; Chung, Pak Kwong; Chen, Wing Ping

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the current study was to (a) examine the measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex and physical activity status among the undergraduate students (N = 630) in Hong Kong and (b) compare the latent mean differences across groups. Measurement invariance of the Constraint Scale of Sport Participation across sex of and physical activity status of the participants was examined first. With receiving support on the measurement invariance across groups, latent mean differences of the scores across groups were examined. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the configural, metric, scalar, and structural invariance of the scale was supported across groups. The results of latent mean differences suggested that the women reported significantly higher constraints on time, partner, psychology, knowledge, and interest than the men. The physically inactive participants reported significantly higher scores on all constraints except for accessibility than the physically active participants.

  4. [Multispectral Radiation Algorithm Based on Emissivity Model Constraints for True Temperature Measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Mei; Sun, Xiao-gang; Luan, Mei-sheng

    2015-10-01

    Temperature measurement is one of the important factors for ensuring product quality, reducing production cost and ensuring experiment safety in industrial manufacture and scientific experiment. Radiation thermometry is the main method for non-contact temperature measurement. The second measurement (SM) method is one of the common methods in the multispectral radiation thermometry. However, the SM method cannot be applied to on-line data processing. To solve the problems, a rapid inversion method for multispectral radiation true temperature measurement is proposed and constraint conditions of emissivity model are introduced based on the multispectral brightness temperature model. For non-blackbody, it can be drawn that emissivity is an increasing function in the interval if the brightness temperature is an increasing function or a constant function in a range and emissivity satisfies an inequality of emissivity and wavelength in that interval if the brightness temperature is a decreasing function in a range, according to the relationship of brightness temperatures at different wavelengths. The construction of emissivity assumption values is reduced from multiclass to one class and avoiding the unnecessary emissivity construction with emissivity model constraint conditions on the basis of brightness temperature information. Simulation experiments and comparisons for two different temperature points are carried out based on five measured targets with five representative variation trends of real emissivity. decreasing monotonically, increasing monotonically, first decreasing with wavelength and then increasing, first increasing and then decreasing and fluctuating with wavelength randomly. The simulation results show that compared with the SM method, for the same target under the same initial temperature and emissivity search range, the processing speed of the proposed algorithm is increased by 19.16%-43.45% with the same precision and the same calculation results.

  5. Dynamic structured-light measurement for wheel diameter based on the cycloid constraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Sun, Junhua; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Wheel diameter is a significant parameter related to the safety and comfort level of trains. The traditional circle fitting method can be sensitive to noise because of the small distribution of contact points. This paper proposes a structured-light measurement based on the cycloid constraint to obtain a wide distribution of contact points. The wheel is measured twice while running. The cycloid is used to integrate all the contact points to one circle. Simulations are implemented to analyze the possible errors, and the results are compared with the traditional method, which shows the method is more precise and has good stability against 3D reconstruction noise and out-of-roundness. The physical experiment also shows that the result is precise and robust.

  6. Probing the inflaton: Small-scale power spectrum constraints from measurements of the CMB energy spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, Jens; Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2012-01-01

    In the early Universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk-damping, a process that inevitably generates mu- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k < 10^4 Mpc^{-1}. Here we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of mu and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magn...

  7. Monte Carlo comparisons of the top quark mass measurement techniques using kinematic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Geonmo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu

    2016-12-01

    A Monte Carlo study to compare the sensitivities of the top-quark mass-reconstruction methods using the b-quark decay as a kinematic constraint was performed. The top quark is reconstructed from its decay products, the W boson and the b-quark, and its mass can be obtained by using the 4-vector sum of their final states. However, missing neutrinos and the poor jet energy resolution makes the mass measurement biased and imprecise, always requiring further calibration, and dominates the systematic uncertainties. Several new ideas to increase the mass resolution by using the kinematic constraints of the b quark decays using a charm quark meson were suggested and performed to overcome such systematic limits. In this study, we compare three methods, one using J/ ψ, another using D 0, and the other using D* meson, by extracting their sensitivities to the top-quark mass, as well as their statistical advantages. This study is intended to set a priority in the real data analyses using a new data set from abundant tbar t production in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2.

  8. Measuring the 2D baryon acoustic oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: cosmological constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Samuel R.; Kazin, Eyal; Davis, Tamara M.; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J.; Drinkwater, Michael J.; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russell J.; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Poole, Gregory B.; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2017-02-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final data set from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: first using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focusing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalize over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle-averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of Ωc h2, H(z), and DA(z) for three redshift bins with effective redshifts z = 0.44, 0.60, and 0.73. Within these bins and methodologies, we recover constraints between 5 and 22 per cent error. Our cosmological constraints are consistent with flat ΛCDM cosmology and agree with results from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey.

  9. Assessing opportunities and constraints for biofuel development in sub-Saharan Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Maltitz, Graham P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available , the development of sustainability principles, criteria and indicators for biofuel development, and constraints to imports in the EU, have been some key responses to reduce unsustainable practices (Harrison et al. 2010a, Vis et al. 2008). �ough the adoption... relating to feedstock production could have huge and potentially irreversible social and environmental impacts. We adopt an approach that di�ers substantially from the most common approach of using sustainability principles and criteria for assessing...

  10. Integrated systems optimization model for biofuel development: The influence of environmental constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.

    2012-12-01

    The environmental impact is one of the major concerns of biofuel development. While many other studies have examined the impact of biofuel expansion on stream flow and water quality, this study examines the problem from the other side - will and how a biofuel production target be affected by given environmental constraints. For this purpose, an integrated model comprises of different sub-systems of biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crops/ethanol market has been developed. The sub-systems are integrated into one large-scale model to guide the optimal development plan considering the interdependency between the subsystems. The optimal development plan includes biofuel refineries location and capacity, refinery operation, land allocation between biofuel and food crops, and the corresponding stream flow and nitrate load in the watershed. The watershed is modeled as a network flow, in which the nodes represent sub-watersheds and the arcs are defined as the linkage between the sub-watersheds. The runoff contribution of each sub-watershed is determined based on the land cover and the water uses in that sub-watershed. Thus, decisions of other sub-systems such as the land allocation in the land use sub-system and the water use in the refinery sub-system define the sources and the sinks of the network. Environmental policies will be addressed in the integrated model by imposing stream flow and nitrate load constraints. These constraints can be specified by location and time in the watershed to reflect the spatial and temporal variation of the regulations. Preliminary results show that imposing monthly water flow constraints and yearly nitrate load constraints will change the biofuel development plan dramatically. Sensitivity analysis is performed to examine how the environmental constraints and their spatial and the temporal distribution influence the overall biofuel development plan and the performance of each of the sub

  11. Millennium development goals: Examining Kenya constraints in achieving the eight goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wambua Leonard Munyao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.

  12. Inverse constraints for emission fluxes of atmospheric tracers estimated from concentration measurements and Lagrangian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, Ignacio; Patra, Prabir; Breivik, Knut

    2015-04-01

    Lagrangian transport models based on times series of Eulerian fields provide a computationally affordable way of achieving very high resolution for limited areas and time periods. This makes them especially suitable for the analysis of point-wise measurements of atmospheric tracers. We present an application illustrated with examples of greenhouse gases from anthropogenic emissions in urban areas and biogenic emissions in Japan and of pollutants in the Arctic. We asses the algorithmic complexity of the numerical implementation as well as the use of non-procedural techniques such as Object-Oriented programming. We discuss aspects related to the quantification of uncertainty from prior information in the presence of model error and limited number of observations. The case of non-linear constraints is explored using direct numerical optimisation methods.

  13. Constraints on methane emissions in North America from future geostationary remote sensing measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bousserez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The success of future geostationary (GEO satellite observation missions depends on our ability to design instruments that address their key scientific objectives. In this study, an Observation System Simulation Experiment (OSSE is performed to quantify the constraints on methane (CH4 emissions in North America obtained from Short Wave Infrared (SWIR, Thermal Infrared (TIR and multi-spectral measurements in geostationary orbit compared to existing SWIR low earth (LEO measurements. A stochastic algorithm is used to compute the information content of a variational inversion at high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.7° using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint. Both the SWIR LEO and TIR GEO configurations generally provide poor constraints on CH4 emissions (error reduction 4 sources (emissions > 4 × 105 kg day−1 grid−1 at model grid scale, while a TIR instrument would provide a relative error reduction of 25–60 % over those areas. While performing similarly for monthly inversions, a multi-spectral instrument would allow for more than 70 % error reduction for these emissions for 7 or 3 day inversions. Sensitivity of the inversions to error in boundary conditions are found to be negligible. Moreover, estimates of the model resolution matrix over significant emitting regions (CH4 emissions > 2 × 105 kg day−1 grid−1 show that for all instrument configurations in GEO orbit the inversion is able to independently constrain CH4 sources at spatial scales smaller than 200 km. These results highlight the importance of using observations sensitive to boundary layer concentrations (i.e., SWIR to achieve significant improvements in constraining CH4 sources compared to current LEO capabilities.

  14. A Study on Response Strategy to Cope with International and Domestic Constraints on the Development of Nuclear Fuel Cycle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chung in; Park, Hahn Kyu; Kim, Tak Won; Lee, Dong Yoon; Lee, Yong Hwan [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze international and domestic constraints on the development of nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea and to develop response strategies to deal with these constraints. This study proceeded as follows: Chapter 2 examined multilateral international constrains including IAEA safeguards system and NPT, bilateral international constraints such as the U.S.-Korea Nuclear Energy Cooperation Agreement and the U.S. nonproliferation policy, and domestic constraints like residents' anti nuclear movement and environmental protest movement. In Chapter 3, this study conducted a case study on Japan's nuclear fuel cycle programs as a basic research for the establishment of relevant response strategies vis-a-vis the international and domestic constraints. In this chapter, the focus of analysis was on Japan's strategies to deal with multilateral and bilateral pressures and domestic constraints. In Chapters 4 and 5, this study sought to elaborate Korea's strategies to cope with multilateral international constraints and U.S. constraints on the development of a domestic nuclear fuel cycle in Korea, respectively. The response strategies to domestic constraints were also illuminated in Chapter 6. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs. (author)

  15. Further Development in the Global Resolution of Convex Programs with Complementarity Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-09

    variables, we have investigated the class of convex quadratic programs with complementarity constraints (QPCCs) and be- gun to explore the global...published; all are available from http://www.rpi. edu/~mitchj: • L. Bai, J.E. Mitchell, and J.S. Pang. On convex quadratic programs with linear...relationship of a pair of convex quadratic programs and on a logical Benders scheme, an extreme ray/point generation procedure is developed, which

  16. Tracking adaptation and measuring development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Nick; Anderson, Simon; Ayers, Jessica; Burton, Ian; Tellam, Ian

    2011-11-15

    This is the first paper in the new IIED Climate Change Working Paper series. As adaptation to climate change becomes the focus of increasing attention and the target of significant spending, there is a growing need for frameworks and tools that enable organisations to track and assess the outcomes of adaptation interventions. This paper presents a coherent framework for climate change adaptation programming, including potential indicators, or indicator categories/types, for tracking and evaluating the success of adaptation support and adaptation interventions. The paper begins with a discussion of some of the key issues related to the evaluation of adaptation, and outlines some of the main difficulties and constraints with respect to the development of adaptation indicators. Next, an evaluation framework is proposed and indicator categories or 'domains' are identified. Lastly, key conclusions are provided and a theory of change is outlined that shows how development and use of the framework could lead to more effective adaptation investments for climate resilient development.

  17. Future dark energy constraints from measurements of quasar parallax: Gaia, SIM and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    A consequence of the Earth's well-measured motion with respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background is that over a 10 year period it will travel a distance of ~800 AU. As first pointed out by Kardashev in 1986, this distance can be used as a baseline to carry out astrometric measurements of quasar parallaxes, so that only microarcsecond precision is necessary to detect parallax shifts of objects at gigaparsec distances. Such precision will soon be approached with the launch of the astrometric satellites Gaia and SIM. We use a Fisher matrix formalism to investigate the constraints that these and future, even more ambitious missions may be able to place on the cosmological distance scale and the parameters describing dark energy. We find that by observing close to a million quasars as planned, Gaia should have the capability to measure the Hubble constant to within 20%, or in a concordance Universe dominated by a cosmological constant detect its presence at the ~2 sigma level. We investigate a range of other miss...

  18. Constraints perceived by psychiatrists working in community mental health services. Development and pilot study of a novel instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Mackinnon, Andrew; Curci, Paolo

    2007-12-01

    An inventory of institutional constraints perceived as limiting therapeutic choices was developed and completed by psychiatrists working in Italian public mental health services. Constraints considered most limiting were social and institutional pressures toward social control, violence risk assessment and prevention, and lack of control over workload. The total mean score of the perceived constraints instrument was significantly negatively correlated with ratings of perceived freedom in therapeutic choices and with overall job satisfaction. Reliability was good (alpha = 0.85). Addressing perceived constraints may result in more choice options to reach therapeutic goals in a collaborative framework with patients, and improve job satisfaction.

  19. Precision muon decay measurements and improved constraints on the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, A; Bayes, R; Davydov, Yu I; Depommier, P; Faszer, W; Gagliardi, C A; Gaponenko, A; Gill, D R; Grossheim, A; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hillairet, A; Hu, J; Koetke, D D; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E L; Mischke, R E; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Tribble, R E

    2011-01-01

    The TWIST collaboration has completed its measurement of the three muon decay parameters $\\rho$, $\\delta$, and $P_\\mu\\xi$. This paper describes our determination of $\\rho$, which governs the shape of the overall momentum spectrum, and $\\delta$, which controls the momentum dependence of the parity-violating decay asymmetry. The results are $\\rho=0.749\\,77\\pm 0.000\\,12(\\text{stat.})\\pm 0.000\\,23(\\text{syst.})$ and $\\delta = 0.750\\,49\\pm 0.000\\,21(\\text{stat.})\\pm 0.000\\,27(\\text{syst.})$. These are consistent with the value of 3/4 given for both parameters in the standard model, and each is over a factor of ten more precise than the measurements published prior to TWIST. Our final results on $\\rho$, $\\delta$, and $P_\\mu\\xi$ have been incorporated into a new global analysis of all available muon decay data, resulting in improved model-independent constraints on the possible weak interactions of right-handed particles.

  20. Constraints on explosive silicon burning in core-collapse supernovae from measured Ni/Fe ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Jerkstrand, A; Magkotsios, G; Sim, S A; Fransson, C; Spyromilio, J; Heger, A; Müller, B; Sollerman, J; Smartt, S J

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of explosive nucleosynthesis yields in core-collapse supernovae provide tests for explosion models. We investigate constraints on explosive conditions derivable from measured amounts of nickel and iron after radioactive decays using nucleosynthesis networks with parameterized thermodynamic trajectories. The Ni/Fe ratio is for most regimes dominated by the production ratio of 58Ni/(54Fe + 56Ni), which tends to grow with higher neutron excess and with higher entropy. For SN 2012ec, a supernova that produced a Ni/Fe ratio of $3.4\\pm1.2$ times solar, we find that burning of a fuel with neutron excess $\\eta \\approx 6\\times 10^{-3}$ is required. Unless the progenitor metallicity is over 5 times solar, the only layer in the progenitor with such a neutron excess is the silicon shell. Supernovae producing large amounts of stable nickel thus suggest that this deep-lying layer can be, at least partially, ejected in the explosion. We find that common spherically symmetric models of $M_{\\rm ZAMS} \\lesssim 13$...

  1. Advances in athlete development: understanding conditions of and constraints on optimal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Young, Bradley W; Mann, David

    2017-08-01

    The development of elite, high performance athletes reflects the complex interaction of biological and genetic factors with important environmental influences. Over the past two decades, discussions of athlete development have largely focused on the role of 'deliberate' practice, and more recently, researchers have begun exploring the means by which practice can be best used to maximize the rate of talent development across the different stages of athlete development. In this article, we summarize recent developments in understanding how athletes maximize practice including (a) antecedents of practice involvement, (b) environmental constraints of practice involvement, (c) the value of diversification for athlete development, (d) and methodological advancements in this area. Collectively, sustained focus on issues of athlete development and researchers' use of more advanced approaches to novel questions extend our understanding of the nuances associated with this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Participatory assessment of potato production constraints and trait preferences in potato cultivar development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Muhinyuza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. is the major food and cash crop in the highland regions of Rwanda. However, farmers are not integrated into the potato breeding process. The objectives of this research were to identify farmers’ key potato production constraints and establish preferred traits in potato cultivar development in Rwanda. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA study was conducted through structured survey involving 144 households and 22 focus groups with 258 participants in Musanze, Gicumbi and Nyamagabe districts. The structured survey used a questionnaire administered to farmers to collect information on importance of potatoes and other main crops. While focus groups discussions used matrix scoring of key production constraints and pair-wise ranking of traits. Potato is the most important food and cash crop, followed by maize, beans and wheat. The dominant potato varieties are Kirundo, Cruza, Mabondo and Victoria. The most important potato production constraints are lack of access to credit, lack of high yielding cultivars, insufficient clean seeds and late blight disease. Variety Mabondo is the most tolerant to late blight, followed by Cruza, Kirundo, Kinigi and Rutuku in all the districts. High yield, disease tolerance and high dry matter content are the most important attributes preferred by farmers. Active farmer participation in early breeding stages is critical for a successful potato breeding programme.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma prevention: A worldwide emergence between the opulence of developed countries and the economic constraints of developing nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca Lodato; Giuseppe Mazzella; Davide Festi; Francesco Azzaroli; Antonio Colecchia; Enrico Roda

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common neoplasm, the major cause of death in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The geographic distribution of HCC varies significantly and 80% of cases occur in developing countries (Far East and South Asia)where the prevalence of viral hepatitis is higher. The treatment of HCC is difficult because most patients are diagnosed when the tumour is in an advanced stage and is not amenable to potential curative therapy,thus prevention is the key to reducing HCC and its related morbidity and mortality. HCC is unique among cancers, occurring mostly in patients with a known risk factor. Ninety percent of HCCs develop in the context of chronic liver diseases and mainly in patients with cirrhosis. Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of HCC worldwide, followed by alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and other causes such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), genetic haemocromatosis (GH)and primary biliary cirrhosis in an advanced stage (Ⅲ-V). In certain areas of the People's Republic of China,exposure to aflatoxin and HBV infection are thought to be responsible for the extraordinary high risk of HCC.Substantial progresses in the prevention of virusl-related hepatitis (screening of blood units, use of disposable sanitary tools, HBV vaccination) have been achieved in developed countries, but in the same areas, alcohol- and dysmetabolism-related HCCs are emerging problems which require specific interventions in terms of public health measures. In developing countries, economic constraints limit the development of any program for the prevention of viral hepatitis transmission (including health education campaigns, healthcare politics, primary prevention and the improvement of hygienic and sanitary conditions). When viral liver disease is established, only a minority of patients are treated worldwide and benefit a possible preventive effect of medical

  4. Constraints on dark matter scenarios from measurements of the galaxy luminosity function at high redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Corasaniti, P S; Marsh, D J E; Das, S

    2016-01-01

    We use state-of-art measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) at z=6, 7 and 8 to derive constraints on warm dark matter (WDM), late-forming dark matter (LFDM) and ultra-light axion dark matter (ULADM) models alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm. To this purpose we have run a suite of high-resolution N-body simulations to accurately characterise the low mass-end of the halo mass function and derive DM model predictions of the high-z luminosity function. In order to convert halo masses into UV-magnitudes we introduce an empirical approach based on halo abundance matching which allows us to model the LF in terms of the amplitude and scatter of the ensemble average star formation rate halo mass relation of each DM model, $\\langle {\\rm SFR}({\\rm M_{ h}},z)\\rangle$. We find that independent of the DM scenario the average SFR at fixed halo mass increases from z=6 to 8, while the scatter remains constant. At halo mass ${\\rm M_{h}}\\gtrsim 10^{12}\\,{\\rm M}_\\odot$ h$^{-1}$ the average SFR as func...

  5. Predicted Constraints on Cosmic String Tension from Planck and Future CMB Polarization Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Foreman, Simon; Scott, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    We perform a Fisher matrix calculation of the predicted uncertainties on estimates of the cosmic string tension Gmu from upcoming observational data (namely, cosmic microwave background power spectra from the Planck satellite and an idealized future polarization experiment). We employ simulations that are more general than others commonly used in the literature, leaving the mean velocity of strings, correlation length of the string network, and "wiggliness" (which parametrizes smaller-scale structure along the strings) as free parameters that can be observationally measured. In a new code, StringFast, we implement a method for efficient computation of the C_l spectra induced by a network of strings, which is fast enough to be used in Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses of future data. Performing a calculation with the string parameters left free results in projected constraints on Gmu that are larger than those obtained by fixing their values a priori, typically by a factor of ~2-7. We also find that if Gmu is ...

  6. Future dark energy constraints from measurements of quasar parallax: Gaia, SIM and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Fiona; Croft, Rupert A. C.

    2009-08-01

    A consequence of the Earth's well-measured motion with respect to the cosmic microwave background is that over a 10-yr period it will travel a distance of ~800au. As first pointed out by Kardashev in 1986, this distance can be used as a baseline to carry out astrometric measurements of quasar parallaxes, so that only microarcsecond precision is necessary to detect parallax shifts of objects at gigaparsec distances. Such precision will soon be approached with the launch of the astrometric satellites Gaia and Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). We use a Fisher matrix formalism to investigate the constraints that these and future, even more ambitious, missions may be able to place on the cosmological distance scale and the parameters describing dark energy. We find that by observing around a million quasars as planned, an extended 10yr Gaia mission should have the capability to detect quasar parallax shifts at the 2.8σ level and so measure the Hubble constant to within 25 kms-1. For the interferometer SIM (in its currently proposed SIMLite configuration) a Key Project using 2.4 per cent of the total mission time to observe 750 quasars could detect the effect at the 2σ level and dedicated use of the instrument at the 3.3σ level. In a concordance cosmological model, Gaia and dedicated SIMLite only weakly constrain the presence of a cosmological constant at the ~1σ levels. We also investigate a range of future mission concepts, such as an interferometer similar in scope and design to NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder. This could in principle measure the dark energy parameters w0 and wa with precision and , respectively, yielding a Figure of Merit larger than the stage IV experiments considered in the report of the Dark Energy Task Force. Unlike perhaps all other probes of dark energy there appear to be no obvious astrophysical sources of systematic error on these measurements. There is however uncertainty regarding the statistical errors. As well as measurement error

  7. Is Investment-Cash flow Sensitivity a Good Measure of Financing Constraints? New Evidence from Indian Business Group Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Qian, J.

    2005-01-01

    Several studies use the investment - cash flow sensitivity as a measure of financing constraints while some others disagree.The source of this disparity lies mostly in differences in opinion regarding the segregation of severely financially constrained firms from less constrained ones.We examine thi

  8. Developing a measure of loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, D; Peplau, L A; Ferguson, M L

    1978-06-01

    Research on loneliness has been hindered by the lack of a simple and reliable assessment technique. The development of the UCLA Loneliness Scale, a short, 20-item general measure of loneliness is reported. The measure has high internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .96) and a test-retest correlation over a two-month period of .73. Concurrent and preliminary construct validity are indicated by correlations with self-reports of current loneliness and related emotional states, and by volunteering for a "loneliness clinic."

  9. Measuring Attitudes toward Management Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Gerald; Dubin, Samuel S.

    The attitudes of managers toward continuing education management development programs were analyzed, using the Fishbein technique; by this approach, the beliefs people have and their evaluation of these beliefs are measured separately. The evaluation of a belief is multiplied by its strength to get the direction of the attitude. A questionnaire,…

  10. Strategic biopharmaceutical portfolio development: an analysis of constraint-induced implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Edmund D; Farid, Suzanne S

    2008-01-01

    Optimizing the structure and development pathway of biopharmaceutical drug portfolios are core concerns to the developer that come with several attached complexities. These include strategic decisions for the choice of drugs, the scheduling of critical activities, and the possible involvement of third parties for development and manufacturing at various stages for each drug. Additional complexities that must be considered include the impact of making such decisions in an uncertain environment. Presented here is the development of a stochastic multi-objective optimization framework designed to address these issues. The framework harnesses the ability of Bayesian networks to characterize the probabilistic structure of superior decisions via machine learning and evolve them to multi-objective optimality. Case studies that entailed three- and five-drug portfolios alongside a range of cash flow constraints were constructed to derive insight from the framework where results demonstrate that a variety of options exist for formulating nondominated strategies in the objective space considered, giving the manufacturer a range of pursuable options. In all cases limitations on cash flow reduce the potential for generating profits for a given probability of success. For the sizes of portfolio considered, results suggest that naïvely applying strategies optimal for a particular size of portfolio to a portfolio of another size is inappropriate. For the five-drug portfolio the most preferred means for development across the set of optimized strategies is to fully integrate development and commercial activities in-house. For the three-drug portfolio, the preferred means of development involves a mixture of in-house, outsourced, and partnered activities. Also, the size of the portfolio appears to have a larger impact on strategy and the quality of objectives than the magnitude of cash flow constraint.

  11. Developments in luminescence measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Denby, Phil M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on our continuing investigation and development of new measurement facilities for use in irradiation, optical stimulation and luminescence signal detection; these facilities have potential application to all forms of luminescence-based retrospective dosimetry, and are particularly...... intended for use with the Riso TL/OSL reader. We have investigated the potential of new more powerful blue (455 nm) and green (530nm) LEDs, and of gated counting combined with pulsed stimulation light techniques using conventional LEDs. Measurement of time-resolved OSL has resulted in a method of real......; both types are very stable and reproducible. Other recent developments include the modification of a Riso reader to measure both thermally and optically stimulated electrons (TSE and OSE) from granular or chip phosphors. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Measuring changes in articulate brachiopod morphology before and after the Permian mass extinction event: do developmental constraints limit morphological innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampaglio, Charles N

    2004-01-01

    The pattern of decreasing disparity has been observed in both the metazoans and metaphytes throughout the Phanerozoic. The pattern is manifest as a decreasing trend in the origination of higher taxa. Currently, two competing evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon: the empty ecospace hypothesis and the developmental constraint hypothesis. To empirically distinguish between these hypotheses, the change in disparity before and after the end-Permian mass extinction event was measured in the articulated brachiopods. The assumption is that ecospace-limiting constraints are removed after mass extinctions revealing the effect of developmental constraints. For each taxon within the group, both continuous and discrete character sets were analyzed. Four different measures of disparity were used to analyze each character suite. Additionally, a separate analysis was performed on a subset of the articulated brachiopods, the rhynchonellids and terebratulids. In most cases investigated, disparity rebounded to comparable levels, with the rhynchonellids and terebratulids showing the largest increase in disparity after the end-Permian extinction, a clear example of an increase in disparity without a significant increase in taxonomic diversity. The results indicate that developmental constraints may not be responsible for the decreasing disparity in this group. The more likely scenario is that increasingly structured ecological guilds have made it much more difficult for large increases in disparity to occur.

  13. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Kaspar

    2004-07-06

    BACKGROUND: For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH) are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in low-income countries. METHODS AND FRAMEWORK: The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling-up of priority

  14. An approach to classifying human resources constraints to attaining health-related Millennium Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyss Kaspar

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For any wide-ranging effort to scale up health-related priority interventions, human resources for health (HRH are likely to be a key to success. This study explores constraints related to human resources in the health sector for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs in low-income countries. Methods and framework The analysis drew on information from a variety of publicly-available sources and principally on data presented in published papers in peer-reviewed journals. For classifying HRH constraints an analytical framework was used that considers constraints at five levels: individual characteristics, the health service delivery level, the health sector level, training capacities and the sociopolitical and economic context of a country. Results and discussion At individual level, the decision to enter, remain and serve in the health sector workforce is influenced by a series of social, economic, cultural and gender-related determinants. For example, to cover the health needs of the poorest it is necessary to employ personnel with specific social, ethnic and cultural characteristics. At health-service level, the commitment of health staff is determined by a number of organizational and management factors. The workplace environment has a great impact not only on health worker performance, but also on the comprehensiveness and efficiency of health service delivery. At health-sector level, the use of monetary and nonmonetary incentives is of crucial importance for having the accurate skill mix at the appropriate place. Scaling up of priority interventions is likely to require significant investments in initial and continuous training. Given the lead time required to produce new health workers, such investments must occur in the early phases of scaling up. At the same time coherent national HRH policies are required for giving direction on HRH development and linking HRH into health-sector reform issues, the scaling

  15. Investment Constraints in Urban Regeneration: Property Developers and Local Authorities Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nurulanis Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban decay is a phenomenon created due to the expansion of urban population, the restructuring of industrial, social composition as well as the deterioration of urban areas. Consequently this will increase issues of crime, mass unemployment, low quality in urban services, social problems etc. Thus urban regeneration is a tool used to overcome all these issues in order to create quality of urban living, diversify and vibrant cities. However, the involvement of investment in urban regeneration is still infancy in Malaysia as compared to other countries such as Australia, UK, Hong Kong, and etc. This is due to the perception of investors towards the profit generation and the risk involve. The objective of this paper is to determine the constraints involved in urban regeneration investment from the perspectives of the property developer companies and the local authorities. The method used is an exploratory with primary data collection through a questionnaire survey. The findings revealed that the main constraints is in regards of the land issues as well as high cost of investment, however, the benefits gain should also be considered as this create a livable urban living.

  16. Developing Talented Soccer Players: An Analysis of Socio-Spatial Factors as Possible Key Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra-Olivares Jaime

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most studies on the identification and development of soccer talent have been one-dimensional in nature. Although some multi-dimensional analyses have been conducted, few research studies have assessed in any depth the socio-spatial factors influencing talent development. The aim of this particular study was to analyse variations in the international representation of clubs (n = 821 and countries (n = 59 in the development of players who took part in the 2014 FIFA Soccer World Cup. Clubs and countries were ranked and divided into quartiles according to the number of players developed between the ages of 15 and 21 (clubs and countries that developed players for at least three years between these ages and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23. Significant variations were observed between clubs in terms of the number of developed players who took part in the World Cup and the number of official league matches played by these players up to the age of 23 (p < .05, and also between countries (p < .05. The findings reveal the need to carry out more in-depth studies into the type of training and competition engaged in by elite players in the period of development between the ages of 15 and 21. It may be the case that these factors are potentially decisive socio-spatial constraints in the development of soccer talent.

  17. Modelling central metabolic fluxes by constraint-based optimization reveals metabolic reprogramming of developing Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombié, Sophie; Nazaret, Christine; Bénard, Camille; Biais, Benoît; Mengin, Virginie; Solé, Marion; Fouillen, Laëtitia; Dieuaide-Noubhani, Martine; Mazat, Jean-Pierre; Beauvoit, Bertrand; Gibon, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Modelling of metabolic networks is a powerful tool to analyse the behaviour of developing plant organs, including fruits. Guided by our current understanding of heterotrophic metabolism of plant cells, a medium-scale stoichiometric model, including the balance of co-factors and energy, was constructed in order to describe metabolic shifts that occur through the nine sequential stages of Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit development. The measured concentrations of the main biomass components and the accumulated metabolites in the pericarp, determined at each stage, were fitted in order to calculate, by derivation, the corresponding external fluxes. They were used as constraints to solve the model by minimizing the internal fluxes. The distribution of the calculated fluxes of central metabolism were then analysed and compared with known metabolic behaviours. For instance, the partition of the main metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, etc.) was relevant throughout fruit development. We also predicted a valid import of carbon and nitrogen by the fruit, as well as a consistent CO2 release. Interestingly, the energetic balance indicates that excess ATP is dissipated just before the onset of ripening, supporting the concept of the climacteric crisis. Finally, the apparent contradiction between calculated fluxes with low values compared with measured enzyme capacities suggest a complex reprogramming of the metabolic machinery during fruit development. With a powerful set of experimental data and an accurate definition of the metabolic system, this work provides important insight into the metabolic and physiological requirements of the developing tomato fruits.

  18. Developing Optimized Trajectories Derived from Mission and Thermo-Structural Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Anderson, Michael P.; Green, Peter W.

    2008-01-01

    In conjunction with NASA and the Department of Defense, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) has been investigating analytical techniques to address many of the fundamental issues associated with solar exploration spacecraft and high-speed atmospheric vehicle systems. These issues include: thermo-structural response including the effects of thermal management via the use of surface optical properties for high-temperature composite structures; aerodynamics with the effects of non-equilibrium chemistry and gas radiation; and aero-thermodynamics with the effects of material ablation for a wide range of thermal protection system (TPS) materials. The need exists to integrate these discrete tools into a common framework that enables the investigation of interdisciplinary interactions (including analysis tool, applied load, and environment uncertainties) to provide high fidelity solutions. In addition to developing robust tools for the coupling of aerodynamically induced thermal and mechanical loads, JHU/APL has been studying the optimal design of high-speed vehicles as a function of their trajectory. Under traditional design methodology the optimization of system level mission parameters such as range and time of flight is performed independently of the optimization for thermal and mechanical constraints such as stress and temperature. A truly optimal trajectory should optimize over the entire range of mission and thermo-mechanical constraints. Under this research, a framework for the robust analysis of high-speed spacecraft and atmospheric vehicle systems has been developed. It has been built around a generic, loosely coupled framework such that a variety of readily available analysis tools can be used. The methodology immediately addresses many of the current analysis inadequacies and allows for future extension in order to handle more complex problems.

  19. Coordinated Target Tracking by Distributed Unscented Information Filter in Sensor Networks with Measurement Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yintao Wang

    2013-01-01

    measurements. Our method consists of two parts. In first phase, using the unscented sigma-point transformation techniques and information filter framework, a class of algorithms denoted as unscented information filters was developed to estimate the states of a target to be tracked. These techniques exhibit robustness and accuracy of sigma-point filters for nonlinear dynamic inference while being as easily fused as the information filters. In the second phase, we proposed a novel consensus protocol which allows each sensor node to find a consistent estimate of the value of the target. Under this protocol, the final estimate of the value of the target at each time step is iteratively updated only by fusing the neighbors’ measurements when one sensor node is out of the measurement scope of the target. Performance of the distributed unscented information filter is demonstrated and discussed on a target tracking task.

  20. Combining parallel detection of proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) measurements with a data-consistency constraint improves SNR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Hsu, Yi-Cheng; Chu, Ying-Hua; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2015-12-01

    One major challenge of MRSI is the poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which can be improved by using a surface coil array. Here we propose to exploit the spatial sensitivity of different channels of a coil array to enforce the k-space data consistency (DC) in order to suppress noise and consequently to improve MRSI SNR. MRSI data were collected using a proton echo planar spectroscopic imaging (PEPSI) sequence at 3 T using a 32-channel coil array and were averaged with one, two and eight measurements (avg-1, avg-2 and avg-8). The DC constraint was applied using a regularization parameter λ of 1, 2, 3, 5 or 10. Metabolite concentrations were quantified using LCModel. Our results show that the suppression of noise by applying the DC constraint to PEPSI reconstruction yields up to 32% and 27% SNR gain for avg-1 and avg-2 data with λ = 5, respectively. According to the reported Cramer-Rao lower bounds, the improvement in metabolic fitting was significant (p < 0.01) when the DC constraint was applied with λ ≥ 2. Using the DC constraint with λ = 3 or 5 can minimize both root-mean-square errors and spatial variation for all subjects using the avg-8 data set as reference values. Our results suggest that MRSI reconstructed with a DC constraint can save around 70% of scanning time to obtain images and spectra with similar SNRs using λ = 5.

  1. Correction of constraint loss in fracture toughness measurement of PCVN specimens based on fracture toughness diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Shin Beom; Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Yoon-Suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Chul; Lee, Bong Sang [Korea Atomic Energy Reserch Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to suggest an approach to generate master curves by using miniature specimens, especially pre-cracked Charpy V-notched (PCVN) specimen, made of SA508 carbon steel. Firstly, fracture toughness diagram is derived from comparing finite element analyses results with the fixed mesh size at crack tip between standard compact tension and PCVN specimens. To compensate the constraint effects from different geometry, further examination based on the fracture toughness diagram was performed. In this context, a scale factor to deal with specimen size effects is proposed by statistically manipulating the numerical analysis data. Finally, the proposed scale factor is applied to calculate reference temperature which affects on the master curve. We expect that the approach can be applicable to compensate the geometrical constraint effects on fracture toughness of SA508 carbon steel when the PCVN specimen is used

  2. Constraints on Tourism Development Caused by the Road Network in the Apuseni Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAGDALENA DRĂGAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A well-developed road network constitutes an asset for tourism development in any given region. However, the presence of these roads is not in itself a guarantee of a high level of accessibility and connectivity to the tourism resources. For the Apuseni Mountains, these two features actually rely more on the viability of different road sectors. One can note malfunctions regarding the access to some sites in the analyzed region, malfunctions that have a deep negative effect on how resources are being capitalized in the study area. Another constraint that takes its toll on tourism development is the relatively limited possibility for exploiting the tourism resources in an integrated and efficient manner, by connecting them in thematic tourism routes. In most cases, the causes are not orographic barriers or the absence of connections, but rather the scarce viability of some of the existing road sectors. These observations make the case for the decisive role transport infrastructure is playing in the tourism development of regions and highlight the need of an integrated approach in tourism planning.

  3. Instrument development for safeguards measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarth, M.; Davidson, D.; Koskelo, M.; Gardner, G. [Canberra Nuclear Products Group, Meriden, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    New safeguards requirements, such as those resulting from industrial reprocessing activities, makes the faster and more accurate determination of the uranium enrichment and/or the isotopic composition of plutonium essential in measuring the fissile mass. In response to these needs, Canberra has developed several improved safeguards systems in the last few years. In this paper, we will present an overview of our newest safeguards systems and the improvements they contain. The portable systems include the U-Pu InSpector, the IMCA and the JSR-14 systems. All combine automatic control of acquisition electronics and rapid analysis with an integrated software package for ease of use. The U-Pu InSpector incorporates the MGA code used by the IAEA and Euratom for plutonium analysis. The IMCA complies with IAEA PMCN and PMCG procedures for uranium analysis. With the JSR-14, we are currently developing the procedures to provide compliance with the IAEA neutron counting procedures. In addition to portable safeguards systems, Canberra has designed and installed many installed systems such as the WDAS and PSMC systems at PNC Tokai in Japan, and the large unattended neutron/gamma systems at Cogema La Hague and the Melox reprocessing facility in France. (author)

  4. PROBING THE INFLATON: SMALL-SCALE POWER SPECTRUM CONSTRAINTS FROM MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ENERGY SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido, E-mail: jchluba@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-10-20

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates {mu}- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k {approx}< 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup -1}. Here, we study constraints on the primordial power spectrum derived from COBE/FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of {mu} and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  5. Constraints of measuring language proficiency in Estonia: The national examination in the English language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliko Liiv

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The current article gives an overview of the development and problems related to the advancement of the national examination in English in Estonia over a ten-year period, starting from its launch in 1997. The process started in 1994, after Estonia regained its independence, and proceeded from the need to standardise both foreign language instruction and evaluation. The national examination gave the Ministry of Education, schools, teachers and students an opportunity to adequately assess language proficiency, as well as compare students and schools. On the other hand, universities and businesses obtained a tool to make admission/recruitment decisions. The article discusses the principles of the national examination construction, its specification, structural alterations over time, the task types implemented to measure particular language skills, marking procedures, exam results and exam evaluation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa5.02

  6. Measurement of Triple-Differential Dijet Cross Sections with the CMS Detector at 8 TeV and PDF Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Sieber, Georg; Müller, Thomas

    The first measurement of triple-differential dijet cross sections at the LHC is presented using 19. 71 fb−1 of data collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at 8TeV. The cross sections are measured as a function of the average transverse momentum, the rapidity separation, and the boost of the two leading jets. The unfolded cross sections agree with perturbative QCD calculations at NLO accuracy apart from phase space regions containing strongly boosted dijets events, in which the measurement is sensitive to the PDFs. Constraints on the PDFs are derived by including the data in a PDF fit together with DIS cross sections from the HERA experiments. Compared to a fit with HERA DIS data alone, the uncertainties of the PDFs, especially those of the gluon PDF, are significantly reduced and a harder gluon PDF is obtained.

  7. Constraints on Primordial Magnetic Fields from Planck combined with the South Pole Telescope CMB B-mode polarization measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Zucca, Alex; Pogosian, Levon

    2016-01-01

    A primordial magnetic field (PMF) present before recombination can leave specific signatures on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) fluctuations. Of particular importance is its contribution to the B-mode polarization power spectrum. Indeed, vortical modes sourced by the PMF can dominate the B-mode power spectrum on small scales, as they survive damping up to a small fraction of the Silk length. Therefore, measurements of the B-mode polarization at high-$\\ell$ , such as the one recently performed by the South Pole Telescope (SPT), have the potential to provide stringent constraints on the PMF. We use the publicly released SPT B-mode polarization spectrum, along with the temperature and polarization data from the Planck satellite, to derive constraints on the magnitude, the spectral index and the energy scale at which the PMF was generated. We find that, while Planck data constrains the magnetic amplitude to $B_{1 \\, \\text{Mpc}} < 3.3$ nG at 95\\% confidence level (CL), the SPT measurement improves the con...

  8. Symmetry constraints on temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Raussendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the interdependence of resource state, measurement setting and temporal order in measurement-based quantum computation. The possible temporal orders of measurement events are constrained by the principle that the randomness inherent in quantum measurement should not affect the outcome of the computation. We provide a classification for all temporal relations among measurement events compatible with a given initial stabilizer state and measurement setting, in terms of a matroid. Conversely, we show that classical processing relations necessary for turning the local measurement outcomes into computational output determine the resource state and measurement setting up to local equivalence. Further, we find a symmetry transformation related to local complementation that leaves the temporal relations invariant.

  9. Developing a Negotiation Mechanism for Agent-Based Scheduling Via Fuzzy Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, K. Robert; Lin, Menq-Wen; Kao, Bo-Ruei

    The paper presents a negotiation mechanism for agent-based scheduling via fuzzy constraints. Scheduling is considered as a global consistency enforcing via iterative constraint adjustment and relaxation by agents. Fuzzy constraints, in this way, are used not only to represent the temporal relations that jobs being scheduled must satisfy, but also to specify the possibilities prescribing to what extent the solutions are suitable for scheduling to rank the solutions. The negotiation mechanism based on fuzzy constraint provides a systematic method to gradually relax the temporal constraints to generate a proposal, and then utilizes possibility functions to select an alternative schedule that is subject to the others' acceptability. Thus, each agent, who is in charge of different aspects of the problem, not only distributively solves its problems to maximize its local objectives, but also works together with other agents to attain a globally beneficial schedule. Experimental results suggest the proposed approach provides superior performance in all criteria to the contract net protocol and auction-based approaches.

  10. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter from Fermi-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ajello, M; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cuoco, A; Cutini, S; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lionetto, A M; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; H.,; Poon,; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Romoli, C; Sbarra, C; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stawarz, Łukasz; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wallace, E; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2012-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope in the Milky Way Halo region searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+e- produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the ...

  11. Constraints on the Galactic Halo Dark Matter from Fermi-LAT Diffuse Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, Theresa J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cuoco, A.; Guiriec, Sylvain Germain; McEnery, Julie E.; Scargle. J. D.; Troja, Eleonora

    2012-01-01

    We have performed an analysis of the diffuse gamma-ray emission with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the Milky Way halo region, searching for a signal from dark matter annihilation or decay. In the absence of a robust dark matter signal, constraints are presented. We consider both gamma rays produced directly in the dark matter annihilation/decay and produced by inverse Compton scattering of the e+/e- produced in the annihilation/decay. Conservative limits are derived requiring that the dark matter signal does not exceed the observed diffuse gamma-ray emission. A second set of more stringent limits is derived based on modeling the foreground astrophysical diffuse emission using the GALPROP code. Uncertainties in the height of the diffusive cosmic-ray halo, the distribution of the cosmic-ray sources in the Galaxy, the index of the injection cosmic-ray electron spectrum, and the column density of the interstellar gas are taken into account using a profile likelihood formalism, while the parameters governing the cosmic-ray propagation have been derived from fits to local cosmic-ray data. The resulting limits impact the range of particle masses over which dark matter thermal production in the early universe is possible, and challenge the interpretation of the PAMELA/Fermi-LAT cosmic ray anomalies as the annihilation of dark matter.

  12. A Practical Solution to Optimizing the Reliability of Teaching Observation Measures under Budget Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J. Patrick; Liu, Xiang; Mashburn, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often use generalizability theory to estimate relative error variance and reliability in teaching observation measures. They also use it to plan future studies and design the best possible measurement procedures. However, designing the best possible measurement procedure comes at a cost, and researchers must stay within their budget…

  13. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipeng Gui

    Full Text Available Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1 an Integer Linear Programming (ILP based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2 a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3 an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG. The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric

  14. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  15. Probing the Inflaton: Small-scale Power Spectrum Constraints from Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chluba, Jens; Erickcek, Adrienne L.; Ben-Dayan, Ido

    2012-10-01

    In the early universe, energy stored in small-scale density perturbations is quickly dissipated by Silk damping, a process that inevitably generates μ- and y-type spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). These spectral distortions depend on the shape and amplitude of the primordial power spectrum at wavenumbers k FIRAS and forecasted for PIXIE. We show that measurements of μ and y impose strong bounds on the integrated small-scale power, and we demonstrate how to compute these constraints using k-space window functions that account for the effects of thermalization and dissipation physics. We show that COBE/FIRAS places a robust upper limit on the amplitude of the small-scale power spectrum. This limit is about three orders of magnitude stronger than the one derived from primordial black holes in the same scale range. Furthermore, this limit could be improved by another three orders of magnitude with PIXIE, potentially opening up a new window to early universe physics. To illustrate the power of these constraints, we consider several generic models for the small-scale power spectrum predicted by different inflation scenarios, including running-mass inflation models and inflation scenarios with episodes of particle production. PIXIE could place very tight constraints on these scenarios, potentially even ruling out running-mass inflation models if no distortion is detected. We also show that inflation models with sub-Planckian field excursion that generate detectable tensor perturbations should simultaneously produce a large CMB spectral distortion, a link that could potentially be established with PIXIE.

  16. Precise measurements of the $W$ mass at the Tevatron and indirect constraints on the Higgs mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes de Sa, Rafael

    2012-04-01

    I describe the latest D0 and CDF W boson mass measurements. The D0 measurement is performed with 4.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity in the electron decay channel with a data set of 1.68 x 10{sup 8} W candidates. The value of the W boson mass measured by D0 is M{sub W} = 80.375 {+-} 0.023 GeV when combined with the previously analyzed 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The CDF measurement uses 2.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity in both electron and muon decay channels with a total of 1.1 x 10{sup 8} W candidates. The value of the W boson mass measured by CDF is M{sub W} = 80.387 {+-} 0.019 GeV. I report the combination of these two measurements with previous Tevatron measurements and with the LEP measurements of the W boson mass. The new world average is M{sub W} = 80.385 {+-} 0.015GeV. I discuss the implications of the new measurement to the indirect measurement of the Standard Model Higgs boson mass.

  17. LITHO1.0 - An Updated Crust and Lithospheric Model of the Earth Developed Using Multiple Data Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Masters, G.; Laske, G.; Ma, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Models such as CRUST2.0 (Bassin et al., 2000) have proven very useful to many seismic studies on regional, continental, and global scales. We have developed an updated, higher resolution model called LITHO1.0 that extends deeper to include the lithospheric lid, and includes mantle anisotropy, potentially making it more useful for a wider variety of applications. The model is evolving away from the crustal types strongly used in CRUST5.1 (Mooney et al., 1998) to a more data-driven model. This is accomplished by performing a targeted grid search with multiple data inputs. We seek to find the most plausible model which is able to fit multiple constraints, including updated sediment and crustal thickness models, upper mantle velocities derived from travel times, and surface wave dispersion. The latter comes from a new, very large, global surface wave dataset built using a new, efficient measurement technique that employs cluster analysis (Ma et al., 2012), and includes the group and phase velocities of both Love and Rayleigh waves. We will discuss datasets and methodology, highlight significant features of the model, and provide detailed information on the availability of the model in various formats.

  18. Measurements and alternative development reviews

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The report on the region Human Development for Latin America and the Caribbean 2016, the United Nations Program for Development (UNPD), is entitled: multidimensional Progress: Welfare Beyond income and particularly relevant to some papers  and books in this issue, a due Bet transcend the economic indicators for those oriented Quality of Life. El informe regional sobre Desarrollo Humano para América Latina y el Caribe 2016, del Programa de Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo (PNUD), lleva po...

  19. The Impact of Adapting a General Professional Development Framework to the Constraints of In-Service Professional Development on the Next Generation Science Standards in Urban Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Steven; Nutakki, Nivedita

    2017-01-01

    Urban school districts face a dilemma in providing professional development support for teachers in transition to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Districts need to maximize the quality and amount of professional development within practical funding constraints. In this paper, we discuss preliminary results from a…

  20. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 2: analysis of constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botreau, R.; Bracke, M.B.M.; Perny, P.; Buttherworth, A.; Capdeville, J.; Reenen, van C.G.; Veissier, I.

    2007-01-01

    The overall assessment of animal welfare is a multicriterion evaluation problem that needs a constructive strategy to compound information produced by many measures. The construction depends on specific features such as the concept of welfare, the measures used and the way data are collected.

  1. Comparison of methods to identify crop productivity constraints in developing countries. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijvanger, R.G.M.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2015-01-01

    Selecting a method for identifying actual crop productivity constraints is an important step for triggering innovation processes. Applied methods can be diverse and although such methods have consequences for the design of intervention strategies, documented comparisons between various methods are s

  2. Comparison of methods to identify crop productivity constraints in developing countries. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijvanger, R.G.M.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2015-01-01

    Selecting a method for identifying actual crop productivity constraints is an important step for triggering innovation processes. Applied methods can be diverse and although such methods have consequences for the design of intervention strategies, documented comparisons between various methods are s

  3. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Antilogus, P; Bajo-Vaquero, A; Bambade, P; Barberio, E; Blondel, A; Bourilkov, D; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Clare, R; D'Hondt, J; De Groot, N; de la Cruz, B; de Jong, P; Della Ricca, G; Dierckxsens, M; Duchesneau, D; Duckeck, G; Elsing, M; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hansen, J B; Hawkings, R; Holt, J; Jézéquel, S; Jones, R W L; Kawamoto, T; Kjaer, N J; Lançon, E; Liebig, W; Malgeri, L; Martínez, M; Mele, S; Migliore, E; Minard, M N; Mönig, K; Parkes, C; Parzefall, U; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Renton, P B; Riemann, S; Rowson, P C; Ruiz, H; Sachs, K; Schumm, B; Strässner, A; Strom, D; Su, D; Tenchini, R; Teubert, F; Thomson, M A; Todorova-Nová, S; Tournefier, E; Valassi, A; Venturi, A; Voss, H; Ward, C P; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wynhoff, St

    2004-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 2004 summer conferences. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in summer 2003 are updates to the W branching fractions and four-fermion cross sections measured at LEP-2, and the SLD/LEP heavy-flavour results measured at the Z pole.

  4. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Dong

    2003-05-15

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 1997 summer conferences. Averages are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross-sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the {tau} polarisation asymmetries, the b{bar b} and c{bar c} partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the q{bar q} charge asymmetry. The major changes with respect to results presented last year are updated results of A{sub LR} from SLD, and the inclusion of the first direct measurements of the W mass and triple-gauge-boson couplings performed at LEP. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  5. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 2000

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 1999 summer conferences. Averages are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the $\\tau$ polarisation asymmetries, the $\\bb$ and $\\cc$ partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the $\\qq$ charge asymmetry. The major changes with respect to results presented in summer 1998 are updates to the lineshape, W mass and triple-gauge-boson couplings from LEP, and $\\cAb$ and $\\cAc$ from SLD. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments. A significant update here are new W mass measurements from CDF and D\\O. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  6. On the Role of Organic Nitrates, RONO2, in the NOx Budget: Constraints from Measurements During SOAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, P.; Duffey, K.; Wild, R. J.; Koss, A.; De Gouw, J. A.; Olson, K. F.; Goldstein, A. H.; Feiner, P. A.; Zhang, L.; Brune, W. H.; Fry, J.; Allen, H. M.; Ayres, B. R.; Draper, D.; Brown, S. S.; Teng, A.; Nguyen, T.; Crounse, J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    In rural and forested areas, the formation of alkyl nitrates (RONO2) has recently been shown to be the most important sink of NOx (Browne et al. 2013). However, the lifetime and fate of RONO2 are still poorly understood, especially for biogenic, multifunctional nitrates. We use measurements of NOx, RONO2, HNO3, HOx, and VOCs obtained during summer 2013 in rural Alabama as part of the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) to provide new constraints on the production and loss of biogenic RONO2 and thus to understand their role in setting the NOx lifetime. We find that the RONO2 in the region are short-lived, with a lifetime of approximately 2 hours. Processes affecting this lifetime and consequences for NOx will be described.

  7. Constraints from precision measurements on the hadron-molecule interpretation of X, Y, Z resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Polosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The precise measurement of binding energy, total width and DDπ branching fraction, constrains, in a model independent way, the loosely bound hadron molecule interpretation of X(3872. A full discernment is not yet possible on the basis of present data. Similar considerations might be extended to all those Y,Z resonances susceptible of a molecular description.

  8. Aggregation of measures to produce an overall assessment of animal welfare. Part 2: analysis of constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botreau, R; Bracke, M B M; Perny, P; Butterworth, A; Capdeville, J; Van Reenen, C G; Veissier, I

    2007-09-01

    The overall assessment of animal welfare is a multicriterion evaluation problem that needs a constructive strategy to compound information produced by many measures. The construction depends on specific features such as the concept of welfare, the measures used and the way data are collected. Welfare is multidimensional and one dimension probably cannot fully compensate for another one (e.g. good health cannot fully compensate for behavioural deprivation). Welfare measures may vary in precision, relevance and their relative contribution to an overall welfare assessment. The data collected are often expressed on ordinal scales, which limits the use of weighted sums to aggregate them. A sequential aggregation is proposed in the Welfare Quality® project, first from measures to welfare criteria (corresponding to dimensions with pre-set objectives) and then to an overall welfare assessment, using rules determined at each level depending on the nature and number of variables to be considered and the level of compensation to be permitted. Scientific evidence and expert opinion are used to refine the model, and stakeholders' approval of general principles is sought. This approach could potentially be extended to other problems in agriculture such as the overall assessment of the sustainability of production systems.

  9. Constraints on the delta H-2 diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wel, L. G.; Been, H. A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Smeets, C. J. P. P.; Meijer, H. A. J.

    2015-01-01

    We performed detailed H-2 isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3m of firn at Summit, Greenland. Using a small snow gun, a thin snow layer was formed from H-2-enriched water over a 6 x 6 m(2) area. We followed the diffusion process, quantified as the increase of the delta H-2 diffusion length,

  10. Measurement of Day and Night Neutrino Energy Spectra at SNO and Constraints on Neutrino Mixing Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Q R; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Buhler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J L; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer-Drees, R; Miin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M E; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, Mamoru; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-01-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted $^8$B spectrum, the night minus day rate is $14.0% \\pm 6.3% ^{+1.5}_{-1.4}%$ of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the $\

  11. How speed-of-sound measurements could bring constraints on the composition of Titan's seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, D.

    2016-06-01

    The hydrocarbon seas of Titan, discovered by the Cassini/Huygens mission are among the most mysterious and interesting features of this moon. In the future, a possible dedicated planetary probe will certainly measure the speed of sound in this cryogenic liquid, as was planned in the case of Huygens landing in a sea. Previous theoretical studies of such acoustic measurements were based on simple models, leading in some cases to unphysical situations. Employed in a vast body of chemical engineering works, the state-of-the-art perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) model has been recently introduced in studies aimed at Titan. Here, I revisit the issue of the speed of sound in Titan's liquids, in light of this theory. I describe, in detail, the derivation of the speed of sound from the chosen equation of state and the potential limitations of the approach. To make estimations of the composition of a ternary liquid mixture N2:CH4:C2H6 from speed-of-sound measurements an original inversion algorithm is proposed. It is shown that 50 measures between 90 and 100 K are enough to ensure an accuracy of the derived compositions of better than 10 per cent. The influence of the possible presence of propane is also investigated.

  12. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements And Constraints on the Standard Model (2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, D.

    2005-03-07

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 2004 summer conferences. Averages from Z resonance results are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the {tau} polarization asymmetries, the b{bar b} and c{bar c} partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the q{bar q} charge asymmetry. Above the Z resonance, averages are derived for di-fermion cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries, photon-pair, W-pair, Z-pair, single-W and single-Z cross sections, electroweak gauge boson couplings, W mass and width and W decay branching ratios. Also, an investigation of the interference of photon and Z-boson exchange is presented, and colour reconnection and Bose-Einstein correlation analyses in W-pair production are combined. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in summer 2003 are updates to the W branching fractions and four-fermion cross sections measured at LEP-2, and the SLD/LEP heavy-flavour results measured at the Z pole. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably the final result on the electroweak mixing angle determined in neutrino-nucleon scattering by the NuTeV collaboration, the latest result in atomic parity violation in Caesium, and the measurement of the electroweak mixing angle in Moller scattering. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of high-Q{sup 2} electroweak results.

  13. Hubble parameter measurement constraints on the redshift of the deceleration-acceleration transition, dynamical dark energy, and space curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Omer; Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    We compile an updated list of 28 independent measurements of the Hubble parameter $H(z)$ between redshifts $0.1 \\leq z \\leq 2.36$ and use them to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-varying dark energy cosmological models, both spatially flat and curved. We use five models to measure the redshift of the cosmological deceleration-acceleration transition, $z_{\\rm da}$, from these $H(z)$ data. Within the error bars, the measured $z_{\\rm da}$ are insensitive to the model used, depending only on the value assumed for the Hubble constant $H_0$. The weighted mean of our measurements is $z_{\\rm da} = 0.74 \\pm 0.06\\ (0.86 \\pm 0.04)$ for $H_0 = 68 \\pm 2.8\\ (73.8 \\pm 2.4)$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$ and should provide a reasonably model-independent estimate of this cosmological parameter. The $H(z)$ data are consistent with the standard spatially-flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model but do not rule out non-flat models or dynamical dark energy models.

  14. Hubble Parameter Measurement Constraints on the Redshift of the Deceleration–Acceleration Transition, Dynamical Dark Energy, and Space Curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Omer; Ranjeet Madiyar, Foram; Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat

    2017-01-01

    We compile an updated list of 38 measurements of the Hubble parameter H(z) between redshifts 0.07 ≤ z ≤ 2.36 and use them to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-varying dark energy cosmological models, both spatially flat and curved. We use five models to measure the redshift of the cosmological deceleration–acceleration transition, zda, from these H(z) data. Within the error bars, the measured zda are insensitive to the model used, depending only on the value assumed for the Hubble constant H0. The weighted mean of our measurements is zda = 0.72 ± 0.05 (0.84 ± 0.03) for H0 = 68 ± 2.8 (73.24 ± 1.74) km s‑1 Mpc‑1 and should provide a reasonably model-independent estimate of this cosmological parameter. The H(z) data are consistent with the standard spatially flat ΛCDM cosmological model but do not rule out nonflat models or dynamical dark energy models.

  15. Constraints on the δ2H diffusion rate in firn from field measurements at Summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. van der Wel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We performed detailed 2H isotope diffusion measurements in the upper 3 m of firn at Summit, Greenland. Using a small snow gun, a thin snow layer was formed from 2H-enriched water over a 6 m × 6 m area. We followed the diffusion process, quantified as the increase of the δ2H diffusion length, over a four years period, by retrieving the layer once per year by drilling a firn core and slicing it into 1 cm layers and measuring the δ2H-signal of these layers. We compared our experimental findings to calculations based on the model by Johnsen et al. (2000, and found substantial differences. The diffusion length in our experiments increased much less over the years than in the model. We discuss the possible causes for this discrepancy, and conclude that several aspects of the diffusion process in firn are still poorly constrained, in particular the tortuosity.

  16. On Testing Constraint Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaar, Nadjib; Yahia, Lebbah

    2010-01-01

    The success of several constraint-based modeling languages such as OPL, ZINC, or COMET, appeals for better software engineering practices, particularly in the testing phase. This paper introduces a testing framework enabling automated test case generation for constraint programming. We propose a general framework of constraint program development which supposes that a first declarative and simple constraint model is available from the problem specifications analysis. Then, this model is refined using classical techniques such as constraint reformulation, surrogate and global constraint addition, or symmetry-breaking to form an improved constraint model that must be thoroughly tested before being used to address real-sized problems. We think that most of the faults are introduced in this refinement step and propose a process which takes the first declarative model as an oracle for detecting non-conformities. We derive practical test purposes from this process to generate automatically test data that exhibit no...

  17. Exploring the Relationship between Beginning Science Teachers' Practices, Institutional Constraints, and Adult Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jesse Lee

    This year-long study explored how ten teachers--five first year, five second year--acclimated to their new school environment after leaving a master's level university science teacher preparation program known for being highly effective. Furthermore, this study sought to explore if a relationship existed between teachers' understanding and implementation of research-based science teaching practices, the barriers to enacting these practices--known as institutional constraints, and the constructive-developmental theory which explores meaning-making systems known as orders of consciousness. As a naturalistic inquiry mixed methods study, data were collected using both qualitative (e.g., semi-structured interviews, field notes) as well as quantitative methods (e.g., observation protocols, subject/object protocol). These data sources were used to construct participant summaries and a cross-case analysis. The findings from provide evidence that teachers' orders of consciousness might help to explain why understanding research-based science teaching practices are maintained by some new teachers and not others. Additionally, this study found the orders of consciousness of teachers relates to the perceptions of institutional constraints as well as how a teacher chooses to navigate those constraints. Finally, the extent to which teachers implement research-based science teaching practices is related to orders of consciousness. While many studies have focused on what meaning teachers make, this study highlights the importance of considering how teachers make meaning.

  18. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, J

    2004-01-08

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations and the SLD collaboration which were prepared for the 2003 summer conferences. Averages from Z resonance results are derived for hadronic and leptonic cross sections, the leptonic forward-backward asymmetries, the {tau} polarization asymmetries, the b{bar b} and c{bar c} partial widths and forward-backward asymmetries and the q{bar q} charge asymmetry. Above the Z resonance, averages are derived for di-fermion cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries, photon-pair, W-pair, Z-pair, single-W and single-Z cross sections, electroweak gauge boson couplings, W mass and width and W decay branching ratios. Also, an investigation of the interference of photon and Z-boson exchange is presented, and colour reconnection and Bose-Einstein correlation analyses in W-pair production are combined. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in summer 2002 are updates to the mass of the W boson, four-fermion cross sections and gauge couplings, all measured at LEP-2, and the LEP heavy-flavour results measured at the Z pole. The results are compared with precise electroweak measurements from other experiments, notably the recent final result on the electroweak mixing angle determined in neutrino-nucleon scattering by the NuTeV collaboration and the new result in atomic parity violation in Caesium. The parameters of the Standard Model are evaluated, first using the combined LEP electroweak measurements, and then using the full set of electroweak results.

  19. How speed of sound measurements could bring constraints on the composition of Titan's seas

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, D

    2016-01-01

    The hydrocarbons seas of Titan, discovered by Cassini/Huygens mission are among the most mysterious and interesting features of this moon. In the future, a possible dedicated planetary probe, will certainly measure the speed of sound in this cryogenic liquid, as it was planned in the case of a Huygens landing into a sea. Previous theoretical studies of such acoustic measurements were based on rather simple models, leading in some cases to unphysical situations. Employed in a vast body of chemical engineering works, the state of the art PC-SAFT model has been recently introduced in studies aimed at Titan. Here, I revisit the issue of the speed of sound in Titan's liquids, in the light of this theory. I describe, in detail, the derivation of the speed of sound from the chosen equation of state and the potential limitations of the approach. To make estimations of the composition of a ternary liquid mixture N2:CH4:C2H6 from speed of sound measurements an original inversion algorithm is proposed. It is shown that ...

  20. Measurement of day and night neutrino energy spectra at SNO and constraints on neutrino mixing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Q R; Allen, R C; Andersen, T C; Anglin, J D; Barton, J C; Beier, E W; Bercovitch, M; Bigu, J; Biller, S D; Black, R A; Blevis, I; Boardman, R J; Boger, J; Bonvin, E; Boulay, M G; Bowler, M G; Bowles, T J; Brice, S J; Browne, M C; Bullard, T V; Bühler, G; Cameron, J; Chan, Y D; Chen, H H; Chen, M; Chen, X; Cleveland, B T; Clifford, E T H; Cowan, J H M; Cowen, D F; Cox, G A; Dai, X; Dalnoki-Veress, F; Davidson, W F; Doe, P J; Doucas, G; Dragowsky, M R; Duba, C A; Duncan, F A; Dunford, M; Dunmore, J A; Earle, E D; Elliott, S R; Evans, H C; Ewan, G T; Farine, J; Fergani, H; Ferraris, A P; Ford, R J; Formaggio, J A; Fowler, M M; Frame, K; Frank, E D; Frati, W; Gagnon, N; Germani, J V; Gil, S; Graham, K; Grant, D R; Hahn, R L; Hallin, A L; Hallman, E D; Hamer, A S; Hamian, A A; Handler, W B; Haq, R U; Hargrove, C K; Harvey, P J; Hazama, R; Heeger, K M; Heintzelman, W J; Heise, J; Helmer, R L; Hepburn, J D; Heron, H; Hewett, J; Hime, A; Howe, M; Hykawy, J G; Isaac, M C P; Jagam, P; Jelley, N A; Jillings, C; Jonkmans, G; Kazkaz, K; Keener, P T; Klein, J R; Knox, A B; Komar, R J; Kouzes, R; Kutter, T; Kyba, C C M; Law, J; Lawson, I T; Lay, M; Lee, H W; Lesko, K T; Leslie, J R; Levine, I; Locke, W; Luoma, S; Lyon, J; Majerus, S; Mak, H B; Maneira, J; Manor, J; Marino, A D; McCauley, N; McDonald, A B; McDonald, D S; McFarlane, K; McGregor, G; Meijer Drees, R; Mifflin, C; Miller, G G; Milton, G; Moffat, B A; Moorhead, M; Nally, C W; Neubauer, M S; Newcomer, F M; Ng, H S; Noble, A J; Norman, E B; Novikov, V M; O'Neill, M; Okada, C E; Ollerhead, R W; Omori, M; Orrell, J L; Oser, S M; Poon, A W P; Radcliffe, T J; Roberge, A; Robertson, B C; Robertson, R G H; Rosendahl, S S E; Rowley, J K; Rusu, V L; Saettler, E; Schaffer, K K; Schwendener, M H; Schülke, A; Seifert, H; Shatkay, M; Simpson, J J; Sims, C J; Sinclair, D; Skensved, P; Smith, A R; Smith, M W E; Spreitzer, T; Starinsky, N; Steiger, T D; Stokstad, R G; Stonehill, L C; Storey, R S; Sur, B; Tafirout, R; Tagg, N; Tanner, N W; Taplin, R K; Thorman, M; Thornewell, P M; Trent, P T; Tserkovnyak, Y I; Van Berg, R; Van de Water, R G; Virtue, C J; Waltham, C E; Wang, J-X; Wark, D L; West, N; Wilhelmy, J B; Wilkerson, J F; Wilson, J R; Wittich, P; Wouters, J M; Yeh, M

    2002-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted 8B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0%+/-6.3%(+1.5%)(-1.4%) of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the nu(e) asymmetry is found to be 7.0%+/-4.9%(+1.3%)(-1.2%). A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the large mixing angle solution.

  1. Imposing strong constraints on tropical terrestrial CO2 fluxes using passenger aircraft based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y.; Machida, T.; Sawa, Y.; Matsueda, H.; Schuck, T. J.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Imasu, R.; Satoh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Better understanding of the global and regional carbon budget is needed to perform a reliable prediction of future climate with an earth system model. However, the reliability of CO2 source/sink estimation by inverse modeling, which is one of the promising methods to estimate regional carbon budget, is limited because of sparse observational data coverage. Very few observational data are available in tropics. Therefore, especially the reconstruction of tropical terrestrial fluxes has considerable uncertainties. In this study, regional CO2 fluxes for 2006-2008 are estimated by inverse modeling using the Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace gases by Airliner (CONTRAIL) in addition to the surface measurement dataset of GLOBALVIEW-CO2. CONTRAIL is a recently established CO2 measurement network using in-situ measurement instruments on board commercial aircraft. Five CONTRAIL aircraft travel back and forth between Japan and many areas: Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Australia. The Bayesian synthesis approach is used to estimate monthly fluxes for 42 regions using NICAM-TM simulations with existing CO2 flux datasets and monthly mean observational data. It is demonstrated that the aircraft data have great impact on estimated tropical terrestrial fluxes. By adding the aircraft data to the surface data, the analyzed uncertainty of tropical fluxes has been reduced by 15 % and more than 30 % uncertainty reduction rate is found in Southeast and South Asia. Specifically, for annual net CO2 fluxes, nearly neutral fluxes of Indonesia, which is estimated using the surface dataset alone, turn to positive fluxes, i.e. carbon sources. In Indonesia, a remarkable carbon release during the severe drought period of October-December in 2006 is estimated, which suggests that biosphere respiration or biomass burning was larger than the prior fluxes. Comparison of the optimized atmospheric CO2 with independent aircraft measurements of CARIBIC tends to validate

  2. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity.

  3. Constraints on a φCDM model from strong gravitational lensing and updated Hubble parameter measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yun; Geng, Chao-Qiang [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan (China); Cao, Shuo; Huang, Yu-Mei; Zhu, Zong-Hong, E-mail: chenyun@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: caoshuo@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: huangymei@gmail.com, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We constrain the scalar field dark energy model with an inverse power-law potential, i.e., V(φ) ∝ φ{sup −α} (α > 0), from a set of recent cosmological observations by compiling an updated sample of Hubble parameter measurements including 30 independent data points. Our results show that the constraining power of the updated sample of H(z) data with the HST prior on H{sub 0} is stronger than those of the SCP Union2 and Union2.1 compilations. A recent sample of strong gravitational lensing systems is also adopted to confine the model even though the results are not significant. A joint analysis of the strong gravitational lensing data with the more restrictive updated Hubble parameter measurements and the Type Ia supernovae data from SCP Union2 indicates that the recent observations still can not distinguish whether dark energy is a time-independent cosmological constant or a time-varying dynamical component.

  4. Constraints on the exponential $f(R)$ model from latest Hubble parameter measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yun; Lee, Chung-Chi; Luo, Ling-Wei; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the viable exponential $f(R)$ gravity in the metric formalism with $f(R)=-\\beta R_s (1-e^{-R/R_s})$. The latest sample of the Hubble parameter measurements with 23 data points is used to place bounds on this $f(R)$ model. A joint analysis is also performed with the luminosity distances of Type Ia supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations in the clustering of galaxies, and the shift parameters from the cosmic microwave background measurements, which leads to $0.2401.47$ at 1$\\sigma$ confidence level. The evolutions of the deceleration parameter $q(z)$ and the effective equations of state $\\omega_{de}^{eff}(z)$ and $\\omega_{tot}^{eff}(z)$ are displayed. By taking the best-fit parameters as prior values, we work out the transition redshift (deceleration/acceleration) $z_T$ to be about 0.77. It turns out that the recent observations are still unable to distinguish the background dynamics in the $\\Lambda$CDM and exponential $f(R)$ models.

  5. Measurements of direct CP violation and constraints on the CKM triangle in B → K*π decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Andrew Phillips [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    We constrain the apex of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa unitarity triangle with measurements of B → K*π amplitudes from analyses of B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays. This constraint is consistent with the world average. The B0 → K+π-π0 decay mode is reconstructed from a sample of 454 million B0$\\bar{B}$ 0 events collected by the BABAR detector at SLAC. We measure direct CP violation in B0 → K*+π- decays at the level of 3σ when measurements from both B0 → K+π-π0 and B0 → KSπ+π- decays are combined.

  6. Constraints from $^{26}Al$ Measurements on the Galaxy's Recent Global Star Formation Rate and Core Collapse Supernovae Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Timmes, F X; Hartmann, D H

    1997-01-01

    Gamma-rays from the decay of $^{26}$Al offer a stringent constraint on the Galaxy's global star formation rate over the past million years, supplementing other methods for quantifying the recent Galactic star formation rate, such as equivalent widths of H$\\alpha$ emission. Advantages and disadvantages of using $^{26}$Al gamma-ray measurements as a tracer of the massive star formation rate are analyzed. Estimates of the Galactic $^{26}$Al mass derived from COMPTEL measurements are coupled with a simple, analytical model of the $^{26}$Al injection rate from massive stars and restrict the Galaxy's recent star formation rate to \\hbox{5 $\\pm$ 4 M\\sun yr$^{-1}$}. In addition, we show that the derived $^{26}$Al mass implies a present day \\hbox{Type II + Ib} supernovae rate of 3.4 $\\pm$ 2.8 per century, which seems consistent with other independent estimates of the Galactic core collapse supernova rate. If some independent measure of the massive star initial mass function or star formation rate or \\hbox{Type II + Ib}...

  7. Measurement of Day and Night Neutrino Energy Spectra at SNO and Constraints on Neutrino Mixing Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Q. R.; Allen, R. C.; Andersen, T. C.; Anglin, J. D.; Barton, J. C.; Beier, E. W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S. D.; Black, R. A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R. J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M. G.; Bowler, M. G.; Bowles, T. J.; Brice, S. J.; Browne, M. C.; Bullard, T. V.; Bühler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y. D.; Chen, H. H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B. T.; Clifford, E. T.; Cowan, J. H.; Cowen, D. F.; Cox, G. A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W. F.; Doe, P. J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Duba, C. A.; Duncan, F. A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J. A.; Earle, E. D.; Elliott, S. R.; Evans, H. C.; Ewan, G. T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A. P.; Ford, R. J.; Formaggio, J. A.; Fowler, M. M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E. D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J. V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D. R.; Hahn, R. L.; Hallin, A. L.; Hallman, E. D.; Hamer, A. S.; Hamian, A. A.; Handler, W. B.; Haq, R. U.; Hargrove, C. K.; Harvey, P. J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K. M.; Heintzelman, W. J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R. L.; Hepburn, J. D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Howe, M.; Hykawy, J. G.; Isaac, M. C.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N. A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P. T.; Klein, J. R.; Knox, A. B.; Komar, R. J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter, T.; Kyba, C. C.; Law, J.; Lawson, I. T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H. W.; Lesko, K. T.; Leslie, J. R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H. B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A. D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald, A. B.; McDonald, D. S.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer Drees, R.; Mifflin, C.; Miller, G. G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B. A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C. W.; Neubauer, M. S.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ng, H. S.; Noble, A. J.; Norman, E. B.; Novikov, V. M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C. E.; Ollerhead, R. W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J. L.; Oser, S. M.; Poon, A. W.; Radcliffe, T. J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B. C.; Robertson, R. G.; Rosendahl, S. S.; Rowley, J. K.; Rusu, V. L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schwendener, M. H.; Schülke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J. J.; Sims, C. J.; Sinclair, D.; Skensved, P.; Smith, A. R.; Smith, M. W.; Spreitzer, T.; Starinsky, N.; Steiger, T. D.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stonehill, L. C.; Storey, R. S.; Sur, B.; Tafirout, R.; Tagg, N.; Tanner, N. W.; Taplin, R. K.; Thorman, M.; Thornewell, P. M.; Trent, P. T.; Tserkovnyak, Y. I.; van Berg, R.; van de Water, R. G.; Virtue, C. J.; Waltham, C. E.; Wang, J.-X.; Wark, D. L.; West, N.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wilson, J. R.; Wittich, P.; Wouters, J. M.; Yeh, M.

    2002-07-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) has measured day and night solar neutrino energy spectra and rates. For charged current events, assuming an undistorted (sup 8)B spectrum, the night minus day rate is 14.0%[plus-or-minus]6.3%(sup +1.5)-1.4 % of the average rate. If the total flux of active neutrinos is additionally constrained to have no asymmetry, the [nu]e asymmetry is found to be 7.0%[plus-or-minus]4.9%(sup +1.3)-1.2% . A global solar neutrino analysis in terms of matter-enhanced oscillations of two active flavors strongly favors the large mixing angle solution.

  8. An asset allocation model with inequalities constraints and coherent risk measure: an application to Brazilian equities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Dodsworth Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for optimal portfolio selection built on the Black and Litterman model and with two major contributions. We introduce in the investors'objective function a risk measure named expected tail loss, which is useful in portfolio selection context as it supports the benefits of diversification and we allow investors'views to be expressed in terms of linear inequalities among expected returns, which seems more natural in the practice of portfolio selection. Further we implement the models using market database applied to Brazilian equities. The results show that our approach leads to lower risk optimal portfolios and that our proposed methodology to implement the investors'subjective views led to optimal portfolios with superior outcomes.

  9. Measuring the 2D Baryon Acoustic Oscillation signal of galaxies in WiggleZ: Cosmological constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Hinton, Samuel R; Davis, Tamara M; Blake, Chris; Brough, Sarah; Colless, Matthew; Couch, Warrick J; Drinkwater, Michael J; Glazebrook, Karl; Jurek, Russel J; Parkinson, David; Pimbblet, Kevin A; Poole, Gregory B; Pracy, Michael; Woods, David

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the 2D anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) signal present in the final dataset from the WiggleZ Dark Energy Survey. We analyse the WiggleZ data in two ways: firstly using the full shape of the 2D correlation function and secondly focussing only on the position of the BAO peak in the reconstructed data set. When fitting for the full shape of the 2D correlation function we use a multipole expansion to compare with theory. When we use the reconstructed data we marginalise over the shape and just measure the position of the BAO peak, analysing the data in wedges separating the signal along the line of sight from that parallel to the line of sight. We verify our method with mock data and find the results to be free of bias or systematic offsets. We also redo the pre-reconstruction angle averaged (1D) WiggleZ BAO analysis with an improved covariance and present an updated result. The final results are presented in the form of $\\Omega_c h^2$, $H(z)$, and $D_A(z)$ for three redshift ...

  10. Astrometric Monitoring of the HR 8799 Planets: Orbit Constraints from Self-Consistent Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Konopacky, Q M; Macintosh, B A; Galicher, R; Barman, T S; Metchev, S A; Zuckerman, B

    2016-01-01

    We present new astrometric measurements from our ongoing monitoring campaign of the HR 8799 directly imaged planetary system. These new data points were obtained with NIRC2 on the W.M. Keck II 10 meter telescope between 2009 and 2014. In addition, we present updated astrometry from previously published observations in 2007 and 2008. All data were reduced using the SOSIE algorithm, which accounts for systematic biases present in previously published observations. This allows us to construct a self-consistent data set derived entirely from NIRC2 data alone. From this dataset, we detect acceleration for two of the planets (HR 8799b and e) at $>$3$\\sigma$. We also assess possible orbital parameters for each of the four planets independently. We find no statistically significant difference in the allowed inclinations of the planets. Fitting the astrometry while forcing coplanarity also returns $\\chi^2$ consistent to within 1$\\sigma$ of the best fit values, suggesting that if inclination offsets of $\\lesssim$20$^{o...

  11. Astrometric Monitoring of the HR 8799 Planets: Orbit Constraints from Self-consistent Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Marois, C.; Macintosh, B. A.; Galicher, R.; Barman, T. S.; Metchev, S. A.; Zuckerman, B.

    2016-08-01

    We present new astrometric measurements from our ongoing monitoring campaign of the HR 8799 directly imaged planetary system. These new data points were obtained with NIRC2 on the W.M. Keck II 10 m telescope between 2009 and 2014. In addition, we present updated astrometry from previously published observations in 2007 and 2008. All data were reduced using the SOSIE algorithm, which accounts for systematic biases present in previously published observations. This allows us to construct a self-consistent data set derived entirely from NIRC2 data alone. From this data set, we detect acceleration for two of the planets (HR 8799b and e) at >3σ. We also assess possible orbital parameters for each of the four planets independently. We find no statistically significant difference in the allowed inclinations of the planets. Fitting the astrometry while forcing coplanarity also returns χ 2 consistent to within 1σ of the best fit values, suggesting that if inclination offsets of ≲20° are present, they are not detectable with current data. Our orbital fits also favor low eccentricities, consistent with predictions from dynamical modeling. We also find period distributions consistent to within 1σ with a 1:2:4:8 resonance between all planets. This analysis demonstrates the importance of minimizing astrometric systematics when fitting for solutions to highly undersampled orbits.

  12. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 2006

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Bajo-Vaquero, A; Barberio, E; Blondel, A; Bourilkov, D; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Clare, R; D'Hondt, J; Della Ricca, G; Dierckxsens, M; Duchesneau, D; Duckeck, G; Elsing, M; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hansen, J B; Hawkings, R; Jezequel, St; Jones, R W L; Kawamoto, T; Lançon, E; Liebig, W; Malgeri, L; Mele, S; Minard, M N; Mönig, K; Parkes, C; Parzefall, U; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Renton, P B; Riemann, S; Sachs, K; Strom, D; Strässner, A; Tenchini, R; Teubert, F; Thomson, M A; Todorova-Nová, S; Valassi, A; Venturi, A; Voss, H; Ward, C P; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wynhoff, St; de Jong, P; de la Cruz, B

    2006-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL based on electron-positron collision data taken at centre-of-mass energies above the Z-pole, 130 GeV to 209 GeV (LEP-II), as prepared for the 2006 summer conferences. Averages are derived for di-fermion cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries, photon-pair, W-pair, Z-pair, single-W and single-Z cross sections, electroweak gauge boson couplings, W mass and width and W decay branching ratios. An investigation of the interference of photon and Z-boson exchange is presented, and colour reconnection and Bose-Einstein correlation analyses in W-pair production are combined. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2005 are new preliminary combinations of final LEP-II results on the mass and width of the W boson. Including the precision electroweak measurements performed at the Z pole published recently, the results are compared with precise...

  13. A Combination of Preliminary Electroweak Measurements and Constraints on the Standard Model, 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Bambade, P; Barberio, E; Blondel, A; Bourilkov, D; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Clare, R; D'Hondt, J; de la Cruz, B; de Jong, P; Della Ricca, G; Dierckxsens, M; Duchesneau, D; Duckeck, G; Elsing, M; Grünewald, M W; Gurtu, A; Hansen, J B; Hawkings, R; Jézéquel, S; Jones, R W L; Kawamoto, T; Lançon, E; Liebig, W; Malgeri, L; Mele, S; Migliore, E; Minard, M N; Mönig, K; Parkes, C; Parzefall, U; Pietrzyk, B; Quast, G; Renton, P B; Riemann, S; Sachs, K; Strässner, A; Strom, D; Tenchini, R; Teubert, F; Thomson, M A; Todorova-Nová, S; Valassi, A; Venturi, A; Voss, H; Ward, C P; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wynhoff, St

    2005-01-01

    This note presents a combination of published and preliminary electroweak results from the four LEP collaborations ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL based on electron-positron collision data taken at centre-of-mass energies above the Z-pole, $130 \\GeV$ to $209 \\GeV$ (\\LEPII), as prepared for the 2005 summer conferences. Averages are derived for di-fermion cross sections and forward-backward asymmetries, photon-pair, W-pair, Z-pair, single-W and single-Z cross sections, electroweak gauge boson couplings, W mass and width and W decay branching ratios. An investigation of the interference of photon and Z-boson exchange is presented, and colour reconnection and Bose-Einstein correlation analyses in W-pair production are combined. The main changes with respect to the experimental results presented in 2004 are updates to some 4-fermion cross sections, final results on BE correlations and a new preliminary combination of the mass and width of the W boson. Including the precision electroweak measurements performed at the Z ...

  14. Constraint Differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    , under the assumption that the original constraint-based approach has these properties. Practically, as a concrete case study, we have integrated this technique into OFMC, a state-of-the-art model-checker for security protocol analysis, and demonstrated its effectiveness by extensive experimentation. Our......We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...

  15. Constraints meet concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro, Jacopo

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the benefits that emerge when the fields of constraint programming and concurrency meet. On the one hand, constraints can be used in concurrency theory to increase the conciseness and the expressive power of concurrent languages from a pragmatic point of view. On the other hand, problems modeled by using constraints can be solved faster and more efficiently using a concurrent system. Both directions are explored providing two separate lines of development. Firstly the expressive power of a concurrent language is studied, namely Constraint Handling Rules, that supports constraints as a primitive construct. The features of this language which make it Turing powerful are shown. Then a framework is proposed to solve constraint problems that is intended to be deployed on a concurrent system. For the development of this framework the concurrent language Jolie following the Service Oriented paradigm is used. Based on this experience, an extension to Service Oriented Languages is also proposed in ...

  16. Particle-Phase Chemistry of Secondary Organic Material: Modeled Compared to Measured O:C and H:C Elemental Ratios Provide Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qi; Liu, Yingjun; Donahue, N. M.; Shilling, John E.; Martin, Scot T.

    2011-05-11

    Chemical mechanisms for the production of secondary organic material (SOM) are developed in focused laboratory studies but widely used in the complex modeling context of the atmosphere. Given this extrapolation, a stringent testing of the mechanisms is important. In addition to particle mass yield as a typical standard for model-measurement comparison, particle composition expressed as O:C and H:C elemental ratios can serve as a higher dimensional constraint. A paradigm for doing so is developed herein for SOM production from a C5 C10 C15 terpene sequence, namely isoprene, R-pinene, and β-caryopyhllene. The model MCM-SIMPOL is introduced based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM v3.2) and a group contribution method for vapor pressures (SIMPOL). The O:C and H:C ratios of the SOM are measured using an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). Detailed SOM-specific AMS calibrations for the organic contribution to the H2Oþ and COþ ions indicate that published O:C and H:C ratios for SOM are systematically too low. Overall, the measurement-model gap was small for particle mass yield but significant for particle-average elemental composition. The implication is that a key chemical pathway is missing from the chemical mechanism. The data can be explained by the particle-phase homolytic decomposition of organic hydroperoxides and subsequent alkyl-radical-promoted oligomerization.

  17. Constraints on Cosmological Dark Matter Annihilation from the Fermi-LAT Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Carrigan, S; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Elik, O C; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Harding, A K; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Johnson, A S; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knodlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Raino, S; Rando, R; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sander, A; Parkinson, P M Saz; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgro, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Torres, D F; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Zaharijas, G; Ziegle, M

    2010-01-01

    The first published Fermi large area telescope (Fermi-LAT) measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission is in good agreement with a single power law, and is not showing any signature of a dominant contribution from dark matter sources in the energy range from 20 to 100 GeV. We use the absolute size and spectral shape of this measured flux to derive cross section limits on three types of generic dark matter candidates: annihilating into quarks, charged leptons and monochromatic photons. Predicted gamma-ray fluxes from annihilating dark matter are strongly affected by the underlying distribution of dark matter, and by using different available results of matter structure formation we assess these uncertainties. We also quantify how the dark matter constraints depend on the assumed conventional backgrounds and on the Universe's transparency to high-energy gamma-rays. In reasonable background and dark matter structure scenarios (but not in all scenarios we consider) it is possible to exclude models pro...

  18. Are we measuring up to sustainable development?

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland; Scotland. Scottish Executive; World Wildlife Fund UK; Oxfam GB; Poverty Alliance

    2005-01-01

    Scotland is developing 'Choosing our future : Scotland's sustainable development strategy 'based on the UK 'The UK Government sustainable development strategy'. This seminar focused on what are the best ways for Scotland to measure and communicate overall progress on sustainable development. Publisher PDF

  19. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how performance is measured...... in global product development. More specifically, results from a survey and interviews highlight a need for further development in current performance measurement frameworks used in product development to facilitate the key factors and metrics in global product development.......An organisation looking to form collaborations across borders is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. Recent studies highlighted key challenges and success factors organisation’s face when globalising stages of product development. To optimize performance along these factors...

  20. Software Development for JSA Dynamic Parameter Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Huang-da

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a series of experiment measurement system for Jordan sub-critical assembly.The dynamic parameter measurement system is used for measuring the prompt neutron decaying constant,a physics parameter of reactor character.It mainly consists of a 3He neutron detector in the reactor core,

  1. Developing a sense of virtual community measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Anita L

    2007-12-01

    Sense of virtual community is an important feature of virtual communities. This study develops a sense of virtual community (SOVC) measure, building off the strengths of a widely used measure of sense of community (SOC) for face-to-face communities. Although there is overlap between the senses of community for face-to-face and virtual communities, there are significant differences. The new SOVC measure is compared to the SOC measure on 265 members of seven online groups, explaining at least 7% more of the variance from exchanging support and member identification. This study represents an important step in developing a valid measure of SOCV.

  2. Water-related constraints to the development of geothermal electric generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.; Shepherd, A.D.; Rosemarin, C.S.; Mayfield, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    The water-related constraints, which may be among the most complex and variable of the issues facing commercialization of geothermal energy, are discussed under three headings: (1) water requirements of geothermal power stations, (2) resource characteristics of the most promising hydrothermal areas and regional and local water supply situations, and (3) legal issues confronting potential users of water at geothermal power plants in the states in which the resource areas are located. A total of 25 geothermal resource areas in California, New Mexico, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Hawaii, and Alaska were studied. Each had a hydrothermal resource temperature in excess of 150/sup 0/C (300/sup 0/F) and an estimated 30-year potential of greater than 100-MW(e) capacity.

  3. Planck-scale constraints on anisotropic Lorentz and C P T invariance violations from optical polarization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislat, Fabian; Krawczynski, Henric

    2017-04-01

    Lorentz invariance is the fundamental symmetry of Einstein's theory of special relativity and has been tested to a great level of detail. However, theories of quantum gravity at the Planck scale indicate that Lorentz symmetry may be broken at that scale, motivating further tests. While the Planck energy is currently unreachable by experiment, tiny residual effects at attainable energies can become measurable when photons propagate over sufficiently large distances. The Standard-Model extension (SME) is an effective field-theory approach to describe low-energy effects of quantum gravity theories. Lorentz- and C P T -symmetry-violating effects are introduced by adding additional terms to the Standard-Model Lagrangian. These terms can be ordered by the mass dimension of the corresponding operator, and the leading terms of interest have dimension d =5 . Effects of these operators are a linear variation of the speed of light with photon energy, and a rotation of the linear polarization of photons quadratic in photon energy, as well as anisotropy. We analyze optical polarization data from 72 active galactic nuclei and GRBs and derive the first set of limits on all 16 coefficients of mass dimension d =5 of the SME photon sector. Our constraints imply a lower limit on the energy scale of quantum gravity of 1 06 times the Planck energy, severely limiting the phase space for any theory that predicts a rotation of the photon polarization quadratic in energy.

  4. Abundance Constraints and Direct Redshift Measurement of the Diffuse X-ray Emission from a Distant Cluster of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Y; Böhringer, H; Fabian, A C; Hasinger, G; Mainieri, V; Brunner, H; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Barcons, Xavier; Boehringer, Hans; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hasinger, Guenther; Mainieri, Vincenzo; Brunner, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    We report on the XMM-Newton (XMM) observation of RXJ1053.7+5735, one of the most distant X-ray selected clusters of galaxies, which also shows an unusual double-lobed X-ray morphology, indicative of a possible equal-mass cluster merger. The cluster was discovered during the ROSAT deep pointings in the direction of the Lockman Hole. All XMM Lockman Hole observations (PV, AO-1 & AO-2 phases) with the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) were combined for the analysis, totaling exposure times ~ 648 ks, 738 ks, and 758 ks for pn, MOS1, and MOS2, respectively. With this 'deep' dataset, we could detect the Fe K line and obtain a strong constraint on cluster metallicity, which is difficult to achieve for clusters at z > 1. The best-fit abundance is 0.46 +0.11/-0.07 times the solar value. The Fe line emission also allows us to directly estimate the redshift of diffuse gas, with a value z = 1.14 +0.01/-0.01. This is one of the first clusters whose X-ray redshift is directly measured prior to the secure knowledge ...

  5. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of swe

  6. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.

    2010-01-01

    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of dwe

  7. Constraints on dark energy from the Ly α forest baryon acoustic oscillations measurement of the redshift 2.3 Hubble parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Omer, E-mail: omer@phys.ksu.edu; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu

    2013-06-10

    We use the Busca et al. (2012) [11] measurement of the Hubble parameter at redshift z=2.3 in conjunction with 21 lower z measurements, from Simon, Verde, and Jimenez (2005) [81], Gaztañaga, Cabré, and Hui (2009) [33], Stern et al. (2010) [85], and Moresco et al. (2012) [52], to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmological models. The inclusion of the new Busca et al. (2012) [11] measurement results in H(z) constraints significantly more restrictive than those derived by Farooq, Mania, and Ratra (2013) [31]. These H(z) constraints are now more restrictive than those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude measurements Suzuki et al. (2012) [86]. The H(z) constraints by themselves require an accelerating cosmological expansion at about 2 σ confidence level, depending on cosmological model and Hubble constant prior used in the analysis. A joint analysis of H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly-evolving dark energy density.

  8. MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Purna Sudhakar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an exhaustive literature review of the techniques and models available tomeasure the productivity of software development teams. Definition of productivity, measuringindividual programmer’s productivity, and measuring software development team productivity arediscussed. Based on the literature review it was found that software productivity measurement canbe done using SLOC (Source Lines of Code, function points, use case points, object points, andfeature points. Secondary research findings indicate that the team size, response time, taskcomplexity, team climate and team cohesion have an impact on software development teamproductivity. List of factors affecting the software development team productivity are studied andreviewed.

  9. High-temperature strain measurement techniques: Current developments and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemcoe, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1987, a very substantial amount of R&D has been conducted in an attempt to develop reliable strain sensors for the measurements of structural strains during ground testing and hypersonic flight, at temperatures up to at least 2000 deg F. Much of the effort has been focused on requirements of the NASP Program. This presentation is limited to the current sensor development work and characterization studies carried out within that program. It is basically an assessment as to where we are now and what remains to be done in the way of technical accomplishments to meet the technical challenges posed by the requirements and constraints established for the NASP Program. The approach for meeting those requirements and constraints has been multi-disciplinary in nature. It was recognized early on that no one sensor could meet all these requirements and constraints, largely because of the large temperature range (cryogenic to at least 2000 deg F) and many other factors, including the most challenging requirement that the sensor system be capable of obtaining valid 'first cycle data'. Present candidate alloys for resistance-type strain gages include Fe-Cr-Al and Pd-Cr. Although they have superior properties regarding withstanding very high temperatures, they exhibit large apparent strains that must either be accounted for or cancelled out by various techniques, including the use of a dual-element, half-bridge dummy gage, or electrical compensation networks. A significant effort is being devoted to developing, refining, and evaluating the effectiveness of those techniques over a broad range in temperature and time. In the quest to obtain first-cycle data, ways must be found to eliminate the need to prestabilize or precondition the strain gage, before it is attached to the test article. It should be noted that present NASP constraints do not permit prestabilization of the sensor, in situ. Gages are currently being 'heat treated' during manufacture in both the wire- and foil

  10. A Linear Programming Approach to the Development of Contrail Reduction Strategies Satisfying Operationally Feasible Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peng; Sridhar, Banavar; Chen, Neil Yi-Nan; Sun, Dengfent

    2012-01-01

    A class of strategies has been proposed to reduce contrail formation in the United States airspace. A 3D grid based on weather data and the cruising altitude level of aircraft is adjusted to avoid the persistent contrail potential area with the consideration to fuel-efficiency. In this paper, the authors introduce a contrail avoidance strategy on 3D grid by considering additional operationally feasible constraints from an air traffic controller's aspect. First, shifting too many aircraft to the same cruising level will make the miles-in-trail at this level smaller than the safety separation threshold. Furthermore, the high density of aircraft at one cruising level may exceed the workload for the traffic controller. Therefore, in our new model we restrict the number of total aircraft at each level. Second, the aircraft count variation for successive intervals cannot be too drastic since the workload to manage climbing/descending aircraft is much larger than managing cruising aircraft. The contrail reduction is formulated as an integer-programming problem and the problem is shown to have the property of total unimodularity. Solving the corresponding relaxed linear programming with the simplex method provides an optimal and integral solution to the problem. Simulation results are provided to illustrate the methodology.

  11. Developing rigid constraint for the estimation of pose and structure from a single image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宝刚; 刘永怀

    2004-01-01

    Pose and structure estimation from a single image is a fundamental problem in machine vision and multiple sensor fusion and integration.In this paper we propose using rigid constraints described in different coordinate frames to iteratively estimate structural and camera pose parameters.Using geometric properties of reflected correspondences we put forward a new concept,the reflected pole of a rigid transformation.The reflected pole represents a general analysis of transformations that can be applied to both 2D and 3D transformations.We demonstrate how the concept is applied to calibration by proposing an iterative method to estimate the structural parameters of objects.The method is based on a coarse-to-fine strategy in which initial estimation is obtained through a classical linear algorithm which is then refined by iteration.For a comparative study of performance,we also implemented an extended motion estimation algorithm(from 2D-2D to 3D-2D case)based on epipolar geometry.

  12. MEASURING PRODUCTIVITY OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Goparaju Purna Sudhakar; Ayesha Farooq; Sanghamitra Patnaik

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives an exhaustive literature review of the techniques and models available tomeasure the productivity of software development teams. Definition of productivity, measuringindividual programmer’s productivity, and measuring software development team productivity arediscussed. Based on the literature review it was found that software productivity measurement canbe done using SLOC (Source Lines of Code), function points, use case points, object points, andfeature points. Secondary re...

  13. Software Development for JSA Source Jerk Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Huang-da; ZHANG; Tao

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a series of experiment measurement system for Jordan sub-critical assembly.The source jerk measurement system is used for measuring the reactivity of sub-critical reactor.It mainlyconsists of a BF3 neutron detector around the reactor core,main amplifier,the data acquisition and processing software.The software acquires neutron pulse data by controlling DAQ card,and displaying

  14. Simulations for the Development of Thermoelectric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrocki, Knud; Ziolkowski, Pawel; Dasgupta, Titas; de Boor, Johannes; Müller, Eckhard

    2013-07-01

    In thermoelectricity, continuum theoretical equations are usually used for the calculation of the characteristics and performance of thermoelectric elements, modules or devices as a function of external parameters (material, geometry, temperatures, current, flow, load, etc.). An increasing number of commercial software packages aimed at applications, such as COMSOL and ANSYS, contain vkernels using direct thermoelectric coupling. Application of these numerical tools also allows analysis of physical measurement conditions and can lead to specifically adapted methods for developing special test equipment required for the determination of TE material and module properties. System-theoretical and simulation-based considerations of favorable geometries are taken into account to create draft sketches in the development of such measurement systems. Particular consideration is given to the development of transient measurement methods, which have great advantages compared with the conventional static methods in terms of the measurement duration required. In this paper the benefits of using numerical tools in designing measurement facilities are shown using two examples. The first is the determination of geometric correction factors in four-point probe measurement of electrical conductivity, whereas the second example is focused on the so-called combined thermoelectric measurement (CTEM) system, where all thermoelectric material properties (Seebeck coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivity, and Harman measurement of zT) are measured in a combined way. Here, we want to highlight especially the measurement of thermal conductivity in a transient mode. Factors influencing the measurement results such as coupling to the environment due to radiation, heat losses via the mounting of the probe head, as well as contact resistance between the sample and sample holder are illustrated, analyzed, and discussed. By employing the results of the simulations, we have developed an

  15. Developing a Measure of Perceived Environmental Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, John Michael; Hair, Joseph F., Jr.; Fowler, Claudia R.

    2000-01-01

    Conceptually and empirically develops a scale that measures perceptions of environmental risk (PER). This type of scale is important because it provides a general overview of the present state of perceptions regarding environmental risk and measures of specific environmental issues. (Author/SAH)

  16. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  17. Constraints on Earth's inner core composition inferred from measurements of the sound velocity of hcp-iron in extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Eiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Kamada, Seiji; Takahashi, Suguru; Sakairi, Takanori; Takahata, Akihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Rei; Seto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Taku; Baron, Alfred Q R

    2016-02-01

    Hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) is a main component of Earth's inner core. The difference in density between hcp-Fe and the inner core in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) shows a density deficit, which implies an existence of light elements in the core. Sound velocities then provide an important constraint on the amount and kind of light elements in the core. Although seismological observations provide density-sound velocity data of Earth's core, there are few measurements in controlled laboratory conditions for comparison. We report the compressional sound velocity (V P) of hcp-Fe up to 163 GPa and 3000 K using inelastic x-ray scattering from a laser-heated sample in a diamond anvil cell. We propose a new high-temperature Birch's law for hcp-Fe, which gives us the V P of pure hcp-Fe up to core conditions. We find that Earth's inner core has a 4 to 5% smaller density and a 4 to 10% smaller V P than hcp-Fe. Our results demonstrate that components other than Fe in Earth's core are required to explain Earth's core density and velocity deficits compared to hcp-Fe. Assuming that the temperature effects on iron alloys are the same as those on hcp-Fe, we narrow down light elements in the inner core in terms of the velocity deficit. Hydrogen is a good candidate; thus, Earth's core may be a hidden hydrogen reservoir. Silicon and sulfur are also possible candidates and could show good agreement with PREM if we consider the presence of some melt in the inner core, anelasticity, and/or a premelting effect.

  18. A study of the impacts of flow direction and electrical constraints on vulnerability assessment of power grid using electrical betweenness measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Ma, Feng; Javadi, Milad; Thulasiraman, Krishnaiya; Bompard, Ettore; Jiang, John N.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the impacts of major electrical properties, including node constraints, line limits, and flow direction, on vulnerability assessment of power grid using several types of electrical betweenness measures. Specifically, we first propose a set of new electrical betweenness measures, which takes into account flow direction in power grids. Then, the impacts of major electrical properties on vulnerability assessment of power grid are analyzed by comparing the identification results of critical components based on the proposed electrical betweenness measures with those based on the other two types of electrical betweenness measures reported in the literature, which take into consideration node constraints and line limits, respectively. Analysis results show the important impact of flow direction on the identification of critical components. The results lead us to introduce a set of combined electrical betweenness measures that take into account node constraints, line limits, and flow direction together. Simulation results on the IEEE 300-bus system and the Italian power grid show that the combined electrical betweenness measures are superior in identifying critical components and more useful in assessing power grid vulnerability.

  19. Pivot Tables - Toolkit: the Constraints to the Business Development in the Former Socialist EU Countries from the Central and Eastern Europe between (2008-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela Zeca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When cooperation between countries is in harmony, trade and investment patterns are based on economic considerations. However, in times of geopolitical reconfiguration of ranking supremacy, economic events held on a stage that sums up all the world, with everything that means material resources, financial resources, polarized areas of intervention, causation so "equation", sometimes with many and unpredictable variables, may not be so easy to solve it. The measurements and econometric calculation are indisputable correct, analysis and the economic forecasts must be accompanied by correct investment strategies on international road map being important to not overlook tension that may weaken national strategy. Informational abundance is as dangerous, or more correctly ineffective, like is the shortage of information. I approached the topic " Pivot tables - toolkit: the constraints to the business development in the former EU socialist countries from the Central and Eastern Europe" in terms of the possibility of accessing easy, accurate and timely a lot of sources of information because, this aspect is desirable, that the result of research overcome the academic space and to become a useful and efficient tool both to researchers, the decision makers and for vectors of economic policy. How large were the constraints and limitations which occurred, which is architecture of their evolution curve for the horizon 2008, 2016, all of these are coagulated aspects in this paper and accessible with one click.

  20. Optimization, Randomized Approximability, and Boolean Constraint Satisfaction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Yamakami, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    We give a unified treatment to optimization problems that can be expressed in the form of nonnegative-real-weighted Boolean constraint satisfaction problems. Creignou, Khanna, Sudan, Trevisan, and Williamson studied the complexity of approximating their optimal solutions whose optimality is measured by the sums of outcomes of constraints. To explore a wider range of optimization constraint satisfaction problems, following an early work of Marchetti-Spaccamela and Romano, we study the case where the optimality is measured by products of constraints' outcomes. We completely classify those problems into three categories: PO problems, NPO-hard problems, and intermediate problems that lie between the former two categories. To prove this trichotomy theorem, we analyze characteristics of nonnegative-real-weighted constraints using a variant of the notion of T-constructibility developed earlier for complex-weighted counting constraint satisfaction problems.

  1. Framework for measuring sustainable development in NAMAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Bizikova, Livia; Harris, Melissa

    The research project ‘Measuring sustainable development (SD) in Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs)’ was initiated by the NAMA Partnership Working Group on Sustainable Development (WG-SD). The aim of the research project is to improve quantitative and qualitative measurement of the SD...... outcomes of NAMAs, thereby enhancing understanding of how NAMAs can contribute to meeting national development goals. The UNEP DTU Partnership (UDP), in collaboration with the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), and supported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate...... of the SD impacts of NAMAs, based on a review of the literature on sustainability assessment tools and approaches, and a study of the different stakeholder perspectives among developing country governments, support agencies, the private sector and civil-society organisations....

  2. Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gentle, A P; Kheyfets, A I; Miller, W A; Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Kheyfets, Arkady; Miller, Warner A.

    2003-01-01

    We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamic equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approach lead to the well known problems of the description of time evolution. These problems of time are both of interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the so-called geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamic variables separates the issue of quantization from enforcing the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account the states that are off shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. Here, we develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context ...

  3. A mathematical model for maximizing the value of phase 3 drug development portfolios incorporating budget constraints and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nitin R; Ankolekar, Suresh; Antonijevic, Zoran; Rajicic, Natasa

    2013-05-10

    We describe a value-driven approach to optimizing pharmaceutical portfolios. Our approach incorporates inputs from research and development and commercial functions by simultaneously addressing internal and external factors. This approach differentiates itself from current practices in that it recognizes the impact of study design parameters, sample size in particular, on the portfolio value. We develop an integer programming (IP) model as the basis for Bayesian decision analysis to optimize phase 3 development portfolios using expected net present value as the criterion. We show how this framework can be used to determine optimal sample sizes and trial schedules to maximize the value of a portfolio under budget constraints. We then illustrate the remarkable flexibility of the IP model to answer a variety of 'what-if' questions that reflect situations that arise in practice. We extend the IP model to a stochastic IP model to incorporate uncertainty in the availability of drugs from earlier development phases for phase 3 development in the future. We show how to use stochastic IP to re-optimize the portfolio development strategy over time as new information accumulates and budget changes occur.

  4. Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Constraints, Comparability and Policy in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel A.; Castillo, Nathan M.

    2014-01-01

    United Nations development goals have consistently placed a high priority on the quality of education--and of learning. This has led to substantive increases in international development assistance to education, and also to broader attention, worldwide, to the importance of children's learning. Yet, such goals are mainly normative: they tend…

  5. Development of a Behavioral Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabus Klotzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the fifties, several measures have been developed in order to measure the performance of investments or choices involving uncertain outcomes. Much of these measures are based on Expected Utility Theory, but since the nineties a number of measures have been proposed based on Non-Expected Utility Theory. Among the Theories of Non-Expected Utility highlights Prospect Theory, which is the foundation of Behavioral Finance. Based on this theory this study proposes a new performance measure in which are embedded loss aversion along with the likelihood of distortions in the choice of alternatives. A hypothetical example is presented in which various performance measures, including the new measure are compared. The results showed that the ordering of the assets varied depending on the performance measure adopted. According to what was expected, the new performance measure clearly has captured the distortion of probabilities and loss aversion of the decision maker, ie, those assets with the greatest negative deviations from the target were those who had the worst performance.

  6. Development of the Measurement of Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sixta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of economy is a very long issue closely connected with the development of economic theories and the level of knowledge. Origin of modern measurement can be found in 17th century when Francois Quesnay compiled his Economic Table. Lots of successors developed economic concepts that are currently represented by the system of national accounting. Although national accounting has not a long history since it was established in 1950s, it has become known as a general tool for the description of economy. Development of national accounts was in line with development of economic theory and it respected the changes in economy and society. Both western and socialist countries we looking for methods and rules for the measurement of economy. The West relied on the System of National Accounts and the East focused on Material Product System based on Marx theories. After the collapse of communist regimes in the East, there remained only one universal measurement standard – national accounting. National accounts have been developed for more than 60 years and with several milestones. Currently, the new milestone – SNA 2008 / ESA 2010 is going to be put into practice. And the consequences will be very significant for many users.

  7. Constraints on Budgeting and Development Plan Implementation in Nigeria: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Ojo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After over five decades of planning and budgeting, no doubt, Nigeria is at acrossroad in terms of infrastructural development. Basic things of life which couldmake life abundant and tolerable are conspicuously lacking. So many reasons havebeen adduced for the stark reality; but the focus of this paper is an in-depthanalysis of the variables which must have hampered the performances of severaldevelopment plans cum annual budgets in achieving development goals. The paperinfers that unless the identified lapses as discussed in this paper are taken care ofthe country may not be able to compete at even keel with her contemporaries vis-à-vis development indices.

  8. Constraints on Budgeting and Development Plan Implementation in Nigeria: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Ojo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available After over five decades of planning and budgeting, no doubt, Nigeria is at acrossroad in terms of infrastructural development. Basic things of life which couldmake life abundant and tolerable are conspicuously lacking. So many reasons havebeen adduced for the stark reality; but the focus of this paper is an in-depthanalysis of the variables which must have hampered the performances of severaldevelopment plans cum annual budgets in achieving development goals. The paperinfers that unless the identified lapses as discussed in this paper are taken care ofthe country may not be able to compete at even keel with her contemporaries vis-à-vis development indices.

  9. Development of Constraint Force Equation Methodology for Application to Multi-Body Dynamics Including Launch Vehicle Stage Seperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamadi, Bandu N.; Toniolo, Matthew D.; Tartabini, Paul V.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; Albertson, Cindy W.; Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this report is to develop and implement a physics based method for analysis and simulation of multi-body dynamics including launch vehicle stage separation. The constraint force equation (CFE) methodology discussed in this report provides such a framework for modeling constraint forces and moments acting at joints when the vehicles are still connected. Several stand-alone test cases involving various types of joints were developed to validate the CFE methodology. The results were compared with ADAMS(Registered Trademark) and Autolev, two different industry standard benchmark codes for multi-body dynamic analysis and simulations. However, these two codes are not designed for aerospace flight trajectory simulations. After this validation exercise, the CFE algorithm was implemented in Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) to provide a capability to simulate end-to-end trajectories of launch vehicles including stage separation. The POST2/CFE methodology was applied to the STS-1 Space Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) separation and Hyper-X Research Vehicle (HXRV) separation from the Pegasus booster as a further test and validation for its application to launch vehicle stage separation problems. Finally, to demonstrate end-to-end simulation capability, POST2/CFE was applied to the ascent, orbit insertion, and booster return of a reusable two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicle concept. With these validation exercises, POST2/CFE software can be used for performing conceptual level end-to-end simulations, including launch vehicle stage separation, for problems similar to those discussed in this report.

  10. Harmonious Economic Development Model in the Niyang River Valley under Environmental Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We select gross national happiness(GNH),per capita GDP,the number of tourists received in rural areas,waste gas emission and other indicators that are closely related to harmonious economic development.Using the indicator data,we establish the multiple linear regression model that is in line with the harmonious economic development model in the Niyang River valley,and conduct empirical analysis.According to the analysis results,the following recommendations are put forward:adhering to laying equal stress on protection and development;improving the quality of the population;protecting environment and curbing environmental pollution;speeding up the construction of ecological environment relying on technology;increasing investment in poverty alleviation to eradicate poverty;extensively mobilizing the public to participate in ecological and environmental protection;coordinating the relationship between the ecological environment and economic development.

  11. Constraints to the Development of Commodity Exchanges in Africa: A Case Study of ZAMACE

    OpenAIRE

    Sitko, Nicholas J.; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of agricultural commodity exchanges in Africa has become an increasingly popular strategy for addressing some of the ills plaguing African food markets, including poorly developed risk management systems, high transaction costs, and limited price discovery. However, despite substantial support from donors and, in some cases, national governments, commodity exchanges in most African countries are having difficulties getting off the ground. While previous studies (Rashid, Winter...

  12. Measurement of Social Development: An International Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    PQLI and HDI are the two most popular measures of development, besides per capita income. Over the years, PQLI appears to be not much in use for regional comparisons, especially after the introduction of HDI. While PQLI considers only the physical variables--adult literacy, life expectancy at birth and infant survival rate, HDI has life expectancy…

  13. The Development of China's Electronics Industry: Causes and Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoqingHuang; WeiguoQiao

    2005-01-01

    The development of China's electronics industry can be attributed to supportive government policies, strong domestic market demand and the opportunities provided by the international transfer of technology in the electronic manufacturing sector. China's enterprises can only continue to develop through technological upgrading due to the lack of core technologies of their own. Since this process is still ongoing, China has not become a competitive country in the field of electronic technology. As a country in transition, government initiatives designed to encourage the development of the electronics industry have also undergone changes in line with economic institutional reform. Direct government intervention policies have been gradually replaced by indirect regulatory policies and the market is playing a more and more important role in the electronics industry.

  14. Technical constraints in the development of reduced-fat bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, T

    2001-11-01

    The present study was funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, its aim being to identify the technical barriers to the development of reduced-fat alternatives for bakery products. Using National Food Survey (Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, 1998) statistics on dietary consumption within the home, biscuits, cakes and pastries were identified as contributing significant amounts of fat to the population's dietary intake. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with contacts in the technical community of the baking industry, who were usually working in technical and new-product development functions. A discussion guide was developed to cover the main lines of enquiry. The companies selected were ingredient suppliers (eight), manufacturers (twelve) and retailers (four) and so represented each step of the food supply chain. In brief, results showed that current labelling rules were too stringent, and constrained development of reduced-fat bakery products. Products with lower fat levels are harder to make due to altered handling and processing properties. Their quality is usually poorer than standard products, particularly for flavour, texture and mouthfeel. The perception of freshness is reduced and product shelf-life may consequently be shorter. For the product developer, there are relatively few ingredients that can be used in place of fat, and knowledge of how they work is limited, which inhibits product development. There is no identifiable source of technical knowledge in this field. Consumers perceive reduced-fat bakery products to be of lower quality and are generally unwilling to pay higher prices than for standard products.

  15. Breeding and regulatory opportunities and constraints for developing broccoli cultivars adapted to organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renaud, E.N.C.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is about the regulatory and technical challenges to the organic seed and breeding sector. This study specifically explored the mutual influence of the regulatory environment for organic seed sector development in the United States (US), Europe Union (EU) and Mexico, and the extent to whi

  16. The Higher Education Crisis in Developing Countries: Issues, Problems, Constraints and Reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmi, Jamil

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the higher education crisis in developing countries in terms of the ways in which problems are analyzed and decisions are made. Focuses on discrepancies between objectives and achievements. Highlights the importance of risk analysis in strategic planning, advocating an impact assessment approach. (DMM)

  17. Contract-based electricity markets in developing countries: Overcoming inefficiency constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. N. Susantha

    The electric utility sector throughout the world has been undergoing significant changes. It is changing from its traditional, central-station generation model managed under a vertically integrated monopoly to a more market-dependent business. In the rich industrialized countries, this change has progressed rapidly with the emergence of competitive markets---not only in the area of electricity generation, but also in the extension of such markets down to the level of retail domestic consumer. Developing countries, on the other hand, are trying to attract much-needed investment capital for their power sector expansion activities, particularly for the expansion of generating capacity, through the involvement of the private sector. Unlike their industrialized counterparts, they are facing many limitations in transforming the mostly government-owned monopolies into market-driven businesses, thereby creating an environment that is conducive to private sector participation. Amongst these limitations are the lack of a well-developed, local private sector or domestic financial market that can handle the sophisticated power sector financing; inadequate legal and regulatory frameworks that can address the many complexities of private power development; and numerous risk factors including political risks. This dissertation research addresses an important inefficiency faced by developing countries in the new contract-based market structure that has emerged within these countries. It examines the inefficiencies brought on by restrictions in the contracts, specifically those arising from the guaranteed purchase conditions that are typically included in contracts between the purchasing utility and independent power producers in this new market. The research attempts to provide a solution for this problem and proposes a methodology that enables the parties to conduct their businesses in a cost-efficient manner within a cooperative environment. The situation described above is

  18. The Tragedy of Ordinarity : Culture Constraints on Sustainable Development Based on Public Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bösch, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    This licentiate thesis consists of two free-standing papers and a linking essay that links the papers by articulating an overall research aim and common theoretical background. The research aim is kept general and focuses on the role public transport can play in sustainable development. The work aims to contribute to a better understanding of why people do or do not choose to use public transport, to grasp the ideas/attitudes underlying the decisions made regarding the future of public transp...

  19. Growth and Functional Development in 6 to 10 Years Old Soccer Players: Constraints and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Domingues

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport and more specifically football is an important asset in youth lives. It is widely considered that biological maturity influences physical performance. Relationships between body size and performance are partly confounded by age. In fact, age is positively associated to strength and motor performance, even when height and weight are controlled. Studies on young footballer have been started to consider the potential impact of variation on growth and biological maturity status upon sport-specific football skills. Some authors suggest that physical training should have a low priority until the late puberty and then the time could be devoted to other types of training such as focusing on technical aspects. However, the question remains that is this due to low trainability or inadequacies of training programs? A brief review of the literature was conducted with three specific exclusion criteria including the age of footballers, relation of age with performance, and studies on football. There are critical periods in the life of a young person, in which the effects of training can be maximized. Thus, a special attention should be paid to developing football skills by regarding the performance and full respect to youth development. Many papers have been published on functional capacities and dimensions in pre-adolescence and adolescence, but less information are available concerning the ages between 6 and 10. Hence, this paper aims to highlight some aspects of this age period and provide an understanding of important aspects of growth, development, and maturation is particularly important, as a youngster’s football performance may depend heavily on gender and biological age and state.

  20. Carbonate Platform Development and Stromatolite Morphogenesis: Constraints on Environmental and Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Work has been completed on the digital mapping of a terminal Proterozoic reef complex in Namibia. This complex formed an isolated carbonate platform developed downdip on a carbonate ramp of the Nama Group. The stratigraphic evolution of the platform was digitally reconstructed from an extensive dataset that was compiled by using digital surveying technologies. The platform comprises three accommodation cycles in which each subsequent cycle experienced progressively greater influence of a long-term accommodation increase. Aggradation and progradation during the first cycle resulted in a flat, uniform, sheet-like platform. The coarsening and shallowing-upward sequence representing the first cycle is dominated by columnar stromatolitic thrombolites and massive dolostones with interbedded mudstone-grainstone at the base of the sequence grading into cross-bedded dolostones. The second cycle features aggradation, formation of a distinct margin containing thrombolite mounds and domes, and the development of a bucket geometry. Columnar stromatolitic thrombolites dominate the platform interior. The final stage of platform development shows a deepening trend with initial aggradation and formation of well-bedded, thin deposits in the interior and mound development at the margins. While the interior drowned, the platform margin kept up with rising sea level and a complex pinnacle reef formed containing fused and coalesced thrombolite mounds flanked by bioclastic grainstones (containing Cloudina and Namacalathus fossils) and collapse breccias. A set of isolated large thrombolite mounds flanked by shales indicate the final stage of the carbonate platform. During a progressive increase in accommodation, a flat-topped isolated carbonate platform becomes aerially less extensive by either backstepping or formation of smaller pinnacles or a combination of both. The overall geometric evolution of the studied platform from flat-topped to bucket with elevated margins is recorded in many

  1. Advancing Solar Irradiance Measurement for Climate-Related Studies: Accurate Constraint on Direct Aerosol Radiative Effect (DARE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Ji, Q. Jack

    2011-01-01

    Earth's climate is driven primarily by solar radiation. As summarized in various IPCC reports, the global average of radiative forcing for different agents and mechanisms, such as aerosols or CO2 doubling, is in the range of a few W/sq m. However, when solar irradiance is measured by broadband radiometers, such as the fleet of Eppley Precision Solar Pyranometers (PSP) and equivalent instrumentation employed worldwide, the measurement uncertainty is larger than 2% (e.g., WMO specification of pyranometer, 2008). Thus, out of the approx. 184 W/sq m (approx.263 W/sq m if cloud-free) surface solar insolation (Trenberth et al. 2009), the measurement uncertainty is greater than +/-3.6 W/sq m, overwhelming the climate change signals. To discern these signals, less than a 1 % measurement uncertainty is required and is currently achievable only by means of a newly developed methodology employing a modified PSP-like pyranometer and an updated calibration equation to account for its thermal effects (li and Tsay, 2010). In this talk, we will show that some auxiliary measurements, such as those from a collocated pyrgeometer or air temperature sensors, can help correct historical datasets. Additionally, we will also demonstrate that a pyrheliometer is not free of the thermal effect; therefore, comparing to a high cost yet still not thermal-effect-free "direct + diffuse" approach in measuring surface solar irradiance, our new method is more economical, and more likely to be suitable for correcting a wide variety of historical datasets. Modeling simulations will be presented that a corrected solar irradiance measurement has a significant impact on aerosol forcing, and thus plays an important role in climate studies.

  2. Constraints to the implementation of effective environmental management in coastal areas of developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de L.R. Wagener

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the limitations the scarcity of reliable scientific information poses to the implementation of effective and sustainable coastal management programmes in developing countries. Alternatives to the current monitoring approaches are suggested as to improve information level on the state of the environment and to decrease data gap on past conditions. The paper aims at encouraging the redesign of monitoring practices in developing countries as to be ground on the best actual scientific knowledge.O presente texto trata das limitações, impostas pela escassez de informação científica confiável, à implementação de programas eficazes e sustentáveis de gestão costeira em paises em desenvolvimento. São sugeridas alternativas às abordagens correntes de monitoramento, as quais visam aprimorar o nível de conhecimento sobre o estado do meio ambiente e decrescer a carência de dados sobre suas condições pretéritas. As discussões apresentadas pretendem encorajar o redesenho das práticas de monitoramento em países em desenvolvimento de forma que passem a se fundamentar no melhor conhecimento científico atual.

  3. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  4. Global Energy Development and Climate-Induced Water Scarcity—Physical Limits, Sectoral Constraints, and Policy Imperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A. Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current accelerated growth in demand for energy globally is confronted by water-resource limitations and hydrologic variability linked to climate change. The global spatial and temporal trends in water requirements for energy development and policy alternatives to address these constraints are poorly understood. This article analyzes national-level energy demand trends from U.S. Energy Information Administration data in relation to newly available assessments of water consumption and life-cycle impacts of thermoelectric generation and biofuel production, and freshwater availability and sectoral allocations from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank. Emerging, energy-related water scarcity flashpoints include the world’s largest, most diversified economies (Brazil, India, China, and USA among others, while physical water scarcity continues to pose limits to energy development in the Middle East and small-island states. Findings include the following: (a technological obstacles to alleviate water scarcity driven by energy demand are surmountable; (b resource conservation is inevitable, driven by financial limitations and efficiency gains; and (c institutional arrangements play a pivotal role in the virtuous water-energy-climate cycle. We conclude by making reference to coupled energy-water policy alternatives including water-conserving energy portfolios, intersectoral water transfers, virtual water for energy, hydropower tradeoffs, and use of impaired waters for energy development.

  5. Development of synchronous VHL syndrome tumors reveals contingencies and constraints to tumor evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Rosalie; Horswell, Stuart; Rowan, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background : Genomic analysis of multi-focal renal cell carcinomas from an individual with a germline VHL mutation offers a unique opportunity to study tumor evolution. Results : We perform whole exome sequencing on four clear cell renal cell carcinomas removed from both kidneys of a patient...... are contingent upon the nature of 3p loss of heterozygosity occurring early in tumorigenesis. However, despite distinct 3p events, genomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical analyses reveal evidence for convergence upon the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling pathway. Four germline tumors in this young patient...... a germline VHL mutation, the evolutionary principles of contingency and convergence in tumor development are complementary. In this small set of patients with early stage VHL-associated tumors, there is reduced mutation burden and limited evidence of intra-tumor heterogeneity....

  6. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...... corporate communication managers a concrete tool for evaluating the quality of their online communications and for identifying those areas of their online communication that need improvement....

  7. Constraints on aeolian sediment transport to foredunes within an undeveloped backshore enclave on a developed coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Kayla L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Jackson, Nancy L.

    2016-10-01

    Landforms present in undeveloped beach enclaves located between properties developed with houses and infrastructure are often left to evolve naturally but are influenced by the human structures near them. This field study evaluates how buildings and sand-trapping fences change the direction of wind approach, reduce wind speed, and restrict fetch distances for sediment entrainment, thereby reducing the potential for aeolian transport and development of dunes in enclaves. Field data were gathered in an 80 m long, 44 m deep beach enclave on the ocean shoreline of New Jersey, USA. Comparison of wind characteristics in the enclave with a site unaffected by buildings revealed that offshore winds in the enclave are reduced in strength and altered in direction by landward houses, increasing the relative importance of longshore winds. Vertical arrays of anemometers on the foredune crest, foredune toe and berm crest in the enclave revealed increasing wind speed with distance offshore, with strongest winds on the berm crest. Vertical cylindrical traps on the foredune crest, foredune toe, mid-backshore, berm crest and upper foreshore revealed the greatest rate of sediment transport on the berm crest. Sediment samples from the beach and from traps revealed limited potential for aeolian transport because of coarse grain sizes. Strong oblique onshore winds are common in this region and are normally important for transporting sand to dunes. The length of an enclave and the setback distance on its landward side determine the degree to which sediment delivered by oblique winds contributes to dune growth. The landward edge of the enclave (defined by a sand fence near the dune toe) is sheltered along its entire length from winds blowing at an angle to the shoreline of 25° or less. A foredune set back this distance in an enclave the length of an individual lot (about 20 m) would be sheltered at an angle of 57° or less, reducing the opportunity for dune building by onshore winds

  8. Development of a Smooth Trajectory Maneuver Method to Accommodate the Ares I Flight Control Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Robin M.; Schmitt, Terri L.; Hanson, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Six degree-of-freedom (DOF) launch vehicle trajectories are designed to follow an optimized 3-DOF reference trajectory. A vehicle has a finite amount of control power that it can allocate to performing maneuvers. Therefore, the 3-DOF trajectory must be designed to refrain from using 100% of the allowable control capability to perform maneuvers, saving control power for handling off-nominal conditions, wind gusts and other perturbations. During the Ares I trajectory analysis, two maneuvers were found to be hard for the control system to implement; a roll maneuver prior to the gravity turn and an angle of attack maneuver immediately after the J-2X engine start-up. It was decided to develop an approach for creating smooth maneuvers in the optimized reference trajectories that accounts for the thrust available from the engines. A feature of this method is that no additional angular velocity in the direction of the maneuver has been added to the vehicle after the maneuver completion. This paper discusses the equations behind these new maneuvers and their implementation into the Ares I trajectory design cycle. Also discussed is a possible extension to adjusting closed-loop guidance.

  9. Constraints on the development of the early continental crust from isotopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of the origin and development of the early (AE) continential crust are addressed by radiogenic isotope and trace element studies. The most important ones are: (1) at what time did the earliest continental crust form; (2) what was its composition; (3) by what processes did it grow and by what processes was it destroyed; (4) what were the rates of production and destruction as a function of time during this time period? Nd is isotopic data on the oldest terrestrial rocks indicate that the mantle at this time had already suffered substantial depletion in incompatible elements due to earlier continent forming events. Isotopic data on young volcanic rocks derived from the depleted mantle show no evidence of this early history. The observed isotopic patterns of Nd, Sr, Hf and Pb through time together with the presently observed age spectrum of crustal rocks are considered. These patterns can be modelled by a transport model in which the continental growth and destruction rates are allowed to vary as a function of time. It is suggest that the mass of the continents at 3.8 AE ago was about 25% of the current continental mass. However, due to the very high recycling rates obtained in the early Archean only a few percent of this crust has been preserved up to the present.

  10. Methodological constraints in interpreting serum paraoxonase-1 activity measurements: an example from a study in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joven Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme that attenuates the production of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in vitro. Although oxidation and inflammation are closely related processes, the association between PON1 and MCP-1 has not been completely characterised due, probably, to that the current use of synthetic substrates for PON1 measurement limits the interpretation of the data. In the present study, we explored the relationships between the circulating levels of PON1 and MCP-1 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to the multifunctional capabilities of PON1. Methods We measured selected variables in 227 patients and in a control group of 409 participants. Serum PON1 esterase and lactonase activities were measured as the rates of hydrolysis of paraoxon and of 5-(thiobutyl-butyrolactone, respectively. Oxidised LDL and MCP-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-density lipoproteins cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by standard automated methods. Results There were significant relationships between PON1 activity and several indices of oxidation and inflammation in control subjects and in infected patients. However, these relationships varied not only with disease status but also on the type of substrate used for PON1 measurement. Conclusion The present study is a cautionary tale highlighting that results of clinical studies on PON1 may vary depending on the methods used as well as the disease studied. Until more specific methods using physiologically-akin substrates are developed for PON1 measurement, we suggest the simultaneous employment of at least two different substrates in order to improve the reliability of the results obtained.

  11. Intervertebral anticollision constraints improve out-of-plane translation accuracy of a single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method for measuring spinal motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Hsu, Shih-Jung [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10051 (China); Lu, Tung-Wu [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10051, Republic of China and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10617 (China); Shih, Ting-Fang [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10051 (China); Wang, Ting-Ming [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan 10051 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The study aimed to propose a new single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method integrated with intervertebral anticollision constraints for measuring three-dimensional (3D) intervertebral kinematics of the spine; and to evaluate the performance of the method without anticollision and with three variations of the anticollision constraints via an in vitro experiment. Methods: The proposed fluoroscopy-to-CT registration approach, called the weighted edge-matching with anticollision (WEMAC) method, was based on the integration of geometrical anticollision constraints for adjacent vertebrae and the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method that matched the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the CT models of the vertebrae and the measured single-plane fluoroscopy images. Three variations of the anticollision constraints, namely, T-DOF, R-DOF, and A-DOF methods, were proposed. An in vitro experiment using four porcine cervical spines in different postures was performed to evaluate the performance of the WEMS and the WEMAC methods. Results: The WEMS method gave high precision and small bias in all components for both vertebral pose and intervertebral pose measurements, except for relatively large errors for the out-of-plane translation component. The WEMAC method successfully reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five degrees of freedom (DOF) more or less unaltered. The means (standard deviations) of the out-of-plane translational errors were less than -0.5 (0.6) and -0.3 (0.8) mm for the T-DOF method and the R-DOF method, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five DOF more or less unaltered. With the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy, the WEMAC method was

  12. Measuring psychological development with the Rorschach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfill, Michael L; Viglione, Donald J; Resende, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and to provide an initial validation of a Rorschach index measuring developmental progress and growth. The Developmental Index (DI) was created in a 3-step, sequential strategy with adult and child data in which we (a) selected potential DI variables from quantitative research literature and from data available to us, (b) identified an optimal group of DI variables and created the DI equation using an independent nonpatient sample, and (c) provided an initial cross-validation of the DI using an independent clinical sample. Age and age rank categorization groups from normative data associated with the Wechsler intelligence scales (Wechsler, 2003, 2008) and contrasts between adults and children served as criteria for development. These samples include a large amount of data from a diverse international subject pool using the Comprehensive System of the Rorschach. Interim validity checks were undertaken to ensure the analytic strategy was sound. The DI includes 12 variables with individual weights determined by regression analysis. The initial independent cross-validation of the DI with a clinical sample revealed that it discriminated well between children and adults. Thus, initial support for this scale as a measure of psychological development across cultures and geography was established, but future research is needed. Clinical implications and specific research needs are presented.

  13. Exploring the Dark Universe: Constraint on dynamical dark energy models from CMB, BAO and Growth Rate Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Alexander Bonilla

    2016-01-01

    In order to explain the current acceleration of the universe, the fine tuning problem of the value of $\\Lambda$ and the cosmic coincidence problem, different alternative models have been proposed. We use the most recent observational data from CMB (Plank 13 + WMAP 9) and LSS (SDSS, WiggleZ, BOSS, CMASS) to put cosmological constraints on different dynamical dark energy models. We employ the CMB Shift Parameter, which traditionally has been used to constrain the main cosmological parameters of the standard model $\\Lambda CDM$. BAO data are also used including the cross-correlation WiggleZ-BOSS data (BW), which have the potential to strongly constrain the history of the cosmological expansion and the main properties of dark energy. Additionally we use data from Redshift-Space Distortions through Growth Parameter $A(z)=f(z)\\sigma_{8}(z)$ to put constraints on the variance in mass fluctuations $\\sigma_{8}$. We study the expansion history trougth H(z), q(z) and j(z) parameters (Obtained from an expansion in Taylor...

  14. The Effects of Adult Constraint and Peer Influence on the Development of Racial Awareness-Attitudes of Three-, Four-, and Five-Year-Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Peter A.; Dokecki, Paul R.

    This paper reports a research design guided by the hypothesis that adult constraint and peer cooperation exert conflicting forces on the development of racial awareness attitudes of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds. Subjects were 60 preschoolers from Tennessee, with an equal number of white and black children at each age. Methodology used was a modified…

  15. Constraints on the CMB temperature evolution using multiband measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with the South Pole Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saro, A.; Liu, J.; Mohr, J. J.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dolag, K.; Dudley, J. P.; Foley, R. J.; Gangkofner, D.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Hennig, C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montroy, T. E.; Murray, S. S.; Nurgaliev, D.; Padin, S.; Patej, A.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruel, J.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

    2014-04-08

    The adiabatic evolution of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a key prediction of standard cosmology. We study deviations from the expected adiabatic evolution of the CMB temperature of the form T(z) = T0(1 + z)1 - α using measurements of the spectrum of the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We present a method for using the ratio of the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich signal measured at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPT data to constrain the temperature of the CMB. We demonstrate that this approach provides unbiased results using mock observations of clusters from a new set of hydrodynamical simulations. We apply this method to a sample of 158 SPT-selected clusters, spanning the redshift range 0.05 < z < 1.35, and measure $\\alpha = 0.017^{+0.030}_{-0.028}$, consistent with the standard model prediction of α = 0. In combination with other published results, we find α = 0.005 ± 0.012, an improvement of ~10 percent over published constraints. This measurement also provides a strong constraint on the effective equation of state in models of decaying dark energy weff = -0.994 ± 0.010.

  16. CLASH-VLT: CONSTRAINTS ON THE DARK MATTER EQUATION OF STATE FROM ACCURATE MEASUREMENTS OF GALAXY CLUSTER MASS PROFILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartoris, Barbara; Borgani, Stefano; Girardi, Marisa [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sezione di Astronomia, Università di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Biviano, Andrea; Balestra, Italo; Nonino, Mario [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Rosati, Piero [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Universita' di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Umetsu, Keiichi; Czakon, Nicole [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bartelmann, Matthias [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, ITA, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grillo, Claudio [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lemze, Doron; Medezinski, Elinor [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mercurio, Amata [INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Postman, Marc; Bradley, Larry; Coe, Dan [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Broadhurst, Tom [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Melchior, Peter, E-mail: sartoris@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2014-03-01

    A pressureless scenario for the dark matter (DM) fluid is a widely adopted hypothesis, despite the absence of direct observational evidence. According to general relativity, the total mass-energy content of a system shapes the gravitational potential well, but different test particles perceive this potential in different ways depending on their properties. Cluster galaxy velocities, being <constraint on the DM EoS parameter to date, w = (p{sub r} + 2 p{sub t} )/(3 c {sup 2}ρ) = 0.00 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.08 (syst), averaged over the radial range 0.5 Mpc ≤ r ≤ r {sub 200}, where p{sub r} and p{sub t} are the radial and tangential pressure, and ρ is the density. We plan to further improve our constraint by applying the same procedure to all clusters from the ongoing Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble-Very Large Telescope program.

  17. Improved source parameter constraints for five undersea earthquakes from north component of GRACE gravity and gravity gradient change measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunli; Shum, C. K.; Guo, Junyi; Shang, Kun; Tapley, Byron; Wang, Rongjiang

    2016-06-01

    The innovative processing of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) data using only the north component of gravity change and its corresponding gravity gradient changes allows the enhancement of the spatial resolution for coseismic deformation signals. Here, we report the study of five undersea earthquakes using this technique: the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake, the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, and the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquakes. By using the high spherical harmonic degree (up to degree 96) data products and the associated GRACE data processing techniques, the retrieved north component of gravity change is up to - 34 ± 1.4 μGal for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, which illustrates by far the highest amplitude of the coseismic signal retrieved from satellite gravimetry among previous studies. We creatively apply the localized spectral analysis as an efficient method to empirically determine the practical spherical harmonic truncation degree. By combining least squares adjustment with the simulated annealing algorithm, point source parameters are estimated, which demonstrates the unique constraint on source model from GRACE data compared to other data sources. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, GRACE data produce a shallower centroid depth (9.1 km), as compared to the depth (28.3 km) from GPS data. For the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the GRACE-estimated centroid location is southwest of the GPS/seismic solutions, and the slip orientation is about 10° clockwise from the published GPS/seismic slip models. We concluded that these differences demonstrate the additional and critical offshore constraint by GRACE on source parameters, as compared to GPS/seismic data.

  18. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with (13)C-metabolic flux analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jordan O; Shi, Hai; Heinzel, Nicolas; Hebbelmann, Inga; Rolletschek, Hardy; Schwender, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae) developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM) standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction (GPR) associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using B. napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for (13)C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ((13)C-MFA) with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from (13)C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA). Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two B. napus genotypes contrasting in starch and oil content.

  19. Integration of a constraint-based metabolic model of Brassica napus developing seeds with 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan eHay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of large-scale or genome-scale metabolic reconstructions for modeling and simulation of plant metabolism and integration of those models with large-scale omics and experimental flux data is becoming increasingly important in plant metabolic research. Here we report an updated version of bna572, a bottom-up reconstruction of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.; Brassicaceae developing seeds with emphasis on representation of biomass-component biosynthesis. New features include additional seed-relevant pathways for isoprenoid, sterol, phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and choline biosynthesis. Being now based on standardized data formats and procedures for model reconstruction, bna572+ is available as a COBRA-compliant Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML model and conforms to the Minimum Information Requested in the Annotation of Biochemical Models (MIRIAM standards for annotation of external data resources. Bna572+ contains 966 genes, 671 reactions, and 666 metabolites distributed among 11 subcellular compartments. It is referenced to the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, with gene-protein-reaction associations resolving subcellular localization. Detailed mass and charge balancing and confidence scoring were applied to all reactions. Using Brassica napus seed specific transcriptome data, expression was verified for 78% of bna572+ genes and 97% of reactions. Alongside bna572+ we also present a revised carbon centric model for 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis (13C-MFA with all its reactions being referenced to bna572+ based on linear projections. By integration of flux ratio constraints obtained from 13C-MFA and by elimination of infinite flux bounds around thermodynamically infeasible loops based on COBRA loopless methods, we demonstrate improvements in predictive power of Flux Variability Analysis (FVA. Using this combined approach we characterize the difference in metabolic flux of developing seeds of two Brassica napus genotypes contrasting in starch and

  20. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index....... The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark, and the study further investigates whether the organisational affiliation, project financing, and LAG co-financing can explain the degree of social capital accumulation. Furthermore, the author has tested if there are connections between motivation...... for pursuing development projects similar to those implemented previously and the degree of social capital. The paper concludes that there are indications that projects hosted by municipalities tend to show the most social capital, there is no connection between the amount of project financing and social...

  1. Development of a measure of safety climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Barnes

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available A measure of safety climate was developed to aid management in identifying safety problems and responding proactively to safety issues; to assess the general mood of the workforce to safety; and as a standard for comparison with other organizations. The measure of safety climate was based on items extracted from the Chamber of Mines "Loss Control" audit manual. Reliability analysis performed on the scale indicated consistently high reliability coefficients across three ethnic groups. Factor analysis gave support for the construct validity of the scale. Opsomming 'n Meting vir veiligheidsklimaat is ontwikkel ten einde bestuur in staat te stel om veiligheidsprobleme te identifiseer en om pro-aktiefop te tree; om die algemene gevoel van die werkskragte rakende veiligheid te bepaal en om 'n maatstaf vir vergelyking met ander organisasies daar te stel. 'n Betroubaarheidssanalise wat op die skaal uitgevoer is het daarop gedui dat daar konsekwent hoe betroubaarheidskoefisiënte vir drie etniese groepe verkry word. 'n Faktoranalise het die konstrukgeldigheid van die skaal bevestig. The author acknowledges the financial assistance provided by the Human Sciences Research Council for this research.

  2. Constraints on water cycling in a deep mountain valley from stable water isotope and sap flux measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorella, R.; Poulsen, C. J.; Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.

    2015-12-01

    The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water are unequally partitioned during phase changes, with environmental conditions controlling the degree of partitioning. As a result, the isotopic composition of water reflects the thermodynamic history of water parcels in the water cycle. Recent advances in cavity ringdown spectrometry allow for the continuous measurement of water vapor isotope compositions, and provide insight into the processes influencing the concentration of near-surface water vapor at high resolution. We used stable water isotopes to investigate the processes controlling water vapor cycling in a deep mountain valley in northwestern Wyoming. A Picarro L2120-i Cavity Ring-Down spectrometer was deployed to measure the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor at the University of Michigan Camp Davis Field Station near Jackson, WY for three consecutive summers (2012-2014) and during winter 2013. We also constructed a network of Granier-style sap flux probes to estimate the local transpiration flux from regionally dominant tree species in July 2014. A prominent diurnal cycle was observed during the summer that was mostly absent in the winter. Summer specific humidity, δD, δ18O, and sap flux all reach daily maximum values in the mid-to-late morning that we associate with the onset of transpiration. The mountain valley is capped by an inversion, which limits atmospheric mixing during the morning. After the breakup of the inversion, the atmospheric boundary layer develops quickly and results in decreases in near-surface specific humidity and δ18O. δD appears to be less affected following the inversion breakup, resulting in a strong diurnal cycle in d-excess. Specific humidity, δD, and δ18O all return to their morning values rapidly near sunset, marking the cessation of mixing and atmospheric stratification. This absence of this diurnal cycle in the winter is consistent with reduced transpiration and atmospheric mixing anticipated for the

  3. Development of radiation protection and measurement technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Si Young; Lee, T. Y.; Kim, J. L.; Kim, B. H.; Lee, B. J.; Chung, K. K.; Lee, K. C.; Chung, R. I.; Han, Y. D.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, K. S.; Jeong, D. Y.; Yoon, S. C.; Yoon, Y. C.; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, J. S.; Seo, K. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. K.; Lee, J. K. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Reference X-, gamma, beta and neutron radiation fields complying with the ISO and ANSI standards have been established and evaluated to provide a basic technical support in national radiation protection dosimetry program and to provide calibration measurement devices. Personal dose evaluation algorithm has been developed with these reference radiation fields, which comply well with both domestic and the new ANSI N13.11, to evaluate accurate personal dose equivalents. A personal internal dosimetry algorithm which can estimate the intakes of radionuclides from the results of in vivo bioassay and the resulting internal doses has been developed and verified its performance. It was also evaluated to be equality excellent compared with those being used in foreign countries and used to make a computer code for internal dose evaluation which can be run with PC under the Windows environment. A BOMAB phantom for precise calibration of in vivo system has been also designed, fabricated and test-evaluated. Based on the ALARA concept of the optimization principle of radiation protection, a method for estimating the cost for radiation protection has been studied and an objective monetary cost of detriment due to radiation exposure, called {alpha} value ($/man-Sv) has been derived and proposed based on the Korean socio-economic situation and human risk factors to provide basic data for the radiation protection optimization study in Korea. (author). 100 refs., 104 tabs., 69 figs.

  4. Measured Test-Driven Development: Using Measures to Monitor and Control the Unit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dubinsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze Test Driven Development (TDD from cognitive and social perspectives. Based on our analysis, we suggest a technique for controlling and monitoring the TDD process by examining measures that relate to the size and complexity of both code and tests. We call this approach Measured TDD. The motivation for TDD arose from practitioners' tendency to rush into code production, skipping the required testing needed to manufacture quality products. The motivation for Measured TDD is based on difficulties encountered by practitioners in applying TDD. Specifically, with the need to frequently refactor the unit, after every few test and code steps have been performed. We found that the suggested technique enables developers to gain better control over the development process.

  5. Constraints on Multiple Object Tracking in Williams Syndrome: How Atypical Development Can Inform Theories of Visual Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Katrina; Hoffman, James E.; O'Hearn, Kirsten; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The ability to track moving objects is a crucial skill for performance in everyday spatial tasks. The tracking mechanism depends on representation of moving items as coherent entities, which follow the spatiotemporal constraints of objects in the world. In the present experiment, participants tracked 1 to 4 targets in a display of 8 identical…

  6. Measurement of the triple-differential dijet cross section in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV and constraints on parton distribution functions

    CERN Document Server

    Sirunyan, Albert M; CMS Collaboration; Adam, Wolfgang; Asilar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Krammer, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Dvornikov, Oleg; Makarenko, Vladimir; Mossolov, Vladimir; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Zykunov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Skovpen, Kirill; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Vannerom, David; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Gul, Muhammad; Khvastunov, Illia; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Komm, Matthias; Krintiras, Georgios; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, Felipe; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Shopova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Ruan, Manqi; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Yazgan, Efe; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Mesic, Benjamin; Susa, Tatjana; Ather, Mohsan Waseem; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Mohammed, Yasser; Salama, Elsayed; Kadastik, Mario; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Jarvinen, Terhi; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio

    2017-01-01

    A measurement is presented of the triple-differential dijet cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV using 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The cross section is measured as a function of the average transverse momentum, half the rapidity separation, and the boost of the two leading jets in the event. The cross section is corrected for detector effects and compared to calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order accuracy, complemented with electroweak and nonperturbative corrections. New constraints on parton distribution functions are obtained and the inferred value of the strong coupling constant is $\\alpha_S(M_\\text{Z}) = $ 0.1199 $\\pm$ 0.0015 (exp) $_{-0.0020}^{+0.0031}$ (theo), where $M_\\text{Z}$ is the mass of the Z boson.

  7. Measurement of Triple-Differential Dijet Cross Sections at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,$TeV with the CMS Detector and Constraints on Parton Distribution Functions

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A measurement of triple-differential dijet cross sections at a centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8\\,$TeV is presented using $19.7\\,$fb$^{-1}$ of data collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The cross sections are measured as a function of the average transverse momentum, half the rapidity separation, and the boost of the two leading jets. The cross sections are unfolded for detector effects and compared to calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order accuracy complemented with electroweak and nonperturbative corrections. Constraints on the parton distribution functions are derived and the strong coupling constant is determined to be $\\alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1199\\,\\pm{0.0015}\\,(\\mathrm{exp})\\, _{-0.0020}^{+0.0031}\\,(\\mathrm{theo})$.

  8. Signatures of First Stars in Galaxy Surveys: Multi-Tracer Analysis of the Supersonic Relative Velocity Effect and the Constraints from the BOSS Power Spectrum Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2013-01-01

    We study the effect of the supersonic relative velocity between dark matter and baryons on large-scale galaxy clustering and derive the constraint on the relative velocity bias parameter from the Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) power spectrum measurements. Recent work has shown that the relative velocity effect may have a dramatic impact on the star formation at high redshifts, if first stars are formed in minihalos around z~20, or if the effect propagates through secondary effects to stars formed at later redshifts. The relative velocity effect has particularly strong signatures in the large scale clustering of these sources, including the BAO position. Assuming that a small fraction of stars in low-redshift massive galaxies retain the memory of the primordial relative velocity effect, galaxy clustering measurements can be used to constrain the signatures of the first stars. Luminous red galaxies contain some of the oldest stars in the Universe and are ideally suited to search for this effec...

  9. Measurement of the triple-differential dijet cross section in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 8 TeV and constraints on parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-05-07

    A measurement is presented of the triple-differential dijet cross section at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV using 19.7 inverse-femtobarns of data collected with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The cross section is measured as a function of the average transverse momentum, half the rapidity separation, and the boost of the two leading jets in the event. The cross section is corrected for detector effects and compared to calculations in perturbative quantum chromodynamics at next-to-leading order accuracy, complemented with electroweak and nonperturbative corrections. New constraints on parton distribution functions are obtained and the inferred value of the strong coupling constant is alpha[S](M[Z]) = 0.1199 +/- 0.0015 (exp) -0.0020 +0.0031 (theo), where M[Z] is the mass of the Z boson.

  10. Constraints on oceanic methane emissions west of Svalbard from atmospheric in situ measurements and Lagrangian transport modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisso, I.; Myhre, C. Lund; Platt, S. M.; Eckhardt, S.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Mienert, J.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Pitt, J.; Allen, G.; Bower, K. N.; O'Shea, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C. J.; Pyle, J.; Cain, M.; Stohl, A.

    2016-12-01

    Methane stored in seabed reservoirs such as methane hydrates can reach the atmosphere in the form of bubbles or dissolved in water. Hydrates could destabilize with rising temperature further increasing greenhouse gas emissions in a warming climate. To assess the impact of oceanic emissions from the area west of Svalbard, where methane hydrates are abundant, we used measurements collected with a research aircraft (Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements) and a ship (Helmer Hansen) during the Summer 2014 and for Zeppelin Observatory for the full year. We present a model-supported analysis of the atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios measured by the different platforms. To address uncertainty about where CH4 emissions actually occur, we explored three scenarios: areas with known seeps, a hydrate stability model, and an ocean depth criterion. We then used a budget analysis and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to compare measurements taken upwind and downwind of the potential CH4 emission areas. We found small differences between the CH4 mixing ratios measured upwind and downwind of the potential emission areas during the campaign. By taking into account measurement and sampling uncertainties and by determining the sensitivity of the measured mixing ratios to potential oceanic emissions, we provide upper limits for the CH4 fluxes. The CH4 flux during the campaign was small, with an upper limit of 2.5 nmol m-2 s-1 in the stability model scenario. The Zeppelin Observatory data for 2014 suggest CH4 fluxes from the Svalbard continental platform below 0.2 Tg yr-1. All estimates are in the lower range of values previously reported.

  11. Measuring Professional Identity Development among Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Hurt, Kara M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the differences in professional identity development between novice and advanced counselor trainees (N = 161). Multivariate analyses of variance indicated significant differences between groups. Specifically, advanced counselor trainees demonstrated greater professional development compared with novice counselor trainees. No…

  12. On Constraints in Assembly Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calton, T.L.; Jones, R.E.; Wilson, R.H.

    1998-12-17

    Constraints on assembly plans vary depending on product, assembly facility, assembly volume, and many other factors. Assembly costs and other measures to optimize vary just as widely. To be effective, computer-aided assembly planning systems must allow users to express the plan selection criteria that appIy to their products and production environments. We begin this article by surveying the types of user criteria, both constraints and quality measures, that have been accepted by assembly planning systems to date. The survey is organized along several dimensions, including strategic vs. tactical criteria; manufacturing requirements VS. requirements of the automated planning process itself and the information needed to assess compliance with each criterion. The latter strongly influences the efficiency of planning. We then focus on constraints. We describe a framework to support a wide variety of user constraints for intuitive and efficient assembly planning. Our framework expresses all constraints on a sequencing level, specifying orders and conditions on part mating operations in a number of ways. Constraints are implemented as simple procedures that either accept or reject assembly operations proposed by the planner. For efficiency, some constraints are supplemented with special-purpose modifications to the planner's algorithms. Fast replanning enables an interactive plan-view-constrain-replan cycle that aids in constraint discovery and documentation. We describe an implementation of the framework in a computer-aided assembly planning system and experiments applying the system to a number of complex assemblies, including one with 472 parts.

  13. Observational Constraints on Terpene Oxidation with and without Anthropogenic Influence in the Amazon using Speciated Measurements from SV-TAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, L.; Isaacman, G. A.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Liu, Y.; McKinney, K. A.; de Sá, S. S.; Martin, S. T.; Alexander, M. L.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Viegas, J.; Springston, S. R.; Wurm, F.; Ferreira De Brito, J.; Artaxo, P.; Manzi, A. O.; Machado, L.; Longo, K.; Oliveira, M. B.; Souza, R. A. F. D.; Hering, S. V.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the Amazon forest represent the largest regional source of organic carbon emissions to the atmosphere. These BVOC emissions dominantly consist of volatile and semi-volatile terpenoid compounds that undergo chemical transformations in the atmosphere to form oxygenated condensable gases and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, the oxidation pathways of these compounds are still not well understood, and are expected to differ significantly between "pristine" conditions, as is common in Amazonia, and polluted conditions caused by emissions from growing cities. Our focus is to elucidate how anthropogenic emissions influence BVOC chemistry and BSOA formation through speciated measurements of their oxidation products. We have deployed the Semi-Volatile Thermal desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph (SV-TAG) at the rural T3 site located west of the urban center of Manaus, Brazil as part of the Green Ocean Amazon (GoAmazon) 2014 field campaign to measure hourly concentrations of semi-volatile BVOCs and their oxidation products during the wet and dry seasons. Primary BVOC concentrations measured by the SV-TAG include sesquiterpenes and diterpenes, which have rarely been speciated with high time-resolution. We observe sesquiterpenes to be anti-correlated with ozone, indicative of sesquiterpene oxidation playing a major role in the regional oxidant budget. The role of sesquiterpenes in atmospheric SOA formation are of interest due to their high aerosol yields and high reactivity with ozone, relative to more commonly measured BVOCs (e.g. monoterpenes). We explore relative concentrations of sesquiterpenes and monoterpenes and their roles as precursors to SOA formation by combining SV-TAG measurements with those from an additional suite of VOC and particle measurements deployed in the Amazon. We also report the first ever hourly observations of the gas-particle partitioning of speciated terpene oxidation products in the Amazon

  14. Measurements of electroweak [Formula: see text] production and constraints on anomalous gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spieker, T M; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Stark, S H; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Stärz, S; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Suruliz, K; Suster, C J E; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Swift, S P; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanioka, R; Tannenwald, B B; Araya, S Tapia; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Tavares Delgado, A; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temple, D; Kate, H Ten; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Tibbetts, M J; Ticse Torres, R E; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Tornambe, P; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Treado, C J; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsang, K W; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tu, Y; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tulbure, T T; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turgeman, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Usui, J; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Valdes Santurio, E; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valéry, L; Valkar, S; Vallier, A; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Den Wollenberg, W; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varni, C; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vasquez, G A; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Veatch, J; Veeraraghavan, V; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vetterli, M C; Maira, N Viaux; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vishwakarma, A; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, Q; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, W; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, A F; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Weber, S A; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M D; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wobisch, M; Wolf, T M H; Wolff, R; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Worm, S D; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xi, Z; Xia, L; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Yau Wong, K H; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zacharis, G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zou, R; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of the electroweak production of a W boson in association with two jets at high dijet invariant mass are performed using [Formula: see text] 7 and 8 [Formula: see text] proton-proton collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding respectively to 4.7 and 20.2 fb[Formula: see text] of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector. The measurements are sensitive to the production of a W boson via a triple-gauge-boson vertex and include both the fiducial and differential cross sections of the electroweak process.

  15. arXiv Measurements of electroweak $Wjj$ production and constraints on anomalous gauge couplings with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; ATLAS Collaboration; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Abidi, Syed Haider; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adersberger, Michael; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agheorghiesei, Catalin; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akatsuka, Shunichi; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antrim, Daniel Joseph; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Araujo Ferraz, Victor; Arce, Ayana; Ardell, Rose Elisabeth; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Baines, John; Bajic, Milena; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beermann, Thomas; Begalli, Marcia; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal

    2017-07-17

    Measurements of the electroweak production of a $W$ boson in association with two jets at high dijet invariant mass are performed using $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ and $8$ TeV proton--proton collision data produced by the Large Hadron Collider, corresponding respectively to 4.7 and 20.2 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected by the ATLAS detector. The measurements are sensitive to the production of a $W$ boson via a triple-gauge-boson vertex and include both the fiducial and differential cross sections of the electroweak process.

  16. Adjustment and Optimization of the Cropping Systems under Water Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingli An

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The water constraint on agricultural production receives growing concern with the increasingly sharp contradiction between demand and supply of water resources. How to mitigate and adapt to potential water constraint is one of the key issues for ensuring food security and achieving sustainable agriculture in the context of climate change. It has been suggested that adjustment and optimization of cropping systems could be an effective measure to improve water management and ensure food security. However, a knowledge gap still exists in how to quantify potential water constraint and how to select appropriate cropping systems. Here, we proposed a concept of water constraint risk and developed an approach for the evaluation of the water constraint risks for agricultural production by performing a case study in Daxing District, Beijing, China. The results show that, over the whole growth period, the order of the water constraint risks of crops from high to low was wheat, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, summer soybean, summer peanut, spring corn, and summer corn, and the order of the water constraint risks of the cropping systems from high to low was winter wheat-summer grain crops, rice, broomcorn, foxtail millet, and spring corn. Our results are consistent with the actual evolving process of cropping system. This indicates that our proposed method is practicable to adjust and optimize the cropping systems to mitigate and adapt to potential water risks. This study provides an insight into the adjustment and optimization of cropping systems under resource constraints.

  17. Spatial Constraints of Slovenian Farms: What Does Urbanization Have to Do with It?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visković Nika Razpotnik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial constraints of farms in Slovenia have never been systematically studied before; however, this is an important developmental aspect of agriculture, as stated by experts in spatial planning, agricultural economics, and geography. This article presents the concept of farms’ spatial constraints within settlements and their effect on farms’ development potential, proposes a methodological framework for measuring them, and reveals the relation between farms’ spatial constraints and urbanization.

  18. Computationally Tractable Counterparts of Distributionally Robust Constraints on Risk Measures (revision of CentER DP 2014-031)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, K.S.; den Hertog, D.; Melenberg, B.

    2015-01-01

    In optimization problems appearing in fields such as economics, finance, or engineering, it is often important that a risk measure of a decision-dependent random variable stays below a prescribed level. At the same time, the underlying probability distribution determining the risk measure’s value is

  19. Measuring the Statutory and Regulatory Constraints on DoD Acquisition: Research Design for an Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    production, fielding, modification, Definitions and Descriptions of Activities Under the Five Areas 91 postproduction management, and other...provides a master schedule for research, development, test, production, fielding, modifica- tion, postproduction management, and other activities

  20. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia;

    2016-01-01

    interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design......-taking, sequencing of conversation, repair strategies and procedures. Originality/value: This is the first study proposing a systematic measurement of the dialogue orientation of online conversations that takes into consideration the role of language and communicative actions. The proposed measurement offers...

  1. The constraint of CO2 measurements made onboard passenger aircraft on surface-atmosphere fluxes: the impact of transport model errors in vertical mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shreeya; Marshall, Julia; Gerbig, Christoph; Rödenbeck, Christian; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2017-05-01

    Inaccurate representation of atmospheric processes by transport models is a dominant source of uncertainty in inverse analyses and can lead to large discrepancies in the retrieved flux estimates. We investigate the impact of uncertainties in vertical transport as simulated by atmospheric transport models on fluxes retrieved using vertical profiles from aircraft as an observational constraint. Our numerical experiments are based on synthetic data with realistic spatial and temporal sampling of aircraft measurements. The impact of such uncertainties on the flux retrieved using the ground-based network and those retrieved using the aircraft profiles are compared. We find that the posterior flux retrieved using aircraft profiles is less susceptible to errors in boundary layer height, compared to the ground-based network. This finding highlights a benefit of utilizing atmospheric observations made onboard aircraft over surface measurements for flux estimation using inverse methods. We further use synthetic vertical profiles of CO2 in an inversion to estimate the potential of these measurements, which will be made available through the IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) project in the future, in constraining the regional carbon budget. Our results show that the regions of tropical Africa and temperate Eurasia, that are under-constrained by the existing surface-based network, will benefit the most from these measurements, with a reduction of posterior flux uncertainty of about 7 to 10 %.

  2. Measurement of the pp→ZZ production cross section and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings in four-lepton final states at s=8 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Khachatryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the inclusive ZZ production cross section and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings in proton–proton collisions at s=8 TeV are presented. The analysis is based on a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb−1, collected with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurements are performed in the leptonic decay modes ZZ→ℓℓℓ′ℓ′, where ℓ=e,μ and ℓ′=e,μ,τ. The measured total cross section σ(pp→ZZ=7.7±0.5 (stat−0.4+0.5 (syst±0.4(theo±0.2 (lumi pb, for both Z bosons produced in the mass range 60measured and well described by the theoretical predictions. The invariant mass distribution of the four-lepton system is used to set limits on anomalous ZZZ and ZZγ couplings at the 95% confidence level: −0.004

  3. EBL Constraints Using a Sample of TeV Gamma-Ray Emitters Measured with the MAGIC Telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Mazin, D; Ramazani, V Fallah; Hassan, T; Moralejo, A; Rosillo, M Nievas; Vanzo, G; Acosta, M Vázquez

    2016-01-01

    MAGIC is a stereoscopic system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes operating in the very high energy (VHE) range from about 50 GeV to over 50 TeV. The VHE gamma-ray spectra measured at Earth carry an imprint of the extragalactic background light (EBL) and can be used to study the EBL density and its evolution in time. In the last few years, precision measurements of several blazars in the redshift range from z=0.03 up to z=0.9 were performed with MAGIC obtaining strong limits on the EBL density from single sources. In this paper, we present the results from a combined likelihood analysis using this broad redshift range sample of blazars allowing us to probe the EBL at different wavelengths. The implications on the EBL models and perspectives for future observations with MAGIC are also discussed.

  4. EBL constraints using a sample of TeV gamma-ray emitters measured with the MAGIC telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, D.; Domínguez, A.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Hassan, T.; Moralejo, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Vanzo, G.; Vázquez Acosta, M.

    2017-01-01

    MAGIC is a stereoscopic system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes operating in the very high energy (VHE) range from about 50 GeV to over 50 TeV. The VHE gamma-ray spectra measured at Earth carry an imprint of the extra-galactic background light (EBL) and can be used to study the EBL density and its evolution in time. In the last few years, precision measurements of several blazars in the redshift range from z=0.03 up to z=0.9 were performed with MAGIC obtaining strong limits on the EBL density from single sources. In this paper, we present the results from a combined likelihood analysis using this broad redshift range sample of blazars allowing us to probe the EBL at different wavelengths. The implications on the EBL models and perspectives for future observations with MAGIC are also discussed.

  5. Study on decision making of ecological environment protection and sustainable development based on measurement and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-fang; Niu, Ji-qiang; Hu, Chang-jie; Liu, Yao-lin; Nong, Yu; Wei, Li-jun

    2008-10-01

    The key problem for implementation of the sustainable development is to design the strategy and policy which incorporates the environmental impacts. This paper puts forward a new model about decision making of ecological environment protection and sustainable development based on estimating and assessment. The environmental carrying capacity and developing intensity of studied area are analyzed, the ecological security and the level of sustainable development are evaluated, and also the constraints are discussed. According to this analysis, the range of Lichuan is divided into four regions. On the foundation of distinctive characteristics of each area, the designation of the industrial development and environment protection have been ensured; after that, the environmental impact of the given strategies has been identified and predicted; finally, several mitigation measures are suggested.

  6. Measurement of Z-pair production in $e^+e^−$ collisions and constraints on anomalous neutral gauge couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Schael, S; Brunelière, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Trocmé, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Barklow, T; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, L; Schlatter, D; Teubert, F; Valassi, A; Videau, I; Badaud, F; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Fayolle, D; Gay, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Kraan, A C; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, E; Vayaki, A; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F; Rougé, A; Videau, H; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Cerutti, F; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Kennedy, J; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S; Cavanaugh, R; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Cameron, W; Davies, G; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Marinelli, N; Nowell, J; Rutherford, S A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; White, R; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Clarke, D P; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Sloan, T; Smizanska, M; van der Aa, O; Delaere, C; Leibenguth, G; Lemaître, V; Blumenschein, U; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kayser, F; Müller, A S; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Payre, P; Tilquin, A; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, R; Villegas, M; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Sguazzoni, G; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Awunor, O; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; García-Bellido, A; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Ward, J J; Bloch-Devaux, B; Boumediene, D; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, C; Hess, J; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Borean, C; Giannini, G; He, H; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A, III; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Dissertori, G

    2009-01-01

    The ZZ production cross section is measured from a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 452 pb−1, collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies from 192 to 209 GeV. Individual cross sections, extracted at six centre-of-mass energies, are found to be in agreement with Standard Model calculations. The results are used to set limits on anomalous neutral gauge couplings.

  7. Lowermost mantle anisotropy near the eastern edge of the Pacific LLSVP: constraints from SKS-SKKS splitting intensity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jie; Long, Maureen D.; Creasy, Neala; Wagner, Lara; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George; Tavera, Hernando; Minaya, Estela

    2017-08-01

    Seismic anisotropy has been documented in many portions of the lowermost mantle, with particularly strong anisotropy thought to be present along the edges of large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). The region surrounding the Pacific LLSVP, however, has not yet been studied extensively in terms of its anisotropic structure. In this study, we use seismic data from southern Peru, northern Bolivia and Easter Island to probe lowermost mantle anisotropy beneath the eastern Pacific Ocean, mostly relying on data from the Peru Lithosphere and Slab Experiment and Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography experiments. Differential shear wave splitting measurements from phases that have similar ray paths in the upper mantle but different ray paths in the lowermost mantle, such as SKS and SKKS, are used to constrain anisotropy in D″. We measured splitting for 215 same station-event SKS-SKKS pairs that sample the eastern Pacific LLSVP at the base of the mantle. We used measurements of splitting intensity(SI), a measure of the amount of energy on the transverse component, to objectively and quantitatively analyse any discrepancies between SKS and SKKS phases. While the overall splitting signal is dominated by the upper-mantle anisotropy, a minority of SKS-SKKS pairs (˜10 per cent) exhibit strongly discrepant splitting between the phases (i.e. the waveforms require a difference in SI of at least 0.4), indicating a likely contribution from lowermost mantle anisotropy. In order to enhance lower mantle signals, we also stacked waveforms within individual subregions and applied a waveform differencing technique to isolate the signal from the lowermost mantle. Our stacking procedure yields evidence for substantial splitting due to lowermost mantle anisotropy only for a specific region that likely straddles the edge of Pacific LLSVP. Our observations are consistent with the localization of deformation and anisotropy near the eastern boundary of the Pacific LLSVP

  8. Development of limb volume measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, P. K.; Kadaba, P. K.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the reductions in orthostatic tolerance associated with weightlessness are not well established. Contradictory results from measurements of leg volume changes suggest that altered venomotor tone and reduced blood flow may not be the only contributors to orthostatic intolerance. It is felt that a more accurate limb volume system which is insensitive to environmental factors will aid in better quantification of the hemodynamics of the leg. Of the varous limb volume techniques presently available, the ultrasonic limb volume system has proven to be the best choice. The system as described herein is free from environmental effects, safe, simple to operate and causes negligible radio frequency interference problems. The segmental ultrasonic ultrasonic plethysmograph is expected to provide a better measurement of limb volume change since it is based on cross-sectional area measurements.

  9. Constraints on JN2O5 from balloon-borne limb scanning measurements of NO2 in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritten, Lena; Butz, Andre; Deutschmann, Tim; Dorf, Marcel; Kreycy, Sebastian; Prados-Roman, Cristina; Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    The NOx ozone cycle (NOx = NO + NO2) is of great importance for the budget of stratospheric ozone and in future may even become more important due to increasing stratospheric N2O concentrations (Ravishankara et al., 2009). A regulating process for the amount of stratospheric NOx and thus for the efficiency of the NOx mediated ozone loss cycle is photolytic release of N2O5 at daytime since N2O5 acts as a nighttime reservoir gas for stratospheric NOx radicals. Observations of UV/vis scattered skylight by balloon-borne limb scanning spectrometry support the detection of time dependent trace gas and radical profiles, in particular of NO2. Here we present balloon borne measurements of time dependent NO2 profiles from the tropical stratosphere - taken at north-eastern Brazil (5° S, 43° W) in June 2005 - where excess stratospheric ozone is produced and transported to higher latitudes by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. The photolysis rate of N2O5 - uncertain by a factor of 2 (JPL-2006) - is constrained from the comparison of the measured and modelled diurnal variation of NO2. For the photochemical model initial conditions are based on our own observations of O3 and NO2, MIPAS-B measurements and on output of the 3-D SLIMCAT model. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and absorption cross-sections are taken from the JPL-2006 compilation (Sander et. al, 2006). Overall it is found that, the observed rate of diurnal NO2 increase requires a N2O5 photolysis frequency at the upper limit of values possible according to the uncertainty range given by the JPL-2006 compilation. In conclusion it suggested that the NOx mediated ozone loss in the tropical stratosphere is probably larger than assumed by many photochemical models, and in future may even relatively become more important.

  10. Development and Measurement of Preschoolers' Quantitative Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, David C.

    2015-01-01

    The collection of studies in this special issue make an important contribution to our understanding and measurement of the core cognitive and noncognitive factors that influence children's emerging quantitative competencies. The studies also illustrate how the field has matured, from a time when the quantitative competencies of infants and young…

  11. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  12. Strategic Performance Measurement of Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The paper used an in depth case study to investigate how firms can integrate the strategic performance measurement of R&D with the Balanced Scorecard. Moreover, the paper investigated the crucial role of controller in the decision making process of this integration.The literature review of R&D ma...

  13. Measuring Social Capital Accumulation in Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teilmann, Kasper

    2012-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework, the study proposes an index that can measure the social capital of local action group (LAG) projects. The index is founded on four indicators: number of ties, bridging social capital, recognition, and diversity, which are aggregated into one social capital index. The index has been tested in LAG-Djursland, Denmark,…

  14. Rolling Resistance Measurement and Model Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lasse Grinderslev; Larsen, Jesper; Fraser, Elsje Sophia;

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased focus worldwide on understanding and modeling rolling resistance because reducing the rolling resistance by just a few percent will lead to substantial energy savings. This paper reviews the state of the art of rolling resistance research, focusing on measuring techniques, s......, surface and texture modeling, contact models, tire models, and macro-modeling of rolling resistance...

  15. High-throughput measurement methodologies for developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Journal Home > Vol 17, No 2 (2017) > ... When analyzing the minerals Fe and Zn, these same techniques are not suitable, but it is still important to ensure careful sample ...

  16. Cosmological constraints from measurements of type Ia supernovae discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Scolnic, D.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S.; Brout, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Czekala, I.; Drout, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Huber, M. E.; Tonry, J. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Narayan, G. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Smartt, S. J. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT71NN (United Kingdom); Schlafly, E. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Botticella, M. T. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Salita Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); and others

    2014-11-01

    We present griz {sub P1} light curves of 146 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; 0.03 < z < 0.65) discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The Pan-STARRS1 natural photometric system is determined by a combination of on-site measurements of the instrument response function and observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. We find that the systematic uncertainties in the photometric system are currently 1.2% without accounting for the uncertainty in the Hubble Space Telescope Calspec definition of the AB system. A Hubble diagram is constructed with a subset of 113 out of 146 SNe Ia that pass our light curve quality cuts. The cosmological fit to 310 SNe Ia (113 PS1 SNe Ia + 222 light curves from 197 low-z SNe Ia), using only supernovae (SNe) and assuming a constant dark energy equation of state and flatness, yields w=−1.120{sub −0.206}{sup +0.360}(Stat){sub −0.291}{sup +0.269}(Sys). When combined with BAO+CMB(Planck)+H {sub 0}, the analysis yields Ω{sub M}=0.280{sub −0.012}{sup +0.013} and w=−1.166{sub −0.069}{sup +0.072} including all identified systematics. The value of w is inconsistent with the cosmological constant value of –1 at the 2.3σ level. Tension endures after removing either the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) or the H {sub 0} constraint, though it is strongest when including the H {sub 0} constraint. If we include WMAP9 cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints instead of those from Planck, we find w=−1.124{sub −0.065}{sup +0.083}, which diminishes the discord to <2σ. We cannot conclude whether the tension with flat ΛCDM is a feature of dark energy, new physics, or a combination of chance and systematic errors. The full Pan-STARRS1 SN sample with ∼three times as many SNe should provide more conclusive results.

  17. Developing integrated benchmarks for DOE performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barancik, J.I.; Kramer, C.F.; Thode, Jr. H.C.

    1992-09-30

    The objectives of this task were to describe and evaluate selected existing sources of information on occupational safety and health with emphasis on hazard and exposure assessment, abatement, training, reporting, and control identifying for exposure and outcome in preparation for developing DOE performance benchmarks. Existing resources and methodologies were assessed for their potential use as practical performance benchmarks. Strengths and limitations of current data resources were identified. Guidelines were outlined for developing new or improved performance factors, which then could become the basis for selecting performance benchmarks. Data bases for non-DOE comparison populations were identified so that DOE performance could be assessed relative to non-DOE occupational and industrial groups. Systems approaches were described which can be used to link hazards and exposure, event occurrence, and adverse outcome factors, as needed to generate valid, reliable, and predictive performance benchmarks. Data bases were identified which contain information relevant to one or more performance assessment categories . A list of 72 potential performance benchmarks was prepared to illustrate the kinds of information that can be produced through a benchmark development program. Current information resources which may be used to develop potential performance benchmarks are limited. There is need to develop an occupational safety and health information and data system in DOE, which is capable of incorporating demonstrated and documented performance benchmarks prior to, or concurrent with the development of hardware and software. A key to the success of this systems approach is rigorous development and demonstration of performance benchmark equivalents to users of such data before system hardware and software commitments are institutionalized.

  18. Constraints on the CMB Temperature Evolution using Multi-Band Measurements of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect with the South Pole Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Saro, A; Mohr, J J; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Bocquet, S; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Chiu, I; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dietrich, J P; Dobbs, M A; Dolag, K; Dudley, J P; Foley, R J; Gangkofner, D; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Hennig, C; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Keisler, R; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McDonald, M; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Mocanu, L; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Nurgaliev, D; Padin, S; Patej, A; Pryke, C; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Ruel, J; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

    2013-01-01

    The adiabatic evolution of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a key prediction of standard cosmology. We study deviations from the expected adiabatic evolution of the CMB temperature of the form $T(z) =T_0(1+z)^{1-\\alpha}$ using measurements of the spectrum of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich Effect with the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We present a method for using the ratio of the Sunyaev Zel'dovich signal measured at 95 and 150 GHz in the SPT data to constrain the temperature of the CMB. We demonstrate that this approach provides unbiased results using mock observations of clusters from a new set of hydrodynamical simulations. We apply this method to a sample of 158 SPT-selected clusters, spanning the redshift range $0.05 < z < 1.35$, and measure $\\alpha = 0.017^{+0.030}_{-0.028}$, consistent with the standard model prediction of $\\alpha=0$. In combination with other published results, we constrain $\\alpha = 0.011 \\pm 0.016$, an improvement of $\\sim 20\\%$ over published constraints. Thi...

  19. Interior channels in Martian valleys: Constraints on fluvial erosion by measurements of the Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Frei, S.; Neukum, G.; Scholten, F.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Mertens, V.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Head, J. W.; Hiesinger, H.; Carr, M. H.

    2005-08-01

    In High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) images of the Mars Express Mission a 130 km long interior channel is identified within a 400 km long valley network system located in the Lybia Montes. Ages of the valley floor and the surroundings as derived from crater counts define a period of ~350 Myrs during which the valley might have been formed. Based on HRSC stereo measurements the discharge of the interior channel is estimated at ~4800 m3/s, corresponding to a runoff production rate of ~1 cm/day. Mass balances indicate erosion rates of a few cm/year implying the erosion activity in the valley to a few thousand years for continuous flow, or one or more orders of magnitude longer time spans for more intermittent flows. Therefore, during the Hesperian, relatively brief but recurring episodes of erosion intervals are more likely than sustained flow.

  20. Strategic Performance Measurement of Research and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parisi, Cristiana; Rossi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    &D management evidenced the limits of Balanced Scorecard to manage and monitor the R&D activities. Therefore, the firms have to create a specific performance measurement system and to link it with the macroindicators of Balanced Scorecard. The controller has a central role in the selection of non...... and in the organizational learning process connected to the feedbackprocess. The study offers an example of integration of R&D performance management with Balanced Scorecard and it contributes to the literature review about the role of controller in a complex system control environment.......The paper used an in depth case study to investigate how firms can integrate the strategic performance measurement of R&D with the Balanced Scorecard. Moreover, the paper investigated the crucial role of controller in the decision making process of this integration.The literature review of R...

  1. REDUCTION OF CONSTRAINTS FOR COUPLED OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.

    2009-12-15

    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% ({Sigma}M{sub 2}O < 19.3 wt%), or (2) adjust the lower limit on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} constraint to 4 wt% (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sum of

  2. REDUCTION OF CONSTRAINTS FOR COUPLED OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.

    2009-12-15

    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% ({Sigma}M{sub 2}O < 19.3 wt%), or (2) adjust the lower limit on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} constraint to 4 wt% (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sum of

  3. Measurement of CP observables in B__ ->D_CPK__ decays and constraints on the CKM angle gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Amo Sanchez, P.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Palano, A.; /Bari U. /Bari U.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Hooberman, B.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; Tanabe, T.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Indian Inst. Tech., Guwahati /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa State U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Paris U., VI-VII /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Southern Methodist U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2010-08-25

    Using the entire sample of 467 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B factory at SLAC, we perform a 'GLW' analysis of B{sup {+-}} {yields} D{sup {+-}} decays, using decay modes in which the neutral D meson decays to either CP-eigenstates or non-CP-eigenstates. We measure the partial decay rate charge asymmetries for CP-even and CP-odd D final states to be A{sub CP+} = 0.25 {+-} 0.06 {+-} 0.02 and A{sub CP-} = -0.09 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.02, respectively, where the first error is the statistical and the second is the systematic uncertainty. The parameter A{sub CP+} is different from zero with a significance of 3.6 standard deviations, constituting evidence for direct CP violation. We also measure the ratios of the charged-averaged B partial decay rates in CP and non-CP decays, R{sub CP+} = 1.18 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.05 and R{sub CP-} = 1.07 {+-} 0.08 {+-} 0.04. We infer frequentist confidence intervals for the angle {gamma} of the (db) unitarity triangle, for the strong phase difference {delta}{sub B}, and for the amplitude ratio r{sub B}, which are related to the B{sup -} {yields} D{sup -} decay amplitude by r{sub B}e{sup i({delta}{sub b-{gamma}})} = A(B{sup -} {yields} {bar D}{sup 0}K{sup -})/A(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}K{sup 0-}). Including statistical and systematic uncertainties, they obtain 0.24 < r{sub B} < 0.45 (0.06 < r{sub B} < 0.51) and, modulo 180{sup o}, 11.3{sup o} < {gamma} < 22.7{sup o} or 80.9{sup o} < {gamma} < 99.1{sup o} or 157.3{sup o} < {gamma} 168.7{sup o} (7.0{sup o} < {gamma} < 173.0{sup o}) at the 68% (95%) confidence level.

  4. Topology Optimization with Stress Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbart, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis contains contributions to the development of topology optimization techniques capable of handling stress constraints. The research that led to these contributions was motivated by the need for topology optimization techniques more suitable for industrial applications. Currently, topolo

  5. Ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 25 April, 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal: Constraints from GPS TEC measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine, J. K.; Uma Maheshwari, D.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Roy, P. N. S.; Khan, P. K.; Puviarasan, N.

    2017-01-01

    The ionosphere response to the April 11, 2015 (Mw 7.8) Gorkha earthquake, occurring in the Himalayan arc, is analysed using GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements, from GPS sites in Nepal and India, situated both close to and far from the epicentre. In the near field, the Coseismic Ionospheric disturbance (CID) following the earthquake rupture propagation arrive east of the epicentre, within 5-7 min with a propagation velocity of 980 m/s, equal to the speed of the shock acoustic waves at the ionospheric heights, and on to the west with a reduced speed of 650 m/s, within 8-11 min, after the earthquake occurrence. The phenomenon of CID splitting into two modes, east and west of the epicentre is observed. In the far-field region, up to epicentral distances of 2200 km, Rayleigh wave induced ionospheric disturbance are recorded with a propagation speed of 2.6 km/s. Higher TEC amplitude of 0.2-1.5 TECU is observed east of the epicentre compared to the west with 0.1-0.3 TECU. The characteristics of this dip-slip earthquake are well projected in the TEC waveforms. The ambient magnetic field in the mid-latitudes prohibited the propagation of ionospheric disturbance in the northward direction. In the present study the observed primary CID is essentially in congruence with the rupture propagation of the earthquake in E-SE direction.

  6. Development of radiation detection and measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, B. S.; Ham, C. S.; Chung, C. E. and others

    2000-03-01

    This report contains descriptions on the following six items. The first item is the result of a study on CsI(TI) crystals with their light emitting characteristics and the result of a study on plastic scintillators. The second item is the result of a study on advanced radiation detectors and includes experiments for the effect of using a Compton suppressor with an HPGe detector. For the third item, we describe the results of a design work done using EGS4 for a thickness gauge, a density gauge, and a level gauge. The fourth item contains descriptions on the prototype circuit systems developed for a level gauge, a thickness gauge, and for a survey meter. The fifth part contains the computed tomography algorithm and a prototype scanning system developed for a CT system. As the sixth and the last item, we describe the prototype high precision heat source and the prototype heat-voltage converter which we have designed and fabricated.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF PETROLUEM RESIDUA SOLUBILITY MEASUREMENT METHODOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Per Redelius

    2006-03-01

    In the present study an existing spectrophotometry system was upgraded to provide high-resolution ultraviolet (UV), visible (Vis), and near infrared (NIR) analyses of test solutions to measure the relative solubilities of petroleum residua dissolved in eighteen test solvents. Test solutions were prepared by dissolving ten percent petroleum residue in a given test solvent, agitating the mixture, followed by filtration and/or centrifugation to remove insoluble materials. These solutions were finally diluted with a good solvent resulting in a supernatant solution that was analyzed by spectrophotometry to quantify the degree of dissolution of a particular residue in the suite of test solvents that were selected. Results obtained from this approach were compared with spot-test data (to be discussed) obtained from the cosponsor.

  8. The constraints to the economic development in the former socialist EU countries from the Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dinu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last 25 years, most Central and Eastern European states have become detached from the centralized economy system thus demonstrating the reliability of the market economy. The unequivocal effect of the free market, with ups and downs, forces researchers to undertake increasingly complex economic analysis and further the profile of the new economy. With the accession of a number of countries from this region to the European Union there were some constraints and limitations in adopting the European acquis, whose knowledge and solution involves the use of specific policies and tools. We consider the problems related to the resolution of economic, social and technological discrepancies and gaps, of mitigating the negative impact of unfavourable demographic trends, of elucidating the role of the state amid the erosion of its duties due to the process of integration and globalization, of increasing pressure interdependencies interstate and others.

  9. Expressing Preferences using Preference Set Constraint Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Brik, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an extension of Answer Set Programming called Preference Set Constraint Programming which is a convenient and general formalism to reason with preferences. PSC programming extends Set Constraint Programming introduced by Marek and Remmel (Marek and Remmel 2004) by introducing two types of preference set constraint atoms, measure preference set constraint atoms and pre-ordered preference set constraint atoms, which are extensions of set constraint atoms. We show that the question of whether a PSC program has a preferred stable model is CoNP-complete. We give examples of the uses of the preference set constraint atoms and show that Answer Set Optimization (Brewka, Niemel\\"a, and Truszczynski 2003) and General Preference (Son and Pontelli 2006) can be expressed using preference set constraint atoms.

  10. Developing a lean measurement system to enhance process improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis P.

    2013-01-01

    drive to eradicate waste but there are numerous contextual problems with the application of the process improvement activity and its associated measurement system. The application demands of the organisation may be dependent on a number of financial and resource constraints which may introduce reasons not to apply stringent measurement methodology and practice. The failure of various process improvement activities due to poorly managed measurement activity has arguably never been comprehensively analysed. Process improvement activity theory fully embellishes the need for applied robust measurement systems, so how can process improvement and measurement be systematically aligned to gain benefits? The aim of this paper is to consider whether lean philosophies can be integrated and applied within measurement systems. The discussion seeks to identify if seven Muda exist within measurement systems and whether in doing so this will lead to benefits for process improvement activities.

  11. Developments in radiation, stimulation and observation facilities in luminescence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Andersen, C.E.; Duller, G.A.T.;

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises recent developments in the Riscircle divide TL/OSL reader. These new developments include an elevated temperature irradiation facility that has been expanded to measure variable temperature radioluminescence (RL) during beta irradiation. This RL facility allows the measurement...... facilities, and illustrates their applications with representative measurements. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Kalman Filtering with Inequality Constraints for Turbofan Engine Health Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Dan; Simon, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    Kalman filters are often used to estimate the state variables of a dynamic system. However, in the application of Kalman filters some known signal information is often either ignored or dealt with heuristically. For instance, state variable constraints (which may be based on physical considerations) are often neglected because they do not fit easily into the structure of the Kalman filter. This paper develops two analytic methods of incorporating state variable inequality constraints in the Kalman filter. The first method is a general technique of using hard constraints to enforce inequalities on the state variable estimates. The resultant filter is a combination of a standard Kalman filter and a quadratic programming problem. The second method uses soft constraints to estimate state variables that are known to vary slowly with time. (Soft constraints are constraints that are required to be approximately satisfied rather than exactly satisfied.) The incorporation of state variable constraints increases the computational effort of the filter but significantly improves its estimation accuracy. The improvement is proven theoretically and shown via simulation results. The use of the algorithm is demonstrated on a linearized simulation of a turbofan engine to estimate health parameters. The turbofan engine model contains 16 state variables, 12 measurements, and 8 component health parameters. It is shown that the new algorithms provide improved performance in this example over unconstrained Kalman filtering.

  13. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  14. Development of novel tools to measure food neophobia in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    The main tool currently used to measure food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale, FNS, developed by Pliner & Hobden, 1992) may not remain optimal forever. It was developed around 25 years ago, and the perception and availability of “novel” and “ethnic” foods may have changed in the meantime....... Consequently, there is a need for developing updated tools for measuring food neophobia....

  15. A Maximal Tractable Class of Soft Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D; Jeavons, P; Krokhin, A; 10.1613/jair.1400

    2011-01-01

    Many researchers in artificial intelligence are beginning to explore the use of soft constraints to express a set of (possibly conflicting) problem requirements. A soft constraint is a function defined on a collection of variables which associates some measure of desirability with each possible combination of values for those variables. However, the crucial question of the computational complexity of finding the optimal solution to a collection of soft constraints has so far received very little attention. In this paper we identify a class of soft binary constraints for which the problem of finding the optimal solution is tractable. In other words, we show that for any given set of such constraints, there exists a polynomial time algorithm to determine the assignment having the best overall combined measure of desirability. This tractable class includes many commonly-occurring soft constraints, such as 'as near as possible' or 'as soon as possible after', as well as crisp constraints such as 'greater than'. F...

  16. Using the American alligator and a repeated-measures design to place constraints on in vivo shoulder joint range of motion in dinosaurs and other fossil archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Joel D; Hutson, Kelda N

    2013-01-15

    Using the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs (crocodylians and birds), recent work has reported that elbow joint range of motion (ROM) studies of fossil dinosaur forearms may be providing conservative underestimates of fully fleshed in vivo ROM. As humeral ROM occupies a more central role in forelimb movements, the placement of quantitative constraints on shoulder joint ROM could improve fossil reconstructions. Here, we investigated whether soft tissues affect the more mobile shoulder joint in the same manner in which they affect elbow joint ROM in an extant archosaur. This test involved separately and repeatedly measuring humeral ROM in Alligator mississippiensis as soft tissues were dissected away in stages to bare bone. Our data show that the ROMs of humeral flexion and extension, as well as abduction and adduction, both show a statistically significant increase as flesh is removed, but then decrease when the bones must be physically articulated and moved until they separate from one another and/or visible joint surfaces. A similar ROM pattern is inferred for humeral pronation and supination. All final skeletonized ROMs were less than initial fully fleshed ROMs. These results are consistent with previously reported elbow joint ROM patterns from the extant phylogenetic bracket of dinosaurs. Thus, studies that avoid separation of complementary articular surfaces may be providing fossil shoulder joint ROMs that underestimate in vivo ROM in dinosaurs, as well as other fossil archosaurs.

  17. Stochastic Constraint Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Toby

    2009-01-01

    To model combinatorial decision problems involving uncertainty and probability, we introduce stochastic constraint programming. Stochastic constraint programs contain both decision variables (which we can set) and stochastic variables (which follow a probability distribution). They combine together the best features of traditional constraint satisfaction, stochastic integer programming, and stochastic satisfiability. We give a semantics for stochastic constraint programs, and propose a number...

  18. CONSTRAINT PROGRAMMING AND UNIVERSITY TIMETABLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.W. Groves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The technology of Constraint Programming is rapidly becoming a popular alternative for solving large-scale industry problems. This paper provides an introduction to Constraint Programming and to Constraint Logic Programming (CLP, an enabler of constraint programming. The use of Constraint Logic Programming is demonstrated by describing a system developed for scheduling university timetables. Timetabling problems have a high degree of algorithmic complexity (they are usually NP-Complete, and share features with scheduling problems encountered in industry. The system allows the declaration of both hard requirements, which must always be satisfied, and soft constraints which need not be satisfied, though this would be an advantage.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel beskryf ’n familie van probleem-oplossingstegnieke bekend as “Constraint Programming”, wat al hoe meer gebruik word om groot-skaalse industriële probleme op te los. Die nut van hierdie tegnieke word gedemonstreer deur die beskrywing van ’n skeduleringsisteem om die roosters vir ’n universiteit te genereer. Roosterskeduleringsprobleme is in praktiese gevalle NP-volledig en deel baie eienskappe met industriële skeduleringsprobleme. Die sisteem wat hier beskryf word maak gebruik van beide harde beperkings (wat altyd bevredig moet word en sagte beperkings (bevrediging hiervan is wel voordelig maar dit is opsioneel.

  19. New developments in modeling network constraints in techno-economic energy system expansion planning models. An overview of existing models and prospects for future approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, Martin; Esser-Frey, Anke; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Chair of Energy Economics; Schick, Michael; Heuveline, Vincent [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Engineering Mathematics and Computing Lab.; Leibfried, Thomas [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. of Electric Energy Systems and High-Voltage Technology

    2012-03-15

    This paper is based on Groschke et al. (Z. Energiewirtsch. 33(1):14-22 2009) and continues the description of new developments in modeling network constraints in techno-economic energy system models with a focus on capacity expansion planning and a long-term time horizon. Based on the presentation of recent and future developments in the German energy system, current challenges in energy system modeling are derived. The following analysis of the state of research reveals a lack of high-precision load flow calculation in current energy system models with a long-term time horizon. Hence, this paper presents an outlook on a new mathematical approach, which already proved as a promising method to meet the challenges identified. (orig.)

  20. Developing Quality Measures for Adult Cochlear Implant Centers: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Peter M; Lieu, Judith E C; Hullar, Timothy E; Buchman, Craig A

    2016-11-01

    The study objective was to develop quality measures for adult cochlear implant centers. A modified Delphi design beginning with focus groups of surgeons and audiologists was used, as adapted from the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association method for creating quality measures. Two academic cochlear implant programs and 1 private program participated. Qualitative focus group analysis yielded 58 candidate measures. An additional 5 candidate measures were added from a systematic review of the literature. After exclusion of pediatric measures, structure measures, and process measures and discussion of details and implications of each measure, 8 measures remained as the preliminary Adult Cochlear Implant Outcome (CI-OUTCOME) Measure Set. This study provides a preliminary set of measures for evaluating the quality of adult cochlear implant centers, based on input from implant surgeons and audiologists. The next step will be to gather feedback from implant patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  1. 75 FR 29513 - Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... expenses have an impact on poverty status. The Working Group therefore recommended that the definition of...] Developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Department of Commerce. ACTION... to request comments on the approach to developing a Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) presented in a...

  2. Constraints on Earth’s inner core composition inferred from measurements of the sound velocity of hcp-iron in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Eiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Kamada, Seiji; Takahashi, Suguru; Sakairi, Takanori; Takahata, Akihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Rei; Seto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Taku; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) is a main component of Earth’s inner core. The difference in density between hcp-Fe and the inner core in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) shows a density deficit, which implies an existence of light elements in the core. Sound velocities then provide an important constraint on the amount and kind of light elements in the core. Although seismological observations provide density–sound velocity data of Earth’s core, there are few measurements in controlled laboratory conditions for comparison. We report the compressional sound velocity (VP) of hcp-Fe up to 163 GPa and 3000 K using inelastic x-ray scattering from a laser-heated sample in a diamond anvil cell. We propose a new high-temperature Birch’s law for hcp-Fe, which gives us the VP of pure hcp-Fe up to core conditions. We find that Earth’s inner core has a 4 to 5% smaller density and a 4 to 10% smaller VP than hcp-Fe. Our results demonstrate that components other than Fe in Earth’s core are required to explain Earth’s core density and velocity deficits compared to hcp-Fe. Assuming that the temperature effects on iron alloys are the same as those on hcp-Fe, we narrow down light elements in the inner core in terms of the velocity deficit. Hydrogen is a good candidate; thus, Earth’s core may be a hidden hydrogen reservoir. Silicon and sulfur are also possible candidates and could show good agreement with PREM if we consider the presence of some melt in the inner core, anelasticity, and/or a premelting effect. PMID:26933678

  3. Phonological Constraint Induction in a Connectionist Network: Learning OCP-Place Constraints from Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderete, John; Tupper, Paul; Frisch, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem in computational language learning is that of inferring the content of well-formedness constraints from input data. In this article, we approach the constraint induction problem as the gradual adjustment of subsymbolic constraints in a connectionist network. In particular, we develop a multi-layer feed-forward network that…

  4. Folded Compact Range Development and Coherent Change Detection Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K.W.

    1995-03-01

    A novel, folded compact range configuration has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories compact range antenna and radar cross section measurement facility, operated by the Radar/Antenna Department 2343, as a means of performing indoor, environmentally-controlled, far-field simulations of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) coherent change detection (CCD) measurements. This report describes the development of the folded compact range configuration, as well as the initial set of coherent change detection measurements made with the system. These measurements have been highly successful, and have demonstrated the viability of the folded compact range concept in simulating SAR CCD measurements. It is felt that follow-on measurements have the potential of contributing significantly to the body of knowledge available to the scientific community involved in CCD image generation and processing, and that this tool will be a significant aid in the research and development of change detection methodologies.

  5. A THEORETICAL DISCUSSION ON TYPES AND MEASUREMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Classifying the types and measuring sustainable development are important contents of theoretical studies on sustainable development. Scientifically reflecting the characteristics of sustainable development and favorably classifying the types of sustainable development are the basis and objective of measuring sustainable development. By using the methods of coordinatively analyzing man-land relationship and economic analysis, especially by combining with constant elasticity of substitution (CES) production function, this paper advances average sustainable gross domestic production (ASGDP), inquires into the mutually coordinative and interdependent relationship between humane capital and natural capital in the process of sustainable development. It also sets up an index system of measuring sustainable development andatypesystemofsustainabledevelopment. then accordingto this index system, if firstly classifies the sustainable development, moderate sustainable development, and strong sustainable development, and it also discuss them theoretical significance. Secondly, it probes into the minimum cost, structure optimization and sustainable development. At last, it discuss the type classification of sustainable development on development sequence, and points out theoretically the amount of transitions among 8 basic regional sustainable development types is 56. in the process of productive expansion this transition type embodies the input increase of humane capital is greatly larger than that of natural capital. On the contrary, economized humane capital transition is a result of progressively decreasing marginal rate of technical substitution of humane capital to natural capital.

  6. Is sustainable development a motor or a constraint for the professionalization of the pearl oyster industry in Tahiti?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Valette, Hélène; Lacoste, Élise; Pérez-Agúndez, José A.; Raux, Pascal; Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila

    2016-12-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of the pearl oyster industry in French Polynesia territory. Its purpose is to examine the perceptions of the priorities for the development of this industry towards sustainable development. These perceptions were apprehended by a survey of pearl oyster farmers and other stakeholders of the sector (management authorities, scientists). After describing the methodological protocol of these investigations, it comes to confront the priorities chosen by professionals (i.e. pearl farmers) concerning sustainable development, with the perceptions of others stakeholders in the sector. Secondly it comes to build a typology of the priorities of pearl farmers concerning sustainable development. This analysis enables the assessment of the degree of convergence within the sector, which is the base material for defining a shared action plan at the territory scale. This is the first study compiling data of surveys of various professionals and stakeholders of the pearl farming industry in such a large area in French Polynesia.

  7. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  8. Development of AM 1.5 global measurement procedures and international cell measurement round robin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the capability for measurement under global irradiance spectral distribution is reported. The airmass 1.5 global measurement procedure is given. Also given is the procedure and justification for using the large area pulsed solar simulator (LAPSS). The status of the international round robin of reference cell measurements managed by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) is described.

  9. Composing constraint solvers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoeteweij, P.

    2005-01-01

    Composing constraint solvers based on tree search and constraint propagation through generic iteration leads to efficient and flexible constraint solvers. This was demonstrated using OpenSolver, an abstract branch-and-propagate tree search engine that supports a wide range of relevant solver configu

  10. Interplay between requirements, software architecture, and hardware constraints in the development of a home control user interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, M.S.; Nielsen, S.S.; Nørskov, Kim;

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new graphical user interface for a home control device for a large industrial customer. In this industrial case study, we first present our approaches to requirements engineering and to software architecture; we also describe the given hardware platform. Then we make two...

  11. Factors affecting the evolution of development strategies in parasitoid wasps: the importance of functional constraints and incorporating complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps have long been considered as model organisms for examining optimal resource allocation to different fitness functions, such as body size and development time. Unlike insect predators, which may need to consume many prey items to attain maturity, parasitoids generally rely on a

  12. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  13. Sustainable Development Indicators in Poland: Measurement and System Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urbaniec

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the strategic foundations related to the sustainable development measurement and to evaluate the current system of indicators for sustainable development monitoring in Poland. A review of mainstream literature on Sustainable Development Indicators (SDIs was conducted along with document-based descriptive analysis of secondary data and further critical literature analysis. Statistical databases have been used for the analysis. This research paper draws on several strands within the economic, social, environmental, as well as the institutional and political dimensions of sustainability measurement. The results indicate that Polish monitoring system of sustainable development is based on numerous strategic documents. There is no integrated strategy of sustainable development in Poland. The findings also suggest SDI structure has been dominated by social indicators. The evaluation of the Polish measurement system can help to find solutions that support change processes aimed at improving the implementation of sustainable development principles in policy making. This article contributes to existing literature on measurement and monitoring of sustainable development by applying SDIs in the public statistics as well as in the practices of decision making at policy level. Overall, this study extends the understanding of the importance of SDIs and implications of measurement by focusing on the importance of the sustainable development areas.

  14. Development of a transfer function method for dynamic stability measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W.

    1977-01-01

    Flutter testing method based on transfer function measurements is developed. The error statistics of several dynamic stability measurement methods are reviewed. It is shown that the transfer function measurement controls the error level by averaging the data and correlating the input and output. The method also gives a direct estimate of the error in the response measurement. An algorithm is developed for obtaining the natural frequency and damping ratio of low damped modes of the system, using integrals of the transfer function in the vicinity of a resonant peak. Guidelines are given for selecting the parameters in the transfer function measurement. Finally, the dynamic stability measurement technique is applied to data from a wind tunnel test of a proprotor and wing model.

  15. Construction of a scale for measuring development of moral judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunian, Anna Laura

    2004-04-01

    The present research is a part of a study done to develop an objective measure of the development of moral judgement according to Kohlberg's theoretical construct. The Padua Scale of Moral Judgement and the relationship between empirical data and theory are presented. The scale was constructed from responses to the Sociomoral Reflection Measure-Short Form derived from Kohlberg's Moral Judgement Interview. Reliability and validity of the new scale as well as group age and sex differences were examined.

  16. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  17. New Concepts in Instrumentation Development to Measure the Perry Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marcia

    The Perry scheme of intellectual and ethical development has become widely used in a range of academic disciplines and such areas as career training and faculty consultation. However, current measurement techniques for the scheme, whether interview format or paper and pencil measures, do not adequately address issues related to assessing cognitive…

  18. Development of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy (AMES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Helen G M; Piotrowski, Jessica T.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a new instrument to measure empathy and sympathy in adolescents that differentiates between empathy and sympathy, and balances its emphasis on affective and cognitive empathy. The psychometric properties of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy an

  19. Developing Performance Measures for Manned-Unmanned Teaming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    a new concept (Stewart, 1985; Stewart, Dohme, & Nullmeyer, 1999). For the past two decades, performance measures have been within the capabilities...that flight training grades alone may not be a valid predictor of future aviator performance in the unit. For instance, Bales, Rickus, and Ambler...Research Report 1983 Developing Performance Measures for Manned-Unmanned Teaming Skills John E. Stewart and

  20. Measuring Perceptions of Engagement in Teamwork in Youth Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…

  1. Development of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy (AMES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Helen G M; Piotrowski, Jessica T.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a new instrument to measure empathy and sympathy in adolescents that differentiates between empathy and sympathy, and balances its emphasis on affective and cognitive empathy. The psychometric properties of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy

  2. Measuring Perceptions of Engagement in Teamwork in Youth Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Melissa; Jones, Kimberly Y.

    2014-01-01

    The literature regarding teamwork has supported the idea that the key to improving team performance is to understand team processes. Early work within the realm of teamwork focused on quantifiable measures of team performance, like number of products developed. The measure of a successful team hinged on whether or not the team accomplished the end…

  3. Development of a Scale for Measuring Invasive Plant Environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Edward W.; Dozier, Hallie

    2000-01-01

    Developed an instrument to measure invasive plant environmentalism (knowledge and attitudes concerning non-native plant invasions). Scaled responses of 237 plant nursery customers to a 17-item standardized interview using the partial credit model. Results indicate that the instrument measured the construct of invasive plant environmentalism…

  4. Development of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy and Sympathy (AMES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, Helen G M; Piotrowski, Jessica T.; Valkenburg, Patti M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a new instrument to measure empathy and sympathy in adolescents that differentiates between empathy and sympathy, and balances its emphasis on affective and cognitive empathy. The psychometric properties of the Adolescent Measure of Empathy an

  5. Development of an Operationally-Oriented Measure of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    were developed to help investi- gate this possibility: 1. Are current measures consistent with Air Force doctrine and strategy? If these measures do...with disel propulsion which is a more cost efficient mode of power than their current steam turbines. In addition, they upgraded refining facilities

  6. Personal Accountability in Education: Measure Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper, three-study research project, is to establish and validate a two-dimensional scale to measure teachers' and school administrators' accountability disposition. Design/methodology/approach: The scale items were developed in focus groups, and the final measure was tested on various samples of Israeli teachers and…

  7. Development of a New Measurement Tool for Individualism and Collectivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    A new measurement tool for individualism and collectivism has been developed to address critical methodological issues in this field of social psychology. This new measure, the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale (AICS), defines three dimensions of individualism: (a) responsibility (acknowledging one's responsibility for one's actions),…

  8. Behavioral constraints in the development of neuronal properties: a cortical model embedded in a real-world device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almássy, N; Edelman, G M; Sporns, O

    1998-06-01

    The ability of organisms to categorize diverse and often novel stimuli depends on ongoing interactions with their environment. In a modality such as vision, categorization requires the generation of both selective and invariant responses of cortical neurons to complex visual stimuli. How does behavior contribute to shaping the responses of these neurons? Analysis of this question is made difficult by the complex multilevel interactions between many neural and behavioral variables. To mitigate this difficulty, we studied the development and ongoing plasticity of pattern-selective neuronal responses by means of synthetic neural modeling. For this purpose, we constructed Darwin V, which consists of a simulated neuronal model embedded in a real-world device that is capable of motion and autonomous behavior. The neuronal model consists of four major components: a visual system (containing cortical and subcortical networks); a taste system based on conductance; sets of motor neurons capable of triggering behavior; and a diffuse ascending (value) system. The modeled visual cortex consists of two areas: a topographic map responsive to elementary features connected to a higher-order map composed of initially non-selective neuronal units. During behavior over time in its environment, Darwin V encounters numerous objects consisting of black metal cubes displaying different patterns of white blobs and stripes. Initially, the lack of specific higher-order visual responses does not allow visual pattern discrimination, and appetitive and aversive behaviors are triggered by the 'taste' (surface conductivity of objects) alone. In the course of sensory experience, however, changes occur in visual and sensorimotor connection strengths, with two major consequences. First, units within the higher visual area acquire responses that are both pattern selective and translation invariant. Second, as a result of the operation of the value system, these responses become linked to appropriate

  9. Constraint-induced movement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Banzi, Rita;

    2014-01-01

    on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included in a Cochrane systematic review on the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for stroke patients. METHODS: We extracted data on the functional independence measure (FIM) and the action research arm test (ARAT) from RCTs that compared CIMT...

  10. WAYS TO OVERCOME THE CONSTRAINTS THROUGH STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT OF SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR FINANCING SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina ULIAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic and financial situation of economic agents is a prerequisite. An economy is stable when things are balanced and in particular the financial situation of economic operators is thriving. In a modern, progressive business environment focuses the blanket of society and the regulator should be allowed to fully use the potential of knowledge, skills and initiatives. Competitiveness of small and medium enterprises consists primarily in removing the factors that constitute the greatest obstacle to the development of small enterprises then in the design and drawing directions, which would contribute to unlocking the potential of small businesses and strengthen their market positions.

  11. Development of Stretched wire measurement bench at IDDL, DAVV Indore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlot, Mona; Mishra, G.

    2016-10-01

    A stretched wire magnetic measurement bench is under development at IDDL, DAVV, Indore. In this method a multistrend wire consisting of N turns is stretched inside the undulator to measure the field integrals of the undulators. The wire moved with constant velocity of translation measures the first integral of the undulator field. The cross motion of the wire at the undulator ends measures the second field integral. The measurement accuracy depends on the wire conditions and material properties. In this paper we follow an analytical approach to find the voltage fluctuations due to wire vibrations during the field measurement. It is shown that the voltage fluctuations depend on undulator gap, magnitude of the impulse on the wire. The mass density and the length of the wire also cause sizeable voltage fluctuations. The analytical derived expression is analysed to optimize system parameters for minimum errors during the measurement.

  12. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5170738.

  13. Measuring Teachers' Knowledge of Vocabulary Development and Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguay, Annie; Kenyon, Dorry; Haynes, Erin; August, Diane; Yanosky, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to measure teachers' knowledge of vocabulary development and instruction, the Teacher Knowledge of Vocabulary Survey (TKVS). This type of knowledge has become increasingly important as all classroom teachers are expected to help students meet language and literacy standards that include…

  14. Developing Benchmarks to Measure Teacher Candidates' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Laura Corbin; Brown-Hobbs, Stacy; Palmer, Barbara Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the development of teacher candidate benchmarks at one liberal arts institution. Begun as a classroom assessment activity over ten years ago, the benchmarks, through collaboration with professional development school partners, now serve as a primary measure of teacher candidates' performance in the final phases of the…

  15. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  16. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  17. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  18. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Frans; Sartas, Murat; van Schagen, Boudy; van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their ‘capacity to innovate’ and contribute to the ‘scaling of innovations’. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts. PMID:28166226

  19. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Frans; Sartas, Murat; van Schagen, Boudy; van Asten, Piet; Schut, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their 'capacity to innovate' and contribute to the 'scaling of innovations'. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts.

  20. [Development of performance measure indicators in hospital nursing units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyeong-Hwa; Kim, In-Sook

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units based on a Balanced Scorecard (BSC). This study was a methodological study. The development process consisted of 3 stages. The first stage was setting up strategies for nursing units from a nursing department's mission and vision. The second stage was developing performance measure indicators after a validity check. The third stage was modifying developed performance measure indicators and classifying them. 7 strategies were set up according to 4 perspectives of a BSC. 15 performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units were developed, and the indicators were divided into 8 independent indicators and 7 shared indicators according to the degree of performance responsibility. In addition, they were classified into two groups, 7 leading indicators and lagging indicators. The result of this study suggests that performance measure indicators for hospital nursing units provide a framework and method for nursing organizations' performance management. Also, the developed indicators are expected to provide valuable information for successful organization management.

  1. Financial Development and Enterprises Investment Efficiency:From the Perspective of Financial Constraints and Soft Budget Constraint%金融发展与企业投资效率*--基于融资约束与预算软约束视角的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟淑萍; 顾群

    2014-01-01

    Along the way of“Financial development -financial constraints ease -corporate investment”,this paper analyzes China's financial development impact on corporate investment efficiency.This study indicates that:(1 )China's enterprises are un-der financial constraints widely,but the soft budget constraint weakens the actual role of state-owned enterprises’financial constraints.(2)Financial development eases state-owned enterprises’financial constraints through financial intermediary that is the state-owned banking system.However financial development doesn’t ease non-state-owned enterprises’fi-nancial constraints significantly.(3)Soft budget constraint weakens the effect that financial development eases state-owned enterprises’financial constraints,and also weakens the effect that financial development promotes investment efficiency.Soft budget constraint can lead to over-investment and efficiency loss.So to ease enterprises financial constraints,improve in-vestment efficiency,we should push forward financial (in especial financial market)development,and harden budget con-straint.%沿着“金融发展-融资约束缓解-企业投资”的思路探讨了中国金融发展对企业投资效率影响,研究结果显示:(1)中国企业普遍存在融资约束,但预算软约束弱化了国有企业融资约束的实际作用。(2)金融发展通过金融中介---国有银行体系这一途径缓解了国有企业的融资约束,而对非国有企业融资约束的缓解效应并不显著。(3)预算软约束弱化了金融发展对国有企业融资约束的缓解作用和对投资效率的促进作用,并带来过度投资和效率损失;由于金融发展对非国有企业融资约束的缓解效应不显著,也难以在提高企业投资效率方面起到推动作用。因此,缓解企业融资约束、提高企业投资效率,必须同时从金融发展(尤其是金融市场发展)与硬化预算约束两方面着手。

  2. Development of point source PM10 measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCain, J.D.; Fowler, C.S.; Farthing, W.E. [Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose is to develop measurement methods for sampling high temperature and high moisture flue gases that contain particles with diameters larger than 10 micrometres. In a procedure developed to sample wet sources, the large droplets are removed and the sample gas stream is heated to dry the smaller droplets. Special construction materials and an air cooled probe are required to sample high temperature sources. The hardware and methodology developed for these procedures (EPA Methods 201 and 201A) are suitable for measuring PM{sub 10} emissions. Adaptation of these methods to solve some of the difficulties of measuring and characterizing particulate emissions is discussed. Background, the right angle precollector (RAPC), and development and testing of prototypes of a high temperature system and a wet source system are described. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  3. 可持续发展条件下的环境污染约束分析%Constraint Analysis on Environmental Pollution under Economical Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭莲丽; 郭立宏; 李建勋; 申海

    2013-01-01

    According to the environmental constraints under the requirements of sustainable development,based on theoret-ical framework of Lucas model,the paper introduces the environmental technology and environmental capital factors to pro-duction function, pollution function and utility function;constructs an endogenous growth model within environmental quality and human capital under the environmental pollution constrain,it then carries out a theoretical model of optimal growth path analysis,achieves the constraints of environmental factors in the total social utility maximization goal,resear-ches the impact on sustainable economic development by environmental pollution externalities,environmental capital invest-ment and environmental technology,gives a reasonable allocation rules of environmental technology and environmental cap-ital,and finally provides some of the guidance and advice for sustainable economic development and government policy.%针对可持续发展要求下的环境约束问题,在Lucas模型的理论框架下,通过引入环保技术和环境资本因素到生产函数、污染函数、效用函数,构建环境质量和人力资本内生且带有环境污染约束的内生增长模型。开展理论模型的最优增长路径分析,给出社会总效用最大化目标下的环境因素约束条件,探讨环境污染外部性、环境资本投入、环保技术对经济可持续发展的影响,环保技术和环境资本合理调配规则,并为经济可持续发展以及政府政策,提供部分指导性建议。

  4. Nutritional aspects of honey bee-collected pollen and constraints on colony development in the eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Dorit; Hendriksma, Harmen P; Dag, Arnon; Uni, Zehava; Shafir, Sharoni

    2014-10-01

    Pollen is the main protein and lipid source for honey bees (Apis mellifera), and nutritionally impoverished landscapes pose a threat to colony development. To determine colony nutritional demands, we analyzed a yearly cycle of bee-collected pollen from colonies in the field and compared it to colony worker production and honey bee body composition, for the first time in social insects. We monitored monthly bee production in ten colonies at each of seven sites throughout Israel, and trapped pollen bi-monthly in five additional colonies at each of four of these sites. Pollen mixtures from each sampling date and site were analyzed for weight, total protein, total fatty acids (FAs), and FA composition. Compared to more temperate climates, the eastern Mediterranean allows a relatively high yearly colony growth of ca. 300,000-400,000 bees. Colonies at higher elevation above sea level showed lower growth rates. Queen egg-laying rate did not seem to limit growth, as peaks in capped brood areas showed that queens lay a prolific 2000 eggs a day on average, with up to 3300 eggs in individual cases. Pollen uptake varied significantly among sites and seasons, with an overall annual mean total 16.8kg per colony, containing 7.14kg protein and 677g fat. Overall mean pollen protein content was high (39.8%), and mean total FA content was 3.8%. Production cost, as expressed by the amount of nutrient used per bee, was least variable for linoleic acid and protein, suggesting these as the best descriptive variables for total number of bees produced. Linolenic acid levels in pollen during the autumn were relatively low, and supplementing colonies with this essential FA may mitigate potential nutritional deficiency. The essentiality of linoleic and linolenic acids was consistent with these FAs' tendency to be present at higher levels in collected pollen than in the expected nutrients in bee bodies, demonstrating a well-developed adjustment between pollinator nutritional demands and the

  5. Third molar development: measurements versus scores as age predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2011-10-01

    Human third molar development is widely used to predict chronological age of sub adult individuals with unknown or doubted age. For these predictions, classically, the radiologically observed third molar growth and maturation is registered using a staging and related scoring technique. Measures of lengths and widths of the developing wisdom tooth and its adjacent second molar can be considered as an alternative registration. The aim of this study was to verify relations between mandibular third molar developmental stages or measurements of mandibular second molar and third molars and age. Age related performance of stages and measurements were compared to assess if measurements added information to age predictions from third molar formation stage. The sample was 340 orthopantomograms (170 females, 170 males) of individuals homogenously distributed in age between 7 and 24 years. Mandibular lower right, third and second molars, were staged following Gleiser and Hunt, length and width measurements were registered, and various ratios of these measurements were calculated. Univariable regression models with age as response and third molar stage, measurements and ratios of second and third molars as predictors, were considered. Multivariable regression models assessed if measurements or ratios added information to age prediction from third molar stage. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) and root mean squared errors (RMSE) obtained from all regression models were compared. The univariable regression model using stages as predictor yielded most accurate age predictions (males: R(2) 0.85, RMSE between 0.85 and 1.22 year; females: R(2) 0.77, RMSE between 1.19 and 2.11 year) compared to all models including measurements and ratios. The multivariable regression models indicated that measurements and ratios added no clinical relevant information to the age prediction from third molar stage. Ratios and measurements of second and third molars are less accurate age predictors

  6. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress.

  7. CMB B-mode Polarization Measurements and constraints on Primordial Gravitational Waves from the BICEP/Keck Program at South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, John; Bicep/Keck Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The BICEP/Keck Array cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments located at the South Pole are a series of small-aperture refracting telescopes designed to probe the degree-scale B-mode signature of primordial gravitational waves. These highly-targeted experiments have produced the world's deepest maps of CMB polarization, leading to the most stringent constraints on the tensor-to-scalar ratio to date: r r r < 0 . 01 and below within the next several years.

  8. Measuring Perceived Anonymity: The Development of a Context Independent Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwight M. Hite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess relationships between perceptions of anonymity and behaviors, a context independent instrument is required for measuring the perceptions of anonymity held by individuals.  To date, no such measurement instrument exists that has been shown to be reliable and valid.  The authors employ a rigorous design methodology to develop, test, and substantiate a reliable and valid instrument for measuring perceptions of anonymity across different contexts. The PA measure presented is a five item Likert scale designed to measure perceptions of anonymity across multiple contexts. Results from two separate EFA pilot tests (n=61 and n=60, a test-retest, and a CFA final test (n=292 indicate that the PA measure has good internal consistency reliability (a=.82, test-retest reliability, factorial validity, and a single factor structure. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v5i1.18305

  9. Development of an Abbe Error Free Micro Coordinate Measuring Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangxian Huang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A micro Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM with the measurement volume of 50 mm × 50 mm × 50 mm and measuring accuracy of about 100 nm (2σ has been developed. In this new micro CMM, an XYZ stage, which is driven by three piezo-motors in X, Y and Z directions, can achieve the drive resolution of about 1 nm and the stroke of more than 50 mm. In order to reduce the crosstalk among X-, Y- and Z-stages, a special mechanical structure, which is called co-planar stage, is introduced. The movement of the stage in each direction is detected by a laser interferometer. A contact type of probe is adopted for measurement. The center of the probe ball coincides with the intersection point of the measuring axes of the three laser interferometers. Therefore, the metrological system of the CMM obeys the Abbe principle in three directions and is free from Abbe error. The CMM is placed in an anti-vibration and thermostatic chamber for avoiding the influence of vibration and temperature fluctuation. A series of experimental results show that the measurement uncertainty within 40 mm among X, Y and Z directions is about 100 nm (2σ. The flatness of measuring face of the gauge block is also measured and verified the performance of the developed micro CMM.

  10. Data Driven Constraints for the SVM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2012-01-01

    We propose a generalized data driven constraint for support vector machines exemplified by classification of paired observations in general and specifically on the human ear canal. This is particularly interesting in dynamic cases such as tissue movement or pathologies developing over time....... Assuming that two observations of the same subject in different states span a vector, we hypothesise that such structure of the data contains implicit information which can aid the classification, thus the name data driven constraints. We derive a constraint based on the data which allow for the use...... of the ℓ1-norm on the constraint while still allowing for the application of kernels. We specialize the proposed constraint to orthogonality of the vectors between paired observations and the estimated hyperplane. We show that imposing the constraint of orthogonality on the paired data yields a more robust...

  11. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  12. Development of an aerodynamic measurement system for hypersonic rarefied flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, T; Fujita, K; Suzuki, T

    2015-01-01

    A hypersonic rarefied wind tunnel (HRWT) has lately been developed at Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency in order to improve the prediction of rarefied aerodynamics. Flow characteristics of hypersonic rarefied flows have been investigated experimentally and numerically. By conducting dynamic pressure measurements with pendulous models and pitot pressure measurements, we have probed flow characteristics in the test section. We have also improved understandings of hypersonic rarefied flows by integrating a numerical approach with the HRWT measurement. The development of the integration scheme between HRWT and numerical approach enables us to estimate the hypersonic rarefied flow characteristics as well as the direct measurement of rarefied aerodynamics. Consequently, this wind tunnel is capable of generating 25 mm-core flows with the free stream Mach number greater than 10 and Knudsen number greater than 0.1.

  13. Parent report measures of infant social-emotional development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken W.; Niss, Nete Krogsgaard; Pejtersen, Jan Hyld

    2017-01-01

    Background: Identifying young children at risk for socio-emotional developmental problems at an early stage, to prevent serious problems later in life, is crucial. Therefore, we need high quality measures to identify those children at risk for social-emotional problems who require further...... evaluation and intervention.  Objective: To systematically identify parent report measures of infant and toddler (0-24 months) social-emotional development for use in primary care settings.  Methods: We conducted a systematic review applying a narrative synthesis approach. We searched Medline, Psych......Info, Embase and SocIndex for articles published from 2008 through September 2015 to identify parent-report measures of infant and toddler social-emotional development. Data on the characteristics of the measures, including psychometric data, were collected.  Results: Based on 3310 screened articles, we...

  14. A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure...... the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments...

  15. Development of Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Metrics and Risk Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.; Anderson, K. K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Lansing, Carina

    2012-10-01

    This is an internal project milestone report to document the CCSI Element 7 team's progress on developing Technology Readiness Level (TRL) metrics and risk measures. In this report, we provide a brief overview of the current technology readiness assessment research, document the development of technology readiness levels (TRLs) specific to carbon capture technologies, describe the risk measures and uncertainty quantification approaches used in our research, and conclude by discussing the next steps that the CCSI Task 7 team aims to accomplish.

  16. In vivo wall shear measurements within the developing zebrafish heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Aidan Jamison

    Full Text Available Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic heart to be determined. Accurate wall shear measurement requires two essential pieces of information; high-resolution velocity measurements near the heart wall and the location and orientation of the heart wall itself. We have applied high-speed brightfield imaging to capture time-lapse series of blood flow within the beating heart between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization. Cardiac-phase filtering is applied to these time-lapse images to remove the heart wall and other slow moving structures leaving only the red blood cell movement. Using particle image velocimetry to calculate the velocity of red blood cells in different regions within the heart, and using the signal-to-noise ratio of the cardiac-phase filtered images to determine the boundary of blood flow, and therefore the position of the heart wall, we have been able to generate the necessary information to measure wall shear in vivo. We describe the methodology required to measure shear in vivo and the application of this technique to the developing zebrafish heart. We identify a reduction in shear at the ventricular-bulbar valve between 3 and 6 days post-fertilization and demonstrate that the shear environment of the ventricle during systole is constantly developing towards a more uniform level.

  17. On Minimal Constraint Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlob, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In a minimal binary constraint network, every tuple of a constraint relation can be extended to a solution. It was conjectured that computing a solution to such a network is NP complete. We prove this conjecture true and show that the problem remains NP hard even in case the total domain of all values that may appear in the constraint relations is bounded by a constant.

  18. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...... reflect the reactive interactions between concurrent constraint processes and their environment, as well as internal interactions between individual processes. Relationships between the suggested notions are studied, and they are all proved to be decidable for a substantial fragment of the calculus...

  19. The development and validation of the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Richard Q; Ezeofor, Ijeoma; Smith, Lance C; Welch, Jamie C; Goodrich, Kristopher M

    2016-03-01

    The development of critical consciousness (CC) has been theorized to be an essential prerequisite for individual and collective action toward changing inequitable social conditions. However, empirically supported instruments intended to measure this important construct have only recently been introduced to the literature. The purpose of this project was to create a brief, psychometrically sound measure of CC. Two studies with over 600 observations provide initial reliability and validity data on the Contemporary Critical Consciousness Measure (CCCM). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the final 19-item CCCM assesses CC associated with racism, classism, and heterosexism and provides a general index of CC. Results support the internal consistency and factor structure of the measure. Expected relationships between the CCCM and existing measures of symbolic racism, classism, and homonegativity provide evidence for the validity of the instrument. Limitations, future directions for research, and counseling implications are discussed.

  20. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understanding area measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why the formula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and the notion of measurement unit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.

  1. Development of Methods Precision Length Measurement Using Transported Laser Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, E. A.; Epikhin, V. M.; Mazur, M. M.; Suddenok, Y. A.; Shorin, V. N.

    The paper shows the results of a comparison of a developed transported laser interferometer (TLI) with a measurement interferometer XL-80 Renishaw at the distance 0-60 meters. Testings of a breadboard model of the TLI showed that a difference between the travel measurements of the two interferometers does not exceed 6 μm. The mean value of the difference of indications between the TLI and a Renishaw travel measurer at the distance near 58 m approximately equals to 0,5 μm. Root-mean square deviation of the indications of the interferometers approximately equals to 3 μm. At comparison of the sections with the same name between the TLI and the Renishaw travel measurer, measured at different days, a repeatability of the results for the sections with the same name is noted.

  2. Current status of outcome measure development in vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Peter A; Aydin, Sibel Z; Boers, Maarten; Cornell, Christina; Direskeneli, Haner; Gebhart, Don; Hatemi, Gulen; Luqmani, Raashid; Matteson, Eric L; Milman, Nataliya; Robson, Joanna; Seo, Philip; Tomasson, Gunnar

    2014-03-01

    The conduct of randomized controlled trials for vasculitis, especially for the antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides [AAV, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's) and microscopic polyangiitis], has been greatly advanced by the development, use, and acceptance of validated outcome measures. Trials have subsequently provided the opportunity to validate and refine reliable, valid outcome measures for these multisystemic and relapsing rare diseases. The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Vasculitis Working Group was formed in 2004 to foster development of validated and widely accepted outcomes in vasculitis using data-driven analyses, a dedication to building consensus, and adherence to, and guidance by, the principles of the OMERACT approach. This work led to the endorsement by OMERACT of the core set of domains and associated outcome measures for AAV. Next steps for the study of existing outcome tools in AAV include better definition of response criteria through development of more data-driven weighting of the elements of activity and damage assessment. The Working Group is now also embarking on a series of linked projects to develop validated patient-reported outcomes for use in clinical research in vasculitis. Additionally, the Working Group is studying how current methods of disease assessment and plans for new outcomes can be informed by the conceptual framework of the International Classification of Function of the World Health Organization. The success of the Group's work in AAV has also led to a formal process for developing outcomes for the large vessel vasculitides (Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis) and Behçet disease.

  3. Development, use and potential contribution of appropriate ICT-based service systems to address rural transport related accessibility constraints - Emerging lessons from case studies in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maritz, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural environments suffer a number of constraints including high transport cost, irregular or unpredictable transport services, transport of low passenger and freight volumes, and low logistics service demand and supply. Rural residents, especially...

  4. Development: an Analysis of Concepts, Measurement and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Soares Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the result of a comprehensive analysis of the main forms of development measurement. Recognizing the level of complexity that the subject involves, aspects related to interpretations and dominant ideologies in development/growth concepts are shown initially. The second part of this work constitutes a critical analysis of forty-three of the most well-known national and international indicators used to measure thisphenomenon. It is imagined that this analysis can show the state of the art for constructing development indicators. The development process covers a complexity of relationships. Its analysis, therefore, cannot be restricted only to the economic dimension because, as a rule, the question is presented both in the media and aconsiderable part of specialized literature. Emphasis on this dimension has historic origins, which have already shown the fragility of this approach.

  5. Technology development for nuclear material measurement and accountability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Cha, Hong Ryul; Lee, Yong Duk; Choi, Hyung Nae; Nah, Won Woo; Park, Hoh Joon; Lee, Yung Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-01

    The measurement techniques for Pu samples and spent fuel assembly were developed in support of the implementation of national inspection responsibility under the Atomic Energy Act promulgated in 1994 and a computer program was also developed to assess the total nuclear material balance by facility declared records. The results of plutonium isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectrometry with high resolution germanium detector with peak analysis codes (FRAM and MGA codes) were approached to within 1% {approx} 2% of error from chemical analysis values by mass spectrometry. A gamma-ray measurement system for underwater spent nuclear fuels was developed and tested successfully. The falsification of facility and state records can be traced with the help of the developed computer code against declared reports submitted by the concerned state. This activity eventually resulted in finding the discrepancy of accountability records. 18 figs, 20 tabs, 27 refs. (Author).

  6. Developing a performance measurement system for public research centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masella, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at developing a performance measurement system (PMS for research and development (R&D activities carried out by public research centres. Public research institutions are characterized by multiple stakeholders with different needs, and the management of R&D activities requires balancing the multiple goals of different stakeholders. This characteristic is a key issue in the process of construction of the PMS. Empirical evidence is provided by an Italian public research centre, where the researchers carried out a project aimed to develop a PMS following action research principles. This project gave the possibility to researchers to interact with different stakeholders and integrate their different information needs in a comprehensive set of key performance indicators (KPIs. As a result, multidimensional framework for measuring R&D performance in a public research centre is proposed and a set of Key Performance Indicators is developed, suggesting implications for academics and practitioners.

  7. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  8. The Development of NOAA Education Common Outcome Performance Measures (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Education Council has embarked on an ambitious Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) project that will allow it to assess education program outcomes and impacts across the agency, line offices, and programs. The purpose of this internal effort is to link outcome measures to program efforts and to evaluate the success of the agency's education programs in meeting the strategic goals. Using an outcome-based evaluation approach, the NOAA Education Council is developing two sets of common outcome performance measures, environmental stewardship and professional development. This presentation will examine the benefits and tradeoffs of common outcome performance measures that collect program results across a portfolio of education programs focused on common outcomes. Common outcome performance measures have a few benefits to our agency and to the climate education field at large. The primary benefit is shared understanding, which comes from our process for writing common outcome performance measures. Without a shared and agreed upon set of definitions for the measure of an outcome, the reported results may not be measuring the same things and would incorrectly indicate levels of performance. Therefore, our writing process relies on a commitment to developing a shared set of definitions based on consensus. We hope that by taking the time to debate and coming to agreement across a diverse set of programs, the strength of our common measures can indicate real progress towards outcomes we care about. An additional benefit is that these common measures can be adopted and adapted by other agencies and organizations that share similar theories of change. The measures are not without their drawbacks, and we do make tradeoffs as part of our process in order to continue making progress. We know that any measure is necessarily a narrow slice of performance. A slice that may not best represent the unique and remarkable contribution

  9. Applying OGC Standards to Develop a Land Surveying Measurement Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sofos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC is committed to developing quality open standards for the global geospatial community, thus enhancing the interoperability of geographic information. In the domain of sensor networks, the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE initiative has been developed to define the necessary context by introducing modeling standards, like ‘Observation & Measurement’ (O&M and services to provide interaction like ‘Sensor Observation Service’ (SOS. Land surveying measurements on the other hand comprise a domain where observation information structures and services have not been aligned to the OGC observation model. In this paper, an OGC-compatible, aligned to the ‘Observation and Measurements’ standard, model for land surveying observations has been developed and discussed. Furthermore, a case study instantiates the above model, and an SOS implementation has been developed based on the 52° North SOS platform. Finally, a visualization schema is used to produce ‘Web Map Service (WMS’ observation maps. Even though there are elements that differentiate this work from classic ‘O&M’ modeling cases, the proposed model and flows are developed in order to provide the benefits of standardizing land surveying measurement data (cost reducing by reusability, higher precision level, data fusion of multiple sources, raw observation spatiotemporal repository access, development of Measurement-Based GIS (MBGIS to the geoinformation community.

  10. ThermoData Engine (TDE): software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept. 9. Extensible thermodynamic constraints for pure compounds and new model developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diky, Vladimir; Chirico, Robert D; Muzny, Chris D; Kazakov, Andrei F; Kroenlein, Kenneth; Magee, Joseph W; Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin; Frenkel, Michael

    2013-12-23

    ThermoData Engine (TDE) is the first full-scale software implementation of the dynamic data evaluation concept, as reported in this journal. The present article describes the background and implementation for new additions in latest release of TDE. Advances are in the areas of program architecture and quality improvement for automatic property evaluations, particularly for pure compounds. It is shown that selection of appropriate program architecture supports improvement of the quality of the on-demand property evaluations through application of a readily extensible collection of constraints. The basis and implementation for other enhancements to TDE are described briefly. Other enhancements include the following: (1) implementation of model-validity enforcement for specific equations that can provide unphysical results if unconstrained, (2) newly refined group-contribution parameters for estimation of enthalpies of formation for pure compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, (3) implementation of an enhanced group-contribution method (NIST-Modified UNIFAC) in TDE for improved estimation of phase-equilibrium properties for binary mixtures, (4) tools for mutual validation of ideal-gas properties derived through statistical calculations and those derived independently through combination of experimental thermodynamic results, (5) improvements in program reliability and function that stem directly from the recent redesign of the TRC-SOURCE Data Archival System for experimental property values, and (6) implementation of the Peng-Robinson equation of state for binary mixtures, which allows for critical evaluation of mixtures involving supercritical components. Planned future developments are summarized.

  11. Developing a new method for modifying over-allocated multi-mode resource constraint schedules in the presence of preemptive resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating is frequently seen after initial scheduling of a project in practice and causes significant amount of efforts to modify the initial schedules. In this research, a new method is developed for modifying over-allocated schedules in a multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problems (MRCPSPs with positive cash flows (MRCPSP-PCF. The aim is to maximize profit of the MRCPSPs or logically minimizing costs. The proposed method can be used as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to modify resource over-allocated days after scheduling a project. This research considers progress payment method and preemptive resources. The proposed approach maximizes profit by scheduling activities through the resource calendar respecting to the available level of preemptive resources and activity numbers. To examine the performance of the proposed method a number of experiments derived from the literature are solved. The results are then compared with the circumstances where resource constraints are relaxed. The outcomes show that in all studied cases, the proposed algorithm can provide modified schedules with no over-allocated days. Afterward the method is applied to modify a manufacturing project in practice.

  12. Measuring and managing radiologist workload: application of lean and constraint theories and production planning principles to planning radiology services in a major tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Sharyn L S; Cowan, Ian A; Floyd, Richard; Mackintosh, Stuart; Graham, Rob; Jenkins, Emma; Hamilton, Richard

    2013-10-01

    We describe how techniques traditionally used in the manufacturing industry (lean management, the theory of constraints and production planning) can be applied to planning radiology services to reduce the impact of constraints such as limited radiologist hours, and to subsequently reduce delays in accessing imaging and in report turnaround. Targets for imaging and reporting were set aligned with clinical needs. Capacity was quantified for each modality and for radiologists and recorded in activity lists. Demand was quantified and forecasting commenced based on historical referral rates. To try and mitigate the impact of radiologists as a constraint, lean management processes were applied to radiologist workflows. A production planning process was implemented. Outpatient waiting times to access imaging steadily decreased. Report turnaround times improved with the percentage of overnight/on-call reports completed by a 1030 target time increased from approximately 30% to 80 to 90%. The percentage of emergency and inpatient reports completed within one hour increased from approximately 15% to approximately 50% with 80 to 90% available within 4 hours. The number of unreported cases on the radiologist work-list at the end of the working day reduced. The average weekly accuracy for demand forecasts for emergency and inpatient CT, MRI and plain film imaging was 91%, 83% and 92% respectively. For outpatient CT, MRI and plain film imaging the accuracy was 60%, 55% and 77% respectively. Reliable routine weekly and medium to longer term service planning is now possible. Tools from industry can be successfully applied to diagnostic imaging services to improve performance. They allow an accurate understanding of the demands on a service, capacity, and can reliably predict the impact of changes in demand or capacity on service delivery. © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  13. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  14. Development and Evaluation of the School Cafeteria Nutrition Assessment Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.; Bursac, Zoran; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Smith West, Delia; Phillips, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. Methods: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria…

  15. Attitudes toward Working Single Parents: Initial Development of a Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Carrie L.; Eby, Lillian T.; Lockwood, Angie; Allen, Tammy D.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies describe the development and refinement of a measure designed to assess Attitudes Toward Working Single Parents (AWSP). Study 1 consisted of content validation of items written to assess respondent attitudes regarding the effect of single parenthood on two dimensions viewed as most central to the life experiences of single parents:…

  16. Enabling employees through co-development of performance measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, B.A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Various studies have demonstrated that involving employees in the development of performance measures can lead to improved employee performance. Yet to date it is unclear how such performance improvement comes about. In order to enable companies to improve the performance of their employees, this di

  17. Development and Evaluation of the School Cafeteria Nutrition Assessment Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Rebecca A.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.; Bursac, Zoran; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Smith West, Delia; Phillips, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foods provided in schools represent a substantial portion of US children's dietary intake; however, the school food environment has proven difficult to describe due to the lack of comprehensive, standardized, and validated measures. Methods: As part of the Arkansas Act 1220 evaluation project, we developed the School Cafeteria…

  18. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based...

  19. The "Test of Financial Literacy": Development and Measurement Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Rebeck, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The "Test of Financial Literacy" (TFL) was created to measure the financial knowledge of high school students. Its content is based on the standards and benchmarks stated in the "National Standards for Financial Literacy" (Council for Economic Education 2013). The test development process involved extensive item writing and…

  20. Investigating Organisational Innovativeness : Developing a Multidimensional Formative Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallas, Florian; Böckermann, Florian; Goetz, Oliver; Tecklenburg, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    To survive competition, it is vital for firms to be innovative. As a firm's cultural predisposition, organisational innovativeness provides an environment that fosters innovations and thus actively supports new product or service development. The purpose of this study is to measure organisational in

  1. The development of an innovative rehabilitation measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, L.H.V. van der; et al.; Oosterwaal, M.; Statham, A.E.; Wijnen, M.; Hoppenbrouwers, M.B.; Kok, P.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the work was to develop a rehabilitation analysis solution that was robust, simple to use, wireless and inexpensive that could facilitate research and application in areas that were previously impractical. Methods: The embodiment of this vision was a pressure measurement insole a

  2. Developing AMS measurement of $^{59}$Ni at CIAE

    CERN Document Server

    Ming, He; Xiangdong, Ruan; Chaoli, Li; Kejun, Dong; liang, Du; Bo, Xie Lin; Zhenyu, Li; Guowen, Zhen; Hao, Hu; J, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement of $^{59}$Ni has been established at CIAE with the HI-13 tandem accelerator and the recently developed $\\Delta E$-Q3D detection system. $^{59}$Ni standard and commercial NiO samples were measured to check the performance of the $\\Delta E$-Q3D detection system on $^{59}$Ni isobar separation and suppression. An overall suppression factor of about 10$^{7}$ for the interfering isobar $^{59}$Co resulting in detection sensitivity as low as 3.8$\\times 10^{-13}$ atomic ratio ($^{59}$Ni/Ni) has been obtained. Based on these techniques, the AMS measurement method of $^{59}$Ni with high sensitivity is developed.

  3. Developments in radiation, stimulation and observation facilities in luminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boetter-Jensen, L. E-mail: lars.boetter@risoe.dk; Andersen, C.E.; Duller, G.A.T.; Murray, A.S

    2003-10-01

    This paper summarises recent developments in the Risoe TL/OSL reader. These new developments include an elevated temperature irradiation facility that has been expanded to measure variable temperature radioluminescence (RL) during beta irradiation. This RL facility allows the measurement of TL, OSL and RL in the same software-controlled automatic sequence. To provide an alternative to the {sup 90}Sr beta source, the performance of a software-controlled mini X-ray generator has been investigated. This has the advantage of providing a range of dose rates spanning more than three orders of magnitude up to more than 2 Gy/s. A separate bleaching facility has also been added to the reader, new powerful infrared (IR) light-emitting diodes have replaced the IR laser diode in the general OSL unit, and an IR laser has been included in the single-grain OSL attachment. This paper describes these new facilities, and illustrates their applications with representative measurements.

  4. 3D shape measurement system developed on mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhoujie; Chang, Meng; Shi, Bowen; Zhang, Qican

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement technology based on structured light has become one hot research field inspired by the increasing requirements. Many methods have been implemented and applied in the industry applications, but most of their equipments are large and complex, cannot be portable. Meanwhile, the popularity of the smart mobile terminals, such as smart phones, provides a platform for the miniaturization and portability of this technology. The measurement system based on phase-shift algorithm and Gray-code pattern under the Android platform on a mobile phone is mainly studied and developed, and it has been encapsulated into a mobile phone application in order to reconstruct 3-D shape data in the employed smart phone easily and quickly. The experimental results of two measured object are given in this paper and demonstrate the application we developed in the mobile platform is effective.

  5. Developing a community-based flood resilience measurement standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Szoenyi, Michael; Chaplowe, Scott; McQuistan, Colin; Campbell, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Given the increased attention to resilience-strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there has been concurrent interest in its measurement and the overall accountability of "resilience strengthening" initiatives. The literature is reaching beyond the polemic of defining resilience to its measurement. Similarly, donors are increasingly expecting organizations to go beyond claiming resilience programing to measuring and showing it. However, key questions must be asked, in particular "Resilience of whom and to what?". There is no one-size-fits-all solution. The approach to measuring resilience is dependent on the audience and the purpose of the measurement exercise. Deriving a resilience measurement system needs to be based on the question it seeks to answer and needs to be specific. This session highlights key lessons from the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance approach to develop a flood resilience measurement standard to measure and assess the impact of community based flood resilience interventions, and to inform decision-making to enhance the effectiveness of these interventions. We draw on experience in methodology development to-date, together with lessons from application in two case study sites in Latin America. Attention will be given to the use of a consistent measurement methodology for community resilience to floods over time and place; challenges to measuring a complex and dynamic phenomenon such as community resilience; methodological implications of measuring community resilience versus impact on and contribution to this goal; and using measurement and tools such as cost-benefit analysis to prioritize and inform strategic decision making for resilience interventions. The measurement tool follows the five categories of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework and the 4Rs of complex adaptive systems - robustness, rapidity, redundancy and resourcefulness -5C-4R. A recent white paper by the Zurich Flood Resilience Alliance traces the

  6. Development of automated endoscopes for dimensional micro-measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrebabetzky, Frank

    2013-04-01

    Increasing demands for product quality and outsourcing of production in the automobile industry lead to in­ creasingly tight tolerances for the components. In the area of metal-mechanics these are largely dimensional and require frequently uncertainties in the micron region. For optical instruments this means microscopical resolu­ tion. Dimensional measurement with uncertainties of some microns is nothing new, state of the art equipment in fact goes far below. The task becomes difficult if the measurements have to be carried out in an industrial production environment - and deep inside a bore hole. This paper describes the development of an automatic measurement system for internal dimensions of brake master cylinders, specifically the development of endoscopes, illuminations for edge detection, and integration with other sensors, actuators and controllers. The most demanding part was the endoscope development, because, surprisingly, no commercial product for microscopic view and precision measurements was found on the market. As the market for such measurement machines is very small, and as the requirements were different for each endoscope, the budget allowed only the development of prototypes, using readily available optical components. Borders between faces with different orientation of metallic structures can be difficult do detect. A satisfactory metrological performance can be achieved only with carefully shaped illumination, even if the source is a simple LED (light emitting diode). The automation was responsible for the largest part of the overall cost, coming from the desire for a high throughput of the measurement machine, even when operated by not highly qualified personnel. With the safety requirements satisfied, such a device ends up as a pretty complex equipment. Nevertheless, these aspects will be mentioned only for completeness, because standard components and methods were applied.

  7. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LUBRICANT TRACTION MEASUREMENT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-shuang; ZHANG Luo-ping; YANG Bo-yuan

    2011-01-01

    A ball-disc traction test rig is improved through the development of a lubricant traction measurement system,consisting of a resonance force sensitive quartz sensor,a circuit of the sensor and a rigid bracket jointed by a frictionless hinge.The traction coefficients of a kind of domestic lubricating oil were measured at various normal loads,rolling velocities,lubricant inlet temperatures and slide-to-roll ratios on a ball-disc traction test rig equipped with this traction measurement system.The results show that the traction test curve is smooth and the data enjoy a good accuracy,which indicates that the design of the lubricant traction measurement system is reasonable and the precision of the system is high,especially,at high temperature,high rolling speed and small slide-to-roll ratio.

  9. Resistance among domestic violence offenders: measurement development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Deborah A; Velicer, Wayne F; Castle, Patricia H; Greene, R Neil

    2008-02-01

    Batterers' resistance to traditional intervention programs has been well documented. Within a Transtheoretical Model of Change (stage of change) framework, a measure of processes of resistance was developed and administered to 346 adult male domestic violence offenders in treatment. The study yielded a 38-item measure that assesses eight dimensions of resistance: (a) System Blaming, (b) Problems with Partner, (c) Problems with Alliance, (d) Social Justification, (e) Hopelessness, (f) Isolation, (g) Psychological Reactance, and (h) Passive Reactance. The relationship between resistance and stage of change, time in treatment, and partner aggression are reported. Results suggest that we look beyond the most common forms of resistance (e.g., denial and victim-blaming) to identify and address other forms of resistance that may be more internally based and difficult to detect. The processes of resistance measure provides a tool for measuring those types of resistance.

  10. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  11. Wire Scanner Beam Profile Measurements: LANSCE Facility Beam Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batygin, Yuri K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gonzales, Fermin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gruchalla, Michael E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sedillo, James Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pillai, Chandra [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez Esparza, Sergio [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Smith, Brian G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-15

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is replacing Wire Scanner (WS) beam profile measurement systems. Three beam development tests have taken place to test the new wire scanners under beam conditions. These beam development tests have integrated the WS actuator, cable plant, electronics processors and associated software and have used H{sup -} beams of different beam energy and current conditions. In addition, the WS measurement-system beam tests verified actuator control systems for minimum profile bin repeatability and speed, checked for actuator backlash and positional stability, tested the replacement of simple broadband potentiometers with narrow band resolvers, and tested resolver use with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input and Output (cRIO) Virtual Instrumentation. These beam tests also have verified how trans-impedance amplifiers react with various types of beam line background noise and how noise currents were not generated. This paper will describe these beam development tests and show some resulting data.

  12. Optimal portfolio strategies under a shortfall constraint

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation to insert the constraint into the resolution ... A numerical method is applied to obtain an approximate solution to the ... risk measure, has emerged as an industry standard with regulatory authorities, such as.

  13. Electrical conductivity measurements of nanofluids and development of new correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konakanchi, Hanumantharao; Vajjha, Ravikanth; Misra, Debasmita; Das, Debendra

    2011-08-01

    In this study the electrical conductivity of aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles dispersed in propylene glycol and water mixture were measured in the temperature range of 0 degrees C to 90 degrees C. The volumetric concentration of nanoparticles in these fluids ranged from 0 to 10% for different nanofluids. The particle sizes considered were from 20 nm to 70 nm. The electrical conductivity measuring apparatus and the measurement procedure were validated by measuring the electrical conductivity of a calibration fluid, whose properties are known accurately. The measured electrical conductivity values agreed within +/- 1% with the published data reported by the manufacturer. Following the validation, the electrical conductivities of different nanofluids were measured. The measurements showed that electrical conductivity of nanofluids increased with an increase in temperature and also with an increase in particle volumetric concentration. For the same nanofluid at a fixed volumetric concentration, the electrical conductivity was found to be higher for smaller particle sizes. From the experimental data, empirical models were developed for three nanofluids to express the electrical conductivity as functions of temperature, volumetric concentration and the size of the nanoparticles.

  14. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  15. Credit Constraints in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  16. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  17. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  18. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  19. Conceptualizing Identity Development: Unmasking the Assumptions within Inventories Measuring Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Christy D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research was to analyze the dimensions and manifestations of identity development embedded within commonly used instruments measuring student identity development. To this end, a content analysis of ten identity assessment tools was conducted to determine the assumptions about identity development contained therein.…

  20. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  1. Another Approach to Measuring Human Development: The Composite Dynamic Human Development Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao-Ubillos, Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks mainly to contribute to the debate on how the relative degree of development of a country should be measured by proposing an indicator to build on the valuable starting point provided by the Human Development Index (HDI). The indicator proposed is called the "Composite, Dynamic Human Development Index". It incorporates in a simple…

  2. Decentralized Constraint Satisfaction

    CERN Document Server

    Duffy, K R; Leith, D J

    2011-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) lie at the heart of many modern industrial and commercial tasks. An important new collection of CSPs has recently been emerging that differ from classical problems in that they impose constraints on the class of algorithms that can be used to solve them. In computer network applications, these constraints arise as the variables within the CSP are located at physically distinct devices that cannot communicate. At each instant, every variable only knows if all its constraints are met or at least one is not. Consequently, the CSP's solution must be found using a decentralized approach. Existing algorithms for solving CSPs are either centralized or distributed, both of which violate these algorithmic constraints. In this article we present the first algorithm for solving CSPs that fulfills these new requirements. It is fully decentralized, making no use of a centralized controller or message-passing between variables. We prove that this algorithm converges with probability ...

  3. A review of instruments developed to measure food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    Food choices are influenced by an individual's attitude towards foods. Food neophobia may be associated with less variety of diets, inadequate nutrient intake and high product failure rate for new food products entering the market. To quantify the extent of these challenges, instruments to measure the food neophobia in different target groups are needed. Several such instruments with significantly different measurement outcomes and procedures have been developed. This review provides an overview and discusses strengths and weaknesses of these instruments. We evaluate strengths and weaknesses of previously developed instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Literature was searched through the databases Web of Science and Google Scholar. We identified 255 studies concerning neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods. Of these, 13 studies encompassing 13 instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods were included in the review. Results are summarized and evaluated with a narrative approach. In the 13 instruments to assess neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, 113 to 16.644 subjects aged 2-65 years were involved, scales with 3-7 response categories were used and behavioral validation tests were included in 6 studies. Several instruments to measure neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods exist. We recommend selecting one or more among the 13 instruments reviewed in this paper to assess relevant aspects of neophobia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of 3D statistical mandible models for cephalometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Goo; Yi, Won Jin; Hwang, Soon Jung; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Tae Il [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Helen; Yoo, Ji Hyun [Division of Multimedia Engineering, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to provide sex-matched three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape models of the mandible, which would provide cephalometric parameters for 3D treatment planning and cephalometric measurements in orthognathic surgery. The subjects used to create the 3D shape models of the mandible included 23 males and 23 females. The mandibles were segmented semi-automatically from 3D facial CT images. Each individual mandible shape was reconstructed as a 3D surface model, which was parameterized to establish correspondence between different individual surfaces. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to all mandible shapes produced a mean model and characteristic models of variation. The cephalometric parameters were measured directly from the mean models to evaluate the 3D shape models. The means of the measured parameters were compared with those from other conventional studies. The male and female 3D statistical mean models were developed from 23 individual mandibles, respectively. The male and female characteristic shapes of variation produced by PCA showed a large variability included in the individual mandibles. The cephalometric measurements from the developed models were very close to those from some conventional studies. We described the construction of 3D mandibular shape models and presented the application of the 3D mandibular template in cephalometric measurements. Optimal reference models determined from variations produced by PCA could be used for craniofacial patients with various types of skeletal shape.

  5. Observed Measures of Negative Parenting Predict Brain Development during Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Dennison, Meg; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Sheeber, Lisa; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-01-01

    Limited attention has been directed toward the influence of non-abusive parenting behaviour on brain structure in adolescents. It has been suggested that environmental influences during this period are likely to impact the way that the brain develops over time. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between aggressive and positive parenting behaviors on brain development from early to late adolescence, and in turn, psychological and academic functioning during late adolescence, using a multi-wave longitudinal design. Three hundred and sixty seven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained over three time points from 166 adolescents (11-20 years). At the first time point, observed measures of maternal aggressive and positive behaviors were obtained. At the final time point, measures of psychological and academic functioning were obtained. Results indicated that a higher frequency of maternal aggressive behavior was associated with alterations in the development of right superior frontal and lateral parietal cortical thickness, and of nucleus accumbens volume, in males. Development of the superior frontal cortex in males mediated the relationship between maternal aggressive behaviour and measures of late adolescent functioning. We suggest that our results support an association between negative parenting and adolescent functioning, which may be mediated by immature or delayed brain maturation.

  6. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based...... on only H-fields on the top and bottom surface on a Huygens’ box surrounding the board. Simulation of a simple board with microstrips and measurements of a complicated signal board were used to evaluate the proposed method....

  7. Recent Developments in Using Measured Sources in Computational EMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the recent developments in using near-field scanning for proactive EMC work. The aim is to use measured near fields as a source for simulations in order to predict radiated emission from printed circuit boards placed in a product. Far fields were predicted based...... on only H-fields on the top and bottom surface on a Huygens’ box surrounding the board. Simulation of a simple board with microstrips and measurements of a complicated signal board were used to evaluate the proposed method....

  8. Integration of Error Compensation of Coordinate Measuring Machines into Feature Measurement: Part I—Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Calvo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of an error compensation model for coordinate measuring machines (CMMs and its integration into feature measurement is presented. CMMs are widespread and dependable instruments in industry and laboratories for dimensional measurement. From the tip probe sensor to the machine display, there is a complex transformation of probed point coordinates through the geometrical feature model that makes the assessment of accuracy and uncertainty measurement results difficult. Therefore, error compensation is not standardized, conversely to other simpler instruments. Detailed coordinate error compensation models are generally based on CMM as a rigid-body and it requires a detailed mapping of the CMM’s behavior. In this paper a new model type of error compensation is proposed. It evaluates the error from the vectorial composition of length error by axis and its integration into the geometrical measurement model. The non-explained variability by the model is incorporated into the uncertainty budget. Model parameters are analyzed and linked to the geometrical errors and uncertainty of CMM response. Next, the outstanding measurement models of flatness, angle, and roundness are developed. The proposed models are useful for measurement improvement with easy integration into CMM signal processing, in particular in industrial environments where built-in solutions are sought. A battery of implementation tests are presented in Part II, where the experimental endorsement of the model is included.

  9. Development of TDR distributed sensors for land subsidence measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chih-Chung; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2016-04-01

    The influences subjected by land subsidence and notably inundation are raising in Taiwan recently. To efficiently access the problems, historical trends and the instant field measurement data (at least by days), including multi-depth subsidence leveling and water leveling, are essential and urgent. However, current multi-depth subsidence leveling with magnetic rings conducted by manual operating, for example, lacks high temporal and spatial resolution data, which cannot evaluate the consistency between the subsidence leveling and the limited underground water levels in the same aquifer layer appropriately. To improve the field measurements, this study is carried out based on the core technology of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR). In the preliminary idea, TDR distributed sensors, as magnetic rings for land subsidence measurements in a borehole, are developed with the underground water level sensors embedded. The prototypes of TDR distributed sensors indicates the feasibility of measuring, but the influence of signal dissipating due to the long transmission line (>100 m) need to be brought attention to, as well as the corresponding measurement accuracy. Therefore, a laboratorial physical modeling is suggested for further evaluation, and this modeling is constructed now. All the measurement data are expected to be employed and fed back as the calibrators and indicators to propose the defense strategy for land subsidence and inundation.

  10. Limits on Learning Phonotactic Constraints from Recent Production Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warker, Jill A.; Dell, Gary S.; Whalen, Christine A.; Gereg, Samantha

    2008-01-01

    Adults can learn new artificial phonotactic constraints by producing syllables that exhibit the constraints. The experiments presented here tested the limits of phonotactic learning in production using speech errors as an implicit measure of learning. Experiment 1 tested a constraint in which the placement of a consonant as an onset or coda…

  11. Measuring heterosexual LGBT ally development: a Rasch analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Peter; Fujimoto, Ken

    2013-01-01

    An instrument was developed that measured heterosexual persons' level of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) ally identity. Using a Rasch analysis, 2 dimensions were observed: (a) internal and interpersonal and (b) activity. Persons with high levels of LGBT ally identities endorsed items about having LGBT knowledge, attitudes, and skills; having interpersonal experiences with LGBT communities; and including LGBT ally as part of their identities. The instrument met criteria for the content, substantive, structural, generalizability, and responsiveness validity. The instrument can be used to assist persons to develop their abilities to support and advocate for equality for LGBT communities.

  12. High-Resolution Wind Measurements for Offshore Wind Energy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Son V.; Neumann, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical transform, called the Rosette Transform, together with a new method, called the Dense Sampling Method, have been developed. The Rosette Transform is invented to apply to both the mean part and the fluctuating part of a targeted radar signature using the Dense Sampling Method to construct the data in a high-resolution grid at 1-km posting for wind measurements over water surfaces such as oceans or lakes.

  13. Development of an Observational Tool to Measure Nurses’ Information Needs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Nurses collect, communicate and store patient information needed for care through verbal, handwritten and electronic information sources. However, the specific categories of nurses’ information needs for the care of hospitalized patients remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the categories of nurses’ information needs and develop an observational tool to measure the information needs through available information sources. We analyzed qualitative data from interview transcr...

  14. Governance and Developing Asia: Concepts, Measurements, Determinants, and Paradoxes

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. Quibria

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a considerable volume of literature on governance and its role in economic and social development of a country. This paper provides a critical review of the literature. This review brings into the open a number of serious conceptual, measurement, and data issues as well as the existence of an Asian governance paradox - i.e., a general disjunction between growth and governance in most Asian economies. This paradox seems to suggest that much of the curren...

  15. Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges: Cross-Jurisdictional Management and Impacts on Unconventional Fuel Development in Utah's Uinta Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert; Ruple, John; Holt, Rebecca; Tanana, Heather; McNeally, Phoebe; Tribby, Clavin

    2012-10-01

    Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued

  16. Constraint-based reachability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  17. Developing a national programme of flood risk management measures: Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsbottom David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Technical Assistance project funded by the European Investment Bank has been undertaken to develop a programme of flood risk management measures for Moldova that will address the main shortcomings in the present flood management system, and provide the basis for long-term improvement. Areas of significant flood risk were identified using national hydraulic and flood risk modelling, and flood hazard and flood risk maps were then prepared for these high risk areas. The flood risk was calculated using 12 indicators representing social, economic and environmental impacts of flooding. Indicator values were combined to provide overall estimates of flood risk. Strategic approaches to flood risk management were identified for each river basin using a multi-criteria analysis. Measures were then identified to achieve the strategic approaches. A programme of measures covering a 20-year period was developed together with a more detailed Short-Term Investment Plan covering the first seven years of the programme. Arrangements are now being made to implement the programme. The technical achievements of the project included national hydrological and hydraulic modelling covering 12,000 km of river, the development of 2-dimensional channel and floodplain hydraulic models from a range of topographic and bathymetric data, and an integrated flood risk assessment that takes account of both economic and non-monetary impacts.

  18. Human temporomandibular joint disc: anatomy and measurements in prenatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Luis A; Brunotto, Mabel N; de Ferraris, María E Gómez

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine morphological characteristics and measurements of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc in human fetuses between 16 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life, and correlate it with oral-facial neuro-muscular maturing. Scanner images were used to record the length of the disc (D) and the thickness of its anterior middle and posterior bands in TMJ anteroposterior vertical sections from human fetuses of 16, 18 and 20 weeks of intrauterine life (WIL). Mean disc length was 1.98 mm, 2.69 mm and 2.90 mm at 16, 18 and 20 WIL respectively, and measurements differed significantly between those ages. The thicknesses of the anterior, middle and posterior bands also differed significantly. The results give normal morphological data for D between 16 and 20 WIL. TMJ anatomy and measurements appear to be related and agree with the neuro-muscular maturation time at which sucking and swallowing reflexes begin before birth. It is known that these functions, as well as the neuro-muscular capacity to perform prenatal mandibular movements (opening and closing), begin at 14 to 15 weeks of prenatal development and are fully attained at about 20 weeks of development. Knowledge of this reference pattern may be of major importance to future research, for assessing jaw biomechanics and detecting alterations of TMJ and prenatal development of a vital human function - suckling in preterm infants.

  19. Development of High Intensity Beam Emittance Measurement Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Three sets of High Intensity Beam Emittance Measurement Units (HIBEMUs) are being developed at Peking University. They are HIBEMU-2 (slit-wire type, one direction), HIBEMU-3 (Allison scanner type, one direction) and HIBEMU-4 (slit-wire type, two directions). For HIBEMU-2 and HIBEMU-3, more recent work has been done on software redesign in order to measure beam emittance and to draw phase diagram more efficiently and precisely. Software for control and data processing of them were developed in Labveiw environment, trying to improve calculation rationality and to offer user-friendly interface. Mechanical modification was also done for HIBEMU-3, mainly concentrating on the protection of Faraday cups from being overheated by the high intensity beam and also from interference of secondary electrons. This paper will also cover the mechanical structure as well as the software development of HIBEMU-4, which is a two-direction emittance scanner newly designed and manufactured for the high energy beam transport (HEBT) of Peking University Neutron Imaging FaciliTY (PKUNIFTY). At the end of this paper, comparison and analysis of the three HIBEMUs are given to draw forth better design of the future emittance measurement facility.

  20. Development and validation of resource flexibility measures for manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Chauhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Global competition and ever changing customers demand have made manufacturing organizations to rapidly adjust to complexities, uncertainties, and changes. Therefore, flexibility in manufacturing resources is necessary to respond cost effectively and rapidly to changing production needs and requirements.  Ability of manufacturing resources to dynamically reallocate from one stage of a production process to another in response to shifting bottlenecks is recognized as resource flexibility. This paper aims to develop and validate resource flexibility measures for manufacturing industry that could be used by managers/ practitioners in assessing and improving the status of resource flexibility for the optimum utilization of resources. Design/methodology/approach: The study involves survey carried out in Indian manufacturing industry using a questionnaire to assess the status of various aspects of resource flexibility and their relationships. A questionnaire was specially designed covering various parameters of resource flexibility. Its reliability was checked by finding the value of Cronback alpha (0.8417. Relative weightage of various measures was found out by using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. Pearson’s coefficient of correlation analysis was carried out to find out relationships between various parameters. Findings: From detailed review of literature on resource flexibility, 17 measures of resource flexibility and 47 variables were identified. The questionnaire included questions on all these measures and parameters. ‘Ability of machines to perform diverse set of operations’ and ability of workers to work on different machines’ emerged to be important measures with contributing weightage of 20.19% and 17.58% respectively.  All the measures were found to be significantly correlated with overall resource flexibility except ‘training of workers’, as shown by Pearson’s coefficient of correlation. This indicates that

  1. Development of novel tools to measure food neophobia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The main tool currently used to measure food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale, FNS, developed by Pliner & Hobden, 1992) may not remain optimal forever. It was developed around 25 years ago, and the perception and availability of "novel" and "ethnic" foods may have changed in the meantime. Consequently, there is a need for developing updated tools for measuring food neophobia. To develop novel tools to measure food neophobia in children. Based on a review of 13 designs to assess food neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, a Food Neophobia Test Tool (FNTT) was developed. A questionnaire including the FNS, a 19-item FNTT, items about willingness to taste novel foods in different surroundings and a behavioral test was administered to 235 children aged 9-13 years. Reliability and validity of the FNS and FNTT were assessed through calculations of Cronbach's alpha, item-item and item-rest correlations. Comprehension issues related to tools were evaluated based on qualitative observations and finally, behavioral validity was assessed. A considerable number of children indicated difficulties understanding certain items in the original FNS. FNTT could be reduced to a 6- and 9-item tool with high validity (item-rest coefficients, r = 0.60-0.80). Internal consistency of the FNTT (Cronbach α ≥ 0.90) was higher relative to the FNS (Cronbach α ≥ 0.72). Scores from the FNTT correlated significantly (p food neophobia in children aged 9-13 years. Moreover, when modified, the FNS continue to produce reliable and valid results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a Force Measurement Device for Lower-Body Muscular Strength Measuring of Skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Ki; Lee, Jeong Tae

    This paper presents a force measurement system that can measure a lower-body muscular strength of skaters. The precise measurement and analysis of the left and right lower-body strength of skaters is necessary, because a left/right lower-body strength balance is helpful to improve the athletes' performance and to protect them from injury. The system is constructed with a skate sliding board, a couple of sensor-units with load cell, indicator and control box, guard, force pad, and support bracket. The developed force measurement system is calibrated by the calibration setup, and the uncertainty of the force sensing unit on the left is within 0.087% and the uncertainty of the force sensing unit on the right is within 0.109%. In order to check the feasibility of the developed measurement device, a kinematic analysis is conducted with skater. As a result, the subject shows the deviation of left and right of 12.1 N with respect to average strength and 39.1 N with respect to the maximum strength. This evaluation results are reliable enough to make it possible to measure a lower-body muscular strength of skaters. The use of this measurement system will be expected to correct the posture of skaters and record the sports dynamics data for each athlete. It is believed that through the development of this equipment, skaters in elementary, middle, high schools, colleges, and the professional level have the systematic training to compete with world-class skaters.

  3. Communication with Disturbance Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Bandemer, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The problem of communication with disturbance constraints is introduced. The rate-disturbance region is established for the single constraint case. The optimal encoding scheme turns out to be the same as the Han-Kobayashi scheme for the two user-pair interference channel. For communication with two disturbance constraints, a coding scheme and a corresponding inner bound for the deterministic case are presented. The results suggest a natural way to obtain a new inner bound on the capacity region of the interference channel with more than two user pairs.

  4. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understandingarea measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why theformula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and  the notion of measurementunit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.Keywords: Area measurement, unit, design research, RME DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.775.173-184

  5. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Danu Prasetyo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the efficiency level of government expenditure in 82 countries towards the human development and peace index of the respective countries by using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach during 2007-2011. We found that only few countries that always being positioned in the efficient frontier during the sample period, namely: Japan, Nigeria, and Norway.  By using Malmquist index approach, we also found that Cyprus has the largest government expenditure efficiency improvement.Keywords: Government Expenditure Efficiencies, Human Development Index, Global Peace Indexdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3 How to cite this article:Prasetyo, A.D., and Pudjono, A.N.S. (2013. Measuring Government Expenditure Efficiencies Towards Peace and Human Development. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 82-91. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.3

  6. On the use of DEA for software development productivity measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Imperatore, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    of the important aspects. Finally it provides recommendations and directions for future research in the area. Rather than simply presenting a "final" set of results, the empirical study takes a step-by-step approach to considering, and thus illustrating, some of the issues to be aware of when doing empirical......This paper first, based on a thorough review of the relevant literature, provides a general discussion of some of the many aspects one should consider when using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to measure the efficiency of software development. It then contains a case study which investigates a few...... analysis, many of which are not limited to efficiency assessment of software development. Thus this paper, besides providing a thorough literature review and resulting guidelines specifically for the analysis of software development productivity, also aims at providing a practical "how to" guide...

  7. Measuring the Degree of Local Administration Action in Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Botezat

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The attentive diagnosis of the local economic basis, the deep understanding of the obstacles that confront the economic growth and the investments, the elaboration and the implementation of certain strategies to facilitate the investments are the means by which the local authorities can assure the future of the local community which voted them. The present paper proposes to measure the effectiveness and efficacity of their activity by lying the basis of the methodology of calculating the degree the local authorities imply themselves in the local economic development and its impact upon the financial mana¬gement performance of a certain town. Only a management that sustains the local economic development can lead to the permanent growth of the economic basis, which generates permanent development.

  8. Development of an integrated control and measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manges, W.W.

    1984-03-01

    This thesis presents a tutorial on the issues involved in the development of a minicomputer-based, distributed intelligence data acquisition and process control system to support complex experimental facilities. The particular system discussed in this thesis is under development for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). In the AVLIS program, we were careful to integrate the computer sections of the implementation into the instrumentation system rather than adding them as an appendage. We then addressed the reliability and availability of the system as a separate concern. Thus, our concept of an integrated control and measurement (ICAM) system forms the basis for this thesis. This thesis details the logic and philosophy that went into the development of this system and explains why the commercially available turn-key systems generally are not suitable. Also, the issues involved in the specification of the components for such an integrated system are emphasized.

  9. Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.

  10. Measurement of the inclusive photon and photon+jet production cross-sections at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector and constraints to PDFs

    CERN Document Server

    Saimpert, Matthias; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the inclusive photon production performed by the ATLAS collaboration using an integrated luminosity of 4.5~fb$^{-1}$ are reported as a function of the photon transverse energy in different fiducial regions covering a wide acceptance. A comparison to the data of next-to-leading order QCD calculation JETPHOX with different PDFs is presented. The impact of the measurements to constraint the gluon PDF is also evaluated. The cross sections for photons produced in association with a jet are also measured by the ATLAS collaboration using an integrated luminosity of 37~pb$^{-1}$ as functions of photon and jet kinematics and are compared to JETPHOX calculation. The theoretical uncertainties, including scale, strong coupling, and PDF uncertainties are evaluated for all predictions. Data and theory usually show a good agreement within uncertainties, except for the azimuthal angle in the photon + jet case.

  11. Constraints on Development of Wind Energy in Poland due to Environmental Objectives. Is There Space in Poland for Wind Farm Siting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajto, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Zdzisław; Bidłasik, Małgorzata; Borzyszkowski, Jan; Kuśmierz, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate spatial effects of adopting environmental criteria for wind farm siting, i.e., the criteria related to the settlement system and those with regards to landscape values. The set of criteria was elaborated on the basis of literature and experience-based knowledge. Some of the criteria selected are legally binding. The analyses were carried out with the use of GIS tools. Settlement areas with 1000 and 2000 m wide buffer zones, and the areas with the highest landscape values, were assumed as particularly sensitive receptors to wind farm impacts. The results show significant constraints on wind farm siting in Poland. Although the constraints are regionally diversified, they concern 93.9 % of the total country area (1000 m buffer zone) or 99.1 % (2000 m buffer zone). Presumably even greater constraints would be revealed by an additional detailed analysis at a local level. The constraints on wind farm siting in Poland cannot be decreased, because of both social attitudes and demand for appropriate environmental standards, which should be taken into account in spatial and energy policies at all decision making level.

  12. Constraints on Development of Wind Energy in Poland due to Environmental Objectives. Is There Space in Poland for Wind Farm Siting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajto, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Zdzisław; Bidłasik, Małgorzata; Borzyszkowski, Jan; Kuśmierz, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate spatial effects of adopting environmental criteria for wind farm siting, i.e., the criteria related to the settlement system and those with regards to landscape values. The set of criteria was elaborated on the basis of literature and experience-based knowledge. Some of the criteria selected are legally binding. The analyses were carried out with the use of GIS tools. Settlement areas with 1000 and 2000 m wide buffer zones, and the areas with the highest landscape values, were assumed as particularly sensitive receptors to wind farm impacts. The results show significant constraints on wind farm siting in Poland. Although the constraints are regionally diversified, they concern 93.9 % of the total country area (1000 m buffer zone) or 99.1 % (2000 m buffer zone). Presumably even greater constraints would be revealed by an additional detailed analysis at a local level. The constraints on wind farm siting in Poland cannot be decreased, because of both social attitudes and demand for appropriate environmental standards, which should be taken into account in spatial and energy policies at all decision making level.

  13. Optimization under Nonlinear Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In this paper a timesaving method is proposed for maximizing likelihood functions when the parameter space is subject to nonlinear constraints, expressible as second order polynomials. The suggested approach is especially attractive when dealing with systems with many parameters.

  14. Measuring the Use of Knowledge in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witting Antje

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Public hearings are frequently used on all levels of government to systematically collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking. The methods currently employed measure knowledge utilization in this context by means of citation analysis of edited articles and/or reports that summarize the information shared at these meetings. By combining citation analysis and social network analysis, this article develops a methodology that can be used to capture citations in transcripts of public hearings that precede these reports. In order to demonstrate its strengths and weaknesses, the method is utilized to analyze the 2009 hearings that informed the 2010 House of Commons Transport Committee report on developing the capacity of major roads in the United Kingdom to meet the country’s strategic transport needs. The research shows a good degree of consistency between two independent coders who employed this method to distinguish citations from non-citations and classify the data. It is concluded that the method can be utilized to reliably measure knowledge utilization at public hearings, and that it can be employed in conjunction with research that focuses on measuring citations in memos, briefings, articles or reports integrating some of the evidence given at these meetings.

  15. Development of resistance type moisture measuring device for grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiq Sius LAWAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study aimed at developing an indigenous moisture measuring device from locally available materials for grains based on the principle of resistance change of the material with corresponding change in moisture during drying. The developed device has four copper electrode cups positions in which both gauging and dummy copper electrode cups were placed to form Wheatstone bridge circuits of full, half and quarter for four, two and one gauging copper electrode cups respectively, while the remaining positions were used as dummies. These circuits were used to measure the resistances and hence obtaining the moisture content of the grains used. Grains of paddy rice, guinea corn and millet were used to test the device and it was observed that for full bridge circuits of each of the grains, paddy rice have a negative coefficient of correlation of -0.95, -0.99 for guinea corn and -0.99 for millet. The results obtained from predictive empirical equations when compared with the direct oven method, showed that the device can be used to predict or measure moisture content once calibrated.

  16. Constraint-Muse: A Soft-Constraint Based System for Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Matthias; Denker, Grit; Meier, Max; Wirsing, Martin

    Monoidal soft constraints are a versatile formalism for specifying and solving multi-criteria optimization problems with dynamically changing user preferences. We have developed a prototype tool for interactive music creation, called Constraint Muse, that uses monoidal soft constraints to ensure that a dynamically generated melody harmonizes with input from other sources. Constraint Muse provides an easy to use interface based on Nintendo Wii controllers and is intended to be used in music therapy for people with Parkinson’s disease and for children with high-functioning autism or Asperger’s syndrome.

  17. Functional constraints on SoxE proteins in neural crest development: The importance of differential expression for evolution of protein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric M; Yuan, Tian; Ballim, Reyna D; Nguyen, Kristy; Kelsh, Robert N; Medeiros, Daniel M; McCauley, David W

    2016-10-01

    Vertebrate SoxE genes (Sox8, 9, and 10) are key regulators of neural crest cell (NCC) development. These genes arose by duplication from a single SoxE gene in the vertebrate ancestor. Although SoxE paralogs are coexpressed early in NCC development, later, Sox9 is restricted to skeletogenic lineages in the head, and Sox10 to non-skeletogenic NCC in the trunk and head. When this subfunctionalization evolved and its possible role in the evolution of the neural crest are unknown. Sea lampreys are basal vertebrates that also possess three SoxE genes, while only a single SoxE is present in the cephalochordate amphioxus. In order to address the functional divergence of SoxE genes, and to determine if differences in their biochemical functions may be linked to changes in neural crest developmental potential, we examined the ability of lamprey and amphioxus SoxE genes to regulate differentiation of NCC derivatives in zebrafish colourless (cls) mutants lacking expression of sox10. Our findings suggest that the proto-vertebrate SoxE gene possessed both melanogenic and neurogenic capabilities prior to SoxE gene duplication. Following the agnathan-gnathostome split, lamprey SoxE1 and SoxE3 largely lost their melanogenic and/or enteric neurogenic properties, while gnathostome SoxE paralogs have retained functional conservation. We posit that this difference in protein subfunctionalization is a direct consequence of the independent regulation of SoxE paralog expression between the two lineages. Specifically, we propose that the overlapping expression of gnathostome SoxE paralogs in early neural crest largely constrained the function of gnathostome SoxE proteins. In contrast, the largely non-overlapping expression of lamprey SoxE paralogs allowed them to specialize with regard to their DNA-binding and/or protein interaction properties. Restriction of developmental potential among cranial and trunk neural crest in lampreys may be related to constraints on SoxE activity among

  18. Long-term competition between gas infrastructures developments in Asia. The constraints on the Siberia and Caspian export development by cross-border pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D.; Locatelli, C.; Mima, S.

    2000-09-01

    Despite the effects of the recent financial crisis, the problem of satisfying the energy requirements of the emerging economies in Asia remains the principal challenge in the first half of the 21. century. The competition between sources of supply is influenced by the nature of the transport infrastructures used in their exportation and by the associated economic and geopolitical conditions: capital intensiveness, rigidity, country-risk, etc... The aim of the study is the position that could be occupied by major continental infrastructures in trade within the Asian continent, in view of the economic institutional and geopolitical restraints that would appear more favourable to projects based on LNG. Developments in Siberia and Central Asia will be heavily influenced by the geographical remoteness and organizational weakness of the countries in that area. (A.L.B.)

  19. Measuring nurse managers' boundary spanning: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Mami

    2016-05-01

    To test the psychometric properties of a boundary spanning measure by nurse managers. The health-care environment requires hospital units to coordinate efforts autonomously across their boundaries and to manage relationships with other professionals, units and departments. Boundary spanning has become increasingly important for first-line nurse managers as unit gatekeepers; however, the available measures are limited. The 30-item instrument was developed from a literature review. Survey participants were 4918 nurses at 231 hospital units. Statistical analyses of construct validity and internal consistency were performed. Furthermore, the correlation between nurses' scores on the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale and nurses' evaluations of their managers were examined. Three factors and 26 items were derived from factor analyses: connecting and mediating, informing and feedback utilisation, and resource acquisition. Cronbach's subscales' alpha coefficients were above 0.9. Correlation analysis indicated that the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale score correlated with nurses' positive perceptions of their managers. This study demonstrates tentative support for the validity and reliability of the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale. Although further study is needed, the Nurse Managers Boundary Spanning Scale shows possibilities as a new measurement of nursing leadership. This study underscores measures to build on nurse managers' roles by building on the limited research available. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of a Wireless Displacement Measurement System Using Acceleration Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billie F. Spencer Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM, earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  1. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  2. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  3. Radiometric Calibrations, Measurements, and Standards Development at NREL: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.

    2001-10-01

    Presented at the 2001 NCPV Program Review Meeting: Radiometric calibrations, measurements, and standards development at NREL. We describe proposed revisions to current reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance and durability of materials. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibrations reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations. We report a method to quantify the rate of change of broadband radiometer responsivities as a function of integrated exposure to irradiance and thermal energy. The results of applying a vector of calibration factors or responsivities to field data to remove zenith-angle dependent errors in global solar radiation measurements are shown. We report on the relative sensitivity of radiometers to daily versus biweekly cleaning.

  4. Development of standard ionization chamber counting system for activity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Pyun, W B; Lee, H Y; Park, T S

    1998-01-01

    This study is to set up the activity measuring system using a 4 pi gamma ionization chamber as used mainly in national standards laboratories that are responsible for radionuclide metrology. The software for automatic control between the electrometer and personal computer is developed using Microsoft visual basic 4.0 and IEEE488 Interface. The reproducibility of this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is about 0.02% and the background current is 0.054+-0.024 pA. this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber is calibrated by 6 standard gamma emitting radionuclides from KRISS. According to the result of this study, it is revealed that this 4 pi gamma ionization chamber counting system can be used as a secondary standard instrument for radioactivity measurement.

  5. Aerosol measurement program strategy for global aerosol backscatter model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to propose a balanced program of aerosol backscatter research leading to the development of a global model of aerosol backscatter. Such a model is needed for feasibility studies and systems simulation studies for NASA's prospective satellite-based Doppler lidar wind measurement system. Systems of this kind measure the Doppler shift in the backscatter return from small atmospheric aerosol wind tracers (of order 1 micrometer diameter). The accuracy of the derived local wind estimates and the degree of global wind coverage for such a system are limited by the local availability and by the global scale distribution of natural aerosol particles. The discussions here refer primarily to backscatter model requirements at CO2 wavelengths, which have been selected for most of the Doppler lidar systems studies to date. Model requirements for other potential wavelengths would be similar.

  6. Development of portable HPGe spectrometer for in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kail Artjoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ applications require a very high level of portability of high-resolution spectrometric equipment. Usage of HPGe detectors for radioactivity measurements in the environment or for nuclear safeguard applications, to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or uranium and plutonium monitoring in nuclear wastes, has become a norm in the recent years. Portable HPGe-based radionuclide spectrometer with electrical cooling has lately appeared on the market for in situ applications. At the same time deterioration of energy resolution associated with vibrations produced by cryocooler or high weight of the instrument, short time of autonomous operation and high price of these spectrometers are limiting their usage in many cases. In this paper we present development results of ultra compact hand held all-in-one spectrometer for in situ measurements based on HPGe detector cooled by liquid nitrogen without listing the above disadvantages.

  7. Wide-band heterodyne receiver development for effluent measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Liu, H.C.; Buchanan, M. [National Research Council of Canada (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced infrared heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Passive heterodyne radiometry in the LWIR region of the spectrum has historically been restricted by HgCdTe (MCT) detector technology to receiver bandwidths of only 2 GHz. Given typical atmospheric line widths of approximately 3 GHz, a CO{sub 2} (or isotope) laser local oscillator with an average line spacing of 50 GHz, and an MCT detector, only chemical species whose absorptions fall directly on top of laser lines can be measured. Thus, with traditional narrow-band heterodyne radiometry, much of the LWIR spectrum is missed and the less complex direct detection DIAL has been the preferred technique in remote sensing applications. Wide-band heterodyne receivers offer significant improvements in remote measurement capability. Progress at the Institute for Microstructural Sciences (IMS) at National Research Council of Canada and at ORNL in wide-band quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QIPs) and receivers is significantly enhancing the bandwidth capabilities of heterodyne radiometers. ORNL recently made measurements in the lab using QWIPs developed at IMS that demonstrate heterodyne quantum efficiencies of 5% with a heterodyne bandwidth of 7 GHz. The path forward indicates that > 10% heterodyne quantum efficiencies and 30-GHz bandwidths are achievable with current QWIP technology. With a chopped, 30-GHz passive heterodyne receiver, a much larger portion of the LWIR spectrum can now be covered. One potential advantage of wide-band heterodyne receivers for effluent measurements is to dramatically reduce the number of laser lines needed to characterize and distinguish multiple chemical species of interest. In the following paper, the authors discuss this and other implications of these new technologies to the characterization of effluents using both passive heterodyne radiometry and thermo-luminescence.

  8. Development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sarah H; Glanz, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Objective, observational measures of nutrition environments are now well established and widely used. Individuals' perceptions of their nutrition environments may be equally or more important, but are less well conceptualized, and comprehensive measures are not available. This paper describes the development of the Perceived Nutrition Environment Measures Survey (NEMS-P), its test-retest reliability, and its ability to discern differences between lower- and higher-SES neighborhoods. This research involved five steps: (1) development of a conceptual model and inventory of items; (2) expert review; (3) pilot testing and cognitive interviews; (4) revising the survey; and (5) administering the revised survey to participants in neighborhoods of high and low SES on two occasions to evaluate neighborhood differences and test-retest reliability. Data were collected in 2010 and 2011 and analyzed in 2011 and 2012. The final survey has 118 items. Fifty-three core items represent three types of perceived nutrition environments: community nutrition environment, consumer nutrition environment, and home food environment. Test-retest reliability for core constructs of perceived nutrition environments was moderate to good (0.52-0.83) for most measured constructs. Residents of higher-SES neighborhoods reported higher availability scores in stores, stronger agreement that healthy options were available in nearby restaurants, and higher scores for accessibility of healthy foods in their homes. The NEMS-P has moderate to good test-retest reliability and can discriminate perceptions of nutrition environments between residents of higher- and lower-SES neighborhoods. This survey is available and ready to be used. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Universal digital strain gauge measurement system of aeroelastic deformation development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Anton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents description of the universal digital strain gauge system developed to measure the static and dynamic aeroelastic deformations of elasticity-scale models during the tests in aerodynamic tube and during in-flight tests of an experimental air vehicles. The main requirements for such devices are small size and possibility of operation in a wide temperature range. The article considers the dependence of zero offset from temperature. Functional diagram block and logic diagram of the build system are shown.

  10. The Development of a Leadership Self-Efficacy Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    stated by Sansone et al. “the development of a measure often begins with EFA and moves to CFA” (2004: 155). After removing nine items that exhibited... States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.                                            AFIT/GEM/ENV/10-M07...specificity (e.g. Eden, 1996). While efficacy theory originated for task-specific or state -like constructs, termed specific self-efficacy (SSE), some

  11. Development of a Brief Abstinence Self-Efficacy Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKIERNAN, PATRICK; CLOUD, RICHARD; PATTERSON, DAVID A.; WOLF (ADELV UNEGV WAYA), SILVER; GOLDER, SEANA; BESEL, KARL

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the 40-item Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy (AASE) scale with domains of confidence and temptation to a new 12-item version developed by the authors consisting of the same domains. There were 126 participants who completed the survey. Psychometric analysis demonstrated high reliability and validity consisting of high correlations between domains of confidence (α = .92) and temptation (α = .88) in the 40-item version of the scale compared to the briefer version. The 12-item version appears to provide a clinically reliable and valid measure of AASE domains of confidence and temptation, providing a more efficient tool for clinical practice. PMID:23559892

  12. Urban metabolism: Measuring the city's contribution to sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conke, Leonardo S; Ferreira, Tainá L

    2015-07-01

    Urban metabolism refers to the assessment of the amount of resources produced and consumed by urban ecosystems. It has become an important tool to understand how the development of one city causes impacts to the local and regional environment and to support a more sustainable urban design and planning. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to measure the changes in material and energy use occurred in the city of Curitiba (Brazil) between the years of 2000 and 2010. Results reveal better living conditions and socioeconomic improvements derived from higher resource throughput but without complete disregard to environmental issues. Food intake, water consumption and air emissions remained at similar levels; energy use, construction materials and recycled waste were increased. The paper helps illustrate why it seems more adequate to assess the contribution a city makes to sustainable development than to evaluate if one single city is sustainable or not.

  13. Heterogeneity measures in hydrological frequency analysis: review and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Ana I.; Chebana, Fateh; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2017-03-01

    Some regional procedures to estimate hydrological quantiles at ungauged sites, such as the index-flood method, require the delineation of homogeneous regions as a basic step for their application. The homogeneity of these delineated regions is usually tested providing a yes/no decision. However, complementary measures that are able to quantify the degree of heterogeneity of a region are needed to compare regions, evaluate the impact of particular sites, and rank the performance of different delineating methods. Well-known existing heterogeneity measures are not well-defined for ranking regions, as they entail drawbacks such as assuming a given probability distribution, providing negative values and being affected by the region size. Therefore, a framework for defining and assessing desirable properties of a heterogeneity measure in the regional hydrological context is needed. In the present study, such a framework is proposed through a four-step procedure based on Monte Carlo simulations. Several heterogeneity measures, some of which commonly known and others which are derived from recent approaches or adapted from other fields, are presented and developed to be assessed. The assumption-free Gini index applied on the at-site L-variation coefficient (L-CV) over a region led to the best results. The measure of the percentage of sites for which the regional L-CV is outside the confidence interval of the at-site L-CV is also found to be relevant, as it leads to more stable results regardless of the regional L-CV value. An illustrative application is also presented for didactical purposes, through which the subjectivity of commonly used criteria to assess the performance of different delineation methods is underlined.

  14. Development and validation of the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure (AAIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemore, Sarah E; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2009-10-01

    Drop-out from 12-step groups is notoriously high, yet the field lacks strong models and scales for addressing this problem. We aim to determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can be applied to 12-step involvement, and to develop and validate a scale of 12-step readiness based on that theory: the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure (AAIM). Data were from a longitudinal trial of a manual-guided 12-step facilitation intervention called Making AA Easier (MAAEZ) involving two treatment programs in California (N=508). Participants completed surveys at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Surveys included the preliminary AAIM, a 12-step involvement measure, other readiness measures, and substance use outcomes. The final, 17-item AAIM measured Attitude (5-item alpha's=.75-.83), Subjective Norm (4-item alpha's=.56-.81), Perceived Control (5-item alpha's=.78-.85), and Intention (3-item alpha's=.80-.95) regarding attendance at 12-step groups. Components were correlated with each other and other readiness measures as expected, supporting the AAIM's validity. Scale components predicted 31% of the variance in Intention to attend 12-step groups at 6 months and 41% of the variance in 12-step involvement at 12 months. Social factors were among the strongest predictors of 12-step involvement. Results did not support the expectancy-value formulation of the TPB, as unweighted (vs. weighted) belief items performed optimally. Results generally support the TPB as a model of 12-step involvement and suggest specific targets for 12-step facilitation interventions within attitude, norm, and control components. Findings also support the AAIM as a tool for identifying drop-out risks and tailoring individual interventions.

  15. Freedom, Time Constraints and Progressive Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Ernesto Screpanti

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I present a measure of freedom for opportunity sets which are bounded by both budget and time constraints. Then I show that, in a society in which income is distributed more unequally than leisure time, a government aiming at leaving freedom distribution unaltered should apply progressive taxation. Since incomes bind freedom only partially when time constraints bind, taxing the rich reduces his freedom proportionally less than taxing the poor reduces his. Moreover, when incomes ...

  16. TRENDS AND CONSTRAINTS IN CLT IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoHongjie; NiChuanbin

    2004-01-01

    Communicative language teaching (CLT) is an in novationin English language teaching ( ELT ). That appeared in Britain in the late 1960s. As the country with the largest English learning population in the world, China also has become deeply involved in CLT. This essay attempts to sketch the trends of CLT in China, the constraints it met with, and outlines suggestions and measures taken to overcome the constraints.

  17. Team Decision Problems with Convex Quadratic Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gattami, Ather

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider linear quadratic team problems with an arbitrary number of quadratic constraints in both stochastic and deterministic settings. The team consists of players with different measurements about the state of nature. The objective of the team is to minimize a quadratic cost subject to additional finite number of quadratic constraints. We first consider the problem of countably infinite number of players in the team for a bounded state of nature with a Gaussian distributi...

  18. Climate change adaptation: Uncovering constraints to the use of adaptation strategies among food crop farmers in South-west, Nigeria using principal component analysis (PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moradeyo Adebanjo Otitoju

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies in South-west Nigeria. Multistage random technique was employed to select the location and the respondents. Descriptive statistics and principal component analysis (PCA were the analytical tools engaged in this study. The constraints to climate variability and change examined before did not use PCA but generalized factor analysis. Hence, there is need to examine these constraints extensively using PCA. Uncovering the constraints to the use of climate variability/change adaptation strategies among crop framers is important to give a realistic direction in the development of farmer-inclusive climate policies in Nigeria. The PCA result showed that the principal constraints that the farmers faced in climate change adaptation were public, institutional and labour constraint; land, neighbourhood norms and religious beliefs constraint; high cost of inputs, technological and information constraint; farm distance, access to climate information, off-farm job and credit constraint; and poor agricultural programmes and service delivery constraint. These findings pointed out the need for both the government and non-government organizations to intensify efforts on institutional, technological and farmers’ friendly land tenure and information systems as effective measures to guide inclusive climate change adaptation policies and development in South-west Nigeria.

  19. Development of detector technologies for neutron beta decay measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Ha; Cude-Woods, Chris; Young, Albert; Los Alamos UCN Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    In the past year we have developed two detector technologies for neutron beta decay measurements. The first is designed specifically to detect the recoil proton from neutron decay. In particular, the PERKEO III experiments planned for the Institut Laue Langevin require detectors with active area greater than about 600 cm2 area to achieve the targeted statistical sensitivity. We have developed an implementation of transmission foil detectors utilizing free standing foils of roughly 100 nm thickness and 700 cm2 area, coated with LiF converting crystal. These foils are placed in an accelerating electric field geometry to first accelerate the protons to 30 kV and then convert them to an electron shower which can be detected with conventional semiconductor or scintillator detectors. We've also begun development of technology that is designed to detect charged particles from neutron-capture reaction on 10B. The UCNtau experiment at the Los Alamos National Laboratories requires non-magnetic neutron sensors that can be used to measure the density of neutrons in a magnetic trap. We are employing a multilayer surface detector recently developed at Los Alamos for the UCN flux monitoring, adapting it for a compact, 1 cm2 detector and ultralow dark rates. The detector consists of 10B on ZnS scintillating sheet that will be adhered to both faces of an acrylic plate with scintillating optical fibers embedded into it. The optical fibers will be coupled to 2, Hamamatsu micro-PMTs for coincident detection of a neutron event.

  20. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy.

  1. Development of a moral judgment measure for veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians increasingly face animal ethics issues, conflicts, and dilemmas, both in practice and in policy, such as the tension between clients' and animals' interests. Little has been done to measure the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical judgments to prevent and address these issues or to identify the effectiveness of strategies to build this capacity. The objectives of this study were, first, to develop a test to identify the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical decisions in relation to animal ethics issues and, second, to assess students' perceptions of the usefulness of three methods for the development of ethical decision making. The Veterinary Defining Issues Test (VetDIT) was piloted with 88 first-year veterinary students at an Australian university. The veterinary students were at a variety of reasoning stages in their use of the Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP) reasoning methods in relation to both human ethics and animal ethics issues and operated at a higher level of reasoning for animal than human ethics. Thirty-eight students assessed three methods for developing ethical decision-making skills and identified these as being helpful in clarifying their positions, clarifying others' positions, increasing awareness of the complexity of making ethical decisions, using ethical frameworks and principles, and improving moral reasoning skills, with two methods identified as most helpful. These methods and the VetDIT have the potential to be used as tools for development and assessment of moral judgment in veterinary education to address animal ethics issues.

  2. Validation of an instrument for measuring psychosocial and organisational work constraints detrimental to health among hospital workers: the NWI-EO questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneterre, Vincent; Ehlinger, Virginie; Balducci, Franck; Caroly, Sandrine; Jolivet, Anne; Sobaszek, Annie; de Gaudemaris, Régis; Lang, Thierry

    2011-05-01

    Quality of care, job satisfaction and the health of registered nurses (RNs) are associated with their exposure to psychosocial and organisational work factors (POWFs). To develop and validate an extended version of the Revised Nursing Work Index (NWI-R), the NWI-EO (Extended Organisation) tool specifically designed for occupational physicians and those involved in prevention programmes in healthcare institutions to assess the perception of POWFs, and then to determine priorities for preventive action to improve work organisation at the hospital staff level. The tool was validated in the ORSOSA study, a multicentre French cohort of RNs and NAs (n=4085) recruited in 214 work units of 7 French university hospitals. A total of 34 items (19 candidate items developed by a focus group and 15 items from the NWI-R) were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) based on a randomised split-half of the data. In addition, construct validity, test-retest reliability, internal consistency and concurrent validity were assessed. Response rate was 91%. Twenty-two items were selected (9 of the 15 NWI-R items and 13 of the 19 candidate items) by PCA, resulting in an 8-factor solution that explained 53% of the common variance. The stability of the factorial structure of this 22-item NWI-EO questionnaire was confirmed by PCA on the other half-sample as well as by PCA on subgroups (age, gender, occupational group, specialty area, hospital). Reliability, assessed by internal consistency and test-retest, was satisfactory. Concurrent validity with two external measurements of organisational characteristics of work units was also observed. The NWI-EO was found to have good psychometric properties. Several POWFs accessible to prevention programmes can be evaluated with this tool: poor communication in the work unit, lack of support from senior nurses, inadequate staffing to perform duties, poor relationships between workers, frequency of interruptions during tasks, low level of

  3. Front-end and high-voltage electronics developments for compact, dual ion-electron thermal measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, A.; Lavraud, B.; Tap, H.; Ballot, Y.; Aoustin, C.; Chassela, O.; Cadu, A.; Devoto, P.; Fedorov, A.; Rouzaud, J.; Rubiella, J.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Seran, H. C.; Bernal, O.; Payan, D.; Rouzies, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Active Monitor Box of Electrostatic Risks (AMBER) is a double-head thermal electron and ion electrostatic analyzer (~0 - 30 keV) that will be launched onboard the Jason-3 spacecraft in 2015. The new generation AMBRE instrument (AMBER_NG) constitutes a significant new evolution that will be based on a single head with newly developed sub-systems to reduce all instrument resources. We will describe the main front-end and high-voltage electronics developments which are being made to perform such dual ion-electron measurements. The first purpose of AMBER_NG is the monitoring of spacecraft charging and of the plasma populations at the origin of this charging. The design is also appropriate for the study of space plasma processes in the Earth's magnetosphere, as well as at other planets where time resolution may not prevail over mass constraints.

  4. Lands with Wilderness Characteristics, Resource Management Plan Constraints, and Land Exchanges: Cross-Jurisdictional Management and Impacts on Unconventional Fuel Development in Utah's Uinta Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Holt, Rebecca [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tanana, Heather [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); McNeally, Phoebe [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Tribby, Clavin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Utah is rich in oil shale and oil sands resources. Chief among the challenges facing prospective unconventional fuel developers is the ability to access these resources. Access is heavily dependent upon land ownership and applicable management requirements. Understanding constraints on resource access and the prospect of consolidating resource holdings across a fragmented management landscape is critical to understanding the role Utah’s unconventional fuel resources may play in our nation’s energy policy. This Topical Report explains the historic roots of the “crazy quilt” of western land ownership, how current controversies over management of federal public land with wilderness character could impact access to unconventional fuels resources, and how land exchanges could improve management efficiency. Upon admission to the Union, the State of Utah received the right to title to more than one-ninth of all land within the newly formed state. This land is held in trust to support public schools and institutions, and is managed to generate revenue for trust beneficiaries. State trust lands are scattered across the state in mostly discontinuous 640-acre parcels, many of which are surrounded by federal land and too small to develop on their own. Where state trust lands are developable but surrounded by federal land, federal land management objectives can complicate state trust land development. The difficulty generating revenue from state trust lands can frustrate state and local government officials as well as citizens advocating for economic development. Likewise, the prospect of industrial development of inholdings within prized conservation landscapes creates management challenges for federal agencies. One major tension involves whether certain federal public lands possess wilderness character, and if so, whether management of those lands should emphasize wilderness values over other uses. On December 22, 2010, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar issued

  5. Development of a scale to measure individuals' ratings of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Howard; Ahn, Roy; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark; Nelson, Brett D; Burke, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. After developing a working definition of 'peace' and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual's level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions.

  6. [Measuring job satisfaction: development of a multidimensional scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraci, Palmira; Valenti, Giusy

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been done on the topic ofjob satisfaction, as regards the Italian research, the construction of specific psychometric instruments is lacking. The present paper is aimed to develop a scale to measure job satisfaction referring to our cultural context. Participants were 222 workers (36.5% males, 63.5% females) with an average age of 38.39 years (SD = 10.91). The formulated items were selected from a large item pool on the basis of the evaluation by a group of expert judges, and the item analysis procedure. In order to establish test validity, the following instruments were also administered: Occupational Stress Indicator, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and Beck Depression Inventory. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses highlighted a 6-factor structure. Those factors were responsible for 51.30% of the total variance. Reliability analyses indicated satisfying internal consistency (ranging from alpha = .73 to alpha = .86). Construct validity was supported by results obtained calculating correlations with the theoretically associated variables. Our findings suggest promising psychometric properties for the presented measure. The instrument could be used in specific programs developed to promote well-being conditions in work settings.

  7. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  8. Development of a continuous aerosol mass concentration measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bémer, D; Thomas, D; Contal, P; Subra, I

    2003-08-01

    A dynamic aerosol mass concentration measurement device has been developed for personal sampling. Its principle consists in sampling the aerosol on a filter and monitoring the change of pressure drop over time (Delta P). Ensuring that the linearity of the Delta P = f(mass of particles per unit area of filter) relationship has been well established, the change of concentration can be deduced. The response of the system was validated in the laboratory with a 3.5 microm alumina aerosol (mass median diameter) generated inside a 1-m(3) ventilated enclosure. As the theory predicted that the mass sensitivity of the system would vary inversely with the square of the particle diameter, only sufficiently fine aerosols were able to be measured. The system was tested in the field in a mechanical workshop in the vicinity of an arc-welding station. The aerosol produced by welding is indeed particularly well-adapted due to the sub-micronic size of the particles. The device developed, despite this limitation, has numerous advantages over other techniques: robustness, compactness, reliability of calibration, and ease of use.

  9. Developments in wireline in-situ rock stress measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedroso, Carlos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canas, Jesus A.; Holzberg, Bruno; Gmach, Helmut [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents recent developments of in-situ stress measurements with wireline tools. The stress measurements are based on the micro hydraulic techniques that can be initialized when an interval is pressurized by pumping fluid until a tensile fracture begins or by packers fracturing (sleeve fracturing). Ultrasonic and Micro-resistivity borehole image logs (before and after the testes) are used as a complement, in order to observe the fractures created by the tests, evaluating the mechanical behavior of the formation. An offshore case study is presented, where shales and tight sandstones at depths deeper than 4500 meters depth were successfully evaluated. A workflow to succeed on stress measurements on such environments is proposed, what includes a planning phase: where breakdown pressures ranges are estimated and compared with the capacity of the tools, a Real Time Monitoring phase, where a decision tree is proposed to help on quick decisions while testing, and an interpretation phase, where appropriate techniques are indicated to evaluate the results. Also, the paper presents the main operational needs to succeed on such environments. Basically, such tests require an entirely software controlled, motorized and modular design tool consisting of dual packer (DP), pump out and flow control modules (Figure 1). These modules were upgraded for the present environment: conditions such as temperatures above 300 deg F, formation pressures above 10,000 psia, very low formation permeability, high pressure differential need and oil based mud (OBM) environment. (author)

  10. Development of the emergency physician job satisfaction measurement instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, S; Streiner, D; Hahn, E; Shannon, S

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the job satisfaction of physicians practicing emergency medicine. A prospective survey involving four separate stages (an item evaluation and reduction stage, a factor analysis stage, a construct validity stage, and a reliability stage) was distributed in Canada to full-time emergency physicians. Three separate survey instruments were administered (an initial draft instrument with 228 items, a pilot instrument with 142 items, and the final instrument with 79 items). Construct validity of the final instrument was tested by evaluating the correlation between physician scores on the instrument, and scores on two instruments measuring the same construct, and three measuring different but related constructs. A draft instrument with 228 items and six hypothetical domains was tested on 61 physicians. Evaluation for frequency endorsement, redundancy, and homogeneity reduced the item pool to 157. The remaining 157 items were used as a pilot instrument and tested on 223 physicians. Factor analysis eliminated 66 items from the pilot instrument, creating a final instrument with 79 items, 11 factors, and six domains. Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the final instrument domains is 0.81, and all domain-total correlations are greater than 0.4. All correlations between the final instrument and the construct validity instruments were statistically significant (P job satisfaction, which is both internally consistent and stable.

  11. MEASUREMENT PROCESS OF SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS FOR SUPPORTING STRATEGIC BUSINESS OBJECTIVES IN SOFTWARE DEVELOPING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lais Pedroso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Software developing companies work in a competitive market and are often challenged to make business decisions with impact on competitiveness. Models accessing maturity for software development processes quality, such as CMMI and MPS-BR, comprise process measurements systems (PMS. However, these models are not necessarily suitable to support business decisions, neither to achieve strategic goals. The objective of this work is to analyze how the PMS of software development projects could support business strategies for software developing companies. Results taken from this work show that PMS results from maturity models for software processes can be suited to help evaluating operating capabilities and supporting strategic business decisions.

  12. Technology Development for Radiation Dose Measurement and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Hwan; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The correction factors essential for the operation of In-Vivo counting system were produced and implemented into a field operation for the improvement of accuracy in measurement of the radioactivity inside a human body. The BiDAS2007 code which calculate an internal dose was developed by upgrading the former code prepared in the previous stage of this project. The method of using the multibioassy data, the maximum likelihood function and the Bayesian statistics were established to an internal dose based on the measurement data of radioactivity, intakes and retention of radioactivity in a human body and it can improve the accuracy in estimation of the intakes of radioactivity and the committed effective dose equivalent. In order to solve the problem of low detection efficiency of the conventional Bonner Sphere (BS) to a high energy neutron, the extended BS's were manufactured and the technique for neutron field spectrometry was established. The fast neutron and gamma spectrometry system with a BC501A scintillation detector was also prepared. Several neutron fluence spectra at several nuclear facilities were measured and collected by using the extended BS. The spectrum weighted responses of some neutron monitoring instruments were also derived by using these spectra and the detector response functions. A high efficient TL material for the neutron personal dosimeter was developed. It solved the main problem of low thermal stability and high residual dose of the commercial TLDs and has the sensitivity to neutron and to gamma radiation with 40 and 10 times higher respectively than them.

  13. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions.

  14. Measuring peer caring behaviors of nursing students: scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chien-Lin; Turton, Michael A; Lee-Hsieh, Jane; Tseng, Hung-Fu; Hsu, Chin-Lung

    2007-01-01

    Caring is one of the most important domains of nursing research, peer caring among student nurses, and its potential effects on nurse caring behaviors remains largely unexplored. Few tools in the literature target peer caring interactions, and which were either irrelevant to our research purpose or culturally inappropriate for nursing student population in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop a culturally sensitive instrument to measure peer caring behavior from the student perspective and to offer a descriptive answer to "what is peer caring in Taiwan." The study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods in developing the "Peer Caring Measurement (PCM)" questionnaire. Students from a 5-year associate degree nursing program in a university of technology in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Thirteen first- through fourth-year student volunteers between the ages of 16 and 20 were interviewed to explore caring behavior in student peer-to-peer interactions. Two classes from each of the first, second, third, and fourth year students, a total of 360 students were randomly selected to assess the internal consistency of "PCM", and 47 first-year students were conveniently selected to examine the stability of the tool. Interviews were conducted in an unstructured manner. Qualitative data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. The questionnaire survey was used to assess the validity and reliability of "PCM". A 17-item "PCM" was developed; the content validity, construct validity, and reliability of the tool were ensured by expert review, factor analysis, and internal consistency. Three factors, labeled assistant caring, academic caring, and affective caring, accounted for 63.197% of the variance. The "PCM" addressed the multidimensional construct of peer caring. It was validated in a Chinese language version and can be used in college settings to evaluate student interactions and their peer caring behaviors.

  15. How to misinterpret photosynthesis measurements and develop incorrect ecosystem models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Iain Colin

    2017-04-01

    It is becoming widely accepted than current land ecosystem models (dynamic global vegetation models and land-surface models) rest on shaky foundations and are in need of rebuilding, taking advantage of huge data resources that were hardly conceivable when these models were first developed. It has also become almost a truism that next-generation model development should involve observationalists, experimentalists and modellers working more closely together. What is currently lacking, however, is open discussion of specific problems in the structure of current models, and how they might have arisen. Such a discussion is important if the same mistakes are not to be perpetuated in a new generation of models. I will focus on the central processes governing leaf-level gas exchange, which powers the land carbon and water cycles. I will show that a broad area of confusion exists - as much in the empirical ecophysiological literature as in modelling research - concerning the interpretation of gas-exchange measurements and (especially) their scaling up from the narrow temporal and spatial scales of laboratory measurements to the broad-scale research questions linked to global environmental change. In particular, I will provide examples (drawing on a variety of published and unpublished observations) that illustrate the benefits of taking a "plant-centred" view, showing how consideration of optimal acclimation challenges many (often untstated) assumptions about the relationship of plant and ecosystem processes to environmental variation. (1) Photosynthesis is usually measured at light saturation (implying Rubisco limitation), leading to temperature and CO2 responses that are completely different from those of gross primary production (GPP) under field conditions. (2) The actual rate of electron transport under field conditions depends strongly on the intrinsic quantum efficiency, which is temperature-independent (within a broad range) and unrelated to the maximum electron

  16. Diffusion processes satisfying a conservation law constraint

    CERN Document Server

    Bakosi, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have di...

  17. Absolute poverty measures for the developing world, 1981-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Ravallion, Martin

    2007-10-23

    We report new estimates of measures of absolute poverty for the developing world for the period 1981-2004. A clear trend decline in the percentage of people who are absolutely poor is evident, although with uneven progress across regions. We find more mixed success in reducing the total number of poor. Indeed, the developing world outside China has seen little or no sustained progress in reducing the number of poor, with rising poverty counts in some regions, notably sub-Saharan Africa. There are encouraging signs of progress in all regions after 2000, although it is too early to say whether this is a new trend. We also summarize results from estimating a new series incorporating an allowance for the higher cost of living facing poor people in urban areas. This reveals a marked urbanization of poverty in the developing world, which is stronger in some regions than others, although it remains that three-quarters of the poor live in rural areas.

  18. A Hybrid Fuzzy Model for Lean Product Development Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osezua Aikhuele, Daniel; Mohd Turan, Faiz

    2016-02-01

    In the effort for manufacturing companies to meet up with the emerging consumer demands for mass customized products, many are turning to the application of lean in their product development process, and this is gradually moving from being a competitive advantage to a necessity. However, due to lack of clear understanding of the lean performance measurements, many of these companies are unable to implement and fully integrated the lean principle into their product development process. Extensive literature shows that only few studies have focus systematically on the lean product development performance (LPDP) evaluation. In order to fill this gap, the study therefore proposed a novel hybrid model based on Fuzzy Reasoning Approach (FRA), and the extension of Fuzzy-AHP and Fuzzy-TOPSIS methods for the assessment of the LPDP. Unlike the existing methods, the model considers the importance weight of each of the decision makers (Experts) since the performance criteria/attributes are required to be rated, and these experts have different level of expertise. The rating is done using a new fuzzy Likert rating scale (membership-scale) which is designed such that it can address problems resulting from information lost/distortion due to closed-form scaling and the ordinal nature of the existing Likert scale.

  19. Developing measurement concepts within context: Children's representations of length

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Amy; Lowrie, Tom

    2011-03-01

    This article presents data gathered from an investigation which focused on the experiences children have with measurement in the early years of schooling. The focus of this article is children's understandings of length at this early stage. 32 children aged 4-6 years at an Australian primary school were asked to draw a ruler and describe their drawing, once in February at the beginning of school, and again in November towards the end of their first year of school. The drawings and their accompanying descriptions are classified within a matrix which, informed by Bronfenbrenner's ecological theory and literature regarding the development of length concepts, considers conceptual understanding and contextual richness. The responses revealed that children have a good understanding of length at the start of school, but that as their ability to contextualise develops so too does their conceptual understanding. This article suggests that participation in tasks such as these allows children to create their own understandings of length in meaningful ways. Additionally, the task and its matrix of analysis provide an assessment strategy for identifying children's understandings about length and the contexts in which these understandings develop.

  20. Theory of constraints for publicly funded health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat, Somayeh; Carter, Michael W; Golden, Brian

    2013-03-01

    Originally developed in the context of publicly traded for-profit companies, theory of constraints (TOC) improves system performance through leveraging the constraint(s). While the theory seems to be a natural fit for resource-constrained publicly funded health systems, there is a lack of literature addressing the modifications required to adopt TOC and define the goal and performance measures. This paper develops a system dynamics representation of the classical TOC's system-wide goal and performance measures for publicly traded for-profit companies, which forms the basis for developing a similar model for publicly funded health systems. The model is then expanded to include some of the factors that affect system performance, providing a framework to apply TOC's process of ongoing improvement in publicly funded health systems. Future research is required to more accurately define the factors affecting system performance and populate the model with evidence-based estimates for various parameters in order to use the model to guide TOC's process of ongoing improvement.

  1. Development and Characterization of a Thermodenuder for Aerosol Volatility Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Timothy Onasch

    2009-09-09

    This SBIR Phase I project addressed the critical need for improved characterization of carbonaceous aerosol species in the atmosphere. The proposed work focused on the development of a thermodenuder (TD) system capable of systematically measuring volatility profiles of primary and secondary organic aerosol species and providing insight into the effects of absorbing and nonabsorbing organic coatings on particle absorption properties. This work provided the fundamental framework for the generation of essential information needed for improved predictions of ambient aerosol loadings and radiative properties by atmospheric chemistry models. As part of this work, Aerodyne Research, Inc. (ARI) continued to develop and test, with the final objective of commercialization, an improved thermodenuder system that can be used in series with any aerosol instrument or suite of instruments (e.g., aerosol mass spectrometers-AMS, scanning mobility particle sizers-SMPS, photoacoustic absorption spectrometers-PAS, etc.) to obtain aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties as a function of particle volatility. In particular, we provided the proof of concept for the direct coupling of our improved TD design with a full microphysical model to obtain volatility profiles for different organic aerosol components and to allow for meaningful comparisons between different TD-derived aerosol measurements. In a TD, particles are passed through a heated zone and a denuding (activated charcoal) zone to remove semi-volatile material. Changes in particle size, number concentration, optical absorption, and chemical composition are subsequently detected with aerosol instrumentation. The aerosol volatility profiles provided by the TD will strengthen organic aerosol emission inventories, provide further insight into secondary aerosol formation mechanisms, and provide an important measure of particle absorption (including brown carbon contributions and identification, and absorption enhancements

  2. Multi-species measurements of nitrogen isotopic composition reveal the spatial constraints and biological drivers of ammonium attenuation across a highly contaminated groundwater system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Naomi S; Hakoun, Vivien; Brouyère, Serge; Knöller, Kay

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater under industrial sites is characterised by heterogeneous chemical mixtures, making it difficult to assess the fate and transport of individual contaminants. Quantifying the in-situ biological removal (attenuation) of nitrogen (N) is particularly difficult due to its reactivity and ubiquity. Here a multi-isotope approach is developed to distinguish N sources and sinks within groundwater affected by complex industrial pollution. Samples were collected from 70 wells across the two aquifers underlying a historic industrial area in Belgium. Below the industrial site the groundwater contained up to 1000 mg N l(-1) ammonium (NH4(+)) and 300 mg N l(-1) nitrate (NO3(-)), while downgradient concentrations decreased to ∼1 mg l(-1) DIN ([DIN] = [NH4(+)N] + [NO3(-)N] + [NO2(-)N]). Mean δ(15)N-DIN increased from ∼2‰ to +20‰ over this flow path, broadly confirming that biological N attenuation drove the measured concentration decrease. Multi-variate analysis of water chemistry identified two distinct NH4(+) sources (δ(15)NNH4(+) from -14‰ and +5‰) within the contaminated zone of both aquifers. Nitrate dual isotopes co-varied (δ(15)N: -3‰ - +60‰; δ(18)O: 0‰ - +50‰) within the range expected for coupled nitrification and denitrification of the identified sources. The fact that δ(15)NNO2(-) values were 50‰-20‰ less than δ(15)NNH4(+) values in the majority of wells confirmed that nitrification controlled N turnover across the site. However, the fact that δ(15)NNO2(-) was greater than δ(15)NNH4(+) in wells with the highest [NH4(+)] shows that an autotrophic NO2(-) reduction pathway (anaerobic NH4(+) oxidation or nitrifier-denitrification) drove N attenuation closest to the contaminant plume. This direct empirical evidence that both autotrophic and heterotrophic biogeochemical processes drive N attenuation in contaminated aquifers demonstrates the power of multiple N isotopes to untangle N cycling in highly complex

  3. Connecting Stuttering Management and Measurement: V. Deduction and Induction in the Development of Stuttering Treatment Outcome Measures and Stuttering Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Background: The development of evidence-based practice, which is increasingly popular in stuttering treatment, is closely linked to the development of outcome measures. Aims: Two approaches to the development of stuttering treatment outcome measures are outlined. The first is the deductive, top-down approach, where the development of specific…

  4. The photogrammetric inner constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermanis, Athanasios

    A derivation of the complete inner constraints, which are required for obtaining "free network" solutions in close-range photogrammetry, is presented. The inner constraints are derived analytically for the bundle method, by exploiting the fact that the rows of their coefficient matrix from a basis for the null subspace of the design matrix used in the linearized observation equations. The derivation is independent of any particular choice of rotational parameters and examples are given for three types of rotation angles used in photogrammetry, as well as for the Rodriguez elements. A convenient algorithm based on the use of the S-transformation is presented, for the computation of free solutions with either inner or partial inner constraints. This approach is finally compared with alternative approaches to free network solutions.

  5. Constraint algebra in bigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V. O., E-mail: Vladimir.Soloviev@ihep.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Institute for High Energy Physics (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.

  6. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what...

  7. Development of Optical Fiber Sensor for Water Quality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, A. F.; MatJafri, M. Z.

    2008-05-01

    The development of water quality fiber sensor through spectroscopy analysis utilizes the emission of incident light and detection of backscattered light through fiber optic cables as key elements of the design. The system has the capability to detect the light scattered 180° away from the incident light when there is an interaction between the light and the solids suspended in the water. The empirical analysis is conducted for the measurement of the capacity of clay suspended in water (in mg/L). The system consists of two separate light detector circuitry that is sensitive to blue (470 nm) and red (635 nm) monochromatic light. The heart of the system is the sensor, TSLB257 and TSLR257 that having a peak response at wavelength of 470 nm and 635 nm respectively. The final result of detection is submitted to Basic Stamp 2 microcontroller for processing and analysis. The level of turbidity is then defined and displayed by the microcontroller.

  8. Metacognitive planning: development and validation of an online measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Du, Han; Zhu, Ze; Li, Yi Ming

    2015-03-01

    Planning is the critical first stage of metacognition. Although it has long been emphasized theoretically, it has not been the subject of much empirical study due to the lack of a valid assessment tool. Because planning is a metacognitive process, online methods that collect data during task performance would much better capture it. The present study was conducted to develop an online measure of metacognitive planning. Researchers designed a puzzle task that took the form of the popular game Sokoban, and the ratio between planning time and total time of each item was chosen as the metacognitive planning index. The task was administered to a heterogeneous sample of 440 participants composed of college students as well as 5th-, 7th-, and 10th-grade students. The results showed that valid inference could be made from the time ratio score. Cronbach's alpha and test-retest correlation provided robust evidence of reliability of the time ratio score. Confirmatory factor analysis further confirmed its unidimensionality. Validity evidence also supported the use of the time ratio score. After controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, and motivation, the time ratio score still accounted for a significant proportion of variance of Sokoban performance, the Tower of London performance, and academic achievement. The time ratio score was also found to increase with age. Taken together, the results of the study revealed that the time ratio is a psychometrically sound online measure of metacognitive planning. 2015 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Constraints as evolutionary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    The constraint equations for smooth $[n+1]$-dimensional (with $n\\geq 3$) Riemannian or Lorentzian spaces satisfying the Einstein field equations are considered. It is shown, regardless of the signature of the primary space, that the constraints can be put into the form of an evolutionary system comprised either by a first order symmetric hyperbolic system and a parabolic equation or, alternatively, by a strongly hyperbolic system and a subsidiary algebraic relation. In both cases the (local) existence and uniqueness of solutions are also discussed.

  10. Implementation of Complex Projects Using Constraint Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Strak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the implementation of the complex projects, all planned activities and resources must be taken into account. In general, it is necessary to assign the resources to the activities, but to also avoid simultaneous engagement of resources for multiple activities. In order to solve these problems, various techniques and methods are used. Mathematic and integer programming, genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, or taboo search are just some of the techniques used for solving this problem. Constraint programming comes from artificial intelligence i.e. papers from this area that occurred in 1960s and 1970s. Constraints exist in every segment of human environment. They represent a natural medium for expressing relations that exist in the physical world. Fulfilment of constraints is used in many different areas. Problems such as scheduling, allocations etc. are typical examples of constraints problems, where the basic concept of constraint programming can be applied. This paper considered implementation of the Bor Regional Development Project. Development of constraint programming was followed by the development of appropriate tools. B-Prolog was used in this paper. Many systems, including B-Prolog, enable interface with classic object-oriented languages, such as C++ or Java. One of the greatest advantages is the possibility of simple modelling, even for beginners in planning and implementation of the project.

  11. E-MODULE DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SUBJECT OF MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENT IN ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuryake Fajaryati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop an e-module as a medium of learning for the practice course of Measuring Instruments and Measurement in the Department of Electronics Engineering Education of Yogyakarta State University and to determine the feasibility of the e-module. This study employed a method of research and development. The development process was conducted through four phases by using the model of Lee and Owens which consisted of analysis phase, design phase, developing and implementation phase, as well as evaluation phase.The evaluation was conducted in several stages. Firstly, an alpha test for product validation was conducted by the experts on material and media. After that, a beta test was conducted by testing the product in small group users. The subjects of this study were the students of Electronics Engineering. The instruments used to collect the data were a validation sheet and questionnaires. The results of qualitative data were then modified into quantitative data with a range of 1 to 5, then they were converted with a rating scale to determine the feasibility of the medium. The results showed that based on the alpha test, the medium was in a very high quality. Meanwhile, in the beta test of the instructional aspect, in terms of material and evaluation and the multimedia aspect the e-module was respectively considered feasible and quite feasible. The four indicators namely text, image, animation and video were all generally considered feasible. In terms of usage aspect, the e-module was considered feasible where its two indicators, namely instructions and navigation, were generally regarded as very feasible by all respondents.

  12. Strength of the HRM system: The development of a measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Pinto Coelho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to operationalize the construct Strength of the HRM System theoretically defined by Bowen and Ostroff (2004 as a set of process metafeatures to convey signals to employees about desired and appropriate work behaviors, as well as to develop and validate a questionnaire to measure it, the HRMSQ. Design/methodology/approach: Three studies contribute to this purpose. In the first study we develop a questionnaire and test it with employees from several organizations. In the second study we applied the refined questionnaire in a sample of employees from a large company, and assessed different types of validity. The final study replicated results from the second study. Findings: Psychometric properties reveal good internal consistency reliability, item reliability and construct reliability, as well as convergent and discriminant validity. Pratical implications: Results indicate that the HRMSQ can be used in the study of HR strategy and for HR manager. Originaly/value: The HRMSQ is a friendly instrument that can help HR practitioners to assess whether the HRM system is unambiguously perceived by employees, and identify possible problem areas in terms of the implementation process. It also contributes to research in the strategic HRM field by operationalizing a construct that is likely to improve the understanding of the link between the HRM System and organizational performance.

  13. Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA: Development and Psychometric Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ghanbari

    Full Text Available Health literacy refers to personal competencies for the access to, understanding of, appraisal of and application of health information in order to make sound decisions in everyday life. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of an instrument for the measurement of health literacy among adolescents (the Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents-HELMA.This study was made up of two phases, qualitative and quantitative, which were carried out in 2012-2014 in Tehran, Iran. In the qualitative part of the study, in-depth interviews with 67 adolescents aged 15-18 were carried out in 4 high schools to generate the initial item pool for the survey. The content validity of the items was then assessed by an expert panel review (n = 13 and face validity was assessed by interviewing adolescents (n = 16. In the quantitative part of the study, in order to describe the psychometric properties of the scale, validity, reliability (internal consistency and test-retest and factor analysis were assessed.An item pool made up of 104 items was generated at the qualitative stage. After content validity was considered, this decreased to 47 items. In the quantitative stage, 582 adolescents aged 15-18 participated in the study with a mean age of 16.2 years. 51.2% of participants were females. In principal component factor analysis, 8 factors were loaded, which accounted for 53.37% of the variance observed. Reliability has been approved by α = 0.93 and the test-retest of the scale at two-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the scale (ICC = 0.93. The final questionnaire was approved with 44 items split into eight sections. The sections were titled: gain access to, reading, understanding, appraise, use, communication, self-efficacy and numeracy.The Health Literacy Measure for Adolescents (HELMA is a valid and reliable tool for the measurement of the health literacy of adolescents aged 15-18 and can be used to evaluate

  14. Measurements of the jet and vector boson in association with jets production, extraction of αs and PDF constraints at CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Imperio Giulia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present CMS results about measurements of cross sections for jet production, which allow basic tests of perturbative QCD predictions. Results include recent jet, dijet, and multijet differential cross sections, and hadronic event shape measurements in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, using data collected in the CMS experiment. Total and differential cross section measurements of vector bosons production in association with jets and heavy flavour quarks are also presented. The experimental results are compared to leading and next-to-leading order calculations, both at parton level and in event generators where matrix element calculations are interfaced with parton showers. Recent CMS results related to the extraction of the strong coupling constant and extraction of αS and PDF are discussed.

  15. Measurement of confidence: the development and psychometric evaluation of a stroke-specific, measure of confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Jane C; Lincoln, Nadina B; Logan, Pip A

    2017-04-01

    To design, develop and psychometrically evaluate a stroke-specific measure of confidence, the Confidence after Stroke Measure (CaSM). Cross-sectional. Adults in the community. Stroke survivors and healthy elderly participants. Questionnaire items were generated based on the literature and qualitative interviews and piloted with expert groups to establish face validity. A 53-item CaSM was administered to stroke survivors and healthy elderly participants in the community. A second copy was posted four weeks later. Completed questionnaires were analysed for extreme responses, missing values, construct validity (factor analysis), convergent validity, divergent validity, reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability) and comparing responses according to age and gender. Stroke ( n = 101) and healthy elderly participants ( n = 101) returned questionnaires. Eight items were removed that had extreme responses and large numbers of missing values. Six items had item total correlations Confidence, Positive Attitude and Social Confidence, which explained 52% of variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient demonstrated good internal consistency ( α = 0.94). A test re-test on the 27 items indicated good temporal stability ( r = 0.85, P = 0.001). The 27-item CaSM was a valid and reliable measure for assessing confidence in stroke survivors.

  16. Measurement of Time-Dependent CP Asymmetries and Constraints on sin(2beta+gamma) with Partial Reconstruction of B0 -> D*-+ pi+- Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; Mommsen, R K; Röthel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Gary, J W; Layter, J; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Erwin, R J; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; 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    2003-01-01

    We present a measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in decays of neutral B mesons to the final states D*-+ pi+-, using approximately 82 million B B bar events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e+ e- storage ring. Events containing these decays are selected with a partial reconstruction technique, in which only the high-momentum pi+- from the B decay and the low-momentum pi-+ from the D*-+ decay are used. We measure the amplitude of the asymmetry to be -0.063 +- 0.024(stat.) +- 0.014(syst.) and compute bounds on |sin(2beta + gamma)|.

  17. Biogeochemical constraints on the origin of methane in an alluvial aquifer: evidence for the upward migration of methane from underlying coal measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Beckmann, Sabrina; Cendón, Dioni I.; Manefield, Mike; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2017-01-01

    Geochemical and microbiological indicators of methane (CH4) production, oxidation and migration processes in groundwater are important to understand when attributing sources of gas. The processes controlling the natural occurrence of CH4 in groundwater must be understood, especially when considering the potential impacts of the global expansion of coal seam gas (CSG) production on groundwater quality and quantity. We use geochemical and microbiological data, along with measurements of CH4 isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), to determine the processes acting upon CH4 in a freshwater alluvial aquifer that directly overlies coal measures targeted for CSG production in Australia. Measurements of CH4 indicate that there is biogenic CH4 in the aquifer; however, microbial data indicate that there are no methanogenic archaea in the groundwater. In addition, geochemical data, particularly the isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as well as the concentration of SO42-, indicate limited potential for methanogenesis in situ. Microbial community analysis also shows that aerobic oxidation of CH4 occurs in the alluvial aquifer. The combination of microbiological and geochemical indicators suggests that the most likely source of CH4, where it was present in the freshwater aquifer, is the upward migration of CH4 from the underlying coal measures.

  18. Constraints on N2O budget changes since pre-industrial time from new firn air and ice core isotope measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernard, S.; Röckmann, T.; Kaiser, J.; Barnola, j.m.; Fischer, H; Blunier, T.; Chappellaz, J.

    2006-01-01

    A historical record of changes in the N2O isotope composition is important for a better understanding of the global N2O atmospheric budget. Here we have combined measurements of trapped gases in the firn and in ice cores of one Arctic site (North GReenland Ice core Project – NGRIP) and one Antarctic

  19. Constraint Optimization Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    COPs. 15. SUBJECT TERMS high-performance computing, mobile ad hoc network, optimization, constraint, satisfaction 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...France): INRA Editions; 1996. p. 111–150. Black PE. Branch-and-bound. US national institute of standards and technology dictionary of algorithms

  20. Measuring higher cognitive development in anatomy and physiology students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher

    To estimate the higher cognitive development of college science students, performance on lecture exams at different cognitive levels was measured in a two-semester sequence of anatomy and physiology at Idaho State University. Lecture exams consisted of multiple-choice test items, each classified at various cognitive levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. These included the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels. The investigation comprised students who completed both semesters from the same instructor during the same academic year. Data was collected on two separate cohorts of students. One completed the sequence during 1998--1999 and the other during the 1999--2000 school year. Student performance was assessed on four exams each semester, for a total of eight exams each year of the study. Based on preliminary analysis of the 1998--1999 data, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was incorporated as an independent and discipline-neutral measure of higher-level thinking. The CCTST was administered during the beginning, middle, and end of the 1999--2000 school year. Two years of data analysis confirmed the cumulative hierarchical relationship of the knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis levels of the taxonomy. Performance at successively higher cognitive levels was significantly and consistently lower than at preceding levels. Higher-level thinking was substantially more difficult for students than lower-level thinking. Students averaged 73% at the knowledge level and 53% at the application and analysis levels on lecture exams. No improvement in higher-level thinking was detected at either the application and analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy or on the CCTST over two semesters. The ability to detect improvement was likely complicated by varying exam topics and a lack of student motivation on the CCTST. The results of this investigation highlight the need for higher cognitive development across the curriculum. The findings have

  1. Measurement of vector boson scattering and constraints on anomalous quartic couplings from events with four leptons and two jets in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.

    2017-08-09

    A measurement of vector boson scattering and constraints on anomalous quartic gauge couplings from events with two Z bosons and two jets are presented. The analysis is based on a data sample of proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV collected with the CMS detector and corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 inverse-femtobarns. The search is performed in the fully leptonic final state ZZ to lll'l', where l, l' = e, mu. The electroweak production of two Z bosons in association with two jets is measured with an observed (expected) significance of 2.7 (1.6) standard deviations. A fiducial cross section for the electroweak production is measured to be sigma[EW]( pp -> ZZjj -> lll'l'jj ) = 0.40 -0.16 +0.21 (stat) -0.09 +0.13 (syst) fb, which is consistent with the standard model prediction. Limits on anomalous quartic gauge couplings are determined in terms of the effective field theory operators T0, T1, T2, T8, and T9. This is the first measurement of vector boson scattering in the ZZ channel at the LHC.

  2. Measurement of the pp $\\to$ ZZ production cross section and constraints on anomalous triple gauge couplings in four-lepton final states at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

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Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Calpas, Betty; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Friederike; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Gosselink, Martijn; Haller, Johannes; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Gouskos, Loukas; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Verwilligen, Piet; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pegoraro, Matteo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Ventura, Sandro; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Golutvin, Igor; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Korenkov, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Mitsyn, Valeri Valentinovitch; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Tikhonenko, Elena; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Bunichev, Viacheslav; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Dordevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Kilminster, Benjamin; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Bahtiyar, Hüseyin; Barlas, Esra; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarli, Fuat Ilkehan; Yücel, Mete; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; 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