WorldWideScience

Sample records for constraining sudden future

  1. Liquidity constrained exporters: Trade and futures hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Broll, Udo; Wahl, Jack E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a model of risk averse exporting firm subject to liquidity constraints. The firm enters an unbiased futuresmarket to hedge exchange rate risk and may not be able to satisfy high margin calls. Then the firm is forced toprematurely liquidate the futures position. We show that preferences and expectations become important for optimumexport and hedging decisions, i.e. separation theorem and full hedge theorem are violated. Furthermore, internationaltrade is affected, for only firms tha...

  2. Big-Rip, Sudden Future, and other exotic singularities in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P

    2016-01-01

    We discuss exotic singularities in the evolution of the universe motivated by the progress of observations in cosmology. Among them there are: Big-Rip (BR), Sudden Future Singularities (SFS), Generalized Sudden Future Singularities (GSFS), Finite Density Singularities (FD), type III, and type IV singularities. We relate some of these singularities with higher-order characteristics of expansion such as jerk and snap. We also discuss the behaviour of pointlike objects and classical strings on the approach to these singularities.

  3. Constraining interacting dark energy with CMB and BAO future surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Larissa; Zhao, Wen; Ferreira, Elisa G. M.; Quintin, Jerome

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we perform a forecast analysis to test the capacity of future baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to constrain phenomenological interacting dark energy models using the Fisher matrix formalism. We consider a Euclid-like experiment, in which BAO measurements are one of the main goals, to constrain the cosmological parameters of alternative cosmological models. Moreover, additional experimental probes can more efficiently provide information on the parameters forecast, justifying also the inclusion in the analysis of a future ground-based CMB experiment mainly designed to measure the polarization signal with high precision. In the interacting dark energy scenario, a coupling between dark matter and dark energy modifies the conservation equations such that the fluid equations for both constituents are conserved as the total energy density of the dark sector. In this context, we consider three phenomenological models that have been deeply investigated in literature over the past years. We find that the combination of both CMB and BAO information can break degeneracies among the dark sector parameters for all three models, although to different extents. We find powerful constraints on, for example, the coupling constant when comparing it with present limits for two of the models, and their future statistical 3 σ bounds could potentially exclude the null interaction for the combination of probes that is considered. However, for one of the models, the constraint on the coupling parameter does not improve the present result (achieved using a large combination of surveys), and a larger combination of probes appears to be necessary to eventually claim whether or not interaction is favored in that context.

  4. The 12-lead electrocardiogram and risk of sudden death: current utility and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Chugh, Sumeet S

    2015-10-01

    More than 100 years after it was first invented, the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) continues to occupy an important place in the diagnostic armamentarium of the practicing clinician. With the recognition of relatively rare but important clinical entities such as Wolff-Parkinson-White and the long QT syndrome, this clinical tool was firmly established as a test for assessing risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, over the past two decades the role of the ECG in risk prediction for common forms of SCD, for example in patients with coronary artery disease, has been the focus of considerable investigation. Especially in light of the limitations of current risk stratification approaches, there is a renewed focus on this broadly available and relatively inexpensive test. Various abnormalities of depolarization and repolarization on the ECG have been linked to SCD risk; however, more focused work is needed before they can be deployed in the clinical arena. The present review summarizes the current knowledge on various ECG risk markers for prediction of SCD and discusses some future directions in this field. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Uncertain future soil carbon dynamics under global change predicted by models constrained by total carbon measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Sun, Osbert J

    2017-04-01

    Pool-based carbon (C) models are widely applied to predict soil C dynamics under global change and infer underlying mechanisms. However, it is unclear about the credibility of model-predicted C pool size, decay rate (k), and/or microbial C use efficiency (e) as only data on bulked total C is usually available for model constraining. Using observing system simulation experiments (OSSE), we constrained a two-pool model using simulated data sets of total soil C dynamics under topical hypotheses on responses of soil C dynamics to warming and elevated CO2 (i.e., global change scenarios). The results indicated that the model predicted great uncertainties in C pool size, k, and e under all global change scenarios, resulting in the difficulty to correctly infer the presupposed "real" values of those parameters that are used to generate the simulated total soil C for constraining the model. Furthermore, the model using the constrained parameters generated divergent future soil C dynamics. Compared with the predictions using the presupposed real parameters (i.e., the real future C dynamics), the percentage uncertainty in 100-yr predictions using the constrained parameters was up to 45% depending on global change scenarios and data availability for model-constraining. Such great uncertainty was mainly due to the high collinearity among the model parameters. Using pool-based models, we argue that soil C pool size, k, and/or e and their responses to global change have to be estimated explicitly and empirically, rather than through model-fitting, in order to accurately predict C dynamics and infer underlying mechanisms. The OSSE approach provides a powerful way to identify data requirement for the new generation of model development and test model performance. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  6. Using palaeo-climate comparisons to constrain future projections in CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. A.; Annan, J. D.; Bartlein, P. J.; Cook, B. I.; Guilyardi, E.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Harrison, S. P.; Kageyama, M.; LeGrande, A. N.; Konecky, B.; Lovejoy, S.; Mann, M. E.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Risi, C.; Thompson, D.; Timmermann, A.; Tremblay, L.-B.; Yiou, P.

    2014-02-01

    We present a selection of methodologies for using the palaeo-climate model component of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (Phase 5) (CMIP5) to attempt to constrain future climate projections using the same models. The constraints arise from measures of skill in hindcasting palaeo-climate changes from the present over three periods: the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 000 yr before present, ka), the mid-Holocene (MH) (6 ka) and the Last Millennium (LM) (850-1850 CE). The skill measures may be used to validate robust patterns of climate change across scenarios or to distinguish between models that have differing outcomes in future scenarios. We find that the multi-model ensemble of palaeo-simulations is adequate for addressing at least some of these issues. For example, selected benchmarks for the LGM and MH are correlated to the rank of future projections of precipitation/temperature or sea ice extent to indicate that models that produce the best agreement with palaeo-climate information give demonstrably different future results than the rest of the models. We also explore cases where comparisons are strongly dependent on uncertain forcing time series or show important non-stationarity, making direct inferences for the future problematic. Overall, we demonstrate that there is a strong potential for the palaeo-climate simulations to help inform the future projections and urge all the modelling groups to complete this subset of the CMIP5 runs.

  7. Using Paleo-climate Comparisons to Constrain Future Projections in CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. A.; Annan, J D.; Bartlein, P. J.; Cook, B. I.; Guilyardi, E.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Harrison, S. P.; Kageyama, M.; LeGrande, A. N..; Konecky, B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a description of the theoretical framework and best practice for using the paleo-climate model component of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (Phase 5) (CMIP5) to constrain future projections of climate using the same models. The constraints arise from measures of skill in hindcasting paleo-climate changes from the present over 3 periods: the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (21 thousand years before present, ka), the mid-Holocene (MH) (6 ka) and the Last Millennium (LM) (8501850 CE). The skill measures may be used to validate robust patterns of climate change across scenarios or to distinguish between models that have differing outcomes in future scenarios. We find that the multi-model ensemble of paleo-simulations is adequate for addressing at least some of these issues. For example, selected benchmarks for the LGM and MH are correlated to the rank of future projections of precipitationtemperature or sea ice extent to indicate that models that produce the best agreement with paleoclimate information give demonstrably different future results than the rest of the models. We also find that some comparisons, for instance associated with model variability, are strongly dependent on uncertain forcing timeseries, or show time dependent behaviour, making direct inferences for the future problematic. Overall, we demonstrate that there is a strong potential for the paleo-climate simulations to help inform the future projections and urge all the modeling groups to complete this subset of the CMIP5 runs.

  8. Constraining RS Models by Future Flavor and Collider Measurements: A Snowmass Whitepaper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agashe, Kaustubh [Maryland U.; Bauer, Martin [Chicago U., EFI; Goertz, Florian [Zurich, ETH; Lee, Seung J. [Korea Inst. Advanced Study, Seoul; Vecchi, Luca [Maryland U.; Wang, Lian-Tao [Chicago U., EFI; Yu, Felix [Fermilab

    2013-10-03

    Randall-Sundrum models are models of quark flavor, because they explain the hierarchies in the quark masses and mixings in terms of order one localization parameters of extra dimensional wavefunctions. The same small numbers which generate the light quark masses suppress contributions to flavor violating tree level amplitudes. In this note we update universal constraints from electroweak precision parameters and demonstrate how future measurements of flavor violation in ultra rare decay channels of Kaons and B mesons will constrain the parameter space of this type of models. We show how collider signatures are correlated with these flavor measurements and compute projected limits for direct searches at the 14 TeV LHC run, a 14 TeV LHC luminosity upgrade, a 33 TeV LHC energy upgrade, and a potential 100 TeV machine. We further discuss the effects of a warped model of leptons in future measurements of lepton flavor violation.

  9. Constraining future terrestrial carbon cycle projections using observation-based water and carbon flux estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mystakidis, Stefanos; Davin, Edouard L; Gruber, Nicolas; Seneviratne, Sonia I

    2016-06-01

    The terrestrial biosphere is currently acting as a sink for about a third of the total anthropogenic CO2  emissions. However, the future fate of this sink in the coming decades is very uncertain, as current earth system models (ESMs) simulate diverging responses of the terrestrial carbon cycle to upcoming climate change. Here, we use observation-based constraints of water and carbon fluxes to reduce uncertainties in the projected terrestrial carbon cycle response derived from simulations of ESMs conducted as part of the 5th phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We find in the ESMs a clear linear relationship between present-day evapotranspiration (ET) and gross primary productivity (GPP), as well as between these present-day fluxes and projected changes in GPP, thus providing an emergent constraint on projected GPP. Constraining the ESMs based on their ability to simulate present-day ET and GPP leads to a substantial decrease in the projected GPP and to a ca. 50% reduction in the associated model spread in GPP by the end of the century. Given the strong correlation between projected changes in GPP and in NBP in the ESMs, applying the constraints on net biome productivity (NBP) reduces the model spread in the projected land sink by more than 30% by 2100. Moreover, the projected decline in the land sink is at least doubled in the constrained ensembles and the probability that the terrestrial biosphere is turned into a net carbon source by the end of the century is strongly increased. This indicates that the decline in the future land carbon uptake might be stronger than previously thought, which would have important implications for the rate of increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration and for future climate change. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Update on congenital heart disease and sudden infant/perinatal death: from history to future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Buja, L Maximilian

    2017-07-01

    During the 20th century, expert pathologists contributed an in-depth characterisation of the anatomical pathology and associated pathophysiology of congenital heart disease (CHD). Starting in the 1970s, the reported CHD birth prevalence has been increasing, owing to advances in diagnostic methods. Over the years, surgical treatments have been associated with an enormous reduction of CHD mortality. Advances also have been made in understanding the developmental biology and molecular pathogenesis of CHD. In developed countries, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most frequent form of death during the first year of life, with a death rate of 0.42 every 1000 births. Unexpected stillbirth has a six- to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS and remains unexplained in 40-80% of cases even after autopsy. Specific environmental risk factors, such as maternal smoking, air and water pollution, food contamination, pesticides, etc, can interact with the genetic constitution in complex ways, which may lead to polymorphisms and/or mutations of specific genes, such as polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene 5-HTT, the regulator of the synaptic serotonin concentration. Current directions of research in this area are reviewed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Using the past to constrain the future: how the palaeorecord can improve estimates of global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, Tamsin L; Harrison, Sandy P; 10.1177/0309133307083295

    2012-01-01

    Climate sensitivity is defined as the change in global mean equilibrium temperature after a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration and provides a simple measure of global warming. An early estimate of climate sensitivity, 1.5-4.5{\\deg}C, has changed little subsequently, including the latest assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The persistence of such large uncertainties in this simple measure casts doubt on our understanding of the mechanisms of climate change and our ability to predict the response of the climate system to future perturbations. This has motivated continued attempts to constrain the range with climate data, alone or in conjunction with models. The majority of studies use data from the instrumental period (post-1850) but recent work has made use of information about the large climate changes experienced in the geological past. In this review, we first outline approaches that estimate climate sensitivity using instrumental climate observations and then summarise attem...

  12. Sudden infant death "syndrome"-Insights and future directions from a Utah population database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Erik D; Berger, Justin; Alashari, Mouied M; Coon, Hilary; Robison, Cynthia; Ho, Hsu-Tso; Adams, David R; Gahl, Willian A; Smith, Ken R; Opitz, John M; Johnson, Dennis R

    2017-01-01

    "Sudden Infant Death syndrome" (SIDS) represents the commonest category of infant death after the first month of life. As genome scale sequencing greatly facilitates the identification of new candidate disease variants, the challenges of ascribing causation to these variants persists. In order to determine the extent to which SIDS occurs in related individuals and their pedigree structure we undertook an analysis of SIDS using the Utah Population Database, recording, for example, evidence of enrichment for genetic causation following the back-to-sleep recommendations of 1992 and 1994. Our evaluation of the pre- and post back-to-sleep incidence of SIDS in Utah showed a decrease in SIDS incidence on the order of eightfold following back-to-sleep. An odds ratio of 4.2 for SIDS recurrence among sibs was identified from 1968 to 2013 which was similar to the odds ratio of 4.84 for death due to other or unknown cause among sibs of SIDS cases for the same time period. Combining first through thid degree relatives yielded an odds ratio of SIDS recurrence of 9.29 in the post-back-to-sleep (1995-2013) subset of SIDS cases where similar calculations of first-third degree relatives for the entire time period of 1968-2013 showed an odds ratio of 2.95. Expanded multigenertional pedigrees showing enrichment for SIDS were also identified. Based on these findings we hypothesize that post back-to-sleep SIDS, especially recurrences within a family, are potentially enriched for genetic causes due to the impact of safe sleeping guidelines in mitigating environmental risk factors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Sudden future singularities in quintessence and scalar-tensor quintessence models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymperis, A.; Perivolaropoulos, L.; Lola, S.

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate analytically and numerically the existence of geodesically complete singularities in quintessence and scalar-tensor quintessence models with scalar field potential of the form V (ϕ )˜|ϕ |n with 0 equations and ts is the time of the singularity. In the case of quintessence we find q =n +2 (i.e. 2 equation of state w =p/ρ , is present. We find that the strength of the singularity (value of q ) remains unaffected by the presence of a perfect fluid. The linear and quadratic terms in (ts-t ) that appear in the expansion of the scale factor around ts are subdominant for the diverging derivatives close to the singularity, but can play an important role in the estimation of the Hubble parameter. Using the analytically derived relations between these terms, we derive relations involving the Hubble parameter close to the singularity, which may be used as observational signatures of such singularities in this class of models. For quintessence with matter fluid, we find that close to the singularity H ˙=3/2 Ω0 m(1 +zs)3-3 H2. These terms should be taken into account when searching for future or past time such singularities, in cosmological data.

  14. Constraining the Cardoso-Pani-Rico metric with future observations of SgrA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2015-03-01

    SgrA*, the supermassive black hole (BH) candidate at the center of our Galaxy, seems to be one of the most promising objects to test the Kerr BH hypothesis with near future observations. In a few years, it will hopefully be possible to measure a number of relativistic effects around this body, and the combination of different observations can be used to constrain possible deviations from the Kerr solution. In this paper, I discuss the combination of three promising techniques in the framework of the Cardoso-Pani-Rico parametrization: the observation of blobs of plasma orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit, the detection of the BH shadow, and timing observations of a radio pulsar in a compact orbit. The observations of blobs of plasma and of the shadow can probe the strong gravitational field around SgrA*, while the radio pulsar would be sensitive to the weak field region at larger radii. In the case of a fast-rotating object, the combination of the three measurements could provide strong constraints on the actual nature of SgrA*. For a non-rotating or slow-rotating object, the bounds would be weak.

  15. Climate Change: A Future of Less Water and More people - Strategies for a Water Constrained World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahai, D.

    2010-12-01

    Today, the fact that the Earth is warming is indisputable. The evidence of climate change is already all around us, with the occurence of ever more intense weather events, droughts, heat waves, floods and sea level rise. Predictions of greater calamities in the future without swift action must be taken seriously. However, while international summits have focused on means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these are largely strategies of containment, not of cure. Even if emissions were to cease today, the current effects of climate change would remain with us for millenia. This is clear from the 2007 report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The world must not only tackle the causes of global warming; it must adapt to the damage already done. This need is most acute where water supply is concerned. The world already faces daunting chalenges. According to United Nations' reports, even today 1.8 million children under 5 die from water related diseases every year; 900 million people lack access to safe drinking water; and 2.6 billion go without basic sanitation. In the developing world, 90% of sewage is discharged to water bodies without adequate treatment contributing to "dead zones". Population increases will make matters worse (an addition of around 3 billion people by 2050 is expected) and climate change will compound the crisis. It is forecast that, as the Earth warms, deserts will expand and droughts will intensify causing demographic shifts even as the world's population burgeons. We are already seeing different regions react to water shortages. Many countries are pursuing seawater desalination. However, seawater desalination has numerous drawbacks; it remains the most expensive of water treatment options and the most energy intensive. Some societies may have no choice but to turn to the sea; others should look to other alternatives first. Such frontrunners could include: (1) enhanced conservation, utilizing public education programs, price

  16. [Sudden death in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbertus, H

    2001-05-01

    Sudden death is rare in the young athlete. The causes may vary. In the US, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy plays the predominant role whereas in Europe right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia and atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries are more frequent. Other causes such as congenital anomalies of the coronary vessels, myocarditis, Marfan's disease, the long QT, the Brugada and the Wollf-Parkinson-White syndromes exist, but are rare. Attentive preparticipation screening (clinical history and medical examination) is mandatory in all future young athletes.

  17. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrest (SCA) Back to Heart Diseases & Disorders Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Sudden Cardiac Arrest ( SCA ) occurs when the heart stops beating, abruptly ... to saving someone who is having a sudden cardiac arrest , it is important to understand the difference. The ...

  18. Using Ground Penetrating Radar to Constrain the Drainage Evolution in Southern Egypt and Implications for Future Deployment on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Maxwell, T. A.; Johnston, A. K.; Leuschen, C. J.; Schutz, A. E.; Williams, K. K.

    2004-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar (GPR) constrains the origin of relict and largely buried fluvial channels in the Bir Kiseiba region of southern Egypt. GPR results indicate that the trunk channel to a tributary system identified in Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR) data is incised 10 to 12 meters into bedrock, was southwest-draining and laterally migrating toward the northwest, and accentuated relief along the nearby Kiseiba escarpment. Alluvium partially filling the main channel likely reflects effects of increasing aridity and bed load combined with less frequent, flashier precipitation. In contrast to defining channel margins, GPR data do not indicate subtle stratigraphic changes in bedding related to fluvial aggradation, but do highlight local reflections likely corresponding to relict alluvial bar forms. These GPR data complement the SIR and field data and permit a better understanding of the evolution of this enigmatic landscape. The Egyptian study area occurs in a region long considered to possess potential analogs for landforms on Mars. GPR results from Egypt and other analog terrain combined with consideration of factors influencing radar performance on Mars instill confidence that a rover-deployed GPR can achieve 10 to 20 m penetration and provide critical constraint on geologic setting and context for other rover instruments. To take advantage of this potential, a rover-deployable impulse GPR is under development for future Mars missions and possesses mass, volume, and power limits of 0.5 kg, 3400 cc, 3 W (peak), respectively. The GPR has no moving parts, includes a body conformal antenna capable of configuration at 150 MHz to more than 600 MHz, will collect 0.3 MB data per day (assuming a 50 meter traverse), and is being successfully tested in Mars analog environments. By analogy to the results from Egypt, a Mars GPR deployed in the vicinity of valley networks should be able to distinguish diagnostic signatures required for identifying the sources of water

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Stephen M; Ward, Chad E; Garcia, Karla L

    2015-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden unexpected death of a child younger than one year during sleep that cannot be explained after a postmortem evaluation including autopsy, a thorough history, and scene evaluation...

  20. Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden Stratospheric Warming Compendium (SSWC) data set documents the stratospheric, tropospheric, and surface climate impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings. This...

  1. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  2. What Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  3. Prediction and Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Daniel P; Homoud, Munther K; Estes, N A Mark

    2017-12-01

    Sudden death is a major problem, with significant impact on public health. Many conditions predispose to sudden cardiac death and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), foremost among them coronary artery disease, and an effective therapy exists in the form of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Risk stratification for SCA remains imperfect, especially for patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Ongoing trials may make it easier to identify those at high risk, and potentially those at very low risk, in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Henry L.; And Others

    There is a growing body of evidence that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) victims are not completely normal and healthy, as was once believed. A variety of new information from several disciplines strongly suggests that the infant who dies suddenly and unexpectedly may do so because of subtle developmental, neurologic, cardiorespiratory, and…

  5. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  6. Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberger

    1999-08-01

    Great strides have been made in the approach to the management of sudden cardiac death. Patients who have been successfully resuscitated from an episode of sudden cardiac death are at high risk of recurrence. Much larger groups of patients who have not had episodes of sudden cardiac death are also at substantial risk for this event, however. Because the survival rates associated with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are dismal, these high-risk populations must be targeted for prophylaxis. Beta-blockers have been shown to be an effective pharmacologic therapy in patients who have had myocardial infarction and, most recently, in patients with congestive heart failure. When possible, these agents should be used in these populations. No class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs, with the possible exception of amiodarone, have been shown to have efficacy as prophylactic agents for the reduction of mortality in these populations. In patients who have hemodynamically significant sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias or an aborted episode of sudden cardiac death, the current therapy of choice is an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). For prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death in patients who have not had a previous event, several approaches may be considered. Currently, the best therapeutic approach for prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death seems to be the ICD; however, use of this device can be justified only in patients at substantial risk of sudden cardiac death. Defining the high-risk populations that will benefit from ICDs is critical in managing the problem of sudden cardiac death.

  7. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  8. The Investigation of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome (SADS – the current approach to family screening and the future role of genomics & stem cell technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal eVyas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SADS is defined as sudden death under the age of 40 years old in the absence of structural heart disease. Family screening studies are able to identify a cause in up to 50% of cases-most commonly long QT syndrome, Brugada and early repolarisation syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia using standard clinical screening investigations including pharmacological challenge testing. These diagnoses may be supported by genetic testing which can aid cascade screening and may help guide management. In the current era it is possible to undertake molecular autopsy provided suitable samples of DNA can be obtained from the proband. With the evolution of rapid sequencing techniques it is possible to sequence the whole exome for candidate genes. This major advance offers the opportunity to identify novel causes of lethal arrhythmia but also poses the challenge of managing the volume of data generated and evaluating variants of unknown significance. The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell technology could enable evaluation of the electrophysiological relevance of specific ion channel mutations in the proband or their relatives and will potentially enable screening of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation survivors combining genetic and electrophysiological studies in derived myocytes. This also could facilitate the assessment of personalised preventative pharmacological therapies. This review will evaluate the current screening strategies in SADS families, the role of molecular autopsy and genetic testing and the potential applications of molecular and cellular diagnostic strategies on the horizon.

  9. The investigation of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS)-the current approach to family screening and the future role of genomics and stem cell technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Vishal; Lambiase, Pier D

    2013-09-12

    SADS is defined as sudden death under the age of 40 years old in the absence of structural heart disease. Family screening studies are able to identify a cause in up to 50% of cases-most commonly long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada and early repolarization syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) using standard clinical screening investigations including pharmacological challenge testing. These diagnoses may be supported by genetic testing which can aid cascade screening and may help guide management. In the current era it is possible to undertake molecular autopsy provided suitable samples of DNA can be obtained from the proband. With the evolution of rapid sequencing techniques it is possible to sequence the whole exome for candidate genes. This major advance offers the opportunity to identify novel causes of lethal arrhythmia but also poses the challenge of managing the volume of data generated and evaluating variants of unknown significance (VUS). The emergence of induced pluripotent stem cell technology could enable evaluation of the electrophysiological relevance of specific ion channel mutations in the proband or their relatives and will potentially enable screening of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation survivors combining genetic and electrophysiological studies in derived myocytes. This also could facilitate the assessment of personalized preventative pharmacological therapies. This review will evaluate the current screening strategies in SADS families, the role of molecular autopsy and genetic testing and the potential applications of molecular and cellular diagnostic strategies on the horizon.

  10. Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances (SID)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sudden ionospheric disturbances (SID) are caused by solar flare enhanced X-rays in the 1 to 10 angstrom range. Solar flares can produce large increases of ionization...

  11. Geomagnetic Storm Sudden Commencements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Storm Sudden Commencements (ssc) 1868 to present: STORM1 and STORM2 Lists: (Some text here is taken from the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy...

  12. Sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... required by law into an unexplained cause of death may make these feelings more painful. A member of a local chapter of the National Foundation for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome may assist with counseling and reassurance to ...

  13. Future prospects of di-jet production constraining $\\Delta g(x)$ at low $\\mathbf{x}$ at STAR at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Surrow, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives of the high-energy spin physics program at RHIC at BNL is the precise determination of the polarized gluon distribution function, $\\Delta g(x)$. Polarized $\\vec{p}+\\vec{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=200\\,$GeV and at $\\sqrt{s}=500\\,$GeV at RHIC provide an unique way to probe the proton spin structure. Inclusive measurements, such as inclusive jet and hadron production, have so far been the prime focus of various results at $\\sqrt{s}=200\\,$GeV constraining $\\Delta g(x)$ for $0.05future high-energy spin physics program at RHIC. Forward di-jet pro...

  14. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  15. Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...

  16. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  17. How Is Sudden Cardiac Arrest Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  18. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  19. Genetics of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezzina, Connie R.; Lahrouchi, Najim; Priori, Silvia G.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death occurs in a broad spectrum of cardiac pathologies and is an important cause of mortality in the general population. Genetic studies conducted during the past 20 years have markedly illuminated the genetic basis of the inherited cardiac disorders associated with sudden cardiac

  20. Characterizing constraining forces in the alignment phase of orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Christopher G; Lin, Feng-Chang; Phillips, Ceib; Edelman, Alex; Ko, Ching-Chang

    2018-01-01

    To describe the frictional forces (FF) that constrain wire sliding in the initial alignment phase of treatment using a new term, the "constraining force" (CF), and to hypothesize that CF is dependent on two factors: the hyperelastic behavior of archwires and the specific type of tooth geometric malalignment present. A laboratory device that simulates the four distinct malalignment types (in-out, rotation, tipping, and vertical step) was used to couple with an Instron testing apparatus. Incremental CF data for the four types of malalignment were recorded. Each type had five trials per increment of severity, from which the CF was averaged using 0.016-inch copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) archwires. Two types of friction curves were obtained: a traditional step function response and a power regression response. For all malalignment types, increasing degrees of irregularity increased power regression responses and CF. A severity turning point, displayed as a sudden increase in CF, occurred for each malalignment. The rotation type of malalignment yielded the lowest CF, while the vertical step type resulted in the highest CF. The data infer a hypothesis that malrotation type having weak CF might act as a limiting factor in the alignment phase to unravel the neighboring teeth. Future investigations to compare clinical and bench data can help explain more fully the constraints impeding alignment resolution and the factors governing the ability to bring malaligned teeth into alignment.

  1. [Genetics of sudden unexplained death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Oscar; Allegue, Catarina; Brugada, Ramon

    2014-03-20

    Sudden unexplained death is defined by death without a conclusive diagnosis after autopsy and it is responsible for a large percentage of sudden deaths. The progressive interaction between genetics and forensics in post-mortem studies has identified inheritable alterations responsible for pathologies associated with arrhythmic sudden death. The genetic diagnosis of the deceased enables the undertaking of preventive measures in family members, many of them asymptomatic but at risk. The implications of this multidisciplinary translational medical approach are complex, requiring the dedication of a specialized team. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Sudden transition and sudden change from open spin environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zheng-Da [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); School of Science, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: xujb@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of sudden transition or sudden change phenomenon for appropriate initial states under dephasing. As illustrative examples, we study the behaviors of quantum correlation dynamics of two noninteracting qubits in independent and common open spin environments, respectively. For the independent environments case, we find that the quantum correlation dynamics is closely related to the Loschmidt echo and the dynamics exhibits a sudden transition from classical to quantum correlation decay. It is also shown that the sudden change phenomenon may occur for the common environment case and stationary quantum discord is found at the high temperature region of the environment. Finally, we investigate the quantum criticality of the open spin environment by exploring the probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo and the scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord, respectively. - Highlights: • Sudden transition or sudden change from open spin baths are studied. • Quantum discord is related to the Loschmidt echo in independent open spin baths. • Steady quantum discord is found in a common open spin bath. • The probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo is analyzed. • The scaling transformation behavior of quantum discord is displayed.

  3. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  4. Constraining the pass-band of future space-based coronagraphs for observations of solar eruptions in the FeXIV 530.3 nm "green line"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemporad, Alessandro; Pagano, Paolo; Giordano, Silvio; Fineschi, Silvano

    2017-10-01

    Observations of the solar corona in the FeXIV 530.3 nm "green line" have been very important in the past, and are planned for future coronagraphs on-board forthcoming space missions such as PROBA-3 and Aditya. For these instruments, a very important parameter to be optimized is the spectral width of the band-pass filter to be centred over the "green line". Focusing on solar eruptions, motions occurring along the line of sight will Doppler shift the line profiles producing an emission that will partially fall out of the narrower pass-band, while broader pass-band will provide observations with reduced spectral purity. To address these issues, we performed numerical (MHD) simulation of CME emission in the "green line" and produced synthetic images assuming 4 different widths of the pass-band (Δλ = 20 Å, 10 Å, 5 Å, and 2 Å). It turns out that, as expected, during solar eruptions a significant fraction of "green line" emission will be lost using narrower filters; on the other hand these images will have a higher spectral purity and will contain emission coming from parcels of plasma expanding only along the plane of the sky. This will provide a better definition of single filamentary features and will help isolating single slices of plasma through the eruption, thus reducing the problem of superposition of different features along the line of sight and helping physical interpretation of limb events. For these reasons, we suggest to use narrower band passes (Δλ ≤ 2 Å) for the observations of solar eruptions with future coronagraphs.

  5. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  6. FUTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Haldrup

    2017-01-01

    Currently both design thinking and critical social science experience an increased interest in speculating in alternative future scenarios. This interest is not least related to the challenges issues of global sustainability present for politics, ethics and design. This paper explores...... the potentials of speculative thinking in relation to design and social and cultural studies, arguing that both offer valuable insights for creating a speculative space for new emergent criticalities challenging current assumptions of the relations between power and design. It does so by tracing out discussions...... of ‘futurity’ and ‘futuring’ in design as well as social and cultural studies. Firstly, by discussing futurist and speculative approaches in design thinking; secondly by engaging with ideas of scenario thinking and utopianism in current social and cultural studies; and thirdly by showing how the articulation...

  7. Aldosterone and Cortisol affect the risk of sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: The joint presence of high aldosterone and high cortisol levels strongly increased the incidence of sudden cardiac death as well as all-cause mortality in hemodialyzed type 2 diabetic patients. Whether blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor decreases the risk of sudden death without causing side effects must be examined in future trials.

  8. [The Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida's Health, 1976

    1976-01-01

    This collection of articles on the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), drawn from a southeastern regional symposium on the subject, summarizes much of what is known about the occurrence of SIDS, including current information about its causes. The background of state action in Florida is reviewed, with emphasis on the need for increased public and…

  9. Investigating Insight as Sudden Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Ivan K.; Jee, Benjamin D.; Wiley, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Gestalt psychologists proposed two distinct learning mechanisms. Associative learning occurs gradually through the repeated co-occurrence of external stimuli or memories. Insight learning occurs suddenly when people discover new relationships within their prior knowledge as a result of reasoning or problem solving processes that re-organize or…

  10. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Facts for Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents risk factors and prevention measures related to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Offers infant sleep recommendations and five discussion questions to test knowledge of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. (DLH)

  11. Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Specialist Share Twitter Facebook SCA Risk Assessment Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) occurs abruptly and without warning, and two- ... and health conditions. Start Risk Assessment The Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA) Risk Assessment Tool is supported in part ...

  12. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... living with epilepsy, the risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) is an important concern. SUDEP ...

  13. Sudden hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Jovana; Bajec-Opančina, Aleksandra

    2014-08-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) is defined as a unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is very rare in children. Sudden hearing loss is a symptom that suggests that there is a problem in the inner ear, surrounding structures, or the whole organism. The etiology and development of this disorder are still not fully understood. The literature contains numerous models of the pathogenesis of SSHL, with childhood SSHL having certain peculiarities. In practical terms, the multifactorial nature of SSHL is important in the choice of diagnostic methods and treatment methods. It is important to determine the cause and effect relationship between the underlying disease and hearing loss. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. [Sudden death in competitive athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczyk, Zdzisław

    2007-01-01

    In athletes under the age of 35 years the incidence of sudden death is low, most causes to be due to ventricular arrhythmias, usually provoked by exertion, and nearly always occur in the presence of structural heart disease or abnormalities in the conduction system. The most common structural disease is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by coronary artery anomalies, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, aortic stenosis, myocarditis, the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, and long QT syndrome. The evaluation of athletes with symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias, syncope, family history of sudden death require a complete cardiac workup. If they have documented hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, long QT syndrome, family history presentation with sudden death, and septal thickness greater than 20 mm competitive athletics are generally prohibited. In athletes with asymptomatic bradyarrhythmia, supraventricular tachycardias and atrial premature contractions without structural heart disease all competitive sports are allowed if heart rate in bradyarrhythmia appropriately increases with exercise. Athletes with premature ventricular contraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and non structural heart disease are without athletic restriction as long as the arrhythmia does not worsen on exertion and cause dyspnea, presyncope or syncope.

  15. Pediatric Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilay, Ahmet; Koca, Çiğdem Firat

    2016-06-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is defined as sudden unilateral or bilateral sensorineural hearing loss with at least 30 dB decrease in threshold in 3 contiguous test frequencies occurring over 72 hours or less. It is rare among children. The mechanism of the process and prognosis of the disorder remains unclear. The current incidence of sudden sensorineural hearing loss among pediatric population is unknown. The authors carried out a retrospective chart analysis of patients under 15 years of age from 2004 to 2015, who consulted to the Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of Inonu University Medical Faculty. Age, sex, number of affected ear and side, audiometric evaluations, medical follow-up, treatment method, duration of treatment recovery, associated complaints; tinnitus and/or vertigo, presence of mumps disease were recorded for each patient. A 4-frequency pure-tone average (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) was calculated for each ear. Complete recovery, defined as some hearing level compared with the nonaffected ear, was observed in 3 patients (21.4 %) and there was no partial hearing recovery. The hearing loss of 11 patient remained unchanged after prednisolone treatment. Two of the 11 patients had bilaterally total sensorineural hearing loss and evaluated as appropriate for cochlear implantation. Sex of patient and laterality of hearing loss were not correlated with hearing recovery. Sensorineural hearing loss among pediatrics has been the issue of otolaryngologists. The incidence, etiology, and treatment methods should be more studied.

  16. A SUDDEN DEATH OF SPORTSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Femić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A sudden death is defined as a sudden cessation of heart work which happens within six hours, revionsly of good helth(1. The main characteristio of this phenomenon is tipically its beginning during or directly after a training or a competition which means after an intensive physical effort a causal factor. The first case of a sudden death because of physical effort was recorded in ancient 490 BC when a Greec called Pheidippides was running from Marathon Feild to Athens (42km to announce the news about the victory of the Athenians over the Persians. That is howa long distance runners discipline was defined in sport and got its name marathon. In medicine it is defined as an entity of a sudden death of sportsmen after an intensive physical effort which is nowdays a current problem and an object of varions researches in medicine as well as in sports medicine of sports experts. A method of work: The authors published the statistic data processing obtained from accessible literature. The statistical analysis processes: a cause of a death on the basis of an autophsy, a frequency of the death in general population and death of sportsmen those under the age of 35 and over 35 (sportsmen and sportswotren, sort of sports the dead went in for, comparasion of them and giving conclusions and measures of prevention. Here we think about a big importance of sistematic checkup of the sportsmen, use and misuse of incriminated stimulants, the infuence of genetics in families of the sportsmen with heart diseases.The aim of work is to point to and warn of more and more frequent cases of sudden death of sportsmen and that it isn t drawn a moral from that:there are clubs and parents who still don t do the obligation to take their members and children to a sistematic checkup regularily. A systematic checkup should include all searches which would point out a negative influence of intensive physical effort (training, matches on heath. Those tests are also

  17. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2015-01-01

    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  18. Constraining properties of disintegrating exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, D.; Carter, P. J.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Gänsicke, B. T.

    2017-09-01

    Evaporating and disintegrating planets provide unique insights into chemical makeup and physical constraints. The striking variability, depth (˜10 - 60%) and shape of the photometric transit curves due to the disintegrating minor planet orbiting white dwarf WD 1145+017 has galvanised the post-main- sequence exoplanetary science community. We have performed the first tidal disruption simulations of this planetary object, and have succeeded in constraining its mass, density, eccentricity and physical nature. We illustrate how our simulations can bound these properties, and be used in the future for other exoplanetary systems.

  19. Who Is at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  20. How Can Death Due to Sudden Cardiac Arrest Be Prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Sudden Cardiac Arrest Sudden Cardiac Arrest Also known as Cardiac Arrest , Sudden Cardiac Death ... the condition For People Who Have Survived Sudden Cardiac Arrest If you've already had SCA, you're ...

  1. Sudden cardiac death in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, P C; Garson, A

    1992-01-01

    Sudden death in children as in adults is usually due to cardiac disease. Sudden death in the pediatric population may be divided into the sudden infant death syndrome, sudden death in previously apparently healthy children, and sudden death in patients with known cardiac disease. The sudden infant death syndrome is not proved to be due to a cardiac cause and may well be due to central nervous system and/or pulmonary causes. However, interest remains in the cardiac hypothesis. Recent work from our laboratory shows that screening for prolonged QT interval in normal infants is not likely to detect those prone to sudden infant death syndrome. In children with apparently normal hearts, symptoms of syncope or palpitation should be given close attention. Detailed electrocardiography and echocardiography will detect many, but not all, children with subtle forms of heart disease. Vigorous treatment may prevent sudden death in many of these children. Some sort of screening program should be devised for varsity athletes. Children with congenital heart defects are now, for the most part, corrected early in life, so that the congenital heart defect itself rarely causes sudden, unexpected death. The residua and sequelae of the heart defect and the surgery to repair it, however, may lead to sudden death. Improvements in surgical technique and earlier repair of congenital cardiac defects will ameliorate this problem. Prospective evaluation of postoperative patients and attention to dysrhythmias can prevent sudden deaths in those who are prone to them.

  2. Power-constrained supercomputing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  3. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Bockeria O.L.; Ispir’yan A.Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical exercises are rare. According to the data of prospective population study performed in Veneto (Italy), incidence of SCD is 2.3 cases per year (2.6 among men and 1.1 among women) per 100,000 athletes aged 12 to 35 years for all reasons. Out of them 2.1 cases of SCD were caused by cardiovascular diseases. Coronary artery disease is the most frequent cause of SCD in athletes aged over 35 years. Also there are a number of other...

  4. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  5. Cytokines and sudden infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, Mechtild M T; Loddenkötter, Brigitte; Fracasso, Tony; Mitchell, Edwin A; Debertin, Annette S; Larsch, Klaus P; Sperhake, Jan P; Brinkmann, Bernd; Sauerland, Cristina; Lindemann, Monika; Bajanowski, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    It has been hypothesised that inflammatory reactions could play an important role in the pathway(s) leading to sudden and unexpected death in infancy. On a molecular level, these reactions are regulated by various cytokines. To characterise the role of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα more precisely, the concentrations of these cytokines were determined quantitatively using specific ELISA techniques in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in 119 cases of sudden infant death. The infants were grouped into four categories (SIDS, SIDS with infection, natural death due to infection and unnatural death). A good correlation was found between CSF and serum for IL-6 (Spearman correlation coefficients (SCC), 0.73) and also for TNFα (SCC, 0.57), although the CSF concentrations were lower than that from the serum. There were no significant differences between the categories of death for any of the serum or CSF cytokines. Compared with normal values, increased serum concentrations of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNFα were found in 70%, 69% and 38% of the cases respectively, indicating possible agonal or post-mortem changes of cytokine concentrations. In three cases very high cytokine concentrations were found (mainly for IL-6). This may have contributed to the mechanism of death (cytokine storm) in two of the cases. In a small group of patients, very high cytokine concentrations are a possible explanation for the cause of death ("cytokine storm").

  6. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2018-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered...... sudden death by stroke. Methods We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths within Danish borders between 2000-2009 and 2007-2009 in persons aged 1-35 years and 36-49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through review of all death certificates....... All available autopsy reports and records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved and a neurologist identified all sudden death by stroke cases. Results Of the 14,567 deaths in the 10-year period, there were 1,698 sudden death cases, of which 52 (3%) were sudden death by stroke...

  7. [Sudden cardiac death: Are women different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, N; Marijon, E; Bougouin, W; Spaulding, C; Jouven, X

    2016-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death is a major public health problem with around 40,000 cases per year in France. Epidemiological, clinical and prognostic differences according to gender have been described in most cardiovascular diseases, including sudden cardiac death. In this article, we will review gender differences in sudden cardiac death incidence, circumstance of occurrence, management, and prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Sudden infant death syndrome, sleep, and seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Toke

    2015-06-01

    benign febrile seizures seen in 7% of infants before 6 months play a role in the terminal pathway in a subset of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Supporting evidence: (1) lack of 5-hydroxitryptamine, one consistent finding in sudden infant death syndrome that Kinney et al coined a developmental serotonopathy, is consistent with risk for seizures. (2) Non-rapid eye movement sleep increasing during the age of highest risk for sudden infant death syndrome facilitates some seizures (seizure gate). (3) Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy is associated with severe hypoxemia and hypercapnia during postictal generalized electroencephalographic (EEG) suppression. In toddlers, sudden unexplained deaths are associated with hippocampal abnormalities and some seizures. (4) The sudden nature of both deaths warrants an exploration of similarities in the terminal pathway. Moreover, sudden infant death syndrome, febrile seizures, sudden unexplained death in childhood, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy share some of the following risk factors: prone sleeping, infections, hyperthermia, preterm birth, male gender, maternal smoking, and mutations in genes that regulate sodium channels. State-of-the-art molecular studies can be exploited to test this hypothesis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribiori, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dall' Agata, G., E-mail: dallagat@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Porrati, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  10. Constrained superfields in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, Gianguido; Farakos, Fotis [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-16

    We analyze constrained superfields in supergravity. We investigate the consistency and solve all known constraints, presenting a new class that may have interesting applications in the construction of inflationary models. We provide the superspace Lagrangians for minimal supergravity models based on them and write the corresponding theories in component form using a simplifying gauge for the goldstino couplings.

  11. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cribiori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  12. Sudden Unexpected Infant Death and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Reducing the Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caregivers can take to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related deaths. Grief ... researchers don’t know the exact causes of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, research shows parents and caregivers ...

  13. The sudden success of prose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars Boje

    2017-01-01

    . It is also suggested that the exactly contemporary rise of French and Old Norse prose (c. 1200-1230) most probably is connected. The four literatures are each shown in chronological charts so as to visualize the timeline and the relation between poetic and prosaic works. The article furthermore reflects......The article presents a new model for understanding the sudden success of prose in four literatures: Greek, Latin, French and Old Norse. Through comparison and quantitative observations, and by focusing on the success of prose rather than its invention, it is shown that in all four cases two...... reading aloud) has been underplayed in previous scholarship mostly focused on authorial choices and invention. For two of the literatures (Greek, French) the fast dynamics of the rise of prose has already been identified and discussed, but for the two others (Latin, Old Norse), the observation is new...

  14. Drugs, QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The term sudden cardiac death pertains to an unexpected death from cardiac causes within a short time period and has been described throughout history. The ancient Egyptians inscribed on the tomb of a nobleman some 4500 years ago that he had died suddenly and without

  15. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  16. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  17. Future Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabra, Jakob Borrits

    questions how death and disposal is perceived by a British (urban) public and if death has been liberated from social and individual emotional regulation or is (still) constrained by subjective and/or collective regulation. The design proposals from the Future Cemetery Design Competition 2016 are used...... mediated society....

  18. Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? Updated:Sep 19,2016 ... flow to the heart is blocked, and sudden cardiac arrest is when the heart malfunctions and suddenly stops ...

  19. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  20. Towards Better Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Neuronal Respiratory Network in Sudden Perinatal Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riffat Mehboob

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it’s link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.

  1. Towards Better Understanding of the Pathogenesis of Neuronal Respiratory Network in Sudden Perinatal Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboob, Riffat; Kabir, Mahvish; Ahmed, Naseer; Ahmad, Fridoon Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Sudden perinatal death that includes the victims of sudden infant death syndrome, sudden intrauterine death syndrome, and stillbirth are heartbreaking events in the life of parents. Most of the studies about sudden perinatal death were reported from Italy, highlighting two main etiological factors: prone sleeping position and smoking. Other probable contributory factors are prematurity, male gender, lack of breastfeeding, respiratory tract infections, use of pacifiers, infant botulism, extensive use of pesticides and insecticides, etc. However, extensive studies across the world are required to establish the role of these factors in a different subset of populations. Previous studies confirmed the widely accepted hypothesis that neuropathology of the brainstem is one of the main cause of sudden perinatal death. This study is an effort to summarize the neuropathological evaluation of the brainstems and their association to sudden perinatal death. Brainstem nuclei in vulnerable infants undergo certain changes that may alter the sleep arousal cycle, cardiorespiratory control, and ultimately culminate in death. This review focuses on the roles of different brainstem nuclei, their pathologies, and the established facts in this regard in terms of it's link to such deaths. This study will also help to understand the role of brainstem nuclei in controlling the cardiorespiratory cycles in sudden perinatal death and may provide a better understanding to resolve the mystery of these deaths in future. It is also found that a global initiative to deal with perinatal death is required to facilitate the diagnosis and prevention in developed and as well as developing countries.

  2. Drugs, QTc prolongation and sudden cardiac death

    OpenAIRE

    Straus, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The term sudden cardiac death pertains to an unexpected death from cardiac causes within a short time period and has been described throughout history. The ancient Egyptians inscribed on the tomb of a nobleman some 4500 years ago that he had died suddenly and without apparent cause. Another early case of sudden death was Phidippides, the young Greek messenger, who collapsed and died after he ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens to deliver the news of the Greek victo...

  3. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  4. Exploring Constrained Creative Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2017-01-01

    between communicative constrains and participants’ perception of dialogue and creativity is examined. Four batches of students preparing for forming semester project groups were conducted and documented. Students were asked to create an unspecified object without any exchange of communication except......Creative collaboration via online tools offers a less ‘media rich’ exchange of information between participants than face-to-face collaboration. The participants’ freedom to communicate is restricted in means of communication, and rectified in terms of possibilities offered in the interface. How do...

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... an international network of vaccine safety experts. SIDS deaths declined due to recommendations to put infants on ...

  6. Sudden transition from finite temperature spin environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; He, Qi-Liang; Xu, Hang-Shi [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Xu, Jing-Bo, E-mail: xujb@zju.edu.cn [Zhejiang Institute of Modern Physics and Physics Department, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2012-10-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of sudden transition from finite temperature critical environments in the study of quantum correlations of a two-qubit system coupled to independent thermal Ising baths. The influence of the temperature and external field of bath on the critical time of sudden transition is also explored. It is found that the phenomenon of sudden transition can be used to detect the critical points of thermal spin environments. How to protect quantum correlations of the system is also examined by applying a series of π-phase pulses. -- Highlights: ► The sudden transition phenomenon from thermal critical environments is studied. ► How to detect quantum critical points of thermal Ising baths is explored. ► The quantum discord can be protected against thermal bath by π-phase pulses.

  7. Counselling patients with sudden, irreversible sight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Thombs

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sudden loss of vision is devastating to the patient and close relatives. This article discusses how to talk with someone who has lost their vision and how to help them with their concerns and questions.

  8. Antiarrhythmic and nonantiarrhythmic drugs for sudden cardiac death prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mithilesh K; Zipes, Douglas P

    2010-05-01

    Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias such as sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation are responsible for two thirds of sudden cardiac deaths annually in the United States. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy prevents mortality from arrhythmic death but is expensive and has some associated morbidity from proarrhythmia and mechanical malfunction. Furthermore, ICDs treat ventricular arrhythmias but do not prevent them. Antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) can be used for acute or chronic therapy to prevent ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac deaths. AADS are often used in patients with an ICD who have recurrent ICD shocks resulting from ventricular arrhythmias. Class I AADs are contraindicated in patients with structural heart disease. Other than amiodarone, all Class III drugs have either a neutral or deleterious effect on mortality. Dronedarone, a new Class III drug, may reduce mortality, but more information is needed to be sure. A class of drugs that do not qualify as an AAD can modify cardiovascular remodeling processes and have a delayed and indirect antiarrhythmic effect. These so-called "nonantiarrhythmic drugs" such as drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, fish oil, and statins can reduce the likelihood of future ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in patients with coronary artery disease or congestive heart failure. The role of AADs for chronic therapy for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death is problematic because of proarrhythmia and adverse side effects. Because these nonantiarrhythmic drugs are well tolerated and have no proarrhythmic actions, their benefits should outweigh risks.

  9. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents (excluding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.

  10. Sudden cardiac death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied, C; Borjesson, M

    2014-02-01

    A 'paradox of sport' is that in addition to the undisputed health benefits of physical activity, vigorous exertion may transiently increase the risk of acute cardiac events. In general, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) approximately doubles during physical activity and is 2- to 3-fold higher in athletes compared to nonathletes. The incidence of SCD in young athletes is in fact very low, at around 1-3 per 100,000, but attracts much public attention. Variations in incidence figures may be explained by the methodology used for data collection and more importantly by differences between subpopulations of athletes. The incidence of SCD in older (≥ 35 years) athletes is higher and may be expected to rise, as more and older individuals take part in organized sports. SCD is often the first clinical manifestation of a potentially fatal underlying cardiovascular disorder and usually occurs in previously asymptomatic athletes. In the young (cardiac abnormalities, whilst coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause in older athletes. Cardiac screening including family/personal history, physical examination and resting electrocardiogram (ECG) may identify individuals at risk and has the potential to decrease the risk of SCD in young athletes. Screening including the ECG has a high sensitivity for underlying disease in young athletes, but the specificity needs to be improved, whereas the sensitivity of screening without the use of ECG is very low. The screening modality recommended for young athletes is of limited value in older athletes, who should receive individualized screening with cardiac stress testing for patients with high risk of underlying CAD. As cardiovascular screening will never be able to identify all athletes at risk, adequate preparedness is vital in case of a potentially fatal event at the sporting arena/facility. Firstly, we will review the magnitude of the problem of SCD in athletes of different ages, as well as the aetiology. Secondly, we

  11. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  12. Histological findings in unclassified sudden infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); J.V.M.G. Bovée (Judith); L.C.D. Wijnaendts (Liliane); A. Maes (Ann); P.G.J. Nikkels (Peter); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOur objective was to study histological variations and abnormalities in unclassified sudden infant death (USID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in The Netherlands. Two hundred Dutch USID cases between 1984 and 2005 were identified. The histology slides and autopsy reports

  13. An Experimental Study on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Characteristics of Suddenly Expanded Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Song, Sub Lee; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this experiment, test section has been designed to simulate sudden flow path change due to deformation of cladding. It was tended to simulate cladding deformation that has discontinuous diameter change so coolant flow path changes suddenly. Experiments are in progress. Experiments on test section that simulate deformed flow path which contains sudden contraction and sudden expansion part have been done. Location of CHF has been varied by different condition of experiment. CHF at the outlet of test section fits well into the Macbeth's correlation and data of reference experiment, which was held on plain test section that had same diameter with inlet diameter of deformed test section. CHF at sudden expansion part was in churn flow regime and CHF was very low compared to expectation. It is discussed that liquid film separation from wall or bubble accumulation by backflow might be the reason of this result. For future work, experiments for two additional blockage ratio conditions will be carried out. Also, discussion and model development for deformed channel with sudden expand flow path will be held on.

  14. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  15. Classification of sudden and arrhythmic death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Elming, H

    1997-01-01

    Since all death is (eventually) sudden and associated with cardiac arrhythmias, the concept of sudden death is only meaningful if it is unexpected, while arrhythmic death is only meaningful if life could have continued had the arrhythmia been prevented or treated. Current classifications of death...... as being arrhythmic or sudden are all biased by the difficulty of having to decide on the degree of unexpectedness or the likelihood that life could continue without the arrhythmia. The uncertainties are enlarged by the fact that critical data (such as knowledge of arrhythmias at the time of death...... or autopsy) are available in only a few percent of cases. A main problem in using classifications is the lack of validation data. This situation has, with the MADIT trial, changed in the case of the Thaler and Hinkle classification of arrhythmic death. The MADIT trial demonstrated that arrhythmic death...

  16. Sudden death in Lesch-Nyhan disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neychev, Vladimir Kostadinov; Jinnah, H A

    2012-01-01

    To increase awareness of sudden and unexpected death in Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND) and to explore its potential causes, we report the anteceding clinical features and laboratory evaluations of five males with LND who ultimately experienced sudden and unexpected death, along with three additional males who suffered serious respiratory events during life. The ages of patients ranged from 2 to 45 years. The cause of sudden death in LND appears to have a respiratory rather than a cardiogenic basis. All cases cannot be linked readily with a single respiratory process. Instead, different respiratory processes appear to operate in different cases. These may include aspiration, laryngospasm, central apnea, cyanotic breath-holding spells, and high cervical spine damage. Better recognition of these processes will help to guide appropriate workup and management that could include chest imaging, endoscopy of the airways, polysomnography, electroencephalogram, and brain and/or spine imaging. PMID:17044962

  17. Constrained Geocast to Support Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Merging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new geocasting concept to target vehicles based on where they will be in the direct future, in stead of their current position. We refer to this concept as constrained geocast. This may be useful in situations where vehicles have interdependencies based on (future)

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome with Harlequin Fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahattin Katar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin fetus, a severe variant of ichthyosis, occurs rarely, and these babies die within the first few days of life. Early retinoid therapy may improve the disorder and help increase survival rates. The exact cause of the sudden infant death syndrome of the suckling is not known and the incidence approximately is 0.1-0.3 %. In general, these babies looked well and healthy at the time of the sleeping but were found dead in their bed in the morning. We report a harlequin fetus with sudden infant death syndrome.

  19. Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothmer, Volker; Bernert, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Sudden ionospheric disturbances in solar cycle 24 Within the framework of the UN International Space Weather Initiative, and building upon the achievements of the International Heliophysical Year, the German project SIMONE (Sun Ionosphere MOnitoring NEtwork) operates several SID monitors provided by the University of Stanford. Here we present an overview of sudden ionospheric disturbances recorded since 2006 at the high school Gymnasium Walsrode until to date. The continous measurements allow a detailed comparison of locally measured SIDs with the general trend of solar activity during the current solar maximum. We further show that the measurements reveal specific information on the variable response of the dayside ionosphere to solar flares.

  20. Undiagnosed intracranial lipoma associated with sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Durão

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial lipomas represent less than 0.1% of all intracranial tumors. They are usually located in the callus area and often asymptomatic. This paper presents a sudden death case after an episode of convulsions on a 39 years old woman with a history of migraines and seizures since adolescence. The autopsy revealed the presence of an undiagnosed massive brain lipoma (60 × 35 mm associated with atrophy of the corpus callosum. Although very rare and seldom malignant these may be associated with seizures and sudden death.

  1. Diminishing proportional risk of sudden death with advancing age: implications for prevention of sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Andrew D; Connolly, Stuart J; Roberts, Robin S; Gent, Michael

    2004-05-01

    Advances in primary and secondary prevention of sudden death have led to a wide array of potentially beneficial therapies. Identification of patients most likely to benefit would be of use when considering costly interventions such as an implantable defibrillator. We sought to determine the effect of advancing age on the mode of death in the Amiodarone Trialists Metanalysis. Patients (n = 6252; age, 61.2+/-10.5 years; 83% men) were included in an analysis of predictors of sudden death (SD) and all-cause death (ACD), based on baseline variables at enrollment. Patients were divided into 5 age groups: 80 years. During a mean of 16.8+/-10.3 months of follow-up, there were 1023 deaths, with an annual overall mortality rate of 11.7%. Both sudden death and nonsudden death rates increased with age, although the increase of nonsudden death with age was more dramatic. The overall proportion of death that was sudden (SD/ACD ratio) was 0.41, falling from 0.51 before age 50 years to 0.26 after age 80 years (P =.002 for trend). The SD/ACD ratio was not affected by sex, New York Heart Association Class, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Although the incidence of sudden death increases with age, the proportion of death that is sudden diminishes markedly. This finding may influence the yield of interventions targeted at prevention of sudden death.

  2. Statistical and Modeling Techniques for Studying the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Helen L.

    1976-01-01

    The intention of this research is to contribute additional data, hopefully bearing on the solution to some of the problems and indirectly, the cause(s) of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and to present ideas for consideration for future SIDS research. (Author/RK)

  3. Morphological diagnosis of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Villanueva, E

    1989-01-01

    of pericardial fluid and myocardium in the same cases of sudden death of cardiac origin. Fifty cases were included, and the results of the macroscopic, histochemical, histological and cytological examinations revealed that the NBT test and microscopy are valuable methods in diagnosing infarctions, while...

  4. Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Karen B.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    2004-01-01

    Despite general evidence of fetal toxicities associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), there has been limited research focusing on the effects of parental alcohol use on SIDS occurrence, either directly or in interaction with other risk conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on parental, especially maternal,…

  5. Epidemiological Features of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Medvedevа

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of some epidemiological characteristics of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS in the Donbass region for a period of 1994–2014. The prevalence and specific relevance of SIDS, dynamics of specific gravity of SIDS in the structure of infantile mortality is shown.

  6. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  7. Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between platelet parameters and sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Data source: A PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, OVID, EMBASE and Google Scholar search (date last searchedApril2016) search was done. No restrictions of time, language and location were ...

  8. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underlying cardiac abnormalities are the main cause of unexpected death in athletes on field. These abnormalities have been associated with a previous history of syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiac murmur, a history of over-exhaustion post exercise and ventricular tachyarrhythmia during ...

  9. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  10. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  11. Sudden Sensory-Neural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Fariba Slambol Nassaj

    1993-01-01

    Sudden hearing loss is a type of hearing loss that occurs in three successive frequencies by more than 30 dB and in less than 72 hours. Every 10 person in 100000 in the world and 25000 people in USA suffer this kind of hearing loss. The average age of the onset is 43 years old.

  12. Sudden Gains during Therapy of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Schultz, Stefan M.; Meuret, Alicia E.; Moscovitch, David A.; Suvak, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated the phenomenon of sudden gains in 107 participants with social phobia (social anxiety disorder) who received either cognitive-behavioral group therapy or exposure group therapy without explicit cognitive interventions, which primarily used public speaking situations as exposure tasks. Twenty-two out of 967…

  13. Sudden (reversible) sensorineural hearing loss in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kenny, R

    2011-03-01

    Sudden hearing loss directly associated with pregnancy or birth is a little known and rare occurrence. The temporary, unilateral, low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss in this case was reported after the birth of the patient\\'s first child, and again during the third trimester of her second pregnancy.

  14. Sudden viscous dissipation of compressing turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovits, S.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  15. Sudden Viscous Dissipation of Compressing Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2016-03-11

    Compression of turbulent plasma can amplify the turbulent kinetic energy, if the compression is fast compared to the viscous dissipation time of the turbulent eddies. A sudden viscous dissipation mechanism is demonstrated, whereby this amplified turbulent kinetic energy is rapidly converted into thermal energy, suggesting a new paradigm for fast ignition inertial fusion.

  16. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Randers, Morten B; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2009-01-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer...... stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve...... the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries....

  17. Dentate gyrus abnormalities in sudden unexplained death in infants: morphological marker of underlying brain vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C; Cryan, Jane B; Haynes, Robin L; Paterson, David S; Haas, Elisabeth A; Mena, Othon J; Minter, Megan; Journey, Kelley W; Trachtenberg, Felicia L; Goldstein, Richard D; Armstrong, Dawna D

    2015-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in infants, including the sudden infant death syndrome, is likely due to heterogeneous causes that involve different intrinsic vulnerabilities and/or environmental factors. Neuropathologic research focuses upon the role of brain regions, particularly the brainstem, that regulate or modulate autonomic and respiratory control during sleep or transitions to waking. The hippocampus is a key component of the forebrain-limbic network that modulates autonomic/respiratory control via brainstem connections, but its role in sudden infant death has received little attention. We tested the hypothesis that a well-established marker of hippocampal pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy-focal granule cell bilamination in the dentate, a variant of granule cell dispersion-is associated with sudden unexplained death in infants. In a blinded study of hippocampal morphology in 153 infants with sudden and unexpected death autopsied in the San Diego County medical examiner's office, deaths were classified as unexplained or explained based upon autopsy and scene investigation. Focal granule cell bilamination was present in 41.2% (47/114) of the unexplained group compared to 7.7% (3/39) of the explained (control) group (p infants with sudden unexplained death may represent a developmental vulnerability that leads to autonomic/respiratory instability or autonomic seizures, and sleep-related death when the infants are challenged with homeostatic stressors. Importantly, these lesions can be recognized in microscopic sections prepared in current forensic practice. Future research is needed to determine the relationship between hippocampal and previously reported brainstem pathology in sudden infant death.

  18. Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...... complexity, with the consequence that traditional cryptography solutions become too costly to be implemented. In this paper, we survey design strategies and techniques suitable for implementing security primitives in constrained devices....

  19. Evolution and significance of the triple risk model in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Jade; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey; Van Den Heuvel, Corinna; Byard, Roger W

    2017-02-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a leading cause of death in infants, although the mechanisms leading to death remain unclear. Multiple theories have emerged over time, with one of the most influential hypotheses being the triple risk model. This model, first devised in 1972 and later revised in 1994 by Filiano and Kinney, is still widely used in assisting with conceptualising and understanding sudden death in infancy. This model has evolved over time, with each version stressing that SIDS is likely to occur when certain risk factors coincide, suggesting that the lethal mechanisms in SIDS are likely to be multifactorial. All versions of the triple risk model from 1972 to the present have emphasised the complexity of SIDS and serve as useful guides for current and future research into the enigma of sudden and unexpected death in infancy. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Heart diseases play a vital role in sudden unexpected death in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-ning SHI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP indicates sudden death without a definite cause in epileptics, especially during seizures or interictal phase. The risk of sudden death in epileptic patients is over 20 times higher than that in individuals without epilepsy. The explicit pathogenesis of SUDEP is not clear, while the heart disease is likely to play an important role in SUDEP. Cardiac dysfunction, which is caused by ion channel diseases, autonomic dysfunction, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, is associated with SUDEP. Understanding of the mechanisms about cardiac factors is required to provide effective strategy for future control of SUDEP. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.11.006

  1. Endothelial dysfunction in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Quaranta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An endothelial dysfunction has been described in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL patients. The purpose of our review was to: i identify, evaluate and review recent research about cardiovascular risk factors involvement and signs of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL; ii implication of these discovering in clinical practice and future research. A Medline literature search was conducted to identify any study on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL, published in the English language in the last decade. The following MEDLINE search terms were used: sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL and endothelial dysfunction (text words. Additional studies were identified by hand searching the references of original articles and review articles. Studies were not excluded on the basis of the qualitative or quantitative definitions of SSHL, treatment regimens, or outcome measures. Data were extracted from included papers by a reviewer. Information on the patients, investigations, methods, interventions, and outcomes were systematically analyzed. Characteristics and results of all included studies were reviewed systematically. High levels of adhesion molecules, hyperhomocysteinemia and lower folate levels, unbalanced oxidative status, a lower value of flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery and a reduced percentage of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients affected by ISSHL support the hypothesis that this syndrome should be considered as a microcirculation disorder based on endothelial dysfunction and drive clinicians to implement all the traditional strategies used for preventing cardiovascular events, to also reduce the likelihood of ISSHL occurrence.

  2. Endothelial Dysfunction in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; De Ceglie, Vincenzo; D'Elia, Alessandra

    2016-04-20

    An endothelial dysfunction has been described in idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) patients. The purpose of our review was to: i) identify, evaluate and review recent research about cardiovascular risk factors involvement and signs of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL; ii) implication of these discovering in clinical practice and future research. A Medline literature search was conducted to identify any study on the involvement of endothelial dysfunction in ISSHL, published in the English language in the last decade. The following MEDLINE search terms were used: sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) and endothelial dysfunction (text words). Additional studies were identified by hand searching the references of original articles and review articles. Studies were not excluded on the basis of the qualitative or quantitative definitions of SSHL, treatment regimens, or outcome measures. Data were extracted from included papers by a reviewer. Information on the patients, investigations, methods, interventions, and outcomes were systematically analyzed. Characteristics and results of all included studies were reviewed systematically. High levels of adhesion molecules, hyperhomocysteinemia and lower folate levels, unbalanced oxidative status, a lower value of flow-mediated dilatation of brachial artery and a reduced percentage of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients affected by ISSHL support the hypothesis that this syndrome should be considered as a microcirculation disorder based on endothelial dysfunction and drive clinicians to implement all the traditional strategies used for preventing cardiovascular events, to also reduce the likelihood of ISSHL occurrence.

  3. Novel hypothesis for unexplained sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, A R; Berry, A M; Goldwater, P N

    2009-11-01

    Two recent retrospective studies independently reported typically pathogenic bacteria in normally sterile sites of infants succumbing to sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI). These findings suggested a proportion of unexplained SUDI might be triggered by bacteraemia. The objective was to assess these observations in the context of the pathology and epidemiology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in relation to the role of infection and inflammation as triggers of these deaths. A review of the literature to identify potential risk factors for unexplained infant deaths and proposal of a theoretical model for SUDI. Pathologic and epidemiological evidence suggests a hypothesis based on three factors: bacterial translocation, pathogen pattern recognition insufficiency and prenatal exposure to infection. We propose that sterile site infections in which common toxigenic bacteria are identified indicate a brief bacteraemic episode prior to death. This might reflect an ineffective innate response to invasive pathogens that results in reduced clearance of the bacteria. Thymomegaly observed consistently among infants diagnosed under the category of SIDS might have its origins in prenatal life, perhaps generated via in utero infection or exposure to microbial antigens which results in thymocyte priming. There is consistent evidence for an infectious aetiology in many unexplained SUDI. Future directions for research are suggested.

  4. Bereavement and mental health after sudden and violent losses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Pål; Weisæth, Lars; Heir, Trond

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the psychological consequences of sudden and violent losses, including disaster and military losses. It also reviews risk and resilience factors for grief and mental health and describes the effects and possible benefit of psychosocial interventions. The review shows gaps in the literature on grief and bereavement after sudden and violent deaths. Still, some preliminary conclusions can be made. Several studies show that a sudden and violent loss of a loved one can adversely affect mental health and grief in a substantial number of the bereaved. The prevalence of mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and prolonged grief disorder (PGD, also termed complicated grief) varies widely, however, from study to study. Also, mental health disorders are more elevated after sudden and violent losses than losses following natural deaths, and the trajectory of recovery seems to be slower. Several factors related to the circumstances of the loss may put the bereaved at heightened risk for mental distress. These factors may be differentially related to different outcomes; some increase the risk for PTSD, others for PGD. Given the special circumstances, bereavement following sudden and violent death may require different interventions than for loss from natural death. Recommendations for future research and clinical implications are discussed. © 2012 Guilford Publications, Inc.

  5. Sudden natural death in Khartoum Mortuary | Mohamed | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The sudden natural death is defined as: Death occurs within 24 hours from the onset of symptoms. The disclosing of the causes of sudden natural death is important for prevention and improving outcome. The objectives of this study were to determine the causes of sudden natural death in Khartoum Mortuary

  6. Proceedings of the sudden oak death sixth science symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Frankel; Katharine M. Harrell

    2017-01-01

    The Sudden Oak Death Sixth Science Symposium provided a forum for current research on sudden oak death, caused by the exotic quarantine pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. More than 50 submissions describing papers or posters on the following sudden oak death/P. ramorum topics are included: biology, genetics, nursery and wildland...

  7. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation...... of SADS. METHODS AND RESULTS: We have previously identified all of the autopsied sudden cardiac deaths (SCD; n = 314) in Danes aged 1-35 years between 2000 and 2006. After comprehensive pathological and toxicological investigation did not reveal a cause of SCD, 136 of the patients were identified as SADS....... The National Patient Registry was utilized to obtain information on all in- and outpatient activity in Danish hospitals. All medical records from hospitals and general practitioners, including death certificates and autopsy reports were reviewed. Before death, 48 (35%) SADS patients had cardiac symptoms; among...

  8. Rare cause of bilateral sudden deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, F I; Merkus, P; van Nieuwkerk, E B J; Hensen, E F

    2016-10-08

    In this paper, we describe the case of a 62-year-old female with recurring episodes of sudden deafness with vertigo and facial paresis. Within a month's time, this resulted in bilateral deafness and vestibular areflexia. Erroneously, the patient was diagnosed with sudden deafness of unknown origin and subsequently with neuroborreliosis (Lyme disease). The true diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis (RP) was revealed 9 months after initial presentation. The diagnostic delay is in part explained by the fact that, by definition, the disease has to relapse before the diagnosis can be made, but also by its pluriform clinical presentation. Timely identification of RP as the cause of this profound sensorineural hearing loss proved to be important. It was key in instigating adequate follow-up, and allowed for cochlear implantation before total cochlear obliteration, which might have hampered optimal hearing rehabilitation. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Deirdre E; Cowell, Annie; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W; Morhaime, Jacquelyn; Reed, Sharon L

    2016-12-07

    A 58-year-old Korean-born woman with a history of seizures and psychiatric issues was found dead at home. Autopsy was notable for large, calcified nodules that had nearly replaced her right temporal lobe. Histologic examination revealed the presence of Paragonimus eggs. This case demonstrates a rare manifestation of an aberrantly migrated lung fluke that resulted in epilepsy and sudden death years after the initial infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arrigan, M T

    2012-02-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  11. Sudden hearing loss associated with methylphenidate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapinar, Ugur; Saglam, Omer; Dursun, Engin; Cetin, Bilal; Salman, Nergis; Sahan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    An 8-year-old child diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder presented to our Department of Otolaryngology 4 days after suffering hearing loss, loss of balance, tinnitus, and fullness sensation of the left ear. Her symptoms occured with the first dose of methylphenidate. The medical history and physical examination revealed no other diseases associated with sudden hearing loss. The audiogram revealed a total hearing loss on the left ear. Stapedial reflexes, distortion product and transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions were absent in left ear. The absence of clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence of a possible cause for complaints, an association between methylphenidate and sudden hearing loss was suggested. The patient received a standard course of oral corticosteroid and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Weekly otological and audiological examinations were performed. Conservative and medical treatments offered no relief from hearing loss. Sudden hearing loss is a serious and irreversible adverse effect of methylphenidate. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss should be taken into consideration when initiating methylphenidate therapy.

  12. Arrhythmias and sudden death in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W G; Sweeney, M O

    1997-09-01

    Survival of patients with heart failure has improved over the past decade due to advances in medical therapy. Sudden death continues to cause 20 to 50% of deaths. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with heart failure. Ventricular hypertrophy, scars from prior myocardial infarction, sympathetic activation, and electrolyte abnormalities contribute. Some sudden deaths are due to bradyarrhythmias and electromechanical dissociation rather than ventricular arrhythmias. The risks and benefits of antiarrhythmic therapies continue to be defined. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided due to proarrhythmic and negative inotropic effects that may increase mortality. For patients resuscitated from sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) amiodarone or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) should be considered. ICDs markedly reduce sudden death in VT/VF survivors, but in advanced heart failure, this may not markedly extend survival. Catheter or surgical ablation can be considered for selected patients with bundle branch reentry VT or difficult to control monomorphic VT. For patients who have not had sustained VT/VF antiarrhythmic therapy should generally be avoided, but may benefit some high risk patients. Amiodarone may be beneficial in patients with advanced heart failure and rapid resting heart rates. ICDs may improve survival in selected survivors of myocardial infarction who have inducible VT.

  13. The Debate in Cuba's Scientific Community on Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, Ernesto; Ochoa, Luis A; Ramos, Lianne

    2015-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death poses a challenge to modern medicine because of its high incidence, the unexpected and dramatic nature of the event, and years of potential life lost. What's more, despite modest decreases in global mortality attributed to cardiovascular diseases, incidence of sudden cardiac death has not declined. Cuba, like most of the Americas, suffers from knowledge gaps that hamper adequate strategies to address sudden cardiac death as a population health problem. We suggest that a generally accepted operational definition of sudden cardiac death be agreed upon, and a national registry developed that recognizes this cause of death on death certificates. These two actions will enable Cuba's public health authorities to assess the extent of the problem and to design intervention strategies for the population with intermediate and lower cardiovascular risk, the group in which most cases occur. KEYWORDS Sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular disease, sudden death, sudden cardiac arrest, risk reduction, prevention and control, Cuba.

  14. Potential Central Nervous System Involvement in Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, Bradley T

    2015-07-01

    Sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) in infancy which includes Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the commonest diagnosed cause of death in the United States for infants 1 month to 1 year of age. Central nervous system mechanisms likely contribute to many of these deaths. We discuss some of these including seizure disorders, prolonged breath holding, arousal from sleep and its habituation, laryngeal reflex apnea potentiated by upper airway infection, and failure of brainstem-mediated autoresuscitation. In the conclusions section, we speculate how lives saved through back sleeping might result in later developmental problems in certain infants who otherwise might have died while sleeping prone. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  15. Infectious causes of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfelali, Mohammad; Khandaker, Gulam

    2014-12-01

    Investigators have long suspected the role of infection in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Evidence of infectious associations with SIDS is accentuated through the presence of markers of infection and inflammation on autopsy of SIDS infants and isolates of some bacteria and viruses. Several observational studies have looked into the relation between seasonality and incidence of SIDS, which often showed a winter peak. These all may suggest an infectious aetiology of SIDS. In this review we have summarised the current literature on infectious aetiologies of SIDS by looking at viral, bacterial, genetic and environmental factors which are believed to be associated with SIDS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sudden Death from Glue-Sniffing

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Norisuke; Makisumi, Toshiro; Furuno, Junji

    1992-01-01

    This case dealswith an 18 year-old young male who suddenly died while amusing himself by glue-sniffing together with a friend in a very narrow toilet beneath a stairway in the company where he worked. Therefore, the purepose of elucidating the cause of death, gas chromatographic analyses were carried out on the laquer thinner which was discovered at the acene and on the variety of tissues of the cadaver. As a result, five ingredients (acetone, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, toluene, and n-butyl ac...

  17. Heart Failure and Sudden Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saour, Basil; Smith, Bryan; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-12-01

    The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention estimates that 5.7 million adults in the United States suffer from heart failure and 1 in 9 deaths in 2009 cited heart failure as a contributing cause. Almost 50% of patients who are diagnosed with heart failure die within 5 years of diagnosis. Cardiovascular disease is a public health burden. The prognosis of patients with heart failure has improved significantly. However, the risk for death remains high. Managing sudden death risk and intervening appropriately with primary or secondary prevention strategies are of paramount importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  19. Long-term monitoring of sudden oak death in Marin County and the East Bay Hills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Greg Biging; Maggi Kelly; David L. Wood

    2017-01-01

    Prior to 2000 the etiology, effects on host trees, and possible consequences for northern California’s forests of the syndrome known as sudden oak death were unknown. We designed a plot-based study to address these issues and to set a baseline for future evaluations.In March-April 2000 we established a total of 20 plots in two forested...

  20. Cardiac screening to prevent sudden death in young athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Schmehil, Christopher; Malhotra, Devika; Patel, Dilip R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden and unexpected death caused by loss of heart of function. SCD may occur in any population, but when it occurs on the playing field in a young individual, communities worldwide are affected. Although these events are rare, media coverage of sudden cardiac arrests in young athletes have created the impression that these events are far more common than they appear. With a heightened awareness of SCD in young athletes, screening methods have been developed t...

  1. [Sudden cardiac death: A better understanting for a better prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, V; Bougouin, W; Karam, N; Albuisson, J; Cariou, A; Jouven, X; Marijon, E

    2017-09-01

    Sudden cardiac death is defined as a natural and unexpected death, in a previous apparently healthy individual. It represents a major public health issue, with up to 50% of the cardiovascular mortality. Using data from the Paris Sudden Death Expertise Centre registry, this article summarises the main cardiovascular abnormalities associated with sudden cardiac death, the different preventives approaches, and provides a systematic diagnostic approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Trends in PDE constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Benner, Peter; Engell, Sebastian; Griewank, Andreas; Harbrecht, Helmut; Hinze, Michael; Rannacher, Rolf; Ulbrich, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Optimization problems subject to constraints governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) are among the most challenging problems in the context of industrial, economical and medical applications. Almost the entire range of problems in this field of research was studied and further explored as part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) priority program 1253 on “Optimization with Partial Differential Equations” from 2006 to 2013. The investigations were motivated by the fascinating potential applications and challenging mathematical problems that arise in the field of PDE constrained optimization. New analytic and algorithmic paradigms have been developed, implemented and validated in the context of real-world applications. In this special volume, contributions from more than fifteen German universities combine the results of this interdisciplinary program with a focus on applied mathematics.   The book is divided into five sections on “Constrained Optimization, Identification and Control”...

  3. Constraining spacetime torsion with LAGEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone

    2011-11-01

    We compute the corrections to the orbital Lense-Thirring effect (or frame-dragging) in the presence of spacetime torsion. We analyze the motion of a test body in the gravitational field of a rotating axisymmetric massive body, using the parametrized framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi. In the cases of autoparallel and extremal trajectories, we derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of Celestial Mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter. We also show how the LAser GEOdynamics Satellites (LAGEOS) can be used to constrain torsion parameters. We report the experimental constraints obtained using both the nodes and perigee measurements of the orbital Lense-Thirring effect. This makes LAGEOS and Gravity Probe B complementary frame-dragging and torsion experiments, since they constrain three different combinations of torsion parameters.

  4. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA.

  5. KRITERIA DIAGNOSIS DAN DIAGNOSIS BANDING SUDDEN DEAFNESS (SSNHL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvindan Subramaniam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sudden deafness or sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL is defined as sensorineural hearing loss of more than 30 dB at three consecutive frequencies within 3 days of onset, often unilateral and idiopathic. Etiology of sudden deafness is still not known, but there are many theories put forward by the experts as a risk factor for sudden deafness. The prevalence of sudden deafness 5-30 per 100,000 people per year. Distribution of men and women almost equally, with the peak age of 50-60 years. Sudden deafness diagnosis is made based on history, physical examination and audiometry. Sudden deafness has three characteristics; acute, sensorineural hearing loss and unknown etiology. Additional characteristics may include vertigo, tinnitus and the absence of cranial nerve involvement. Management of sudden deafness include conservative therapy with multiple modalities. Case: Patient male, 40 years, Bali, Hindu present with hearing loss since ± 2 weeks ago. Patients previously complained of heat in the ear ± 2 days ago accompanied by a downward hearing and ears. A history of vomiting, coughs and colds denied. History of treatment at the hospital and was hospitalized for ± 2 weeks. Patients had never suffered from the same disease. No history of sinusitis, allergy, anemia, autoimmune and other systemic diseases. Patients also had never experienced trauma and underwent nasal surgery before. Keywords:sudden deafness, sensorineural, audiometry.

  6. How Will Copper Contamination Constrain Future Global Steel Recycling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehn, Katrin E; Cabrera Serrenho, André; Allwood, Julian M

    2017-06-06

    Copper in steel causes metallurgical problems, but is pervasive in end-of-life scrap and cannot currently be removed commercially once in the melt. Contamination can be managed to an extent by globally trading scrap for use in tolerant applications and dilution with primary iron sources. However, the viability of long-term strategies can only be evaluated with a complete characterization of copper in the global steel system and this is presented in this paper. The copper concentration of flows along the 2008 steel supply chain is estimated from a survey of literature data and compared with estimates of the maximum concentration that can be tolerated in steel products. Estimates of final steel demand and scrap supply by sector are taken from a global stock-saturation model to determine when the amount of copper in the steel cycle will exceed that which can be tolerated. Best estimates show that quantities of copper arising from conventional scrap preparation can be managed in the global steel system until 2050 assuming perfectly coordinated trade and extensive dilution, but this strategy will become increasingly impractical. Technical and policy interventions along the supply chain are presented to close product loops before this global constraint.

  7. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  8. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Krüger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective: The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods: Female participants (N=74 were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS. Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results: During treatment, only one participant (3% experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions: Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome.

  9. The additivity problem and constrained quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2005-06-01

    We give formulations of the famous additivity conjecture for several important quantities characterizing quantum channel and prove their global equivalence to the additivity of the classical capacity of a channel under input constrains (like mean energy constrain).

  10. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  11. Sudden infant death triggered by dive reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturri, L; Ottaviani, G; Lavezzi, A M

    2005-01-01

    The dive reflex is the reflex mechanism most frequently considered in the aetiopathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). This seems to persist in human beings as an inheritance from diver birds and amphibians. It has been reported that washing the face with cold water or plunging into cold water can provoke cardiac deceleration through the intervention of the ambiguus and the vagal dorsal nuclei. This report describes a case of SIDS that offers a unique insight into the role of the dive reflex in determining a lethal outcome. Examination of the brainstem on serial sections revealed severe bilateral hypoplasia of the arcuate nucleus and gliosis of the other cardiorespiratory medullary nuclei. The coronary and cardiac conduction arteries presented early atherosclerotic lesions. The possible role of parental cigarette smoking in the pathogenesis of arcuate nucleus hypoplasia and early coronary atherosclerotic lesions is also discussed. PMID:15623488

  12. Pathophysiology and prevention of sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Vineet; Jassal, Davinder S; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2016-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is known to occur in individuals with diverse diseases. Each disease state has a specific etiology and pathophysiology, and is diagnosed and treated differently. Etiologies for SCD include cardiac arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, congenital coronary artery anomalies, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and aortic valve stenosis. A potential unifying mechanism of SCD in these diseases involves a massive stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system's stress response and the subsequent elevation of circulating catecholamines. The diagnosis of cardiac diseases that contribute to an increased risk for SCD is accomplished by a combination of different techniques including electrocardiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and invasive cardiac catheterization. Several therapies including anti-arrhythmic drugs, β-blockers, and antiplatelet agents may be used as medical treatment in patients for the prevention of SCD. Invasive therapies including percutaneous angioplasty, coronary artery bypass surgery, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are also used in the clinical management of SCD.

  13. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettelheim, Karl A; Goldwater, Paul N

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and the possible role these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonization by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent liability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.

  14. Escherichia coli and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nathan Goldwater

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the association of strains of Escherichia coli with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and the possible role of these bacteria play in this enigmatic condition. The review addresses evidence for E. coli in SIDS infants, potential sources of E. coli in the environment, colonisation by commensal and pathogenic strains, the variety of currently accepted pathotypes, and how these pathotypes could compromise intestinal integrity and induce inflammation. Both intestinal and extraintestinal pathotypes are compared in relation to the apparent lability in which virulence traits can be gained or lost by strains of E. coli. The way in which E. coli infections fit with current views on infant sleeping position and other SIDS risk factors is highlighted.

  15. Sudden oak death-caused changes to surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in Douglas-fir-tanoak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.S. Valachovic; C.A. Lee; H. Scanlon; J.M. Varner; R. Glebocki; B.D. Graham; D.M. Rizzo

    2011-01-01

    We compared stand structure and fuel loading in northwestern California forests invaded by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death, to assess whether the continued presence of this pathogen alters surface fuel loading and potential fire behavior in ways that may encumber future firefighting response. To attempt to account for these...

  16. Recreational soccer can improve the reflex response to sudden trunk loading among untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens T; Randers, Morten B; Skotte, Jørgen H; Krustrup, Peter

    2009-12-01

    A slower reflex response to sudden trunk loading (SL) has been shown to increase future risk of low back injuries in healthy subjects, and specific readiness training can improve the response to SL among healthy subjects. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of recreational soccer training on the reaction to SL among untrained healthy women. Thirty-six healthy, untrained, Danish women (age 19-45 years) were randomly assigned to a soccer group (SO, n = 19) and a running group (RU, n = 17). In addition, an untrained control group (CON, n = 10) was recruited. Training was performed for 1 hour twice a week (mean heart rate of 165 b.min-1 in SO and 164 b.min-1 in RU) for 16 weeks. Test of reactions to sudden unexpected trunk loading was performed before and after the training period. Furthermore, time-motion analysis of the soccer training was performed for 9 subjects. Group assignment was blinded to the test personnel. Physical education students organized the training. During 1 hour of soccer training, the total number of sudden moves including sudden loading of the upper body (e.g. turns, stops, throw-ins, headers, and shoulder tackles) was 192 (63). In SO, time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement of the trunk (stopping time) decreased (p < 0.05) by 15% and distance moved after unexpected SL decreased (p < 0.05) by 24% compared with no changes in RU and CON. In conclusion, football training includes a high number of sudden loadings of the upper body and can improve the reflex response to SL. The faster reflex response indicates that soccer training can reduce the risk of low back injuries.

  17. Incidence of sudden cardiac death in professional cycling: Sudden cardiac death and exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Garatachea, Nuria; Arrarás-Flores, Ángel; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Low-moderate intensity aerobic exercise (e.g., brisk walking for 30–60 min/day) has well-documented beneficial cardiovascular effects, whereas those of strenuous endurance exercise (SEE) e.g., marathon running, are more controversial. Notably, the increasing popularity of SEE has contributed to the growth of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) over the last decade. In this regard, Pineda et al. have underlined the importance of appropriate precompetition screening in order to minimize t...

  18. Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths May Be Underestimated: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166269.html Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths May Be Underestimated: Study Lack of standardized death ... U.S. Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is deemed a distinct form of ...

  19. New Areas for Preventive Programing: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowman, Joseph

    Crisis intervention programs for persons experiencing the sudden death of family members or surviving natural disasters have been advocated as methods of primary prevention, although few have actually been implemented. A program utilizing nurses to deliver grief intervention to parents losing a baby to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) was…

  20. Antipsychotics and the risk of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, S.M.J.M.; Bleumink, G.S.; Dieleman, J.P.; van der Lei, J.; 't Jong, G.W.; Kingma, J. Herre; Sturkenboom, M.C J M; Stricker, B.H C

    2004-01-01

    Background Antipsychotics have been associated with prolongation of the corrected QT interval and sudden cardiac death. Only a few epidemiological studies have investigated this association. We performed a case-control study to investigate the association between use of antipsychotics and sudden

  1. Sudden cardiac arrest in sports - need for uniform registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, E E; Borjesson, M; Sharma, S

    2016-01-01

    There are large variations in the incidence, registration methods and reported causes of sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death (SCA/SCD) in competitive and recreational athletes. A crucial question is to which degree these variations are genuine or partly due to methodological incongruities....

  2. The prevalence of HIV in the sudden, unexplained and unexpected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of HIV in the sudden, unexplained and unexpected (SUU) death population admitted to the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. Methods: This study was conducted at the Pretoria Medico-Legal Laboratory. Blood samples were obtained from decedents who died suddenly and/or ...

  3. A honey bee can threat ear: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düzenli, Ufuk; Bozan, Nazım; Ayral, Abdurrahman; Yalınkılıç, Abdülaziz; Kıroğlu, Ahmet Faruk

    2017-11-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is an otologic emergency. Many etiological factors can lead to this pathology. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) sting may lead to local and systemic reactions due to sensitization of the patient. In this paper we described a sudden sensorineural hearing loss occurred after honey bee sting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of sudden stratospheric warmings on tropospheric winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinssen, Y.B.L.; van Delden, A.J.; Opsteegh, T.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of changes in the zonal mean stratospheric potential vorticity, associated with sudden stratospheric warmings, on the zonal mean zonal wind in the troposphere is investigated by piecewise potential vorticity inversion. The focus is on the major sudden stratospheric warming that

  5. Sudden cardiac death in Nigerians - The Ile - Ife experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reports from other parts of the worldw'm'12 where it has been documented that about a third of victims of sudden cardiac death do not have a past history of heart disease. The pre- cise role of activity, physical and emotional, in triggering the terminal events of sudden cardiac death is controversial. Our. finding that majority of ...

  6. Constrained ballistics and geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The problem of constant-speed ballistics is studied under the umbrella of non-linear non-holonomic constrained systems. The Newtonian approach is shown to be equivalent to the use of Chetaev's rule to incorporate the constraint within the initially unconstrained formulation. Although the resulting equations are not, in principle, obtained from a variational statement, it is shown that the trajectories coincide with those of geometrical optics in a medium with a suitably chosen refractive index, as prescribed by Fermat's principle of least time. This fact gives rise to an intriguing mechano-optical analogy. The trajectories are further studied and discussed.

  7. Constraining walking and custodial technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level-custodial technicolor-and argue that these models...... cannot emerge from walking-type dynamics. We suggest that it is possible to have a very light spin-one axial (vector) boson. However, in the walking dynamics the associated vector boson is heavy while it is degenerate with the axial in custodial technicolor Udgivelsesdato: 19 May...

  8. Risk factors and causes of sudden noncardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Wissenberg, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On the performance of an autopsy, sudden deaths may be divided into 2 classifications: (1) sudden cardiac deaths and (2) sudden noncardiac deaths (SNCDs). Families of SNCD victims should not be followed up as a means of searching for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study...... was to report the risk factors and causes of SNCD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nationwide study including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 of individuals aged 1-35 years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 of individuals aged 1-49 years. Two physicians identified all sudden death cases through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify both clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with SNCD. RESULTS: We identified 1039 autopsied cases of sudden death, of which 286 (28%) were classified as SNCD...

  9. Mobile phone usage does not affect sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagiv, D; Migirov, L; Madgar, O; Nakache, G; Wolf, M; Shapira, Y

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies found that mobile phone users had a significantly greater risk of having elevated thresholds in speech frequencies. This study investigated the correlation between the laterality of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, handedness and the preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study included all patients who presented with sudden sensorineural hearing loss to the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery in our tertiary referral medical centre between 2014 and 2016. Patients were asked to indicate their dominant hand and preferred ear for mobile phone use. The study comprised 160 patients. No correlation was found between the dominant hand or preferred ear for mobile phone use and the side of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. There was no correlation between the side of the sudden sensorineural hearing loss (preferable or non-preferable for mobile phone use) and audiometric characteristics. No correlation was found between the laterality of ears used for mobile phone and sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

  10. Bubble motion in sudden expansion in vertical pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Koichi [Marine Technical College, Ashiya, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Okawa, Tomio; Kataoka, Isao [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    Experimental studies were made on the multi-dimensional behavior of upward gas-liquid two-phase flow through the vertical round tube with an axisymmetric sudden expansion, which is one of the typical multi-dimensional channel geometry. The direct observation using high-speed video camera was performed and revealed the multi-dimensional dynamic flow behavior affected by the sudden expansion. Characteristic phenomena were observed such as bubble break-up, deformation due to the strong share of liquid flow, or liquid micro jet penetration through the gas-slug, and so on. From these results, the flow regime map at the below or above of the sudden expansion part was classified. The phase distributions in sudden expansion were also showed in detail that how the two-phase flow develops along the direction of the downstream of the sudden expansion. (J.P.N.)

  11. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male. The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40. Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%. Only 3 (33.3% cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11% had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death.

  12. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  13. A constrained model for MSMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Antonio [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Mueller, Stefan [Hausdorff Center for Mathematics and Institute for Applied Mathematics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Otto, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    A mathematical description of transformation processes in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) under applied stresses and external magnetic fields needs a combination of micromagnetics and continuum elasticity theory. In this note, we discuss the so-called constrained theories, i.e., models where the state described by the pair (linear strain, magnetization) is at every point of the sample constrained to assume one of only finitely many values (that reflect the material symmetries). Furthermore, we focus on large body limits, i.e., models that are formulated in terms of (local) averages of a microstructured state, as the one proposed by DeSimone and James. We argue that the effect of an interfacial energy associated with the twin boundaries survives on the level of the large body limit in form of a (local) rigidity of twins. This leads to an alternative (i.e., with respect to reference 1) large body limit. The new model has the advantage of qualitatively explaining the occurrence of a microstructure with charged magnetic walls, as observed in SPP experiments in reference 2. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Evaluating potentialities and constrains of Problem Based Learning curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Aida

    2013-01-01

    encloses three methodological approaches to investigate three interrelated research questions. Phase one, a literature review; aims develop a theoretical and analytical framework. The second phase aims to investigate examples of practices that combine PBL and Education for Sustainable Development (ESD......This paper presents a research design to evaluate Problem Based Learning (PBL) curriculum potentialities and constrains for future changes. PBL literature lacks examples of how to evaluate and analyse established PBL learning environments to address new challenges posed. The research design...

  15. Serotonin in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Karen

    2010-11-01

    It seems likely that some infants who die from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) have a brainstem abnormality of the serotonergic system. Evidence suggests that infants who died from SIDS had defective respiratory and/or autonomic responses that led to death instead of recovery after an acute insult. The serotonergic neuromodulator system has roles in the control of cardiac autonomic and respiratory function, as well as now being identified as abnormal in infants with SIDS. This manuscript reviews the multiple roles of serotonin with reference to the functional aspects of the relevant brain regions. Correlations with pre- or postnatal exposure to stressors, or an underlying genetic process are also reviewed. Together, these studies indicate that perturbed function of the serotonin system will have significant physiological impact during early development. Understanding the functional importance of these systems assists understanding of the pathogenesis of SIDS. In conclusion, whether an infant inherits serotonergic defects and is therefore "inherently vulnerable", or whether postnatal stressors can induce the abnormalities, any functional abnormalities of the serotonergic system that result are likely to be subclinical in the majority of cases and not easily detected with current medical tools. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac Innervation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Kanazawa, Hideaki; Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam

    2015-01-01

    Afferent and efferent cardiac neurotransmission via the cardiac nerves intricately modulates nearly all physiological functions of the heart (chronotropy, dromotropy, lusitropy and inotropy). Afferent information from the heart is transmitted to higher levels of the nervous system for processing (intrinsic cardiac nervous system, extracardiac-intrathoracic ganglia, spinal cord, brain stem and higher centers) which ultimately results in efferent cardiomotor neural impulses (via the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves). This system forms interacting feedback loops that provide physiological stability for maintaining normal rhythm and life-sustaining circulation. This system also ensures that there is fine-tuned regulation of sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in the heart under normal and stressed states in the short (beat to beat), intermediate (minutes-hours) and long term (days-years). This important neurovisceral /autonomic nervous system also plays a major role in the pathophysiology and progression of heart disease, including heart failure and arrhythmias leading to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Transdifferentiation of neurons in heart failure, functional denervation, cardiac and extra-cardiac neural remodeling have also been identified and characterized during the progression of disease. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular processes governing innervation and the functional control of the myocardium in health and disease provides a rational mechanistic basis for development of neuraxial therapies for preventing SCD and other arrhythmias. Advances in cellular, molecular, and bioengineering realms have underscored the emergence of this area as an important avenue of scientific inquiry and therapeutic intervention. PMID:26044253

  17. Sudden decoherence transitions for quantum discord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyungjun; Joynt, Robert

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the disappearance of discord in 2- and multi-qubit systems subject to decohering influences. We formulate the computation of quantum discord and quantum geometric discord in terms of the generalized Bloch vector, which gives useful insights on the time evolution of quantum coherence for the open system, particularly the comparison of entanglement and discord. We show that the analytical calculation of the global geometric discord is NP-hard in the number of qubits, but a similar statement for global entropic discord is more difficult to prove. We present an efficient numerical method to calculating the quantum discord for a certain important class of multipartite states. In agreement with previous work for 2-qubit cases (Mazzola et al 2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 200401), we find situations in which there is a sudden transition from classical to quantum decoherence characterized by the discord remaining relatively robust (classical decoherence) until a certain point from where it begins to decay quickly whereas the classical correlation decays more slowly (quantum decoherence). However, we find that as the number of qubits increases, the chance of this kind of transition occurring becomes small.

  18. [Bilateral versus unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Maomei; Li, Dehong; Peng, Weihui; Peng, Yikun; Ren, Juanjuan

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment effect between bilateral (bi-) and unilateral (uni-) sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Four hundred and eighty cases of SSNHL were retrospective study, which were divided into two groups of bi-SSNHL (n = 40) and uni-SSNHL (n = 440). Clinical characteristics and treatment effects were compared of the two groups. The incidence rate of bi-SSNHL was 8.3 percent and uni-SSNHL was 91.7 percent of all patients with SSNHL. Bi-SSNHL occurs more commonly in patients of old age, diabetes mellitus, and lipid panes abnormalities compared to uni-SSNHL. Twenty-eight ears in the bi-SSNHL group showed hearing recovery (35%), compared with 56.4 percent of patients with uni-SSNHL. Bi-SSNHL and uni-SSNHL may have a completely different clinical characteristics and treatment effect, that implies a different pathophysiology and prognosis. Recognition their different clinical characteristics and treatment effect between bilateral and unilateral SSNHL can help in counseling and managing the patients and correctly evaluate the prognosis.

  19. Hearing Recovey in Patients Suffering Sudden Deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Eslami

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available The study included 80 patients treated for sudden deafness over the last 5-7 years. Case history, laboratory findings, pure-tone audiogram and electronystagmography (ENG findings were noted. If any abnormalities had been recorded in ENG studies, the studies were redone. ORL status was redefined and audiograms were obtained in all patients. When becoming ill, the 80 patients had not differed from the normal population in common cardiovascular risk factors. None of them had had signs of viral infection (paired serum samples had been taken at 2-week intervals; routine examinations had been done for common viral antigens. As many as 31 of the 80 patients with acute hearing loss had had abnormalities such as spontaneous nystagmus (PN, hypoexcitability (HE and directional preponderance (DP in the bithermal caloric tests (+44 degrees C, + 30 degrees C of their ENG studies. Twenty of the 31 patients still had abnormal ENG studies after 5-7 years. Only 1 subject had positional nystagmus, and none had subjective vertigo. Patients with an abnormal ENG study showed a poor recovery of the speech reception threshold, whereas those with a normal ENG study showed slightly significant (p less than 0.05 recovery.

  20. [Prevention of sudden cardiac death by the implantable cardioverter defibrilator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacević, Dragan V; Milosavljević, Anastazija Stojisić; Topalov, Vasilije; Mihajlović, Bogoljub; Sakac, Dejan; Kozlovacki, Ziva

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION; Sudden cardiac death or, as it is also called, a modern man's killer occurs a few hours after the beginning of the disease. Sudden death is the one that happens within an hour from the onset of the subjective discomforts regardless of the existence of any previous disease. According to modern statistics, 450.000 people die suddenly in the USA and 150,000 in Germany. CAUSES OF SUDDEN DEATH: The most frequent causes of sudden death are cardiologic or, in other words, a heart rhythm disorder such as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and bradycardiac rhythm disorder. All these reasons can be efficiently prevented by the implantation of the cardioverter defibrillators. IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER DEFIBRILLATOR: In comparison with the already known medications, the defibrillator seems to be the most efficient in prevention of sudden cardiac death. This fact has been confirmed by large multicentre studies. The implantation itself is a routine procedure. It lasts about an hour and it often passes without any complications. The patient leaves the hospital a few days after the procedure. About 150 of these procedures are performed per year at the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases Vojvodina. The Social Insurance Fund bears medical costs and the patient only pays the participation fee, which is symbolical if compared to the value and use of the device. Owing to this fact, this device is available to every patient thus making the efficient sudden cardiac death prevention possible.

  1. [Sudden cardiovascular death in adults: Study of 361 autopsy cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesrati, M A; Belhadj, M; Aissaoui, A; HajSalem, N; Oualha, D; Boughattas, M; Messaoudi, I; Hammedi, F; Zakhama, A; Chadly, A

    2017-02-01

    To describe epidemiological aspects of sudden cardiovascular death and to specify the etiopathogenic characteristics. Our study is retrospective and descriptive. It included 361 cases of sudden cardiovascular death, which underwent autopsy in forensic medicine department of Monastir during eight years, from 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2011. The incidence of sudden cardiovascular death was 9 per 100,000 person. A marked male predominance was noted. The mean age was 55.75 years. In our series, myocardial infarction represents the leading cause of sudden cardiovascular death, 57.8% of cases. Other etiologies were hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (4.7%), heart failure (1.9%), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (2.8%), valvular disease (2%), cardio-myo-pericarditis (1.9%), hydatid cyst of the heart (0.8%), ruptured aneurysm (2.5%), pulmonary embolism (1.9%) and aortic dissection (1.3%). A sudden cardiovascular death at work was found in 25 cases. These cases pose essentially a problem of imputability. Sudden cardiac death is usually the complication of underlying heart disease, sometimes overlooked. Several risk factors are involved. Sudden cardiac death in healthy heart or death caused by arrhythmia is an important entity seeking the intervention of several actors (forensic doctor, cardiologist, geneticist, media…) for prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ambient Heat and Sudden Infant Death: A Case-Crossover Study Spanning 30 Years in Montreal, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Nathalie; Fraser, William D; Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Climate change may lead to more severe and extreme heat waves in the future, but its potential impact on sudden infant death-a leading cause of infant mortality-is unclear. We sought to determine whether risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is elevated during hot weather. We undertook a case-crossover analysis of all sudden infant deaths during warm periods in metropolitan Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from 1981 through 2010. Our analysis included a total of 196 certified cases of SIDS, including 89 deaths at 1-2 months of age, and 94 at 3-12 months. We estimated associations between maximum outdoor temperatures and SIDS by comparing outdoor temperatures on the day of or day before a SIDS event with temperatures on control days during the same month, using cubic splines to model temperature and adjusting for relative humidity. Maximum daily temperatures of ≥ 29°C on the same day were associated with 2.78 times greater odds of sudden infant death relative to 20°C (95% CI: 1.64, 4.70). The likelihood of sudden death increased steadily with higher temperature. Associations were stronger for infants 3-12 months of age than for infants 1-2 months of age, with odds ratios of 3.90 (95% CI: 1.87, 8.13) and 1.73 (95% CI: 0.80, 3.73), respectively, for 29°C compared with 20°C on the day of the event. High ambient temperature may be a novel risk factor for SIDS, especially at ≥ 3 months of age. Climate change and the higher temperatures that result may account for a potentially greater proportion of sudden infant deaths in the future.

  3. Enablers and constrainers to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Milana, Marcella

    2007-01-01

    as to construct a tool for analyzing the targeting of adult learning policy, with regard to both its coverage and expected consequences. Our aim is to develop a means for a more in-depth analysis of the match-mismatch of public policy and persisting constraints to participation.......This paper briefly reviews some of evidence on participation patterns in Nordic countries and some of the defining parameters that may explain the observations. This is done in a comparative perspective by contrasting results from the 2003 Eurobarometer data between Nordic countries and a handful...... of non-Nordic countries. An emphasis is placed on the constraining and enabling elements to participation and how these may explain why certain groups participate more or less than others. A central question of interest to this paper is to what extent does (can) government intervention interact...

  4. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  5. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.

    1997-07-08

    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  6. Causes of sudden cardiac arrest in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrol, Michael S; Kapitanyan, Raffi; Marques-Baptista, Andreia; Merlin, Mark A

    2010-07-01

    Knowledge of sudden cardiac death in young athletes is imperative for all physicians and allied health professionals. The complete differential diagnosis of a young patient with sudden cardiac arrest will result in proper work-up and treatment. In this article, we review several etiologies of sudden cardiac death, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and commotio cordis. Clinical findings, work-up, treatment, long-term management, and athlete preparticipation screening guidelines are discussed.

  7. Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes - What Can be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Ghosh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in athletes is a rare event but brings with it an impact that goes beyond sport. There are many causes of sudden death during exercise. While the responsibility of preventing or treating them lays with us physicians, preparticipation screening is largely ineffective and impractical. Definitive, large scale prospective research is required in order to design the most cost-effective system for screening of athletes. In the meanwhile rapid access to defibrillators by trained personnel remains the best possible approach to abort sudden death.

  8. Histological findings in unclassified sudden infant death, including sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrechts-Akkerman, Germaine; Bovée, Judith V M G; Wijnaendts, Liliane C D; Maes, Ann; Nikkels, Peter G J; de Krijger, Ronald R

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to study histological variations and abnormalities in unclassified sudden infant death (USID), including sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), in The Netherlands. Two hundred Dutch USID cases between 1984 and 2005 were identified. The histology slides and autopsy reports of 187 cases were available for systematic review, including brain autopsy in 135 cases. An explanation for the cause of death in 19 patients (10.2%) was found. Twelve patients had bronchopneumonia, 3 showed extensive aspiration, 2 had signs of a metabolic disorder, 1 had sepsis, and 1 had meningitis. Frequent nonspecific findings were congestion (66%), edema (47%), small hemorrhages (18%), and lymphoid aggregates (51%) in the lungs; congestion of the liver (23%); and asphyctic bleeding in the kidney (44%), adrenal gland (23%), and thymus (17%). Statistical associations were found for infection with starry sky macrophages in the thymus (P  =  0.004), with calcification (P  =  0.023), or with debris in the Hassal's corpuscles (P  =  0.034). In this study, in 10.2% of cases the histological findings were incompatible with SIDS or USID. Furthermore, several frequent nonspecific histological findings in the thymus that point toward an infection were found.

  9. On the causes of collapse and sudden death by Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, B; Wray, R

    1997-06-01

    Avicenna's views on the causes of collapse and sudden death are presented from a literal translation of the mediaeval Arabic text. Medical knowledge based on observation mixed with pure abstract reasoning forms the essence of Avicenna's medical writings.

  10. Psychosocial Aspects of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome ("Cot Death").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluglass, Kerry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews literature on reactions of parents and siblings to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The prospects for prolonged, adverse reactions are considered, and professional concerns regarding abnormal adaptation are noted. (Author/DB)

  11. Familial Atrial Septal Defect and Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellesøe, Sabrina Gade; Johansen, Morten Munk; Bjerre, Jesper Vandborg

    2016-01-01

    disturbances, cardiomyopathies, complex CHD, and sudden cardiac death as well. Here, we show that NKX2-5 mutations primarily occur in ASD patients with conduction disturbances and heritable ASD. Furthermore, these families are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. RESULTS: We screened 39 probands.......1 × 10(-9) ). The majority of patients (74%) had ASD with conduction disturbance. Nineteen patients (15%) of 120 with familial ASD and conduction disturbance died from sudden cardiac death of which nine (8%) were confirmed mutation carriers, and 10 were possible carriers. CONCLUSIONS: NKX2-5 mutations...... mainly occur in familial CHD, the signature phenotype is ASD with conduction disturbances and mutation carriers are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death. We suggest that familial ASD patients should be screened for NKX2-5 mutations and, if they are mutation carriers, implantation of an implantable...

  12. QT Variability and Other Electrocardiographic Predictors of Sudden Cardiac Death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. van den Berg (Marten)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis investigates sudden cardiac death, focusing of QT variability, heart-rate variability and other electrocardiographic markers. Topics include: - Normal values for heart-rate variability - Normal values for QT variability - The association of QT variability with

  13. Sudden insight is associated with shutting out visual inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salvi, Carola; Bricolo, Emanuela; Franconeri, Steven L; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    ... window—all signs of shutting out distractions and turning attention inward. Prior research has demonstrated that attention-related brain areas are differently active when people solve problems with sudden insight (the Aha! phenomenon...

  14. The epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogen Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, DeCock & Man in't Veld), causal agent of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus...

  15. Syncope and the risk of sudden cardiac death: Evaluation, management, and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Koene, MD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Syncope is a clinical syndrome defined as a relatively brief self-limited transient loss of consciousness (TLOC caused by a period of inadequate cerebral nutrient flow. Most often the trigger is an abrupt drop of systemic blood pressure. True syncope must be distinguished from other common non-syncope conditions in which real or apparent TLOC may occur such as seizures, concussions, or accidental falls. The causes of syncope are diverse, but in most instances, are relatively benign (e.g., reflex and orthostatic faints with the main risks being accidents and/or injury. However, in some instances, syncope may be due to more worrisome conditions (particularly those associated with cardiac structural disease or channelopathies; in such circumstances, syncope may be an indicator of increased morbidity and mortality risk, including sudden cardiac death (SCD. Establishing an accurate basis for the etiology of syncope is crucial in order to initiate effective therapy. In this review, we focus primarily on the causes of syncope that are associated with increased SCD risk (i.e., sudden arrhythmic cardiac death, and the management of these patients. In addition, we discuss the limitations of our understanding of SCD in relation to syncope, and propose future studies that may ultimately address how to improve outcomes of syncope patients and reduce SCD risk. Keywords: Syncope, Sudden cardiac death, Risk assessment

  16. Sudden infant death syndrome: methodological and patogenetical types of diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Glukhovets

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents an analysis of literature data on pathogenesis of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS in comparison with author’s experience of infants dead in home. Diagnostic significance of qualified autopsy examinations in analysis of infants’ death is shown. Frequent combination of morphogenetic cardiopathy and early signs of atrial myocarditis can be estimated as pathogenetic basis of SIDS.Key words: sudden infant death syndrome, morphogenetic cardiopathy, atrial myocarditis.

  17. Post-mortem toxicology in young sudden cardiac death victims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjune, Thea; Risgaard, Bjarke; Kruckow, Line

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Several drugs increase the risk of ventricular fibrillation and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to investigate in detail the toxicological findings of all young SCD throughout Denmark. Methods and results: Deaths in persons aged 1-49 years were included over a 10-year period. Death...... death with positive toxicology had higher rates of sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS), compared with SCD with negative toxicology (56% vs. 42%, P 

  18. Cardiac Potassium Channel Dysfunction in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Troy E.; Abraham, Robert A.; Welch, Richard C.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Crotti, Lia; Arnestad, Marianne; Insolia, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Ferrandi, Chiara; Vege, Ashild; Rognum, Torleiv; Roden, Dan M.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2007-01-01

    Life-threatening arrhythmias have been suspected as one cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and this hypothesis is supported by the observation that mutations in arrhythmia susceptibility genes occur in 5–10% of cases. However, the functional consequences of cardiac potassium channel gene mutations associated with SIDS and how these alleles might mechanistically predispose to sudden death are unknown. To address these questions, we studied four missense KCNH2 (encoding HERG) var...

  19. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  20. Training can modify back muscle response to sudden trunk loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H; Jørgensen, Kurt; Fallentin, Nils

    2004-10-01

    Sudden, unexpected loading to the trunk has been reported in the literature as a potential cause of low-back disorders. This study's aim was to investigate the effect of "readiness training" on the response to sudden back loading among untrained healthy individuals. The study included 19 participants and 19 matched controls. All were employees at the National Institute of Occupational Health. The participants received ten 45-min training sessions during a 4-week period. The training focused on reactions to a variety of expected and unexpected sudden trunk loadings, including balance and coordination exercises. Before and after the training, all subjects were tested for reaction to sudden trunk loading (SL). This entailed applying a horizontal force of 58 N to the subject's upper back. Elapsed time--measured between SL and stopping--decreased significantly in the training group (from 337 to 311 ms) compared with the control group. The improved stopping time was associated with a changed EMG signal, characterized by an increase in the early parts of the response (up to 225 ms) and a subsequent decrease. EMG onset latency was unaffected by training. This study is apparently one of the first to demonstrate that the response to sudden trunk loading can be improved in healthy subjects without an increase in pre-activation and associated trunk stiffness. In perspective, the results indicate a possibility for a training-induced reduction of the risk of low-back injuries, e.g., in nurses exposed to sudden trunk perturbations during patient handling.

  1. Wavelet library for constrained devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Johan Hendrik; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2007-04-01

    The wavelet transform is a powerful tool for image and video processing, useful in a range of applications. This paper is concerned with the efficiency of a certain fast-wavelet-transform (FWT) implementation and several wavelet filters, more suitable for constrained devices. Such constraints are typically found on mobile (cell) phones or personal digital assistants (PDA). These constraints can be a combination of; limited memory, slow floating point operations (compared to integer operations, most often as a result of no hardware support) and limited local storage. Yet these devices are burdened with demanding tasks such as processing a live video or audio signal through on-board capturing sensors. In this paper we present a new wavelet software library, HeatWave, that can be used efficiently for image/video processing/analysis tasks on mobile phones and PDA's. We will demonstrate that HeatWave is suitable for realtime applications with fine control and range to suit transform demands. We shall present experimental results to substantiate these claims. Finally this library is intended to be of real use and applied, hence we considered several well known and common embedded operating system platform differences; such as a lack of common routines or functions, stack limitations, etc. This makes HeatWave suitable for a range of applications and research projects.

  2. Alcohol as a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David P; Brewer, Kimberly M; Wadensweiler, Paul

    2011-03-01

    To test whether alcohol is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). US epidemiological study using computerized death certificates, linked birth and infant death dataset, and Fatality Analysis Reporting System. All SIDS cases (n = 129,090) and other infant deaths (n = 295,151) from 1973-2006; all persons involved in late-night alcohol-related crashes (n = 135,946) from 1994-2008. Three measures were used: the expected number of deaths on New Year versus the observed number (expected values were determined using a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing polynomial), the average number of weekend deaths versus the average number of weekday deaths, and the SIDS death rate for children of alcohol-consuming versus non-alcohol-consuming mothers. These measures indicate that the largest spikes in alcohol consumption and in SIDS (33%) occur on New Year, alcohol consumption and SIDS increase significantly on weekends, and children of alcohol-consuming mothers are much more likely to die from SIDS than are children of non-alcohol-consuming mothers. Alcohol consumption appears to be a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome, although it is unclear whether alcohol is an independent risk factor, a risk factor only in conjunction with other known risk factors (like co-sleeping), or a proxy for other risk factors associated with occasions when alcohol consumption increases (like smoking). Our findings suggest that caretakers and authorities should be informed that alcohol impairs parental capacity and might be a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome; in addition, future research should further explore possible connections between sudden infant death syndrome and alcohol. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  4. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini

    A mesoscale numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element method for calculating stresses. The sintering behavior of a sample constrained by a rigid substrate...

  5. PHOX2B polyalanine repeat length is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and unclassified sudden infant death in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebrechts-Akkerman, Germaine; Liu, Fan; Lao, Oscar; Ooms, Ariadne H A G; van Duijn, Kate; Vermeulen, Mark; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Engelberts, Adèle C; Kayser, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Unclassified sudden infant death (USID) is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant that remains unexplained after thorough case investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. When the infant is below 1 year of age and with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, this is referred to as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). USID and SIDS remain poorly understood despite the identification of several environmental and some genetic risk factors. In this study, we investigated genetic risk factors involved in the autonomous nervous system in 195 Dutch USID/SIDS cases and 846 Dutch, age-matched healthy controls. Twenty-five DNA variants from 11 genes previously implicated in the serotonin household or in the congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, of which some have been associated with SIDS before, were tested. Of all DNA variants considered, only the length variation of the polyalanine repeat in exon 3 of the PHOX2B gene was found to be statistically significantly associated with USID/SIDS in the Dutch population after multiple test correction. Interestingly, our data suggest that contraction of the PHOX2B exon 3 polyalanine repeat that we found in six of 160 SIDS and USID cases and in six of 814 controls serves as a probable genetic risk factor for USID/SIDS at least in the Dutch population. Future studies are needed to confirm this finding and to understand the functional effect of the polyalanine repeat length variation, in particular contraction, in exon 3 of the PHOX2B gene.

  6. [Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death through a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielli, Domenico; Benvenuto, Manuela; Baroni, Matteo; Oliva, Fabrizio; Capucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is the gold standard for the prevention of sudden cardiac death due to tachyarrhythmias. However, its use is not free from short and long-term risks. In the last years, the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has become a widespread option for patients who need a safe and reversible protection against ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Notwithstanding this, its everyday application is restricted by several limitations, including the risk of inappropriate shocks, the device size and the need for strict compliance of both patients and caregivers. In this review, we report the most relevant literature data on WCD usage along with the main fields of applications and future perspectives.

  7. Lessons Learned from a Decade of Sudden Oak Death in California: Evaluating Local Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Janice; Lee, Christopher A.

    2010-09-01

    Sudden Oak Death has been impacting California’s coastal forests for more than a decade. In that time, and in the absence of a centrally organized and coordinated set of mandatory management actions for this disease in California’s wildlands and open spaces, many local communities have initiated their own management programs. We present five case studies to explore how local-level management has attempted to control this disease. From these case studies, we glean three lessons: connections count, scale matters, and building capacity is crucial. These lessons may help management, research, and education planning for future pest and disease outbreaks.

  8. Constraining the noncommutative spectral action via astrophysical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William; Ochoa, Joseph; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2010-09-03

    The noncommutative spectral action extends our familiar notion of commutative spaces, using the data encoded in a spectral triple on an almost commutative space. Varying a rather simple action, one can derive all of the standard model of particle physics in this setting, in addition to a modified version of Einstein-Hilbert gravity. In this Letter we use observations of pulsar timings, assuming that no deviation from general relativity has been observed, to constrain the gravitational sector of this theory. While the bounds on the coupling constants remain rather weak, they are comparable to existing bounds on deviations from general relativity in other settings and are likely to be further constrained by future observations.

  9. Hadroproduction experiments to constrain accelerator-based neutrino fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Laura

    2017-09-01

    The precise knowledge of (anti-)neutrino fluxes is one of the largest limitation in accelerator-based neutrino experiments. The main limitations arise from the poorly known production properties of neutrino parents in hadron-nucleus interactions. Strategies used by neutrino experiment to constrain their fluxes using external hadroproduction data will be described and illustrated with an example of a tight collaboration between T2K and NA61/SHINE experiments. This enabled a reduction of the T2K neutrino flux uncertainty from ∼25% (without external constraints) down to ∼10%. On-going developments to further constrain the T2K (anti-)neutrino flux are discussed and recent results from NA61/SHINE are reviewed. As the next-generation long baseline experiments aim for a neutrino flux uncertainty at a level of a few percent, the future data-taking plans of NA61/SHINE are discussed.

  10. Order-constrained linear optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Sudden cardiac death and acute drunken state: Autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Borislav

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sudden natural death occurs unexpectedly in apparently healthy subjects, or in persons during an apparent benign phase in the course of disease. The most common cause is sudden cardiac death, which is sometimes the first and last manifestation of coronary heart disease. Alcohol directly influences excitation of myocytes, and therefore provokes arrhythmias and possibly, sudden cardiac death. Objective. To establish the frequency of sudden cardiac death in cases of acute alcohol intoxication, to determine blood alcohol concentration at the moment of death, and to determine frequency and level of ethanol intoxication in chronic alcohol abusers, as well as causes of sudden death in those cases. Method. Retrospective autopsy study was performed for a three-year-period. We analyzed cases of sudden natural death, in relation to age and gender, cause of death, and blood alcohol concentration (at least 0.5 g/L. We considered the person to be a chronic alcoholic abuser if gross examination of organs during autopsy showed changes typical for excessive and habitual alcohol consumption. Results. Our sample consisted of 997 cases: 720 men and 277 women, average age 62.0±15.2 years (min=11; max=98. Total of 753 of them died of sudden cardiac death: much more men (χ2=167.364; p=0.000, significantly younger than women (t=6.203; p=0.000. We determined acute alcohol intoxication in 73 persons - average blood alcohol concentration 1.85±1.01 g/L (min=0.55; max=3.85, and 61 of them died of cardiovascular diseases (χ2=236.781; df=5; p=0.000. Conclusion. In our observed sample, not many persons were under acute alcohol intoxication (around 7%. Most commonly, they were chronic alcohol abusers who died due to exacerbation of chronic heart disease, mildly or moderately intoxicated - the younger, the drunker.

  12. Sudden Cardiac Arrest during Participation in Competitive Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Cameron H; Allan, Katherine S; Connelly, Kim A; Cunningham, Kris; Morrison, Laurie J; Dorian, Paul

    2017-11-16

    The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during participation in sports activities remains unknown. Preparticipation screening programs aimed at preventing sudden cardiac arrest during sports activities are thought to be able to identify at-risk athletes; however, the efficacy of these programs remains controversial. We sought to identify all sudden cardiac arrests that occurred during participation in sports activities within a specific region of Canada and to determine their causes. In this retrospective study, we used the Rescu Epistry cardiac arrest database (which contains records of every cardiac arrest attended by paramedics in the network region) to identify all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests that occurred from 2009 through 2014 in persons 12 to 45 years of age during participation in a sport. Cases were adjudicated as sudden cardiac arrest (i.e., having a cardiac cause) or as an event resulting from a noncardiac cause, on the basis of records from multiple sources, including ambulance call reports, autopsy reports, in-hospital data, and records of direct interviews with patients or family members. Over the course of 18.5 million person-years of observation, 74 sudden cardiac arrests occurred during participation in a sport; of these, 16 occurred during competitive sports and 58 occurred during noncompetitive sports. The incidence of sudden cardiac arrest during competitive sports was 0.76 cases per 100,000 athlete-years, with 43.8% of the athletes surviving until they were discharged from the hospital. Among the competitive athletes, two deaths were attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and none to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Three cases of sudden cardiac arrest that occurred during participation in competitive sports were determined to have been potentially identifiable if the athletes had undergone preparticipation screening. In our study involving persons who had out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the incidence of sudden cardiac

  13. Strategies for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Drezner, Jonathan; Basso, Cristina; Pelliccia, Antonio; Thiene, Gaetano

    2011-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death of a young athlete is the most tragic event in sports and devastates the family, the sports medicine team, and the local community. Such a fatality represents the first manifestation of cardiac disease in up to 80% of young athletes who remain asymptomatic before sudden cardiac arrest occurs; this explains the limited power of screening modalities based solely on history and physical examination. The long-running Italian experience showed that electrocardiogram (ECG) screening definitively improves the sensitivity of pre-participation evaluation for heart diseases and substantially reduces the risk of death in the athletic field (primary prevention). However, some cardiac conditions, such as coronary artery diseases, present no abnormalities on 12-lead ECG. Moreover, cardiac arrest due to non-penetrating chest injury (commotio cordis) cannot be prevented by screening. This justifies the efforts for implementing programmes of early external defibrillation of unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest. This article reviews the epidemiology of sudden cardiac arrest in the athlete in terms of incidence, sport-related risk, underlying causes, and the currently available prevention programmes such as pre-participation screening and early external defibrillation by using automated external defibrillators. The best strategy is to combine synergistically primary prevention of sudden cardiac death by pre-participation identification of athletes affected by at-risk cardiomyopathies and secondary prevention with back-up defibrillation of unpredictable sudden cardiac arrest on the athletic field.

  14. Constraining regional extreme temperature projections of the CMIP5 ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Martha Marie; Seneviratne, Sonia Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    Temperature extremes are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in the future under enhanced global warming. Associated with the future projections of hot extremes are large uncertainties in different regions such as Central Europe. Given the severe impacts it is important to understand physical mechanisms leading to the projected amplified warming of regional extremes. Soil moisture- temperature feedbacks are strongly relevant for these projections as they are a key contributor to the development of regional hot extremes. Since soil moisture itself and soil moisture-temperature feedbacks are subject to change in future they likely contribute to the uncertainties of extreme temperature projections. In this work we link projections of changes in extreme temperatures to changes in land-atmosphere interactions with a particular focus on Central Europe. For this purpose, we employ observational data sets to constrain the model ensemble in the current climate, and consequently the extreme temperature projections.

  15. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  16. Constraining blazar physics with polarization signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Blazars are active galactic nuclei whose jets are directed very close to our line of sight. They emit nonthermal-dominated emission from radio to gamma-rays, with the radio to optical emissions known to be polarized. Both radiation and polarization signatures can be strongly variable. Observations have shown that sometimes strong multiwavelength flares are accompanied by drastic polarization variations, indicating active participation of the magnetic field during flares. We have developed a 3D multi-zone time-dependent polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, which enables us to study the spectral and polarization signatures of blazar flares simultaneously. By combining this code with a Fokker-Planck nonthermal particle evolution scheme, we are able to derive simultaneous fits to time-dependent spectra, multiwavelength light curves, and time-dependent optical polarization signatures of a well-known multiwavelength flare with 180 degree polarization angle swing of the blazar 3C279. Our work shows that with detailed consideration of light travel time effects, the apparently symmetric time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures can be naturally explained by a straight, helically symmetric jet pervaded by a helical magnetic field, without the need of any asymmetric structures. Also our model suggests that the excess in the nonthermal particles during flares can originate from magnetic reconnection events, initiated by a shock propagating through the emission region. Additionally, the magnetic field should generally revert to its initial topology after the flare. We conclude that such shock-initiated magnetic reconnection event in an emission environment with relatively strong magnetic energy can be the driver of multiwavelength flares with polarization angle swings. Future statistics on such observations will constrain general features of such events, while magneto-hydrodynamic simulations will provide physical scenarios for the magnetic field evolution

  17. Mutations in calmodulin cause ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyegaard, Mette; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Sondergaard, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    a substantial part of sudden cardiac deaths in young individuals. Mutations in RYR2, encoding the cardiac sarcoplasmic calcium channel, have been identified as causative in approximately half of all dominantly inherited CPVT cases. Applying a genome-wide linkage analysis in a large Swedish family with a severe......Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a devastating inherited disorder characterized by episodic syncope and/or sudden cardiac arrest during exercise or acute emotion in individuals without structural cardiac abnormalities. Although rare, CPVT is suspected to cause...... calmodulin-binding-domain peptide at low calcium concentrations. We conclude that calmodulin mutations can cause severe cardiac arrhythmia and that the calmodulin genes are candidates for genetic screening of individual cases and families with idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and unexplained sudden cardiac...

  18. Lives forever changed: family bereavement experiences after sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, D Dale M; Rosenfeld, Anne G; Gilbert, Kathleen

    2013-11-01

    To describe the bereavement experiences of families who survived the sudden cardiac death of a family member and identify meanings of loss. Approximately 325,000 people experience sudden cardiac death (SCD) annually. It is important to examine family experiences after SCD because of the life altering impact of death on surviving family members. A descriptive design, using the qualitative method of narrative analysis, was used to analyze family stories of bereavement. Five themes were identified across seven families: sudden cardiac death … boom; saying goodbye; grief unleashes volatile emotional reactions; life goes on … but never back to normal; and meanings in loss. This study adds to an understanding of family bereavement and findings suggest that providing information about the cause of death and allowing family members to tell their stories are potentially important interventions for clinicians who interact with bereaved families. © 2013.

  19. The prevention of sudden death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Bhavesh; Hamid, M Shoaib; Elliott, Perry M

    2002-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a familial myocardial disease caused by mutations in cardiac sarcomeric proteins. HCM is characterised by myocyte disarray and myocardial fibrosis. Most patients are largely asymptomatic but some are prone to a number of disease-related complications, the most problematic of which is sudden cardiac death. Diagnosing patients who are at risk has not been easy because of the clinical heterogeneity of the disease, the frequent absence of symptoms prior to sudden cardiac death and the relatively low disease prevalence and annual mortality rates. To date, both low-dose amiodarone and internal cardioverter/defibrillator implantation have been advocated in high-risk individuals. Further improvements in clinical understanding and risk stratification are necessary to identify HCM patients who are at high risk of sudden death.

  20. [SPORTS-RELATED SUDDEN DEATH: LESSONS FROM THE FRENCH REGISTRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijon, Eloi; Bougouin, Wulfran; Jouven, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    So far, sports-related sudden death has been mainly studied through young competitive athletes. The national sports-related sudden death French registry (2005-2010) is the first study evaluating sudden death during sports activities in the general population, estimating that approximately 1000 cases occur each year in France. The vast majority occurs among middle age men practicing recreational activities, with women presenting a very low risk (up to 30-fold lower) compared to men. Outcomes dramatically vary across districts with survival to hospital discharge from 0 to 50%. Those differences are mainly the result of major disparities between districts regarding cardiopulmonary resuscitation initiated by bystanders. Coronary artery disease remains the most frequent cardiovascular disease associated with such events.

  1. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brummitt, Charles D; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2014-01-01

    A profoundly important challenge in several disciplines today is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. We characterize these phenomena using a simple model grounded in the theory of fast--slow ordinary differential equations and in catastrophe theory. In the model, a system consists of multiple subsystems (e.g., countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem), each described by a scalar quantity (such as economic output or population) that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantities (e.g., trade couples economic output, diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves their bifurcations. The model elucidates two ways in which sudden changes can propaga...

  2. Sudden death due to inhalant abuse in youth: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Akcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intentional inhalation or abuse of volatile substances is a common public health problem all over the world. As these substances generate euphoria frequency of use among adolescents and young adults is increasing steadily. In cases using inhalants to achieve a euphoric state -without knowing possible consequences- sudden death may occurdue to acute cardio-pulmonary dysfunction.Here we present a case of sudden death of a nineteen-year-old female due to inhalation of volatile from butane containing lighter gas tube, with the findings of autopsy and death scene investigation.In the context of this case; it was aimed to draw attention to the risk of sudden death and steady increase of frequencyof volatile substance abuse among adolescents and young adults due to various psycho-social factors.

  3. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages...

  4. A Dynamic Programming Approach to Constrained Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Steffensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies constrained portfolio problems that may involve constraints on the probability or the expected size of a shortfall of wealth or consumption. Our first contribution is that we solve the problems by dynamic programming, which is in contrast to the existing literature that applies...... the martingale method. More precisely, we construct the non-separable value function by formalizing the optimal constrained terminal wealth to be a (conjectured) contingent claim on the optimal non-constrained terminal wealth. This is relevant by itself, but also opens up the opportunity to derive new solutions...... to constrained problems. As a second contribution, we thus derive new results for non-strict constraints on the shortfall of intermediate wealth and/or consumption....

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Constrained Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Network modelling of unconstrained energy conserving physical systems leads to an intrinsic generalized Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. Constrained energy conserving physical systems are directly modelled as implicit Hamiltonian systems with regard to a generalized Dirac structure on the

  6. Constraining Light-Quark Yukawa Couplings from Higgs Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bishara, Fady

    2017-03-20

    We propose a novel strategy to constrain the bottom and charm Yukawa couplings by exploiting LHC measurements of transverse momentum distributions in Higgs production. Our method does not rely on the reconstruction of exclusive final states or heavy-flavour tagging. Compared to other proposals it leads to an enhanced sensitivity to the Yukawa couplings due to distortions of the differential Higgs spectra from emissions which either probe quark loops or are associated to quark-initiated production. We derive constraints using data from LHC Run I, and we explore the prospects of our method at future LHC runs. Finally, we comment on the possibility of bounding the strange Yukawa coupling.

  7. On the origin of constrained superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dudas, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-06

    In this work we analyze constrained superfields in supersymmetry and supergravity. We propose a constraint that, in combination with the constrained goldstino multiplet, consistently removes any selected component from a generic superfield. We also describe its origin, providing the operators whose equations of motion lead to the decoupling of such components. We illustrate our proposal by means of various examples and show how known constraints can be reproduced by our method.

  8. Robust Tracking Control for Constrained Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi, Haifa; Boubaker, Olfa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel robust tracking control law is proposed for constrained robots under unknown stiffness environment. The stability and the robustness of the controller are proved using a Lyapunov-based approach where the relationship between the error dynamics of the robotic system and its energy is investigated. Finally, a 3DOF constrained robotic arm is used to prove the stability, the robustness and the safety of the proposed approach.

  9. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss following intramuscular administration of penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escada, Pedro Alberto; Capucho, Clara; Madeira da Silva, José Francisco

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of sudden hearing loss in a patient with acute exudative tonsillitis, occurring 15 minutes after the intramuscular administration of penicillin. Audiological evaluation documented a profound sensorineural hearing loss of the cochlear type. The mechanism of the hearing loss was probably an immediate hypersensitivity (type I) allergic drug reaction. Penicillin is used frequently for the treatment of several infections. Allergic reactions to penicillin are well known and include urticaria, maculopapular exanthems, angio-oedema, bronchospasm and anaphylaxis, but sudden hearing loss has never been recorded.

  10. Sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with urticarial vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, A C; Leong, A C; Jiang, D; Fitzgerald-O'Connor, A

    2013-07-01

    Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with recurrent urticarial skin lesions may be signs of underlying Muckle-Wells syndrome. Previous reports have described the hearing loss to be progressive in nature. To our knowledge, this paper presents the first published case of sudden onset, bilateral sensorineural hearing loss associated with urticarial vasculitis due to underlying Muckle-Wells syndrome. The patient underwent a cochlear implantation with a modest outcome. Cochlear implantation may help to rehabilitate sudden hearing loss associated with this condition, but early diagnosis may allow treatment with interleukin-1β inhibitors such as anakinra.

  11. Sudden cardiac death in children (1-18 years)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Hitherto, sudden cardiac death in children (SCDc)-defined as sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the 1-18 years old-has been incompletely described in the general population. Knowledge on incidence rates, causes of death and symptoms prior to death is sparse and has been affected by reporting...... and referral bias. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a nationwide setting all deaths in children aged 1-18 years in Denmark in 2000-06 were included. To chart causes of death and incidence rates, death certificates and autopsy reports were collected and read. By additional use of the extensive healthcare registries...

  12. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  13. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nijs, M.I.; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, W.; Szatmári, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. Case presentation: A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead

  14. Steroid Use in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss: What ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a disease of unknown etiology. Controversy in the literature argues whether the condition should be treated by steroid therapy. In this case study, a Medline literature search was completed to find out if there is any evidence to support its use in this condition.

  15. Neurochemical Alterations in Sudden Unexplained Perinatal Deaths—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazeer Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden unexpected perinatal collapse is a major trauma for the parents of victims. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is unexpected and mysterious death of an apparently healthy neonate from birth till 1 year of age without any known causes, even after thorough postmortem investigations. However, the incidence of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS is seven times higher as compared with SIDS. This observation is approximated 40–80%. Stillbirth is defined as death of a fetus after 20th week of gestation or just before delivery at full term without a known reason. Pakistan has the highest burden of stillbirth in the world. This basis of SIDS, SIUDS, and stillbirths eludes specialists. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors behind failure in control of these unexplained deaths and how research may go ahead with improved prospects. Animal models and physiological data demonstrate that sleep, arousal, and cardiorespiratory malfunctioning are abnormal mechanisms in SIUDS risk factors or in newborn children who subsequently die from SIDS. This review focuses on insights in neuropathology and mechanisms of SIDS and SIUDS in terms of different receptors involved in this major perinatal demise. Several studies conducted in the past decade have confirmed neuropathological and neurochemical anomalies related to serotonin transporter, substance P, acetylcholine α7 nicotine receptors, etc., in sudden unexplained fetal and infant deaths. There is need to focus more on research in this area to unveil the major curtain to neuroprotection by underlying mechanisms leading to such deaths.

  16. Laryngeal inflammation in the sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis K; Brock, Christine; Chouiali, Fazila; Hamid, Qutayaba

    2014-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is marked by 'the sudden death of an infant that is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough forensic autopsy and a detailed death scene investigation'. The cause is unknown. Excessive subglottic submucosal glandular tissue and excessive sulphated mucus glycoprotein in the larynges of SIDS babies have been previously reported from our institution. We now report on laryngeal immunohistology. Larynges from 7 children who died from Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) at under 16 weeks of age were examined immunohistologically and compared to those from 8 age- matched control infants who died from other causes. The SIDS babies had increased inflammatory changes in the laryngeal epithelium and sub- epithelium with raised numbers of cells staining for elastase (pdeaths involve preceding inflammation. Although death may be sudden and unexpected it appears that, at least in some SIDS victims, there is a preceding inflammatory process in the larynx which may allow hyper-reactivity of laryngeal reflexes and consequent apnoea. This observation concurs with others in the SIDS literature and offers a field for further research and possible prevention.

  17. Training Emergency Responders: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. An Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Science Associates, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This manual was developed to help instructors train police and emergency medical technicians, who often are the first persons to arrive at the scene of a death (first responders), to serve families who lose a child to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The manual begins with an introduction that discusses the purpose of the training and…

  18. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This report describes research programs focusing on the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and indicates some presently available results. Specific attention is given to research on sleep apnea, respiratory control, and hypoxia, as well as to infectious disease processes and immunology. Findings of a large-scale multidisciplinary SIDS project are…

  19. Was message of sudden infant death study misleading?

    OpenAIRE

    Gornall, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    An investigation by the BMJ has uncovered serious concerns about an important paper on sudden infant deaths recurring within a family. The paper has featured in the appeal case at several recent high profile murder appeals and has also influenced international practice

  20. On the Developmental Dynamics of Sudden Stratospheric Warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    had to deal with sudden wind shift encounterd in a major warming but would still have to be able to withstand the stress imposed by the steep...Hemisphere, Mon. Wea. Rev., 106, 762-770. 1979: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, Acedemic Press, 391pp. --- , 1981: The Amplification of Height Wave 1

  1. Sudden Cardiac Death in Nigeria: Pathophysiology and Evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudden death is an emerging phenomenon in Nigeria, a country with a burden of preventable communicable and non communicable diseases. The rapid adoption of western lifestyle, the almost complete dependence on vehicular transport as well as stress that accompany infrastructural development and processes of ...

  2. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  3. Fatal Gastrointestinal Perforations in sudden death cases in Last 10 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal perforation occurs when the wall of the gastro-intestinal tract like stomach, small intestine or large bowel develops a hole through its entire thickness. This retrospective study was aimed to identify pattern of GIT perforations that caused sudden deaths in this part of the world. The study was conducted in ...

  4. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, C.; Burke, M.; Fornes, P.; Gallagher, P. J.; de Gouveia, R. H.; Sheppard, M.; Thiene, G.; van der Wal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed and the accurate diagnosis of

  5. Guidelines for autopsy investigation of sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basso, Cristina; Burke, Margaret; Fornes, Paul; Gallagher, Patrick J.; de Gouveia, Rosa Henriques; Sheppard, Mary; Thiene, Gaetano; van der Wal, Allard

    2008-01-01

    Although sudden cardiac death is one of the most important mode of death in Western Countries, pathologists and public health physicians have not given this problem the attention it deserves. New methods of preventing potentially fatal arrhythmias have been developed, and the accurate diagnosis of

  6. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  7. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  8. Protecting Trees from Sudden Oak Death before Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Lee; Y. Valachovic; M. Garbelotto

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, an introduced invasive plant pathogen that causes sudden oak death, has killed over a million tanoak, coast live oak, Shreve oak, and California black oak trees along the California coastal region from Monterey through Humboldt Counties. Most trees infected with P. ramorum will eventually die, including...

  9. Prevention of sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Ažman Juvan; Petra Zupet

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths in young athletes (less than 35 years old) are rare though highly publicized tragedies, occurring mainly in athletes with underlying cardiovascular diseases. Since these diseases often have a clinically silent course, they should be actively searched for by preparticipation screening. Preparticipation screening of athletes varies among different countries. However, a common European protocol has been proposed, which comprises a history, clinica...

  10. Survivor-Victim Status, Attachment, and Sudden Death Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Mark D.; Greenwald, Jason Y.

    1991-01-01

    Examined significance of survivor-victim relationship in understanding grief following sudden death bereavement by suicide or accident. Results showed that survivor-victim attachment was more important than survivor status (parent versus sibling/child) in explaining grief reactions. Compared to accident survivors, suicide survivors experienced…

  11. Sudden cardiac death in epilepsy disappoints, but epileptologists keep faith

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvio A. Scorza; Esper A. Cavalheiro; Jaderson Costa da Costa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of death in people with intractable epilepsy. Probably, optimization of seizure control will prevent some of these deaths. Briefly, we integrated in this paper some data about the epidemiology, risk factors, etiology, and preventative measures in the management of SUDEP.

  12. Sudden cardiac death in epilepsy disappoints, but epileptologists keep faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio A. Scorza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP is the most common cause of death in people with intractable epilepsy. Probably, optimization of seizure control will prevent some of these deaths. Briefly, we integrated in this paper some data about the epidemiology, risk factors, etiology, and preventative measures in the management of SUDEP.

  13. Solar flare effects and storm sudden commencement even in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-05-08

    Variations in the three components of geomagnetic field were observed at the twenty-two geomagnetic Euro-African Observatories during the solar flare that occurred on the 6 May, 1998 at 0080UT and storm sudden commencement that took place on May 8, 1998 at 15.00 UT. The geomagnetic field on 6 May, 1998 was ...

  14. Declining risk of sudden death in heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Li; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Petrie, Mark C.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, and mineralocorti......BACKGROUND The risk of sudden death has changed over time among patients with symptomatic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction with the sequential introduction of medications including angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta......-blockers, and mineralocorticoid-receptor antagonists. We sought to examine this trend in detail. METHODS We analyzed data from 40,195 patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and were enrolled in any of 12 clinical trials spanning the period from 1995 through 2014. Patients who had an implantable...... rates of sudden death were assessed at different time points after randomization and according to the length of time between the diagnosis of heart failure and randomization. RESULTS Sudden death was reported in 3583 patients. Such patients were older and were more often male, with an ischemic cause...

  15. Temporal epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson; Everett M. Hansen; Alan Kanaskie

    2015-01-01

    An effort to eradicate Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death, has been underway since its discovery in Oregon forests. Using an information-theoretical approach, we sought to model yearly variation in the size of newly infested areas and dispersal distance. Maximum dispersal distances were best modeled by spring and winter...

  16. Collaboratively managing sudden oak death using tangible geospatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Francesco Tonini; Douglas Shoemaker; Richard C. Cobb; Brendan A. Harmon; Vaclav Petras; Anna Petrasova; Helena Mitasova

    2017-01-01

    Failure to build consensus amongst stakeholders has been a primary obstacle barring progress in developing and implementing strategies to manage sudden oak death (SOD). Consensus as to the goals of in situ management of SOD has rarely been reached, because stakeholders’ visions of success vary widely and often compete with each other...

  17. Preventing Sudden Death: Cardiovascular Screening of Young Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Efficiently and inexpensively identifying athletes at risk for exercise-related sudden death is difficult. The article discusses types of cardiac disorders and outlines a practical screening method that features a cardiac history questionnaire designed to identify symptomatic athletes and those with a family history of congenital heart disease.…

  18. Sudden cardiac arrest risk in young athletes | Gradidge | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Underlying cardiac abnormalities are the main cause of unexpected death in athletes on field. These abnormalities have been associated with a previous history of syncope, a family history of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), cardiac murmur, a history of over-exhaustion post exercise and ventricular tachyarrhythmia during ...

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--standardised investigations and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W

    2007-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...

  20. Social phobia with sudden onset-Post-panic social phobia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ann Suhl; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mors, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Overlap between social phobia (SP) and panic disorder (PD) has been observed in epidemiological, family, and challenge studies. One possible explanation is that some cases of SP develop as a consequence of a panic attack in a social situation. By definition, these cases of SP have sudden onset...

  1. Detection of sudden death syndrome using a multispectral imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is a widespread mid- to late-season disease with distinctive foliar symptoms. This paper reported the development of an image analysis based method to detect SDS using a multispectral image sensor. A hue, saturation a...

  2. Sudden oak death in California: what is the potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara M. Barrett; Demetrios Gatziolis; Jeremy S. Fried; Karen L. Waddell

    2006-01-01

    Sudden oak death, a disease associated with the pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, has a large number of shrub and tree host species. Three of the tree species must susceptible to mortality from the disease, California black oak (Quercus kelloggii), coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), and tanoak (...

  3. Systemic Analysis of Sudden Natural Deaths at Braithwaite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    30 Sempos C, Cooper R, Kover MG, McMillen M. Divergence of the recent trends in coronary mortality for the four major race- sex groups in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1988; 78:1422-1427. 31 Murai T, Baba M, Ro A, Murai N, Matsuo Y, Takada A,. Saito K. Sudden death due to cardiovascular disorders: a review ...

  4. Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, brady-arrhythmias and sudden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ventricular arrhythmias (VAS), Including ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and Brady-arrhythmias, are life-threatening complications of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Objective: To study the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, brady-arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) in Sudanese ...

  5. Myocardial infarction & sudden death in recreational master marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Suzanne Elizabeth; Coviello, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    This review of the current literature on myocardial infarction and sudden death in recreational master marathon runners aims to help raise awareness of the scope of the problem to primary care providers, and to provide guidelines for educating and screening in recreational master marathon runners.

  6. a sudden total loss of vision after routine cataract surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    David Ofori-Adjei

    2013-06-01

    Jun 1, 2013 ... June 2013. Volume 47, Number 2. GHANA MEDICAL JOURNAL. 96. A SUDDEN TOTAL LOSS OF VISION AFTER ROUTINE CATARACT. SURGERY. S. LARTEY1, P. ... Cataract surgery has its complications. The most feared ... mm Hg on oral nifedipine 40 mg daily who presented with 6/36 vision in both ...

  7. Short-term Exposure to Microgravity and the Associated Risk of Sudden Cardiac Arrest: Implications for Commercial Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Kevin J. C.; Russamono, Thais

    2013-02-01

    The likelihood of trained astronauts developing a life threatening cardiac event during spaceflight is relatively rare, whilst the incidence in untrained individuals is unknown. Space tourists who live a sedentary lifestyle have reduced cardiovascular function, but the associated danger of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) during a suborbital spaceflight (SOSF) is unclear. Risk during SOSF was examined by reviewing several microgravity studies and methods of determining poor cardiovascular condition. Accurately assessing cardiovascular function and improving baroreceptor sensitivity through exercise is suggested to reduce the incidence of SCA during future SOSFs. Future studies will benefit from past participants sharing medical history; allowing creation of risk profiles and suitable guidelines.

  8. Sudden Hearing Loss with Vertigo Portends Greater Stroke Risk Than Sudden Hearing Loss or Vertigo Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Wang, Zheyu; Winnick, Ariel A; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Urrutia, Victor C; Carey, John P; Newman-Toker, David E

    2017-11-01

    Because it is unknown whether sudden hearing loss (SHL) in acute vertigo is a "benign" sign (reflecting ear disease) or a "dangerous" sign (reflecting stroke), we sought to compare long-term stroke risk among patients with (1) "SHL with vertigo," (2) "SHL alone," and (3) "vertigo alone" using a large national health-care database. Patients with first-incident SHL (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Edition, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] 388.2) or vertigo (ICD-9-CM 386.x, 780.4) were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan (2002-2009). We defined SHL with vertigo as a vertigo-related diagnosis ±30 days from the index SHL event. SHL without a temporally proximate vertigo diagnosis was considered SHL alone. The vertigo-alone group had no SHL diagnosis. All the patients were followed up until stroke, death, withdrawal from the database, or current end of the database (December 31, 2012) for a minimum period of 3 years. The hazards of stroke were compared across groups. We studied 218,656 patients (678 SHL with vertigo, 1998 with SHL alone, and 215,980 with vertigo alone). Stroke rates at study end were 5.5% (SHL with vertigo), 3.0% (SHL alone), and 3.9% (vertigo alone). Stroke hazards were higher in SHL with vertigo than in SHL alone (hazard ratio [HR], 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.91) and in vertigo alone (HR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.18-2.25). Defining a narrower window between SHL and vertigo (±3 days) increased the hazards. The combination of SHL plus vertigo in close temporal proximity is associated with increased subsequent stroke risk over SHL alone and vertigo alone. This suggests that SHL in patients with vertigo is not necessarily a benign peripheral vestibular sign. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Sudden death in traffic due to natural causes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, W

    1978-03-28

    Together with the increase in motorisation sudden death at the wheel by natural causes has also gained more importance although this is not a very frequent occurrence. Scattered reports on such cases in the literature are summarized and discussed with regard to recognition, frequency, age and sex distribution, pathological changes and marginal problems, e. g. diagnostic difficulties, risk and prevention. At the top of the list of the causes of sudden natural death at the wheel are disturbances of the cardiovascular circulation and under this heading the ischemical heart diseases with 83%. The frequency peak lies in the sixties age group and in the case of the ischemical diseases generally in the seventies age group which is an indication that driving is particularly a burden for the circulation. The percentage of women (2.6%) is approx. 10 times less than it is in sudden deaths generally, this obviously being due to the fact that women in advanced years do not drive as often as men. In approx. 50% of cases the sudden natural death takes place when the vehicle is stationary. Serious accidents are seldom. Diagnostic difficulties occur when alcohol has been consumed or when in an accident caused by the sickness the victim is fatally injured or when the question of guilt is not clear. Restrictive measures will not completely prevent sudden death when driving; it is most important that a patient with a history of myocardial infarction or of advanced age should be advised of the dangers of driving by the physician treating him.

  10. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30-74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state 'all-payers' hospital discharge file. The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994-1998, positive predictive value = 85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999-2005, 87.4%) systems. A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Sudden death during empiric amiodarone therapy in symptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fananapazir, L; Leon, M B; Bonow, R O; Tracy, C M; Cannon, R O; Epstein, S E

    1991-01-15

    Amiodarone is reported to improve symptoms and to prevent sudden death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Amiodarone treatment (loading dose 30 g given over 6 weeks; maintenance dose 400 mg/day) was prospectively evaluated in 50 patients with HC in whom the drug was initiated because of symptoms refractory to conventional drug therapy (calcium antagonists and beta blockers). Twenty-one (42%) patients had ventricular tachycardia (VT) during Holter monitoring. Amiodarone significantly and often markedly improved the patients' New York Heart Association functional class status (from 3.3 to 2.7 at 2 months, p less than 0.001) and treadmill exercise duration (p less than 0.001). Eight patients, however, died (7 suddenly) during a mean follow-up period of 2.2 +/- 1.8 years. Of the 7 sudden deaths, 6 occurred within 5 months of initiation of treatment. The 6-month and 1- and 2-year survival rates were 87, 85 and 80%, respectively. The survival rate of patients with VT was significantly worse than that of patients without VT (61 vs 97% at 2 years; p less than 0.01). Sudden death occurred despite abolition of VT on Holter monitoring. Amiodarone increased left ventricular peak filling rate by radionuclide angiography in 20 of 33 patients (61%) (p less than 0.01). Decrease in peak left ventricular filling rate within 10 days of amiodarone therapy (8 of 33 patients) was associated with subsequent sudden death (p less than 0.04).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The most common cause of sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalović Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The positive impact of exercise on cardiovascular health is well known. Athletes, who are constantly physically active, are considered to be the healthiest members of our society. That is why their sudden death, during the training or competition, attracts the attention of the general public. Rarely, tragic events of sudden cardiac death (SCD are the reason for questioning if by many positive there are also negative impact of physical exercise. The first case of SCD is recorded as far back as the year 490 BC, when the Greek soldier Pheidippides died after he conveyed news of the great victory of the Greeks over the Persians. Risk of SCD is recognized in the middle of the twentieth century. In our region, discussion about this issue began after the World Basketball Championship, which was held in Ljubljana in 1970, because of the sudden death of the national team member Trajko Rajkovic. One of the important goals of modern sports medicine is to reduce the risk of SCD in athletes to 'inevitable rarity'. Definition of SCD is considered to be any unexpected death due to sudden cardiac arrest. Pedo (Pedoe has divided all causes of SCD in the sport into three categories: Commotio cordis (agitation of the heart, which results from blunt impact to the athletes chest with consequent fatal disorder of heart rhythm; SCD of athletes under the age of 35 because of structural, congenital and inflammatory heart disease, which includes hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as the most important cause of sudden cardiac death, congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, myocarditis and other; SCD of athletes older than 35 years which is most common due coronary artery disease - atherosclerosis (the dominant risk in the marathon and half-marathon. .

  13. Sudden hearing loss: Our experience in treatment with vasoactive therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ljubica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A specific title "sudden hearing loss" refers to illness which is characterized by a sudden, rapid sensoneural hearing loss mostly in one ear without obvious causes, accompanied with dizziness, and without vestibular symptomatology. It is defined as a hearing loss for more than 30 dB on 3 or more successive frequencies which appear in 72 hours. Objective The main goal of our paper was to estimate success of implementation of vasoactive method in patients with sudden hearing loss of senso-neural type in different ranges in hospital conditions. METHOD Our research covered 37 patients hospitalized because of a sudden hearing loss of sensoneural type in different ranges. Diagnosis, in all patients, was established by clinical ORL examination, audiology and vestibular examination. R including CT and MR, neurological, internist and laboratory examinations were used in order to exclude other aetiology. In monitored patients, we started treatment with vasoactive therapy, ampules of xanthinol nicotinate (one ampule of 2 ml, 300 mg or ampules of pentoxiphylline (one ampule of 5 ml, 100 mg in form of infusions with addition of vitamins with an everyday gradual increase of dosage up to 12 ampules of xanthinol nicotinate and up to 5 ampules of pentoxiphylline. Then we started with an everyday decrease of dosage down to the first one. Results After the complete curing protocol, we found out that in patients with light and medium senso-neural damages of hearing sense (23 or 62%, hearing recovery was complete. In patients with heavy damage of hearing (9 or 24%, partial success was evidenced. The most difficult cases, with complete hearing loss, heavy buzzing and vertiginous problem (5 or 14% responded to therapy, so buzzing and vertiginous problems disappeared but hearing was not improved. Conclusion Usage of vasoactive medicaments in hospital conditions in treatment of sudden hearing loss gives good results and it is the closest to aetiological

  14. Sudden death victims forensic physician and autopsy results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also underwent an autopsy between January 2006 and December 2011 were included (n = 70). Cause of death established by the forensic physician based on the external medicolegal examination was compared with autopsy findings using the ICD10-classification. Autopsy findings revealed that the majority of sudden death victims have died from a cardiac disease (n = 51, 73%). Most of the presumed heart disease related cases were confirmed by autopsy (n = 13, 87%). On the contrary, a large number of deaths caused by circulatory diseases were not recognised by the forensic physician (n = 38, 75%). In most of these cases, the forensic physician was forced to report an undetermined cause due to the lack of a solid explanation for death. Cause of death reported by the forensic physician appeared to be in agreement with the autopsy results in 12 cases (17%). Cause of death determination in young sudden death victims is a difficult task for forensic physicians due to the limited tools available during the medicolegal examination. An effort should be made to standardize extensive post-mortem investigation after sudden death in the young. Autopsy can provide valuable information regarding the cause of death, which is of great importance in view of the identification of inheritable diseases among decedents and their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  16. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  17. Genetics Home Reference: sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SIDDT Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... Description Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome ( SIDDT ) is a rare condition that is ...

  18. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, P.G.; Kaastra, J.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070911134; Méndez, M.; in 't Zand, J.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  19. Constraining the neutron star equation of state using XMM-Newton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaastra, J.; Mendez, M.; In 't Zand, J. J. M.; Jonker, P.G.

    We have identified three possible ways in which future XMM-Newton observations can provide significant constraints on the equation of state of neutron stars. First, using a long observation of the neutron star X-ray transient Cen X-4 in quiescence one can use the RGS spectrum to constrain the

  20. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging through Chance Constrained Mixed-Integer Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method through chance constrained mixed-integer programming designed to alleviate the possible congestion in the future distribution network with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In order to represent the stochastic...

  1. Genetic investigation of 100 heart genes in sudden unexplained death victims in a forensic setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Hertz, Christin Løth; Ferrero, Laura

    2016-01-01

    In forensic medicine, one-third of the sudden deaths remain unexplained after medico-legal autopsy. A major proportion of these sudden unexplained deaths (SUD) are considered to be caused by inherited cardiac diseases. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) may be the first manifestation of these diseases...

  2. The Brainstem and Serotonin in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Richerson, George B.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Darnall, Robert A.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that is typically associated with sleep and that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy and death scene investigation. A leading hypothesis about its pathogenesis is that many cases result from defects in brainstem-mediated protective responses to homeostatic stressors occurring during sleep in a critical developmental period. Here we review the evidence for the brainstem hypothesis in SIDS with a focus upon abnormalities related to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the medulla oblongata, as these are the most robust pathologic findings to date. In this context, we synthesize the human autopsy data with genetic, whole-animal, and cellular data concerning the function and development of the medullary serotonergic system. These emerging data suggest an important underlying mechanism in SIDS that may help lead to identification of infants at risk and specific interventions to prevent death. PMID:19400695

  3. Sudden cardiac death and coronary disease in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariasardóttir, Sára; Risgaard, Bjarke; Ågesen, Frederik Nybye

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease (CAD-SCD) is the most frequent cause of SCD in persons ... have previously identified all sudden cardiac deaths in Denmark through review of death certificates and autopsy reports including all deaths between 2000 and 2006 in individuals aged 18-35years and all deaths between 2007 and 2009 in individuals aged 18-49years. In this study we included the 197...... to death. CONCLUSION: This nationwide study found several differences in the pathologic lesions of the heart in victims aged 18-35 and 36-49years, which might be associated with different disease progression leading to death in these age groups. We also report a high frequency of cardiac symptoms prior...

  4. Left ventricular cardiac myxoma and sudden death in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Maria Irene; Vink, Aryan; Bergmann, Wilhelmina; Szatmári, Viktor

    2016-06-22

    Myxoma is a very rare benign cardiac tumor in dogs. This is the first description of a cardiac myxoma originating from the left ventricular outflow tract, presumably causing sudden death. A previously healthy 12-year-old male West Highland white terrier was found dead during its 1-week stay in a kennel. The dog was known to have a cardiac murmur. On necropsy, a pedunculated neoplasia was found attached to the interventricular aspect of the left ventricular outflow tract, resulting in almost complete obstruction of the aorta. As this was the only abnormality identified, the tumor was considered as the cause of sudden death. Histopathologic findings were compatible with a myxoma. Benign intraluminal tumors of the heart are very rare in dogs, but may have fatal consequences. Echocardiography could have revealed the cause of the cardiac murmur of this previously asymptomatic dog. Surgical removal could have been possible, as the tumor was pedunculated.

  5. Sudden infant death syndrome: an unrecognized killer in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu IK

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ikenna Kingsley Ndu Department of Paediatrics, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Abstract: Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS is defined as the sudden unexpected death of an infant <1 year of age, with onset of the fatal episode apparently occurring during sleep, that remains unexplained after a thorough investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. SIDS contributes to infant mortality and resulted in ~15,000 deaths globally in 2013. Most of the risk factors of SIDS are common in developing countries; yet, there has been little interest in SIDS by researchers in Africa. This review looks at the extent of the attention given to SIDS in a developing country like Nigeria, and factors responsible for the scarce data concerning this significant cause of mortality. Keywords: SIDS, mortality, Nigeria

  6. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com; Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  7. Sudden death in a young patient with atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tamargo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD in young patients without structural heart disease is frequently due to inherited channelopathies such as long QT syndrome (LQTS, Brugada syndrome or Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Accordingly, the addition of genetic testing to clinical data may be useful to identify the cause of the sudden death in this population. Mutations in the KCNQ1 encoded Kv7.1 channel are related to type 1 LQTS, familial atrial fibrillation (AF, short QT syndrome, and SCD. We present a clinical case where the presence of AF after resuscitation in a young man with cardiac arrest was the key clinical data to suspect an inherited disorder and genetic testing was the main determinant for identifying the cause of the cardiac arrest. The KCNQ1 p.Arg231His mutation explained the combined phenotype of AF and susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias. The case highlights the importance of continued research in genetics and molecular mechanisms of channelopathies.

  8. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1977-01-01

    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement...

  9. Semantic Web in a Constrained Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, L.J.; Schlobach, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    The semantic web is intrinsically constrained by its environment. These constraints act as a bottlenecks and limit the performance of applications in various ways. Examples of such constraints are the limited availability of memory, disk space, or a limited network bandwidth. But how do these bounds

  10. Constrained superfields from inflation to reheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dalianis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We construct effective supergravity theories from customized constrained superfields which provide a setup consistent both for the description of inflation and the subsequent reheating processes. These theories contain the minimum degrees of freedom in the bosonic sector required for single-field inflation.

  11. Constrained Optimization in Simulation : A Novel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Beers, W.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuyse, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel heuristic for constrained optimization of random computer simulation models, in which one of the simulation outputs is selected as the objective to be minimized while the other outputs need to satisfy prespeci¯ed target values. Besides the simulation outputs, the

  12. Integrating job scheduling and constrained network routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling jobs on resources such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Job demand must be sent through a constrained network to the resource before execution can begin. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number...

  13. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.

    2001-01-01

    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  14. Constrained Registration of the Wrist Joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Giessen, M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Strackee, S.D.; Maas, M.; Grimbergen, K.A.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Vos, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparing wrist shapes of different individuals requires alignment of these wrists into the same pose. Unconstrained registration of the carpal bones results in anatomically nonfeasible wrists. In this paper, we propose to constrain the registration using the shapes of adjacent bones, by keeping the

  15. Constrained registration of the wrist joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Giessen, M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Strackee, S.D.; Maas, M.; Grimbergen, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Vos, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparing wrist shapes of different individuals requires alignment of these wrists into the same pose. Unconstrained registration of the carpal bones results in anatomically nonfeasible wrists. In this paper, we propose to constrain the registration using the shapes of adjacent bones, by keeping the

  16. Factors Constraining Farmers Use of Improved Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that land and labour problems, marketing problems, poor technical information, cultural incompatibility, high cost of farm inputs and unavailability of necessary inputs were the major factors constraining the use of improved cowpea technologies in the area. These findings suggest that there is an urgent ...

  17. Can Neutron stars constrain Dark Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter

    2010-01-01

    temperature that could in principle be detected. Due to their compactness, neutron stars can acrete WIMPs efficiently even if the WIMP-to-nucleon cross section obeys the current limits from direct dark matter searches, and therefore they could constrain a wide range of dark matter candidates....

  18. Client's constraining factors to construction project management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed client's related factors that constrain project management success of public and private sector construction in Nigeria. Issues that concern clients in any project can not be undermined as they are the owners and the initiators of project proposals. It is assumed that success, failure or abandonment of ...

  19. A Constrained Vision of the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Louise Wetherbee

    1992-01-01

    Proposes that writing teachers and administrators think, first, in terms of the truly political realities--the situated interconnections of interests, accidents, luck, and consequences--that constrain our abilities to realize utopian goals and, second, in terms of ethical constraints to which they are willing to be bound by. (RS)

  20. Algorithm Solves Constrained and Unconstrained Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Is quasi-Newton iteration utilizing Broyden/Fletcher/Goldfarb/Shanno update on inverse Hessian matrix. Capable of solving constrained optimization unconstrained optimization and constraints only problems with one to five independent variables from one to five constraint functions and one dependent function optimized.

  1. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini

    2014-01-01

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...

  2. Modeling the Microstructural Evolution During Constrained Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model able to simulate solid-state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...

  3. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...

  4. Entanglement-assisted capacity of constrained channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we fil a gap in previous work by proving the conjectured formula for the antanglement-assisted capacity of quantum channel with additive input constraint (such as Bosonic Gaussian channel). The main tools are the coding theorem for classical-quantum constrained channels and a finite dimensional approximation of the input density operators for the entanglement-assisted capacity.

  5. Aetiology of sudden cardiac death in sport: a histopathologist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Mary N

    2012-11-01

    In the UK, when a young person dies suddenly, the coroner is responsible for establishing the cause of death. They will ask a consultant pathologist to carry out an autopsy in order to ascertain when, where and how that person died. Once the cause of death is established and is due to natural causes, the coroner can issue a death certificate. Importantly, the coroner is not particularly interested in the cause of death as long as it is due to natural causes, which avoids the need for an inquest (a public hearing about the death). However, if no identifiable cause is established at the initial autopsy, the coroner can refer the heart to a cardiac pathologist, since the cause of death is usually due to heart disease in most cases. Consultant histopathologists are responsible for the analysis of human tissue from both living individuals and the dead in order to make a diagnosis of disease. With recent advancements in the management protocols for routine autopsy practice and assessment following the sudden death of a young individual, this review describes the role of the consultant histopathologist in the event of a sudden death of a young athletic individual, together with the older middle-aged 'weekend warrior' athlete. It provides concise mechanisms for the main causes of sudden cardiac death (including coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathies, valve abnormalities, major vessel ruptures and electrical conduction abnormalities) based on detailed autopsy data from our specialised cardiac pathology laboratory. Finally, the review will discuss the role of the histopathologist in the event of a 'negative' autopsy.

  6. Melatonin concentrations in the sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturner, W. Q.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.; Gleason, R. E.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The melatonin levels in various body fluids of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are compared with those of infants of comparable age who died of other causes to examine a possible relationship between pineal function and SIDS. After adjusting for age differences, cerebrospinal fluid melatonin levels are found to be significantly lower in the SIDS infants. It is suggested that diminished melatonin production may be characteristic of SIDS and could represent an impairment in the maturation of physiologic circadian organization.

  7. Sudden Onset Abdominal Pain in A 42yo Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-16

    MURRAY FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 15MAR2017 1. Your paper, entitled Sudden Onset Abdominal Pain in A 42yo Male...papers, posters. etc .• should contain the following disclaimer statement for research involving animals . as required by AFMAN 40-401 IP: " The e...Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and the Animal Welfare Act of 1966, as amended." 59 MOW FORM 3039, 20160628 Prescribed by 59 MDWI 41 -108

  8. When, catastrophe happens. Assessment and intervention after sudden traumatic death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRanieri, Joseph T; Clements, Paul T; Henry, Gloria C

    2002-04-01

    The goals of grief after sudden traumatic death is to acknowledge the loss, identify the changes the loss will have in the co-victim's life, and reinvest in life within the new structure. Although these goals seem simple, there is no definitive timeline for when these tasks will be engaged and completed by each of the family members. The pathway and time frame for each co-victim may differ.

  9. [Sudden cervical hematoma after hypertensive crisis. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino Rivero, V; Pantoja Hernández, C G; González Palomino, A; Pardo Romero, G; Trinidad Ramos, G; Montero García, C; Blasco Huelva, A

    2006-01-01

    We report the case ofa 61 years old woman with multiple pathologies: HTA, diabetes, relapsing polychondritis, hypercholesterolemia, iatrogenic Cushing, cardiopathy, cystic fibrosis, etc. She began, an increment of TA (220/130 mm Hg) or hypertensive crisis, with a sudden left cervical hematoma located on the carotid bifurcation according to CT imaging. We oractice an arteriography that was informed as normal and the patient was admitted and controlled of an ORL as Vascular Surgeon. The bleeding stop spontaneously we treat the patient conservativity.

  10. Munchausen Syndrome: A Case with Presenting Sudden Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ozturk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Munchausen syndrome is a psychiatric disorder that patients direct professionals with plausible, feigned, factitious symptoms. It%u2019s uncommon in otolaryngology clinics. We present a patient, complaint with sudden hearing loss and vertigo, and who underwent additional medical and invasive treatment in this paper. Patients with Munchausen syndrome allow invasive medical care easily, and they can be very convincing. It has to be diagnosed and kept in mind because of avoiding from unnecessary treatment.

  11. Observations of Stratospheric Sudden Warmings in Earth Rotation Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, Lisa Johanna; Walther, Sophia; Matthes, Katja; Kodera, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are extreme events in the polar stratosphere that are both caused by and have effects on the tropospheric flow. This means that SSWs are associated with changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere, both before and after their onset. Because these angular momentum changes are transferred to the solid Earth, they can be observed in the rate of the Earth's rotation and the wobble of its rotational pole. By comparing observed Earth rotation variations to...

  12. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  13. Underestimation of sudden deaths among patients with seizures and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Friedman, Daniel; Cheng, Jocelyn Y; Moffatt, Ellen; Kim, Anthony; Tseng, Zian H

    2017-08-29

    To determine the definite and potential frequency of seizures and epilepsy as a cause of death (COD) and how often this goes unrecognized. Prospective determination of seizures or epilepsy and final COD for individuals aged 18-90 years with out-of-hospital sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) from the population-based San Francisco POST SCD Study. We compared prospective seizure or epilepsy diagnosis and final COD as adjudicated by a multidisciplinary committee (pathologists, electrophysiologists, and a vascular neurologist) vs retrospective adjudication by 2 epileptologists with expertise in seizure-related mortality. Of 541 SCDs identified during the 37-month study period (mean age 62.8 years, 69% men), 525 (97%) were autopsied; 39/525 (7.4%) had seizures or epilepsy (mean age: 58 years, range: 27-92; 67% men), comprising 17% of 231 nonarrhythmic sudden deaths. The multidisciplinary team identified 15 cases of epilepsy, 6 sudden unexpected deaths in epilepsy (SUDEPs), and no deaths related to acute symptomatic seizures. The epileptologists identified 25 cases of epilepsy and 8 definite SUDEPs, 10 possible SUDEPs, and 5 potential cases of acute symptomatic seizures as a COD. Among the 25 patients identified with epilepsy by the epileptologists, they found definite or possible SUDEP in 72% (18/25) vs 24% (6/25) by the multidisciplinary group (6/15 cases they identified with epilepsy). The epileptologists identified acute symptomatic seizures as a potential COD in 5/14 patients with alcohol-related seizures. Epilepsy is underdiagnosed among decedents. Among patients with seizures and epilepsy who die suddenly, seizures and SUDEP often go unrecognized as a potential or definite COD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Adult sudden death caused by aspiration of chewing gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njau, S N

    2004-01-28

    A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine.

  15. Giant left anterior descending artery aneurysm resulting in sudden death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery aneurysm is a rare congenital or vascular inflammation-based anomaly for which the clinical course and optimal timing of treatment remain unclear. Here, we report a case of sudden death caused by a giant coronary artery aneurysm of the left anterior descending artery that presented with chest pain. This case suggests that urgent interventional or surgical repair is needed when a large coronary aneurysm presents with acute ischemic symptoms.

  16. Serum Magnesium and Sudden Death in European Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camiel L M de Roij van Zuijdewijn

    Full Text Available Despite suggestions that higher serum magnesium (Mg levels are associated with improved outcome, the association with mortality in European hemodialysis (HD patients has only scarcely been investigated. Furthermore, data on the association between serum Mg and sudden death in this patient group is limited. Therefore, we evaluated Mg in a post-hoc analysis using pooled data from the CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST, NCT00205556, a randomized controlled trial (RCT evaluating the survival risk in dialysis patients on hemodiafiltration (HDF compared to HD with a mean follow-up of 3.1 years. Serum Mg was measured at baseline and 6, 12, 24 and 36 months thereafter. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for confounders using inverse probability weighting, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs of baseline serum Mg on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, non-cardiovascular mortality and sudden death. A generalized linear mixed model was used to investigate Mg levels over time. Out of 714 randomized patients, a representative subset of 365 (51% were analyzed in the present study. For every increase in baseline serum Mg of 0.1 mmol/L, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0.85 (95% CI 0.77-94, the HR for cardiovascular mortality 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.85 and for sudden death 0.76 (95% CI 0.62-0.93. These findings did not alter after extensive correction for potential confounders, including treatment modality. Importantly, no interaction was found between serum phosphate and serum Mg. Baseline serum Mg was not related to non-cardiovascular mortality. Mg decreased slightly but statistically significant over time (Δ -0.011 mmol/L/year, 95% CI -0.017 to -0.009, p = 0.03. In short, serum Mg has a strong, independent association with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and sudden death in European HD patients. Serum Mg levels decrease slightly over time.

  17. Constrained target controllability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan

    2017-06-01

    It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.

  18. Complementarity of flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve models for accurate projections, data assimilation, an emerging statistical approach to combine models with data, have recently been developed to probe initial conditions, parameters, data content, response functions and model uncertainties. Quantifying how many information contents are contained in different data streams is essential to predict future states of ecosystems and the climate. This study uses a data assimilation approach to examine the information contents contained in flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon (C model, which includes canopy photosynthesis and vegetation–soil C transfer submodels. Three assimilation experiments were constructed with either net ecosystem exchange (NEE data only or biometric data only [including foliage and woody biomass, litterfall, soil organic C (SOC and soil respiration], or both NEE and biometric data to constrain model parameters by a probabilistic inversion application. The results showed that NEE data mainly constrained parameters associated with gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (RE but were almost invalid for C transfer coefficients, while biometric data were more effective in constraining C transfer coefficients than other parameters. NEE and biometric data constrained about 26% (6 and 30% (7 of a total of 23 parameters, respectively, but their combined application constrained about 61% (14 of all parameters. The complementarity of NEE and biometric data was obvious in constraining most of parameters. The poor constraint by only NEE or biometric data was probably attributable to either the lack of long-term C dynamic data or errors from measurements. Overall, our results suggest that flux- and biometric-based data, containing different processes in ecosystem C dynamics, have different capacities to constrain parameters related to photosynthesis and C transfer coefficients, respectively. Multiple data sources could also

  19. Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths: Sleep Environment and Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Covington, Theresa M.; Dykstra, Heather K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe the characteristics and sleep circumstances of infants who die suddenly and unexpectedly and to examine similarities and differences in risk factors among infants whose deaths are classified as resulting from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), suffocation, or undetermined causes. Methods. We used 2005 to 2008 data from 9 US states to assess 3136 sleep-related sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs). Results. Only 25% of infants were sleeping in a crib or on their back when found; 70% were on a surface not intended for infant sleep (e.g., adult bed). Importantly, 64% of infants were sharing a sleep surface, and almost half of these infants were sleeping with an adult. Infants whose deaths were classified as suffocation or undetermined cause were significantly more likely than were infants whose deaths were classified as SIDS to be found on a surface not intended for infant sleep and to be sharing that sleep surface. Conclusions. We identified modifiable sleep environment risk factors in a large proportion of the SUIDs assessed in this study. Our results make an important contribution to the mounting evidence that sleep environment hazards contribute to SUIDs. PMID:22515860

  20. Long QT syndrome and sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, Chantal; Van Deventer, Barbara Ströh; du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine

    2017-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an inheritable primary electric disease of the heart characterised by abnormally long QT intervals and a propensity to develop atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. It is caused by an inherited channelopathy responsible for sudden cardiac death in individuals with structurally normal hearts. Long QT syndrome can present early in life, and some studies suggest that it may be associated with up to 20% of sudden unexplained infant death (SUID), particularly when associated with external stressors such as asphyxia, which is commonly seen in many infant death scenes. With an understanding of the genetic defects, it has now been possible to retrospectively analyse samples from infants who have presented to forensic pathology services with a history of unexplained sudden death, which may, in turn, enable the implementation of preventative treatment for siblings previously not known to have pathogenic genetic variations. In this viewpoint article, we will discuss SUID, LQTS and postmortem genetic analysis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Cardiac Channelopathies and Sudden Death: Recent Clinical and Genetic Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Falgueras, Anna; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2017-01-29

    Sudden cardiac death poses a unique challenge to clinicians because it may be the only symptom of an inherited heart condition. Indeed, inherited heart diseases can cause sudden cardiac death in older and younger individuals. Two groups of familial diseases are responsible for sudden cardiac death: cardiomyopathies (mainly hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy) and channelopathies (mainly long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, short QT syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia). This review focuses on cardiac channelopathies, which are characterized by lethal arrhythmias in the structurally normal heart, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. Arrhythmias in these diseases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding cardiac ion channels or associated proteins. Due to a lack of gross structural changes in the heart, channelopathies are often considered as potential causes of death in otherwise unexplained forensic autopsies. The asymptomatic nature of channelopathies is cause for concern in family members who may be carrying genetic risk factors, making the identification of these genetic factors of significant clinical importance.

  2. Cold snaps, snowfall and sudden death from ischemic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T W; Rochard, C

    1979-12-22

    The short-term effect of low temperature on the incidence of ischemic heart disease over a 15-year period was examined. To reduce confounding by other seasonal factors the analysis was restricted to the winter months and was based on the change in the daily rate of sudden death at the time of cold snaps (arbitrarily defined as days on which the mean temperature was at least 4.4 degrees C lower than the day before) and around the time of heavy snowfalls. A statistically significant increase in the daily rate of sudden death at the time of cold snaps occurred only in men under 65 years of age, and even in this group the effect was of relatively small magnitude (+16%) compared with the large change in rate following heavy snowfalls (+88%). Among persons aged 65 years or over cold snaps had virtually no effect, and only the men in this group showed an increased daily rate of sudden death following a snowfall. These results suggest that much of the increased frequency of death from ischemic heart disease in winter, particularly among the elderly, must be due to factors other than short-term cold stress.

  3. Cardiac screening to prevent sudden death in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehil, Christopher; Malhotra, Devika; Patel, Dilip R

    2017-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a sudden and unexpected death caused by loss of heart of function. SCD may occur in any population, but when it occurs on the playing field in a young individual, communities worldwide are affected. Although these events are rare, media coverage of sudden cardiac arrests in young athletes have created the impression that these events are far more common than they appear. With a heightened awareness of SCD in young athletes, screening methods have been developed to try and prevent these events from occurring. The American Heart Associations (AHA) currently employs history and physical examination alone during the preparticipation physical exam (PPE), which clears a young athlete for participation in sports. There has been recent discussion on whether to include screening electrocardiogram (ECG) in the PPE especially after one study in Italy by Corrado et al. found that using routine ECG reduced the annual incidence of SCD by 90%. In this article we will discuss how effective the current screening recommendations are, whether routine ECG use should be included in the PPE and if it is cost effective, and review other screening modalities that may be useful in the detection of young athletes at risk for SCD.

  4. [Multicenter trial for sudden hearing loss therapy - planning and concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plontke, S K; Girndt, M; Meisner, C; Probst, R; Oerlecke, I; Richter, M; Steighardt, J; Dreier, G; Weber, A; Baumann, I; Plößl, S; Löhler, J; Laszig, R; Werner, J A; Rahne, T

    2016-04-01

    Systemic steroids are widely used worldwide as a standard of care for primary therapy of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). The German ISSHL guideline recommends high-dose steroids for primary therapy of ISSHL, without evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The rationale for the treatment of ISSHL using high dose steroids is only based on retrospective cohort studies.This article describes the planning and initiation of a multicenter, national, randomized, controlled clinical trial entitled Efficacy and safety of high dose glucocorticosteroid treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss - a three-armed, randomized, triple-blind, multicenter trial (HODOKORT). This clinical trial aims to compare standard dose with two types of high-dose steroids for primary systemic therapy with respect to their efficacy in improving hearing, and thus communication ability, in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.This study is funded by the "Clinical Trials with High Patient Relevance" research program in the health research framework of the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. It is one of two studies by the German Study Center of Clinical Trials of the German Society of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (DSZ-HNO). Planning and initiation was done in cooperation with the DSZ-HNO, the Coordination Center of Clinical Trials of the Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, and the Study Center of the University Hospital Freiburg.

  5. Predicting and preventing sudden death from cardiac causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J K; Jalal, S; Naccarelli, G V

    1994-08-01

    Sudden cardiac death usually occurs secondary to a ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Even under ideal circumstances only 20% of patients who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survive to hospital discharge. Therefore, aggressive treatment and screening of high-risk patients are mandatory to improve survival rates. Risk stratification of high-risk patients, such as the post-myocardial infarction (MI) population, has been of limited value. Between 70% and 85% of "high-risk" post-MI patients, as defined by these screening tests, will not have a sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia over several years of follow-up. The use of beta-blockers and possibly amiodarone may have some benefit in reducing mortality in high-risk patients after an MI. Several ongoing trials are studying the use of serial drug testing, amiodarone, and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in reducing the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Although implantable cardioverter-defibrillators appear to be superior to antiarrhythmic drugs in reducing sudden cardiac death, total mortality may not be altered. In sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias, sotalol and amiodarone appear to be superior to other drugs in preventing arrhythmia recurrence. Ongoing trials, such as the Antiarrhythmic Drug versus Implantable Device (AVID) trial may define the best strategy in these high-risk patients.

  6. Research on a Sudden Explosion and its Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Maosheng; Ma, Hui; Ni, Qingwei

    2017-12-01

    A sudden blast was chosen as the studied topic. Also, one computer based virtual experimentation was used to estimate the dimensional impact of initial pollutant plume from blasts. Self-made method using Mathcad code was used to generate the output for the period of the first tenth of a second (1deci-second) to 1minute (60s) of the blast at the point source. It also depicted long-range air pollution travel within the first 1 to 10 minutes. In the case study, it assumed an average directional diffusivity of 1720 m2s-1 which is about 25 per cent of the average generated speed of common explosives. The newly developed model revealed a plume cloud impact of 6.8×107µgm-3 in the first 1millisecond (0.01s) which decayed suddenly to a value of 1.7×107µgm-3 in the first 1decisecond (0.1s). The impact concentration at the point source by the end of the first second (1.0s) was 3.2×105µgm-3 which implied a 99.5% sudden decay when compared to 0.01s concentration value at the emission point source. Computerized experiments observed that air pollutants release from explosives/blasts were dispersed into the atmosphere in the first few seconds by forceful injection instead of by gradual dispersion as is the case with normal air pollutants plume releases.

  7. Magnesium in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R B; Singh, V P; Cameron, E A

    1981-01-01

    Magnesium ions are important for maintaining the functional and structural integrity of the myocardium. Epidemiologic studies suggest that myocardial hypomagnecytia can predispose to sudden cardiac death and that hard water protective factor preventing heart attack could be magnesium. Recent studies show that infarcted portion of the myocardium has lowered magnesium content as compared to noninfarcted segment. Magnesium deficiency sensitises the myocardium to the toxic effect of various drugs, hypoxia etc. and magnesium administration is protective. The metabolic, biochemical and electrophysiologic effects of magnesium appear to be significant in treatment of myocardial ischaemia. Magnesium is a metal-coenzyme and activates adenosine-triphosphatase which may be inhibited by nonglucose fuels like lactate and free fatty acids. Magnesium deficiency may be responsible for the chronic electrical instability of the myocardium predisposing to sudden cardiac death. The acute precipitating stress dependent trigger which lie in the brain may also be related to magnesium. In addition to fast Na and Ca channels there could be a Mg-carrying transport system maintaining the electrical activity of the myocardium. There is sufficient evidence to suggest the use of magnesium salts against ischaemic heart disease and sudden cardiac death. Magnesium is cardioprotective and influences action potential duration, membrane potential and perhaps maintains the fast response. The therapeutic and prophylactic value of magnesium needs further assessment.

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Preventing Sudden Death in Sport and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katch, Rachel K; Scarneo, Samantha E; Adams, William M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Belval, Luke N; Stamm, Julie M; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-09-01

    Participation in organized sport and recreational activities presents an innate risk for serious morbidity and mortality. Although death during sport or physical activity has many causes, advancements in sports medicine and evidence-based standards of care have allowed clinicians to prevent, recognize, and treat potentially fatal injuries more effectively. With the continual progress of research and technology, current standards of care are evolving to enhance patient outcomes. In this article, we provided 10 key questions related to the leading causes and treatment of sudden death in sport and physical activity, where future research will support safer participation for athletes and recreational enthusiasts. The current evidence indicates that most deaths can be avoided when proper strategies are in place to prevent occurrence or provide optimal care.

  9. [The evaluating time of curative effect on sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyun; Jiang, Wen; Mao, Kunhua; Chen, Qiong

    2012-04-01

    To explore the best evaluating time of curative effect on sudden deafness so that the curative effect on sudden deafness can been evaluated more exactly and literally. Pure tone audiometries in 112 cases of sudden deafness were performed on the pretreatment day and on the third, seventh, fourteenth post-treatment day, and in the first, second, third, fourth post-treatment month. All of acoustical data were analyzed. The total effective rates were statistical different between the third, seventh post-treatment day and the fourteenth post-treatment day, the first, second, third, fourth post-treatment month. There were no statistical difference between the fourteenth post-treatment day and the first post-treatment month. There were statistical difference between the fourteenth post-treatment day and the second, third, fourth post-treatment month. The total effective rates were no statistical difference between the first and the second, third, fourth post-treatment month but it was fluctuated in the first post-treatment month. The total effective rates were no statistical difference between the second and the third, fourth post-treatment month and it was changeless on the second post-treatment month. From the curve of recruitment of hearing in different time, the curve of the total effective rates ascend from the third post-treatment day, then get to plateau from the second post-treatment month. If the cure rates, the efficiency rates, the effective rates in different time were analyzed, respectively, the hearing improvement ascend in first two weeks then. Hearing improvement get to plateau from fourteenth post-treatment day. (1) The evaluated results of curative effect to sudden deafness correlated vary in different time point post-treatment. (2) Prognosis can be predicted approximately 2 weeks after treatment. Patients who recover acoustic sensibility within 2 weeks have more significant improvement than the patients who hearing improvement after 2 weeks treatment

  10. Variations in Cause-of-Death Determination for Sudden Unexpected Infant Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Parks, Sharyn E; Brustrom, Jennifer; Andrew, Tom; Camperlengo, Lena; Fudenberg, John; Payn, Betsy; Rhoda, Dale

    2017-07-01

    To quantify and describe variation in cause-of-death certification of sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) among US medical examiners and coroners. From January to November 2014, we conducted a nationally representative survey of US medical examiners and coroners who certify infant deaths. Two-stage unequal probability sampling with replacement was used. Medical examiners and coroners were asked to classify SUIDs based on hypothetical scenarios and to describe the evidence considered and investigative procedures used for cause-of-death determination. Frequencies and weighted percentages were calculated. Of the 801 surveys mailed, 60% were returned, and 377 were deemed eligible and complete. Medical examiners and coroners classification of infant deaths varied by scenario. For 3 scenarios portraying potential airway obstruction and negative autopsy findings, 61% to 69% classified the death as suffocation/asphyxia. In the last scenario, which portrayed a healthy infant in a safe sleep environment with negative autopsy findings, medical examiners and coroners classified the death as sudden infant death syndrome (38%) and SUID (30%). Reliance on investigative procedures to determine cause varied, but 94% indicated using death scene investigations, 88% full autopsy, 85% toxicology analyses, and 82% medical history review. US medical examiners and coroners apply variable practices to classify and investigate SUID, and thus, they certify the same deaths differently. This variability influences surveillance and research, impacts true understanding of infant mortality causes, and inhibits our ability to accurately monitor and ultimately prevent future deaths. Findings may inform future strategies for promoting standardized practices for SUID classification. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Integration of sudden death syndrome resistance loci in the soybean genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Xun; Roth, Mitchell G; Wang, Dechun; Cianzio, Silvia R; Lightfoot, David A; Hartman, Glen L; Chilvers, Martin I

    2018-02-12

    Complexity and inconsistencies in resistance mapping publications of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) result in interpretation difficulty. This review integrates SDS mapping literature and proposes a new nomenclature system for reproducible SDS resistance loci. Soybean resistance to sudden death syndrome (SDS) is composed of foliar resistance to phytotoxins and root resistance to pathogen invasion. There are more than 80 quantitative trait loci (QTL) and dozens of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with soybean resistance to SDS. The validity of these QTL and SNPs is questionable because of the complexity in phenotyping methodologies, the disease synergism between SDS and soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the variability from the interactions between soybean genotypes and environments, and the inconsistencies in the QTL nomenclature. This review organizes SDS mapping results and proposes the Rfv (resistance to Fusarium virguliforme) nomenclature based on supporting criteria described in the text. Among ten reproducible loci receiving our Rfv nomenclature, Rfv18-01 is mostly supported by field studies and it co-localizes to the SCN resistance locus rhg1. The possibility that Rfv18-01 is a pleiotropic resistance locus and the concern about Rfv18-01 being confounded with Rhg1 is discussed. On the other hand, Rfv06-01, Rfv06-02, Rfv09-01, Rfv13-01, and Rfv16-01 were identified both by screening soybean leaves against phytotoxic culture filtrates and by evaluating SDS severity in fields. Future phenotyping using leaf- and root-specific resistance screening methodologies may improve the precision of SDS resistance, and advanced genetic studies may further clarify the interactions among soybean genotypes, F. virguliforme, SCN, and environments. The review provides a summary of the SDS resistance literature and proposes a framework for communicating SDS resistance loci for future research considering molecular interactions and genetic breeding for soybean SDS

  12. Defining Sudden Infant Death and Sudden Intrauterine Unexpected Death Syndromes with Regard to Anatomo-Pathological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottaviani, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700-2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures. On the basis of these considerations, the new common definition of the SIDS-SIUDS complex is "The sudden death of a fetus after the 25th gestational week or infant under one year of age which is unexpected by history and remains unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including examination of the death scene, performance of a general autopsy and examination of the fetal adnexa". Therefore, given that the general autopsy does not disclose any cause of death, a more in-depth histopathological analysis of the cardiac conduction system and autonomic nervous system by specialized pathologists is necessary.

  13. Cardiac disease and risk of sudden death in the young: the burden of the phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Sudden cardiovascular death is a rare but catastrophic event in young men and women throughout the world. Sudden death is difficult to study. Factors that need elucidation are (1) the definition of sudden death; (2) diagnosis of the cause of sudden death; (3) the true incidence of sudden death, and (4) age and gender of individuals being studied. The "burden" of sudden death is far-reaching and involves medical, emotional, and economic burdens on the family members at risk, the entire family of the victim, and society in general. The pathologist trying to evaluate a case of sudden death also has a burden to make the correct diagnosis, especially since the cause of the sudden death may determine risk to the victim's family members. Sudden death is difficult to prevent since it may be the first and last manifestation of the cardiovascular disease. Also, paradoxically, the greatest number of deaths occurs in "low-risk" groups. The most common causes of cardiovascular deaths in the young are cardiomyopathy, coronary anomaly, obstructive coronary artery disease, myocarditis, valvular disease, channelopathy, and aortic disease leading to dissection or rupture. Many sudden deaths in the young occur during or shortly after exercise. Appropriate pre-participation screening of competitive athletes can reduce the incidence of sudden cardiovascular death in the young. Which measures to try to prevent these rare deaths are indicated and/or cost effective is a matter of discussion and controversy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far......-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content...

  15. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  16. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-02

    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model’s capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  17. Doubly Constrained Robust Blind Beamforming Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose doubly constrained robust least-squares constant modulus algorithm (LSCMA to solve the problem of signal steering vector mismatches via the Bayesian method and worst-case performance optimization, which is based on the mismatches between the actual and presumed steering vectors. The weight vector is iteratively updated with penalty for the worst-case signal steering vector by the partial Taylor-series expansion and Lagrange multiplier method, in which the Lagrange multipliers can be optimally derived and incorporated at each step. A theoretical analysis for our proposed algorithm in terms of complexity cost, convergence performance, and SINR performance is presented in this paper. In contrast to the linearly constrained LSCMA, the proposed algorithm provides better robustness against the signal steering vector mismatches, yields higher signal captive performance, improves greater array output SINR, and has a lower computational cost. The simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed algorithm on beampattern control and output SINR enhancement.

  18. A “Wear and Tear” Hypothesis to Explain Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaik, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the leading cause of death among USA infants under 1 year of age accounting for ~2,700 deaths per year. Although formally SIDS dates back at least 2,000 years and was even mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Kings 3:19), its etiology remains unexplained prompting the CDC to initiate a sudden unexpected infant death case registry in 2010. Due to their total dependence, the ability of the infant to allostatically regulate stressors and stress responses shaped by genetic and environmental factors is severely constrained. We propose that SIDS is the result of cumulative painful, stressful, or traumatic exposures that begin in utero and tax neonatal regulatory systems incompatible with allostasis. We also identify several putative biochemical mechanisms involved in SIDS. We argue that the important characteristics of SIDS, namely male predominance (60:40), the significantly different SIDS rate among USA Hispanics (80% lower) compared to whites, 50% of cases occurring between 7.6 and 17.6 weeks after birth with only 10% after 24.7 weeks, and seasonal variation with most cases occurring during winter, are all associated with common environmental stressors, such as neonatal circumcision and seasonal illnesses. We predict that neonatal circumcision is associated with hypersensitivity to pain and decreased heart rate variability, which increase the risk for SIDS. We also predict that neonatal male circumcision will account for the SIDS gender bias and that groups that practice high male circumcision rates, such as USA whites, will have higher SIDS rates compared to groups with lower circumcision rates. SIDS rates will also be higher in USA states where Medicaid covers circumcision and lower among people that do not practice neonatal circumcision and/or cannot afford to pay for circumcision. We last predict that winter-born premature infants who are circumcised will be at higher risk of SIDS compared to infants who experienced fewer

  19. Diameter constrained reliability of ladders and Spanish fans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cancela Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are given a graph G = (V, E, terminal set K  V and diameter d > 0. Links fail stochastically and independently with known probabilities. The diameter-constrained reliability (DCR for short, is the probability that the K-diameter is not greater than d in the subgraph induced by non-failed links. The contributions of this paper are two-fold. First, the computational complexity of DCR-subproblems is discussed in terms of the number of terminals k = jKj and diameter d. Here, we prove that when d > 2 the problem is NP-Hard when K = V. Second, we compute the DCR efficiently for Ladders and Spanish Fans. Open problems and trends for future work are discussed in the conclusions.

  20. Constraining Light-Quark Yukawa Couplings from Higgs Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Fady; Haisch, Ulrich; Monni, Pier Francesco; Re, Emanuele

    2017-03-24

    We propose a novel strategy to constrain the bottom and charm Yukawa couplings by exploiting Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurements of transverse momentum distributions in Higgs production. Our method does not rely on the reconstruction of exclusive final states or heavy-flavor tagging. Compared to other proposals, it leads to an enhanced sensitivity to the Yukawa couplings due to distortions of the differential Higgs spectra from emissions which either probe quark loops or are associated with quark-initiated production. We derive constraints using data from LHC run I, and we explore the prospects of our method at future LHC runs. Finally, we comment on the possibility of bounding the strange Yukawa coupling.

  1. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours

    OpenAIRE

    Bányai, E.; Plachy, E.; Molnár, L.; Dobos, L.; Szabó, R.

    2016-01-01

    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did n...

  2. Analysing Cinematography with Embedded Constrained Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Hui-Yin; Christie, Marc

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Cinematography carries messages on the plot, emotion, or more general feeling of the film. Yet cinematographic devices are often overlooked in existing approaches to film analysis. In this paper, we present Embedded Constrained Patterns (ECPs), a dedicated query language to search annotated film clips for sequences that fulfill complex stylistic constraints. ECPs are groups of framing and sequencing constraints defined using vocabulary in film textbooks. Using a set al...

  3. Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.

  4. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos

    2008-01-01

    Given a point set P of customers (e.g., WiFi receivers) and a point set Q of service providers (e.g., wireless access points), where each q 2 Q has a capacity q.k, the capacity constrained assignment (CCA) is a matching M Q × P such that (i) each point q 2 Q (p 2 P) appears at most k times (at most...

  5. Phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willig-Onwuachi, Jacob D; Yeh, Ernest N; Grant, Aaron K; Ohliger, Michael A; McKenzie, Charles A; Sodickson, Daniel K

    2005-10-01

    A generalized method for phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction is presented that combines and extends the concepts of partial-Fourier reconstruction and parallel imaging. It provides a framework for reconstructing images employing either or both techniques and for comparing image quality achieved by varying k-space sampling schemes. The method can be used as a parallel image reconstruction with a partial-Fourier reconstruction built in. It can also be used with trajectories not readily handled by straightforward combinations of partial-Fourier and SENSE-like parallel reconstructions, including variable-density, and non-Cartesian trajectories. The phase constraint specifies a better-conditioned inverse problem compared to unconstrained parallel MR reconstruction alone. This phase-constrained parallel MRI reconstruction offers a one-step alternative to the standard combination of homodyne and SENSE reconstructions with the added benefit of flexibility of sampling trajectory. The theory of the phase-constrained approach is outlined, and its calibration requirements and limitations are discussed. Simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo experiments are presented.

  6. Constrained Multi-View Video Face Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaochun; Zhang, Changqing; Zhou, Chengju; Fu, Huazhu; Foroosh, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we focus on face clustering in videos. To promote the performance of video clustering by multiple intrinsic cues, i.e., pairwise constraints and multiple views, we propose a constrained multi-view video face clustering method under a unified graph-based model. First, unlike most existing video face clustering methods which only employ these constraints in the clustering step, we strengthen the pairwise constraints through the whole video face clustering framework, both in sparse subspace representation and spectral clustering. In the constrained sparse subspace representation, the sparse representation is forced to explore unknown relationships. In the constrained spectral clustering, the constraints are used to guide for learning more reasonable new representations. Second, our method considers both the video face pairwise constraints as well as the multi-view consistence simultaneously. In particular, the graph regularization enforces the pairwise constraints to be respected and the co-regularization penalizes the disagreement among different graphs of multiple views. Experiments on three real-world video benchmark data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of our method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. An English language interface for constrained domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Brenda J.

    1989-01-01

    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  8. PHOX2B polyalanine repeat length is associated with sudden infant death syndrome and unclassified sudden infant death in the Dutch population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Liebrechts-Akkerman (Germaine); F. Liu (Fan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); A.H.A.G. Ooms (Ariadne ); K. van Duijn (Kate); M. Vermeulen (Mark); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C. Engelberts (Adele); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractUnclassified sudden infant death (USID) is the sudden and unexpected death of an infant that remains unexplained after thorough case investigation including performance of a complete autopsy and review of the circumstances of death and the clinical history. When the infant is below 1

  9. Constraining the cosmology of the phantom brane using distance measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ujjaini; Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun

    2017-01-01

    The phantom brane has several important distinctive features: (i) Its equation of state is phantomlike, but there is no future "big rip" singularity, and (ii) the effective cosmological constant on the brane is dynamically screened, because of which the expansion rate is smaller than that in Λ CDM at high redshifts. In this paper, we constrain the Phantom braneworld using distance measures such as type-Ia supernovae (SNeIa), baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), and the compressed cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. We find that the simplest braneworld models provide a good fit to the data. For instance, BAO +SNeIa data can be accommodated by the braneworld for a large region in parameter space 0 ≤Ωℓ≲0.3 at 1 σ . The Hubble parameter can be as high as H0≲78 km s-1 Mpc-1 , and the effective equation of state at present can show phantomlike behavior with w0≲-1.2 at 1 σ . We note a correlation between H0 and w0, with higher values of H0 leading to a lower, and more phantomlike, value of w0. Inclusion of CMB data provides tighter constraints Ωℓ≲0.1 . (Here Ωℓ encodes the ratio of the five- and four-dimensional Planck mass.) The Hubble parameter in this case is more tightly constrained to H0≲71 km s-1 Mpc-1 , and the effective equation of state to w0≲-1.1 . Interestingly, we find that the Universe is allowed to be closed or open, with -0.5 ≲Ωκ≲0.5 , even on including the compressed CMB data. There appears to be some tension in the low and high-z BAO data which may either be resolved by future data, or act as a pointer to interesting new cosmology.

  10. Constraining the magnitude of the largest event in a foreshock-main shock-aftershock sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Robert; Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2018-01-01

    Extreme value statistics and Bayesian methods are used to constrain the magnitudes of the largest expected earthquakes in a sequence governed by the parametric time-dependent occurrence rate and frequency-magnitude statistics. The Bayesian predictive distribution for the magnitude of the largest event in a sequence is derived. Two types of sequences are considered, that is, the classical aftershock sequences generated by large main shocks and the aftershocks generated by large foreshocks preceding a main shock. For the former sequences, the early aftershocks during a training time interval are used to constrain the magnitude of the future extreme event during the forecasting time interval. For the latter sequences, the earthquakes preceding the main shock are used to constrain the magnitudes of the subsequent extreme events including the main shock. The analysis is applied retrospectively to past prominent earthquake sequences.

  11. The effect of sudden depressurization on pilots at cruising altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlemann, Thomas; Holper, Lisa; Wenzel, Juergen; Wittkowski, Martin; Wolf, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The standard flight level for commercial airliners is ∼12 km (40 kft; air pressure: ∼ 200 hPa), the maximum certification altitude of modern airliners may be as high as 43-45 kft. Loss of structural integrity of an airplane may result in sudden depressurization of the cabin potentially leading to hypoxia with loss of consciousness of the pilots. Specialized breathing masks supply the pilots with oxygen. The aim of this study was to experimentally simulate such sudden depressurization to maximum design altitude in a pressure chamber while measuring the arterial and brain oxygenation saturation (SaO(2) and StO(2)) of the pilots. Ten healthy subjects with a median age of 50 (range 29-70) years were placed in a pressure chamber, breathing air from a cockpit mask. Pressure was reduced from 753 to 148 hPa within 20 s, and the test mask was switched to pure O(2) within 2 s after initiation of depressurization. During the whole procedure SaO(2) and StO(2) were measured by pulse oximetry, respectively near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS; in-house built prototype) of the left frontal cortex. During the depressurization the SaO(2) dropped from median 93% (range 91-98%) to 78% (62-92%) by 16% (6-30%), while StO(2) decreased from 62% (47-67%) to 57% (43-62%) by 5% (3-14%). Considerable drops in oxygenation were observed during sudden depressurization. The inter-subject variability was high, for SaO(2) depending on the subjects' ability to preoxygenate before the depressurization. The drop in StO(2) was lower than the one in SaO(2) maybe due to compensation in blood flow.

  12. Coupled catastrophes: sudden shifts cascade and hop among interdependent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummitt, Charles D; Barnett, George; D'Souza, Raissa M

    2015-11-06

    An important challenge in several disciplines is to understand how sudden changes can propagate among coupled systems. Examples include the synchronization of business cycles, population collapse in patchy ecosystems, markets shifting to a new technology platform, collapses in prices and in confidence in financial markets, and protests erupting in multiple countries. A number of mathematical models of these phenomena have multiple equilibria separated by saddle-node bifurcations. We study this behaviour in its normal form as fast-slow ordinary differential equations. In our model, a system consists of multiple subsystems, such as countries in the global economy or patches of an ecosystem. Each subsystem is described by a scalar quantity, such as economic output or population, that undergoes sudden changes via saddle-node bifurcations. The subsystems are coupled via their scalar quantity (e.g. trade couples economic output; diffusion couples populations); that coupling moves the locations of their bifurcations. The model demonstrates two ways in which sudden changes can propagate: they can cascade (one causing the next), or they can hop over subsystems. The latter is absent from classic models of cascades. For an application, we study the Arab Spring protests. After connecting the model to sociological theories that have bistability, we use socioeconomic data to estimate relative proximities to tipping points and Facebook data to estimate couplings among countries. We find that although protests tend to spread locally, they also seem to 'hop' over countries, like in the stylized model; this result highlights a new class of temporal motifs in longitudinal network datasets. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Reporting a sudden death due to accidental gasoline inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María Antonia; Ballesteros, Salomé; Alcaraz, Rafael

    2012-02-10

    The investigation of uncertain fatalities requires accurate determination of the cause of death, with assessment of all factors that may have contributed to it. Gasoline is a complex and highly variable mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons that can lead to cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the myocardium to catecholamines or acts as a simple asphyxiant if the vapors displace sufficient oxygen from the breathing atmosphere. This work describes a sudden occupational fatality involving gasoline. The importance of this petroleum distillate detection and its quantitative toxicological significance is discussed using a validated analytical method. A 51 year-old Caucasian healthy man without significant medical history was supervising the repairs of the telephone lines in a manhole near to a gas station. He died suddenly after inhaling gasoline vapors from an accidental leak. Extensive blistering and peeling of skin were observed on the skin of the face, neck, anterior chest, upper and lower extremities, and back. The internal examination showed a strong odor of gasoline, specially detected in the respiratory tract. The toxicological screening and quantitation of gasoline was performed by means of gas chromatography with flame ionization detector and confirmation was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Disposition of gasoline in different tissues was as follows: heart blood, 35.7 mg/L; urine, not detected; vitreous humor, 1.9 mg/L; liver, 194.7 mg/kg; lung, 147.6 mg/kg; and gastric content, 116,6 mg/L (2.7 mg total). Based upon the toxicological data along with the autopsy findings, the cause of death was determined to be gasoline poisoning and the manner of death was accidental. We would like to alert on the importance of testing for gasoline, and in general for volatile hydrocarbons, in work-related sudden deaths involving inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors and/or exhaust fumes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  14. Sudden death of cardiac origin and psychotropic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timour, Quadiri; Frassati, Dominique; Descotes, Jacques; Chevalier, Philippe; Christé, Georges; Chahine, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Mortality rate is high in psychiatric patients versus general population. An important cause of this increased mortality is sudden cardiac death (SCD) as a major side-effect of psychotropic drugs. These SCDs generally result from arrhythmias occurring when the posology is high and may attain a toxic threshold but also at dosages within therapeutic range, in the presence of risk factors. There are three kinds of risk factors: physiological (e.g., low cardiac rate of sportsmen), physiopathological (e.g., hepatic insufficiency, hypothyroidism) and "therapeutic" (due to interactions between psychotropic drugs and other medicines). Association of pharmacological agents may increase the likelihood of SCDs either by (i) a pharmacokinetic mechanism (e.g., increased torsadogenic potential of a psychotropic drug when its destruction and/or elimination are compromised) or (ii) a pharmacodynamical mechanism (e.g., mutual potentiation of proarrhythmic properties of two drugs). In addition, some psychotropic drugs may induce sudden death in cases of pre-existing congenital cardiopathies such as (i) congenital long QT syndrome, predisposing to torsade de pointes that eventually cause syncope and sudden death. (ii) A Brugada syndrome, that may directly cause ventricular fibrillation due to reduced sodium current through Nav1.5 channels. Moreover, psychotropic drugs may be a direct cause of cardiac lesions also leading to SCD. This is the case, for example, of phenothiazines responsible for ischemic coronaropathies and of clozapine that is involved in the occurrence of myocarditis. The aims of this work are to delineate: (i) the risk of SCD related to the use of psychotropic drugs; (ii) mechanisms involved in the occurrence of such SCD; (iii) preventive actions of psychotropic drugs side effects, on the basis of the knowledge of patient-specific risk factors, documented from clinical history, ionic balance, and ECG investigation by the psychiatrist.

  15. Coronary atherosclerosis in sudden cardiac death: An autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha M

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of ischemic heart disease (IHD has markedly increased in India over the past few years. Considering the variations in racial, dietary and lifestyle patterns in our population, it is essential to study the biology of coronary atherosclerosis in our patients. Vulnerable plaques have a large number of foam cells, extracellular lipid, thin fibrous caps and clusters of inflammatory cells and are more prone to rupture. These plaques are nourished by the microvessels arising from the vasa vasorum of the blood vessels and by lumen-derived microvessels through the fibrous cap. This autopsy study was designed to analyse the coronary arterial tree in cases of sudden cardiac death, classify coronary atherosclerotic plaques and to assess the factors contributing to vulnerability of the plaques including inflammation, calcification and microvascular density. Materials and Methods: Seven cases of sudden cardiac death were included in the study. The hearts were perfusion-fixed and the coronary arteries along with their main branches were dissected and studied. The location of the plaques, type of plaques, presence of inflammation and calcification were assessed. The cap thickness and microvessel density per 1000um 2 were assessed. The statistical significance was estimated. Results and Conclusions: Extensive high-grade coronary atherosclerotic disease was seen in all sudden cardiac death cases. Majority of the plaques were vulnerable. High-grade inflammation was seen in most of the vulnerable and ruptured plaques. All the ruptured plaques were uncalcified indicating that calcification probably stabilizes the plaques and protects against rupture. Increased microvessel density was noted in ruptured plaques compared to vulnerable plaques. However, it was not statistically significant.

  16. Pathomorphological cardial changes in the sudden infant death syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozumny D.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish the relationship between the timing of fetal obliteration of communication and expression remodeling of the heart chambers, as one of the possible causative factors of SIDS, the selected material has been based on macromorphometric study. Material included 43 hearts from infants who died of SIDS. The control group consisted of 48 hearts of children suddenly dead from aspiration of gastric contents and infectious disease. The methods composed a macroscopic examination of the heart by the method of separate weighing of the complex morphometric studies, histological examination (used the following stains: hematoxylin and eosin, picrofuchsin by Van Gieson, Nissl's stain, immunohistochemical method using markers of neurofilament. The results revealed that in children who died of SIDS, obliteration of the fetal communication occurs essentially in the late period —to the age of 8 months, and the mass of the left and right ventricles of the heart exceeds the age limit of normal due to the prevalence of ventricular muscle mass and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In all parts of the heart subendocardial fibrosis in the ventricles — pronounced interstitial fibrosis has been observed. In the interatrial septum at the location at the oval window morphometric study resulted in significant predominance area percentage of connective tissue in relation to the muscle tissue. On histological sections elements of the nervous tissue — randomly arranged nerve ganglia with degenerative changes and nerve fibers were identified. Conclusion. Finally, it should be noted that the growth of cardiosclerosis in all parts of the heart in newborns and infants, who died suddenly from SIDS, extends the terms of obliteration of fetal communications, and degenerative changes in the nerve ganglia that lead to the disturbance of supply and distribution of nerve impulses that pass through them. These factors contribute to the development of hemodynamic

  17. Sudden death of cardiac origin and psychotropic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadiri eTimour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality rate is high in psychiatric patients versus general population. An important cause of this increased mortality is sudden cardiac death (SCD as a major side-effect of psychotropic drugs. These SCDs generally result from arrhythmias occurring when the posology is high and may attain a toxic threshold but also at dosages within therapeutic range, in the presence of risk factors. There are three kinds of risk factors: physiological (e.g.: low cardiac rate of sportsmen, physiopathological (e.g.: hepatic insufficiency, hypothyroidism and "therapeutic" (due to interactions between psychotropic drugs and other medicines. Association of pharmacological agents may increase the likelihood of SCDs either by i a pharmacokinetic mechanism (e.g.: increased torsadogenic potential of a psychotropic drug when its destruction and/or elimination are compromised or ii a pharmacodynamical mechanism (e.g.: mutual potentiation of proarrhythmic properties of two drugs. In addition, some psychotropic drugs may induce sudden death in cases of pre-existing congenital cardiopathies such as i congenital long QT syndrome, predisposing to torsade de pointes that eventually cause syncope and sudden death. ii a Brugada syndrome, that may directly cause ventricular fibrillation due to reduced sodium current through Nav1.5 channels. Moreover, psychotropic drugs may be a direct cause of cardiac lesions also leading to SCD. This is the case, for example, of phenothiazines responsible for ischemic coronaropathies and of clozapine that is involved in the occurrence of myocarditis. The aims of this work are to delineate: i the risk of SCD related to the use of psychotropic drugs; ii mechanisms involved in the occurrence of such SCD; iii preventive actions of psychotropic drugs side effects, on the basis of the knowledge of patient-specific risk factors, documented from clinical history, ionic balance and ECG investigation by the psychiatrist.

  18. Unusual causes of sudden anuria in renal transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutaleb, Nasrulla; Obaideen, Abdulmunaem; Zakaria, Mahmoud; El Jubab, Abdulwahab; Hamza, Abdulmajeed; Younis, Seddiq; Adem, Muhalab

    2007-06-01

    Sudden unexplained anuria in renal transplant patients could well be secondary to occult internal hemorrhage rather than the usual vascular thrombotic or obstructive event, even in the completely stable patient. Urgent intervention in such bleeding states can save a patient's life and graft function. Graft survival is very exceptional in graft artery or vein thrombosis. Contrary to hemorrahagic events, life is usually not threatened by thrombotic events involving the renal graft vasculature. We present here three unfortunate cases that shared the problem of unexpected anuria due to a hemorrhagic event in apparently stable renal transplant patients.

  19. Evolution of IPv6 Internet topology with unusual sudden changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Zhao, Hai; Kathleen, M. Carley; Su, Zhan; Li, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The evolution of Internet topology is not always smooth but sometimes with unusual sudden changes. Consequently, identifying patterns of unusual topology evolution is critical for Internet topology modeling and simulation. We analyze IPv6 Internet topology evolution in IP-level graph to demonstrate how it changes in uncommon ways to restructure the Internet. After evaluating the changes of average degree, average path length, and some other metrics over time, we find that in the case of a large-scale growing the Internet becomes more robust; whereas in a top—bottom connection enhancement the Internet maintains its efficiency with links largely decreased.

  20. Sudden Onset of Lower Abdominal Pain Without Peritonitis or Ileus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Scarlini

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A patient presented with sudden, unexplained lower abdominal pain without peritonism or signs of infection or inflammatory reaction, but with recent bloody stools and a history of radiation therapy, diabetes and immunosuppression. Plain abdominal x-ray showed only air-fluid levels and air distention of the colon, but a later abdominal CT scan revealed extensive gas gangrene of the colon. The patient’s clinical status rapidly worsened. Elective surgical rectosigmoid debridement did not prevent the patient’s death. In conclusion, the diagnosis of ‘spontaneous’ life-threatening gas gangrene requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and allows life-saving surgical intervention.

  1. Sudden interaction quench in the quantum sine-Gordon model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabio, Javier [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Kehrein, Stefan, E-mail: javier.sabio@icmm.csic.e [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center for Theoretical Physics, Center for NanoSciences and Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    We study a sudden interaction quench in the weak-coupling regime of the quantum sine-Gordon model. The real time dynamics of the bosonic mode occupation numbers is calculated using the flow equation method. While we cannot prove results for the asymptotic long-time limit, we can establish the existence of an extended regime in time where the mode occupation numbers relax to twice their equilibrium values. This factor two indicates a non-equilibrium distribution and is a universal feature of weak interaction quenches. The weak-coupling quantum sine-Gordon model therefore turns out to be on the borderline between thermalization and non-thermalization.

  2. Capillary-Gravity Waves Generated by a Sudden Object Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Closa, Fabien; Raphael, Elie

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the capillary-gravity waves created at the water-air interface by a small object during a sudden accelerated or decelerated rectilinear motion. We analyze the wave resistance corresponding to the transient wave pattern and show that it is nonzero even if the involved velocity (the final one in the accelerated case, the initial one in the decelerated case) is smaller than the minimum phase velocity $c_{min}=23 \\mathrm{cm s^{-1}}$. These results might be important for a better understanding of the propulsion of water-walking insects where accelerated and decelerated motions frequently occur.

  3. Increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest in obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam Jacoba; Blom, Marieke Tabo; Bardai, Abdennasser

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether (1) patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (OPD) have an increased risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) due to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT/VF), and (2) the SCA risk is mediated by cardiovascular risk-profile and/or respiratory drug use....... METHODS: A community-based case-control study was performed, with 1310 cases of SCA of the ARREST study and 5793 age, sex and SCA-date matched non-SCA controls from the PHARMO database. Only incident SCA cases, age older than 40 years, that resulted from unequivocal cardiac causes...

  4. Acute reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome precipitated by sudden severe anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeser, Pierre-Francois; Borruat, Francois-Xavier

    2009-01-01

    To report the sudden onset of reversible Charles Bonnet syndrome precipitated byacute severe anemia. The charts of three patients (Usher syndrome, bilateral macular degeneration, and bilateral retinal vein occlusion) with acute Charles Bonnet syndrome in the setting of severe anemia were reviewed. Anemia resulted from bladder surgery, recto-colitis, and severe urinary tract infection. Hemoglobin ranged from 78 to 86 g/L. Decreased visual acuity and formed visual hallucinations (giants, flowers, animals) were present in all three patients. Rapid reversal of Charles Bonnet syndrome and visual acuity improvement followed blood transfusion. Acute severe anemia can precipitate Charles Bonnet syndrome, which may be reversible by blood transfusion.

  5. [Hypertensive crisis and sudden change of vision in young patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Fernández, M S; Martín-Castillejos, C; Armario, P

    2016-01-01

    The sudden change in vision is a medical emergency that must be evaluated immediately to rule out important institutions as systemic vasculitis or ischemic stroke. Its association with hypertensive crisis makes it necessary to rule out accelerated-malignant hypertension, which is accompanied by other retinal disorders (exudates and hemorrhages) and adrenal involvement. Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) is another entity to consider, as is it not uncommon in the young (12.7% in a series of 848 cases). Its association with hypertension has been described in 32% of cases. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Sudden death of a child due to respiratory diphtheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Rajanikanta; Behera, Chittaranjan; Arava, Sudheer Kumar; Kundu, Naveen

    2016-06-01

    A four-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with respiratory distress. Death occurred despite attempted resuscitation. The illness was not clinically diagnosed. Her father revealed that she had a fever and sore throat for the last four days and was not immunised for diphtheria. Characteristic gross and microscopic pathology of respiratory diphtheria and microbiological findings were observed. The cause of death was acute respiratory failure consequent upon upper airway obstruction from diphtheria. Forensic pathologists should remember that the diphtheria cases can cause sudden death especially in developing countries. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vidur; Rodgers, Brian; Lin, James

    2017-08-01

    The hallmarks of symptomatic human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) include fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, malaise, transaminitis, and blood cell abnormalities. Previous case reports have described isolated cranial nerve palsies in infected patients but not hearing loss. We describe the onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in 2 patients with HME-a 31-year-old woman and an 82-year-old woman. The older patient experienced objective and subjective improvement in her hearing after treatment with an antibiotic and steroid taper; the younger patient was lost to audiologic follow-up. Additionally, we discuss the possible mechanisms of the hearing loss in these patients.

  8. An Experimental Comparison of Similarity Assessment Measures for 3D Models on Constrained Surface Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Lulin; Yang, Zhixin

    2010-05-01

    To address the issues in the area of design customization, this paper expressed the specification and application of the constrained surface deformation, and reported the experimental performance comparison of three prevail effective similarity assessment algorithms on constrained surface deformation domain. Constrained surface deformation becomes a promising method that supports for various downstream applications of customized design. Similarity assessment is regarded as the key technology for inspecting the success of new design via measuring the difference level between the deformed new design and the initial sample model, and indicating whether the difference level is within the limitation. According to our theoretical analysis and pre-experiments, three similarity assessment algorithms are suitable for this domain, including shape histogram based method, skeleton based method, and U system moment based method. We analyze their basic functions and implementation methodologies in detail, and do a series of experiments on various situations to test their accuracy and efficiency using precision-recall diagram. Shoe model is chosen as an industrial example for the experiments. It shows that shape histogram based method gained an optimal performance in comparison. Based on the result, we proposed a novel approach that integrating surface constrains and shape histogram description with adaptive weighting method, which emphasize the role of constrains during the assessment. The limited initial experimental result demonstrated that our algorithm outperforms other three algorithms. A clear direction for future development is also drawn at the end of the paper.

  9. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby

    2003-01-01

    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  10. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  11. The physiological determinants of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alfredo J; Koschnitzky, Jenna E; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-11-01

    It is well-established that environmental and biological risk factors contribute to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). There is also growing consensus that SIDS requires the intersection of multiple risk factors that result in the failure of an infant to overcome cardio-respiratory challenges. Thus, the critical next steps in understanding SIDS are to unravel the physiological determinants that actually cause the sudden death, to synthesize how these determinants are affected by the known risk factors, and to develop novel ideas for SIDS prevention. In this review, we will examine current and emerging perspectives related to cardio-respiratory dysfunctions in SIDS. Specifically, we will review: (1) the role of the preBötzinger complex (preBötC) as a multi-functional network that is critically involved in the failure to adequately respond to hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges; (2) the potential involvement of the preBötC in the gender and age distributions that are characteristic for SIDS; (3) the link between SIDS and prematurity; and (4) the potential relationship between SIDS, auditory function, and central chemosensitivity. Each section underscores the importance of marrying the epidemiological and pathological data to experimental data in order to understand the physiological determinants of this syndrome. We hope that a better understanding will lead to novel ways to reduce the risk to succumb to SIDS. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Cardiac Ion Channelopathies and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) causes the sudden death of an apparently healthy infant, which remains unexplained despite a thorough investigation, including the performance of a complete autopsy. The triple risk model for the pathogenesis of SIDS points to the coincidence of a vulnerable infant, a critical developmental period, and an exogenous stressor. Primary electrical diseases of the heart, which may cause lethal arrhythmias as a result of dysfunctioning cardiac ion channels (“cardiac ion channelopathies”) and are not detectable during a standard postmortem examination, may create the vulnerable infant and thus contribute to SIDS. Evidence comes from clinical correlations between the long QT syndrome and SIDS as well as genetic analyses in cohorts of SIDS victims (“molecular autopsy”), which have revealed a large number of mutations in ion channel-related genes linked to inheritable arrhythmogenic syndromes, in particular the long QT syndrome, the short QT syndrome, the Brugada syndrome, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. Combining data from population-based cohort studies, it can be concluded that at least one out of five SIDS victims carries a mutation in a cardiac ion channel-related gene and that the majority of these mutations are of a known malignant phenotype. PMID:23304551

  13. Sudden infant death due to Lactococcal infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, K; Nakayama, M; Nakahira, K; Nakura, Y; Kanagawa, N; Yanagihara, I; Miyaishi, S

    2016-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) of infants is rare, most of which occur associated with congenital heart disease or its cardiac surgery. We experienced a case of sudden death of a four-month-old male infant without congenital heart disease. It was elucidated by postmortem examination that the dead had suffered severe IE, which led him to death. In the microbiological genetic analysis using histological section, the pathogen causing inflammation in the present case was identified as Lactococcus lactis subspecies, although Staphylococci have been reported to be common and important one. Previously reported infectious diseases by Lactococcus lactis subspecies were all adult cases and this is the first report of an infantile death due to Lactococcal IE according to our knowledge. Any fatal disease may be included in sudden death cases targeted for forensic autopsy, even if it is rare. It is expected for forensic pathologists that they note such case and share each experience among themselves and other medical fields to develop a strategy for prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic practices and investigative policies, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperlengo, Lena T; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Kim, Shin Y

    2012-09-01

    Using a 2004 population-based survey of all US medical examiner and coroner offices, we examined the characteristics of offices accepting an infant death case and calculated the percentage of offices that had death scene investigation or autopsy policies for the investigation of sudden unexpected infant death (SUID). We also calculated the percentage of offices that used and did not use sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) as a cause of death, and we compared differences in characteristics among those offices.Of medical examiner and coroner offices, 52% did not report an infant death in 2004. Of the 7957 infant deaths reported, 43% occurred in jurisdictions that experienced 1 or 2 infant deaths. Of the offices that used SIDS as a classification, 34% did not have policies for conducting death scene investigations and autopsies for SUID. At least 5% of offices that reported an infant death did not use SIDS as a cause of death classification. These findings have important implications for understanding recent trends in SIDS and SUID. Supporting the implementation of national standards for investigating and certifying infant deaths could provide guidelines for consistent practices in medical examiner and coroner offices.

  15. [Cardiovascular diseases as a cause of sudden death in athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Bogumił

    2004-01-01

    Cardiac arrhythmias are the reason of the most sudden deaths in athletes. The annual risk of sudden death at athletes is between 5 to 10 per one million. Benign arrhythmia including bradyarrhythmias, atrial and ventricular premature contractions are common in the athletes. Supraventricular arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, nodal reciprocal entrant tachycardia and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are less common. Perhaps the rarest and the most dangerous arrhythmias are ventricular arrhythmias, among them arrhythmias secondary to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, long QT syndrome, and anomalous origin of coronary arteries. Asymptomatic bradyarrhythmias (if the heart rate in bradyarrhythmia appropriate increases with exercise), supraventricularis tachycardias, and atrial premature contractions without structural heart disease are not the contraindication to sports Athletes with premature ventricular contraction, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and non structural heart disease are without athletic restrictions as long as the arrhythmias do not worsen and they not cause dyspnea or presyncope during exertion. Frequent or multiform premature ventricular contraction or sustained ventricular tachycardia indicate a higher risk, and all participation in athletic should be restricted.

  16. Analysis of caloric test responses in sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Cheng-Ping; Chou, Yu-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Chien; Lee, Jih-Chin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2017-02-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by a rapid-onset hearing loss that develops within 3 days. Vertigo may also be present. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate whether the severity of a loss of caloric function is associated with the initial hearing loss and with hearing recovery. Our study population was made up of 135 patients-67 men and 68 women, aged 25 to 71 years (mean: 50.9)-with sudden sensorineural hearing loss who had undergone bithermal caloric testing. We compared various patient factors according to patients' hearing level and their response to caloric testing. We also analyzed the canal paresis (CP) value in patients with an abnormal caloric response according to three factors: disease severity, vertigo, and hearing recovery, and we evaluated the correlation between the loss of caloric function and hearing outcomes. We found that an abnormal caloric response was significantly associated with a profound hearing loss at presentation, the presence of vertigo, and poor hearing recovery. Among patients with an abnormal caloric response, the CP value was significantly correlated with hearing recovery (r = 0.503, p = 0.001). Poor hearing recovery was seen in 80% of patients with a CP value of ≥40% but in only 25% of patients with a value of hearing recovery was worse in the patients with a CP value of ≥40% (p = 0.002). We conclude that a CP value of ≥40% is a significant prognostic factor for an unfavorable treatment outcome.

  17. The Initial Common Pathway of Inflammation, Disease, and Sudden Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Davidson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In reviewing the literature pertaining to interfacial water, colloidal stability, and cell membrane function, we are led to propose that a cascade of events that begins with acute exogenous surfactant-induced interfacial water stress can explain the etiology of sudden death syndrome (SDS, as well as many other diseases associated with modern times. A systemic lowering of serum zeta potential mediated by exogenous cationic surfactant administration is the common underlying pathophysiology. The cascade leads to subsequent inflammation, serum sickness, thrombohemorrhagic phenomena, colloidal instability, and ultimately even death. We propose that a sufficient precondition for sudden death is lowered bioavailability of certain endogenous sterol sulfates, sulfated glycolipids, and sulfated glycosaminoglycans, which are essential in maintaining biological equipose, energy metabolism, membrane function, and thermodynamic stability in living organisms. Our literature review provides the basis for the presentation of a novel hypothesis as to the origin of endogenous bio-sulfates which involves energy transduction from sunlight. Our hypothesis is amply supported by a growing body of data showing that parenteral administration of substances that lower serum zeta potential results in kosmotropic cationic and/or chaotropic anionic interfacial water stress, and the resulting cascade.

  18. Sudden cardiac death during first-time jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Hiromitsu; Ishigami, Akiko; Tokunaga, Itsuo; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Nishimura, Akiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    With increased interest in fitness and health care, jogging has become more popular as an exercise to promote health. However, sudden cardiac death during sports or exercise has also been reported. Some apparently healthy elderly individuals take up sports for both recreation and health improvement based only on completion of a questionnaire, without undergoing medical evaluation. We report the case of a 66-year-old Japanese man who suddenly died of acute ischemic heart disease during first-time jogging. He collapsed an hour after starting. A trainer promptly started cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An automated external defibrillator (AED) was applied, and defibrillation was attempted once by bystanders. However, he remained in cardiopulmonary arrest until he reached the emergency department, where he was pronounced dead. The autopsy found concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricular wall without fibrosis or degeneration, atherosclerotic changes in the coronary arteries, and severe lung congestion. We diagnosed death from acute myocardial ischemia. We suspect that many healthy elderly individuals have provoked a heart attack by prematurely attempting moderate or vigorous exercise, as in this case. The elderly require comprehensive medical assessment before exercise can be started. Moreover, this case shows that an AED is not always helpful. J. Med. Invest. 64: 184-186, February, 2017.

  19. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.; Evers, L. G.

    2014-02-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind jets, one between 30 and 50 km and the other around 70 km altitude. In this paper, using microbarom source modeling, a previously unidentified source region in the eastern Mediterranean is identified, besides the more well known microbarom source regions in the Atlantic Ocean. Infrasound data are then presented in which the above mentioned bidirectional duct is observed in microbarom signals recorded at the International Monitoring System station I48TN in Tunisia, from the Mediterranean region to the east and from the Atlantic Ocean to the west. While the frequency bands of the two sources overlap, the Mediterranean signal is coherent up to about 0.6 Hz. This observation is consistent with the microbarom source modeling; the discrepancy in the frequency band is related to differences in the ocean wave spectra for the two basins considered. This work demonstrates the sensitivity of infrasound to stratospheric dynamics and illustrates that the classic paradigm of a unidirectional stratospheric duct for infrasound propagation can be broken during a sudden stratospheric warming event.

  20. [Sudden cardiac death in individuals with normal hearts: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Melchor, Laila; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Iturralde-Torres, Pedro; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    Sudden death (SD) is a tragic event and a world-wide health problem. Every year, near 4-5 million people experience SD. SD is defined as the death occurred in 1h after the onset of symptoms in a person without previous signs of fatality. It can be named "recovered SD" when the case received medical attention, cardiac reanimation effective defibrillation or both, surviving the fatal arrhythmia. Cardiac channelopathies are a group of diseases characterized by abnormal ion channel function due to genetic mutations in ion channel genes, providing increased susceptibility to develop cardiac arrhythmias and SD. Usually the death occurs before 40 years of age and in the autopsy the heart is normal. In this review we discuss the main cardiac channelopathies involved in sudden cardiac death along with current management of cases and family members that have experienced such tragic event. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. The Spectrum of Epidemiology Underlying Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Meiso; Shimizu, Wataru; Albert, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from cardiac arrest is a major international public health problem accounting for an estimated 15–20% of all deaths. Although resuscitation rates are generally improving throughout the world, the majority of individuals who suffer a sudden cardiac arrest will not survive. SCD most often develops in older adults with acquired structural heart disease, but it also rarely occurs in the young, where it is more commonly due to inherited disorders. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is known to be the most common pathology underlying SCD, followed by cardiomyopathies, inherited arrhythmia syndromes, and valvular heart disease. Over the past three decades, declines in SCD rates have not been as steep as for other causes of CHD deaths, and there is a growing fraction of SCDs not due to CHD and/or ventricular arrhythmias, particularly among certain subsets of the population. The growing heterogeneity of the pathologies and mechanisms underlying SCD present major challenges for SCD prevention, which are magnified further by a frequent lack of recognition of the underlying cardiac condition prior to death. Multifaceted preventative approaches, which address risk factors in seemingly low risk and known high-risk populations will be required to decrease the burden of SCD. In this Compendium, we review the wide-ranging spectrum of epidemiology underlying SCD within both the general population and in high-risk subsets with established cardiac disease placing an emphasis on recent global trends, remaining uncertainties, and potential targeted preventive strategies. PMID:26044246

  2. Adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen treatment for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chun-Shih; Lee, Tsai-Yun; Wu, Ming-Feng

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the hearing gain efficacy from adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) treatment in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL). A retrospective analysis of chart reviews was performed on patients with ISSHL between January 2013 through December 2015. All patients were referred to us from our ENT Department for adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen treatment. The results were assessed through pure-tone audiometry (PTA) data change (hearing gain), both before and after HBO₂) treatment. Age, gender, affected ear side, HBO₂) treatment sessions, both before and after HBO₂ treatment PTA were all recorded. Ninety-three (93) patients with ISSHL were included in the study. The average hearing gain in this study was 17.9 dB (p=0.001), where a total of 46 (49.46%) patients showed an improvement (hearing gain≥dB) in response to HBO₂ treatment (p=0.002). Patients with the poorest initial severity of hearing loss who displayed a greater degree of hearing improvement after HBO₂ treatment were male and in the 40- to 59-year-old age group. This study found that adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen treatment was efficacious for patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. The total average hearing gain was recorded to be 17.9 dB.

  3. Management of sudden hearing loss with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitanou, K; Fildissis, G; Vavasis, P; Kalentzos, V; Baltopoulos, G

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is defined as the sensorineural hearing loss of a minimum of 30 dB in at least three frequencies for three days or more. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) in the management of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with ISSHL received treatment including oral corticosteroids and HBO2. HBO2 protocol included five phases of five sessions each. ISSHL was assessed by measuring the tonal audiogram before and after each phase. Tinnitus was assessed using a questionnaire and a visual analogue scale at the beginning and the end of the study. Secondary assessment points included changes in the intensity and the improvement of tinnitus. 56 patients were included in the study. All patients completed Phases I and II of HBO2, 43 completed Phase III, 13 completed Phase IV, and six completed all five phases. Overall, a significant improvement was noted between the initial and final audiogram after HBO2 (p problems were also significantly reduced (p < 0.001). This study affirms previous findings that the use of HBO2 and vasodilators are efficacious in the treatment of ISSHL. Our findings also suggest benefit for the treatment of tinnitus.

  4. Sudden cardiac death with triple pathologies: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Razuin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death in young adults may be associated with rare cardiomyopathies such as left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC and arrhythmogenic right ventricular (ARVC cardiomyopathies. LVNC is characterised by hypertrabeculations and deep recesses of the left ventricle. ARVC presents with thin myocardium as a result of extensive fibro-fatty infiltrations. In both conditions, death may be due to arrhythmia, thromboembolic events or heart failure. We report a case of a 21-year old athletic young man who collapsed at the futsal court right after the game. He was resuscitated but expired at the hospital after a brief admission. A week earlier, he had a similar episode of syncope and revived through cardio-pulmonary resuscitation at the site. Post mortem examination showed extensive acute myocardial infarction (AMI involving the papillary muscles and the left ventricular wall. Features of LVNC were also observed. On top of that, the right ventricle showed patchy thin myocardium as the wall was largely comprised of fat. Histology examination confirmed the presence of AMI and massive fibro-fatty infiltrations of the right ventricle. This unfortunate young man had co-existing cardiomyopathies which is rare indeed. As he succumbed to AMI, this mechanism of death is also uncommonly associated with neither LVNC nor ARVC. In conclusion, young and physically active individuals may not be spared of sudden cardiac death. Mild and non-specific symptoms should not be taken lightly as it may be the subtle signs of cardiomyopathies.

  5. Sudden cardiac death: clinical evaluation of paediatric family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaske, Maren; Keller, Dagmar I; Bauersfeld, Urs

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate paediatric relatives of first- and non-first-degree family victims with a history of premature sudden cardiac death (SCD) or aborted cardiac arrest (ACA). Thirty-six consecutive referred families after SCD (n = 29) or ACA (n = 7) of a family member were analysed. Referral was either due to an inherited heart disease identified after autopsy, post-event, or family evaluation (n = 20 families) or due to sudden unexplained death (SUD, n = 16 families). In 3 of 16 (19%) SUD families, an inherited heart disease was diagnosed by evaluation of the paediatric relatives. In 5 of 25 (20%) referred paediatric relatives of SUD families, an inherited heart disease was identified, mainly sinus node dysfunction (n = 3). A total of 13 of 33 (39%) referred paediatric relatives of families with known inherited heart disease were affected, mainly with cardiomyopathy (n = 5) and primary electrical disease (n = 7). Prevention of SCD was initiated in 16 of the affected children by implantation of an antibradycardia device (n = 3), an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD, n = 6), and/or antiarrhythmic medication (n = 8). Appropriate and successful ICD discharges occurred in four. A stepwise, comprehensive clinical investigation of SCD or ACA families identifies a substantial number of paediatric relatives at risk of SCD. This allows for targeted prevention by effective treatments and evaluation of further relatives.

  6. Worldwide impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings on the ionosphere and thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharenko, Larisa; Coster, Anthea; Zhang, Shun-Rong; Erickson, Phillip; Aponte, Nestor; Harvey, V. Lynn; Pedatella, Nicholas; Maute, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated large variations in the low-latitude ionosphere during strong, persistent meteorological disturbances known as sudden stratospheric warmings. Several possible lower/upper atmosphere coupling mechanisms were identified, including changes in the dynamics of the background neutral atmosphere, modification of solar and lunar tides, and subsequent variations in electric field. We extend these studies using observations by GNSS TEC receivers, by several ionosondes located at low, middle, and high latitudes, and by Jicamarca, Arecibo and Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radars to investigate large-scale ionospheric disturbances for several SSW events. To separate ionospheric anomalies associated with SSW from regular ionospheric behavior, we develop an empirical model of ionospheric parameters (TEC, NmF2) using available long-term data records (10-40 years of data depending on the instrument). The models describe variations in parameters for each longitude/latitude bin (or ionosonde location) as a function of solar activity, geomagnetic activity, day of year, and local time. Ionospheric anomalies are obtained as the difference between the observations and the empirical model. Ionospheric anomalies are observed for both major and minor SSW events, reaching 50-100% variation from expected seasonal behavior for major SSW events and 30-60% variation for minor SSW events. The largest variations in the daytime TEC and NmF2 are observed both in the crests of equatorial ionization anomaly and at 40-60S (geodetic). Recent expansion of GNSS TEC receiver network to high latitudes in the southern hemisphere indicates that SSW anomalies are communicated across the globe and associated with ionospheric disturbances even over Antarctica. Observational studies focused on SSW events present an important opportunity to better understand processes governing the behavior of the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. We use examples of observations from

  7. Profile of sudden death in an adult population (1999-2008).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Downes, M R

    2010-06-01

    Sudden death is the sudden and unexpected death of an individual within 24 hours of symptom onset. The vast majority of these cases are found, at autopsy, to be due to underlying ischaemic cardiac disease. We retrospectively reviewed all adult post mortems performed at Beaumont Hospital over a decade (1999-2008). Our aim was to identify all sudden death cases (natural and accidental) and subclassify them according to age profile and organ system involved. We identified 1230 sudden death cases in the review period with 775 (63%) deaths attributable to ischaemic heart disease. The rate of sudden death remained constant over the decade with 663 (54%) deaths occurring in the first five years. Our negative autopsy rate was 2.8% corresponding to 35 cases. This is the first Irish study to retrospectively review all adult sudden deaths within a defined catchment area and analyse them as outlined above.

  8. Charged particles constrained to a curved surface

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer

  9. ADAPTIVE SUBOPTIMAL CONTROL OF INPUT CONSTRAINED PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Azarskov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper deals with adaptive regulation of a discrete-time linear time-invariant plant witharbitrary bounded disturbances whose control input is constrained to lie within certain limits. The adaptivecontrol algorithm exploits the one-step-ahead control strategy and the gradient projection type estimationprocedure using the modified dead zone. The convergence property of the estimation algorithm is shown tobe ensured. The sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global asymptotical stability and simultaneously thesuboptimality of the closed-loop systems are derived. Numerical examples and simulations are presented tosupport the theoretical results.

  10. Sudden, unexpected death due to glioblastoma: report of three fatal cases and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Riezzo, Irene; Zamparese, Rosanna; Neri, Margherita; de Stefano, Francesco; Parente, Ruggero; Pomara, Cristoforo; Turillazzi, Emanuela; Ventura, Francesco; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Sudden death from an undiagnosed primary intracranial neoplasm is an exceptionally rare event, with reported frequencies in the range of 0.02% to 2.1% in medico-legal autopsy series and only 12% of all cases of sudden, unexpected death due to primary intracranial tumors are due to glioblastomas. We present three cases of sudden, unexpected death due to glioblastoma, with different brain localization and expression. A complete methodological forensic approach by means of autopsy, hist...

  11. Cost-effectiveness analysis of preventing sudden cardiac death with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator versus amiodarone

    OpenAIRE

    Mijajlović Marina

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death is natural death caused by previous heart disease, when within an hour from the onset of symptoms ensue loss of consciousness and cessation of circulation. Many studies have confirmed that malignant ventricular arrhythmias are the most common cause of sudden cardiac death. Alternatives for prevention of sudden cardiac death are antiarrhythmic drug treatment, primarily amiodarone, and implantation of cardioverter defibrillator. The aim of this pharmacoeconomic study was to...

  12. Compressing turbulence and sudden viscous dissipation with compression-dependent ionization state

    OpenAIRE

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent plasma flow, amplified by rapid 3D compression, can be suddenly dissipated under continuing compression. This effect relies on the sensitivity of the plasma viscosity to the temperature, $\\mu \\sim T^{5/2}$. The plasma viscosity is also sensitive to the plasma ionization state. We show that the sudden dissipation phenomenon may be prevented when the plasma ionization state increases during compression, and demonstrate the regime of net viscosity dependence on compression where sudden...

  13. Bed sharing is more common in sudden infant death syndrome than in explained sudden unexpected deaths in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllborg, Per; Wennergren, Göran; Almqvist, Petra; Alm, Bernt

    2015-08-01

    Despite its declining incidence, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is still an important cause of death in infancy. This study investigated the environmental circumstances associated with SIDS, by analysing data from all sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI) in Sweden from 2005 to 2011. All Swedish infants forensically autopsied up to the age of 365 days from 2005 to 2011 were included. Medical records were obtained from the hospitals and supplementary data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Of the 261 infants, 136 were defined as SIDS and 125 as explained SUDI. The documentation in the medical records was poor when it came to issues such as bed sharing, sleep position, smoking, breastfeeding and pacifier use. The main findings were a significantly higher prevalence of bed sharing in SIDS than in explained deaths (odds ratio 7.77, 95% confidence interval 2.36-25.57) and that prone sleeping was still overrepresented. Bronchopneumonia, other infections and congenital anomalies were the most common causes of explained SUDI. Bed sharing and prone sleeping were more common in SIDS than in explained SUDI. Sparse data in medical records were a problem, and the authors are now working with the National Board of Health and Welfare on a project to establish new routines. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Changes in epistemic frameworks: Random or constrained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananka Loubser

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of a solid anti-positivist approach in the philosophy of science, an important question has been to understand how and why epistemic frameworks change in time, are modified or even substituted. In contemporary philosophy of science three main approaches to framework-change were detected in the humanist tradition:1. In both the pre-theoretical and theoretical domains changes occur according to a rather constrained, predictable or even pre-determined pattern (e.g. Holton.2. Changes occur in a way that is more random or unpredictable and free from constraints (e.g. Kuhn, Feyerabend, Rorty, Lyotard.3. Between these approaches, a middle position can be found, attempting some kind of synthesis (e.g. Popper, Lakatos.Because this situation calls for clarification and systematisation, this article in fact tried to achieve more clarity on how changes in pre-scientific frameworks occur, as well as provided transcendental criticism of the above positions. This article suggested that the above-mentioned positions are not fully satisfactory, as change and constancy are not sufficiently integrated. An alternative model was suggested in which changes in epistemic frameworks occur according to a pattern, neither completely random nor rigidly constrained, which results in change being dynamic but not arbitrary. This alternative model is integral, rather than dialectical and therefore does not correspond to position three. 

  15. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  16. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Babaeian

    Full Text Available The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  17. Constrained Metric Learning by Permutation Inducing Isometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosveld, Joel; Mahmood, Arif; Huynh, Du Q; Noakes, Lyle

    2016-01-01

    The choice of metric critically affects the performance of classification and clustering algorithms. Metric learning algorithms attempt to improve performance, by learning a more appropriate metric. Unfortunately, most of the current algorithms learn a distance function which is not invariant to rigid transformations of images. Therefore, the distances between two images and their rigidly transformed pair may differ, leading to inconsistent classification or clustering results. We propose to constrain the learned metric to be invariant to the geometry preserving transformations of images that induce permutations in the feature space. The constraint that these transformations are isometries of the metric ensures consistent results and improves accuracy. Our second contribution is a dimension reduction technique that is consistent with the isometry constraints. Our third contribution is the formulation of the isometry constrained logistic discriminant metric learning (IC-LDML) algorithm, by incorporating the isometry constraints within the objective function of the LDML algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniques on the publicly available labeled faces in the wild, viewpoint-invariant pedestrian recognition, and Toy Cars data sets. The IC-LDML algorithm has outperformed existing techniques for the tasks of face recognition, person identification, and object classification by a significant margin.

  18. Simplex ACE: a constrained subspace detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Amanda; Theiler, James

    2017-08-01

    In hyperspectral target detection, one must contend with variability in both target materials and background clutter. While most algorithms focus on the background clutter, there are some materials for which there is substantial variability in the signatures of the target. When multiple signatures can be used to describe a target material, subspace detectors are often the detection algorithm of choice. However, as the number of variable target spectra increases, so does the size of the target subspace spanned by these spectra, which in turn increases the number of false alarms. Here, we propose a modification to this approach, wherein the target subspace is instead a constrained subspace, or a simplex without the sum-to-one constraint. We derive the simplex adaptive matched filter (simplex AMF) and the simplex adaptive cosine estimator (simplex ACE), which are constrained basis adaptations of the traditional subspace AMF and subspace ACE detectors. We present results using simplex AMF and simplex ACE for variable targets, and compare their performances against their subspace counterparts. Our primary interest is in the simplex ACE detector, and as such, the experiments herein seek to evaluate the robustness of simplex ACE, with simplex AMF included for comparison. Results are shown on hyperspectral images using both implanted and ground-truthed targets, and demonstrate the robustness of simplex ACE to target variability.

  19. Modeling Atmospheric CO2 Processes to Constrain the Missing Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, S. R.; Denning, A. S.; Erickson, D. J.; Collatz, J. C.; Pawson, S.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a NASA supported modeling effort to reduce uncertainty in carbon cycle processes that create the so-called missing sink of atmospheric CO2. Our overall objective is to improve characterization of CO2 source/sink processes globally with improved formulations for atmospheric transport, terrestrial uptake and release, biomass and fossil fuel burning, and observational data analysis. The motivation for this study follows from the perspective that progress in determining CO2 sources and sinks beyond the current state of the art will rely on utilization of more extensive and intensive CO2 and related observations including those from satellite remote sensing. The major components of this effort are: 1) Continued development of the chemistry and transport model using analyzed meteorological fields from the Goddard Global Modeling and Assimilation Office, with comparison to real time data in both forward and inverse modes; 2) An advanced biosphere model, constrained by remote sensing data, coupled to the global transport model to produce distributions of CO2 fluxes and concentrations that are consistent with actual meteorological variability; 3) Improved remote sensing estimates for biomass burning emission fluxes to better characterize interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 budget and to better constrain the land use change source; 4) Evaluating the impact of temporally resolved fossil fuel emission distributions on atmospheric CO2 gradients and variability. 5) Testing the impact of existing and planned remote sensing data sources (e.g., AIRS, MODIS, OCO) on inference of CO2 sources and sinks, and use the model to help establish measurement requirements for future remote sensing instruments. The results will help to prepare for the use of OCO and other satellite data in a multi-disciplinary carbon data assimilation system for analysis and prediction of carbon cycle changes and carbodclimate interactions.

  20. Thrombus composition in sudden cardiac death from acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvain, Johanne; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Guedeney, Paul; Varenne, Olivier; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Maupain, Carole; Empana, Jean-Philippe; Boulanger, Chantal; Tafflet, Muriel; Manzo-Silberman, Stephane; Kerneis, Mathieu; Brugier, Delphine; Vignolles, Nicolas; Weisel, John W; Jouven, Xavier; Montalescot, Gilles; Spaulding, Christian

    2017-04-01

    It was hypothesized that the pattern of coronary occlusion (thrombus composition) might contribute to the onset of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in myocardial infarction (MI). The TIDE (Thrombus and Inflammation in sudden DEath) study included patients with angiographically-proven acute coronary occlusion as the cause of a ST elevation MI (STEMI) complicated by Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD group) or not (STEMI group). Thrombi were obtained by thrombo-aspiration before primary percutaneous coronary stenting and analyzed with a quantitative method using scanning electron microscopy. We compared the composition of the thrombi responsible for the coronary occlusion between the two groups and evaluated factors influencing its composition. We included 121 patients and found that thrombus composition was not different between the SCD group (n=23) and the STEMI group (n=98) regarding content of fibrin fibers (60.3±18.4% vs. 62.4±18.4% respectively, p=0.68), platelets (16.3±19.2% vs. 15.616.7±%, p=0.76), erythrocytes (14.6±12.5% vs. 13±12.1%, p=0.73) and leukocytes (0.6±0.9% vs. 0.8±1.5%, p=0.93). Thrombus composition did not differ between patients receiving upstream-use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa platelet receptor inhibitors (GPI) and patients free of GPI. The only factor found to influence thrombus composition was the ischemic time from symptom onset to primary PCI, with a decreased content in fibrin fibers (57.8±18.5% vs. 71.9±10.1%, p=0.0008) and a higher platelet content (19.2±19.1% vs. 7.9±5.7% p=0.014) in early presenters (6h of ischemic time). Composition of intracoronary thrombi in STEMI patients does not differ between those presenting with and without SCD. Time from symptom onset to coronary reperfusion seems to be the strongest factor influencing thrombus composition in MI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sudden infant death syndrome and abnormal metabolism of thiamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Derrick

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been generally accepted that moving the infant from the prone to the supine position has solved the problem of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), it has been hypothesized that this is an insufficient explanation and that a mixture of genetic risk, some form of stressful incident and marginal brain metabolism is proportionately required. It is suggested that each of these three variables, with dominance in one or more of them, act together in the common etiology. Much has been written about the association of thiamin and magnesium but the finding of extremely high concentrations of serum thiamin in SIDs victims has largely caused rejection of thiamin as being involved in the etiology. The publication of abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potentials strongly suggests that there are electrochemical changes in the brainstem affecting the mechanisms of automatic breathing and the control of cardiac rhythm. The brainstem, cerebellum and limbic system of the brain are known to be highly sensitive to thiamin deficiency (pseudo-hypoxia) and the pathophysiology is similar to a mild continued deprivation of oxygen. Little attention has been paid to the complex metabolism of thiamin. Dietary thiamin requires the cooperation of the SLC19 family of thiamin transporters for its absorption into cells and recent information has shown that transporter SNPs may be relatively common and can be expected to increase genetic risk. Thiamin must be phosphorylated to synthesize thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), well established in its vital action in glucose metabolism. TPP is also a cofactor for the enzyme 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) in the peroxisome, emphasizing its importance in alpha oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis in cell membrane physiology. The importance of thiamine triphosphate (TTP) in energy metabolism is still largely unknown. Thiamin metabolism has been implicated in hyperemesis gravidarum and iatrogenic Wernicke encephalopathy has been reported when the

  2. An Efficient Primal-Dual Approach to Chance-Constrained Economic Dispatch

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Gabriela; Zhang, Yu; Georgios B. Giannakis

    2014-01-01

    To effectively enhance the integration of distributed and renewable energy sources in future smart microgrids, economical energy management accounting for the principal challenge of the variable and non-dispatchable renewables is indispensable and of significant importance. Day-ahead economic generation dispatch with demand-side management for a microgrid in islanded mode is considered in this paper. With the goal of limiting the risk of the loss-of-load probability, a joint chance constraine...

  3. Effect of Suddenly Turning on Interactions in the Luttinger Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalilla, M. A.

    2006-10-01

    The evolution of correlations in the exactly solvable Luttinger model (a model of interacting fermions in one dimension) after a suddenly switched-on interaction is analytically studied. When the model is defined on a finite-size ring, zero-temperature correlations are periodic in time. However, in the thermodynamic limit, the system relaxes algebraically towards a stationary state which is well described, at least for some simple correlation functions, by the generalized Gibbs ensemble recently introduced by Rigol et al. (cond-mat/0604476). The critical exponent that characterizes the decay of the one-particle correlation function is different from the known equilibrium exponents. Experiments for which these results can be relevant are also discussed.

  4. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Thomas Hadberg; Risgaard, Bjarke; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a frequent cause of sudden cardiac death (SCD) among the young (SCDY). The aim of this study was to characterize symptoms before SCDY due to HCM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Through review of all death certificates, we identified all SCDs in Danes aged 1-35 years...... in 2000-2009. Nationwide we included all deaths (n = 8756) and identified 431 autopsied SCDYs. All available records from hospitals and general practitioners were retrieved. To compare symptoms, we included a control groups consisting of traffic accident victims (n = 74). In the 10-year study period, 431...... autopsied SCDY cases were reviewed and 38 cases (9%) were included, of which 22 (58%) had morphologic findings diagnostic of HCM and 16 (42%) had findings suggestive, but not diagnostic, of HCM ('possible HCM'). Cardiac symptoms >1 h prior to death were reported in 21 (55%) of cases, and 16 (42%) sought...

  5. SUDDEN NATURAL DEATHS IN MEDICOLEGAL CASES- AN AUTOPSY BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sreedevi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Death occurring in apparently healthy individual in a case of natural death may arise suspicion of foul play. In these circumstances these cases may be subjected to medicolegal autopsy. The disease condition may be unknown to the individual and the relatives. This study was done to review the exact cause of death in sudden unexpected deaths, and enabling or assisting the legal authorities in detection of crime, to prove or disprove the foul play. Body mass index is the most frequently used indicator of body fatness. An attempt is made to find out whether there is any significant relationship between BMI and the risk for sudden cardiac death. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data of 50 cases of sudden unexpected death brought for medicolegal autopsy at govt. T.D. medical college Alappuzha in the year 2010 were studied and information were collected from the postmortem records. Data was entered in the proforma. The histopathological examination findings of relevant cases were studied. Analysis was done using MS EXCEL and Chi-square test was used as the test of significance in the comparison between two categorical variables. RESULTS In 50 cases, male predominance was observed and 88% were males in which 50% of males died of atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery disease and among females 33% died of myocardial infarction. While considering the systemic distribution of cause of death, the cardiovascular system was found to be most commonly affected, 33 cases (66% followed by respiratory system 7 cases (14%. In 4 (8% cases gastrointestinal system was affected. In Two cases (4% central nervous system was affected and others were generalized infection, which constituted 2 cases. Out of 33 cases observed in cardiovascular system the commonest cause being the atherosclerotic occlusive coronary artery diseases involving 27 cases (81.81% in which the predominant involvement was seen in left anterior descending artery 21 cases (77.77% followed by right

  6. [Sudden cardiac death due to sarcoidosis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejben, István; Som, Zoltán; Cserni, Gábor

    2017-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology, which is characterized by bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy and pulmonary disease. Clinically detected cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of sarcoid patients, although cardiac manifestations are discovered in 25% of the cases at autopsy. Sarcoid heart disease frequently causes atrioventricular block. The authors present the case of a 44-year-old man with bradycardia. On admission, second degree Mobitz II, then third degree atrioventricular block was diagnosed. Coronarography showed normal coronary arteries. 2.5 years following artificial Biotronik Entovis DR type pacemaker implantation, sudden cardiac death occurred. Autopsy revealed sarcoidosis with cardiac, pulmonary, splenic, renal and lymph node involvement. In case of young or middle-aged patients with atrioventricular block, it is best to search for other causes if the most common coronary origin can be excluded. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(27): 1067-1070.

  7. Sudden death and gradual decay in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J

    2009-04-01

    General Douglas MacArthur remarked that "old soldiers never die; they just fade away." For decades, researchers have concluded that visual working memories, like old soldiers, fade away gradually, becoming progressively less precise as they are retained for longer periods of time. However, these conclusions were based on threshold-estimation procedures in which the complete termination of a memory could artifactually produce the appearance of lower precision. Here, we use a recall-based visual working memory paradigm that provides separate measures of the probability that a memory is available and the precision of the memory when it is available. Using this paradigm, we demonstrate that visual working memory representations may be retained for several seconds with little or no loss of precision, but that they may terminate suddenly and completely during this period.

  8. Early repolarization, acute emotional stress and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Lesta, Maria del Mar; Vanhaebost, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Augsburger, Marc; Vogt, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    We herein report the case of a 36-year-old man who died suddenly after a fight with another man. Forensic investigations included unenhanced computed tomography, postmortem angiography, autopsy, histology, neuropathology, toxicology, and biochemistry and allowed a traumatic cause of death to be excluded. An electrocardiogram recorded some years prior to death revealed the presence of an early repolarization pattern. Based on the results of all investigations, the cause of death was determined to be cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest during an emotionally stressful event associated with physical assault. Direct third party involvement, however, was excluded, and the manner of death was listed as natural. The case was not pursued any further by the public prosecutor. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. A possible explanation of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christos, G A; Christos, J A

    1993-09-01

    Research into (lucid) dreaming has shown that the images of a dream are supported by the corresponding body actions, utilizing those muscles which remain active during dreaming. We suggest that Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or Cot Death may be a result of an infant dreaming about its life as a fetus. In the course of that dream, since a fetus does not breathe in the usual sense, the infant may cease to breathe and die. Our hypothesis is consistent with the known facts about SIDS, including social factors such as sleeping position and climatic variation. We suggest that the risk of SIDS can be reduced by making the environment of the infant, as much as possible, unlike that of the womb.

  10. Sudden Cardiac Death During Sports Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Kumar; Bougouin, Wulfran; Sharifzadehgan, Ardalan; Waldmann, Victor; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier

    2017-12-01

    Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and overall mortality. Participation in sports is an important determinant of cardiovascular health and fitness. Regular sports activity is associated with a smaller risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, there is a small risk of sports-related SCD. Sports-related SCD accounts for approximately 5% of total SCD. SCD among athletes comprises only a fraction of all sports-related SCD. Sport-related SCD has a male predominance and an average age of affliction of 45 to 50 years. Survival is better than for other SCD. This review summarizes links between sports and SCD and discusses current knowledge and controversies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. T-wave alternans and sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menyar, Ayman; Asaad, Nidal

    2008-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with ischemic heart disease and left ventricular dysfunction. The majority of SCD are due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. SCD strikes many asymptomatic patients and often is the first manifestation of heart disease. Thus, reliable determination of arrhythmic risk is warranted to guide preventive therapy. To highlight the prognostic value of microvolt-level electrical alternans of the T-wave (MTWA) in patients at risk for SCD, most of the pertinent published articles in the Medline, Scopus, and EBSCO Host research databases have been reviewed. MTWA has been proposed to be a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and arrhythmic mortality. The high predictive value of MTWA in patient with cardiomyopathy varies significantly depending on the population studied. Combining with other indices or having serial MTWA readings could overcome MTWA limitations. Redefining MTWA readings may expand its prognostic utility.

  12. Lyme disease: sudden hearing loss as the sole presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espiney Amaro, C; Montalvão, P; Huins, C; Saraiva, J

    2015-02-01

    Lyme disease is an uncommon tick-borne multisystemic infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. The most common clinical manifestation is erythema migrans. In this report, a very unusual presentation of this condition is described, in which sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss was the sole presenting symptom. Case report and review of English-language literature. A patient presented with sensorineural hearing loss, with no other symptoms or signs. Acute Lyme infection was detected by laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of labyrinthitis of the same inner ear. After hyperbaric oxygen and systemic antibiotic treatment, the patient showed total hearing recovery, and magnetic resonance imaging showed complete resolution of the labyrinthitis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Lyme disease presenting only with sensorineural hearing loss. Borreliosis should be considered as an aetiological factor in sensorineural hearing loss. Adequate treatment may provide total recovery and prevent more severe forms of Lyme disease.

  13. Aortoiliac occlusive disease presenting as sudden onset paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Hung; Wang, Cheng-Hsien; Wu, Shih-Yun; Shih, Hong-Mo

    2014-07-01

    Thromboembolism and atherosclerotic stenosis both can cause arterial occlusion. Aortoiliac occlusive disease involving bifurcation of the aortoiliac artery induces symptoms of ischemia such as claudication and pain of buttocks and thighs, decreased bilateral femoral pulses, and impotence. Here, we describe a 58-year-old woman with a past history of atrial fibrillation and lacuna stroke with minimal right side weakness. She presented to our emergency department with sudden onset bilateral pain in the legs and paraplegia. A comprehensive examination revealed paresthesia and decreasing bilateral distal pulses. Computed tomographic imaging showed filling defects over the low abdominal aorta just above the bifurcation of the common iliac artery and bilateral femoral arteries. Acute aortic embolic occlusion was suspected. Her symptoms were resolved after emergent thrombectomy for acute limb ischemia. Physicians need to be aware of aortoiliac embolic occlusive disease which may present as acute paraplegia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury, Philippe; Sacher, Frederic; Rollin, Anne; Mondoly, Pierre; Duparc, Alexandre; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Hascoet, Sebastien

    2017-05-01

    Malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death may late happen in repaired tetralogy of Fallot, although probably less frequently than previously thought, especially with the advent of new surgical techniques/management. Ventricular tachycardias are caused by reentry around the surgical scars/patches and valves. Many predictive factors have been proposed, which suffer from poor accuracy. There is currently no recommended indication for prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation-except maybe in the case of multiple risk factors-while radiofrequncy ablation may be proposed in secondary prevention with or even without a back-up implantable cardioverter defibrillator in selected cases. Repeated cardiological investigations and monitoring should be proposed for every operated patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Masako; Yoshinaga, Masao; Nomura, Yuichi; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Sato, Seiichi; Tauchi, Nobuo; Horigome, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumitomo, Naokata; Shiraishi, Hirohiko; Nagashima, Masami

    2016-12-01

    While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81.4 %, 69.0 %, and 47.8 %, respectively. The prevalence of laying infants exclusively in a supine position was 96.7 %. At the one-month medical checkup, smoking prevalence was 41.7 % in fathers and 2.1 % in mothers. Maternal smoking prevalence was significantly increased at one year after (p infants in the prone position, and parental smoking is still a SIDS risk concern in Japan. Smoking cessation programs should be further implemented for parents to decrease risks of SIDS in Japan. What is Known: • The prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, however, this decline has plateaued recently. What is New: • Most infants were laid sleeping in the supine position (96.7 %) and were fed breast milk or a mix of expressed milk and formula (92.7 %), and 2.1 % of mothers smoked at the one-month medical checkup. • Maternal smoking prevalence significantly increased from the one-month medical checkup to one year later, and smoking mothers were more likely to feed infants by formula rather than breast milk. • Independent risk factors for new or continued maternal smoking habits included younger maternal age, maternal smoking habits at one month, and paternal smoking habits one year later.

  16. Cardiac Potassium Channel Dysfunction in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Troy E.; Abraham, Robert A.; Welch, Richard C.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Crotti, Lia; Arnestad, Marianne; Insolia, Roberto; Pedrazzini, Matteo; Ferrandi, Chiara; Vege, Ashild; Rognum, Torleiv; Roden, Dan M.; Schwartz, Peter J.; George, Alfred L.

    2008-01-01

    Life-threatening arrhythmias have been suspected as one cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and this hypothesis is supported by the observation that mutations in arrhythmia susceptibility genes occur in 5–10% of cases. However, the functional consequences of cardiac potassium channel gene mutations associated with SIDS and how these alleles might mechanistically predispose to sudden death are unknown. To address these questions, we studied four missense KCNH2 (encoding HERG) variants, one compound KCNH2 genotype, and a missense KCNQ1 mutation all previously identified in Norwegian SIDS cases. Three of the six variants exhibited functional impairments while three were biophysically similar to wild-type channels (KCNH2 variants V279M, R885C, S1040G). When coexpressed with WT-HERG, R273Q and K897T/R954C generated currents resembling the rapid component of the cardiac delayed rectifier current (IKr) but with significantly diminished amplitude. Action potential modeling demonstrated that this level of functional impairment was sufficient to evoke increased action potential duration and pause-dependent early afterdepolarizations. By contrast, KCNQ1-I274V causes a gain-of-function in IKs characterized by increased current density, faster activation, and slower deactivation leading to accumulation of instantaneous current upon repeated stimulation. Action potential simulations using a Markov model of heterozygous I274V-IKs incorporated into the Luo-Rudy (LRd) ventricular cell model demonstrated marked rate-dependent shortening of action potential duration predicting a short QT phenotype. Our results indicate that certain potassium channel mutations associated with SIDS confer overt functional defects consistent with either LQTS or SQTS, and further emphasize the role of congenital arrhythmia susceptibility in this syndrome. PMID:18222468

  17. Sudden gains in exposure-focused cognitive-behavioral group therapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Arjona, Raquel; Santacana, Martí; Montoro, María; Rosado, Silvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Fullana, Miquel A

    2017-11-01

    In the context of psychological treatment, a sudden gain is a large and enduring improvement in symptom severity that occurs between two single therapy sessions. The influence of sudden gains on long-term outcomes and functional impairment in anxiety disorders is not well understood, and little is known with regard to panic disorder in particular. In addition, previous research on patients with anxiety disorders has produced inconsistent results regarding the relationship between sudden gains and cognitive change. We examined the incidence of sudden gains in a large sample (n = 116) of panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-focused cognitive-behavioral group therapy, and compared panic severity, functional impairment, and cognitive change in patients with and without sudden gains at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up. Participants who experienced sudden gains displayed lower levels of panic severity and functional impairment at posttreatment and 6-month follow-up than those who did not experience sudden gains. However, we observed no difference in cognitive changes between groups, either at posttreatment or at follow-up. Our results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of sudden gains on therapeutic outcomes not only extend to long-term and functional outcome measures but are also evident in less cognitive (i.e., exposure-focused) forms of psychological treatment. Sudden gains are common in panic disorder patients undergoing exposure-based cognitive-behavioral group therapy. Sudden gains during exposure-focused therapy are linked to greater improvement in panic disorder severity and functional impairment. The positive impact of sudden gains on panic disorder severity and functional impairment is maintained in the long term. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  19. Rights of Children, 1972. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Children and Youth of the Committee on Labor Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session. Part 1: Examination of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A hearing held to discover the medical cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and ways to prevent it is reported. The hearing sought in particular to: learn about past and present research efforts; explore the prospects for discovering the cause and preventing future occurrences of SIDS; understand the scope of activity within HEW, to inform…

  20. Political economies and environmental futures for the sharing economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, Koen

    2017-01-01

    The sudden rise of the sharing economy has sparked an intense public debate about its definition, its effects and its future regulation. Here, I attempt to provide analytical guidance by defining the sharing economy as the practice that consumers grant each other temporary access to their

  1. Scheduling of resource-constrained projects

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...

  2. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Satyanarayana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  3. Spatially constrained propulsion in jumping archer fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    Archer fish jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture with impressive accuracy. Their remarkable aim is facilitated by jumping from a stationary position directly below the free surface. As a result of this starting position, rapid acceleration to a velocity sufficient for reaching the target occurs with only a body length to travel before the fish leaves the water. Three-dimensional measurements of jumping kinematics and volumetric velocimetry using Synthetic Aperture PIV highlight multiple strategies for such spatially constrained acceleration. Archer fish rapidly extend fins at jump onset to increase added mass forces and modulate their swimming kinematics to minimize wasted energy when the body is partially out of the water. Volumetric measurements also enable assessment of efficiency during a jump, which is crucial to understanding jumping's role as an energetically viable hunting strategy for the fish.

  4. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2011-12-12

    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.

  5. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  6. Constrained multibody system dynamics: An automated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamman, J. W.; Huston, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The governing equations for constrained multibody systems are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated, numerical development and solution. The closed loop problem of multibody chain systems is addressed. The governing equations are developed by modifying dynamical equations obtained from Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. The modifications is based upon a solution of the constraint equations obtained through a zero eigenvalues theorem, is a contraction of the dynamical equations. For a system with n-generalized coordinates and m-constraint equations, the coefficients in the constraint equations may be viewed as constraint vectors in n-dimensional space. In this setting the system itself is free to move in the n-m directions which are orthogonal to the constraint vectors.

  7. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang

    2011-01-01

    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.

  8. Variation and uncertainties in the classification of sudden unexpected infant deaths among paediatric pathologists in the UK: findings of a National Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Stephen J; Weber, Martin A; Sebire, Neil J

    2010-09-01

    Presently, pathologists in the UK use diverse terminologies for the classification of sudden unexpected infant deaths, including 'unascertained,' 'sudden unexpected death in infancy' (SUDI) and 'sudden infant death syndrome' (SIDS). This study uses the Delphi method to investigate the views of paediatric pathologists on their use of these terms in order to determine areas of consensus. There were three Delphi rounds overall; in the final one, participants were asked to score each statement using a modified Likert scale (0-9). The scores were analysed using non-parametric statistics, and statements in which the median score was or=7 (approximately 70% agreement) were considered to have reached 'consensus agreement.' Twenty-five of the 36 UK paediatric pathologists who were approached in the initial round contributed to all three rounds. There was consensus that 'SIDS' be used for unexplained sudden unexpected infant deaths that occurred during sleep. 'Infancy' was defined as up to 1 year of age, but there was no consensus regarding the lower age limit of SIDS. There was agreement that 'SUDI' be used for unexplained sudden infant deaths with a history of preceding illness, deaths with minor histological abnormalities of uncertain significance and co-sleeping-associated deaths. Most paediatric pathologists used 'unascertained' for findings suspicious of a non-natural cause of death. There was consensus that co-sleeping-associated deaths should be classified as 'unascertained' if parents had consumed alcohol or used drugs in the preceding 24 h. The areas of consensus relating to terminology around SUDI and SIDS should guide future use by pathologists. However, there remains a significant lack of agreement, suggesting that acceptable alternative terms be identified for infant deaths which remain unexplained following autopsy in whom there are no suspicious features; the authors propose that 'unexplained SUDI,' followed by a comment, may represent the most factually

  9. Adaptation to sudden unexpected loading of the low back - the effects of repeated trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, J.H.; Fallentin, N.; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term changes in reactions to sudden unexpected loading of the low back. The study utilized a set-up where a horizontal force of 58 N pointing forward suddenly was applied to the upper part of the subject's trunk. EMG activity from the erector...

  10. Cognitive Changes, Critical Sessions, and Sudden Gains in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tony Z.; DeRubeis, Robert J.; Beberman, Rachel; Pham, Thu

    2005-01-01

    Using an independent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) data set, the authors replicated T. Z. Tang and R. J. DeRubeis' (1999) discovery of sudden gains--sudden and large decreases in depression severity in a single between-session interval. By incorporating therapy session transcripts, the authors of this study improved the reliability of the…

  11. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy...

  12. A 23-year review of sudden natural death autopsies in the Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Death occurring suddenly especially when the victim was active and recently fit, call for attention and thorough investigation to rule out secret homicide. Aim: To study the pattern of sudden natural death in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methodology: The coroner's autopsy reports and hospital autopsy ...

  13. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straus, SMJM; Kors, JA; De Bruin, ML; van der Hooft, CS; Hofman, A; Heeringa, J; Deckers, JW; Kingma, JH; Sturkenboom, MCJM; Stricker, BHC; Witteman, JCM

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation of

  14. Aldosterone and cortisol affect the risk of sudden cardiac death in haemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, C.; Ritz, E.; Tomaschitz, A.; Pilz, S.; Schonfeld, S.; Blouin, K.; Bidlingmaier, M.; Hammer, F.; Krane, V.; Marz, W.; Allolio, B.; Fassnacht, M.; Wanner, C.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundSudden cardiac death is common and accounts largely for the excess mortality of patients on maintenance dialysis. It is unknown whether aldosterone and cortisol increase the incidence of sudden cardiac death in dialysis patients.Methods and resultsWe analysed data from 1255 diabetic

  15. Cardiac symptoms before sudden cardiac death caused by coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke; Holst, Anders G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD).......The aim of this nationwide case-control study was to identify and characterise symptoms before sudden death of young persons who had died due to coronary artery disease (CAD)....

  16. Sudden cardiac death in the young: the molecular autopsy and a practical approach to surviving relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semsarian, Christopher; Ingles, Jodie; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The sudden death of a young, apparently fit and healthy person is amongst the most challenging scenarios in clinical medicine. Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a devastating and tragic outcome of a number of underlying cardiovascular diseases. While coronary artery disease and acute myocardial

  17. Tympanotomy and sealing of the round window for treatment of sudden deafness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ul-Mulk, Jamshaid; Friis, Søren; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explorative tympanotomy and sealing of the round window in patients diagnosed with sudden deafness.......The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of explorative tympanotomy and sealing of the round window in patients diagnosed with sudden deafness....

  18. The yield of family screening in sudden unexplained death in the young

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van De Werf, C.; Hofman, N.; Tan, H.L.; Van Langen, I.M.; Wilde, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: When autopsy is performed after sudden death of a young person, cause of death remains undetermined in 6-65%, which is termed sudden unexplained death (SUD). In these cases molecular autopsy and cardiological and genetic examination in surviving first degree relatives is known to unmask

  19. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  20. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  1. Innovation and dedication underpin management of sudden oak death (Phytophthora ramorum) in California and Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Frankel

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of Forest Phytophthoras serves as part of the proceedings from the Sixth Sudden Oak Death Science Symposium held June 21 -23, 2016 at Fort Mason Center in San Francisco, CA, USA. The symposium marked almost 16 years to the day that David Rizzo (UC Davis) and Matteo Garbelotto (UC Berkeley) identified the cause of sudden oak death to be a previously...

  2. Population-based studies of antithyroid drugs and sudden cardiac death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Noord (Charlotte); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S.M.J.M. Straus (Sabine); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT • Thyroid hormone free T4 is associated with QTc-interval prolongation, which is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death. • The association between hyperthyroidism and ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death has been reported in several

  3. Survival and sudden cardiac death after septal ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Kvistholm; Havndrup, Ole; Hassager, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse.......Reports of long-term survival and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) after percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation (PTSMA) in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) are sparse....

  4. Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum: A Persistent Threat to Oaks and Other Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and “sudden larch death” in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...

  5. Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum: a summary of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Kliejunas

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death and Phytophthora ramorum, both first recognized about a decade ago, have been the subject of hundreds of scientific and popular press articles. This document presents a comprehensive, concise summary of sudden oak death and P. ramorum research findings and management activities. Topics covered include...

  6. 76 FR 25648 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... design features include ] engine size and the potential torque load imposed by sudden engine stoppage... application date to September 28, 2006. The Gulfstream Model GVI airplane will be an all-new, two- engine jet...

  7. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Sudden cardiac arrest as a presentation of Brugada syndrome unmasked by thyroid storm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, Anna K M; Derde, Lennie; van Wijk, Jeroen; Tjan, David H

    2015-01-01

    An 18-year-old man suffered a sudden cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation and was successfully resuscitated. He had neither a medical nor family history of cardiac disease/sudden death, but was known to have Graves' disease, for which he was treated with radioactive iodine. Recently,

  9. A Prospective Study of Sudden Cardiac Death among Children and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Richard D; Weintraub, Robert G; Ingles, Jodie; Duflou, Johan; Yeates, Laura; Lam, Lien; Davis, Andrew M; Thompson, Tina; Connell, Vanessa; Wallace, Jennie; Naylor, Charles; Crawford, Jackie; Love, Donald R; Hallam, Lavinia; White, Jodi; Lawrence, Christopher; Lynch, Matthew; Morgan, Natalie; James, Paul; du Sart, Desirée; Puranik, Rajesh; Langlois, Neil; Vohra, Jitendra; Winship, Ingrid; Atherton, John; McGaughran, Julie; Skinner, Jonathan R; Semsarian, Christopher

    2016-06-23

    Sudden cardiac death among children and young adults is a devastating event. We performed a prospective, population-based, clinical and genetic study of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults. We prospectively collected clinical, demographic, and autopsy information on all cases of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults 1 to 35 years of age in Australia and New Zealand from 2010 through 2012. In cases that had no cause identified after a comprehensive autopsy that included toxicologic and histologic studies (unexplained sudden cardiac death), at least 59 cardiac genes were analyzed for a clinically relevant cardiac gene mutation. A total of 490 cases of sudden cardiac death were identified. The annual incidence was 1.3 cases per 100,000 persons 1 to 35 years of age; 72% of the cases involved boys or young men. Persons 31 to 35 years of age had the highest incidence of sudden cardiac death (3.2 cases per 100,000 persons per year), and persons 16 to 20 years of age had the highest incidence of unexplained sudden cardiac death (0.8 cases per 100,000 persons per year). The most common explained causes of sudden cardiac death were coronary artery disease (24% of cases) and inherited cardiomyopathies (16% of cases). Unexplained sudden cardiac death (40% of cases) was the predominant finding among persons in all age groups, except for those 31 to 35 years of age, for whom coronary artery disease was the most common finding. Younger age and death at night were independently associated with unexplained sudden cardiac death as compared with explained sudden cardiac death. A clinically relevant cardiac gene mutation was identified in 31 of 113 cases (27%) of unexplained sudden cardiac death in which genetic testing was performed. During follow-up, a clinical diagnosis of an inherited cardiovascular disease was identified in 13% of the families in which an unexplained sudden cardiac death occurred. The addition of genetic testing to autopsy

  10. Prolonged QTc interval and risk of sudden cardiac death in a population of older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straus, Sabine M J M; Kors, Jan A; De Bruin, Marie L

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to investigate whether prolongation of the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death in the general population. BACKGROUND: In developed countries, sudden cardiac death is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality. Prolongation...... of the QTc interval has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias, but in most population-based studies no consistent association was found between QTc prolongation and total or cardiovascular mortality. Only very few of these studies specifically addressed sudden cardiac death. METHODS: This study......). The association between a prolonged QTc interval and sudden cardiac death was estimated using Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: During an average follow-up period of 6.7 years (standard deviation, 2.3 years) 125 patients died of sudden cardiac death. An abnormally prolonged QTc interval (>450 ms in men...

  11. Sudden cardiac death and sarcoidosis of the heart in a young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Morgane; Grabherr, Silke; Lobrinus, Johannes Alexandre; Michaud, Katarzyna

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology affecting any organ, microscopically characterized by noncaseating granulomata. Cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis has been reported. It might be symptomatic or not and even revealed by sudden death. Heart conduction system is rarely investigated at autopsy, even in cases of sudden cardiac death. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who died suddenly. The examination of the heart conduction system revealed a cardiac sarcoidosis that could explain the sudden death. The review of clinical data of the patient revealed some symptoms consistent/in agreement with this hypothesis. Cardiac sarcoidosis remains a diagnostic challenge and can be easily missed, clinically and pathologically. The retrospective analysis of clinical data and autopsy results of fatal and unusual cases might help to better understand sarcoidosis and its clinical presentations. Examination of the cardiac conduction system is crucial in selected cases of sudden cardiac death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Clinical analysis of short-term efficacy in senile sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jianyong; Tan, Guopeng; Jieyu, L V; Yan, Feipeng

    2013-11-01

    To analysis the short-term medicinal treating effects in senile sudden deafness. According the age. The sudden deafness patients were divided into to groups, older age-group (age > or = 60, a total of 70 cases), control group (age total of 70 cases), period of treatment was 7 days, the result of pure tone test were reviewed, compared the improvement before and after treatment. After treatment, the average hearing threshold of the older age-patients was improved. There was statistical difference (P deafness patients (disease time 7 days) was 38.89%. There was statistical difference (P total effective rate of the senile sudden deafness patients was 49.9%; the senile sudden deafness patients which following moderate deafness (hearing threshold deafness patients. As soon as possible to improve peripheral vascular microcirculation, the prognosis could be improve conspicuously the prognosis of the senile sudden deafness patients were worse than the young patients.

  13. SUDDEN UNEXPLAINED JUVENILE DEATH AND THE ROLE OF MEDICOLEGAL INVESTIGATION: UPDATE ON MOLECULAR AUTOPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Argo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, contributions of molecular biology assays to the investigation of sudden juvenile death have permitted to clarify some of the pathogenetic aspects of sudden arrhythmic death, opening the way to preventive action on victims’ relatives. We reviewed literature on the genetics of sudden juvenile death, and on molecular biology assays performed on autoptic samples. Biological investigation permits the detection of genetic mutations underlying the susceptibility to sudden cardiac death of individuals with rare inherited forms of arrhythmia (Long QT Syndrome, Brugada Syndrome, Lev’s disease etc. through the analysis of critical sequences codifying for ion channel subunits (HERG, KvLQT1, MinK, Mirp1, SCN5A, KCNQ1, KCNH2, KCNE1, KCNE2. The main objective of post-mortem investigation in sudden juvenile death is the detection of treatable monogenic inherited disorders, in order to prevent further deaths among the relatives of the deceased patient.

  14. Back muscle response to sudden trunk loading can be modified by training among healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Essendrop, Morten; Skotte, Jørgen H.

    2007-01-01

    of the trunk (stopping time). Data on the possibilities of a training-induced improvement in the reflex response among workers exposed to sudden trunk loading on the job are, however, nonexistent, and there is no evidence of long-term benefits, i.e., the sustainability of a positive training effect. Methods......Study Design. Experimental study of the effect of physical training on the reaction to sudden back loading. Objective. To investigate the effect and sustainability of "on the job training" on the reaction to sudden back loading among employees at a geriatric ward. Summary of Background Data....... Available data suggest that a delayed muscle reflex response to sudden trunk loading may increase the risk of low back injuries. We have previously shown that training may alter the response to sudden trunk loading in healthy subjects and decrease the time elapsed until stopping of the forward movement...

  15. Sudden Suspected Death in Emergency Department: Autopsy Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap GURGER

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Objectives: Sudden deaths occur within 24 hours after symptoms' onset and are caused by cardiac, neurological and pulmonary diseases. Autopsy is the gold standard in determining cause of death. In this study, death's etiology was evaluated in cases applied to our department that underwent autopsy with sudden death indication. Methods: This study included cases aged 18 or older with sudden, suspected, non-traumatic death applying to our department between 2008 and 2012. Patients' age, sex, death time, co-morbid diseases, initial signs, cardiac rhythm, and autopsy findings were recorded after reviewing patient charts. Results: The study included 46 patients. Mean age was 45.73±19.6. Of the cases, 84.78% applied to emergency with cardiopulmonary arrest. Thirty-two cases (69.6% were male. The most frequent cause of death was cardiovascular diseases (52.2%, followed by central nervous system disorders (21.7%, intoxications (15.2%, and respiratory diseases (10.9%. The most common diseases were myocardial infarction (45.7%, subarachnoid hemorrhage (8.7%, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There were three drug ingestions, three carbon monoxide intoxications, and one corrosive material ingestion among the intoxication cases. Conclusions: Sudden deaths are rarely encountered. Emergency clinicians should consider cause in differential diagnosis and provide appropriate approaches at first evaluation. ÖZET: Amaç: Ani ölümler semptomlar başladıktan sonra 24 saat içerisinde oluşur. En yaygın nedenleri kardiyak, nörolojik ve pulmoner hastalıkları içerir. Otopsi bu ölümlerin nedenini tespit etmede altın standarttır. Bu çalışmada acil servisimize başvuran ani ölüm olgularının otopsi bulgularına göre ölüm nedenlerini değerlendirdik. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu retrospektif çalışmaya 2008–2012 yılları arasında acil servisimize başvuran, yaşları 18 ve üzeri olan, nontravmatik, ani, şüpheli ölüm vakaları al

  16. A polymorphism in a staphylococcal enterotoxin receptor gene (T cell receptor BV3 recombination signal sequence) is not associated with unexplained sudden unexpected death in infancy in an Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, Amanda R; Gibson, Catherine S; Goldwater, Paul N

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphisms in genes that influence the expression of toxin receptors could contribute to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and unexplained Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (uSUDI) for which there is evidence of toxin involvement. We aimed to determine whether TCRBV3S1 allele 2 could be involved in a staphylococcal toxic shock hypothesis for uSUDI. Observed frequencies of the TCRBV3S1*2 allele and genotype in 48 Australian uSUDI cases and 96 live comparison infants did not differ. In future the role of other toxin receptor gene polymorphisms deserves investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hard Instances of the Constrained Discrete Logarithm Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Mironov, Ilya; Mityagin, Anton; Nissim, Kobbi

    2006-01-01

    The discrete logarithm problem (DLP) generalizes to the constrained DLP, where the secret exponent $x$ belongs to a set known to the attacker. The complexity of generic algorithms for solving the constrained DLP depends on the choice of the set. Motivated by cryptographic applications, we study sets with succinct representation for which the constrained DLP is hard. We draw on earlier results due to Erd\\"os et al. and Schnorr, develop geometric tools such as generalized Menelaus' theorem for ...

  18. Free energy calculations using flexible-constrained, hard-constrained and non-constrained molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, Markus; Christ, Clara D; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2007-07-16

    A comparison of different treatments of bond-stretching interactions in molecular dynamics simulation is presented. Relative free energies from simulations using rigid bonds maintained with the SHAKE algorithm, using partially rigid bonds maintained with a recently introduced flexible constraints algorithm, and using fully flexible bonds are compared in a multi-configurational thermodynamic integration calculation of changing liquid water into liquid methanol. The formula for the free energy change due to a changing flexible constraint in a flexible constraint simulation is derived. To allow for a more direct comparison between these three methods, three different pairs of models for water and methanol were used: a flexible model (simulated without constraints and with flexible constraints), a rigid model (simulated with standard hard constraints), and an alternative flexible model (simulated with flexible constraints and standard hard constraints) in which the ideal or constrained bond lengths correspond to the average bond lengths obtained from a short simulation of the unconstrained flexible model. The particular treatment of the bonds induces differences of up to 2 % in the liquid densities, whereas (excess) free energy differences of up to 5.7 (4.3) kJ mol(-1) are observed. These values are smaller than the differences observed between the three different pairs of methanol/water models: up to 5 % in density and up to 8.5 kJ mol(-1) in (excess) free energy.

  19. Reflected stochastic differential equation models for constrained animal movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.

    2017-01-01

    Movement for many animal species is constrained in space by barriers such as rivers, shorelines, or impassable cliffs. We develop an approach for modeling animal movement constrained in space by considering a class of constrained stochastic processes, reflected stochastic differential equations. Our approach generalizes existing methods for modeling unconstrained animal movement. We present methods for simulation and inference based on augmenting the constrained movement path with a latent unconstrained path and illustrate this augmentation with a simulation example and an analysis of telemetry data from a Steller sea lion (Eumatopias jubatus) in southeast Alaska.

  20. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenfen Liu; Mao Ye; Jianghong Wei; Xuexian Hu

    2017-01-01

    Constrained spectral clustering (CSC) method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely...

  1. Future Atmospheric Neutrino Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Geiser, A

    2000-01-01

    Future experiments focusing on atmospheric neutrino detection are reviewed. One of the main goals of these experiments is the detection of an unambiguous oscillation pattern (nu_mu reappearance) to prove the oscillation hypothesis. Further goals include the discrimination of nu_mu - nu_tau and nu_mu - nu_sterile oscillations, and the detection of a potential small nu_mu - nu_e contribution. The search for matter effects in three or more flavour oscillations can be used to constrain hybrid oscillation models and potentially measure the sign of delta m^2. The detectors and measurement techniques proposed to achieve these goals are described, and their physics reach is discussed.

  2. Vaccination and unexplained sudden death risk in Taiwanese infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ting; Chen, Robert T; Hsu, Yu-Chen; Glasser, John W; Rhodes, Philip H

    2017-01-01

    In March 1992, eight infants who had died within 36 hours of receiving whole-cell pertussis vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, and whole-cell pertussis [DTwP]) prompted the Taiwan health authorities to suspend its use. We conducted an investigation of vaccination and sudden unexplained infant death (SUID) and repeated it more recently after Taiwan switched to acellular pertussis vaccine (diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis [DTaP]) in 2010. All SUIDs aged 31-364 days during 1990-1992 and 1996-2013 were selected from the death registration databases. The case-control investigation matched each case to two controls on clinic, sex, and birth date, whereas the follow-up self-controlled case series study compared risk of death during the 30-day post-vaccination risk periods with those in the control periods within the same case. Sudden unexplained infant death was associated with never receiving DTwP (odds ratio 2.28, 95% confidence interval 1.25-4.15) in the case-control investigation. The odds ratios within 0-1, 2-7, 8-14, and 15-30 days of DTwP administration were 1.18, 0.26, 0.50, and 0.77. In the 1996-2013 self-controlled case series studies, this temporal shift between DTwP and SUID was consistently observed for female (incidence rate ratio 1.70, 0.75, 1.01, and 0.84) but not male or DTaP recipients. A pooled analysis showed significant risk within 2 days of receiving DTwP in female infants (incidence rate ratio 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.05-2.60). Being unvaccinated and recent receipt of DTwP in female infants was significantly associated with SUID; the latter was consistent with a temporal shift pattern without overall increase in risk. The currently used pertussis vaccine, DTaP, did not increase risk of SUID. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2011-01-01

    , but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...... contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...

  4. Future Contingents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Peter; Hasle., Per F. V.

    2015-01-01

    , but that person has not yet been born. The notion of ‘future contingent objects’ involves important philosophical questions, for instance the issue of ethical obligations towards future generations, quantification over ‘future contingent objects’ etc. However, this entry is confined to the study of future...... contingent statements. The problem of future contingents is interwoven with a number of issues in theology, philosophy, logic, semantics of natural language, computer science, and applied mathematics. The theological issue of how to reconcile the assumption of God's foreknowledge with the freedom and moral...... accountability of human beings has been a main impetus to the discussion and a major inspiration to the development of various logical models of time and future contingents. This theological issue is connected with the general philosophical question of determinism versus indeterminism. Within logic, the relation...

  5. Iron supply constrains producer communities in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Chad A; Liu, Hongsheng; Passy, Sophia I

    2015-05-01

    The current paradigm that stream producers are under exclusive macronutrient control was recently challenged by continental studies, demonstrating that iron supply constrained diatom biodiversity and energy flows. Using algal abundance and water chemistry data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, we determined for the first time community thresholds along iron gradients in non-acidic running waters, i.e. 30-79.5 μg L(-1) and 70-120 μg L(-1) in oligotrophic and eutrophic streams, respectively. Given that Fe concentrations fell below both thresholds in 50% of US streams, and below the eutrophic threshold in 75% of US streams, we suggest that Fe limitation is potentially widespread and attribute it to the restricted distribution of wetlands. We also report results from the first laboratory experiments on algal-iron interactions in streams, revealing that iron supplementation leads to significant biovolume and biodiversity increase in both nitrogen fixing and non-nitrogen fixing algae. Therefore, the progressive brownification of freshwaters due to rising dissolved organic carbon and iron levels can have a stimulating influence on microbial producers with cascading effects along the trophic hierarchy. Future research in running waters should focus on the role of iron in algal physiology and biofilm functions, including accumulation of biomass, fixing atmospheric nitrogen and improving water quality. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sampling from stochastic reservoir models constrained by production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegstad, Bjoern Kaare

    1997-12-31

    When a petroleum reservoir is evaluated, it is important to forecast future production of oil and gas and to assess forecast uncertainty. This is done by defining a stochastic model for the reservoir characteristics, generating realizations from this model and applying a fluid flow simulator to the realizations. The reservoir characteristics define the geometry of the reservoir, initial saturation, petrophysical properties etc. This thesis discusses how to generate realizations constrained by production data, that is to say, the realizations should reproduce the observed production history of the petroleum reservoir within the uncertainty of these data. The topics discussed are: (1) Theoretical framework, (2) History matching, forecasting and forecasting uncertainty, (3) A three-dimensional test case, (4) Modelling transmissibility multipliers by Markov random fields, (5) Up scaling, (6) The link between model parameters, well observations and production history in a simple test case, (7) Sampling the posterior using optimization in a hierarchical model, (8) A comparison of Rejection Sampling and Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, (9) Stochastic simulation and conditioning by annealing in reservoir description, and (10) Uncertainty assessment in history matching and forecasting. 139 refs., 85 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: potential advantages and disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Rosemary S C; Hauck, Fern R; Moon, Rachel Y; L'hoir, Monique P; Blair, Peter S

    2014-03-01

    The large decline in deaths due to the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in the last 20 years in many countries is largely due to risk-reduction advice resulting from observational studies that examined the relationship between infant care practices and SIDS. Most of this advice remains largely uncontroversial and educators and researchers in this field are in agreement as to the specific recommendations that should be given to parents and health professionals. However, advice surrounding the apparent protective effect of dummies (also known as pacifiers) has been controversial. Several systematic reviews have demonstrated a strong association between the lack of a pacifier being used by the infant for the final sleep and SIDS, but it is not clear how pacifiers confer protection or if this is a marker for something as yet unmeasured. The Epidemiology and Physiology Working Groups of the International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death (ISPID) are comprised of leading SIDS researchers with an objective to provide evidence-based position statements surrounding the factors associated with SIDS (http://www.ispid.org/) and risk-reduction strategies. The evidence, discussion and conclusions from these working groups regarding dummies (pacifiers) are described below to help inform this debate and describe the future evidence required so that we might find a common recommendation about dummies (pacifiers) and SIDS. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. Neurochemical abnormalities in the brainstem of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machaalani, Rita; Waters, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    The brainstem has been a focus in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) research for 30 years. Physiological and animal model data show that cardiorespiratory, sleep, and arousal mechanisms are abnormal after exposure to SIDS risk factors or in infants who subsequently die from SIDS. As the brainstem houses the regulatory centres for these functions, it is the most likely site to find abnormalities. True to this hypothesis, data derived over the last 30 years shows that the brainstem of infants who died from SIDS exhibits abnormalities in a number of major neurotransmitter and receptor systems including: catecholamines, neuropeptides, acetylcholinergic, indole amines (predominantly serotonin and its receptors), amino acids (predominantly glutamate), brain derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF), and some cytokines. A pattern is emerging of particular brainstem nuclei being consistently affected including the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), arcuate nucleus (AN) and raphe. We discuss the implications of these findings and directions that this may lead in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychological stress as a measure for treatment response prediction in idiopathic sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Daeyoung; Chao, Janet Ren; Kim, Do Hoon; Yoon, Kyung Hee; Jung, Jae Hoon; Lee, Chang Hyun; Shin, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Min Jae; Park, Chan Hum; Lee, Jun Ho

    2017-11-01

    Early prediction of therapeutic outcomes could reduce exposure to ineffective treatments and optimize clinical outcomes. However, none of the known otologic predictors is amenable to therapeutic intervention for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL). The aims of this study were to investigate psychological stress as a potential predictor to discriminate outcomes in ISSNHL. Various psychological measures were conducted including structured interview assessment tools in patients with recently diagnosed ISSNHL before initiating treatment. Using logistic regression analysis, we identified the predictors of treatment response and estimated the probability of treatment response in 50 ISSNHL patients who participated in a clinical trial. Treatment non-responders were significantly differentiated from responders by various psychological problems. The depression subscore of Modified form of Stress Response Inventory (SRI-MF) (p=0.007) and duration of hearing loss (p=0.045) significantly predicted treatment response after controlling other clinical correlates. The same predictors were identified from different treatment response measured using Siegel's criteria. The most discriminative measure for treatment response was SRI-MF depression score with an overall classification accuracy of 73%. We found depressive stress response to be the strong predictor of treatment response in patients with ISSNHL. Our results highlight the potential use of the psychiatric approach as a tool for enhancing therapeutic outcomes. Future stress intervention studies with larger number of ISSNHL patients are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sudden Oak Death-Induced Tanoak Mortality in Coast Redwood Forests: Current and Predicted Impacts to Stand Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin L. O’Hara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus is one of the most widespread and abundant associates of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens, but little is known about the structural relationships between these two species. Knowledge of such relationships is essential for a thorough understanding of the impacts of sudden oak death (caused by the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, which is currently decimating tanoak populations throughout the redwood range. In this study, we utilized a stratified plot design and a stand reconstruction technique to assess structural impacts, at present and in the future, of this emerging disease. We found that residual trees in diseased plots were more aggregated than trees in unaffected plots, and we predicted that the loss of tanoak will lead to the following short-term changes: greater average diameter, height, height-to-live-crown, and crown length, as well as an increase in average nearest neighbor differences for diameter, height, and crown length. In addition, plots lacking tanoak (living or dead—as compared to plots with tanoak—exhibited greater average diameter and increased nearest neighbor differences with regard to diameter, height, and crown length. We also conducted a preliminary exploration of how sudden oak death-induced structural changes compare with typical old-growth characteristics, and how this disease may affect the structure of old-growth forests.

  11. The extraordinary events of the major, sudden stratospheric warming, the diminutive antarctic ozone hole, and its split in 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varotsos, Costas

    2004-01-01

    Great interest in the unprecedented events of the major, sudden stratospheric warming and the ozone hole split over Antarctica in September 25, 2002 motivates a necessity to analyze the current understanding on the dynamics, chemistry and climate impacts that are associated with both events. Significant progress in the analysis of the observational data obtained, as well as successful development and application of dynamical modeling, which have been achieved very recently, create a basis for the first survey on the role of the major, sudden stratospheric warming observed in the southern hemisphere and its relationship to the diminutive Antarctic ozone hole and its break up into two parts. Special attention has been paid to assessments of the causes of the major warming event and the future expectations concerning the stratospheric ozone depletion effect. Among the principal results is the fact that, as the polar vortex elongated, it became hydrodynamically unstable, and this insta-, bility affected the upper troposphere and stratosphere. During the major, sudden stratospheric warming, the middle stratospheric vortex split into two pieces; one piece rapidly mixed with extra vortex air, while the other returned to the pole as a much weaker and smaller vortex. The polar night jet was considerably weaker than normal, and was displaced more poleward than has been observed in previous winters, resulting from a series of wave events (propagated from the troposphere) that took place over the course of the winter. Finally, the relative ozone decrease (increase) in the eastern Antarctic is tightly associated with westerly (easterly) zonal wind anomalies near the southern tip of South America, and the unusual behavior of the ozone hole in 2002 therefore appears to be caused by great easterlies in this region. The main conclusion is that the southern polar vortex and the diminutive ozone hole split into two parts in September 2002, due to the prevalence of very strong

  12. Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.

  13. Stochastic optimal control of state constrained systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Bart; Wiegerinck, Wim; Kappen, Bert

    2011-03-01

    In this article we consider the problem of stochastic optimal control in continuous-time and state-action space of systems with state constraints. These systems typically appear in the area of robotics, where hard obstacles constrain the state space of the robot. A common approach is to solve the problem locally using a linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method. We take a different approach and apply path integral control as introduced by Kappen (Kappen, H.J. (2005a), 'Path Integrals and Symmetry Breaking for Optimal Control Theory', Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2005, P11011; Kappen, H.J. (2005b), 'Linear Theory for Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems', Physical Review Letters, 95, 200201). We use hybrid Monte Carlo sampling to infer the control. We introduce an adaptive time discretisation scheme for the simulation of the controlled dynamics. We demonstrate our approach on two examples, a simple particle in a halfspace and a more complex two-joint manipulator, and we show that in a high noise regime our approach outperforms the iterative LQG method.

  14. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive...... came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper’s knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline...

  15. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John; /CERN /King' s Coll. London; Mustafayev, Azar; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  16. Constraining New Physics with D meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco, J.; Delepine, D.; Gonzalez Macias, V. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Lopez-Lozano, L. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Área Académica de Matemáticas y Física, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, HGO (Mexico)

    2014-04-04

    Latest Lattice results on D form factors evaluation from first principles show that the Standard Model (SM) branching ratios prediction for the leptonic D{sub s}→ℓν{sub ℓ} decays and the semileptonic SM branching ratios of the D{sup 0} and D{sup +} meson decays are in good agreement with the world average experimental measurements. It is possible to disprove New Physics hypothesis or find bounds over several models beyond the SM. Using the observed leptonic and semileptonic branching ratios for the D meson decays, we performed a combined analysis to constrain non-standard interactions which mediate the cs{sup ¯}→lν{sup ¯} transition. This is done either by a model-independent way through the corresponding Wilson coefficients or in a model-dependent way by finding the respective bounds over the relevant parameters for some models beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we obtain bounds for the Two Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and Type III, the Left–Right model, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with explicit R-parity violation and Leptoquarks. Finally, we estimate the transverse polarization of the lepton in the D{sup 0} decay and we found it can be as high as P{sub T}=0.23.

  17. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  18. Flexible constrained de Finetti reductions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancien, Cécilia; Winter, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    De Finetti theorems show how sufficiently exchangeable states are well-approximated by convex combinations of independent identically distributed states. Recently, it was shown that in many quantum information applications, a more relaxed de Finetti reduction (i.e., only a matrix inequality between the symmetric state and one of the de Finetti forms) is enough and that it leads to more concise and elegant arguments. Here we show several uses and general flexible applicability of a constrained de Finetti reduction in quantum information theory, which was recently discovered by Duan, Severini, and Winter. In particular, we show that the technique can accommodate other symmetries commuting with the permutation action and permutation-invariant linear constraints. We then demonstrate that, in some cases, it is also fruitful with convex constraints, in particular separability in a bipartite setting. This is a constraint particularly interesting in the context of the complexity class QMA(2) of interactive quantum Merlin-Arthur games with unentangled provers, and our results relate to the soundness gap amplification of QMA(2) protocols by parallel repetition. It is also relevant for the regularization of certain entropic channel parameters. As an aside, we present an alternative way of attacking this problem, relying on an entanglement measure theory rather than the de Finetti approach. Finally, we explore an extension to infinite-dimensional systems, which usually pose inherent problems to de Finetti techniques in the quantum case.

  19. Electropore Formation in Mechanically Constrained Phospholipid Bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, M Laura; Risk, Marcelo Raúl; Vernier, P Thomas

    2017-11-23

    Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers in aqueous systems reveal how an applied electric field stabilizes the reorganization of the water-membrane interface into water-filled, membrane-spanning, conductive pores with a symmetric, toroidal geometry. The pore formation process and the resulting symmetric structures are consistent with other mathematical approaches such as continuum models formulated to describe the electroporation process. Some experimental data suggest, however, that the shape of lipid electropores in living cell membranes may be asymmetric. We describe here the axially asymmetric pores that form when mechanical constraints are applied to selected phospholipid atoms. Electropore formation proceeds even with severe constraints in place, but pore shape and pore formation time are affected. Since lateral and transverse movement of phospholipids may be restricted in cell membranes by covalent attachments to or non-covalent associations with other components of the membrane or to membrane-proximate intracellular or extracellular biomolecular assemblies, these lipid-constrained molecular models point the way to more realistic representations of cell membranes in electric fields.

  20. Risk factors for sudden cardiac death among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ping-Yi; Hung, Galen Chin-Lun; Jhong, Jia-Rong; Tsai, Shang-Ying; Chen, Chiao-Chicy; Kuo, Chian-Jue

    2015-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia suffer from excessive premature mortality, and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is receiving growing attention as a potential cause. The present study investigated the incidence of SCD and its risk factors in a large schizophrenia cohort. We enrolled a consecutive series of 8264 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (according to DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria) who were admitted to a psychiatric center in northern Taiwan from January 1, 1985 through December 31, 2008. By linking with national mortality database, 64 cases of SCD were identified. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for SCD was estimated. The cases were matched with controls randomly selected using risk-set sampling in a 1:2 ratio. A standardized chart review process was used to collect socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the prescribed drugs for each study subject. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify correlates of SCD at the index admission and the latest admission. The SMR for SCD was 4.5. For the clinical profiles at the index admission, physical disease (adjusted risk ratio [aRR]=2.91, Paggressive behaviors (aRR=3.99, Paggressive behaviors (aRR=3.26, Paggression is a crucial risk factor that deserves ongoing work for clarifying the mechanisms mediating SCD in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sudden death due to forced ingestion of vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Lisa B E; Rolf, Cristin M; Hunsaker, John C

    2016-09-01

    Vinegar is a clear colorless liquid that commercially consists of 5% acetic acid. It has numerous benefits in everyday use, including culinary, medical, and cleaning. The ingestion of concentrated acetic acid is strongly discouraged and may have detrimental consequences, such as acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, gastric and hepatic complications, upper airway obstruction, or death. We report the first case in the literature of a 5-year-old boy who experienced a sudden death due to ingestion of distilled white vinegar. The manner was homicide. There was evidence of nonfatal blunt force impacts of the head, trunk, and extremities. A pungent aromatic odor of the viscera, gastric/small bowel contents, and cranial cavity was noted at autopsy. A dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa, small bowel, and pancreas was observed. Forensic pathologists should consider ingestion of vinegar when confronted with a compelling history as well as an aromatic odor suggesting vinegar and dusky gray discoloration of the gastric mucosa and small bowel. While vinegar is a common household item and has several advantages, it may prove fatal if ingested in large quantities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is a major contributor to postneonatal infant death, and is the third leading cause of infant mortality in the USA. While public health efforts have reduced these deaths in recent years, the pathogenesis of SIDS remains unclear. Epidemiological data on SIDS-related deaths have suggested genetic factors, and many studies have attempted to identify SIDS-associated genes. This has resulted in a large body of literature implicating various genes and their encoded proteins and signaling pathways in numerous cohorts of various sizes and ethnicities. This review has undertaken a systematic evaluation of these studies, identifying the pathways that have been implicated in these studies, including central nervous system pathways, cardiac channelopathies, immune dysfunction, metabolism/energy pathways, and nicotine response. This review also explores how new genomic techniques will aid in advancing our knowledge of the genomic risk factors associated with SIDS, including SNPs and copy number variation. Last, this review explores how the current information can be applied to aid in our assessment of the at risk infant population. PMID:21122164

  3. Systems-level perspective of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonis, Nathan

    2014-09-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) remains one of the primary causes of infant mortality in developed countries. Although the causes of SIDS remain largely inconclusive, some of the most informative associations implicate molecular, genetic, anatomical, physiological, and environmental (i.e., infant sleep) factors. Thus, a comprehensive and evolving systems-level model is required to understand SIDS susceptibility. Such models, by being powerful enough to uncover indirect associations, could be used to expand our list of candidate targets for in-depth analysis. We present an integrated WikiPathways model for SIDS susceptibility that includes associated cell systems, signaling pathways, genetics, and animal phenotypes. Experimental and literature-based gene-regulatory data have been integrated into this model to identify intersecting upstream control elements and associated interactions. To expand this pathway model, we performed a comprehensive analysis of existing proteomics data from brainstem samples of infants with SIDS. From this analysis, we discovered changes in the expression of several proteins linked to known SIDS pathologies, including factors involved in glial cell production, hypoxia regulation, and synaptic vesicle release, in addition to interactions with annotated SIDS markers. Our results highlight new targets for further consideration that further enrich this pathway model, which, over time, can improve as a wiki-based, community curation project.

  4. [Sudden death during performance of sport: forensic medicine elucidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Harpe, R; Rostan, A; Fryc, O

    1992-06-01

    Our study deals with cases of sudden death (non-traumatic death) while playing sport which were examined at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Geneva, and covers the last ten years: 1980-1989. We discovered 19 cases, all men between the ages of 17 to 67. In the case of the younger sportsmen (under the age of 45-50) or when the causes of mortality were unclear, the police requested an autopsy, which totalled 8 cases. In the other 11 cases, we were asked to make an external examination of the bodies, in order to exclude any signs of violence. Seven sportsmen, aged 36-49, who used to play high-risk sports such as football, tennis, basketball and running were autopsied and presented a myocardial infarct. Its interesting that 2 of these cases had also an old scar of a myocardial infarct. The eighth case was a 17 year old boy who had an already known obstructive cardiomyopathy.

  5. Efficacy of multimodality approach to sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiboğllu, Bariş; Külekçi, Semra; Sürmeli, Mehmet; Verim, Ayşegül; Kalaycik Ertugay, Çiğdem; İhvan, Önder; Şeneldir, Lütfü; Zer Toros, Sema

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether addition of intratympanic steroid (ITS) to systemic steroid and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is effective in the treatment of sudden hearing loss (SHL). Between January 2008 and October 2011, 58 patients diagnosed with SHL were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients (11 males, 9 females; mean age 45.3±21 years; range 24 to 66 years) who received systemic steroid and HBO composed group 1, while 38 patients (19 males, 19 females; mean age 41.6±16 years; range 25 to 61 years) who received ITS in addition to systemic steroid and HBO composed group 2. Post-treatment hearing improvement was statistically significant in both groups in terms of the mean pure tone according to the Siegel's criteria (p0.05). However, there was a strong statistically significant difference in terms of profound hearing loss over 90 dB (phearing loss in group 1 benefited treatment, while addition of ITS to the treatment yielded success in six of 12 patients with profound hearing loss (50%) in group 2 (p<0.05). Addition of ITS to systemic steroid and HBO treatment may yield better results in patients with SHL. However, ITS injection seems beneficial for patients with profound SHL.

  6. Stratospheric Gravity Waves excited during a Minor Sudden Stratospheric Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnbrack, A.; Kaifler, N.; Gisinger, S.; Zagar, N.; Jelić, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic polar vortex in the early winter 2015/16 was the strongest and coldest of the last 68 years. The characteristics of the early stage polar vortex were investigated using global reanalysis data and satellite observations. In November/December 2015, less planetary waves were excited in the troposphere and an enhanced filtering in the troposphere and stratosphere resulted in stronger zonal winds at middle latitudes and a stronger polar vortex. Starting end of January 2016, the polar vortex became disturbed by a sequence of three minor sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) until the final major warming occurred at beginning of March 2016. Here, we report about a unique high-resolution radiosonde sounding launched in Kiruna, Sweden during the first minor SSW on 30 January 2016. The radiosonde ascended to an altitude of 38.7 km and detected pronounced gravity wave signatures at inner edge of the polar vortex. Different diagnostics are applied to reveal the properties of the observed gravity waves and to deduce their sources. All analysis results suggest that the gravity wave was excited by spontaneous adjustment through the decelerating flow of the polar night jet in the course of the minor SSW.

  7. Sudden unexpected death in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalume, Franck; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Cheah, Christine S.; Yu, Frank H.; Oakley, John C.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of death in intractable epilepsies, but physiological mechanisms that lead to SUDEP are unknown. Dravet syndrome (DS) is an infantile-onset intractable epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SCN1A gene, which encodes brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. We studied the mechanism of premature death in Scn1a heterozygous KO mice and conditional brain- and cardiac-specific KOs. Video monitoring demonstrated that SUDEP occurred immediately following generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A history of multiple seizures was a strong risk factor for SUDEP. Combined video-electroencephalography-electrocardiography revealed suppressed interictal resting heart-rate variability and episodes of ictal bradycardia associated with the tonic phases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Prolonged atropine-sensitive ictal bradycardia preceded SUDEP. Similar studies in conditional KO mice demonstrated that brain, but not cardiac, KO of Scn1a produced cardiac and SUDEP phenotypes similar to those found in DS mice. Atropine or N-methyl scopolamine treatment reduced the incidence of ictal bradycardia and SUDEP in DS mice. These findings suggest that SUDEP is caused by apparent parasympathetic hyperactivity immediately following tonic-clonic seizures in DS mice, which leads to lethal bradycardia and electrical dysfunction of the ventricle. These results have important implications for prevention of SUDEP in DS patients. PMID:23524966

  8. Electrocardiographic features of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyou, Janice Y; Friedman, Daniel; Cerrone, Marina; Slater, William; Guo, Yu; Taupin, Daniel; O'Rourke, Sean; Priori, Silvia G; Devinsky, Orrin

    2016-07-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related mortality. We hypothesized that electrocardiography (ECG) features may distinguish SUDEP cases from living subjects with epilepsy. Using a matched case-control design, we compared ECG studies of 12 consecutive cases of SUDEP over 10 years and 22 epilepsy controls matched for age, sex, epilepsy type (focal, generalized, or unknown/mixed type), concomitant antiepileptic, and psychotropic drug classes. Conduction intervals and prevalence of abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis (QRS ≥110 msec), abnormal ventricular conduction pattern (QRS <110 msec, morphology of incomplete right or left bundle branch block or intraventricular conduction delay), early repolarization, and features of inherited cardiac channelopathies were assessed. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis and pattern distinguished SUDEP cases from matched controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction diagnosis was present in two cases and no controls. Abnormal ventricular conduction pattern was more common in cases than controls (58% vs. 18%, p = 0.04). Early repolarization was similarly prevalent in cases and controls, but the overall prevalence exceeded that of published community-based cohorts. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  9. Remittances as aid following major sudden-onset natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Catherine; Gibson, Glenn; King, Haleigh; Lefler, Ashley A; Ntoubandi, Faustin

    2017-04-25

    There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis. Post disaster, there was a quarterly increase in the majority of cases (confirming previous research) but there was seldom an annual increase in the year of the disaster greater than the average annual increase in 2000-14. It appears that remittance senders rush to provide assistance after a natural disaster, but since their own financial situation has not changed, the immediate increase is compensated by a later decrease. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. Impact of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Winter Monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Quanliang

    2017-04-01

    Quanliang Chen, Luyang Xu, and Hongke Cai College of Atmospheric Science, Chengdu University of Information Technology and Plateau Atmospheric and Environment Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu 610225, China Fifty-two stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events that occurred from 1957 to 2002 were analysed based on the 40-year European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reanalysis dataset. Those that could descent to the troposphere were composited to investigate their impacts on the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). It reveals that when the SSW occurs, the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) are both in the negative phase and that the tropospheric circulations quite wave-like. The Siberian high and the Aleutian low are both strengthened, leading to an increased gradient between the Asian continent and the North Pacific. Hence, strong EAWM is observed with widespread cooling over in land and coastal East Asia. After the peak of the SSW, in contrast, the tropospheric circulation is quite zonally symmetric with negative phases of AO and NPO. The mid-tropospheric East Asian trough deepens and shifts eastward. This configuration facilitates warming over the East AsianinlandandcoolingoverthecoastalEastAsiacenteredoverJapan.Theactivitiesofplanetarywavesduringthelifecycleofthe SSW were analysed. The anomalous propagation and the attendant altered amplitude of the planetary waves can well explain the observed circulation and the EAWM.

  11. Comparative Simulation Study on Synchronous Generators Sudden Short Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Lupşa-Tătaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although of a great extent in time, the research works directed at studying transients in synchronous generators have not yet provided fully sufficient comparative studies in respect to sudden short circuits of the machine. The present paper puts forward novel and comprehensive process models for dynamic simulation of short circuit faults of initially unloaded synchronous generators, using the generalized d-q-0 mathematical model as starting point in derivation. Distinct from the time-domain analysis, the technique proposed here allows an effective comparative overview by employing a specialized procedure to perform repeated time-domain simulations accompanied by peak values recording for the various circumstances. The time consuming matrix numerical inversion at each step of integration, usually performed when selecting currents as state variables, is eliminated by advancing the process models in a convenient split matrix form that allows the symbolic processing. Also, the computational efficiency is being increased by introducing a set of auxiliary variables common to different state equations. The models derivation is carried out without altering the structural equations of the generalized d-q-0 mathematical model of synchronous generators whilst the simulation results are both compared and discussed in detail.

  12. Observations of stratospheric sudden warmings in Earth rotation variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Lisa; Walther, Sophia; Matthes, Katja; Kodera, Kunihiko

    2014-08-01

    Stratospheric sudden warmings (SSWs) are extreme events in the polar stratosphere that are both caused by and have effects on the tropospheric flow. This means that SSWs are associated with changes in the angular momentum of the atmosphere, both before and after their onset. Because these angular momentum changes are transferred to the solid Earth, they can be observed in the rate of the Earth's rotation and the wobble of its rotational pole. By comparing observed Earth rotation variations to reanalysis data, we find that an anomaly in the orientation of the Earth's rotational pole, up to 4 times as large as the annual polar wobble, typically precedes SSWs by 20-40 days. The polar motion signal is due to pressure anomalies that are typically seen before SSW events and represents a new type of observable that may aid in the prediction of SSWs. A decline in the length of day is also seen, on average, near the time of the SSW wind reversal and is found to be due to anomalous easterly winds generated in the tropical troposphere around this time, though the structure and timing of this signal seems to vary widely from event to event.

  13. Unravelling the mysteries of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, K G; Rocamora Zuñiga, R; Quesada, C M

    2017-04-18

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most frequent cause of premature death in epileptic patients. Most SUDEP events occur at night and frequently go unnoticed; the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of this phenomenon therefore remain undetermined. Nevertheless, most cases of SUDEP are attributed to an infrequent yet extremely severe complication of epileptic seizures. We conducted a systematic literature search on PubMed. Our review article summarises scientific evidence on the classification, pathophysiological mechanisms, risk factors, biomarkers, and prevention of SUDEP. Likewise, we propose new lines of research and critically analyse findings that are relevant to clinical practice. Current knowledge suggests that SUDEP is a heterogeneous phenomenon caused by multiple factors. In most cases, however, SUDEP is thought to be due to postictal cardiorespiratory failure triggered by generalised tonic-clonic seizures and ultimately leading to cardiac arrest. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism involves multiple factors, ranging from genetic predisposition to environmental factors. Risk of SUDEP is higher in young adults with uncontrolled generalised tonic-clonic seizures. However, patients apparently at lower risk may also experience SUDEP. Current research focuses on identifying genetic and neuroimaging biomarkers that may help determine which patients are at high risk for SUDEP. Antiepileptic treatment is the only preventive measure proven effective to date. Night-time monitoring together with early resuscitation may reduce the risk of SUDEP. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. [Cardiac fibroma: A rare cause of sudden child death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humez, Sarah; Gibier, Jean-Baptiste; Recher, Morgan; Leteurtre, Stéphane; Leroy, Xavier; Devisme, Louise

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 3-year-old child who died from the consequences of a cardio-respiratory arrest despite reanimation procedures. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass of the free wall of the left ventricle. Autopsy confirmed the existence of a solitary myocardial tumor, well-circumscribed, firm, with a whitish and trabeculated cut surface. Histologically, the tumor consisted of bundles of spindle-shaped and regular cells mingling with collagen and elastic fibers, insinuating themselves between myocytes in periphery. Calcifications were present. After immunohistochemistry, the cells were highlighted by anti-actin smooth muscle antibody; but they were not highlighted by anti-desmin, anti-β catenin and anti-Ki67 antibodies. The diagnosis of cardiac fibroma was made. The primary cardiac tumors of child are rare and usually benign. They are essentially represented by rhabdomyoma and fibroma. Cardiac fibroma mostly occurs during the first year of life. It can be revealed by cardiac insufficiency, arrhythmia, chest pain or sudden death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of risk stratification and genetics in sudden cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vikrant; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-03-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major public health issue due to its increasing incidence in the general population and the difficulty in identifying high-risk individuals. Nearly 300 000 - 350 000 patients in the United States and 4-5 million patients in the world die annually from SCD. Coronary artery disease and advanced heart failure are the main etiology for SCD. Ischemia of any cause precipitates lethal arrhythmias, and ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation are the most common lethal arrhythmias precipitating SCD. Pulseless electrical activity, bradyarrhythmia, and electromechanical dissociation also result in SCD. Most SCDs occur outside of the hospital setting, so it is difficult to estimate the public burden, which results in overestimating the incidence of SCD. The insufficiency and limited predictive value of various indicators and criteria for SCD result in the increasing incidence. As a result, there is a need to develop better risk stratification criteria and find modifiable variables to decrease the incidence. Primary and secondary prevention and treatment of SCD need further research. This critical review is focused on the etiology, risk factors, prognostic factors, and importance of risk stratification of SCD.

  16. Preferences of Patients for Discussing Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sūna Normunds

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy have increased mortality rates, which is partially attributed to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy syndrome (SUDEP. Poor seizure control appears to be the strongest SUDEP risk factor. Management of epilepsy and adherence to therapy is critical to seizure control. The belief by caregivers of negative influence caused by being informed about the syndrome is the main reason SUDEP is not disclosed. There are no clear recommendations when to disclose the risk of SUDEP and how much information should be provided. We addressed the preferences of Latvian epilepsy patients for discussing SUDEP as well as awareness of the syndrome. Our study involved 55 epilepsy patients. We found that, as in other studies, our patients were relatively well informed about SUDEP. We found that a considerable proportion of patients preferred to receive information about SUDEP from a general practitioner. We note the belief of patients that the disclosure of SUDEP would either improve or have no effect on the quality of life. We were able to identify groups of patients with a self-reported belief of more frequent expected anxiety and poor adherence to medical treatment. Our data improves the understanding of preferences of patient for discussing the negative aspects of epilepsy.

  17. Endothelial progenitor cells in sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Ramunni, Alfonso; De Luca, Concetta; Brescia, Paola; Dambra, Porzia; De Tullio, Giacomina; Vacca, Angelo; Quaranta, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a unique subtype of circulating cells with properties similar to those of embryonal angioblasts. They have the potential to proliferate and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. EPCs are reduced in patients with vascular risk factors due to a decreased mobilization, an increased consumption at the site of damage or a reduced half-life. The results of this study confirm the existence of an endothelial dysfunction in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) and support the vascular involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of EPCs in patients affected by SSHL. Twenty-one patients affected by SSHL were evaluated. The number of EPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood CD34+KDR+CD133+ cells. Circulating levels of EPCs were significantly lower in SSHL patients compared with controls. In particular, CD34+KDR+ cells and CD34+CD133+KDR+ cells were significantly reduced (p < 0.05).

  18. A case of sudden death after Japanese encephalitis vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunai, Yasuo; Ishii, Akira; Akaza, Kayoko; Nagai, Atsushi; Nishida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is estimated to result in 3500-50,000 clinical cases every year, with mortality rates of up to 20-50% and a high percentage of neurological sequelae in survivors. Vaccination is the single most important measure in preventing this disease. Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccines have not been linked to any fatalities, and few serious adverse events after vaccination have been reported. Here, we report a case of sudden death in which a 10-year-old boy experienced cardiopulmonary arrest 5 min after receiving a Japanese encephalitis vaccination. He had been receiving psychotropic drugs for the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders. Postmortem examinations were nonspecific, and no signs of dermatologic or mucosal lesions or an elevation of the serum tryptase level, which are characteristic of anaphylaxis, were observed. A toxicological examination revealed that the blood concentrations of the orally administered psychotropic drugs were within the therapeutic ranges. The patient was considered to have died of an arrhythmia that was not directly associated with the vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Serotypes of Escherichia coli in sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J L; Bettelheim, K A; Luke, R K J; Goldwater, P N

    2010-02-01

    To examine the diversity of Escherichia coli serotypes found in the intestinal contents of infants who died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) compared with that in comparison infants. Over the 3-year period, 1989-1991, in South Australia and Victoria (Australia), a total of 687 E. coli isolates from 231 patients with SIDS (348 isolates), 98 infants who had died from other causes (144 isolates) and 160 healthy infants (195 isolates) were studied. The isolates from patients with SIDS were found to represent 119 different serotypes; the isolates from 'other cause' infants represent 97 different serotypes; and the isolates from healthy infants represent 117 different serotypes. The seven common serotypes isolated most frequently from infants with SIDS belonged to those associated with extra-intestinal infections in humans. Compared to healthy infants (6%), these were found in significantly higher proportions among infants who died of other causes (13%, P < 0.05) or infants with SIDS (18.7%, P = 0.0002). Despite these sources yielding a wide variety of serotypes of E. coli, a pattern of certain potential pathotypes of E. coli being associated with SIDS is apparent. While SIDS remains one of the most important diagnoses of postneonatal death, its causes are still unexplained. If E. coli has a role in the pathogenesis of SIDS (as suggested by the pathotypes identified on the basis of serotype), further studies may reveal novel virulence factors that may clarify the role of this bacterium in SIDS.

  20. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Rauf Oğuzhan; Ozcan, Muge; Baklaci, Deniz; Yurtsever Kum, Nurcan; Yilmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Unal, Adnan; Avci, Yonca

    2015-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p=0.001). However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p>0.05). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.