Sample records for constrain gabbroic crustal

  1. U-Pb dating of interspersed gabbroic magmatism and hydrothermal metamorphism during lower crustal accretion, Vema lithospheric section, Mid-Atlantic Ridge (United States)

    Rioux, Matthew; Jöns, Niels; Bowring, Samuel; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bach, Wolfgang; Kylander-Clark, Andrew; Hacker, Bradley; Dudás, Frank


    New U/Pb analyses of zircon and xenotime constrain the timing of magmatism, magmatic assimilation, and hydrothermal metamorphism during formation of the lower crust at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The studied sample is an altered gabbro from the Vema lithospheric section (11°N). Primary gabbroic minerals have been almost completely replaced by multiple hydrothermal overprints: cummingtonitic amphibole and albite formed during high-temperature hydration reactions and are overgrown first by kerolite and then prehnite and chlorite. In a previous study, clear inclusion-free zircons from the sample yielded Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates of 13.528 ± 0.101 to 13.353 ± 0.057 Ma. Ti concentrations, reported here, zoning patterns and calculated Th/U of the dated grains are consistent with these zircons having grown during igneous crystallization. To determine the timing of hydrothermal metamorphism, we dated a second population of zircons, with ubiquitous igneous zircon during or following hydrothermal metamorphism. Th-corrected 206Pb/238U dates for the inclusion-rich zircons range from 13.598 ± 0.012 to 13.503 ± 0.018 Ma and predate crystallization of all but one of the inclusion-free zircons, suggesting that the inclusion-rich zircons were assimilated from older hydrothermally altered wall rocks. The xenotime dates are sensitive to the Th correction applied, but even using a maximum correction, 206Pb/238U dates range from 13.341 ± 0.162 to 12.993 ± 0.055 Ma and postdate crystallization of both the inclusion-rich zircons and inclusion-free igneous zircons, reflecting a second hydrothermal event. The data provide evidence for alternating magmatism and hydrothermal metamorphism at or near the ridge axis during accretion of the lower crust at a ridge-transform intersection and suggest that hydrothermally altered crust was assimilated into younger gabbroic magmas. The results of this study show that high-precision U-Pb dating is a powerful method for studying the timing of

  2. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    m2 for stable ... Keywords. Cambay basin; P-wave velocity; heat flow; heat generation; 2-D modelling; crustal thermal structure; Moho depth; Curie isotherm. ... major disadvantage of ignoring the effect of lateral variation in the heat production ...

  3. Crustal evolution at mantle depths constrained from Pamir xenoliths (United States)

    Kooijman, E.; Hacker, B. R.; Smit, M. A.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Ratschbacher, L.


    Lower crustal xenoliths erupted in the Pamir at ~11 Ma provide an exclusive opportunity to study the evolution of crust at mantle depths during a continent-continent collision. To investigate, and constrain the timing of, the petrologic processes that occurred during burial to the peak conditions (2.5-2.8 GPa, 1000-1100 °C; [1]), we performed chemical- and isotope analyses of accessory minerals in 10 xenoliths, ranging from eclogites to grt-ky-qtz granulites. In situ laser ablation split-stream ICPMS yielded 1) U-Pb ages, Ti concentrations and REE in zircon, 2) U/Th-Pb ages and REE in monazite, and 3) U-Pb ages and trace elements in rutile. In addition, garnet, and biotite and K-feldspar were dated using Lu-Hf and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, respectively. Zircon and monazite U-(Th-)Pb ages are 101.9±1.8, 53.7±1.0, 39.1±0.8, 21.7±0.4, 18.2±0.5, 16.9±0.8, 15.1±0.3 (2σ) and 12.5-11.1 Ma; most samples showed several or all of these populations. The 53.7 Ma and older ages are xenocrystic or detrital. For younger ages, zircon and monazite in individual samples recorded different ages-although zircon in one rock and monazite in another can be the same age. The 39.1 Ma zircon and monazite mostly occur as inclusions in minerals of the garnet-bearing assemblage that represents the early, low-P stages of burial. Garnet Lu-Hf ages of 37.8±0.3 Ma support garnet growth at this time. Spinifex-like textures containing 21.7-11.1 Ma zircon and monazite record short-lived partial melting events during burial. Aligned kyanite near these patches indicates associated deformation. Zircons yielding ≤12.5 Ma exhibit increased Eu/Eu* and markedly decreased HREE concentrations, interpreted to record feldspar breakdown and omphacite growth during increasing pressure. Rutile U-Pb cooling ages are 10.8±0.3 Ma in all samples. This agrees with the weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age of eight biotite, K-feldspar and whole rock separates of 11.00+0.16/-0.09 Ma. Rutile in eclogites provides Zr

  4. Central Arctic Crustal Modeling Constrained by Potential Field data and recent ECS Seismic Data (United States)

    Evangelatos, John; Oakey, Gordon; Saltus, Rick


    2-D gravity and magnetic models have been generated for several transects across the Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex to study the regional variability of the crustal structure and identify large scale lateral changes. The geometry and density parameters for the models have been constrained using recently acquired seismic reflection and refraction data collected jointly by Canada and the United States as part of their collaborative Arctic ECS programs. A total of fifteen models have been generated perpendicular to the ridge complex, typically 50 to 150 km apart. A minimalist approach to modeling involved maintaining a simple, laterally continuous density structure for the crust while varying the model geometry to fit the observed gravity field. This approach is justified because low amplitude residual Bouguer anomalies suggest a relatively homogenous density structure within the ridge complex. These models have provided a new measure of the regional variability in crustal thickness. Typically, models with thinner crust correspond with deeper bathymetric depths of the ridge which is consistent with regional isostatic equilibrium. Complex "chaotic" magnetic anomalies are associated with the Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex, which extends beneath the surrounding sedimentary basins. Pseudogravity inversion (magnetic potential) of the magnetic field provides a quantifiable areal extent of ˜1.3 x106 km2. Forward modeling confirms that the magnetic anomalies are not solely the result of magnetized bathymetric highs, but are caused to a great extent by mid- and lower crustal sources. The magnetization of the crust inferred from modeling is significantly higher than available lab measurements of onshore volcanic rocks. Although the 2-D models cannot uniquely identify whether the crustal protolith was continental or oceanic, there is a necessity for a significant content of high density and highly magnetic (ultramafic) material. Based on the crustal thickness estimates from our

  5. Seasonal Mass Changes and Crustal Vertical Deformations Constrained by GPS and GRACE in Northeastern Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanjin Pan


    Full Text Available Surface vertical deformation includes the Earth’s elastic response to mass loading on or near the surface. Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS stations record such deformations to estimate seasonal and secular mass changes. We used 41 CGPS stations to construct a time series of coordinate changes, which are decomposed by empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs, in northeastern Tibet. The first common mode shows clear seasonal changes, indicating seasonal surface mass re-distribution around northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived result is then assessed in terms of the mass changes observed in northeastern Tibet. The GPS-derived common mode vertical change and the stacked Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE mass change are consistent, suggesting that the seasonal surface mass variation is caused by changes in the hydrological, atmospheric and non-tidal ocean loads. The annual peak-to-peak surface mass changes derived from GPS and GRACE results show seasonal oscillations in mass loads, and the corresponding amplitudes are between 3 and 35 mm/year. There is an apparent gradually increasing gravity between 0.1 and 0.9 μGal/year in northeast Tibet. Crustal vertical deformation is determined after eliminating the surface load effects from GRACE, without considering Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA contribution. It reveals crustal uplift around northeastern Tibet from the corrected GPS vertical velocity. The unusual uplift of the Longmen Shan fault indicates tectonically sophisticated processes in northeastern Tibet.

  6. Seismic Imaging across the Moroccan Atlas (SIMA): An effort to constrain the crustal thickness of the Atlas Mountains (United States)

    Carbonell, R.; Ayarza, P.; Harnafi, M.; Teixell, A.; Kchikah, A.; Martí, D.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M.; Charroud, M.; Amrhar, M.


    The Atlas Mountains are a young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt located at the southern edge of the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. The Atlas features a high topography that locally exceeds 4000 m. However, geological and preliminary geophysical studies suggest that it has experienced less than 25% of shortening and moderate crustal thickening. These observations rise the question of the origin of the Atlas high elevation. Potential field geophysical studies and previous low-resolution refraction experiments report a maximum crustal thickness of ~40 km, suggesting that the range is out of isostatic equilibrium at a crustal level and that an asthenospheric upwelling is needed to support the mountain load. These models, however, lack the constraints that would provide the knowledge of the precise Moho depth. In order to fulfill this requirement and to constrain the seismic velocity structure of this mountain system, a 700 km long, seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction transect has been recently acquired by an international team. The north-south transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc, crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountains. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points generated by the detonation of 1 TN of explosives was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. Seismic stations were deployed with an average spacing of 650-750 m. The 6 shot points were located within the southern part of the transect with a shot spacing of ~60-70 km. Preliminary analysis of data shows an uneven distribution of the energy, providing a poor signal/ratio relation at longest offsets, thus hindering the identification of the deepest phases. However, crustal phases (Pg and PiP) and mantle reflected/refracted phases (PmP and Pn) are present in most of the shot gathers. Preliminary modelling of these phases leads to an estimation of the changes in the

  7. Magmatism and crustal extension: Constraining activation of the ductile shearing along the Gediz detachment, Menderes Massif (western Turkey) (United States)

    Rossetti, Federico; Asti, Riccardo; Faccenna, Claudio; Gerdes, Axel; Lucci, Federico; Theye, Thomas


    The Menderes Massif of western Turkey is a key area to study feedback relationships between magma generation/emplacement and activation of extensional detachment tectonics. Here, we present new textural analysis and in situ U-(Th)-Pb titanite dating from selected samples collected in the transition from the undeformed to the mylonitized zones of the Salihli granodiorite at the footwall of the Neogene, ductile-to-brittle, top-to-the-NNE Gediz-Alaşheir (GDF) detachment fault. Ductile shearing was accompanied by the fluid-mediated sub-solidus transformation of the granodiorite to orthogneiss, which occurred at shallower crustal levels and temperatures compatible with the upper greenschist-to-amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions (530-580 °C and P < 2 GPa). The syn-tectonic metamorphic overgrowth of REE-poor titanite on pristine REE-rich igneous titanite offers the possibility to constrain the timing of magma crystallisation and solid-state shearing at the footwall of the Gediz detachment. The common Pb corrected 206Pb/238U (206Pb*/238U) ages and the REE re-distribution in titanite that spatially correlates with the Th/U zoning suggests that titanite predominantly preserve open-system ages during fluid-assisted syn-tectonic re-crystallisation in the transition from magma crystallization and emplacement (at 16-17 Ma) to the syn-tectonic, solid-state shearing (at 14-15 Ma). A minimum time lapse of ca. 1-2 Ma is then inferred between the crustal emplacement of the Salihli granodiorite and nucleation of the ductile extensional shearing along the Gediz detachment. The reconstruction of the cooling history of the Salihli granodiorite documents a punctuated evolution dominated by two episodes of rapid cooling, between 14 Ma and 12 Ma ( 100 °C/Ma) and between 3 and 2 Ma ( 105 °C/Ma). We relate the first episode to nucleation and development of post-emplacement of ductile shearing along the GDF and the second to brittle high-angle faulting, respectively. Our dataset

  8. Three-dimensional crustal deformations and strain field features constrained by dense GPS measurements in Northeastern Tibet (United States)

    Zhang, Tengxu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Pan, Yuanjin


    The ongoing collision between the India plate and Eurasia plate brings N-S crustal shortening and thickening of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, using measurements from 40 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations of the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) we determine the latest three-dimensional crustal deformations in the NET region, and based on the Principal component analysis (PCA) technique we calculate and correct the common mode errors (CME). We also use GRACE observations to determine the deformations caused by surface pressure, non-tidal oceanic mass loading and hydrological loading. We find both GPS and GRACE observations show significant seasonal variation, and the observed seasonal vertical variation exhibits a good agreement with GRACE. The annual peak-to-peak amplitudes are between 3 and 40 mm/yr. The corrected vertical crustal deformation indicate that both the crustal uplift and subsidence are anisotropic in NET, and that the maximum uplift rate in the Longmen Shan fault reach 9.5mm/yr. We further use the horizontal velocity to calculate the strain rates throughout the NET. The result indicates that the shear band maintains feature consistent with the strike-slip fault along the Longmen Shan fault and Haiyuan fault. The crustal compression and extension can describe the uplifting and sinking of the crustal in a reasonable way. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733302) and NSFCs (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061); Guangxi Key Laboratory of Spatial Information and Geomatics (Grant No.1103108-12); Open Fund of Guangxi Key Laboratory of Spatial Information and Geomatics (Grant Nos. 15-140-07-32 and 14-045-24-17). Keywords: Continuous GPS observation; GRACE observation; principal component analysis; common mode error; crustal vertical deformation; strain rates

  9. Constraining ice mass loss from Jakobshavn Isbræ (Greenland) using InSAR-measured crustal uplift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Lin; Wahr, John; Howat, Ian


    . Overall, our results suggest that despite the inherent difficulties of working with a signal that has significant large-scale components, InSAR-measured crustal deformation can be used to study the ice mass loss of a rapidly thinning glacier and its surrounding catchment, providing both a constraint...

  10. Variation of Crustal Shear Velocity Structure Along the Eastern Lau Back-Arc Spreading Center Constrained By Seafloor Compliance (United States)

    Zha, Y.; Webb, S. C.; Dunn, R. A.


    Measurements of seafloor compliance, the deformation under long period (typically 30-300 s) ocean wave forcing, are primarily sensitive to crustal shear velocity structure. We analyze seafloor compliance from data collected from a subset of 50 broadband Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBS) deployed at the Eastern Lau spreading center (ELSC) from 2009 to 2010. The ELSC is a 400-km-long back-arc spreading center lying closely to the Tonga subduction trench in the southwestern Pacific. Seafloor morphology, crustal seismic structure and lava composition data show rapid variations along the ridge as the ridge migrates away from the volcanic arc front to the north, indicating a decreasing influence of the subducting slab. We calculate seafloor compliance functions by taking the spectral transfer function between the vertical displacement and pressure signal recorded by the 4-component OBSs, which are equipped with differential pressure gauges (DPGs). In the ridge perpendicular direction, compliance amplitude vary by more than an order of magnitude from the ridge crest to older seafloor covered by sediment. Along the spreading ridge, compliance measured from on-axis sites increases southwards, indicative of a decrease in the upper crustal shear velocity possibly due to increasing porosity and a thickening extrusive layer [Jacobs et al., 2007; Dunn et al., 2013]. We apply a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to invert the compliance functions for crustal shear velocities at various locations along the ELSC.

  11. Diapir versus along-channel ascent of crustal material during plate convergence: Constrained by the thermal structure of subduction zones (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Qi; Li, Zhong-Hai; Yang, Shao-Hua


    Subduction channel processes are crucial for understanding the material and energy exchange between the Earth's crust and mantle. Crustal rocks can be subducted to mantle depths, interact with the mantle wedge, and then exhume to the crustal depth again, which is generally considered as the mechanism for the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in nature. In addition, the crustal rocks generally undergo dehydration and melting at subarc depths, giving rise to fluids that metasomatize and weaken the overlying mantle wedge. There are generally two ways for the material ascent from subarc depths: one is along subduction channels; the other is through the mantle wedge by diapir. In order to study the conditions and dynamics of these contrasting material ascent modes, systematic petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models are constructed with variable thicknesses of the overriding and subducting continental plates, ages of the subducting oceanic plate, as well as the plate convergence rates. The model results suggest that the thermal structures of subduction zones control the thermal condition and fluid/melt activity at the slab-mantle interface in subcontinental subduction channels, which further strongly affect the material transportation and ascent mode. The thick overriding continental plate and the low-angle subduction style induced by young subducting oceanic plate both contribute to the formation of relatively cold subduction channels with strong overriding mantle wedge, where the along-channel exhumation occurs exclusively to result in the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks. In contrast, the thin overriding lithosphere and the steep subduction style induced by old subducting oceanic plate are the favorable conditions for hot subduction channels, which lead to significant hydration and metasomatism, melting and weakening of the overriding mantle wedge and thus cause the ascent of mantle wedge-derived melts by diapir through the mantle wedge

  12. South Menderes Monocline: Low-temperature thermochronology constrains role of crustal extension in structural evolution of southwest Turkey (United States)

    Ring, Uwe; Gessner, Klaus; Thomson, Stuart N.


    We report apatite and zircon fission-track data across the contact zones between the Menderes nappes, the Cycladic blueschist unit, and the Ören nappe, in the Anatolide belt of southwest Turkey. These data resolve previous debate on the deformation history of these Cretaceous to Eocene nappe contacts, including whether they were reactivated during late Oligocene to Miocene crustal extension. Apatite fission-track ages range from 18 to 28 Ma in the Menderes nappes, and 31 to 42 Ma in the Ören nappe. Zircon fission-track ages are 29 to 31 Ma in the Menderes nappes, 30 to 33 Ma in the Cycladic blueschist unit, and between 93 Ma and 129 Ma in the Ören nappe. The data reveal that the tectonic contacts within the Menderes nappes, and with the overlying Cycladic blueschist unit have been sealed since 35-30 Ma. In the Ören nappe, zircon fission-track ages are distinctly older (with mixed single grain ages between 300 and 75 Ma) reflecting partial to full resetting during late Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism. The contact between the Cycladic blueschist unit and the Ören nappe shows no significant tectonic movement in the brittle crust after 70 Ma. These data reveal that the nappe boundaries in the southern Menderes Massif have undergone no significant differential offset relative to the Earth's surface since the Oligocene and therefore were not reactivated during late Oligocene to Miocene continental extension. We interpret the steeply dipping portion of the nappe pile in the southern Menderes Massif as a tilted crustal section, which we name the 'South Menderes Monocline'. We speculate this monocline formed by differential uplift in the Miocene, either at the hinge zone of a plateau, or by unloading of the Simav detachment footwall.

  13. Fold dating: A new Ar/Ar illite dating application to constrain the age of deformation in shallow crustal rocks (United States)

    Fitz-Diaz, Elisa; van der Pluijm, Ben


    We propose a deformation dating method that combines XRD quantification and Ar chronology of submicroscopic illite to determine the absolute ages of folds that contain clay-bearing layers. Two folds in the frontal segment of the Mexican Fold-Thrust Belt (MFTB), which was deformed from Late Cretaceous to Eocene, are used to illustrate the method and its future potential. Variations in mineral composition, illite-polytype, crystallite-size (CS) and Ar total gas ages were analyzed in the limbs and hinge of two mesoscopic folds. This analysis examines potential effects of strain variation on illitization and the Ar isotopic system along folded layers, versus possible regional thermal overprints. The Ar total-gas ages for 9 samples in Fold 1 vary between 48.4 and 43.9 Ma. The % of 2M1 (detrital) illite vs. Ar total-gas ages tightly constrains the age of folding at 43.5 ± 0.3 Ma. Nine ages from three samples in Fold 2 range from 76.2 to 62.7 Ma, which results in a folding age of 63.9 ± 2.2 Ma. Both ages are in excellent agreement with more broadly constrained stratigraphic timing. The method offers a novel approach to radiometric dating of clay-bearing folds formed at very low-grade metamorphic conditions, and has the potential to constrain dates and rates of regional and local deformation along and across foreland orogenic belts.

  14. Evidence for underplating in the genesis of the Variscan synorogenic Beja Layered Gabbroic Sequence (Portugal) and related mesocratic rocks (United States)

    Jesus, Ana Patrícia; Mateus, António; Munhá, José Manuel; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Bento dos Santos, Telmo M.; Benoit, Mathieu


    The Beja Layered Gabbroic Sequence (LGS) is a mafic, layered synorogenic intrusion that was emplaced at the SW border of the Ossa Morena Zone (OMZ) at ca. 350 Ma during the early stages of the Variscan oblique continental collision. The LGS represents the primitive member of the Beja Igneous Complex (BIC), which records part of an important Variscan magmatic event to the north of the SW Iberian suture that led to the formation of several igneous complexes. Although LGS primary magmatic features are well-preserved from post-crystallization tectono-metamorphic events, the magma chamber processes were influenced by the Variscan regional stress field which affected also the development of the magmatic layering and associated foliation. The baric evolution recorded in LGS (from 9 to 4 kbar) is compatible with early crustal underplating of juvenile basaltic magma at the Moho. Mild lower crustal contamination resulted in Nb-Ta-Rb-Th depletion and higher REE fractionation compared to MORB. Contamination proceeded mainly by assimilation-fractional-crystallization (AFC) at final level of emplacement. The obtained results suggest that the spatially associated BIC mesocratic rocks are genetically related to LGS, both deriving from an equivalent mantle source. It is proposed that the underplating of basaltic magmas at the lower crust gave rise to a deep crustal hot zone. This allows BIC evolution to be explained as a single, long-lived magmatic event of progressive geochemical and lithological diversification due to the involvement of distinct crustal components. The most important components were incorporated at depth by the reworking of OMZ lower crustal rocks, with the involvement of middle crustal rocks later on, and of upper crustal contamination during the final stages of emplacement.

  15. Role of crustal and slab components in the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (Ecuador) constrained by Sr-Nd-O isotopes


    Hidalgo, S.; Gerbe, M. C.; Martin, H.; Samaniego, Pablo; Bourdon, E.


    A combined approach based on trace elements, radiogenic (Sr-Nd) and stable (O) isotopes allows us to discuss the role of crustal assimilation and mantle metasomatism in Quaternary Ecuadorian magmatism. Magmas emplaced in the Eastern Cordillera have high Sr isotopic ratios and relatively high delta O-18 values, which reflect crustal assimilation (6-13 vol.%) of igneous and metamorphic Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks during ascent and storage in the continental crust. However, in the Volcanic Fro...

  16. Mechanical Anisotropies and Mechanisms of Mafic Magma Ascent in Middle Continental Crust: The Sondalo Gabbroic Complex (N Italy) (United States)

    Petri, B.; Mohn, G.; Skrzypek, E.; Mateeva, T.; Robion, P.; Schulmann, K.; Manatschal, G.; Müntener, O.


    The ascent mechanisms of magma through the continental crust remain a long standing controversy. The pathways of intermediate to felsic magmas can be continuously traced through the crust, however mafic magma transfer between lower and upper crustal levels is rarely documented. To fill this gap, we explore the mechanisms of mafic magma ascent and emplacement in middle continental crust. We characterize the structure and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) fabrics of a mid-crustal mafic complex (Sondalo gabbroic complex, N-Italy) together with Anisotropy of Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization (AARM) and Crystallographic Preferred Orientation (CPO) data. Field data indicate concentric gabbroic to dioritic intrusions emplaced in sub-vertically foliated metasedimentary host-rocks. The petrofabrics and magnetic fabrics of the pluton (foliations and lineations) are coaxial, syn-magmatic and sub-vertical. U-Pb dating of zircons along with the structural record of the plutonic rocks indicate two major pulses of magma emplacement in sub-vertical channels. (1) The concordant orientation between the magmatic foliation and the host-rock xenoliths in the center of the pluton suggest that the early emplacement phase occurred through magma fracture opening subparallel to the vertical fabric of the host rocks at 289-288 Ma. (2) The second magma ascent phase was controlled by a change in the rheology of the host-rock and the mafic magma. The temperature increase in the contact aureole induced partial melting and decreased its mechanical strength, whereas the viscosity of the mafic magma increased due to progressive cooling and crystallization. This caused an en-masse rise of the crystal mush and drag forces resulting in the formation of a vertical foliation in the metamorphic aureole and a weaker but concordant magmatic foliation at the rim of the pluton. This ascent phase is slightly younger (288-285 Ma) and accounts for the contrasted P-T evolution recorded by

  17. Tectonic setting of gabbroic rocks in the western part of the Lupa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a pronounced occurrence of gabbroic rocks in the western part of the Lupa gold field, SW Tanzania. These rocks occur in the peripheral part around the Saza-Chuya granodiorite with which it makes a gradiational, unchilled contact. The rocks have been altered or metamorphosed to low-grade greenschist facies as ...

  18. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.


    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  19. Crustal permeability (United States)

    Gleeson, Tom; Ingebritsen, Steven E.


    Permeability is the primary control on fluid flow in the Earth’s crust and is key to a surprisingly wide range of geological processes, because it controls the advection of heat and solutes and the generation of anomalous pore pressures.  The practical importance of permeability – and the potential for large, dynamic changes in permeability – is highlighted by ongoing issues associated with hydraulic fracturing for hydrocarbon production (“fracking”), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration.  Although there are thousands of research papers on crustal permeability, this is the first book-length treatment.  This book bridges the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic perspective of permeability as a static material property and the perspective of other Earth scientists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. 

  20. Hydrous parental magmas of Early to Middle Permian gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia, North China: New constraints on deep-Earth fluid cycling in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Zhi


    The role of fluids in the formation of the Permian-aged Xigedan and Mandula gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia was significant to the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), and the active northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that the Xigedan gabbroic intrusion in the northern NCC was emplaced at 266 Ma, and is therefore slightly younger than the ca 280 Ma Mandula gabbroic intrusion in the XMOB. Along with their felsic counterparts, the mafic igneous intrusions record extensive bimodal magmatism along the northern NCC and in the XMOB during the Early to Middle Permian. The Mandula gabbroic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040-0.7043) and positive εNd(t) (+6.2 to +7.3) and εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +14.5), resembling to those of contemporaneous Mandula basalts. These features, together with the presence of amphibole and the enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g., Rb, Ba, U and Sr) and depletion of Nb-Ta suggest that the parental magmas of the Mandula mafic igneous rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by water-rich fluids. In contrast, the Xigedan gabbroic rocks are characterised by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7078-0.7080) and zircon δ18O values (5.84-6.61‰), but low εNd(t) (-9.3 to -10.2) and εHf(t) values (-8.76 to -8.54), indicative of a long-term enriched subcontinental lithosphere mantle source that was metasomatized by recycled, high δ18O crustal materials prior to partial melting. The high water contents (4.6-6.9 wt%) and arc-like geochemical signature (enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of Nb-Ta) of the parental magmas of the Xigedan gabbroic rocks further establish the existence of a mantle hydration event caused by fluid/melts released from hydrated recycled oceanic crust. Incompatible element modelling shows that 5-10% partial melting of an enriched mantle source by

  1. Petrogenesis of the NWA 7320 enriched martian gabbroic shergottite: Insight into the martian crust (United States)

    Udry, Arya; Howarth, Geoffrey H.; Lapen, Thomas J.; Righter, Minako


    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7320 is classified as a gabbroic shergottite, the second to be recognized in the martian meteorite record. This interpretation is based on: (1) the calculated bulk-rock rare earth element (REE) concentrations, which show the highest Eu positive anomaly (Eu/Eu∗ = 2.2) of all the shergottites, reflecting accumulation of plagioclase; and (2) the highest modal abundance of maskelynitized plagioclase (50 mod.%) compared to the other shergottites. The three-phase symplectite (fayalite + hedenbergite + silica) is present in NWA 7320 and formed as a result of the breakdown of metastable pyroxene/pyroxenoid margins on coarse-grained pyroxenes. The latter is indicative of metastable overgrowths on pyroxene cores during the final stages of crystallization, followed by relatively slow cooling at subsolidus conditions. The NWA 7320 parental melt originated from an incompatible trace element enriched and oxidized (∼FMQ) source as indicated by Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf isotope systematics, ilmenite-titanomagnetite pairs, the partition coefficient of Cr in pyroxene, and merrillite REE compositions. The Ti/Al ratio of pyroxene in NWA 7320 indicates an initial crystallization depth of 30-70 km (P = 4-9 kbar). However, the largest impact craters on Mars are <8 km in depth, indicating that NWA 7320 could not have been ejected from this depth and must have had a polybaric formation history. We suggest that the pyroxene phenocrysts began to crystallize at depth, but were entrained as antecrysts in a basaltic magma ascending to shallower levels in the martian crust. In addition, plagioclase likely crystallized during magma ascent, followed by subsequent accumulation in a shallow magma intrusion or sill, resulting in the gabbroic texture. Furthermore, the similarity in the radiogenic isotope composition of NWA 7320 to that of Los Angeles and NWA 856 suggest that these meteorites were linked to common volcanic system on Mars.

  2. Positive anomalous concentrations of Pb in some gabbroic rocks of Afikpo basin southeastern Nigeria. (United States)

    Onwualu-John, J N


    Gabbroic rocks have intruded the sedimentary sequence at Ameta in Afikpo basin southeastern Nigeria. Petrographic and geochemical features of the rocks were studied in order to evaluate their genetic and geotectonic history. The petrographic results show that the rocks contain plagioclase, olivine, pyroxene, biotite, iron oxide, and traces of quartz in three samples. Major element characteristics show that the rocks are subalkaline. In addition, the rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to basaltic andesites. The trace elements results show inconsistent concentrations of high field strength elements (Zr, Nb, Th, Ta), moderate enrichment of large-ion lithophile elements (Rb, Sr, Ba) and low concentrations of Ni and Cr. Rare earth element results show that the rocks are characterized by enrichment of light rare earth elements, middle rare earth elements enrichment, and depletion of heavy rare earth elements with slight positive europium anomalies. Zinc concentrations are within the normal range in basaltic rocks. There are extremely high concentrations of Pb in three of the rock samples. The high Pb concentrations in some of these rocks could be as a result of last episodes of magmatic crystallization. The rocks intruded the Asu River Group; organic components in the sedimentary sequence probably contain Pb which has been assimilated into the magma at the evolutionary stage of the magma. Weathering of some rocks that contain galena could lead to an increase in the concentration of lead in the gabbroic rocks, especially when the migration and crystallization of magma take place in an aqueous environment. Nevertheless, high concentration of lead is hazardous to health and environment.

  3. Svecofennian intra-orogenic gabbroic magmatism: a case study from Turku, southwestern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevalainen, J.


    Full Text Available Using single-grain zircon U-Pb dating by LA-MC-ICPMS and whole-rock geochemistry, we have studied the Palaeoproterozoic gabbroic rocks from Moisio in southwest Finland. Three ages were obtained. The interpreted intrusion age is ~1.86 Ga, which places it in the 1.87–1.84 Ga intra-orogenic period of southern Svecofennia. The other ages, ~1.89 Ga and ~1.83 Ga, are inferred to be inherited and metamorphic ages, respectively. The K, LREE, LILE, Fe-, P-, Ti- and F-concentrations reveal two compositionally distinct groups: (i an enriched monzogabbro group and (ii a less enriched gabbro group. The composition of the monzogabbro group resembles the other intra-orogenic intrusions from southern Svecofennia, whereas the unrelated gabbro group is more comparable to the synorogenic rocks in the region. The magma source the monzogabbro experienced a subduction related carbonate metasomatism, induced by sediment subduction and subduction erosion. Evidently, the Moisio monzogabbro represent enriched, mantle derived magmatism in southern Svecofennia as a part of the intra-orogenic igneous activity. The intra-orogenic magmatism is considered to have conveyed considerable amounts of heat from the mantle into the crust contributing to subsequent lateorogenic high-grade metamorphism.

  4. Peering into the deep: Illuminating the crustal evolution of the Eucla basement and its relationship to the Albany-Fraser Orogen of southwest Australia. (United States)

    Hartnady, Michael; Kirkland, Chris; Clark, Chris; Spaggiari, Catherine; Smithies, Hugh


    The Albany-Fraser Orogen is a 1200 km long east to northeasterly trending Palaeoproterozoic to Mesoproterozoic orogenic belt that defines the southern to southeastern margin of the West Australian Craton (WAC). The belt records a long and complex geological history spanning the break-up of Nuna between 2000 and 1700 Ma and amalgamation of Rodinia between 1300 and 1000 Ma. Recent geochronological, geochemical and isotopic work has shown that the Albany-Fraser Orogen formed through a protracted period of reworking of the margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton (part of the WAC) with various additions of mantle-derived material. The Cretaceous Bight and Cenozoic Eucla Basins partially overlie the northeastern part of the Albany-Fraser Orogen and completely cover 1000 km of crystalline basement (the Eucla basement) that separates the belt from the South Australian Craton. This basement constitutes the glue between the major building blocks of Proterozoic Australia, yet, its geological history is poorly understood. New drill cores penetrating the basement have intersected interlayered granitic and gabbroic rocks that yield U-Pb zircon dates that are dissimilar to any magmatic ages from units within the adjoining Albany-Fraser Orogen, with the exception of the youngest, 1190-1125 Ma magmatic suite. In addition, mantle-like hafnium and neodymium isotopic signatures indicate that the rocks of the Eucla basement are dominated by new juvenile addition, and may represent an allochthonous terrane of oceanic heritage. New ɛHf contour maps for the Albany-Fraser Orogen and Eucla basement highlight this difference. Time-slicing the isotopic dataset reveals a pattern of Palaeoproterozoic juvenile magmatism sub-perpendicular to the present day structural grain in the belt. If this marks the presence of an older lithospheric structure then it demonstrates the power that time-constrained isotopic mapping provides for illuminating lithospheric architecture through time. This may be

  5. Nd isotopes and crustal growth rate (United States)

    Albarede, F.


    Sm/Nd isotopic constraints on crustal growth is discussed. In order to constrain Sm/Nd fractionation between continental crust and depleted mantle, an extensive data base of isotopic measurements (assumed to be adequately representative of continental crust) was compiled. The results imply that the evolution of depleted mantles was roughly linear, with no major discontinuities over the course of geologic time. This is different from other determinations of depleting mantle evolution, which show nonlinear behavior. The Sm/Nd evolution lines for continental crust and depleted mantle intersect between 3.8 to 4.0 Ga, which may indicate that the onset of continental growth was later than 4.5 Ga. A mathematical model is described, the results of which imply that time integrated crustal additions from the mantle are about 1.8 to 2.5 cu km/a, whereas crustal subtractions by sediment recycling are about 0.6 to 1.5 cu km/a. This results in a net time integrated crustal growth rate of about 1 cu km/a, which is similar to present day rates determined, for example, by Reymer and Schubert.

  6. Geochemistry and tectonomagmatic setting of the Kharaju gabbroic intrusions (South Azarshahr, East Azerbaijan province)


    Abdolnaser Fazlnia


    Kharaju mafic intrusions (south Azarshahr; East Azarbaijan) are gabbro in composition. The rocks with Eocene age intruded the northwest part of Urumieh -Dokhtar magmatic belt with a trend of NW-SE. These rocks contain mostly of minerals such as plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene, titanite, apatite and magnetite. The rocks are moderate to high calc-alkaline. The gabbros were produced as a result of the partial melting of mantle wedge with spinel lherzolite and after emplacement into the crustal mag...

  7. Seismically constrained two-dimentional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Sounding (DSS) profile in the north Cambay basin. In this work P-wave velocities obtained from the DSS studies have been converted into heat generation values for the computation of temperature distribution. The model result reveals the Curie isotherm at a depth of ≈ 22 km and Moho temperature at around 900°C.

  8. Lunar Crustal Stratigraphy (United States)

    McCallum, I. S.; O'Brien, H. E.


    Intense bombardment during the first 600 Ma of lunar history has rendered the task of reconstructing the stratigraphy of the lunar crust especially difficult. On a planetary scale, the distribution of lithologies around multi-ringed basins coupled with orbital geochemical data reveal that the lunar crust is heterogeneous both laterally and vertically. Ejecta from the large multi-ringed basins is exclusively of crustal origin since twenty five years of lunar sample study have failed to identify any unequivocal mantle samples. Given the most recent determination of crustal thickness, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of around 60 km. In the younger multi-ringed basins (Orientale and Imbrium), the occurrence of anorthosites in inner rings is consistent with an anorthositic upper crust (Al2O3 = 26-28 wt.%). On the other hand, basin impact melts, most notably the low-K Fra Mauro (LKFM) composition associated with the Imbrium and Serenitatis basins, are distinctly more mafic with a composition corresponding to norite (Al2O3 ~ 20 wt.%). Cratering models suggest that such melts are generated at the lower to middle crustal depths (30 to 60 km). The paucity of unequivocal deep-seated crystalline plutonic rocks is also consistent with cratering models which suggest that unmelted rock fragments in ejecta blankets are most likely derived from the upper part of the crust. Consequently, the possibility exists that no crystalline lunar samples from deeper that ~30 km are present in the returned sample collection.

  9. Simulations of tremor-related creep reveal a weak crustal root of the San Andreas Fault (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Bradley, Andrew M.; Johnson, Kaj M.


    Deep aseismic roots of faults play a critical role in transferring tectonic loads to shallower, brittle crustal faults that rupture in large earthquakes. Yet, until the recent discovery of deep tremor and creep, direct inference of the physical properties of lower-crustal fault roots has remained elusive. Observations of tremor near Parkfield, CA provide the first evidence for present-day localized slip on the deep extension of the San Andreas Fault and triggered transient creep events. We develop numerical simulations of fault slip to show that the spatiotemporal evolution of triggered tremor near Parkfield is consistent with triggered fault creep governed by laboratory-derived friction laws between depths of 20–35 km on the fault. Simulated creep and observed tremor northwest of Parkfield nearly ceased for 20–30 days in response to small coseismic stress changes of order 104 Pa from the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon Earthquake. Simulated afterslip and observed tremor following the 2004 M6.0 Parkfield earthquake show a coseismically induced pulse of rapid creep and tremor lasting for 1 day followed by a longer 30 day period of sustained accelerated rates due to propagation of shallow afterslip into the lower crust. These creep responses require very low effective normal stress of ~1 MPa on the deep San Andreas Fault and near-neutral-stability frictional properties expected for gabbroic lower-crustal rock.

  10. Continuous Spectrum of Crustal Structures and Spreading Processes from Volcanic Rifted Margins to Mid-Ocean Ridges (United States)

    Karson, J. A.


    Structures generated by seafloor spreading in oceanic crust (and ophiolites) and thick oceanic crust of Iceland show a continuous spectrum of features that formed by similar mechanisms but at different scales. A high magma budget near the Iceland hotspot generates thick (40-25 km) mafic crust in a plate boundary zone about 50 km wide. The upper crust ( 10 km thick) is constructed by the subaxial subsidence and thickening of lavas fed by dense dike swarms over a hot, weak lower crust to produce structures analogous to seaward-dipping reflectors of volcanic rifted margins. Segmented rift zones propagate away from the hotspot creating migrating transform fault zones, microplate-like crustal blocks and rift-parallel strike-slip faults. These structures are decoupled from the underlying lower crustal gabbroic rocks that thin by along-axis flow that reduces the overall crustal thickness and smooths-out local crustal thickness variations. Spreading on mid-ocean ridges with high magma budgets have much thinner crust (10-5 km) generated at a much narrower (few km) plate boundary zone. Subaxial subsidence accommodates the thickening of the upper crust of inward-dipping lavas and outward-dipping dikes about 1-2 km thick over a hot weak lower crust. Along-axis (high-temperature ductile and magmatic) flow of lower crustal material may help account for the relatively uniform seismic thickness of oceanic crust worldwide. Spreading along even slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges near hotspots (e.g., the Reykjanes Ridge) probably have similar features that are transitional between these extremes. In all of these settings, upper crustal and lower crustal structures are decoupled near the plate boundary but eventually welded together as the crust ages and cools. Similar processes are likely to occur along volcanic rifted margins as spreading begins.

  11. Seismic velocity and crustal thickness inversions: Moon and Mars (United States)

    Drilleau, Melanie; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-François; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Wieczorek, Mark


    We present results from new inversions of seismic data arrival times acquired by the Apollo active and passive experiments. Markov chain Monte Carlo inversions are used to constrain (i) 1-D lunar crustal and upper mantle velocity models and (ii) 3-D lateral crustal thickness models under the Apollo stations and the artificial and natural impact sites. A full 3-D model of the lunar crustal thickness is then obtained using the GRAIL gravimetric data, anchored by the crustal thicknesses under each Apollo station and impact site. To avoid the use of any seismic reference model, a Bayesian inversion technique is implemented. The advantage of such an approach is to obtain robust probability density functions of interior structure parameters governed by uncertainties on the seismic data arrival times. 1-D seismic velocities are parameterized using C1-Bézier curves, which allow the exploration of both smoothly varying models and first-order discontinuities. The parameters of the inversion include the seismic velocities of P and S waves as a function of depth, the thickness of the crust under each Apollo station and impact epicentre. The forward problem consists in a ray tracing method enabling both the relocation of the natural impact epicenters, and the computation of time corrections associated to the surface topography and the crustal thickness variations under the stations and impact sites. The results show geology-related differences between the different sites, which are due to contrasts in megaregolith thickness and to shallow subsurface composition and structure. Some of the finer structural elements might be difficult to constrain and might fall within the uncertainties of the dataset. However, we use the more precise LROC-located epicentral locations for the lunar modules and Saturn-IV upper stage artificial impacts, reducing some of the uncertainties observed in past studies. In the framework of the NASA InSight/SEIS mission to Mars, the method developed in

  12. Compressional wave velocity and index properties of the gabbroic rocks drilled at hole 1105A of the Atlantis Bank, southwest Indian Ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.

    Compressional wave velocities (Vp) and index properties of 70 mini- gabbroic rock- core samples of 2.5 cm diameter x 2.1 cm long from 157.1 m below seafloor in Hole 1105Aof the Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge, were measured in the laboratory...

  13. Two types of gabbroic xenoliths from rhyolite dominated Niijima volcano, northern part of Izu-Bonin arc: petrological and geochemical constraints (United States)

    Arakawa, Yoji; Endo, Daisuke; Ikehata, Kei; Oshika, Junya; Shinmura, Taro; Mori, Yasushi


    We examined the petrography, petrology, and geochemistry of two types of gabbroic xenoliths (A- and B-type xenoliths) in olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units among the dominantly rhyolitic rocks in Niijima volcano, northern Izu-Bonin volcanic arc, central Japan. A-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene with an adcumulate texture were found in both olivine basalt and biotite rhyolite units, and B-type gabbroic xenoliths consisting of plagioclase and amphibole with an orthocumulate texture were found only in biotite rhyolite units. Geothermal- and barometricmodelling based on mineral chemistry indicated that the A-type gabbro formed at higher temperatures (899-955°C) and pressures (3.6-5.9 kbar) than the B-type gabbro (687-824°C and 0.8-3.6 kbar). These findings and whole-rock chemistry suggest different parental magmas for the two types of gabbro. The A-type gabbro was likely formed from basaltic magma, whereas the B-type gabbro was likely formed from an intermediate (andesitic) magma. The gabbroic xenoliths in erupted products at Niijima volcano indicate the presence of mafic to intermediate cumulate bodies of different origins at relatively shallower levels beneath the dominantly rhyolitic volcano.

  14. Geochemistry and tectonomagmatic setting of the Kharaju gabbroic intrusions (South Azarshahr, East Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolnaser Fazlnia


    Full Text Available Kharaju mafic intrusions (south Azarshahr; East Azarbaijan are gabbro in composition. The rocks with Eocene age intruded the northwest part of Urumieh -Dokhtar magmatic belt with a trend of NW-SE. These rocks contain mostly of minerals such as plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene, titanite, apatite and magnetite. The rocks are moderate to high calc-alkaline. The gabbros were produced as a result of the partial melting of mantle wedge with spinel lherzolite and after emplacement into the crustal magma chamber underwent fractional crystallization. Injection of the Kharaju intrusions is in relation to the last stages of Neotethys subduction activity under Central Iran. Negative anomaly in the high ionic strength elements (HFSE like, Nb, Ta, P, Hf and Zr and mild positive anomalies of Eu and Sr with moderate increases in values of K, Sr, Rb, Ba, Pb and U show oblique subduction beneath Central Iran might be willing to make the appropriate space on the edge of central Iran and as a result, partial melting in the mantle wedge occurred due to reduce the pressure as decompression.

  15. Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism


    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Magmatic processes on Earth govern the mass, energy and chemical transfer between the mantle, crust and atmosphere. To understand magma storage conditions in the crust that ultimately control volcanic activity and growth of continents, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column during magmatic episodes is essential. Here we use a numerical model to constrain the physical conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that over long d...

  16. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf


    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  17. Crustal structure on the northeastern flank of the Kenya rift (United States)

    Prodehl, C.; Jacob, A. W. B.; Thybo, H.; Dindi, E.; Stangl, R.


    The KRISP flank line E converges with the Kenya rift at an angle of about 45° and is approximately parallel to the older Anza graben to the north. The depth to the basement is almost zero along the entire onshore part of the profile with higher velocities at the southeastern end indicative of extensive Precambrian gabbroic intrusions in the upper crust. The Moho shallows steadily from about 35 km at the southeastern end of the profile to about 24 km under Lake Turkana. Even though the Moho rises fairly steadily, there is significant heterogeneity in the crust above it. This shows that the extension is unevenly distributed between the upper and the lower crust. The Moho is laminated and variably reflective. Compared to the KRISP cross-line D further south, the crust is unexpectedly thin and shows extension increasing in a northerly direction. This extension is probably not associated with the Anza and Kenya rifting but with the profile's position on the slope of the Kenya dome. The indications are that there is a relatively abrupt change to a 20-km Moho depth near the Lake Turkana Central shotpoint. This change to a mid-rift crustal thickness occurs not at the postulated margin at the southeastern shore of Lake Turkana but at least 50 km further to the northwest. We suggest that the position of this margin may need to be redefined. The P n velocity is quite high at 8.1 km/s. This may indicate either a cold upper mantle or anisotropy. An upper-mantle reflector has been identified between 15 and 20 km below the Moho. It dips gently away from the rift.

  18. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  19. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.


    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mo...

  20. Along-Axis Structure and Crustal Construction Processes of Spreading Segments in Iceland: Implications for Magmatic Rifts (United States)

    Siler, D. L.; Karson, J. A.


    Magmatic rift systems are composed of discrete spreading segments defined by morphologic, structural, and volcanic features that vary systematically along strike. In Iceland, structural features mapped in the glaciated and exhumed Miocene age upper crust correlate with analogous features in the seismically and volcanically active neovolcanic zone. Integrating information from both the active rift zones and ancient crust provides a three-dimensional perspective of crustal structure and the volcanic and tectonic processes that construct crust along spreading segments. Crustal exposures in the Skagi region of northern Iceland reveal significant along-strike variations in geologic structure. The upper crust at exhumed magmatic centers (segment centers) is characterized by a variety of intrusive rocks, high-temperature hydrothermal alteration, and geologic evidence for kilometer-scale subsidence. In contrast, the upper crust along segment limbs, which extend along strike from magmatic centers, is characterized by thick sections of gently dipping lava flows, cut by varying proportions of subvertical dikes. This structure implies relatively minor upper crustal subsidence and lateral dike intrusion. The differing modes of subsidence beneath segment centers and segment limbs require along-axis mass redistribution in the underlying upper, middle, and lower crust during crustal construction. This along-axis material transport is accomplished through lateral dike intrusion in the upper crust and by along-axis flow of magmatic to high-temperature solid-state gabbroic material in the middle and lower crust. These processes, inferred from outcrop evidence in Skagi, are consistent with processes inferred to be important during active rifting in Iceland and at analogous magmatic oceanic and continental rifts.

  1. Crystallization of oxidized, moderately hydrous arc basalt at mid- to lower-crustal pressures: Implications for andesite genesis (United States)

    Blatter, Dawnika L.; Sisson, Thomas W.; Hankins, W. Ben


    (Müntener and Ulmer in Geophys Res Lett 33(21):L21308, 2006). The lower-pressure liquids (400 MPa) have this same trait, but to a lesser extent due to more abundant near-liquidus plagioclase crystallization. A compilation of >6,500 analyses of igneous rocks from the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada batholith, representative of convergent margin (arc) magmas, shows that ASI increases continuously and linearly with SiO2 from basalts to rhyolites or granites and that arc magmas are not commonly peraluminous until SiO2 exceeds 69 wt%. These relations are consistent with plagioclase accompanying mafic silicates over nearly all the range of crystallization (or remelting). The scarcity of natural peraluminous andesites shows that progressive crystallization–differentiation of primitive basalts in the deep crust, producing early clinopyroxenitic cumulates and evolved liquids, does not dominate the creation of intermediate arc magmas or of the continental crust. Instead, mid- to upper-crustal differentiation and/or open-system processes are critical to the production of intermediate arc magmas. Primary among the open-system processes may be extraction of highly evolved (granitic, rhyolitic) liquids at advanced degrees of basalt solidification (or incipient partial melting of predecessor gabbroic intrusions) and mixing of such liquids into replenishing basalts. Furthermore, if the andesitic-composition continents derived from basaltic sources, the arc ASI–SiO2 relation shows that the mafic component returned to the mantle was gabbroic in composition, not pyroxenitic.

  2. Lower crustal hydrothermal circulation at slow-spreading ridges: evidence from chlorine in Arctic and South Atlantic basalt glasses and melt inclusions (United States)

    van der Zwan, Froukje M.; Devey, Colin W.; Hansteen, Thor H.; Almeev, Renat R.; Augustin, Nico; Frische, Matthias; Haase, Karsten M.; Basaham, Ali; Snow, Jonathan E.


    Hydrothermal circulation at slow-spreading ridges is important for cooling the newly formed lithosphere, but the depth to which it occurs is uncertain. Magmas which stagnate and partially crystallize during their rise from the mantle provide a means to constrain the depth of circulation because assimilation of hydrothermal fluids or hydrothermally altered country rock will raise their chlorine (Cl) contents. Here we present Cl concentrations in combination with chemical thermobarometry data on glassy basaltic rocks and melt inclusions from the Southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (SMAR; 3 cm year-1 full spreading rate) and the Gakkel Ridge (max. 1.5 cm year-1 full spreading rate) in order to define the depth and extent of chlorine contamination. Basaltic glasses show Cl-contents ranging from ca. 50-430 ppm and ca. 40-700 ppm for the SMAR and Gakkel Ridge, respectively, whereas SMAR melt inclusions contain between 20 and 460 ppm Cl. Compared to elements of similar mantle incompatibility (e.g. K, Nb), Cl-excess (Cl/Nb or Cl/K higher than normal mantle values) of up to 250 ppm in glasses and melt inclusions are found in 75% of the samples from both ridges. Cl-excess is interpreted to indicate assimilation of hydrothermal brines (as opposed to bulk altered rock or seawater) based on the large range of Cl/K ratios in samples showing a limited spread in H2O contents. Resorption and disequilibrium textures of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene phenocrysts and an abundance of xenocrysts and gabbroic fragments in the SMAR lavas suggest multiple generations of crystallization and assimilation of hydrothermally altered rocks that contain these brines. Calculated pressures of last equilibration based on the major element compositions of melts cannot provide reliable estimates of the depths at which this crystallization/assimilation occurred as the assimilation negates the assumption of crystallization under equilibrium conditions implicit in such calculations. Clinopyroxene

  3. Implications of Magmatic Events on Hydrocarbon Generation: Occurrences of Gabbroic Rocks in the Orito Field, Putumayo Basin, SW Colombia (United States)

    Vásquez, M.; Altenberger, U.; Romer, R. L.


    abundance of dikes eventually changed the regional heat flux. Intrusions and CO2: The presence of CO2 in the basin can be explained as the result of carbonate breakdown associated with igneous intrusions in carbonate sequences. Moreover, since the carbonates are part of the source and reservoir formations of the basin, this gas represents a fundamental factor when assessing the economic risk during various exploration phases. These gabbroic intrusions played an important role in the paleo-heat flow scenario. The magmatic input led to an increase of the maturity of the source rock. The combination of the four elements mentioned above from middle Miocene to Pliocene favored the formation of thermally more-evolved hydrocarbons, but also promoted the generation of major contents of CO2 accumulating in the same traps as the hydrocarbons.

  4. Crustal structure of Central Sicily (United States)

    Giustiniani, Michela; Tinivella, Umberta; Nicolich, Rinaldo


    We processed crustal seismic profile SIRIPRO, acquired across Central Sicily. To improve the seismic image we utilized the wave equation datuming technique, a process of upward or downward continuation of the wave-field between two arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Wave equation datuming was applied to move shots and receivers to a given datum plane, removing time shifts related to topography and to near-surface velocity variations. The datuming procedure largely contributed to attenuate ground roll, enhance higher frequencies, increase resolution and improve the signal/noise ratio. Processed data allow recognizing geometries of crust structures differentiating seismic facies and offering a direct image of ongoing tectonic setting within variable lithologies characterizing the crust of Central Sicily. Migrated sections underline distinctive features of Hyblean Plateau foreland and above all a crustal thinning towards the Caltanissetta trough, to the contact with a likely deep Permo-Triassic rifted basin or rather a zone of a continent to oceanic transition. Inhomogeneity and fragmentation of Sicily crust, with a distinct separation of Central Sicily basin from western and eastern blocks, appear to have guided the tectonic transport inside the Caltanissetta crustal scale syncline and the accumulation of allochthonous terrains with south and north-verging thrusts. Major tectonic stack operated on the construction of a wide anticline of the Maghrebian chain in northern Sicily. Sequential south-verging imbrications of deep elements forming the anticline core denote a crust wedge indenting foreland structures. Deformation processes involved multiple detachment planes down to decoupling levels located near crust/mantle transition, supporting a presence of high-density lenses beneath the chain, interrelated to a southwards push of Tyrrhenian mantle and asthenosphere.

  5. Global Mapping of Oceanic and Continental Shelf Crustal Thickness and Ocean-Continent Transition Structure (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy; Roberts, Alan


    The 3D mapping of crustal thickness for continental shelves and oceanic crust, and the determination of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure and continent-ocean boundary (COB) location, represents a substantial challenge. Geophysical inversion of satellite derived free-air gravity anomaly data incorporating a lithosphere thermal anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008) now provides a useful and reliable methodology for mapping crustal thickness in the marine domain. Using this we have produced the first comprehensive maps of global crustal thickness for oceanic and continental shelf regions. Maps of crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor from gravity inversion may be used to determine the distribution of oceanic lithosphere, micro-continents and oceanic plateaux including for the inaccessible polar regions (e.g. Arctic Ocean, Alvey et al.,2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean magnetic anomaly and isochron interpretation. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we can improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy and sea-floor spreading trajectory during ocean basin formation. By restoring crustal thickness & continental lithosphere thinning to their initial post-breakup configuration we show the geometry and segmentation of the rifted continental margins at their time of breakup, together with the location of highly-stretched failed breakup basins and rifted micro-continents. For detailed analysis to constrain OCT structure, margin type (i.e. magma poor, "normal" or magma rich) and COB location, a suite of quantitative analytical methods may be used which include: (i) Crustal cross-sections showing Moho depth and crustal basement thickness from gravity inversion. (ii) Residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis which is used to investigate OCT

  6. Generation, segregation and migration of Cl-charged aqueous fluids in a crystallizing magma reservoir -A geochemical study of the Murotomisaki Gabbroic Intrusion (United States)

    Hoshide, T.; Obata, M.


    The Murotomisaki Gabbroic Intrusion (MGI) is a sill-like layered intrusion of gabbroic compositions near the Cape Muroto, Shikoku, SW Japan. MGI consists of three zones: Lower Zone, Middle Zone and Upper Zone. The Lower Zone contains abundant gabbroic pegmatite pods (several cm - 2 m in thick) and anorthositic layers only in a specific horizon (the crystal growth zone; 40-100m from the bottom) of olivine gabbros (hereinafter called 'host gabbro'). The pegmatite pod has an internal layered structure that consists of anorthositic roof on the top, pegmatitic filling in the middle, and a picritic floor on the bottom. Core of plagioclase from the anorthositic roof and the picritic floor are partly resorbed and amphibole-bearing crystallized melt inclusions are contained in the resorption part. Hoshide & Obata (2009) considered that plagioclase in pegmatite had once partially dissolved by a depression of plagioclase liquidus caused by infiltrations of aqueous fluids. In order to verify whether the pegmatitic structure was formed by the transport of fluids, we investigated the Cl variations in whole-rock and constituent minerals of MGI. Whole-rock XRF analyses revealed that the anorthositic roof of the pegmatite pods is rich in Cl in comparison with the host gabbros. This means that Cl has largely transferred from the host gabbros into pegmatitic parts. Nevertheless, apatites from the anorthositic roofs of pegmatites are poorer in Cl (0.2-0.9 wt%) than those in host gabbros, which varies greatly between different grains in composition ranging from 0.3 to 2.7 Cl wt%. This paradoxical situation may be resolved by supposing a crystallization and segregation sequences as follows. It is known that Cl is strongly partitioned into a fluid phase at high pressures (e.g. Alletti et al., 2009). Apatite from the anorthositic roofs crystallized from the melt which has been depleted in Cl by the exsolution of a Cl-rich fluid phase. On the contrary, as apatite from the host gabbro has

  7. Crustal Deformation In Northeastern Italy. (United States)

    Zerbini, S.; Romagnoli, C.; Richter, B.; Lago, L.; Domenichini, F.; Simon, D.

    Four permanent GPS stations have been installed in northeastern Italy starting mid 1996. Three stations: Bologna, Medicina and Porto Corsini are located in the south- eastern Po Plain, while the fourth one was set up in the Trieste harbor. The network was installed to monitor vertical crustal movements at tide gauge sites and in sub- siding areas of the Po Plain. At Medicina, since October 1996, it is also operative a superconducting gravimeter periodically controlled by means of absolute gravity mea- surements. The stations, which are distributed around the northern edge of the Adria plate, provide information on vertical and horizontal displacements related to crustal deformation. The temporal behavior of the Adria plate, in response to the convergence of the surrounding regions, has been presumably more complex than a simple horizon- tal displacement and, most likely, involved flexural bending processes. The GPS and the continuous gravity data have been analyzed and interpreted to estimate vertical and horizontal rates at the four sites. The presence of relevant seasonal signals has been identified in the series of station coordinates as well as in the gravity data. These fluc- tuations, if not accounted for, may corrupt the high precision estimate of the long-term trends.

  8. Detailed Northern Anatolian Fault Zone crustal structure from receiver functions (United States)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.


    We present high resolution images derived from receiver functions of the continental crust in Northern Turkey that is dissected by two fault strands of the Northern Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The NAFZ is a major continental strike-slip fault system that is comparable in length and slip rate to the San Andreas Fault Zone. Recent large earthquakes occurred towards the western end of the NAFZ in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2). As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we aim to develop a model of NAFZ crustal structure and locate deformation by constraining variations in seismic properties and anisotropy in the upper and lower crust. The crustal model will be an input to test deformation scenarios in order to match geodetic observations from different phases of the earthquake loading cycle. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. This Dense Array for North Anatolia (DANA) was deployed from May 2012 until September 2013 and we selected large events (Mw>5.5) from the high quality seismological dataset to analyze further. Receiver functions were calculated for different frequency bands then collected into regional stacks before being inverted for crustal S-wave velocity structure beneath the entire DANA array footprint. In addition, we applied common conversion point (CCP) migration using a regional velocity model to construct a migrated 3D volume of P-to-S converted and multiple energy in order to identify the major crustal features and layer boundaries. We also performed the CCP migration with transverse receiver functions in order to identify regions of anisotropy within the crustal layers. Our preliminary results show a heterogeneous crust above a flat Moho that is typically at a depth of 33 km. We do not observe a prominent step in the Moho beneath the surface

  9. Contemporary crustal movement of southeastern Tibet: Constraints from dense GPS measurements (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjin; Shen, Wen-Bin


    The ongoing collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate brings up N-S crustal shortening and thickening of the Tibet Plateau, but its dynamic mechanisms remain controversial yet. As one of the most tectonically active regions of the world, South-Eastern Tibet (SET) has been greatly paid attention to by many geoscientists. Here we present the latest three-dimensional GPS velocity field to constrain the present-day tectonic process of SET, which may highlight the complex vertical crustal deformation. Improved data processing strategies are adopted to enhance the strain patterns throughout SET. The crustal uplifting and subsidence are dominated by regional deep tectonic dynamic processes. Results show that the Gongga Shan is uplifting with 1-1.5 mm/yr. Nevertheless, an anomalous crustal uplifting of ~8.7 mm/yr and negative horizontal dilation rates of 40-50 nstrain/yr throughout the Longmenshan structure reveal that this structure is caused by the intracontinental subduction of the Yangtze Craton. The Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault is a major active sinistral strike-slip fault which strikes essentially and consistently with the maximum shear strain rates. These observations suggest that the upper crustal deformation is closely related with the regulation and coupling of deep material.

  10. Lifetime and size of shallow magma bodies controlled by crustal-scale magmatism (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Magmatic processes on Earth govern the mass, energy and chemical transfer between the mantle, crust and atmosphere. To understand magma storage conditions in the crust that ultimately control volcanic activity and growth of continents, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column during magmatic episodes is essential. Here we use a numerical model to constrain the physical conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that over long durations of intrusions (greater than 105 to 106 yr), extensive lower crustal mush zones develop, which modify the thermal budget of the upper crust and reduce the flux of magma required to sustain upper crustal magma reservoirs. Our results reconcile physical models of magma reservoir construction and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous volcanic and plutonic localities. Young igneous provinces (less than a few hundred thousand years old) are unlikely to support large upper crustal reservoirs, whereas longer-lived systems (active for longer than 1 million years) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of producing super-eruptions, even with intrusion rates smaller than 10-3 to 10-2 km3 yr-1. Hence, total duration of magmatism should be combined with the magma intrusion rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest explosive eruptions on Earth.

  11. Crustal-scale magmatism and its control on the longevity of magmatic systems (United States)

    Karakas, Ozge; Degruyter, Wim; Bachmann, Olivier; Dufek, Josef


    Constraining the duration and evolution of crustal magma reservoirs is crucial to our understanding of the eruptive potential of magmatic systems, as well as the volcanic:plutonic ratios in the crust, but estimates of such parameters vary widely in the current literature. Although no consensus has been reached on the lifetime of magma reservoirs, recent studies have revealed about the presence, location, and melt fraction of multi-level (polybaric) storage zones in the crust. If magma accumulates at different crustal levels, it must redistribute significant enthalpy within the crustal column and therefore must influence the lifetime of magma plumbing systems. However, an evaluation of the mass and heat budget of the entire crustal column is lacking. Here, we use a two-dimensional thermal model to determine the thermal conditions under which both lower and upper crustal magma bodies form. We find that large lower crustal mush zones supply heat to the upper crust and reduce the amount of thermal energy necessary to form subvolcanic reservoirs. This indicates that the crust is thermally viable to sustain partially molten magma reservoirs over long timescales (>10^5-106 yr) for a range of magma fluxes (10^-4 to 10^-2 km^3/yr). Our results reconcile physical models of crustal magma evolution and field-based estimates of intrusion rates in numerous magmatic provinces (which include both volcanic and plutonic lithologies). We also show that young magmatic provinces ( 106 yr) can accumulate magma and build reservoirs capable of triggering supereruptions, even with intrusion rates as low as ≤10^-2 km^3/yr. Hence, the total duration of magmatism is critical in determining the size of the magma reservoirs, and should be combined with the magma intrusions rates to assess the capability of volcanic systems to form the largest eruptions on Earth.

  12. Evolutionary constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Deb, Kalyanmoy


    This book makes available a self-contained collection of modern research addressing the general constrained optimization problems using evolutionary algorithms. Broadly the topics covered include constraint handling for single and multi-objective optimizations; penalty function based methodology; multi-objective based methodology; new constraint handling mechanism; hybrid methodology; scaling issues in constrained optimization; design of scalable test problems; parameter adaptation in constrained optimization; handling of integer, discrete and mix variables in addition to continuous variables; application of constraint handling techniques to real-world problems; and constrained optimization in dynamic environment. There is also a separate chapter on hybrid optimization, which is gaining lots of popularity nowadays due to its capability of bridging the gap between evolutionary and classical optimization. The material in the book is useful to researchers, novice, and experts alike. The book will also be useful...

  13. High-K andesite petrogenesis and crustal evolution: Evidence from mafic and ultramafic xenoliths, Egmont Volcano (Mt. Taranaki) and comparisons with Ruapehu Volcano, North Island, New Zealand (United States)

    Price, Richard C.; Smith, Ian E. M.; Stewart, Robert B.; Gamble, John A.; Gruender, Kerstin; Maas, Roland


    This study uses the geochemistry and petrology of xenoliths to constrain the evolutionary pathways of host magmas at two adjacent andesitic volcanoes in New Zealand's North Island. Egmont (Mt. Taranaki) is located on the west coast of the North Island and Ruapehu lies 140 km to the east at the southern end of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, the principal locus of subduction-related magmatism in New Zealand. Xenoliths are common in the eruptives of both volcanoes but the xenoliths suites are petrographically and geochemically different. Ruapehu xenoliths are predominantly pyroxene-plagioclase granulites derived from Mesozoic meta-greywacke basement and the underlying oceanic crust. The xenolith population of Egmont Volcano is more complex. It includes sedimentary, metamorphic and plutonic rocks from the underlying basement but is dominated by coarse grained, mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks. Gabbroic xenoliths (Group 1) are composed of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and amphibole whereas ultramafic xenoliths are dominated by amphibole (Group 2) or pyroxene (Group 3) or, in very rare cases, olivine (Group 4). In Group 1 xenoliths plagioclase and clinopyroxene and in some cases amphibole show cumulate textures. Amphibole also occurs as intercumulate poikilitic crystals or as blebs or laminae replacing pyroxene. Some Group 2 xenoliths have cumulate textures but near monomineralic amphibole xenoliths are coarse grained with bladed or comb textures. Pyroxene in Group 3 xenoliths has a polygonal granoblastic texture that is commonly overprinted by veining and amphibole replacement. Group 1 and most Group 2 xenoliths have major, trace element and Sr, Nd and Pb isotope compositions indicating affinity with the host volcanic rocks. Geochemical variation can be modelled by assimilation fractional crystallisation (AFC) and fractional crystallisation (FC) of basaltic parents assuming an assimilant with the composition of average crystalline basement and Group 1 xenoliths have

  14. New insights on the crustal thickness and its lateral variations beneath the Rif Cordillera (United States)

    Gil de la Iglesia, A.; Diaz Cusi, J.; Gallart, J.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Levander, A.


    The Rif cordillera forms, together with the Betic ranges, one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth. This continental boundary zone is dominated now by the slow convergence between Nubia and Eurasia, but with clear evidences of extensional tectonics. One of the missing elements to constrain the complex geodynamics of the Gibraltar Arc System is the knowledge on crustal structure beneath northern Morocco. In the last decade a major effort has been done in this sense, from active and passive seismics. We compile here the recent results available from the Rif domains. Two 330 km long wide angle DSS profiles were recorded end of 2011 across the Rif in NS and EW transects within the Rifsis project, complemented by onshore recordings of the Gassis-WestMed marine profiles. At the same period, BB seismic arrays were deployed in the area within Topo-Iberia and Picasso projects, allowing receiver function analyses of crustal depths. The ray-tracing modeling of the Rifsis profiles reveal a large Moho step and an area of crustal thickening both in EW and NS directions, grossly coincident with the Bouguer gravity anomalies. The deployment logistics allowed that all the stations recorded all the shots, thus providing useful offline data. We will use here all available in-line and offline data to provide a map of the crustal thickness in northern Morocco. We combined two approaches: i) a hyperbolic time reduction applied to the seismic data, resulting in low-fold stacks in which the reflections from the Moho should appear as subhorizontal lines; ii) the arrival times of the observed PmP phases allow, assuming a mean crustal velocity, to assign a midpoint crustal thickness to each lecture. Although some uncertainties may be inherent to those approaches, a large crustal root, reaching more than 50 km, is well documented in the central part of the Rif Cordillera, close to the zone where the Alboran slab may still be attached to the lithosphere. We also compared these results with

  15. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Science Academies Refresher Course on Crustal Strength Rheology and Seismicity (CSRS-2017). Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 328-328 ...

  16. Deep Crustal Structure Northeastern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Christeson, Gail; Eddy, Drew; van Avendonk, Harm; Norton, Ian; Karner, Garry; Johnson, Chris; Kneller, Erik; Snedden, John


    The Gulf of Mexico is a small ocean basin between the US and Mexico that opened up soon after the breakup of Pangea. Although the area has been heavily surveyed with seismic reflection profiles, the deep structure of the region is poorly understood because of lack of penetration beneath the thick sediments and salt. We present the results of two wide-angle seismic refraction profiles in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico that constrain seismic velocities and thicknesses of the sediments and crust from the continental shelf to deep ocean basin. Profile GUMBO 3 extends 523 km from offshore Alabama south-southwest via the De Soto Canyon to the central Gulf of Mexico, while GUMBO 4 extends 507 km from the northwestern Florida peninsula across the Florida Escarpment to the central Gulf of Mexico. On both profiles, ocean bottom seismometers were positioned at 12-km spacing, and recorded air gun shots at offsets >100 km. We use a tomographic inversion of first-arrival and secondary travel time picks from these data to build a layered velocity model (water, sediments, crystalline crust, mantle) along each profile. On GUMBO 3 and GUMBO 4 the thickness of crystalline crust from the continental shelf to the deep basin decreases from ~25 km to ~7 km (GUMBO 4) or ~8 km (GUMBO 3) over a horizontal distance of ~150 km. Velocities of 7-7.5 km/s are observed at the base of the crust along most of GUMBO 3, while velocities of 6.5-7 km/s are observed at similar depths along GUMBO 4. We suggest that higher lower crustal velocities, and thicker oceanic crust, on GUMBO 3 compared to GUMBO 4 may be explained by elevated syn-rift mantle temperatures in the vicinity of the De Soto Canyon and South Georgia Rift during rifting and continental breakup. We have integrated seismic refraction, seismic reflection, and well data to interpret sequence stratigraphic units along GUMBO 3 and GUMBO 4. We have constructed a geologic history of the late-Jurassic/early-Cretaceous, beginning first with Louann

  17. Crustal Structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan (United States)

    El Tahir, Nada; Nyblade, Andrew; Julià, Jordi; Durrheim, Raymond


    The Khartoum basin is one of several Mesozoic rift basins in Sudan associated with the Central Africa Rift System. Little is known about the deep crustal structure of this basin, and this limited knowledge hampers the development of a more detailed understanding of its origin and evolution. Constraints on crustal structure in Sudan are only available through regional gravity studies and continental-scale tomography models, but these studies have poor resolution in the Khartoum basin. Here, we investigate the crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum basin beneath 3 permanent seismic stations in Khartoum, Sudan through the H-k stacking of receiver functions and the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities. Our H-k-stacking results indicate that crustal thickness beneath the Khartoum basin ranges between 33 and 37 km, with an average of 35 km and that crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges from 1.74 to 1.81, with an average of 1.78. These results are consistent with 1D velocity models developed from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave group velocities, which display similar estimates for crustal thickness and an average shear-wave velocity of 3.7 km/s for the basin's crust. Our results provide the first seismic estimate of Moho depth for a basin in Sudan and, when compared to average crustal thickness for the unrifted Proterozoic crust in eastern Africa, reveal that at most a few kilometers of crustal thinning has occurred beneath the Khartoum basin.

  18. Choosing health, constrained choices. (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan


    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  19. From the Surface Topography to the Upper Mantle, Seismic constraints on the Crustal structure Across Morocco (United States)

    Carbonell, Ramon; Díaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Gil, Alba; Ayarza, Puy; Palomeras, Immaculada; Levander, Alan; Marti, David; Harnafi, Mimoun


    The most characteristic topographic features of Morocco are the Atlas Mountains and the Rif Coordillera. These two orogenic belts are the response of different geodynamic processes acting at lithospheric scale caused by a unique driver, the collision between two tectonic plates. Both are located within the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. The boundary zone is characterized by a relatively broad zone of deformation that includes Mountain chains in southern Iberia, the Betics and the Rif cordillera in Morocco. The zone delineates the arcuate arc system of Gribraltar. Within the last decade a large international effort have been devoted to the area mostly leaded by Spanish groups with the collaboration of international research teams (including scientist form Europe and USA). Key multi-seismic projects have been developed that aim to constrain the structure, composition and tectonic scenario from south of the Atlas to the Betics, across the Rif cordillera and the Alboran basin. The multidisciplinary research program includes: natural source (earthquakes) recording with temporal deployments of broad band (BB) instrumentation and, controlled source seismic acquisition experiments where, spatially dense recording of wide-angle seismic reflection shot gathers were acquired. The passive experiments consisted on: a transect from Merzouga across the Gibraltar arc and into the Iberian peninsula (untill south of Toledo); a nearly regular grid of BB which was achieve by multiple deployments of a number of BB. The controlled source datasets were able to constrain the crustal structure and provide seismic P-wave propagation velocity models from the coast across the Rif and the Atlas. Travel-time inversion of the controlled source seismic data across the Atlas constraints a crustal root to the south of the High Atlas, and reveals mantle wedge. A limited crustal imbrication also appears in the Middle Atlas. The crustal thickness, does not exceeded 40 km in

  20. Magmatic recharge buffers the isotopic compositions against crustal contamination in formation of continental flood basalts (United States)

    Yu, Xun; Chen, Li-Hui; Zeng, Gang


    Isotopic compositions of continental flood basalts are essential to understand their genesis and to constrain the character of their mantle sources. Because of potential crustal contamination, it needs to be evaluated if and to which degree these basalts record original isotopic signals of their mantle sources and/or crustal signatures. This study examines the Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions of the late Cenozoic Xinchang-Shengzhou (XS) flood basalts, a small-scale continental flood basalt field in eastern China. The basalts show positive correlations between 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd, and negative correlations between 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf, which deviate from compositional arrays of crustal contamination and instead highlight variations in magmatic recharge intensity and mantle source compositions. The lava samples formed by high-volume magmatic recharge recorded signals of recycled sediments in the mantle source, which are characterized by moderate Ba/Th (91.9-106.5), excess 208Pb/204Pb relative to 206Pb/204Pb, and excess 176Hf/177Hf relative to 143Nd/144Nd. Thus, we propose that magmatic recharge buffers the original isotopic compositions of magmas against crustal contamination. Identifying and utilizing the isotope systematics of continental flood basalts generated by high volumes of magmatic recharge are thus crucial to trace their mantle sources.

  1. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribiori, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dall' Agata, G., E-mail: [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Porrati, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)


    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  2. Constrained superfields in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, Gianguido; Farakos, Fotis [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    We analyze constrained superfields in supergravity. We investigate the consistency and solve all known constraints, presenting a new class that may have interesting applications in the construction of inflationary models. We provide the superspace Lagrangians for minimal supergravity models based on them and write the corresponding theories in component form using a simplifying gauge for the goldstino couplings.

  3. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cribiori


    Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  4. Radiogenic isotopes of arc lavas constrain uplift of the Andes (United States)

    Scott, Erin; Allen, Mark B.; Macpherson, Colin; McCaffrey, Ken; Davidson, Jon; Saville, Christopher


    Orogenic plateaux are an ultimate expression of continental tectonics, but the timings and mechanisms of their formation are far from understood. The elevation history of the Andes is of particular importance for climatic reconstructions, as they pose the only barrier to atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere. Many varied techniques have been utilized over the last two decades to constrain Andean Plateau (AP) surface uplift. Two conflicting schools of thought are prominent: (1) recent, rapid rise since 10-6 Ma (Late Miocene), and (2) slow, continued uplift from 40 Ma. We propose a new, independent, approach to constrain AP surface uplift through time. By comparing isotopic compositions of Andean Quaternary arc lavas to present day crustal thickness and topography, we show that Sr and Nd isotopes are effective discriminants for the modern extent of the AP. As previously described, these isotopic systems are sensitive to crustal contamination, which in turn relates to crustal thickness, and, via isostasy, to regional surface elevation. We apply this relationship to a new compilation of published, age corrected, isotopic compositions of arc lavas, to constrain the surface uplift history of the Andes from the Jurassic to present day. Our results are consistent with significant AP surface uplift beginning in the Mid to Late Paleogene. We show that by 23 Ma, the AP was established at close to its modern elevations between at least 16-28 deg. S, thereby predating models for Late Miocene surface uplift. Between 23-10 Ma, surface uplift propagated south of 28 deg. S by a further 400 km. Our model has implications for understanding magma plumbing systems in regions of thick, wide crust, especially other orogenic plateaux.

  5. Microbial life in ridge flank crustal fluids. (United States)

    Huber, Julie A; Johnson, H Paul; Butterfield, David A; Baross, John A


    To determine the microbial community diversity within old oceanic crust, a novel sampling strategy was used to collect crustal fluids at Baby Bare Seamount, a 3.5 Ma old outcrop located in the north-east Pacific Ocean on the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Stainless steel probes were driven directly into the igneous ocean crust to obtain samples of ridge flank crustal fluids. Genetic signatures and enrichment cultures of microorganisms demonstrate that these crustal fluids host a microbial community composed of species indigenous to the subseafloor, including anaerobic thermophiles, and species from other deep-sea habitats, such as seawater and sediments. Evidence using molecular techniques indicates the presence of a relatively small but active microbial population, dominated by bacteria. The microbial community diversity found in the crustal fluids may indicate habitat variability in old oceanic crust, with inputs of nutrients from seawater, sediment pore-water fluids and possibly hydrothermal sources. This report further supports the presence of an indigenous microbial community in ridge flank crustal fluids and advances our understanding of the potential physiological and phylogenetic diversity of this community.

  6. Trace element differences between Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crustal components: Implications for crustal growth processes (United States)

    Tarney, J.; Wyborn, L. E. A.; Sheraton, J. W.; Wyborn, D.


    Critical to models for continental crust growth and recycling are the processes through which crustal growth takes place. In particular, it is important to know whether these processes have changed fundamentally with time in response to the earth's thermal evolution, and whether the crustal compositions generated are compatible with crustal remobilization, crustal recycling, or represent primary additions. There are some significant and consistent differences in the major and trace element compositions of crustal components with time which have important implications for crustal growth processes. These will be illustrated with reference to Archean rocks from a number of shield areas, Proterozoic granitoids from Australia and elsewhere, Palaeozoic granitoids from Australia and Scotland, and Mesozoic - recent granitoids from present continental margin belts. Surprisingly some rather simple and consistent patterns energy using this technique. There are then significant differences in compositions of granitoid crustal additions throughout geological time, with a particular type of granitoid apparently dominating a particular time period. This implies that the tectonic processes giving rise to granite generation have changed in response to the earth's thermal evolution.

  7. Variations and controls on crustal thermal regimes in Southeastern Australia (United States)

    Mather, Ben; McLaren, Sandra; Taylor, David; Roy, Sukanta; Moresi, Louis


    The surface heat flow field in Australia has for many years been poorly constrained compared to continental regions elsewhere. 182 recent heat flow determinations and 66 new heat production measurements for Southeastern Australia significantly increase our understanding of local and regional lithospheric thermal regimes and allow for detailed thermal modelling. The new data give a mean surface heat flow for Victoria of 71 ± 15 mW m- 2 which fits within the 61-77 mW m- 2 range reported for Phanerozoic-aged crust globally. These data reveal three new thermally and compositionally distinct heat flow sub-provinces within the previously defined Eastern Heat Flow Province: the Delamerian heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 60 ± 9 mW m- 2); the Lachlan heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 74 ± 13 mW m- 2); and the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province (average surface heat flow 72 ± 16 mW m- 2) which includes extreme values that locally exceed 100 mW m- 2. Inversions of reduced heat flow and crustal differentiation find that the Delamerian sub-province has experienced significant crustal reworking compared to the Lachlan and Newer Volcanics sub-provinces. The latter has experienced volcanism within the last 8 Ma and the degree of variability observed in surface heat flow points (up to 8 mW m- 2 per kilometre laterally) cannot be replicated with steady-state thermal models through this sub-province. In the absence of a strong palaeoclimate signal, aquifer disturbances, or highly enriched granites, we suggest that this high variability arises from localised transient perturbations to the upper crust associated with recent intraplate volcanism. This is supported by a strong spatial correlation of high surface heat flow and known eruption points within the Newer Volcanics heat flow sub-province.

  8. A view into crustal evolution at mantle depths (United States)

    Kooijman, Ellen; Smit, Matthijs A.; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    melted, densified, and buried to 80-90 km depth - 20 km deeper than the present-day Moho - at 930 ± 35°C. The material descended rapidly, accelerating from 0.9-1.7 mm yr-1 to 4.7-5.8 mm yr-1 within 10-12 Myr, and continued descending after reaching mantle depth at 14-13 Ma. The data reflect the foundering of differentiated deep-crustal fragments (2.9-3.5 g cm-3) into a metasomatized and less dense mantle wedge. Through our new approach in constraining the burial history of rocks, we provided the first time-resolved record of this crustal-recycling process. Foundering introduced vestiges of old evolved crust into the mantle wedge over a relatively short period (c. 10 Myr). The recycling process could explain the variability in the degree of crustal contamination of mantle-derived magmatic rocks in the Pamir and neighboring Tibet during the Cenozoic without requiring a change in plate dynamics or source region.

  9. Paired melt lenses at the East Pacific Rise and the pattern of melt flow through the gabbroic layer at a fast-spreading ridge (United States)

    Natland, James H.; Dick, Henry J. B.


    From geophysics, two thin and narrow sill-like melt lenses occur directly beneath the ridge axis on the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 9°N. One is at the base of sheeted dikes, and the other at the base of the crust in the mantle transition with largely crystalline material in between. Along-axis continuity indicates that the upper one is a steady-state feature along much of the EPR. What causes melt to pool at two levels in the crust, with little melt in between? Normative densities of gabbro sampled from Hess Deep, eastern Pacific, at solidus temperatures are greater than melt densities calculated from compositions of basalt glass from the EPR. Therefore, abyssal-tholeiite liquids of all compositions are buoyant in a hot gabbroic crystalline matrix with no more than a few percent melt. There is therefore no level in the gabbroic layer at which pure basaltic melt attains neutral buoyancy, and by this means produces sill-like rather than dike-like intrusives. Instead, the upper melt lens appears to collect at a combined compositional and permeability barrier, defined by the coarse-grained base of the dike sequence sampled on the northern rift margin at Hess Deep. About 200 m of massive dike rocks with ophitic to subophitic coarse-grained texture occur just above gabbronorite and oxide-gabbro cumulates which are the crystallized relics of highly differentiated ferrobasaltic and ferroandesitic liquids in the melt lens. At temperatures of crystallization of cumulates at the level of the melt lens (1100-1000 °C), the basal dike rocks of less differentiated basaltic composition just above this were 90-98% crystalline, and they annealed to the point where dike contacts cannot be seen on outcrop surfaces. These slightly molten rocks need to be fractured by rift dilatancy or overpressure from beneath for magmas to ascend beyond the melt lens. Neutral buoyancy occurs in fine-grained dikes above where densities of escaping magma finally match those of the fractured and

  10. Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad


    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48-50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48-50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34-38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24

  11. Combined Gravimetric-Seismic Crustal Model for Antarctica (United States)

    Baranov, Alexey; Tenzer, Robert; Bagherbandi, Mohammad


    The latest seismic data and improved information about the subglacial bedrock relief are used in this study to estimate the sediment and crustal thickness under the Antarctic continent. Since large parts of Antarctica are not yet covered by seismic surveys, the gravity and crustal structure models are used to interpolate the Moho information where seismic data are missing. The gravity information is also extended offshore to detect the Moho under continental margins and neighboring oceanic crust. The processing strategy involves the solution to the Vening Meinesz-Moritz's inverse problem of isostasy constrained on seismic data. A comparison of our new results with existing studies indicates a substantial improvement in the sediment and crustal models. The seismic data analysis shows significant sediment accumulations in Antarctica, with broad sedimentary basins. According to our result, the maximum sediment thickness in Antarctica is about 15 km under Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf. The Moho relief closely resembles major geological and tectonic features. A rather thick continental crust of East Antarctic Craton is separated from a complex geological/tectonic structure of West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains. The average Moho depth of 34.1 km under the Antarctic continent slightly differs from previous estimates. A maximum Moho deepening of 58.2 km under the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains in East Antarctica confirmed the presence of deep and compact orogenic roots. Another large Moho depth in East Antarctica is detected under Dronning Maud Land with two orogenic roots under Wohlthat Massif (48-50 km) and the Kottas Mountains (48-50 km) that are separated by a relatively thin crust along Jutulstraumen Rift. The Moho depth under central parts of the Transantarctic Mountains reaches 46 km. The maximum Moho deepening (34-38 km) in West Antarctica is under the Antarctic Peninsula. The Moho depth minima in East Antarctica are found under the Lambert Trench (24

  12. Interaction between a hotspot and a fracture zone: The crustal structure of Walvis Ridge at 6° E (United States)

    Fromm, Tanja; Jokat, Wilfried; Behrmann, Jan H.


    The Walvis Ridge is one of the major hotspot trails in the South Atlantic and a classical example for volcanic island chains. Two models compete about the origin of the ridge: It is either the result of a deep mantle plume or active fracture zones above mantle inhomogeneities. Among other things crustal information is needed to constrain the models. Here, we provide such constraint with a 480 km long P-wave velocity model of the deep crustal structure of the eastern Walvis Ridge at 6° E. According to our data the Walvis Ridge stretches across the Florianopolis Fracture Zone into the Angola Basin. Here, we observe a basement high and thick basaltic layers covering the oceanic crust and the fracture zone. We found two crustal roots along the profile: one is located beneath the ridge crest, the other one beneath the northern basement high in the Angola Basin. The crustal thickness reaches 18 km and 12 km and the lower crustal velocities are 7.2 km/s and 7.4 km/s, respectively. The bathymetric expression of the ridge along the profile is less pronounced than closer to shore, which is mainly attributable to the absence of a thick layer of volcanic debris, rather than to reduced crustal thickness below the basement surface. Therefore, this part of the ridge was never or only briefly subaerially exposed. The crustal structure suggests that the ridge and the fracture zone formed independently of each other. The oceanic crust north of the fracture zone, which is buried underneath the basalt layer, is younger than the reconstructed age of hotspot volcanism of the Walvis Ridge. We interpret these structures north of the fracture zone to be at least partly a product of late stage volcanism.

  13. Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    El Tahir, N


    Full Text Available The crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum Basin has been investigated using data from 3 permanent seismic stations within 40 km of Khartoum and two modeling methods, H–k stacking of receiver functions and a joint inversion...

  14. Exploring Constrained Creative Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk


    between communicative constrains and participants’ perception of dialogue and creativity is examined. Four batches of students preparing for forming semester project groups were conducted and documented. Students were asked to create an unspecified object without any exchange of communication except......Creative collaboration via online tools offers a less ‘media rich’ exchange of information between participants than face-to-face collaboration. The participants’ freedom to communicate is restricted in means of communication, and rectified in terms of possibilities offered in the interface. How do...

  15. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Ze


    Full Text Available On the basis of the newly released International Terrestrial Reference Frame(ITRF2008 by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS, a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data. The Eurasia and Pacific plates display obvious differences in terms of the velocity fields derived from the two plate motion models. Plate acceleration is also introduced to characterize the differences of the two velocity fields which obtained from ITRF2008 -plate and NNR-NUVEL1A models for major individual plates. The results show that the Africa, South America and Eurasia plates are undergoing acceleration, while the North America and Australia plates are in the state of deceleration motion.

  16. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008


    Zhu Ze; Meng Guojie; Su Xiaoning; Wu Jicang; Li Jean Xiaojing


    On the basis of the newly released International Terrestrial Reference Frame(ITRF2008) by the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS), a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data. The Eurasia and Pacific plates display obvious differences in terms of the velocity fields derived from the two plate motion models. Plate accele...

  17. Global crustal movement and tectonic plate boundary deformation constrained by the ITRF2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu Ze; Meng Guojie; Su Xiaoning; Wu Jicang; Li Jean Xiaojing


    ... (IERS), a new global plate model ITRF2008 plate for the major plates is established. This ITRF2008-derived model is analyzed in comparison with NNR-NUVEL1A model, which is mainly based on geological and geophysical data...

  18. Crustal growth and episodic reworking over one billion years in the Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia: evidence from Lu-Hf and O isotope data (United States)

    Jahn, Inalee; Clark, Chris; Reddy, Steve; Taylor, Rich


    Fundamental to understanding the generation and evolution of a crustal block is knowledge of the relationship between additions of new material from the mantle, and the extent of crustal recycling [1]. Hafnium isotope ratios can be used to characterise relative contributions from mantle, crustal and recycled reservoirs within magmas. Oxygen isotopes can be used to constrain the extent of crustal interaction during magma emplacement. When used in conjunction, they can help unravel multiple crystallisation histories of a crustal block, and follow the source composition through magma evolution. The Capricorn Orogen records the Paleoproterozoic collision of the Yilgarn and Pilbara Cratons to form the West Australian Craton, and over one billion years of subsequent intracontinental crustal reworking. U-Pb zircon geochronology records three discrete tectono-magmatic events which resulted in voluminous granitic magmatism: the 2005-1975 Ma Glenburgh Orogeny, the 1820-1770 Ma Capricorn Orogeny, and the 1680-1620 Ma Durlacher Orogeny [2]. We present U-Pb, Lu-Hf and δ18O isotopic data from zircon from 50 samples of granites and granitoids from the Capricorn Orogen to provide constraints on the crustal evolution of the Paleoproterozoic crust. Our results confirm crustal growth by juvenile mantle input was limited to the Glenburgh Orogeny associated with the amalgamation of the West Australian Craton, while all subsequent Paleoproterozoic magmatism was primarily derived from significant reworking of the pre-existing crustal components. Time-sliced maps showing the variation in Hf and O isotopes can be used to image crustal evolution in space and time, and are particularly useful in constraining the spatial and temporal extent of juvenile magmatic additions to the crust. These maps suggest that crustal growth was concentrated along, or in the terranes adjacent to, the Yilgarn Craton margin. Our results are in agreement with previous isotopic studies [3], and provide additional

  19. Towards Solving the Conundrum of Fast-Spread Ocean Crust Formation: Insights from Textural Analysis of Gabbroic Rocks from Pito Deep and Hess Deep, East Pacific Rise (United States)

    Brown, T. C.; Cheadle, M. J.; John, B. E.; Coogan, L. A.; Gee, J. S.; Karson, J. A.; Meyer, R.; Ceuleneer, G.; Swapp, S.


    Few examples of in situ fast-spread lower ocean crust exist for sampling. Here we present detailed textural analyses of two sample sets that formed at the East Pacific Rise, collected from tectonic windows at Pito (PD) and Hess (HD) deeps. PD samples (collected by ROV) span the upper ~900 m of lower crust. HD samples (collected by seafloor drilling during IODP Exp. 345) come from >1500 m below the sheeted dike gabbro transition (mbsd). PD gabbroic rock textures are consistent with a gabbro glacier flow model generating the uppermost plutonic crust. Shallow samples (41-72 mbsd) likely formed at the distal edge of the magma lens, analogous to similar rocks from Oman. These gabbros are relatively evolved (cpx Mg#75-77, An53-61 and 1-4% Fe-Ti oxides), and have elongate plagioclase grains (aspect ratios up to 1:2:10) exhibiting a strong shape preferred orientation (SPO) with <40% of grains showing dislocation creep textures. Deeper samples (177-876 mbsd) likely began crystallizing in the magma lens then subsided and 'flowed' through the underlying mush zone. These gabbros are more primitive below 386 mbsd (Fo83-88, cpx Mg# 85-89 and An70-82), and plagioclase grains have more equilibrated morphologies (aspect ratios < 1:2:6) that define ~vertical SPOs which increase in strength with depth. Plagioclase exhibits magmatic crystal-lattice preferred orientations (CPOs) which are also vertical. Significantly, the proportion of grains showing dislocation creep textures increases with depth, and plagioclase grain size distributions show a smaller range of sizes at depth; observations that perhaps reflect the effect of increasing strain with depth. IODP Hole U1415I at HD recovered gabbros and troctolitic gabbros from the mid lower crust that show distinctive cm-dm scale modal layering. Strong plagioclase SPOs parallel layering and magmatic CPOs vary dramatically in strength over just 4.5 m of core. Plagioclase grains are relatively equant (aspect ratios < 1:2:4), wrap around

  20. Syn-convergence extension in the southern Lhasa terrane: Evidence from late Cretaceous adakitic granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes (United States)

    Ma, Xuxuan; Xu, Zhiqin; Meert, Joseph G.


    Late Cretaceous (∼100-80 Ma) magmatism in the Gangdese magmatic belt plays a pivotal role in understanding the evolutionary history and tectonic regime of the southern Lhasa terrane. The geodynamic process for the formation of the early Late Cretaceous magmatism has long been an issue of hot debates. Here, petrology, geochronology and geochemistry of early Late Cretaceous granodiorite and coeval gabbroic-dioritic dykes in the Caina region, southern Lhasa, were investigated in an effort to ascertain their petrogenesis, age of intrusion, magma mixing and tectonic setting. Zircon U-Pb dating of granodiorite yields 206Pb/238U ages of 85.8 ± 1.7 and 86.4 ± 1.1 Ma, whilst that of the E-W trending dykes yields ages of 82.7 ± 2.6 and 83.5 ± 3.5 Ma. Within error, the crystallization ages of the dykes and the granodiorite are indistinguishable. Field observations and mineralogical microstructures are suggestive of a magma mixing process during the formation of the dykes and the granodiorite. The granodiorite exhibits geochemical features that are in agreement with those of subduction-related high-SiO2 adakites. The granodiorite and dykes have relatively constant εNd(t) values of +2.2 to +4.9 and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7045-0.7047). These similar characteristics are herein interpreted as an evolutionary series from the dykes to granodiorite, consistent with magma mixing process. Ti-in-zircon thermometer and Al-in-hornblende barometer indicate that the granodiorite and the dioritic dyke crystallized at temperatures of ca. 750 and 800 °C, depths of ca. 6-10 and 5-9 km, respectively. Taking into account the synchronous magmatic rocks in the Gangdese Belt and the coeval rifted basin within the Lhasa terrane, the granodiorite and dykes reveal an early Late Cretaceous syn-convergence extensional regime in the southern Lhasa terrane, triggered by slab rollback of the Neotethyan oceanic lithosphere.

  1. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.


    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  2. Crustal root beneath the Rif Cordillera as imaged from both active seismic data and teleseismic receiver functions. (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Gil, Alba; Gallart, Josep; Carbonell, Ramon; Harnafi, Mimoun; Levander, Alan


    The Rif cordillera forms, together with the Betic ranges, one of the tightest orogenic arcs on Earth. This continental boundary zone is dominated now by the slow convergence between Nubia and Eurasia, but with clear evidences of extensional tectonics. One of the missing elements to constrain the complex geodynamics of the Gibraltar Arc System is the knowledge of the crustal architecture beneath northern Morocco. In the last decade a major effort has been done in this sense, from active and passive seismics. We compile here the recent results available from the Rif domains. Two 330 km long wide angle DSS profiles were recorded end of 2011 across the Rif in NS and EW transects within the Rifsis project, complemented by onshore recordings of the Gassis-WestMed marine profiles. At the same period, BB seismic arrays were deployed in the area within Topo-Iberia and Picasso projects, allowing receiver function analyses of crustal depths. The ray-tracing modeling of the Rifsis profiles reveal a large Moho step and an area of crustal thickening both in EW and NS directions, grossly coincident with the Bouguer gravity anomalies. The deployment logistics allowed that all the stations recorded all the shots, thus providing useful offline data. We will use here all available in-line and offline data to provide a map of the crustal thickness in northern Morocco. We combined two approaches: i) a hyperbolic time reduction applied to the seismic data, resulting in low-fold stacks in which the reflections from the Moho should appear as subhorizontal lines; ii) the arrival times of the observed PmP phases allow, assuming a mean crustal velocity, to assign a midpoint crustal thickness to each lecture. Although some uncertainties may be inherent to those approaches, a large crustal root, reaching more than 50 km, is well documented in the central part of the Rif Cordillera, close to the zone where the Alboran slab may still be attached to the lithosphere. We also compared these results

  3. Crustal structure and tectonic history of the Kermadec arc inferred from MANGO seismic refraction profiles (United States)

    Bassett, D.; Kopp, H.; Sutherland, R.; Henrys, S.; Watts, A. B.; Timm, C.; Scherwath, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; de Ronde, C. E. J.


    We have analyzed three wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction profiles and applied spectral averaging techniques to regional grids of bathymetry and free-air gravity anomaly to place the first regional constraints on the crustal structure of the Kermadec arc. These observations are used to test contrasting tectonic models for an along-strike transition in margin structure, across which, 1) the remnant Lau-Colville and active Kermadec arc ridges narrow by >50%; 2) the backarc and forearc deepen by 1 km, and 3) the active volcanic arc is deflected west into the deepest known backarc basin. We use residual bathymetric anomalies to constrain the geometry of this boundary and propose the name Central Kermadec Discontinuity (CKD). North of the CKD, the buried Tonga Ridge occupies the forearc with VP 6.5-7.3 km s-1 and residual free-air gravity anomalies constrain its latitudinal extent (north of 30.5°S), width (110±20 km) and strike ( 005° south of 25°S). South of the CKD the forearc is structurally homogeneous down-dip with VP 5.7-7.3 km s-1. Lower crustal velocities are similar to the northern Kermadec forearc, but there is no seismic or gravimetric evidence for an extinct arc ridge within the forearc. In the Havre Trough backarc, crustal thickness south of the CKD is 8-9 km, which is up-to 4 km thinner than the northern Havre Trough and at least 1 km thinner than the southern Havre Trough. The northern Kermadec/Tonga arc preserves a substrate of the Eocene arc, the southern Kermadec forearc preserves Mesozoic forearc rocks accreted at the Gondwana margin, and the central Kermadec arc may have fomed in the Kupe Abyssal Plain. The oldest arc related rocks recovered north and south of the CKD are 52 Ma and 16.7 Ma respectively, and plate tectonic reconstruction suggest the Eocene arc was originally conjoined with the Three Kings Ridge. The separation of these ridges during the early Oligocene likely formed the CKD. In contrast to previous interpretations, we

  4. Reports on crustal movements and deformations. [bibliography (United States)

    Cohen, S. C.; Peck, T.


    This Catalog of Reports on Crustal Movements and Deformation is a structured bibliography of scientific papers on the movements of the Earth crust. The catalog summarizes by various subjects papers containing data on the movement of the Earth's surface due to tectonic processes. In preparing the catalog we have included studies of tectonic plate motions, spreading and convergence, microplate rotation, regional crustal deformation strain accumulation and deformations associated with the earthquake cycle, and fault motion. We have also included several papers dealing with models of tectonic plate motion and with crustal stress. Papers which discuss tectonic and geologic history but which do not present rates of movements or deformations and papers which are primarily theoretical analyses have been excluded from the catalog. An index of authors cross-referenced to their publications also appears in the catalog. The catalog covers articles appearing in reviewed technical journals during the years 1970-1981. Although there are citations from about twenty journals most of the items come from the following publications: Journal of Geophysical Research, Tectonophysics, Geological Society of America Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Nature, Science, Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, and Geology.

  5. Crustal modeling of the central part of the Northern Western Desert, Egypt using gravity data (United States)

    Alrefaee, H. A.


    The Bouguer anomaly map of the central part of the Northern Western Desert, Egypt was used to construct six 2D gravity models to investigate the nature, physical properties and structures of the crust and upper mantle. The crustal models were constrained and constructed by integrating results from different geophysical techniques and available geological information. The depth to the basement surface, from eight wells existed across the study area, and the depth to the Conrad and Moho interfaces as well as physical properties of sediments, basement, crust and upper mantle from previous petrophysical and crustal studies were used to establish the gravity models. Euler deconvolution technique was carried on the Bouguer anomaly map to detect the subsurface fault trends. Edge detection techniques were calculated to outlines the boundaries of subsurface structural features. Basement structural map was interpreted to reveal the subsurface structural setting of the area. The crustal models reveals increasing of gravity field from the south to the north due to northward thinning of the crust. The models reveals also deformed and rugged basement surface with northward depth increasing from 1.6 km to 6 km. In contrast to the basement, the Conrad and Moho interfaces are nearly flat and get shallower northward where the depth to the Conrad or the thickness of the upper crust ranges from 18 km to 21 km while the depth to the Moho (crustal thickness) ranges from 31.5 km to 34 km. The crust beneath the study area is normal continental crust with obvious thinning toward the continental margin at the Mediterranean coast.

  6. Regional Crustal Components of Martian Heat Flow from Mars Odyssey Gamma-Ray Spectrometry (GRS) (United States)

    Hahn, B. C.; McLennan, S. M.


    Martian thermal state and evolution depend principally on the heat-producing element distributions in the planet’s crust and mantle, specifically the incompatible radiogenic isotopes of K, Th, and U. Normally these elements are preferentially sequestered into a planet’s crust during differentiation, and this is especially true for Mars, which possesses a thick and mostly ancient crust that is proportionally large with respect to the planet’s total volume. The Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) instrument on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft can detect all three of these elements and has been used to map the K and Th abundances across nearly the entire Martian surface. It has been estimated that as much as 50% or more of the Martian planetary budget of heat producing elements has seen sequestered into the crust during planetary differentiation due to their incompatibility in igneous processes; a process that mostly took place very early in Martian geological history. As such, the crustal component of heat flow represents as much as half of the total planetary output of radiogenic heat. While GRS measurements can not constrain heat flow from mantle sources, previous work calculated the average crustal component of heat flow of 6.43 mW/m2 based on radiogenic elemental abundances. Orbital GRS data are of lower spatial resolution (5°x5° per pixel) than most other orbital remote sensing instruments and, accordingly, are best suited for global or large, regional-scale studies, rather than detailed, local analyses of geographically small features and landforms. Here we present detailed calculations for specific, areally-large, regions and geologic provinces on Mars, reporting the present-day crustal component of heat flow, the crustal heat flow at time of regional formation, and constraints of geothermal gradients from these measurements.

  7. Crustal Velocity Model of the Altai-Sayan Region (United States)

    Behrend, M. J.; Mackey, K. G.


    We have developed a crustal velocity model for the the region encompassed by the Altai-Sayan Seismic Network of South-Central Russia (45o-55o N. X 79o-98o E.). Geographically, the study area includes the Altai and Sayan Mountain Ranges, Western Mongolia, Eastern Kazakhstan, and Northwest China. To develop our model we used phase arrival data from approximately 175 larger earthquakes recorded by the Altai-Sayan Seismic Network between 1977 and 1981 and reported in the bulletin Materialy po Seismichnosti Sibiri. To develop our model, we divided the region into 1o N-S x 2o E-W cells. Events within each cell, plus a small surrounding area, were relocated multiple times using a grid-search routine, in effort to determine the best fitting Pg and Sg velocities. Pg and Sg phase arrivals are generally from the 100-1000 km range and represent secondary arriving phases. These arrivals are dominant in this region and we consider the time picks and phase identifications to be reliable. Velocities tested range from 5.650 to 6.350 km/s for Pg and from 3.310 to 3.710 km/s for Sg. The best fitting velocities for each cell were then assigned to the geographic coordinates of the cell's center point. The standard Jeffreys-Bullen model was used for Pn velocities. The best fitting Pg and Sg velocities are those that minimize the average event residuals in a cell. High residual arrivals were omitted from the location process. In our model, Pg velocities range from 5.975-6.325 km/s, while Sg velocities range from 3.510-3.630 km/s, though the higher velocity extremes are constrained by one event and are not statistically significant. The average Pg velocity of the study area was, 6.147 km/s, and average Sg, 3.576 km/s. Geologically, these velocities are associated with the Central Asiatic Foldbelt and are consistent with regional crustal velocities along the southern edge of the Siberian Craton to the East as determined by previous studies.

  8. Insight into NE Tibetan Plateau expansion from crustal and upper mantle anisotropy revealed by shear-wave splitting (United States)

    Huang, Zhouchuan; Tilmann, Frederik; Xu, Mingjie; Wang, Liangshu; Ding, Zhifeng; Mi, Ning; Yu, Dayong; Li, Hua


    The northeastern Tibetan plateau margin is the current expansion border, where growth of the plateau is ongoing. We analyze shear-wave splitting at ChinArray stations in the NE Tibetan Plateau and its margin with the stable North Chine Craton. The measurements provide important information on the seismic anisotropy and deformations patterns in the crust and upper mantle, which can be used to constrain the expansion mechanism of the plateau. Along the margin and within the craton, the dominant NW-SE fast polarization direction (FPD) is NW-SE, subparallel to the boundary between the plateau and the North China Craton. The shear-wave splitting measurements on the NE Tibetan Plateau itself generally reflect two-layer anisotropy. The lower-layer anisotropy (with NW-SE FPDs) is consistent in the whole region and FPDs are the same as those in the North China Craton. The upper-layer FPDs are parallel to crustal motion rather than surface structures within the high plateau. The two-layer anisotropy implies the presence of deformed Tibetan lithosphere above the underthrusting North China Craton. The NE Tibetan shows similar deformation patterns at the surface (inferred from GPS) and within the mantle (inferred from shear-wave splitting), but significant crustal anisotropy (parallel to crustal motion) requires mid-lower crustal channel flow or detachment to drive further tectonic uplift of the plateau.

  9. Power-constrained supercomputing (United States)

    Bailey, Peter E.

    As we approach exascale systems, power is turning from an optimization goal to a critical operating constraint. With power bounds imposed by both stakeholders and the limitations of existing infrastructure, achieving practical exascale computing will therefore rely on optimizing performance subject to a power constraint. However, this requirement should not add to the burden of application developers; optimizing the runtime environment given restricted power will primarily be the job of high-performance system software. In this dissertation, we explore this area and develop new techniques that extract maximum performance subject to a particular power constraint. These techniques include a method to find theoretical optimal performance, a runtime system that shifts power in real time to improve performance, and a node-level prediction model for selecting power-efficient operating points. We use a linear programming (LP) formulation to optimize application schedules under various power constraints, where a schedule consists of a DVFS state and number of OpenMP threads for each section of computation between consecutive message passing events. We also provide a more flexible mixed integer-linear (ILP) formulation and show that the resulting schedules closely match schedules from the LP formulation. Across four applications, we use our LP-derived upper bounds to show that current approaches trail optimal, power-constrained performance by up to 41%. This demonstrates limitations of current systems, and our LP formulation provides future optimization approaches with a quantitative optimization target. We also introduce Conductor, a run-time system that intelligently distributes available power to nodes and cores to improve performance. The key techniques used are configuration space exploration and adaptive power balancing. Configuration exploration dynamically selects the optimal thread concurrency level and DVFS state subject to a hardware-enforced power bound

  10. Modes of continental extension in a crustal wedge

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Guangliang


    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. We ran numerical experiments of the extension of a crustal wedge as an approximation to extension in an orogenic belt or a continental margin. We study the effects of the strength of the lower crust and of a weak mid-crustal shear zone on the resulting extension styles. A weak mid-crustal shear zone effectively decouples upper crustal extension from lower crustal flow. Without the mid-crustal shear zone, the degree of coupling between the upper and the lower crust increases and extension of the whole crust tends to focus on the thickest part of the wedge. We identify three distinct modes of extension determined by the strength of the lower crust, which are characterized by 1) localized, asymmetric crustal exhumation in a single massif when the lower crust is weak, 2) the formation of rolling-hinge normal faults and the exhumation of lower crust in multiple core complexes with an intermediate strength lower crust, and 3) distributed domino faulting over the weak mid-crustal shear zone when the lower crust is strong. A frictionally stronger mid-crustal shear zone does not change the overall model behaviors but extension occurred over multiple rolling-hinges. The 3 modes of extension share characteristics similar to geological models proposed to explain the formation of metamorphic core complexes: 1) the crustal flow model for the weak lower crust, 2) the rolling-hinge and crustal flow models when the lower crust is intermediate and 3) the flexural uplift model when the lower crust is strong. Finally we show that the intensity of decoupling between the far field extension and lower crustal flow driven by the regional pressure gradient in the wedge control the overall style of extension in the models.

  11. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    , or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention......-dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The analysis provides the basis for studies of crustal evolution and geodynamic process in the region where the age of tectonic structures spans over ~4 Ga...

  12. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.


    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  13. Crustal permeability: Introduction to the special issue (United States)

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Gleeson, Tom


    The topic of crustal permeability is of broad interest in light of the controlling effect of permeability on diverse geologic processes and also timely in light of the practical challenges associated with emerging technologies such as hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production (‘fracking’), enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration. This special issue of Geofluids is also motivated by the historical dichotomy between the hydrogeologic concept of permeability as a static material property that exerts control on fluid flow and the perspective of economic geologists, geophysicists, and crustal petrologists who have long recognized permeability as a dynamic parameter that changes in response to tectonism, fluid production, and geochemical reactions. Issues associated with fracking, enhanced geothermal systems, and geologic carbon sequestration have already begun to promote a constructive dialog between the static and dynamic views of permeability, and here we have made a conscious effort to include both viewpoints. This special issue also focuses on the quantification of permeability, encompassing both direct measurement of permeability in the uppermost crust and inferential permeability estimates, mainly for the deeper crust.

  14. Mechanism of crustal extension in the Laxmi Basin, Arabian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Pandey


    Full Text Available Continental rifting and magmatism has been extensively studied worldwide as it is believed that continental rifting, break up of continents and associated magmatism lead to genesis of new oceanic crust. However, various regions of the world show that these processes may lead to genesis of other types of crust than the oceanic crust. Laxmi Basin in the western continental margin of the India is one such region with an enigmatic crust. Due to its extreme strategic significance for the palaeogeographic reconstruction of continents during Cretaceous continental breakup of India, this basin has attracted various workers for more than two decades. However, still the issue of nature of crust in the basin remains controversial. In this contribution, in order to identify nature of crust, mechanism of continental extension in the Laxmi Basin has been studied for the first time through newly acquired seismic data from the basin. Here, we propose a plausible mechanism of crustal extension in the Laxmi Basin which eventually constrains the nature of crust of the Laxmi Basin. We have demonstrated that the crust in the Laxmi Basin can be categorised in two zones of stretched and transitional crust. In the stretched zone several fault bounded horst and graben structures are identified which preserve syn- and post-rift sediments along with different periods of hiatus in sedimentations as unconformities. These faults are identified as listric faults in the upper crust which sole out in the detachment faults. Detachment faults decouples the upper brittle and lower ductile crust. The transitional crust is identified as heavily intruded by sills and basaltic volcanic which were emplaced due to melting of subcontinental mantle (SCM after hyper-stretching of crust and serpentinisation of the SCM. Panikkar Ridge is proposed to be one such basaltic volcanic body derived from melting of lower part of the SCM.

  15. Moho, LAB and crustal velocities underneath central-eastern Greenland (United States)

    Kraft, H. A.; Thybo, H.


    Major parts of Greenland are covered with up to 3.4 km of ice. Due to logistical challenges connected to the ice only very sparse geophysical information is available. We present here results of the TopoGreenland project, which forms the first regional seismic experiment conducted on the Greenlandic ice shield. Our objective is to gain detailed information about the lithospheric structure and to connect it with topographic features, the recent substantial uplift and the earlier history of rifting and break-up in the region. We focus on a 200 km x 600 km large area in central-eastern Greenland, where 22 broadband seismometers were installed between June 2009 and May 2012. 10 of those were operating on the ice cap, 12 on bedrock. 16 of the stations were installed along a 600 km long profile at 70°N, from Scorsbysund to the centre of the ice cap. The remaining 6 stations covered a 200 km wide area north of this profile. In addition data from 6 permanent and long-term stations from the GLISN network were integrated. Here we present models from P- and S- receiver function (PRF, SRF) calculations and Rayleigh wave tomography. The RF calculations were used to map Moho and LAB depths and to have well constrained input parameters for the tomography. From the Rayleigh wave tomography we then obtain models for crustal shear-velocities. The PRF for the stations on the ice cap show multiples with very high amplitudes from within the ice, why we decided to derive Moho and LAB depths for those stations from SRF. The results will be compared with a seismic refraction profile acquired in the same region and then linked to topographic features like the uplift of the mountain chain in East Greenland.

  16. Shallow Crustal Thermal Structures of Central Taiwan Foothills Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Wu


    Full Text Available Crustal thermal structures are closely related to metamorphism, rock rheology, exhumation processes, hydrocarbon maturation levels, frictional faulting and other processes. Drilling is the most direct way to access the temperature fields in the shallow crust. However, a regional drilling program for geological investigation is usually very expensive. Recently, a large-scale in-situ investigation program in the Western Foothills of Central Taiwan was carried out, providing a rare opportunity to conduct heat flow measurements in this region where there are debates as to whether previous measured heat flows are representative of the thermal state in this region. We successfully collected 28 geothermal gradients from these wells and converted them into heat flows. The new heat flow dataset is consistent with previous heat flows, which shows that the thermal structures of Central Taiwan are different from that of other subduction accretionary prisms. We then combine all the available heat flow information to analyze the frictional parameters of the Chelungpu fault zone that ruptured during the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The heat flow dataset gave consistent results compared with the frictional parameters derived from another independent study that used cores recovered from the Chelungpu fault zone at depth. This study also shows that it is suitable for using heat-flow data obtained from shallow subsurface to constrain thrusting faulting parameters, similar to what had been done for the strike-slip San Andreas Fault in California. Additional fieldworks are planned to study heat flows in other mountainous regions of Taiwan for more advanced geodynamic modeling efforts.

  17. Lightweight cryptography for constrained devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alippi, Cesare; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco


    Lightweight cryptography is a rapidly evolving research field that responds to the request for security in resource constrained devices. This need arises from crucial pervasive IT applications, such as those based on RFID tags where cost and energy constraints drastically limit the solution...... complexity, with the consequence that traditional cryptography solutions become too costly to be implemented. In this paper, we survey design strategies and techniques suitable for implementing security primitives in constrained devices....

  18. Geomorphology of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy Boundary: Implications for Age and Origin (United States)

    Irwin, R. P.; Watters, T. R.


    obvious outlet breaches and/or are interspersed with flat-floored craters along the steepest cratered slopes. Crater rim-lowering and infilling on the cratered slope often produced flat-floored amphitheaters that open to the north, which is a natural consequence of long-term erosion and infilling of craters that formed on slopes. Lithospheric extension has not disrupted fresh or degraded craters on north-sloping cratered terrain, which would occur if the convex slope formed at any time after the Early Noachian. The highlands and crustal dichotomy are isostatically compensated, whereas the younger Tharsis and Elysium regions are not, suggesting that the dichotomy formed during an earlier time of higher heat flow. Finally, the thin crust of the lowlands extends well beyond and therefore predates the Utopia basin, which formed in the Early Noachian as shown by its superimposed quasi-circular depressions (buried craters). These observations constrain the development of the lowland crust and therefore the crustal dichotomy to the Early Noachian, although a precise age is not yet available within this ~600 Ma epoch. Fretted terrain is confined within a superimposed Late Noachian plateau unit, which was extensively eroded during the Early Hesperian (~3.7-3.6 Ga), followed by lowland plains emplacement. Despite some erosion, the general form of the ancient dichotomy boundary is still preserved in cratered terrain, allowing geophysical models of crustal development to be tested. The transition zone and lowland terrains are >300 Ma younger and not relevant to the dichotomy origin.

  19. Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Ga crustal growth of the North China Craton revealed by zircon Hf isotope: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andong Wang


    Full Text Available The crustal growth of the North China Craton (NCC during the Neoarchean time (2.5–2.8 Ga is a hotly controversial topic, with some proposing that the main crustal growth occurred in the late Neoarchean (2.5–2.6 Ga, in agreement with the time of the magmatism, whereas others suggest that the main crustal accretion took place during early Neoarchean time (2.7–2.8 Ga, consistent with the time of crustal-formation of other cratons in the world. Zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions can provide rigorous constraints on the time of crustal growth and the evolution and tectonic division of the NCC. In this contribution, we make a comprehensive review of zircon Hf isotope data in combination with zircon U-Pb geochronology and some geochemistry data from various divisions of the NCC with an aim to constrain the Neoarchean crustal growth of the NCC. The results suggest that both 2.7–2.8 Ga and 2.5–2.6 Ga crustal growth are distributed over the NCC and the former is much wider than previously suggested. The Eastern block is characterized by the main 2.7–2.8 Ga crustal growth with local new crustal-formation at 2.5–2.6 Ga, and the Yinshan block is characterized by ∼2.7 Ga crustal accretion as revealed by Hf-isotope data of detrital zircons from the Zhaertai Group. Detrital zircon data of the Khondalite Belt indicate that the main crustal growth period of the Western block is Paleoproterozoic involving some ∼2.6 Ga and minor Early- to Middle-Archean crustal components, and the crustal accretion in the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO has a wide age range from 2.5 Ga to 2.9 Ga with a notable regional discrepancy. Zircon Hf isotope compositions, coupled with zircon ages and other geochemical data suggest that the southern margin may not be an extension of the TNCO, and the evolution and tectonic division of the NCC is more complex than previously proposed, probably involving multi-stage crustal growth and subduction processes

  20. Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic Geological Evolution of Mongolia: Constraints on Modes of "Crustal Growth" in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Macdonald, F. A.; Bold, U.; Smith, E.; Olin, P. H.; Crowley, J. L.; Schmitz, M. D.


    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is widely considered the largest area of Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth on Earth. However, the timing and nature of the orogenic events in the core of the CAOB in Mongolia has remained poorly constrained due to a dearth of detailed geological and geochronological studies. To bridge this gap and test models of crustal growth, here we refine the sequencing of geological events by focusing on the formation and destruction of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic tectonic basins. Mongolia's basins record a complete Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Wilson cycle with rifting of the Mongolian continent at ca. 700 Ma, the development of a Cryogenian to Ediacaran thermally subsiding passive margin, an arc-continent collision at ca. 520 Ma, and a continent-arc-continent collision at ca. 500 Ma. During this collisional orogeny, that is the Cambrian Altaids, crustal growth occurred largely through the obduction of ophiolites. Rifting of the southern margin occurred during the Ordovician Period, with the development of a Silurian passive margin. Oblique northwest-dipping subduction was initiated during the Devonian and resulted in a transpressional accretionary orogen. The CAOB culminated with a continent-arc-continent collision and the accretion of the North China and Tarim Blocks in the latest Permian. The Devonian to early Permian accretionary orogen is associated not only with voluminous plutonism, but also, major translational structures oblique to the margin resulting in the appearance of many accreted terranes. These data are consistent with existing coarse Hf and Nd isotopic data, but also provide a framework for future detailed studies. Although our geological constraints suggest distinct periods of apparent crustal growth through either collisional or accretionary orogenies, net crustal growth after accounting for recycling is equivocal.

  1. A relook into the crustal architecture of Laxmi Ridge, northeastern ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    derived free-air gravity (FAG) data to derive the crustal structure of Laxmi Ridge and adjacent areas. 2D and 3D crustal modelling suggests that the high resolution FAG low associated with the ridge is due to underplating and that it is of ...

  2. Detailed crustal thickness variations beneath the Illinois Basin area: Implications for crustal evolution of the midcontinent (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotao; Pavlis, Gary L.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Marshak, Stephen; Gilbert, Hersh; Rupp, John; Larson, Timothy H.; Chen, Chen; Carpenter, N. Seth


    We present high-resolution imaging results of crustal and upper mantle velocity discontinuities across the Illinois Basin area using both common conversion point stacking and plane wave migration methods applied to P wave receiver functions from the EarthScope Ozark, Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky experiment. The images reveal unusually thick crust (up to 62 km) throughout the central and southeastern Illinois Basin area. A significant Moho gradient underlies the NW trending Ste. Genevieve Fault Zone, which delineates the boundary between the Illinois Basin and Ozark Dome. Relatively thinner crust (Proterozoic convergent margin tectonics around 1.55-1.35 Ga; (3) by Late Precambrian magmatic underplating at the base of older crust, associated with the creation of the Eastern Granite-Rhyolite Province around 1.3 Ga; and (4) through crustal "relamination" during an episode of Proterozoic flat-slab subduction beneath the Illinois Basin, possibly associated with the Grenville Orogeny.

  3. Mapping crustal thinning beneath the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Diaz, Jordi; Chevrot, Sebastien; Verges, Jaume; Sylvander, Matthieu; Ruiz, Mario; Antonio-Vigil, Amanda


    The eastern termination of the Pyrenees is a complex region marked by two large tectonic events, the building of the Pyrenees during the Alpine orogeny and the Neogene extensional processes associated to the rotation of the Sardinia-Corsica block and the opening of the Valencia Trough. This complex tectonic history has left major imprints in crustal structures. Previous studies based on gravity data and active seismic profiles have documented a crustal thinning from 40-45 km about 80 km to the west of the Mediterranean coastline to less than 25 km beneath the eastern termination of the Pyrenees. To progress in the knowledge of the geometry of this transition, two passive seismic profiles have been acquired from mid 2015 to late 2016 within the OROGEN project, an academic-industrial collaboration between CNRS-Total-BRGM and CSIC. Up to 38 broad-band stations were deployed along two orthogonal lines, with an interstation spacing close to 10 km. First results of receiver function migration on the E-W profile suggest a smooth Moho thinning smoothly from 40 km beneath the western termination of the line to 23 km close to the coastline. The NNE-SSW profile shows a clearly defined Moho beneath Iberia, slightly deepening from 32 to 35 km northwards, a 28-30 km thick crust underneath the North Pyrenean Front Thrust and a complex geometry in the Axial Zone. Data from natural events located in the Gulf of Roses and near the intersecting point of the profiles have been recorded along the lines, hence allowing to produce wide angle reflection/refraction profiles providing additional constraints on the geometry of the crust/mantle boundary in the Eastern Pyrenees. These new results will be integrated with the available geophysical and geologic information for a more accurate geodynamical interpretation of the results. (Additional founding by the MISTERIOS project, CGL2013-48601-C2-1-R)

  4. Crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles (United States)

    Li, S.; Mooney, W.D.


    More than 36,000 km of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles have been collected in China since 1958. However, the results of these profiles are not well known in the West due to the language barrier. In this paper, we summarize the crustal structure of China with a new contour map of crustal thickness, nine representative crustal columns, and maps showing profile locations, average crustal velocity, and Pn velocity. The most remarkable aspect of the crustal structure of China is the well known 70+ km thickness of the crust of the Tibetan Plateau. The thick (45-70 km) crust of western China is separated from the thinner (30-45 km) crust of eastern China by the north-south trending seismic belt (105??E). The average crustal velocity of China ranges from 6.15 to 6.45 km/s, indicating a felsic-to-intermediate bulk crustal composition. Upper mantle (Pn) velocities are 8.0 ?? 0.2 km/s, equal to the global continental average. We interpret these results in terms of the most recent thermo-tectonic events that have modified the crust. In much of eastern China, Cenoxoic crustal extension has produced a thin crust with a low average crustal velocity, similar to western Europe and the Basin and Range Province, western USA. In western China, Mesozoic and Cenoxoic arc-continent and continent-continent collisions have led to crustal growth and thickening. Inferences on the process of crustal thickening are provided by the deep crustal velocity structure as determined by DSS profiles and other seismological studies. A high velocity (7.0-7.4 km/s) lower-crustal layer has been reported in western China only beneath the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. We identity this high-velocity layer as the cold lower crust of the subducting Indian plate. As the Indian crust is injected northward into the Tibetan lower crust, it heats and assimilates by partial melting, a process that results in a reduction in the seismic velocity of the lower crust in the central and northern Tibetan Plateau

  5. Evolution of crustal thickening in the central Andes, Bolivia (United States)

    Eichelberger, Nathan; McQuarrie, Nadine; Ryan, Jamie; Karimi, Bobak; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George


    Paleoelevation histories from the central Andes in Bolivia have suggested that the geodynamic evolution of the region has been punctuated by periods of large-scale lithospheric removal that drive rapid increases in elevation at the surface. Here, we evaluate viable times and locations of material loss using a map-view reconstruction of the Bolivian orocline displacement field to forward-model predicted crustal thicknesses. Two volumetric models are presented that test assumed pre-deformation crustal thicknesses of 35 km and 40 km. Both models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved first in the northern Eastern Cordillera (EC) by 30-20 Ma but remained below modern in the southern EC until ≤10 Ma. The Altiplano is predicted to have achieved modern crustal thickness after 10 Ma but only with a pre-deformation thickness of 50 km, including 10 km of sediment. At the final stage, the models predict 8-25% regional excess crustal volume compared to modern thickness, largely concentrated in the northern EC. The excess predicted volume from 20 to 0 Ma can be accounted for by: 1) crustal flow to the WC and/or Peru, 2) localized removal of the lower crust, or 3) a combination of the two. Only models with initial crustal thicknesses >35 km predict excess volumes sufficient to account for potential crustal thickness deficits in Peru and allow for lower crustal loss. However, both initial thickness models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved over the same time periods that paleoelevation histories indicate the development of modern elevations. Localized removal of lower crust is only necessary in the northern EC where crustal thickness exceeds modern by 20 Ma, prior to paleoelevation estimates of modern elevations by 15 Ma. In the Altiplano, crustal thicknesses match modern values at 10 Ma and can only exceed modern values by 5 Ma, post-dating when modern elevations were thought to have been established. Collectively, these models predict that

  6. Late Cenozoic extension and crustal doming in the NE Chinese Pamir (United States)

    Thiede, Rasmus C.; Sobel, Edward R.; Chen, Jie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay; Stockli, Daniel; Sudo, Masafumi; Strecker, Manfred


    The northward motion of the Pamir indenter with respect to Eurasia has resulted in coeval thrusting, strike-slip and normal faulting. The eastern Pamir is currently deformed by east-west oriented extension, accompanied by uplift and exhumation of the Kongur Shan (7719 m) and Muztagh Ata (7546 m) gneiss domes. Both domes are an integral part of the footwall of the Kongur Shan Extensional System (KES), a 250-km-long, north-south oriented graben. Why active normal faulting within the Pamir is primarily localized along the KES and not distributed more widely throughout the orogen, has remained unclear. In addition, relatively little is known about how deformation has evolved throughout the Cenozoic, despite refined estimates on present-day crustal deformation rates and microseismicity, which indicate where crustal deformation is presently being accommodated. To better constrain the spatiotemporal evolution of faulting along the KES, we present 39 new apatite fission-track, zircon U-Th-Sm/He, and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from a series of footwall transects along the KES graben shoulder. Combining this data with, present day topographic relief, 1D thermo-kinematic and exhumational modeling documents successive stages, rather than synchronous deformation and gneiss dome exhumation. While Kongur-Shan-exhumation started during the late Miocene, Muztagh Ata began earlier and has slowed down since the late Miocene. We present a new model, suggesting that thermal and density effects associated with a lithospheric tear fault along the eastern margin of the subducting Alai slab localizes extensional upper-plate deformation along the KES and decouples crustal motion between the Central/Western Pamir and Eastern Pamir/Tarim basin.

  7. Variation in Crustal Structure of the Lesser Caucasus Region from Teleseismic Receiver Functions (United States)

    Lin, C. M.; Tseng, T. L.; Huang, B. S.; Legendre, C. P.; Karakhanian, A.


    The Caucasus, including the mountains of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, is formed by the continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia. The crustal thickness for this region was mostly constrained by joint analysis of receiver functions and surface waves. Although the thickest value of 52 km was reported under the Lesser Caucasus, the resolution of earlier studies were often limited by sparse array. Large gradient across Moho also makes the definition of Moho difficult. Moreover, higher value of the Vp/Vs ratio is commonly reported in the northeastern Turkey but no estimates had been made for the Caucasus. To further investigate the detail structure around the Lesser Caucasus, we constructed a new seismic network in Georgia and Armenia. We also include other broadband stations to enhance the coverage. The average interval in the Lesser Caucasus is roughly 30 km, much denser than any previous experiments. We selected P-waveforms from teleseismic earthquakes during the operation (January 2012 - June 2016) to calculate receiver functions and then estimate the crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (k) with the H-k stacking technique. Our preliminary results show that Moho depth increases from 40 km under the northeastern Turkey to 50 km beneath northern Georgia, no station with Moho deeper than 50 km under the Lesser Caucasus. The Vp/Vs ratios in the northeastern Anatolian plateau are around 1.8, which is slightly higher than the average of global continents but consistent with the previous estimates. Further to the east, some stations show anomalously higher Vp/Vs ratio in central & southern Armenia that may be associated with Holocene volcanism. In the future, we plan to join locally measured dispersion curves to invert the velocity model without velocity-depth trade-off. We expect to resolve the velocity variations of the crust beneath this region in small scale that may be tied to the continental collision and surface volcanism. Keywords: Caucasus, receiver

  8. 3-D crustal velocity structure of western Turkey: Constraints from full-waveform tomography (United States)

    Çubuk-Sabuncu, Yeşim; Taymaz, Tuncay; Fichtner, Andreas


    The Sea of Marmara and western Turkey are characterized by intense seismicity and crustal deformation due to transition tectonics between the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) and the extensional Aegean. Seismic imaging of the crust and uppermost mantle in W-NW Turkey is crucial to obtain a better understanding of its seismotectonics and geodynamics. So far, the Sea of Marmara and surroundings were considered in various active and passive seismic experiments providing significant information on crustal properties. Here, we further investigate the 3-D seismic velocity structure in this rapidly deforming region using non-linear full-waveform tomography based on the adjoint method. Our model is constrained by complete waveforms of 62 regional earthquakes (epicentral distance data uncertainties. Furthermore, quantitative resolution analyses yield 15 to 35 km horizontal resolution lengths in the shallow and deep crust beneath well-covered areas of W-NW Turkey. Our full-waveform tomography results indicate the presence of strong lateral and vertical velocity variations (2.55 ≤ VS ≤ 4.0 km/s) down to depths of ∼35 km. The seismic velocity distribution is characteristic of highly deformed and distributed crustal features along major fault zones (e.g. NAFZ and its branches), historic and recent regional volcanism (e.g. Kula volcanic province), and metamorphic core complex developments (e.g. Menderes and Kazdağ massifs). Radial anisotropy is very strong (around 20%) throughout the crust, further attesting to strong deformation and heterogeneity. Generally, our 3-D model is overall consistent with the active tectonics of western Turkey.

  9. Geology of the Icy Galilean Satellites: Understanding Crustal Processes and Geologic Histories Through the JIMO Mission (United States)

    Figueredo, P. H.; Tanaka, K.; Senske, D.; Greeley, R.


    Knowledge of the geology, style and time history of crustal processes on the icy Galilean satellites is necessary to understanding how these bodies formed and evolved. Data from the Galileo mission have provided a basis for detailed geologic and geo- physical analysis. Due to constrained downlink, Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) data consisted of global coverage at a -1 km/pixel ground sampling and representative, widely spaced regional maps at -200 m/pixel. These two data sets provide a general means to extrapolate units identified at higher resolution to lower resolution data. A sampling of key sites at much higher resolution (10s of m/pixel) allows evaluation of processes on local scales. We are currently producing the first global geological map of Europa using Galileo global and regional-scale data. This work is demonstrating the necessity and utility of planet-wide contiguous image coverage at global, regional, and local scales.

  10. Crustal thickness and composition beneath the High Lava Plains of Eastern Oregon from teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Eagar, K. C.; Fouch, M. J.; James, D. E.; Carlson, R. W.


    The nature of the crust beneath the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon is fundamental for understanding the origins of widespread Cenozoic volcanism in the region. Eruptions of flood basalts in the southern Cascadian back arc peaked ~17-15 Ma, and were followed by distributed bimodal volcanism along two perpendicular migrating tracks; the Snake River Plain and the High Lava Plains. The orientations of eruptive centers have led to several competing hypotheses about their cause, including a deep mantle plume, slab retreat and asthenospheric inflow, lithospheric delamination, and lithospheric extension. The goal of this project is to constrain the nature, geometry, and depth of the Moho across the High Lava Plains, which will shed light on questions regarding crustal influence on melt generation and differentiation and the degree of magmatic underplating. In this study, we analyze teleseismic receiver functions from 118 stations of the High Lava Plains temporary broadband array, 34 nearby EarthScope/USArray stations, and 5 other regional broadband stations to determine bulk crustal features of thickness (H) and Vp/Vs ratio (κ). Applying the H-κ stacking method, we search for the best-fitting solution of timing predictions for direct and multiple P-to-S conversions from the Moho interface. Converting Vp/Vs to Poisson ratio, which is dependent primarily upon rock composition, allows for comparison with other direct geological observations. Preliminary results show that the crust of the High Lava Plains is relatively thin (~31 km) with a very sharp gradient to thicker crust (~42 km) at the western edge of the Owyhee Plateau in southwestern Idaho. This gradient is co-located with the western margin of Precambrian North America and is in the vicinity of the Jordan Craters volcanic center. The sharp topography of the Moho might have been a factor in melt migration beneath this area. West of the High Lava Plains, the crust thickens to ~40 km into the Cascade volcanic arc

  11. Crustal seismic anisotropy beneath Shillong plateau - Assam valley in North East India: Shear-wave splitting analysis using local earthquakes (United States)

    Sharma, Antara; Baruah, Santanu; Piccinini, Davide; Saikia, Sowrav; Phukan, Manoj K.; Chetia, Monisha; Kayal, J. R.


    We present crustal anisotropy estimates constrained by shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis using local earthquakes in the Shillong plateau and Assam valley area, North East India (NE India) region. Splitting parameters are determined using an automated cross-correlation (CC) method. We located 330 earthquakes recorded by 17 broadband seismic stations during 2001-2014 in the study area. Out of these 330 events, seismograms of 163 events are selected for the SWS analysis. Relatively small average delay times (0.039-0.084 s) indicate existence of moderate crack density in the crust below the study area. It is found that fast polarization directions vary from station to station depending on the regional stress system as well as geological conditions. The spatial pattern of crustal anisotropy in the area is controlled mostly by tectonic movement of the Indian plate towards NE. Presence of several E-W and N-S trending active faults in the area also play an important role on the observed pattern of crustal anisotropy.

  12. Crustal structure beneath the Paleozoic Parnaíba Basin revealed by airborne gravity and magnetic data, Brazil (United States)

    de Castroa, David L.; Fuck, Reinhardt A.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Vidotti, Roberta M.; Bezerra, Francisco H. R.; Dantas, Elton L.


    The Parnaíba Basin is a large Paleozoic syneclise in northeastern Brazil underlain by Precambrian crystalline basement, which comprises a complex lithostructural and tectonic framework formed during the Neoproterozoic–Eopaleozoic Brasiliano–Pan African orogenic collage. A sag basin up to 3.5 km thick and 1000 km long formed after the collage. The lithologic composition, structure, and role in the basin evolution of the underlying basement are the focus of this study. Airborne gravity and magnetic data were modeled to reveal the general crustal structure underneath the Parnaíba Basin. Results indicate that gravity and magnetic signatures delineate the main boundaries and structural trends of three cratonic areas and surrounding Neoproterozoic fold belts in the basement. Triangular-shaped basement inliers are geophysically defined in the central region of this continental-scale Neoproterozoic convergence zone. A 3-D gravity inversion constrained by seismological data reveals that basement inliers exhibit a 36–40.5 km deep crustal root, with borders defined by a high-density and thinner crust. Forward modeling of gravity and magnetic data indicates that lateral boundaries between crustal units are limited by Brasiliano shear zones, representing lithospheric sutures of the Amazonian and São Francisco Cratons, Tocantins Province and Parnaíba Block. In addition, coincident residual gravity, residual magnetic, and pseudo-gravity lows indicate two complex systems of Eopaleozoic rifts related to the initial phase of the sag deposition, which follow basement trends in several directions.

  13. The global chemical systematics of arc front stratovolcanoes: Evaluating the role of crustal processes (United States)

    Turner, Stephen J.; Langmuir, Charles H.


    , but the required composition of the theoretical enriched end-member is not similar to compositions expected in the deep crust or to any known rock composition. The large-scale chemical variations among volcanic arcs are therefore likely to be generated by processes in the subducting slab or mantle wedge, rather than the crust. While crustal processes are important in the differentiation of convergent margin magmas, they do not account for the systematics presented here. Models that attribute the chemical variability of arc magmas to slab or wedge processes are also constrained to be consistent with the global chemical systematics, and are discussed in Turner and Langmuir (2015).

  14. Evidence for Vertical Coherent Deformation in Eastern Tibet from Splitting of Crustal S Phases (United States)

    Karalliyadda, S. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Silver, P. G.


    Regional shear wave phases recorded by stations in Yunnan Province and Eastern Tibet surrounding the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis are used to constrain seismic anisotropy at crustal depths which range from 45 km to 65 km, respectively. Shear wave splitting measurements were obtained using regional direct S phases recorded at stations operated by Carnegie Institution of Washington, Lehigh University, and MIT, with source depths that originate from 20 km to 55 km. S to P converted energy is avoided considering events with free surface incidence angles less than 37{°} and using records with low P energy. We apply a low pass filter with a corner frequency at 2.5 Hz to all records and correct for surface reflections using a free surface transform from previous methods. Anisotropy is small but well resolved for 14 records at 8 stations and indicate that delay times obtained for all stations are less than 0.4 {±} 0.05s. In Yunnan province the average delay time is 0.16 s but is twice this value in eastern Tibet at 0.31 s. The fast directions for all stations in Yunnan Province including KMI and CHTO (GSN) are consistent with fast directions for previous SKS studies, but with smaller delay times of 0.4s or less (where SKS are 1.0 - 1.5s). Stations in eastern Tibet display a {~}N-S azimuth roughly orthogonal to SKS studies in this area and may indicate sensitivity to cracks which form roughly parallel to the compressive stress direction. A N-S azimuth of anisotropy is also consistent with surface waves results for periods below 40s. By comparison with SKS splitting studies, we find that anisotropy in the crust is very small and contributes only about 15% to the total SKS splitting measurements, requiring about 1.0 - 1.2s of splitting to come from subcrustal depths. Such strong anisotropic fabric possibly present in the lithospheric mantle is inconsistent with a lower crustal flow model which predicts decoupling above the Moho. Consistently low splitting times for events

  15. Testing the Axial Dipole Hypothesis for the Moon by Modeling the Direction of Crustal Magnetization (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana S.; Wieczorek, Mark A.


    Magnetic field maps of the Moon show that there are strong magnetic anomalies of crustal origin distributed heterogeneously across the lunar surface. However, the origin of the fields that magnetized the crust are not understood and could be the result of either a long-lived core generated dynamo or transient fields associated with large impact events. Core-dynamo models usually predict that the field would be predominantly dipolar, with the dipole axis aligned with the rotation axis. In this case, the direction of crustal magnetization would vary with planetary latitude, just as on Earth. We test this hypothesis by modeling the direction of crustal magnetization using spacecraft-derived magnetic field data. From the direction of magnetization, we calculate the corresponding paleopole, which we define as the north magnetic pole of a predominantly dipolar core-generated field when the anomaly was formed. The dipolar core field hypothesis will be confirmed if the paleopoles cluster in one or two regions. We use the Parker method, originally developed to study seamounts magnetism, to invert for the direction of crustal magnetization associated with isolated lunar magnetic anomalies. This method largely bypasses the non-uniqueness associated with specifying the geometry of the magnetic sources. The only assumption is that when the region acquired a remnant magnetization, the main field was constant in direction. In practice, unidirectional equivalent source dipoles are placed on the surface within a circle of specified radius over a region that encompasses an isolated anomaly. For an assumed direction of magnetization, we solve for the magnetic moments of the dipoles and determine the misfit between the model and observations using a non-negative least squares inversions approach. The inversion naturally finds those dipoles that are non-zero, as well as their intensities. For our inversions we use global gridded magnetic field maps at 30 km altitude with a resolution

  16. Crustal deformation induced by mantle dynamics: insights from models of gravitational lithosphere removal (United States)

    Wang, Huilin; Currie, Claire A.


    Mantle-based stresses have been proposed to explain the occurrence of deformation in the interior regions of continental plates, far from the effects of plate boundary processes. We examine how the gravitational removal of a dense mantle lithosphere root may induce deformation of the overlying crust. Simplified numerical models and a theoretical analysis are used to investigate the physical mechanisms for deformation and assess the surface expression of removal. Three behaviours are identified: (1) where the entire crust is strong, stresses from the downwelling mantle are efficiently transferred through the crust. There is little crustal deformation and removal is accompanied by surface subsidence and a negative free-air gravity anomaly. Surface uplift and increased free-air gravity occur after the dense root detaches. (2) If the mid-crust is weak, the dense root creates a lateral pressure gradient in the crust that drives Poiseuille flow in the weak layer. This induces crustal thickening, surface uplift and a minor free-air gravity anomaly above the root. (3) If the lower crust is weak, deformation occurs through pressure-driven Poiseuille flow and Couette flow due to basal shear. This can overthicken the crust, producing a topographic high and a negative free-air gravity anomaly above the root. In the latter two cases, surface uplift occurs prior to the removal of the mantle stress. The modeling results predict that syn-removal uplift will occur if the crustal viscosity is less than ∼1021 Pa s, corresponding to temperatures greater than ∼400-500 °C for a dry and felsic or wet and mafic composition, and ∼900 °C for a dry and mafic composition. If crustal temperatures are lower than this, lithosphere removal is marked by the formation of a basin. These results can explain the variety of surface expressions observed above areas of downwelling mantle. In addition, observations of the surface deflection may provide a way to constrain the vertical rheological

  17. Crustal Structure beneath Mexico from Receiver Functions (United States)

    Espindola, V.; Quintanar, L.; Espindola, J.


    The Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN) is Mexico's official organism in charge of the observation of seismicity in the country. Operated by the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, it counts with 32 broadband stations deployed throughout the country. The coverage includes most of the geologic provinces of the territory, which vary widely in their geologic characteristics. The availability of records from teleseisms at those stations makes feasible to obtain sound and homogeneous estimates of the structure of the crust in the Mexican territory through the analysis of receiver functions (RF). In this work we present the results of the analysis of RF obtained from events registered from 1998 to 2009 in the 32 stations of the SSN. The RF technique, which uses converted phases at major velocity discontinuities, is a well established technique to infer the velocity contrasts and thickness of the underlying crust. Using this method we were able to infer the depth of the Moho, a major intracrustal discontinuity and in some cases the depth to the base of the subducting plate. We present maps of crustal thickness in Mexico, which varies between about 29 km in the Yucatan peninsula to more than 40 km in central Mexico. Poisson's coefficient varies between 0.19 and 0.30. The position of the descending slab shows a large variation in the subduction angle (from about 6° in the SE margin of the Pacific coast to about 60° in the NW ) as has been found from other techniques.

  18. Ionospheric precursors for crustal earthquakes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perrone


    Full Text Available Crustal earthquakes with magnitude 6.0>M≥5.5 observed in Italy for the period 1979–2009 including the last one at L'Aquila on 6 April 2009 were considered to check if the earlier obtained relationships for ionospheric precursors for strong Japanese earthquakes are valid for the Italian moderate earthquakes. The ionospheric precursors are based on the observed variations of the sporadic E-layer parameters (h'Es, fbEs and foF2 at the ionospheric station Rome. Empirical dependencies for the seismo-ionospheric disturbances relating the earthquake magnitude and the epicenter distance are obtained and they have been shown to be similar to those obtained earlier for Japanese earthquakes. The dependences indicate the process of spreading the disturbance from the epicenter towards periphery during the earthquake preparation process. Large lead times for the precursor occurrence (up to 34 days for M=5.8–5.9 tells about a prolong preparation period. A possibility of using the obtained relationships for the earthquakes prediction is discussed.

  19. The Sub-Crustal Stress Field in the Taiwan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer and Mehdi Eshagh


    Full Text Available We investigate the sub-crustal stress in the Taiwan region. A tectonic configuration in this region is dominated by a collision between the Philippine oceanic plate and the Eurasian continental margin. The horizontal components of the sub-crustal stress are computed based on the modified _ formulae in terms of the stress function with a subsequent numerical differentiation. This modification increases the (degree-dependent convergence domain of the asymptotically-convergent series and consequently allows evaluating the stress components to a spectral resolution, which is compatible with currently available global crustal models. Moreover, the solution to the Vening _ (VMM inverse isostasy problem is explicitly incorporated in the stress function definition. The sub-crustal stress is then computed for a variable Moho geometry, instead of assuming only a constant Moho depth. The regional results reveal that the Philippine plate subduction underneath the Eurasian continental margin generates the shear sub-crustal stress along the Ryukyu Trench. Some stress anomalies associated with this subduction are also detected along both sides of the Okinawa Trough. A tensional stress along this divergent tectonic plate boundary is attributed to a back-arc rifting. The sub-crustal stress, which is generated by a (reverse subduction of the Eurasian plate under the Philippine plate, propagates along both sides of the Luzon (volcanic Arc. This stress field has a prevailing compressional pattern.

  20. Crustal thickness investigation on three broadband stations in Northern Sumatra (United States)

    Anggono, T.; Syuhada; Soedjatmiko, B.; Amran, A.


    We present a preliminary result of crustal thickness in Northern Sumatra from receiver function analysis and grid search. Total of 111 teleseismic events from three broadband stations (TPTI, KCSI, and BSI) of IA-Network were used to calculate the receiver functions. We identified direct P and S arrival from the receiver function. Converted phases Ps were relatively clear for all three broadband stations. Ps-P time was estimated about 2 - 3 s, 2 s, and 5 - 6 s for station TPTI, KCSI, and BSI, respectively. We applied H-k stacking method to obtain crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath the three broadband stations. At station TPTI, we obtained the crustal thickness is about 19.54 ± 3.84 km, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.73 ± 0.14. At station KCSI, the crustal thickness was estimated to be 37.07 ± 4.47 km, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.84 ± 0.10. At station BSI, which is located to the north of these two stations, the crustal thickness was estimated to be 40.56 ± 2.26 km, Vp/Vs ratio is about 1.81 ± 0.05. These results show relatively large variation of crustal thickness in the Northern Sumatra.

  1. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Model Broadband Regional Waveforms for Crustal Structure in the Western United States (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John


    In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.

  2. Trends in PDE constrained optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Benner, Peter; Engell, Sebastian; Griewank, Andreas; Harbrecht, Helmut; Hinze, Michael; Rannacher, Rolf; Ulbrich, Stefan


    Optimization problems subject to constraints governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) are among the most challenging problems in the context of industrial, economical and medical applications. Almost the entire range of problems in this field of research was studied and further explored as part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) priority program 1253 on “Optimization with Partial Differential Equations” from 2006 to 2013. The investigations were motivated by the fascinating potential applications and challenging mathematical problems that arise in the field of PDE constrained optimization. New analytic and algorithmic paradigms have been developed, implemented and validated in the context of real-world applications. In this special volume, contributions from more than fifteen German universities combine the results of this interdisciplinary program with a focus on applied mathematics.   The book is divided into five sections on “Constrained Optimization, Identification and Control”...

  3. Constraining spacetime torsion with LAGEOS (United States)

    March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Dell'Agnello, Simone


    We compute the corrections to the orbital Lense-Thirring effect (or frame-dragging) in the presence of spacetime torsion. We analyze the motion of a test body in the gravitational field of a rotating axisymmetric massive body, using the parametrized framework of Mao, Tegmark, Guth and Cabi. In the cases of autoparallel and extremal trajectories, we derive the specific approximate expression of the corresponding system of ordinary differential equations, which are then solved with methods of Celestial Mechanics. We calculate the secular variations of the longitudes of the node and of the pericenter. We also show how the LAser GEOdynamics Satellites (LAGEOS) can be used to constrain torsion parameters. We report the experimental constraints obtained using both the nodes and perigee measurements of the orbital Lense-Thirring effect. This makes LAGEOS and Gravity Probe B complementary frame-dragging and torsion experiments, since they constrain three different combinations of torsion parameters.

  4. Constrained Multiobjective Biogeography Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Mo


    Full Text Available Multiobjective optimization involves minimizing or maximizing multiple objective functions subject to a set of constraints. In this study, a novel constrained multiobjective biogeography optimization algorithm (CMBOA is proposed. It is the first biogeography optimization algorithm for constrained multiobjective optimization. In CMBOA, a disturbance migration operator is designed to generate diverse feasible individuals in order to promote the diversity of individuals on Pareto front. Infeasible individuals nearby feasible region are evolved to feasibility by recombining with their nearest nondominated feasible individuals. The convergence of CMBOA is proved by using probability theory. The performance of CMBOA is evaluated on a set of 6 benchmark problems and experimental results show that the CMBOA performs better than or similar to the classical NSGA-II and IS-MOEA.

  5. Crustal seismic structure and depth distribution of earthquakes in the Archean Kuusamo region, Fennoscandian Shield (United States)

    Uski, Marja; Tiira, Timo; Grad, Marek; Yliniemi, Jukka


    Two-dimensional crustal velocity models are derived from passive seismic observations for the Archean Karelian bedrock of north-eastern Finland. In addition, an updated Moho depth map is constructed by integrating the results of this study with previous data sets. The structural models image a typical three-layer Archean crust, with thickness varying between 40 and 52 km. P wave velocities within the 12-20 km thick upper crust range from 6.1 to 6.4 km/s. The relatively high velocities are related to layered mafic intrusive and volcanic rocks. The middle crust is a fairly homogeneous layer associated with velocities of 6.5-6.8 km/s. The boundary between middle and lower crust is located at depths between 28 and 38 km. The thickness of the lower crust increases from 5-15 km in the Archean part to 15-22 km in the Archean-Proterozoic transition zone. In the lower crust and uppermost mantle, P wave velocities vary between 6.9-7.3 km/s and 7.9-8.2 km/s. The average Vp/ Vs ratio increases from 1.71 in the upper crust to 1.76 in the lower crust. The crust attains its maximum thickness in the south-east, where the Archean crust is both over- and underthrust by the Proterozoic crust. A crustal depression bulging out from that zone to the N-NE towards Kuusamo is linked to a collision between major Archean blocks. Further north, crustal thickening under the Salla and Kittilä greenstone belts is tentatively associated with a NW-SE-oriented collision zone or major shear zone. Elevated Moho beneath the Pudasjärvi block is primarily explained with rift-related extension and crustal thinning at ˜2.4-2.1 Ga. The new crustal velocity models and synthetic waveform modelling are used to outline the thickness of the seismogenic layer beneath the temporary Kuusamo seismic network. Lack of seismic activity within the mafic high-velocity body in the uppermost 8 km of crust and relative abundance of mid-crustal, i.e., 14-30 km deep earthquakes are characteristic features of the Kuusamo

  6. Crustal seismic anisotropy and structure from textural and seismic investigations in the Cycladic region, Greece (United States)

    Cossette, Élise; Schneider, David; Audet, Pascal; Grasemann, Bernhard


    Seismic anisotropy data are often used to resolve rock structures and deformation styles in the crust based on compilations of rock properties that may not be representative of the exposed geology. We use teleseismic receiver functions jointly with in situ rock property data to constrain the seismic structure and anisotropy of the crust in the Cyclades, Greece, located in the back arc region of the Hellenic subduction zone. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) via electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses were measured on a suite of samples representative of different structural depths along the West Cycladic Detachment System; average seismic properties of the rocks were calculated with the Voigt-Reuss-Hill average of the single minerals' elastic stiffness tensor. The calcitic and quartzitic rocks have P- and S-wave velocity anisotropies (AVp, AVs) averaging 8.1% and 7.1%, respectively. The anisotropy increases with depth represented by blueschist assemblages, with AVp averaging 20.3% and AVs averaging 14.5% due to the content of aligned glaucophane and mica, which strongly control the seismic properties of the rocks. Localized anisotropies of very high magnitude are caused by the presence of mica schists as they possess the strongest anisotropies, with values of ~25% for AVp and AVs. The direction of the fast and slow P-wave velocities occur parallel and perpendicular to the foliation, respectively, for most samples. The fast propagation has the same NE-SW orientation as the lithospheric stretching direction present in the Cyclades since the Late Oligocene. The maximum shear wave anisotropy is subhorizontal, similarly concordant with mineral alignment that developed during back-arc extension. Our results strongly favor radial anisotropy in the Aegean mid-crust over azimuthal anisotropy. The receiver function data indicate that the Moho is relatively flat at 25 km depth in the south and deepens to 33 km in the north, consistent with previous

  7. Plume-driven plumbing and crustal formation in Iceland (United States)

    Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Vogfjord, K.; Nettles, M.; Ekstrom, G.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Foulger, G.R.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Julian, B.R.; Pritchard, M.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.


    Through combination of surface wave and body wave constraints we derive a three-dimensional (3-D) crustal S velocity model and Moho map for Iceland. It reveals a vast plumbing system feeding mantle plume melt into upper crustal magma chambers where crustal formation takes place. The method is based on the partitioned waveform inversion to which we add additional observations. Love waves from six local events recorded on the HOTSPOT-SIL networks are fitted, Sn travel times from the same events measured, previous observations of crustal thickness are added, and all three sets of constraints simultaneously inverted for our 3-D model. In the upper crust (0-15 km) an elongated low-velocity region extends along the length of the Northern, Eastern and Western Neovolcanic Zones. The lowest velocities (-7%) are found at 5-10 km below the two most active volcanic complexes: Hekla and Bardarbunga-Grimsvotn. In the lower crust (>15 km) the low-velocity region can be represented as a vertical cylinder beneath central Iceland. The low-velocity structure is interpreted as the thermal halo of pipe work which connects the region of melt generation in the uppermost mantle beneath central Iceland to active volcanoes along the neovolcanic zones. Crustal thickness in Iceland varies from 15-20 km beneath the Reykjanes Peninsula, Krafla and the extinct Snfellsnes rift zone, to 46 km beneath central Iceland. The average crustal thickness is 29 km. The variations in thickness can be explained in terms of the temporal variation in plume productivity over the last ~20 Myr, the Snfellsnes rift zone being active during a minimum in plume productivity. Variations in crustal thickness do not depart significantly from an isostatically predicted crustal thickness. The best fit linear isostatic relation implies an average density jump of 4% across the Moho. Rare earth element inversions of basalt compositions on Iceland suggest a melt thickness (i.e., crustal thickness) of 15-20 km, given passive

  8. The additivity problem and constrained quantum channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    We give formulations of the famous additivity conjecture for several important quantities characterizing quantum channel and prove their global equivalence to the additivity of the classical capacity of a channel under input constrains (like mean energy constrain).

  9. Izu-Bonin Arc: Intra-oceanic from the beginning? Unraveling the crustal structure of the Mesozoic proto-Philippine Sea Plate (United States)

    Tani, K.; Ishizuka, O.; Ueda, H.; Shukuno, H.; Hirahara, Y.; Nichols, A. R.; Dunkley, D. J.; Horie, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Morishita, T.; Tatsumi, Y.


    The Izu-Bonin Arc is widely regarded as a typical intra-oceanic arc, where the oceanic Pacific Plate is subducting beneath the Philippine Sea Plate, an evolving complex of active and inactive arcs and back-arc basins. It is dominated by oceanic crust forming three large back-arc basins; Shikoku, Parece Vela, and West Philippine Basins, making the present Philippine Sea Plate look like an "oceanic" plate. However, all of these back-arc basins were formed after the inception of subduction at Izu-Bonin Arc, which began at ~52 Ma (Ishizuka et al. 2011, EPSL). Little is known about the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, which existed as a counterpart to the Pacific Plate during subduction initiation and before the formation of back-arc basins. To investigate the crustal structures of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate, we conducted manned-submersible SHINKAI6500 and Deep-Tow camera surveys during the April 2010 cruise of the R/V YOKOSUKA cruise (YK10-04) at the Amami Plateau, Daito Ridge, and Okidaito Ridge (ADO) region. The ADO region comprises the northwestern Philippine Sea Plate along with what are regarded as remnants of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate. Submersible observations and rock sampling revealed that ADO region exposes deep crustal sections of gabbroic, granitic, and metamorphic rocks, indicating that part of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate is composed of older, possibly continental, crust. Jurassic to Cretaceous magmatic zircon U-Pb ages have been obtained from the ADO plutonic rocks. These findings and tectonic reconstruction of the proto-Philippine Sea Plate (Deschamps and Lallemand 2002, JGR) suggests that subduction of the Izu-Bonin Arc initiated at the continental margin of the Southeast Asia, possibly correlating to the Mesozoic island-arc and ophiolite complexes exposed in the Philippine Islands and Borneo, and later acquired "intra-oceanic"-like setting through formation of the backarc basins. Furthermore, detrital zircon ages from volcaniclastic sandstones

  10. Structure and kinematics of segment-scale crustal accretion processes in Iceland and implications for analogous mid-ocean ridge systems (United States)

    Siler, Drew Lorenz


    The sub-surface geologic structure of the crust is controlled by the magmatic and tectonic processes that construct the crust during plate spreading. As a result, geologic structure provides constraints on the processes that occur during plate spreading. The crust of the Skagi region of northern Iceland, where this study was focused, was accreted by magmatic construction to Iceland ˜7-10 Ma and subsequently glacially eroded, exhuming ˜1-3 km of structural relief. Continuous spreading-parallel and spreading-orthogonal mountain ranges expose the crust accreted at discrete spreading segments, the fundamental intervals upon which plate spreading and crustal accretion occur. As a result, Skagi is an ideal location to employ geologic structure analysis to study magmatic rifting processes. Within spreading segments structural patterns vary significantly between segment centers and distal fissure swarms. While segment centers are characterized by focused magmatic construction and km-scale sub-volcanic subsidence, fissure swarms are characterized by limited magmatic construction, minor sub-axial subsidence and lateral dike injection. Such along-strike variation indicates that both magma in the upper crust and gabbroic material in the lower crust must be redistributed along-strike within spreading segments during plate spreading. Material flow is directed from beneath segment centers towards distal fissure swarms. At the regional scale, each spreading segment is a structurally discrete interval of Iceland's Neovolcanic Zone. As a result of west-northwestward movement of Iceland relative to the Iceland hotspot, the rift zone axis has progressively relocated to the east-southeast with time, leaving a series of abandoned rift zones throughout western Iceland. A compilation of published K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age data and geologic data from across northern Iceland shows that rift relocation occurs via frequent (2-3 Ma), small-scale (˜20 km) rift propagations rather than rare, 100

  11. Crustal structure of a Proterozoic craton boundary: east Albany-Fraser Orogen, Western Australia, imaged with passive seismic and gravity anomaly data (United States)

    Sippl, Christian; Brisbout, Lucy; Spaggiari, Catherine; Gessner, Klaus; Tkalcic, Hrvoje; Kennett, Brian; Murdie, Ruth


    We use passive seismic and gravity data to characterize the crustal structure and the crust-mantle boundary of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen in Western Australia, a Proterozoic orogen that reworked the southern and southeastern margin of the Archean Yilgarn Craton. The crustal thickness pattern retrieved from receiver functions shows a belt of substantially thickened crust - about 10 km thicker than the surrounding regions - that follows the trend of the orogen, but narrows to the southwest. Common conversion point profiles show a clear transition from a wide, symmetric Moho trough in the northeast to a one-sided, north-western Moho dip in the southwest, where the Moho appears to underthrust the craton towards its interior. The change from a Moho trough to an underthrust Moho appears to coincide with the inferred trace of the Ida Fault, a major terrane boundary within the Yilgarn Craton. Bulk crustal vp/vs ratios are mostly in the felsic to intermediate range, with clearly elevated values (≥1.8) at stations in the Fraser Zone granulite facies, dominantly mafic metamorphic rocks. Forward modelling of gravity anomaly data using the retrieved Moho geometry as a geometric constraint shows that a conspicuous, elongated gravity low on the northwestern side of the eastern Albany-Fraser Orogen is almost certainly caused by thickened Archean crust. To obtain a model that resembles the regional gravity pattern the following assumptions are necessary: high-density rocks occur in the upper crustal portion of the Fraser Zone, at depth inside the Moho trough and in parts of the eastern Nornalup Zone east of the Moho trough. Although our gravity models do not constrain at which crustal level these high-density rocks occur, active deep seismic surveys suggest that large extents of the east Albany-Fraser Orogen's lower crust include a Mesoproterozoic magmatic underplate known as the Gunnadorrah Seismic Province. The simplest interpretation of the imaged crustal structure is that

  12. Constrained ballistics and geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Epstein, Marcelo


    The problem of constant-speed ballistics is studied under the umbrella of non-linear non-holonomic constrained systems. The Newtonian approach is shown to be equivalent to the use of Chetaev's rule to incorporate the constraint within the initially unconstrained formulation. Although the resulting equations are not, in principle, obtained from a variational statement, it is shown that the trajectories coincide with those of geometrical optics in a medium with a suitably chosen refractive index, as prescribed by Fermat's principle of least time. This fact gives rise to an intriguing mechano-optical analogy. The trajectories are further studied and discussed.

  13. Constraining properties of disintegrating exoplanets (United States)

    Veras, D.; Carter, P. J.; Leinhardt, Z. M.; Gänsicke, B. T.


    Evaporating and disintegrating planets provide unique insights into chemical makeup and physical constraints. The striking variability, depth (˜10 - 60%) and shape of the photometric transit curves due to the disintegrating minor planet orbiting white dwarf WD 1145+017 has galvanised the post-main- sequence exoplanetary science community. We have performed the first tidal disruption simulations of this planetary object, and have succeeded in constraining its mass, density, eccentricity and physical nature. We illustrate how our simulations can bound these properties, and be used in the future for other exoplanetary systems.

  14. Constraining walking and custodial technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; Sannino, Francesco


    We show how to constrain the physical spectrum of walking technicolor models via precision measurements and modified Weinberg sum rules. We also study models possessing a custodial symmetry for the S parameter at the effective Lagrangian level-custodial technicolor-and argue that these models...... cannot emerge from walking-type dynamics. We suggest that it is possible to have a very light spin-one axial (vector) boson. However, in the walking dynamics the associated vector boson is heavy while it is degenerate with the axial in custodial technicolor Udgivelsesdato: 19 May...

  15. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.


    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  16. A constrained model for MSMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capella, Antonio [Instituto de Matematicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Mueller, Stefan [Hausdorff Center for Mathematics and Institute for Applied Mathematics, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Otto, Felix [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, Leipzig (Germany)


    A mathematical description of transformation processes in magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMA) under applied stresses and external magnetic fields needs a combination of micromagnetics and continuum elasticity theory. In this note, we discuss the so-called constrained theories, i.e., models where the state described by the pair (linear strain, magnetization) is at every point of the sample constrained to assume one of only finitely many values (that reflect the material symmetries). Furthermore, we focus on large body limits, i.e., models that are formulated in terms of (local) averages of a microstructured state, as the one proposed by DeSimone and James. We argue that the effect of an interfacial energy associated with the twin boundaries survives on the level of the large body limit in form of a (local) rigidity of twins. This leads to an alternative (i.e., with respect to reference 1) large body limit. The new model has the advantage of qualitatively explaining the occurrence of a microstructure with charged magnetic walls, as observed in SPP experiments in reference 2. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Combined crustal-geological cross-section of Ellesmere Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian; Oakey, Gordon

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada’s Arctic, consists of a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic and, most recently, intraplate deformation in the Cenozoic...... (Eurekan “Orogeny”). An almost complete absence of information about the crustal or lithosphere structure of Ellesmere Island has been addressed by the acquisition of teleseismic data between 2010 and 2012 on a passive seismological array called ELLITE (“Ellesmere Island Teleseismic Experiment......”). The ELLITE array consisted of seven broadband stations, deployed for two years on a 520 km long, N-S orientated profile and was logistically supported by the GSC (Canada) and SEIS-UK. Extracted Receiver Functions (RFs) and a resulting composite two-dimensional crustal scale cross-section of Ellesmere Island...

  18. Crustal structure across the Central American Volcanic Arc in Costa Rica from TICO-CAVA seismic refraction data (United States)

    Hayes, J. L.; Holbrook, W. S.; Lizarralde, D.; Avendonck, H.; Bullock, A. D.; Mora Fernandez, M.; Harder, S. H.; Alvarado, G. E.


    The Central American Volcanic Arc in Costa Rica, which forms as the Cocos Plate subducts beneath the Caribbean Plate, provides a unique setting to study subduction-related magmatic crust built upon a pre-existing large igneous province. Study of this process is essential to understanding arc evolution and the building of continental crust, in that the substrate upon which arcs are built (oceanic crust vs. large igneous province) may have a strong influence on crustal construction processes. We present new tomographic results of a refraction survey conducted in 2005 as part of project TICO-CAVA. The across-arc transect extends ~150 kilometers from the Pacific Ocean to Caribbean Sea, crossing the arc at Barva volcano. 748 portable seismometers (~200 m spacing) were deployed and 20 shots (~7 km spacing) fired, with shot sizes ranging from 300 to 1025 kg of buried explosive. Data quality is high, with crustal refractions observed at most offsets and deep reflections observed on several shots. Traveltime tomography tightly constrains velocities and structures in the upper 13 km of crust and roughly constrains the crustal thickness beneath an extinct Paleocene arc to the west of Barva Volcano (40±5 km thick). Slab reflections are recorded on a few shots and yield a modeled slab depth of ~50 km beneath the Paleocene arc, in agreement with previous results from local seismicity. The velocity-depth profile beneath the Paleocene arc is within the velocity range of other arc studies to 10 km depth and generally trends similar to velocity profiles derived from accreted arc terranes (especially below 8 km depth). Velocities along this profile do not exceed 6.5 km/s until below 13 km depth. The velocity-depth profile beneath Barva volcano also lies within the range of other modern arc studies, but lies closer to the slowest arc profiles below 6 km depth, with velocity increasing from 6 to 6.7 km/s between 6 and 13 km depth. An isolated high velocity anomaly (~6.4 km/s) is

  19. Crustal deformation across the Southern Patagonian Icefield: GNSS observations and GIA models (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Richter, Andreas; Marderwald, Eric; Hormaechea, José Luis; Ivins, Erik; Perdomo, Raúl; Lange, Heiner; Schröder, Ludwig; Dietrich, Reinhard


    -dimensional rheological structure and mantle flow as revealed by the observed localized, asymmetric uplift pattern. The mantle circulation, in turn, is affected by the load-induced movement of mantle material. Future improvement in modeling and understanding the present-day crustal deformation in southern Patagonia calls for careful integration of the three processes that we have identified here from observations, within a three-dimensional, time-dependent framework of rheological structure and mantle circulation. References: Lange, H., Casassa, G., Ivins, E.R., Schröder, L., Fritsche, M., Richter, A., Groh, A., Dietrich, R. (2014): Observed crustal uplift near the Southern Patagonian Icefield constrains improved viscoelastic Earth model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 41, doi: 10.1002/2013GL058419. Richter, A., Ivins, E., Lange, H., Mendoza, L., Schröder, L., Hormaechea, J.L., Casassa, G., Marderwald, E., Fritsche, M., Perdomo, R., Horwath, M., Dietrich, R. (2016): Crustal deformation across the Southern Patagonian Icefield observed by GNSS. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 452:206-215, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2016.07.042

  20. Crustal structure and active tectonics in the Eastern Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brückl, E.; Behm, M.; Decker, K.


    and underthusting of AD mantle below PA from southwest to northeast. The Moho fragmentation correlates well with major upper crustal structures and is supported by gravity, seismic, and geodetic data. An analysis of crustal thickening suggests that active convergence is associated with continued thrusting...... and lateral extrusion in the central Eastern Alps and thickening of the Adriatic indenter under the Southern Alps. According to the velocity relations at the triple junction, PA moves relative to EU and AD along ENE and SE striking faults, mainly by strike slip. An eastward directed extensional component...

  1. Rheology of Melt-bearing Crustal Rocks (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Medvedev, S.; Handy, M. R.


    A review and reinterpretation of previous experimental data on the deformation of melt-bearing crustal rocks (Rosenberg and Handy, 2005) revealed that the relationship of aggregate strength to melt fraction is non-linear, even if plotted on a linear ordinate and abscissa. At melt fractions, Φ 0.07, the dependence of aggregate strength on Φ is significantly greater than at Φ > 0.07. This melt fraction (Φ= 0.07) marks the transition from a significant increase in the proportion of melt-bearing grain boundaries up to this point to a minor increase thereafter. Therefore, we suggest that the increase of melt-interconnectivity causes the dramatic strength drop between the solidus and a melt fraction of 0.07. A second strength drop occurs at higher melt fractions and corresponds to the breakdown of the solid (crystal) framework, corresponding to the well-known "rheologically critical melt percentage" (RCMP; Arzi, 1978). Although the strength drop at the RCMP is about 4 orders of magnitude, the absolute value of this drop is small compared to the absolute strength of the unmelted aggregate, rendering the RCMP invisible in a linear aggregate strength vs. melt fraction diagram. Predicting the rheological properties and thresholds of melt-bearing crust on the basis of the results and interpretations above is very difficult, because the rheological data base was obtained from experiments performed at undrained conditions in the brittle field. These conditions are unlikely to represent the flow of partially melted crust. The measured strength of most of the experimentally deformed, partially-melted samples corresponds to their maximum differential stress, before the onset of brittle failure, not to their viscous strength during "ductile" (viscous) flow. To overcome these problems, we extrapolated a theoretically-derived flow law for partially melted granite deforming by diffusion-accommodated grain-boundary sliding (Paterson, 2001) and an experimentally-derived flow law for

  2. Resistant river basins as recorder of distributed crustal deformation: examples from New Zealand and Lebanon (United States)

    Castelltort, S.; Goren, L.; Willett, S.; Champagnac, J.; Herman, F.


    Rivers are useful markers of crustal deformation because they deform together with the rocks over which they flow. For instance, at the scale of individual faults, offset rivers and alluvial fans have been used to reconstruct past slip rates(1), while the basins of major rivers have been utilized to estimate pervasive crustal strain at the continental scale(2). However, river basins have also been claimed to reorganize into similar equilibrium forms(3) independently of the tectonic regime. According to this latter view, river basins cannot serve as reliable markers of deformation since their boundaries adjust dynamically during deformation by processes of capture and divide migration. Here we show that both views are correct under different conditions, as different basins in the same tectonic field may or may not be persistent and record the history of deformation, depending on the relation between their geomorphic position and the nature and directionality of the strain field. To demonstrate this new understanding we study the planform of drainage basins along two major transpressive plate boundaries that partly show patterns that are spatially consistent with the assumed tectonic regime: the Alpine Fault in the South Island of New Zealand which marks the boundary between the Pacific and the Australian plates, and the Dead Sea Fault in Lebanon which strands the Africa-Arabia plate boundary. First we use a combination specific river basin modeling and planview morphometric analysis to unravel deformation from reorganization and identify the basins that may serve as reliable deformation markers. Then we use these reliable markers to constrain the slip rate over these two plate boundaries. Our analysis results show that, both in New Zealand and in Lebanon, a significant proportion of up to 55% of the plate motion over geological time scales is absorbed by distributed deformation away from the plate boundary. (1)--Allen, C. R. Transcurrent Faults in Continental Areas

  3. Coupling models of crustal deformation and mantle convection: An application of GeoFramework (United States)

    Choi, E.; Thoutireddy, P.; Lavier, L.; Quenette, S.; Tan, E.; Gurnis, M.; Aivazis, M.; Appelbe, B.


    outcome, including surface uplift, for different crustal rheologies, and mantle plumes during the formation of fault-bound grabens. Integrating observational dataset to constrain the models will be the next step.

  4. Characterizing the Crustal architecture of the Parnaiba basin with passive-source seismology (United States)

    Coelho, Diogo; Julià, Jordi; Rodríguez Tribaldos, Verónica; White, Nicky


    Lithospheric-scale processes, such as the origin and evolution of large cratonic basins, can create big footprints or signatures in the subsurface that can be observed by geophysical means. With a huge potential for natural resources, the equatorial margin of NE Brazil has motivated many geophysical investigations by the oil industry. Our study area is the Parnaíba Basin, one of the largest cratonic basins of the world. The main goal of our study is to provide new images of the crust and lithosphere under the basin and highlight seismic discontinuities within, in order to improve our understanding of its architecture and help constrain models for its origin and evolution. A total of 9 broadband seismographic stations were installed within the PBAP project, a collaboration among several universities and BP Energy do Brasil, along an approximately 500 km-long transect across the basin, with interstation spacing of around 50 km. The receiver function technique is probably one of the most successful methodologies in broadband seismology for imaging of the crust and lithospheric mantle in continental areas, and we estimated crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio of the Parnaíba Basin by developing P-wave receiver functions from the acquired dataset. We also developed one-dimensional velocity models calculated from the joint inversion of P-wave receiver function and Rayleigh dispersion curves. Results from HK-Stacking, receiver function migration and joint inversion indicate the Moho dips gently toward the depocenter of the basin, displaying up to three different behaviors: A flat Moho in the depocenter of the basin, which showed the thickest crust (>42 km) and Vp/Vs ratio values arround 1,75; A thinning crust towards the eastern flank (<38 km), bounding with the Borborema Province, with Vp/Vs ratio of 1,74; An almost flat Moho with thickness of 40 km and Vp/Vs ratio around 1,72 on the western border, bounding with the Araguaia Belt. We also noted some mid crustal

  5. Enablers and constrainers to participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Milana, Marcella


    as to construct a tool for analyzing the targeting of adult learning policy, with regard to both its coverage and expected consequences. Our aim is to develop a means for a more in-depth analysis of the match-mismatch of public policy and persisting constraints to participation.......This paper briefly reviews some of evidence on participation patterns in Nordic countries and some of the defining parameters that may explain the observations. This is done in a comparative perspective by contrasting results from the 2003 Eurobarometer data between Nordic countries and a handful...... of non-Nordic countries. An emphasis is placed on the constraining and enabling elements to participation and how these may explain why certain groups participate more or less than others. A central question of interest to this paper is to what extent does (can) government intervention interact...

  6. Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Matteo; Martin, Olivier C; De Martino, Andrea; Marinari, Enzo


    New experimental results on bacterial growth inspire a novel top-down approach to study cell metabolism, combining mass balance and proteomic constraints to extend and complement Flux Balance Analysis. We introduce here Constrained Allocation Flux Balance Analysis, CAFBA, in which the biosynthetic costs associated to growth are accounted for in an effective way through a single additional genome-wide constraint. Its roots lie in the experimentally observed pattern of proteome allocation for metabolic functions, allowing to bridge regulation and metabolism in a transparent way under the principle of growth-rate maximization. We provide a simple method to solve CAFBA efficiently and propose an "ensemble averaging" procedure to account for unknown protein costs. Applying this approach to modeling E. coli metabolism, we find that, as the growth rate increases, CAFBA solutions cross over from respiratory, growth-yield maximizing states (preferred at slow growth) to fermentative states with carbon overflow (preferr...

  7. Crustal Gravitational Potential Energy Change and Subduction Earthquakes (United States)

    Zhu, P. P.


    Crustal gravitational potential energy (GPE) change induced by earthquakes is an important subject in geophysics and seismology. For the past forty years the research on this subject stayed in the stage of qualitative estimate. In recent few years the 3D dynamic faulting theory provided a quantitative solution of this subject. The theory deduced a quantitative calculating formula for the crustal GPE change using the mathematic method of tensor analysis under the principal stresses system. This formula contains only the vertical principal stress, rupture area, slip, dip, and rake; it does not include the horizontal principal stresses. It is just involved in simple mathematical operations and does not hold complicated surface or volume integrals. Moreover, the hanging wall vertical moving (up or down) height has a very simple expression containing only slip, dip, and rake. The above results are significant to investigate crustal GPE change. Commonly, the vertical principal stress is related to the gravitational field, substituting the relationship between the vertical principal stress and gravitational force into the above formula yields an alternative formula of crustal GPE change. The alternative formula indicates that even with lack of in situ borehole measured stress data, scientists can still quantitatively calculate crustal GPE change. The 3D dynamic faulting theory can be used for research on continental fault earthquakes; it also can be applied to investigate subduction earthquakes between oceanic and continental plates. Subduction earthquakes hold three types: (a) crust only on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (b) crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the rupture area; (c) crust only on the vertical up side of the partial rupture area, and crust and seawater both on the vertical up side of the remaining rupture area. For each type we provide its quantitative formula of the crustal GPE change. We also establish a simplified model (called

  8. Formal language constrained path problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, C.; Jacob, R.; Marathe, M.


    In many path finding problems arising in practice, certain patterns of edge/vertex labels in the labeled graph being traversed are allowed/preferred, while others are disallowed. Motivated by such applications as intermodal transportation planning, the authors investigate the complexity of finding feasible paths in a labeled network, where the mode choice for each traveler is specified by a formal language. The main contributions of this paper include the following: (1) the authors show that the problem of finding a shortest path between a source and destination for a traveler whose mode choice is specified as a context free language is solvable efficiently in polynomial time, when the mode choice is specified as a regular language they provide algorithms with improved space and time bounds; (2) in contrast, they show that the problem of finding simple paths between a source and a given destination is NP-hard, even when restricted to very simple regular expressions and/or very simple graphs; (3) for the class of treewidth bounded graphs, they show that (i) the problem of finding a regular language constrained simple path between source and a destination is solvable in polynomial time and (ii) the extension to finding context free language constrained simple paths is NP-complete. Several extensions of these results are presented in the context of finding shortest paths with additional constraints. These results significantly extend the results in [MW95]. As a corollary of the results, they obtain a polynomial time algorithm for the BEST k-SIMILAR PATH problem studied in [SJB97]. The previous best algorithm was given by [SJB97] and takes exponential time in the worst case.

  9. Gravity Constraints On The Crustal Structure of Northern Tunisia (United States)

    Jallouli, Chokri; Mickus, Kevin L.; Turki, Mohamed M.

    Bouguer gravity data were analyzed to determine the general crustal and upper mantle structure in northern Tunisia. Residual gravity anomalies were determined by removing the gravitational effect of crustal thickness variations imaged by regional seismic experiments. Residual gravity anomalies contain short wavelength anomalies superimposed on a long wavelength component that decreases in amplitude northward towards the Tunisian coastline. An edge enhancement analysis (e.g., enhanced analytic signals) of the short wavelength anomalies suggests a previously unknown east-west trending gravity anomaly south of 37°N with source depths between 3 and 7 km. Modeling of the regional, residual and Bouguer gravity anomalies indicate there are two possible solutions for the residual gravity decreasing in northern Tunisia: 1) thickening of Cenozoic and Mesozoic sediments north of a strike-slip faults or 2) a crustal and upper mantle low density zone interpreted to be crustal material of the remnant subducted African plate. The latter result is favored based on seismic tomographic images of the Mediterranean region which implies subducting material exists under the African coast, geologic interpretations suggesting the Tell Atlas may be a thrust wedge accreted by underplating of the African continental crust and seismic refraction models indicating a thinning of sediments in northern Tunisia. The east-west trending gravity anomalies south of 37°N corresponds to an important structural feature that could be either a strike slip/transform fault or the northern edge the African plate.

  10. Crustal growth at active continental margins: Numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Katharina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370618947; Gerya, Taras; Castro, Antonio

    The dynamics and melt sources for crustal growth at active continental margins are analyzed by using a 2D coupled petrological–thermomechanical numerical model of an oceanic-continental subduction zone. This model includes spontaneous slab retreat and bending, dehydration of subducted crust, aqueous

  11. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 121; Issue 3. Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and rift tectonics at the Konkan and Kerala basins, western continental margin of India. Sheena V Dev M Radhakrishna Shyam Chand C Subrahmanyam. Volume 121 Issue 3 June 2012 pp 813-822 ...

  12. Crustal structure of the Eastern Alps and their foreland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grad, M.; Brückl, E.; Majdanski, M.


    The subject of this paper concerns the seismic modelling of the crustal structure in the transition zone from the Bohemian Massif, across the Molasse basin and the Eastern Alps to the Southern Alps, mainly on the territory of Austria. The CEL10/Alp04 profile crosses the triple point of the Europe...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Oakey, Gordon

    Island is poorly investigated, which leads to large ambiguity and uncertainty of geological interpretations, especially on a crustal and lithospheric scale. To fill this information gap a seismological survey (ELLITE) was performed. A north-south oriented and ~520 km long array, consisting of 7 broadband...

  14. Using Crustal Fluids to Peer Into the Subseafloor Microbial Habitat (United States)

    Huber, J. A.


    In hard rock seafloor environments, fluids emanating from the basement are one of the best windows into the subseafloor and its resident microbial community. These low-temperature crustal fluids are ubiquitous at both active hydrothermal systems and ridge flank environments. Over the last 15 years, studies of the microbial communities in crustal fluids from eruptive events, drill holes, ridge flanks, and hydrothermal seamounts have revealed a phylogenetically and physiologically diverse microbial community, representing a wide spectrum of thermal tolerances and metabolic strategies from both the subseafloor and the deep sea. In addition, emerging technologies in seafloor sampling capacity and microbial ecology are rapidly increasing our ability to study this difficult habitat. This presentation will provide an overview of what we have learned about the population structure, genomic repertoire, and physiological function of microbes in crustal fluids and what the future holds for subseafloor biosphere research. Data will be integrated with geochemical measurements in crustal environments to better define the subseafloor habitat and its resident microbial community.

  15. Crustal thickness of Turkey determined by receiver function (United States)

    Tezel, Timur; Shibutani, Takuo; Kaypak, Bülent


    Two-hundred and sixty-seven teleseismic events with a moment magnitude greater than 5.5 which occurred between January 2005 and October 2010 were analyzed to determine the Moho depth variation beneath Turkey by using the Receiver Function (RF) technique. The RF technique was applied to 120 broadband seismic stations, which were already deployed in the area permanently by the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) and the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD). The RFs were stacked considering back-azimuth, slowness and waveform similarities to enhance the signal/noise ratio. The genetic algorithm (GA) was used to obtain both 1-D shear-wave speed model and the Moho depth beneath each seismic station. A data set consisting of 112 shear-speed models derived from RFs revealed the crustal structure of Turkey. For imaging, several 2-D profiles of depth-migrated RFs were constructed to delineate the fine crustal structure. The Moho discontinuity is clearly seen on all profiles and the mid-crustal velocity discontinuity within the crust is observed in some profiles. The depth of the Moho varies between 24 and 48 km. The thinnest crustal thickness is located on the coast of Western Turkey, and the deepest Moho boundary is observed in Eastern Turkey. The shear wave velocities vary between 4.0 km/s and 4.5 km/s in the uppermost mantle beneath Turkey.

  16. A proposed concept for a crustal dynamics information management network (United States)

    Lohman, G. M.; Renfrow, J. T.


    The findings of a requirements and feasibility analysis of the present and potential producers, users, and repositories of space-derived geodetic information are summarized. A proposed concept is presented for a crustal dynamics information management network that would apply state of the art concepts of information management technology to meet the expanding needs of the producers, users, and archivists of this geodetic information.

  17. Wavelet library for constrained devices (United States)

    Ehlers, Johan Hendrik; Jassim, Sabah A.


    The wavelet transform is a powerful tool for image and video processing, useful in a range of applications. This paper is concerned with the efficiency of a certain fast-wavelet-transform (FWT) implementation and several wavelet filters, more suitable for constrained devices. Such constraints are typically found on mobile (cell) phones or personal digital assistants (PDA). These constraints can be a combination of; limited memory, slow floating point operations (compared to integer operations, most often as a result of no hardware support) and limited local storage. Yet these devices are burdened with demanding tasks such as processing a live video or audio signal through on-board capturing sensors. In this paper we present a new wavelet software library, HeatWave, that can be used efficiently for image/video processing/analysis tasks on mobile phones and PDA's. We will demonstrate that HeatWave is suitable for realtime applications with fine control and range to suit transform demands. We shall present experimental results to substantiate these claims. Finally this library is intended to be of real use and applied, hence we considered several well known and common embedded operating system platform differences; such as a lack of common routines or functions, stack limitations, etc. This makes HeatWave suitable for a range of applications and research projects.

  18. Crustal thickening and attenuation as revealed by regional fold interference patterns: Ciudad Rodrigo basement area (Salamanca, Spain) (United States)

    Díez Fernández, Rubén; Gómez Barreiro, Juan; Martínez Catalán, José R.; Ayarza, Puy


    The structure of the Ciudad Rodrigo area (Iberian Massif, Central Iberian Zone) has been revisited in order to integrate new geological data with recent models of the evolution of the Iberian Massif. Detailed mapping of fold structures along with a compilation of field data have been used to constrain the geometry and relative timing of ductile deformation events in this section of the hinterland of the Variscan belt. The structural evolution shows, in the first place, the development of a regional train of overturned folds with associated axial planar foliation (D1). Towards the lower structural levels, the deflection of the fold limbs and a subhorizontal crenulation cleavage depict the upper structural boundary of a superimposed low angle shear zone (D2), which extends at least to the deepest parts of the basement exposed in the study area. The amplification and rotation of D1 folds about a horizontal axis also occurred within this shear zone. The flat-lying character of the D2 structures accounts for the attenuation of the previously thickened crust, which developed following gravity gradients during thermal re-equilibration. Subsequent deformation led to the formation of two orthogonal sets of upright folds (D3), representing a new shift between crustal thinning and crustal thickening in the region.

  19. Deep Crustal Structure Northern Gulf of Mexico (United States)

    Christeson, G. L.; Van Avendonk, H. J.; Eddy, D. R.; Norton, I. O.; Karner, G. D.; Johnson, C. A.; Kneller, E. A.; Snedden, J.


    The Gulf of Mexico is a small ocean basin between the US and Mexico that opened up soon after the breakup of Pangea. Although the area has been heavily surveyed with seismic reflection profiles, the deep structure of the region is poorly understood because of lack of penetration beneath the thick sediments and salt. We present the results of the GUMBO (GUlf of Mexico Basin Opening) project that constrains seismic velocities and thicknesses of the sediments and crust from the continental shelf to deep ocean basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Data were acquired in 2010 along four profiles 300-500 km in length, using the industry vessel R/V Iron Cat and ocean bottom seismometers at 10-12 km spacing. Plate tectonic models for the Gulf of Mexico region have rifting initiating in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic, with seafloor spreading beginning ~166-154 Ma in the western Gulf, propagating to the eastern Gulf, and ending ~154-135 Ma. Many models include transform motion along the Florida margin during initiation of continental rifting. We observe a strong change in rifting style from west to east across the ocean basin. Our western profile, offshore Texas, images highly heterogeneous crust with sediment velocities directly overlying Moho in some locations. These observations are consistent with either sedimentary basins within rifted continental crust or ultra-slow-spreading oceanic crust. The profile offshore Lousiana images thicker, faster, and more homogeneous crust. This could suggest an eastward increase in magmatic output during rifting. The eastern profiles offshore Alabama and Florida image the ocean-continent boundary and extensive regions of oceanic crust. The thickness of crystalline crust from the continental shelf to the deep basin decreases from ~25 km to 6-7 km over a horizontal distance of 150 km in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The profile offshore Alabama, near a region where syn-rift volcanism has been interpreted on seismic reflection data, has

  20. Crustal Stress in the Flinders Ranges, South Australia, From Earthquake First Motion Data (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Balfour, N.; Love, D.


    We have used data recorded by a temporary seismograph deployment to infer constraints on the state of crustal stress in the Flinders Ranges in south-central Australia. Previous stress estimates for the region have been poorly constrained due to the lack of large events and limited station coverage for focal mechanisms. New data allowed 65 events with 544 first motions to be used in a stress inversion to estimate the principal stress directions and stress ratio.While our initial inversion suggested that stress in the region was not homogeneous, we found that discarding data for events in the top 2km of the crust resulted in a well-constrained stress orientation that is consistent with the assumption of homogeneous stress throughout the Flinders Ranges. We speculate that the need to screen out shallow events may be due to the presence in the shallow crust of either: (1) small-scale velocity heterogeneity that would bias the ray parameter estimates, or (2) heterogeneity in the stress field itself, possibly due to the influence of the relatively pronounced topographic relief. The stress derived from earthquakes in the Flinders Ranges show an oblique reverse faulting stress regime, which contrasts with the pure thrust and pure strike slip regimes suggested by earlier studies. However, the roughly E-W direction of maximum horizontal compressive stress we obtain supports the conclusion of virtually all previous studies that the Flinders Ranges are undergoing E-W compression due to orogenic events at the boundaries of the Australian and Indian Plates.

  1. Crustal velocity structure and earthquake processes of Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya: Constraints from regional waveform inversion and array beam modeling (United States)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Cesca, Simone; Kamal; Kriegerowski, Marius; Mahesh, P.; Gupta, Sandeep


    In order to understand present day earthquake kinematics at the Indian plate boundary, we analyse seismic broadband data recorded between 2007 and 2015 by the regional network in the Garhwal-Kumaun region, northwest Himalaya. We first estimate a local 1-D velocity model for the computation of reliable Green's functions, based on 2837 P-wave and 2680 S-wave arrivals from 251 well located earthquakes. The resulting 1-D crustal structure yields a 4-layer velocity model down to the depths of 20 km. A fifth homogeneous layer extends down to 46 km, constraining the Moho using travel-time distance curve method. We then employ a multistep moment tensor (MT) inversion algorithm to infer seismic moment tensors of 11 moderate earthquakes with Mw magnitude in the range 4.0-5.0. The method provides a fast MT inversion for future monitoring of local seismicity, since Green's functions database has been prepared. To further support the moment tensor solutions, we additionally model P phase beams at seismic arrays at teleseismic distances. The MT inversion result reveals the presence of dominant thrust fault kinematics persisting along the Himalayan belt. Shallow low and high angle thrust faulting is the dominating mechanism in the Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya. The centroid depths for these moderate earthquakes are shallow between 1 and 12 km. The beam modeling result confirm hypocentral depth estimates between 1 and 7 km. The updated seismicity, constrained source mechanism and depth results indicate typical setting of duplexes above the mid crustal ramp where slip is confirmed along out-of-sequence thrusting. The involvement of Tons thrust sheet in out-of-sequence thrusting indicate Tons thrust to be the principal active thrust at shallow depth in the Himalayan region. Our results thus support the critical taper wedge theory, where we infer the microseismicity cluster as a result of intense activity within the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) system.

  2. Constrained Peptides as Miniature Protein Structures (United States)

    Yin, Hang


    This paper discusses the recent developments of protein engineering using both covalent and noncovalent bonds to constrain peptides, forcing them into designed protein secondary structures. These constrained peptides subsequently can be used as peptidomimetics for biological functions such as regulations of protein-protein interactions. PMID:25969758

  3. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini

    A mesoscale numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element method for calculating stresses. The sintering behavior of a sample constrained by a rigid substrate...

  4. Order-constrained linear optimization. (United States)

    Tidwell, Joe W; Dougherty, Michael R; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Thomas, Rick P


    Despite the fact that data and theories in the social, behavioural, and health sciences are often represented on an ordinal scale, there has been relatively little emphasis on modelling ordinal properties. The most common analytic framework used in psychological science is the general linear model, whose variants include ANOVA, MANOVA, and ordinary linear regression. While these methods are designed to provide the best fit to the metric properties of the data, they are not designed to maximally model ordinal properties. In this paper, we develop an order-constrained linear least-squares (OCLO) optimization algorithm that maximizes the linear least-squares fit to the data conditional on maximizing the ordinal fit based on Kendall's τ. The algorithm builds on the maximum rank correlation estimator (Han, 1987, Journal of Econometrics, 35, 303) and the general monotone model (Dougherty & Thomas, 2012, Psychological Review, 119, 321). Analyses of simulated data indicate that when modelling data that adhere to the assumptions of ordinary least squares, OCLO shows minimal bias, little increase in variance, and almost no loss in out-of-sample predictive accuracy. In contrast, under conditions in which data include a small number of extreme scores (fat-tailed distributions), OCLO shows less bias and variance, and substantially better out-of-sample predictive accuracy, even when the outliers are removed. We show that the advantages of OCLO over ordinary least squares in predicting new observations hold across a variety of scenarios in which researchers must decide to retain or eliminate extreme scores when fitting data. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  5. The role of lower-crustal hydration in the tectonic evolution of the Colorado Plateau (United States)

    Porter, Ryan; Hoisch, Thomas; Holt, William E.


    Geologists have long debated the timing and mechanism for uplift of the Colorado Plateau with numerous hypotheses proposed to explain each. We use surface wave tomography to examine the lithospheric structure of the Colorado Plateau and surrounding regions and combine these data with thermodynamic modeling to better constrain lower crustal composition, water content, and density. Our results show that about 15% ( 290 m) of the modern plateau elevation can be supported isostatically by hydration of the lower crust, which reduces the overall density of the lithosphere. Hydration of the Colorado Plateau lithosphere likely occurred due to dewatering of the Farallon slab during flat-slab subduction. Subsequent warming and extension have likely further reduced the density of the crust along the plateau margins by as much as 110 kg/m3. This is likely a result of extension encroaching into the plateau and small-scale convection occurring within the mantle surrounding the plateau, and may help explain the high topography on the margins of the plateau.

  6. Crustal and upper mantle structure of stable continental regions in North America and northern Europe (United States)

    Masse, R.P.


    From an analysis of many seismic profiles across the stable continental regions of North America and northern Europe, the crustal and upper mantle velocity structure is determined. Analysis procedures include ray theory calculations and synthetic seismograms computed using reflectivity techniques. The P wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is virtually identical to that beneath the Baltic Shield to a depth of at least 800 km. Two major layers with a total thickness of about 42 km characterize the crust of these shield regions. Features of the upper mantle of these region include velocity discontinuities at depths of about 74 km, 330 km, 430 km and 700 km. A 13 km thick P wave low velocity channel beginning at a depth of about 94 km is also present. A number of problems associated with record section interpretation are identified and a generalized approach to seismic profile analysis using many record sections is described. The S wave velocity structure beneath the Canadian Shield is derived from constrained surface wave data. The thickness of the lithosphere beneath the Canadian and Baltic Shields is determined to be 95-100 km. The continental plate thickness may be the same as the lithospheric thickness, although available data do not exclude the possibility of the continental plate being thicker than the lithosphere. ?? 1987 Birkha??user Verlag.

  7. Evidence of crustal contamination, sediment, and fluid components in the campanian volcanic rocks (United States)

    Paone, A.


    The Campanian Volcanic Subprovince is part of the classic western potassic volcanic province of the Italian Peninsula. The Campanian volcanic products show the effects of shallow assimilation and fractional crystallisation, and the contribution of regional crustal sources (e.g., Hercynian basement-Calabrian crust). The Roccamonfina, Campi Flegrei, and Ventotene volcanic rocks are characterised by wide isotopic and geochemical variations. Such variations appear to reflect both AFC processes and chemical heterogeneity in the upper mantle that may be linked to subduction processes. Mixing curves (Th/Ce-, Ba/K- and Eu/Eu*-143Nd/144Nd) linking sediments and mantle end-members account for the variations in the Campanian Subprovince volcanic rocks with a sediment contribution of 2-10%. The upper mantle sources for the low- and high-K rocks at Roccamonfina have been constrained on the basis of a multi-element normalised diagram. The two sources require different amounts of sediment in the mantle wedge (LK???2% versus HK???10%) and a fluid component probably from altered ocean crust to explain the fluid mobile elements. Low-K Roccamonfina rocks are geochemically similar to those from Campi Flegrei, Ventotene, and Somma-Vesuvius, suggesting a similar proportion of sediment in their upper mantle source regions. ?? 2004 B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using the salt tectonics as a proxy to reveal post-rift active crustal tectonics: The example of the Eastern Sardinian margin (United States)

    Lymer, Gaël; Vendeville, Bruno; Gaullier, Virginie; Chanier, Frank; Gaillard, Morgane


    The Western Tyrrhenian Basin, Mediterranean Sea, is a fascinating basin in terms of interactions between crustal tectonics, salt tectonics and sedimentation. The METYSS (Messinian Event in the Tyrrhenian from Seismic Study) project is based on 2100 km of HR seismic data acquired in 2009 and 2011 along the Eastern Sardinian margin. The main aim is to study the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) in the Western Tyrrhenian Basin, but we also investigate the thinning processes of the continental crust and the timing of crustal vertical motions across this complex domain. Our first results allowed us to map the MSC seismic markers and to better constrain the timing of the rifting, which ended before the MSC across the upper and middle parts of the margin. We also evidenced that crustal activity persisted long after the end of rifting. This has been particularly observed on the upper margin, where several normal faults and a surprising compressional structure were recently active. In this study we investigate the middle margin, the Cornaglia Terrace, where the Mobile Unit (MU, mobile Messinian salt) accumulated during the MSC and acts as a décollement. Our goal is to ascertain whether or not crustal tectonics existed after the pre-MSC rift. This is a challenge where the MU is thick, because potential basement deformations could be first accommodated by the MU and therefore would not find any expression in the supra-salt layers (Upper Unit, UU and Plio-Quaternary, PQ). However our investigations clearly reveal interactions between crustal and salt tectonics along the margin. We thus evidence gravity gliding of the salt and its brittle sedimentary cover along basement slopes generated by the post-MSC tilting of some basement blocks bounded by crustal normal faults, formerly due to the rifting. Another intriguing structure also got our interest. It corresponds to a wedge-shaped of MU located in a narrow N-S half graben bounded to the west by a major, east-verging, crustal

  9. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    The climate of the Earth is changing. A consequence of this is observed at the polar regions such as Greenland, where the ice sheet is melting with an increasing rate. The unloading of ice causes the Earth to respond elastically in terms of uplift and an outward horizontal deformation of the crust....... This motion can be measured by permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Hence, the rates of crustal displacement are an indirect measure of the occurring mass changes. Currently, 55 GPS sites are located around the margin of the Greenland ice sheet, continuously providing information about...... the state of the ice sheet. However, the Earth is also adjusting viscoelastically to variations in the late Pleistocene ice sheets i.e. glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA). Observed rates of crustal displacement therefor contain signals from both past and present ice mass variations. Hence, to interpret...

  10. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation. (United States)

    Meade, F C; Troll, V R; Ellam, R M; Freda, C; Font, L; Donaldson, C H; Klonowska, I


    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous Centre, Ireland. We show that early microgranites are the result of extensive assimilation of trace element-enriched partial melts of local metasiltstones into mafic parent magmas. Melting experiments reveal the crust is very fusible, but thermodynamic modelling indicates repeated heating events rapidly lower its melt-production capacity. Granite generation ceased once enriched partial melts could no longer form and subsequent magmatism incorporated less fertile restite compositions only, producing mafic intrusions and a pronounced compositional gap. Considering the frequency of bimodal magma suites in the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and the ubiquity of suitable crustal compositions, we propose 'progressively inhibited crustal assimilation' (PICA) as a major cause of bimodality in continental volcanism.

  11. Bimodal magmatism produced by progressively inhibited crustal assimilation (United States)

    Meade, F. C.; Troll, V. R.; Ellam, R. M.; Freda, C.; Font, L.; Donaldson, C. H.; Klonowska, I.


    The origin of bimodal (mafic-felsic) rock suites is a fundamental question in volcanology. Here we use major and trace elements, high-resolution Sr, Nd and Pb isotope analyses, experimental petrology and thermodynamic modelling to investigate bimodal magmatism at the iconic Carlingford Igneous Centre, Ireland. We show that early microgranites are the result of extensive assimilation of trace element-enriched partial melts of local metasiltstones into mafic parent magmas. Melting experiments reveal the crust is very fusible, but thermodynamic modelling indicates repeated heating events rapidly lower its melt-production capacity. Granite generation ceased once enriched partial melts could no longer form and subsequent magmatism incorporated less fertile restite compositions only, producing mafic intrusions and a pronounced compositional gap. Considering the frequency of bimodal magma suites in the North Atlantic Igneous Province, and the ubiquity of suitable crustal compositions, we propose ‘progressively inhibited crustal assimilation’ (PICA) as a major cause of bimodality in continental volcanism.

  12. The nature of crustal reflectivity at the southwest Iberian margin (United States)

    Buffett, G. G.; Torne, M.; Carbonell, R.; Melchiorre, M.; Vergés, J.; Fernàndez, M.


    Reprocessing of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired over the northern margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian margin) places new constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Guadalquivir-Portimão Bank. The data presented have been processed with optimized stacking and interval velocity models, a better approach to multiple attenuation, preserved amplitude information to derive the nature of seismic reflectivity, and accurate time-to-depth conversion after migration. The reprocessed data reveal a bright upper crustal reflector just underneath the Paleozoic basement that spatially coincides with the local positive free-air gravity high called the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High. To investigate the nature of this reflector and to decipher whether it could be associated with pieces of mantle material emplaced at upper crustal levels, we calculated its reflection coefficient and compared it to a buried high-density ultramafic body (serpentinized peridotite) at the Gorringe Bank. Its reflection coefficient ratio with respect to the sea floor differs by only 4.6% with that calculated for the high-density ultramafic body of the Gorringe Bank, while it differs by 35.8% compared to a drilled Miocene limestone unconformity. This means that the Gulf of Cádiz reflector has a velocity and/or density contrast similar to the peridotite at the Gorringe Bank. However, considering the depth at which it is found (between 2.0 and 4.0 km) and the available geological information, it seems unlikely that the estimated shortening from the Oligocene to present is sufficient to emplace pieces of mantle material at these shallow levels. Therefore, and despite the similarity in its reflection coefficient with the peridotites of the Gorringe Bank, our preferred interpretation is that the upper crustal Gulf of Cádiz reflector represents the seismic response of high-density intracrustal magmatic intrusions that may partially contribute to the Gulf of Cádiz Gravity High.

  13. Crustal radial anisotropy beneath Cameroon from ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Ojo, Adebayo Oluwaseun; Ni, Sidao; Li, Zhiwei


    To increase the understanding of crustal deformation and crustal flow patterns due to tectonic processes in Cameroon, we study the lateral variability of the crustal isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy estimated using Ambient Noise Tomography (ANT). Rayleigh and Love wave Noise Correlation Functions (NCFs) were retrieved from the cross-correlation of seismic ambient noise data recorded in Cameroon, and phase velocities at periods of 8 to 30 s were measured to perform surface wave tomography. Joint inversion of Rayleigh and Love wave data for isotropic velocity models could not fit the observed dispersions simultaneously. We attribute the Love-Rayleigh discrepancy to the presence of radial anisotropy in the crust and estimated its magnitude. Our 3-D radial anisotropic model reveals the spatial variation of strong to weak positive (Vsh > Vsv) and negative (Vsv > Vsh) radial anisotropy in the crust. We observe negative radial anisotropy in the upper crust that is associated mainly with the location of a previously reported mantle plume. The anisotropy could be attributed to the vertical alignment of fossil microcracks or metamorphic foliations due to the upwelling of plume material. A strong positive radial anisotropy is centered at the location of an inferred boundary between the Congo Craton and the Oubanguides Belt that might be related to the preferred orientation of crustal anisotropic minerals associated with shearing in this fault zone. The middle crust is characterized by a widespread negative radial anisotropy that is likely caused by the flow-induced alignment of anisotropic minerals that crystallized during magma intrusion. The magnitude of the radial anisotropy varies systematically from predominantly negative in the middle crust to positive in the lower crust. The imaged patterns of the isotropic velocity and radial anisotropy are consistent with previous studies and agree with regional tectonics.

  14. Crustal response to lithosphere evolution:examples from Eurasia


    Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans; Cherepanova, Yulia; Chemia, Zurab


    We present a new model for the structure of the crust in an area which stretches from the North Atlantic region in the west to the Verkhoyansk Ridge in the east and encompasses Greenland, Iceland, most of Europe, West Siberian basin, and the Siberian cratons. The model is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. The region includes a nearly continuous age record for crustal evolution over ca....

  15. Stress-wave experiments on selected crustal rocks and minerals (United States)

    Grady, D. E.


    Large amplitude compressive stress wave experiments on selected crustal rocks and minerals was performed. The materials studied included Vermont marble, Blair dolomite, Oakhall limestone, z-cut calcite and oil shale. In each case specific constitutive features were studied. Features include interrelation of plastic yielding and phase transformation, rate dependent plastic flow, dilatency under dynamic loading conditions, and energy dissipation at stress amplitudes below measured Hugoniot elastic limits. A new experimental method using inmaterial mutual inductance magnetic gauges is also described.

  16. History of crustal recycling recorded in transition zone diamonds (United States)

    Pearson, D. G.; Stachel, T.; Palot, M.; Ickert, R. B.


    The Earth's transition zone (TZ) is a key region within the Earth that, from seismology, may be composed of a mixture of relatively primitive material together with the products of crustal recycling throughout the history of plate tectonics. The only samples of the TZ come in the form of inclusions in diamonds, that, for the most-part are retrogressed lower pressure equivalents of their precursor phases that formed at depth. Recent work by our group and others [1] on transition zone diamonds indicate that both peridotite and eclogitic paragenesis diamonds may record the products of crustal recycling. In-situ ion probe nitrogen and carbon isotopic measurements indicate the crystallisation of TZ diamonds from fluids bearing crustal signatures, of both oxidised and reduced forms. At the same time, majoritic garnets record extreme oxygen isotope compositions that track the interaction of oceanic crust with seawater at low temperature [2]. Such an origin is consistent with the few measured Sr-Nd isotope compositions of majorite garnet inclusions which resemble depleted MORB [3]. We have found considerably more enriched Sr isotope compositions (87Sr/86S ranging to > 0.8) in CaSiO3 inclusions that are from deep asthenosphere to TZ depths, supporting an origin that includes incorporation of recycled crustal sediment, in addition to the basaltic oceanic crust required to explain the phase equilibria [4]. Lastly, the discovery of hydrous ringwoodite in a diamond [5] containing more water than is soluble at the lower TZ adiabat indicates the possible role of recycling in transporting water as well as carbon into the TZ via a cool thermally unequilibrated slab. [1] Thomson et al (2014) CMP, 168, 1081. [2] Ickert et al (2015) Geochemical perspectives Letters, 1, 65-74. [3] Harte & Richardson (2011) Gondwana Research, 21, 236-235. [4] Walter et al. (2011) Science, 334, 54-57.[Pearson et al. (2014) Nature, 507, 221-224.

  17. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    Function study based on an average of 36 events per station reveals a clear eastward dipping high-velocity structure underneath the study area. The geophysical character, supported by synthetic modelling, is consistent with a 10 km thick subducted slab of eclogitized oceanic crust. This might be the key...... present selected results from on-going detailed studies of the crustal and upper mantle, including a Receiver Function inversion, seismic P-wave travel time tomography and gravity modelling....

  18. Erosion of the French Alpine foreland controlled by crustal thickening (United States)

    Schwartz, Stéphane; Gautheron, Cécile; Audin, Laurence; Nomade, Jérôme; Dumont, Thierry; Barbarand, Jocelyn; Pinna-Jamme, Rosella; van der Beek, Peter


    In alpine-type collision belts, deformation of the foreland may occur as a result of forward propagation of thrusting and is generally associated with thin-skinned deformation mobilizing the sedimentary cover in fold-and-thrust belts. Locally, foreland deformation can involve crustal-scale thrusting and produce large-scale exhumation of crystalline basement resulting in significant relief generation. In this study, we investigate the burial and exhumation history of Tertiary flexural basins located in the western Alpine foreland, at the front of the Digne thrust-sheet (SE France), using low-temperature apatite fission-track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology. Based on the occurrence of partially to totally reset apatite grain ages, we document 3.3 to 4.0 km burial of these basins remnants between 12-6 Ma, related to thin-skinned thrust-sheet emplacement without major relief generation. The onset of exhumation is dated at 6 Ma and is linked to erosion associated with subsequent relief development. This evolution does not appear controlled by major climate changes (Messinian crisis) or by European slab breakoff. Rather, we propose that the erosional history of the Digne thrust-sheet corresponds to basement involvement in foreland deformation, leading to crustal thickening and the incipient formation of a new external crystalline massif. Our study highlights the control of deep-crustal tectonic processes on foreland relief development and its erosional response at mountain fronts.

  19. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands (United States)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.


    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  20. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  1. Crustal Signatures in Mantle Peridotites From Yakutian Kimberlites (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Spetsius, Z.; Wiesli, R.; Anand, M.; Valley, J.


    Peridotites and eclogites are considered as the original hosts for diamonds in the mantle. However, it is now generally agreed that these "mantle" eclogites from kimberlites had their origin in the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the major cratons of the world. One of the first indications for such crustal protoliths was from studies of oxygen and carbon isotopes (e.g., Peter Deines and colleagues, Ian McGregor, as well as our group). Indeed, subsequent studies of such rocks have revealed several additional crustal signatures. A possible scenario involves the subduction of an ophiolite sequence, whereby the basaltic and lower mafic components were metamorphosed, devolatilized/partially melted, and otherwise transformed into eclogites. Being within the diamond-stability field, they later experience metasomatic diamond formation. Surprisingly, the closely associated diamondiferous peridotites are considered to be of original mantle origin. We pose the query: What became of the ultramafic portion at the bottom of the crustal sequence? Could this be the origin of at least some of the mantle peridotites? The restricted δ13C values for P-type (peridotitic) diamonds is commonly used as evidence for the mantle origin of peridotites. However, a compilation of δ13C data, published by Peter Deines and our group, for P-type diamonds, mainly from numerous south African pipes, also shows a significant number of values that are well below the mantle field (to -20 \\permil). Fresh, clean garnets were carefully selected from over a hundred peridotites collected from several Yakutian kimberlites. These were subjected to oxygen-isotope analyses by laser-fluorination at the University of Wisconsin. The majority of the δ18O values plot within the accepted mantle value of 5.5+/-0.4 \\permil (Mattey et al., 1994). However, a significant number (~20%) lies outside this window, both above and below. These values are interpreted to represent the effects of both high- and low

  2. Global Correlations of Mantle Structure with Crustal Tectonic Regions (United States)

    Paulson, E.; Jordan, T. H.


    Tomographic models of Earth's mantle depend on a priori estimates of crustal elastic structure, but the model prior is usually independent of other structural information about the crust, such as geochronological age and tectonic history. Therefore, the correlation of mantle models with crustal structure can provide powerful insights about the relationship of mantle heterogeneity to lithospheric dynamics and continental evolution. In a meta-analysis of more than 20 whole-mantle tomographic models published by various research groups, we estimate the correlation between upper-mantle seismic structure and crustal tectonic structure by projecting the tomographic models onto the GTR1 global tectonic regionalization. The 5 x 5 degree GTR1 map comprises three continental regions based on generalized tectonic behavior during the Phanerozoic: S (Precambrian shields and platforms), P (Phanerozoic platforms), Q (Phanerozoic orogenic zones); as well as three oceanic regions based on crustal age: A (0-25 Ma), B (25-100 Ma), and C (>100 Ma). We computed shear-velocity perturbation profiles by averaging a tomographic model over each of the six tectonic regions. For each model, we assessed the statistical significance of the inter-regional variations at a fixed depth by computing the intra-regional variance and correlation length. The regionalized velocity profiles of the upper mantle are similar among all of the tomographic models that we analyzed. Within the oceanic regions, the models display a consistent increase of shear velocity with crustal age that remains statistically significant to a depth of 200 km. The oceanic shear-velocity variations are consistent with high-resolution models derived from anisotropic inversions of multi-phase waveform data in localized regions. The profiles for regions S and P show consistent and statistically significant cratonic signatures extending below 300 km depth. In particular, the shear velocity gradients of both regions are distinctly

  3. "Storms of crustal stress" and AE earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori


    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide around the epicentre. We call them "storms of crustal stress" or, briefly "crustal storms". A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour shown by the AE records in the Cephalonia island (Greece, which is characterized by a different tectonic setting.

    AE is an effective tool for diagnosing the state of some wide slab of the Earth's crust, and for monitoring its evolution, by means of AE of different frequencies. The same effect ought to be detected being time-delayed, when referring to progressively lower frequencies. This results to be an effective check for validating the physical interpretation.

    Unlike a seismic event, which involves a much limited focal volume and therefore affects a restricted area on the Earth's surface, a "crustal storm" typically involves some large slab of lithosphere and crust. In general, it cannot be easily reckoned to any specific seismic event. An earthquake responds to strictly local rheological features of the crust, which are eventually activated, and become crucial, on the occasion of a "crustal storm". A "crustal storm" lasts typically few years, eventually involving several destructive earthquakes that hit at different times, at different sites, within that given lithospheric slab.

    Concerning the case histories that are here discussed, the lithospheric slab is identified with the Italian peninsula. During 1996–1997 a "crustal storm" was on, maybe elapsing until 2002 (we lack information for the period 1998–2001. Then, a quiet period occurred from 2002 until 26 May 2008, when a new "crustal storm" started, and by the end of 2009 it is still on. During the 1996–1997 "storm" two strong earthquakes occurred (Potenza and

  4. Complex, multilayered azimuthal anisotropy beneath Tibet: evidence for co-existing channel flow and pure-shear crustal thickening (United States)

    Agius, Matthew R.; Lebedev, Sergei


    Of the two debated, end-member models for the late-Cenozoic thickening of Tibetan crust, one invokes 'channel flow' (rapid viscous flow of the mid-lower crust, driven by topography-induced pressure gradients and transporting crustal rocks eastward) and the other 'pure shear' (faulting and folding in the upper crust, with viscous shortening in the mid-lower crust). Deep-crustal deformation implied by each model is different and would produce different anisotropic rock fabric. Observations of seismic anisotropy can thus offer a discriminant. We use broad-band phase-velocity curves-each a robust average of tens to hundreds of measurements-to determine azimuthal anisotropy in the entire lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range and constrain its amplitude. Inversions of the differential dispersion from path pairs, region-average inversions and phase-velocity tomography yield mutually consistent results, defining two highly anisotropic layers with different fast-propagation directions within each: the middle crust and the asthenosphere. In the asthenosphere beneath central and eastern Tibet, anisotropy is 2-4 per cent and has an NNE-SSW fast-propagation azimuth, indicating flow probably driven by the NNE-ward, shallow-angle subduction of India. The distribution and complexity of published shear wave splitting measurements can be accounted for by the different anisotropy in the mid-lower crust and asthenosphere. The estimated splitting times that would be accumulated in the crust alone are 0.25-0.8 s; in the upper mantle-0.5-1.2 s, depending on location. In the middle crust (20-45 km depth) beneath southern and central Tibet, azimuthal anisotropy is 3-5 and 4-6 per cent, respectively, and its E-W fast-propagation directions are parallel to the current extension at the surface. The rate of the extension is relatively low, however, whereas the large radial anisotropy observed in the middle crust requires strong alignment of mica crystals, implying large finite strain and

  5. New geophysical models of Palmer Deep crustal structure (United States)

    Yakymchuk, M. A.; Levashov, S. P.; Korchagin, I. N.; Bachmutov, V. G.; Solovyov, V. D.


    The 2004 (9th) and 2006 (11th) Ukrainian Antarctic expeditions acquired new geoelectrical data (‘short-impulse electromagnetic field formation' - FSPEF, and ‘vertical electric-resonance sounding' - VERS) along profiles across Drake Passage and along Bransfield Strait, Antarctic Peninsula, with the aim of studying the crustal structure of these features down to depths of >30 km. The sounding on this depth in Antarctic region was the first experience of deep modification of the VERS method using. Modelling experience of deep crustal structure by geophysical data with VERS method shows that there is a possibility to investigate the fluid regime, tectonic disturbances and crush zones in basement and local places of submarine volcanic activity too. This technology also gives a possibility to efficiently divide the cross-section on separate stratigraphic subsections in the sounding site and to determine its depth with high accuracy (Levashov et al., 2003; Levashov et al., 2007). Geophysical surveys enabled to yield new data set with information about Drake Passage and Palmer Deep inner crustal structure on broad continental margin of Antarctic Peninsula. Palmer Deep is located on continental (Pacific) shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula near Anvers Island and consists of three deep basins with depths from 1200м to 1500м. These basins were part of glacial outlet during glaciation's period (Rebesco et al., 1998). Geoelectrical models of Palmer Deep crustal structure along three profiles were built on the sounding data in separate points of continental shelf. Heterogeneity of Palmer Deep earth's crust obtained from VERS data modelling testified to processes of tectonic transformations of internal shelf structures. Tectonic factor explains some conformities of the most recent glaciomarine sediments and glacial streams forming during recent shelf-wide glaciations. New information about sediment distribution and inner crustal structure has an important value for searching

  6. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song


    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages...

  7. A Dynamic Programming Approach to Constrained Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Steffensen, Mogens


    This paper studies constrained portfolio problems that may involve constraints on the probability or the expected size of a shortfall of wealth or consumption. Our first contribution is that we solve the problems by dynamic programming, which is in contrast to the existing literature that applies...... the martingale method. More precisely, we construct the non-separable value function by formalizing the optimal constrained terminal wealth to be a (conjectured) contingent claim on the optimal non-constrained terminal wealth. This is relevant by itself, but also opens up the opportunity to derive new solutions...... to constrained problems. As a second contribution, we thus derive new results for non-strict constraints on the shortfall of intermediate wealth and/or consumption....

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Constrained Hamiltonian Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der; Maschke, B.M.


    Network modelling of unconstrained energy conserving physical systems leads to an intrinsic generalized Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics. Constrained energy conserving physical systems are directly modelled as implicit Hamiltonian systems with regard to a generalized Dirac structure on the

  9. On the origin of constrained superfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall’Agata, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dudas, E. [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)


    In this work we analyze constrained superfields in supersymmetry and supergravity. We propose a constraint that, in combination with the constrained goldstino multiplet, consistently removes any selected component from a generic superfield. We also describe its origin, providing the operators whose equations of motion lead to the decoupling of such components. We illustrate our proposal by means of various examples and show how known constraints can be reproduced by our method.

  10. Robust Tracking Control for Constrained Robots


    Mehdi, Haifa; Boubaker, Olfa


    In this paper, a novel robust tracking control law is proposed for constrained robots under unknown stiffness environment. The stability and the robustness of the controller are proved using a Lyapunov-based approach where the relationship between the error dynamics of the robotic system and its energy is investigated. Finally, a 3DOF constrained robotic arm is used to prove the stability, the robustness and the safety of the proposed approach.

  11. Dating High Temperature Mineral Fabrics in Lower Crustal Granulite Facies Rocks (United States)

    Stowell, H. H.; Schwartz, J. J.; Tulloch, A. J.; Klepeis, K. A.; Odom Parker, K.; Palin, M.; Ramezani, J.


    Granulite facies rocks may record strain that provides a record of compressional and/or extensional crustal events in hot orogenic cores and the roots of magmatic arcs. Although the precise timing of these events is important for constructing tectonic histories, it is often difficult to determine due to uncertain relationships between isotopic signatures, mineral growth, and textural features that record strain. In addition, there may be large uncertainties in isotope data due to intracrystalline diffusion and multiple crystallization events. L-S tectonites in lower crustal rocks from Fiordland, NZ record the early stages of extensional collapse of thickened magmatic arc crust. The precise age of these fabrics is important for constraining the timing of extension that led to opening of the Tasman Sea. High temperature granulite facies L-S fabrics in garnet reaction zones (GRZ) border syn- to post-deformational leucosomes. U-Pb zircon, Lu-Hf garnet, and Sm-Nd garnet ages, and trace elements in these phases indicate the complexity of assigning precise and useful ages. Zircon have soccer ball morphology with patchy and sector zoned CL. Zircon dates for igneous host and adjacent GRZ range over ca. 17 Ma. 236U-208Pb LA-ICP-MS are 108-125 Ma, N=124 (host & GRZ); however, chemical abrasion (CA) shifts GRZ dates ca. 2 Ma older. 236U-208Pb SHRIMP-RG dates cluster in 2 groups: 118.5±0.8 Ma, N=23 and 111.0±0.8 Ma, N=6. CA single crystal TIMS dates also fall into 2 groups: 117.6±0.1 Ma, N=4 and 116.6±0.2 Ma N=4. Garnet isochron ages determined from coarse garnet selvages adjacent to leucosomes range from 112.8±2.2 (147Sm-143Nd, 10 pts.) to 114.8±3.5 (177Lu-176Hf, 6 pts.) Ma. Zircon dates from all methods show ranges (>10 Ma) and 2 distinct populations. Host and GRZ zircon cannot be readily distinguished by age, lack younger rims, but have distinct Th/U trends and Eu/Eu* vs. Hf ratios. Difference in zircon trace element composition indicates either early leucosome

  12. Crustal Structure across The Southwest Longmenshan Fault Zone from Seismic Wide Angle Reflection/Refraction Profile (United States)

    Tian, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuyun; Wang, Shuaijun; Duan, Yonghong


    The Lushan eathquake, which epicenter and focal depth were at 30.308° N, 102.888° E, and 14.0 km, is the latest intense earthquake occurring in the southwest section of the Longmenshan fault zone after the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008. According to the emergency field observations, the slip distribution of the Lushan earthquake was concentrated at the hypocenter, and did not rupture to the surface(Chen et al, 2013). The rupture history constrained by inverting waveforms showed that the causative fault plane of the Lushan event is apparently not a simple extension of either the Pengguan fault or the Beichuan fault that ruptured during the 2008 Mw 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. The focal mechanism using the Cut and Paste algorithm showed this event occurred on a high dip-angle fault, but its dip angle is not steep enough to rupture the surface. All these research is not independent on the heterogeneous crust structure of the Longmenshan fault zone. A 450 km-long wide-angle reflection/refraction profile executed during September and October 2013. This experiment have provided the best opportunities to obtain better knowledge of seismic structure and properties of crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Southwest Longmenshan fault zone. This seismic profile extends from the west Sichuan Plain, through the Longmenshan Fault zone, and into the west Sichuan Plateau. We observed clear Pg, refraction Phase from the upper crust, Pi1/Pi2/Pi3, reflection/refraction Phase from intra-crust, PmP, reflection from the Moho boundary, and the Pn phase, refraction Phase from uppermost mantle. We present a hybrid tomographic and layered velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle along the profile. The final velocity model reveals large variations both in structure and velocity, and is demonstrated that a particular model has minimum structure. The model shows the crustal thickness of the region is very variable. The Moho topography varies more than 10km in the southwest

  13. Barents Sea Crustal and Upper Mantle Structure from Deep Seismic and Potential Field Data (United States)

    Aarseth, I.; Mjelde, R.; Breivik, A. J.; Minakov, A.; Huismans, R. S.; Faleide, J. I.


    The Barents Sea basement comprises at least two different domains; the Caledonian in the west and the Timanian in the east. Contrasting interpretations have been published recently, as the transition between these two domains is not well constrained. Interpretations of new high-quality magnetic data covering most of the SW Barents Sea challenged previous studies of the Late Paleozoic basin configurations in the western and central Barents Sea. Two major directions of Caledonian structures have been proposed by different authors: N-S and SW-NE. Two regional ocean bottom seismic (OBS) profiles, crossing these two major directions, were acquired in 2014.The primary goal in this project is to locate the main Caledonian suture in the western Barents Sea, as well as the possible Barentsia-Baltica suture postulated further eastwards. High velocity anomalies associated with Caledonian eclogites are particularly interesting as they may be related to Caledonian suture zones. The collapse of the Caledonian mountain range predominantly along these suture zones is expected to be closely linked to the deposition of Devonian erosional products, and subsequent rifting is likely to be influenced by inheritance of Caledonian trends. P-wave travel-time modelling is done by use of a combined ray-tracing and inversion scheme, and gravity modelling has been used to support the seismic model. The results indicate high P-wave velocities (mostly over 4 km/s) close to the seafloor as well as high velocity (around 6 km/s) zones at shallow depths which are interpreted as volcanic sills. The crustal transect reveals areas of complex geology and velocity inversions. Strong reflections from within the crystalline crust indicate a heterogeneous basement terrain. Gravity modelling agrees with this, as several blocks with variable densities had to be introduced in order to reproduce the observed gravity anomalies. Refractions from the top of the crystalline basement together with reflections from

  14. Crustal contamination and crystal entrapment during polybaric magma evolution at Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano, Italy: Geochemical and Sr isotope evidence (United States)

    Piochi, M.; Ayuso, R.A.; de Vivo, B.; Somma, R.


    New major and trace element analyses and Sr-isotope determinations of rocks from Mt. Somma-Vesuvius volcano produced from 25 ky BP to 1944 AD are part of an extensive database documenting the geochemical evolution of this classic region. Volcanic rocks include silica undersaturated, potassic and ultrapotassic lavas and tephras characterized by variable mineralogy and different crystal abundance, as well as by wide ranges of trace element contents and a wide span of initial Sr-isotopic compositions. Both the degree of undersaturation in silica and the crystal content increase through time, being higher in rocks produced after the eruption at 472 AD (Pollena eruption). Compositional variations have been generally thought to reflect contributions from diverse types of mantle and crust. Magma mixing is commonly invoked as a fundamental process affecting the magmas, in addition to crystal fractionation. Our assessment of geochemical and Sr-isotopic data indicates that compositional variability also reflects the influence of crustal contamination during magma evolution during upward migration to shallow crustal levels and/or by entrapment of crystal mush generated during previous magma storage in the crust. Using a variant of the assimilation fractional crystallization model (Energy Conservation-Assimilation Fractional Crystallization; [Spera and Bohrson, 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic processes I: General model and energy-constrained assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) formulation. J. Petrol. 999-1018]; [Bohrson, W.A. and Spera, F.J., 2001. Energy-constrained open-system magmatic process II: application of energy-constrained assimilation-fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) model to magmatic systems. J. Petrol. 1019-1041]) we estimated the contributions from the crust and suggest that contamination by carbonate rocks that underlie the volcano (2 km down to 9-10 km) is a fundamental process controlling magma compositions at Mt. Somma

  15. Density heterogeneity of the North American upper mantle from satellite gravity and a regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Artemieva, Irina; Thybo, Hans


    We present a regional model for the density structure of the North American upper mantle. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE geopotential models with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a regional crustal model. We analyze...... how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. Uncertainties in the residual upper (lithospheric) mantle gravity anomalies result from several sources: (i) uncertainties in the velocity......-density conversion and (ii) uncertainties in knowledge of the crustal structure (thickness and average Vp velocities of individual crustal layers, including the sedimentary cover). In this study, we address both sources of possible uncertainties by applying different conversions from velocity to density...

  16. A 3-D density model of Greece constrained by gravity and seismic data (United States)

    Makris, Jannis; Papoulia, Joanna; Yegorova, Tamara


    A 3-D density model of Greece was developed by gravity modelling constrained by 2-D seismic profiles. Densities were defined from seismic velocities using the Nafe & Drake and Birch empirical functions for the sediments, crust and upper mantle. Sediments in the North Aegean are 6 km thick, and are deposited in transtensional basins developing by dextral strike slip motion of the North Anatolian Fault. The Cyclades, central Aegean Sea, are free of sediments. South of Crete, in the Libyan Sea, sediments are approximately 11 km thick. At the western Hellenides sediments of up to 8 km thickness have been accumulated in basins formed by crustal bending and southwestwards thrusting of the Hellenic napes. At a deeper crustal level variations of crustal type and thickness cause density variations explaining large part of the observed gravity field. The North Aegean domain is characterized by a 24-km-thick continental crust, including sediments, whereas the western Cyclades, in central Aegean area, have a slightly thickened crust of 26 km. Crustal thicknesses vary between 16 km in the deep Ionian and Cretan Seas to 40 km in the western Hellenides. In western Crete crust is 30-32 km thick, thinning eastwards to only 26 km. The deep Ionian basin, the Mediterranean Ridge, as well as most of the Libyan Sea are underlain by oceanic crust. In western Turkey the crust thickens from 30 km along the coast to 34 km to the interior. A third deeper level of density variations occurs in the upper mantle. Subduction of the oceanic lithosphere below the Aegean continental domain destabilizes the thermal field, uplifting the isotherms by convection and conduction below the Aegean Sea. Consequently, volume expansion of the upper mantle and lithological changes reduce its density and depress the gravity intensity. This low density-velocity upper mantle extends from the Sporades islands in the North Aegean to the Cretan Sea, occupying the space between the cold subducted Ionian oceanic

  17. Crustal motion in Indonesia from Global Positioning System measurements (United States)

    Bock, Y.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Genrich, J. F.; Stevens, C. W.; McCaffrey, R.; Subarya, C.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Calais, E.


    We present the crustal motion velocity field for the Indonesian archipelago based on Global Positioning System (GPS) field surveys conducted from 1991 to 1997, and 2001, totaling more than 150 sites, as well as on a reanalysis of global tracking data in the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center archive from 1991 to 2001 in International Terrestrial Reference Frame 2000. We compute poles of rotation for the Australia, Eurasia, and Pacific plates based on our analysis of the global GPS data. We find that regional tectonics is dominated by the interaction of four discrete, rotating blocks spanning significant areas of the Sunda Shelf, the South Banda arc, the Bird's Head region of New Guinea, and East Sulawesi. The largest, the Sunda Shelf block (SSH), is estimated to be moving 6 ± 3 mm/yr SE relative to Eurasia. The South Banda block (SBB) rotates clockwise relative to both the SSH and Australia plate, resulting in 15 ± 8 mm/yr of motion across the Timor trough and 60 ± 3 mm/yr of shortening across the Flores Sea. Southern New Guinea forms part of the Australia plate from which the Bird's Head block (BHB) moves rapidly WSW, subducting beneath the Seram trough. The East Sulawesi block rotates clockwise about a nearby axis with respect to the Sunda Shelf, thereby transferring east-west shortening between the Pacific and Eurasia plates into north-south shortening across the North Sulawesi trench. Except for the Sunda Shelf, the crustal blocks are all experiencing significant internal deformation. In this respect, crustal motion in those regions does not fit the microplate tectonics model.

  18. Effect of Crustal Density Structures on GOCE Gravity Gradient Observables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Tenzer Pavel Novák


    Full Text Available We investigate the gravity gradient components corrected for major known anomalous density structures within the Earth¡¦s crust. Heterogeneous mantle density structures are disregarded. The gravimetric forward modeling technique is utilized to compute the gravity gradients based on methods for a spherical harmonic analysis and synthesis of a gravity field. The Earth¡¦s gravity gradient components are generated using the global geopotential model GOCO-03s. The topographic and stripping gravity corrections due to the density contrasts of the ocean and ice are computed from the global topographic/bathymetric model DTM2006.0 (which also includes the ice-thickness dataset. The discrete data of sediments and crust layers taken from the CRUST2.0 global crustal model are then used to apply the additional stripping corrections for sediments and remaining anomalous crustal density structures. All computations are realized globally on a one arc-deg geographical grid at a mean satellite elevation of 255 km. The global map of the consolidated crust-stripped gravity gradients reveals distinctive features which are attributed to global tectonics, lithospheric plate configuration, lithosphere structure and mantle dynamics (e.g., glacial isostatic adjustment, mantle convection. The Moho signature, which is the most pronounced signal in these refined gravity gradients, is superimposed over a weaker gravity signal of the lithospheric mantle. An interpretational quality of the computed (refined gravity gradient components is mainly limited by a low accuracy and resolution of the CRUST2.0 sediment and crustal layer data and unmodeled mantle structures.

  19. MOLA Topography of the Crustal Dichotomy Boundary Zone, Mars (United States)

    Frey, Herbert V.; E. H., Susan; H., James


    Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) profiles frequently cross the crustal dichotomy boundary where the transition zone (TZ) between cratered highland terrain (CT) and lowland smooth plains (SP) is marked by mesas and knobby terrain. The detailed topographic character of the boundary zone is longitudinally variable, as is the geomorphology of the TZ. Some portions of the boundary are associated with an outer ring of the Utopia impact basin; MOLA topography is consistent with this. The regional character of the boundary topography is a 2-4 km step function from nearly flat SP to almost as flat CT. This rise has a regional slope of 1-2 degrees, 50-100 times that of the Cr and SP away from TZ, which suggests a significant change in crustal properties (thickness, composition or both) across the TZ. The overall topography is very similar to that at some passive continent-oceanic crustal margins on the Earth, with the seafloor allowed to adjust upward after removal of the overlying water. A possible temporal constraint on the CT/SP elevation difference comes from two MOLA profiles which pass through two large (150 km diameter) craters located at the boundary in Aeolis. The N and S rims of the more degraded crater are at the same elevation; north of the N rim the topography drops by greater than 2 km to the floor of the TZ. This crater predates the elevation offset between CT and TZ floor. The better preserved crater (Gale) has a N rim 2 km lower than its S rim, and appears to have been emplaced on a pre-existing regional slope of about I degree. Gale probably post- dates the elevation difference between CT and TZ floor. Based on the stratigraphy of the units in which these craters are found, the elevation difference appears to have been in place in the Mid to Late Noachian.

  20. Crustal structure beneath Portugal from teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (United States)

    Attanayake, Januka; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea


    Up until now, Portugal lacked a countrywide shear velocity model sampling short length-scale crustal structure, which limits interpretations of seismicity and tectonics, and predictions of strong ground motion. In turn, such interpretations and predictions are important to help mitigate risk of destruction from future large on- and offshore earthquakes similar to those that Portugal has experienced in the past (e.g. the Mw 8.5-8.7 tsunamigenic event in 1755). In this study, we measured teleseismic Rayleigh Wave Ellipticity (RWE) from 33 permanent and temporary seismic stations in Portugal with wave periods between 15 s and 60 s, and inverted it for 1-D models of shear wave velocity (Vs) structure beneath each station using a fully non-linear Monte Carlo method. Because RWE is strongly sensitive to the uppermost few kilometres of the crust, both RWE measurements and Vs models are spatially correlated with surface geology in Portugal. For instance, we find that sedimentary basins produced by rifting that had begun in the Mesozoic such as the Lusitanian Basin (LB) and the Lower Tagus-Sado Basin (LTSB) are characterised by higher RWE (lower Vs). Interestingly, we observe similar RWE (and Vs) values in the interior of the Central Iberian Zone (CIZ), which is a metamorphic belt of Paleozoic age. Together with reduced crustal thickness previously estimated for the same parts of the CIZ, this suggests that the CIZ might have experienced an episode of extension possibly simultaneous to Mesozoic rifting. The Galicia-Tras-os-Montes-Zone (GTMZ) that has undergone polyphased deformation since the Paleozoic is characterised by the lowest RWE (highest Vs) in Portugal. Ossa Morena Zone and the South Portuguese Zone exhibit intermediate Vs values when compared to that of basins and the GTMZ. Our crustal Vs model can be used to provide new insights into the tectonics, seismicity and strong ground motion in Portugal.

  1. Co-Seismic Effect of the 2011 Japan Earthquake on the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaomin Yang


    Full Text Available Great earthquakes introduce measurable co-seismic displacements over regions of hundreds and thousands of kilometers in width, which, if not accounted for, may significantly bias the long-term surface velocity field constrained by GPS observations performed during a period encompassing that event. Here, we first present an estimation of the far-field co-seismic off-sets associated with the 2011 Japan Mw 9.0 earthquake using GPS measurements from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC in North China. The uncertainties of co-seismic off-set, either at cGPS stations or at campaign sites, are better than 5 - 6 mm on average. We compare three methods to constrain the co-seismic off-sets at the campaign sites in northeastern China 1 interpolating cGPS coseismic offsets, 2 estimating in terms of sparsely sampled time-series, and 3 predicting by using a well-constrained slip model. We show that the interpolation of cGPS co-seismic off-sets onto the campaign sites yield the best co-seismic off-set solution for these sites. The source model gives a consistent prediction based on finite dislocation in a layered spherical Earth, which agrees with the best prediction with discrepancies of 2 - 10 mm for 32 campaign sites. Thus, the co-seismic off-set model prediction is still a reasonable choice if a good coverage cGPS network is not available for a very active region like the Tibetan Plateau in which numerous campaign GPS sites were displaced by the recent large earthquakes.

  2. Testing Predictions of Continental Insulation using Oceanic Crustal Thicknesses (United States)

    Hoggard, Mark; Shorttle, Oliver; White, Nicky


    The thermal blanketing effect of continental crust has been predicted to lead to elevated temperatures within the upper mantle beneath supercontinents. Initial break-up is associated with increased magmatism and the generation of flood basalts. Continued rifting and sea-floor spreading lead to a steady reduction of this thermal anomaly. Recently, evidence in support of this behaviour has come from the major element geochemistry of mid-ocean ridge basalts, which suggest excess rifting temperatures of ˜ 150 °C that decay over ˜ 100 Ma. We have collated a global inventory of ˜ 1000 seismic reflection profiles and ˜ 500 wide-angle refraction experiments from the oceanic realm. Data are predominantly located along passive margins, but there are also multiple surveys in the centres of the major oceanic basins. Oceanic crustal thickness has been mapped, taking care to avoid areas of secondary magmatic thickening near seamounts or later thinning such as across transform faults. These crustal thicknesses are a proxy for mantle potential temperature at the time of melt formation beneath a mid-ocean ridge system, allowing us to quantify the amplitude and duration of thermal anomalies generated beneath supercontinents. The Jurassic break-up of the Central Atlantic and the Cretaceous rifting that formed the South Atlantic Ocean are both associated with excess temperatures of ˜ 50 °C that have e-folding times of ˜ 50 Ma. In addition to this background trend, excess temperatures reach > 150 °C around the region of the Rio Grande Rise, associated with the present-day Tristan hotspot. The e-folding time of this more local event is ˜ 10 Ma, which mirrors results obtained for the North Atlantic Ocean south of Iceland. In contrast, crustal thicknesses from the Pacific Ocean reveal approximately constant potential temperature through time. This observation is in agreement with predictions, as the western Pacific was formed by rifting of an oceanic plate. In summary

  3. Quantifying precambrian crustal extraction: The root is the answer (United States)

    Abbott, D.; Sparks, D.; Herzberg, C.; Mooney, W.; Nikishin, A.; Zhang, Y.-S.


    We use two different methods to estimate the total amount of continental crust that was extracted by the end of the Archean and the Proterozoic. The first method uses the sum of the seismic thickness of the crust, the eroded thickness of the crust, and the trapped melt within the lithospheric root to estimate the total crustal volume. This summation method yields an average equivalent thickness of Archean crust of 49 ?? 6 km and an average equivalent thickness of Proterozoic crust of 48 ?? 9 km. Between 7 and 9% of this crust never reached the surface, but remained within the continental root as congealed, iron-rich komatiitic melt. The second method uses experimental models of melting, mantle xenolith compositions, and corrected lithospheric thickness to estimate the amount of crust extracted through time. This melt column method reveals that the average equivalent thickness of Archean crust was 65 ?? 6 km. and the average equivalent thickness of Early Proterozoic crust was 60 ?? 7 km. It is likely that some of this crust remained trapped within the lithospheric root. The discrepancy between the two estimates is attributed to uncertainties in estimates of the amount of trapped, congealed melt, overall crustal erosion, and crustal recycling. Overall, we find that between 29 and 45% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Archean, most likely by 2.7 Ga. Between 51 and 79% of continental crust was extracted by the end of the Early Proterozoic, most likely by 1.8-2.0 Ga. Our results are most consistent with geochemical models that call upon moderate amounts of recycling of early extracted continental crust coupled with continuing crustal growth (e.g. McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R., 1982. Geochemical constraints on the growth of the continental crust. Journal of Geology, 90, 347-361; Veizer, J., Jansen, S.L., 1985. Basement and sedimentary recycling - 2: time dimension to global tectonics. Journal of Geology 93(6), 625-643). Trapped, congealed, iron

  4. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe


    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; RAJABI, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz


    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indi...

  5. Crustal structure variations along the Lesser Antilles Arc (United States)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J. M.; Melekhova, E.; Blundy, J.; Baptie, B.; Latchman, J. L.


    Continental crust is predominantly formed along subduction zones. Therefore, an investigation of the crustal and mantle structure variation of these areas is crucial for understanding the growth of continental crust. This work deals with the seismological characteristics along the Lesser Antilles Arc, an island arc system built by the relatively slow subduction (~2cm/yr) of the North and South American plates beneath the Caribbean plate. The amount of subducted sediments changes significantly from sediment-rich subduction in the South to sediment-poor subduction in the North. The abundance of broadband seismic stations on the Lesser Antilles islands enables a range of seismic methods to be used to study arc processes. Furthermore, the abundance of cumulate samples allows for a detailed petrological analysis, which can be related to the seismological patterns. We use data from three component broadband stations located on the individual islands along the arc. From the island of Grenada in the South to the Virgin Islands in the North significant variations in sediment load, petrology and volcanism are observed along the arc. In this work, we investigate crustal structure using receiver functions to determine Moho depth and Vp/Vs ratio. The ratio gives an idea about the material of the subsurface as well as its water and its melt contents. The receiver functions are computed using the extended-time multitaper frequency domain cross-correlation receiver-function (ETMTRF) by Helffrich (2006). This method has the advantage of resistance to noise, which is helpful since most of the data around the arc will have been collected by stations close to the ocean, thus containing a large amount of noise. Our results show clear variations in these measurements. There are also regions where the Moho is not very sharp due to a low velocity contrast. The real data results were then compared to synthetic receiver functions from subsurface models. We compute a range of synthetic

  6. Continental velocity through Precambrian times: The link to magmatism, crustal accretion and episodes of global cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.A. Piper


    Full Text Available Quasi-integrity of continental crust between Mid-Archaean and Ediacaran times is demonstrated by conformity of palaeomagnetic poles to near-static positions between ∼2.7–2.2 Ga, ∼1.5–1.2 Ga and ∼0.75–0.6 Ga. Intervening data accord to coherent APW loops turning at “hairpins” focused near a continental-centric location. Although peripheral adjustments occurred during Early Proterozoic (∼2.2 Ga and Grenville (∼1.1 Ga times, the crust retained a low order symmetrical crescent-shaped form constrained to a single global hemisphere until break-up in Ediacaran times. Conformity of palaeomagnetic data to specific Eulerian parameters enables definition of a master Precambrian APW path used to estimate the root mean square velocity (vRMS of continental crust between 2.8 and 0.6 Ga. A long interval of little polar movement between ∼2.7 and 2.2 Ga correlates with global magmatic shutdown between ∼2.45 and 2.2 Ga, whilst this interval and later slowdown at ∼0.75–0.6 Ga to velocities of <2 cm/year correlate with episodes of widespread glaciation implying that these prolonged climatic anomalies had an internal origin; the reduced input of volcanically-derived atmospheric greenhouse gases is inferred to have permitted freeze-over conditions with active ice sheets extending into equatorial latitudes as established by low magnetic inclinations in glaciogenic deposits. vRMS variations through Precambrian times correspond to the distribution of U-Pb ages in orogenic granitoids and detrital zircons and demonstrate that mobility of continental crust has been closely related to crustal tectonism and incrementation. Both periods of near-stillstand were followed by rapid vRMS recording massive heat release from beneath the continental lid at ∼2.2 and 0.6 Ga. The first coincided with the Lomagundi-Jatuli isotopic event and led to prolonged orogenesis accompanied by continental flooding and reconfiguration of the crust on the Earth

  7. Crustal and Lithospheric Structure of the Western Mediterranean: Pds Receiver Function Results from the PICASSO Experiment (United States)

    Thurner, S.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.


    The Betic Mountains in southern Spain, the Gibraltar Arc, the Alboran Sea, and the Rif and Atlas Mountains in northern Africa comprise the western Mediterranean tectonic region, which has been affected by simultaneous extension and compression throughout the Cenozoic. Multiple geodynamic models have been invoked to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes, including slab roll-back (Royden, 1993; Lonergan and White, 1997; Gutscher et al., 2002), accompanied and followed by lithospheric convective downwelling (Seber et al., 1996; Calvert et al., 2000), and delamination (Platt et al., 1996). We use Ps teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crustal and lithospheric structure throughout this region. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multi-disciplinary, international investigation seeking to improve our understanding of the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean. The PICASSO deployment includes 89 broadband stations distributed linearly from central Spain to the Morocco-Algeria border. For this study we supplemented the PICASSO dataset with data from six other Moroccan, Spanish, Portuguese, and German networks in the region. Using 167 events (M > 6.0) recorded at a total of 240 stations we calculated 1 Hz and 2Hz receiver functions. The receiver functions were then CCP stacked to create a 3D image volume of the region. The Pds receiver functions indicate crustal thicknesses between ~42-47 km in southern Spain beneath the Betic Mountains and ~35-45 km across the Gibraltar Strait. Beneath both the Rif and Betic Mountains we observe complex crustal structures, including two strong positive arrivals around Moho depth (~50 km). A number of models can explain this feature, including those associated thrust systems in each region. In Morocco, along a NW-SE transect from the Gibraltar Strait across the Atlas Mountains, we observe thick crust in the north beneath the Rif Mountains and to the south

  8. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanghoon Lee


    Full Text Available We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  9. Continuation of Sets of Constrained Orbit Segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten; Chamoun, George Chaouki

    Sets of constrained orbit segments of time continuous flows are collections of trajectories that represent a whole or parts of an invariant set. A non-trivial but simple example is a homoclinic orbit. A typical representation of this set consists of an equilibrium point of the flow and a trajectory...... that starts close and returns close to this fixed point within finite time. More complicated examples are hybrid periodic orbits of piecewise smooth systems or quasi-periodic invariant tori. Even though it is possible to define generalised two-point boundary value problems for computing sets of constrained...... orbit segments, this is very disadvantageous in practice. In this talk we will present an algorithm that allows the efficient continuation of sets of constrained orbit segments together with the solution of the full variational problem....

  10. A reverse energy cascade for crustal magma transport (United States)

    Karlstrom, Leif; Paterson, Scott R.; Jellinek, A. Mark


    Direct constraints on the ascent, storage and eruption of mantle melts come primarily from exhumed, long-frozen intrusions. These structures, relics of a dynamic magma transport network, encode how Earth's crust grows and differentiates over time. Furthermore, they connect mantle melting to an evolving distribution of surface volcanism. Disentangling magma transport processes from the plutonic record is consequently a seminal but unsolved problem. Here we use field data analyses, scaling theory and numerical simulations to show that the size distribution of intrusions preserved as plutonic complexes in the North American Cordillera suggests a transition in the mechanical response of crustal rocks to protracted episodes of magmatism. Intrusion sizes larger than about 100 m follow a power-law scaling expected if energy delivered from the mantle to open very thin dykes and sills is transferred to intrusions of increasing size. Merging, assimilation and mixing of small intrusions into larger ones occurs until irreversible deformation and solidification dissipate available energy. Mantle magma supply over tens to hundreds of thousands of years will trigger this regime, a type of reverse energy cascade, depending on the influx rate and efficiency of crustal heating by intrusions. Identifying regimes of magma transport provides a framework for inferring subsurface magmatic processes from surface patterns of volcanism, information preservation in the plutonic record, and related effects including climate.

  11. Crustal velocities from geodetic very long baseline interferometry (United States)

    Fallon, F. W.; Dillinger, W. H.


    VLBI observations from the International Radio Interferometric Surveying and Crustal Dynamics Projects programs taken over a span of 5-8 yr (through August 1990) are used to derive relative velocities of 16 sites on the North American, Eurasian, Pacific, and African plates. The data reduction scheme simultaneously estimates earth orientation parameters and nutation for each session, local atmosphere and clock correction terms, source positions, and initial site positions, as well as the site velocities. Instead of an a priori geophysical crustal model, a minimal set of geometric constraints is used to obtain the velocities. Two alternative constraint formulations - setting the secular motion of the pole and mean length of day to fixed values, and fixing the net rotation of the sites - are considered. They are shown to be equivalent in that they yield equivalent velocity sets with allowance for translation and rotation. The resulting velocities have formal standard errors typically less than 0.2 cm/yr, and most velocities are significantly different from zero.

  12. Evidence for a crustal ramp below the northernmost part of the Bhutan Himalayas (United States)

    Le Roux-Mallouf, Romain; Godard, Vincent; Cattin, Rodolphe; Ferry, Matthieu; Gyeltshen, Jampel; Ritz, Jean-François; Drukpa, Dowchu; Guillou, Valéry; Aster Team


    The Main Himalayan Thust (MHT) marks the ca. 2500-km-long boundary between the India and Eurasia plates and accommodates most of the collision that produced the Himalayan Arc. It is the source of great historical and modern earthquakes that have been documented all along the front, except for Bhutan where data is scarce. A key parameter to better understand how tectonic loading accumulates and what magnitudes may be expected in the future is the geometry of the MHT at depth. Although 2D seismic images are now available for the western part of the range, lateral variations in geometry remain poorly constrained for the Bhutanese Himalayas. Here, using new and existing 10Be cosmonuclide exposure ages, tectonic geodesy and uplifted Holocene river terraces we assess both denudation rates and present-day kinematics of the MHT in western Bhutan. Our new dataset includes 32 catchment-averaged denudation rates ranging from 0.025 to 2.1 mm/yr. Their spatial pattern exhibits a strong northward denudation increase starting ca. 110 km north of the MFT. We interpret this major change as a mid-crustal flat-ramp transition in the MHT geometry. Compared to previous images showing in central Nepal and Sikkim a location of 80-100 km north of the MFT for this transition, we propose a longer extent of ca. 130 km for the horizontal décollement. This finding suggests a significant variation in the geometry of the MHT takes place over a very short distance (Bhutan.

  13. Crystal Histories and Crustal Magmas: Insights into Magma Storage from U-Series Crystal Ages (United States)

    Cooper, K. M.


    The dynamic processes operating within crustal magma reservoirs control many aspects of the chemical composition of erupted magmas, and crystals in volcanic rocks can provide a temporally-constrained archive of these changing environments. A new compilation of 238U-230Th ages of accessory phases and 238U-230Th-226Ra ages of bulk mineral separates of major phases documents that crystals in individual samples often have ages spanning most of the history of a volcanic center. Somewhat surprisingly, this observation holds for surface analyses as well as interior analyses, indicating that the latest stages of growth took place at different times for different grains. Nevertheless, average ages of surfaces are younger than interiors (as expected), and the dominant surface age population is often within error of eruption age. In contrast to accessory phase ages, less than half of the bulk separate 238U-230Th-226Ra ages for major phases are more than 10 kyr older than eruption. This suggests that major phases may in general reflect a later stage of development of an eruptible magma body than do accessory phases, or that the extent of discordance between ages of major and accessory phases reflects the extent to which a crystal mush was remobilized during processes leading to eruption. Crystal ages are most useful for illuminating magmatic processes when combined with crystal-scale trace-element or isotopic data, and I will present several case studies where such combined data sets exist. For example, at Yellowstone and at Okataina Caldera Complex, New Zealand, the combination zircon surface and interior analyses (of age, Hf isotopic, and trace-element data) with bulk dating and in-situ trace-element and isotopic compositions of feldspar allows a comparison of the early history of storage in a crystal mush with the later history of melt extraction and further crystallization prior to eruption, thus tracking development of erupted magma bodies from storage through eruption.

  14. P-wave receiver function study of crustal structure in Scandinavia (United States)

    Makushkina, Anna; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev; Youssof, Mohammad


    In this study we present preliminary results on the structure of the continental crust in northern Scandinavia. The research area consists of three geologically different domains: the Archaean Domain in the north-east, the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain in the east and the Caledonian Deformed Domain in the west (Gorbatschev and Bogdanova,1993). We present results based on data collected by 60 seismic stations during 2-4 years of deployment in the ScanArray experiment, which is an international collaboration between Scandinavian, German and British universities. We use the receiver function (RF) technique in the LQT ray-oriented coordinate system (Vinnik, 1977). Receiver function analysis has rather high vertical resolution of the depth to seismic discontinuities which cause transformation between P- and S-waves. The whole dataset is uniformly filtered and deconvolved records are stacked using appropriate moveout corrections. We have used events with a magnitude ≥ 5.5 Mw, with epicentral distances range from 30° to 95°. The technique allows us to constrain crustal structure and determine the Moho depth around stations by analyzing the PS converted phases generated at discontinuities in particular the Moho. We present preliminary interpretation of P-wave RF analysis in terms of the complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Baltic Shield. Further studies will include joint P and S receiver function analysis of this area as well as investigations of the upper mantle. References: Vinnik L.P. (1977) Detection of waves converted from P to SV in the mantle. Phys. Earth planet. Inter. 15, 39-45 Gorbatschev R., Bogdanova, S. (1993) Frontiers in the Baltic Shield. Precambrian Res. 64, 3-21

  15. Crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Eritrea (United States)

    Hamiel, Yariv; Baer, Gidon


    We investigate the crustal deformation associated with the 2011 eruption of the Nabro volcano, Afar, Eritrea. The Nabro volcano erupted on the night of 12 June 2011. A seismic sequence started 5 h before the onset of the volcanic eruption. It included 25 M > 3 earthquakes, of which one Mw 5.6 normal fault earthquake occurred on 12 June at about the same time as the onset of the eruption, and one Mw 5.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred at the end of the main sequence on 17 June. The deformation associated with the eruption and the seismic activity was resolved by Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements of the TerraSAR-X and ENVISAT satellites. Interferograms were generated using ascending and descending track pairs. The Nabro caldera and the associated channel of magma flow are characterized by significant loss of coherence which limited our InSAR observations at the near field of the volcano. Therefore, detailed assessment of co- and post-eruptive seismicity and monitoring of post-eruptive deformation using continued InSAR observations were added to the co-eruptive analysis in order to better constrain the different magmatic and tectonic components and determine the final source model. We carried out tens of different inversion models. Our best-fit model includes a dike, a normal fault and a strike-slip fault, consistent with the mechanisms of the major earthquakes. Coulomb stress calculations based on our model are found to be in agreement with post-eruptive seismicity. Finally, the source mechanism and geometry of our model are found to be in accord with the major tectonic structures in this area.

  16. Crustal thickness variations at oceanic ridge segment and transform faults: implications for three-dimensional melt extraction pathways (United States)

    Hebert, L. B.; Montesi, L. G.


    Transform faults constitute a ubiquitous component of the global mid-ocean ridge system. Enhanced cooling is usually thought to produce a relatively thick lithosphere underneath the transform domain, which would act as a keel to segregate magma between adjacent mid-ocean ridges. However, modeling of gravity anomalies at fast spreading ridges implies thickened crust in the transform domain. These anomalies may correspond to additional melt produced by intra-transform spreading, melt that is easily extracted in the transform domain due to faulting, or melt redistributed from the adjacent spreading centers by dike intrusion in the crust. We test the first two ideas using a three-dimensional numerical model of melt migration and extraction along a transform zone and adjacent ridge segments. First, mantle flow and the thermal structure of a segmented spreading center are determined. Melt is assumed to travel vertically before being collected and migrating beneath a low-permeability boundary inclined towards the ridge segment axis. A melt extraction zone is defined around any plate boundary to represent a domain where faults and/or dikes lead to rapid lateral and vertical melt migration toward the surface. The effect of the size of the melt extraction zone on melt distribution and crustal thickness is examined first for a simplified ridge-transform-ridge geometry and then for a model of the Siqueiros transform on the East Pacific Rise. Intra-transform spreading centers (ITSCs) are included to test the possibility of ITSC-related melting. On the basis of crustal thickness variations along the fast-slipping Siqueiros fault, we constrain the melt extraction zone to be on the order of 20 km thick within 10 km of the transform axis, indicating that melt extraction likely occurs through a dike complex extending to great depth into the mantle.

  17. Variable crustal thickness beneath Thwaites Glacier revealed from airborne gravimetry, possible implications for geothermal heat flux in West Antarctica (United States)

    Damiani, Theresa M.; Jordan, Tom A.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Young, Duncan A.; Blankenship, Donald D.


    Thwaites Glacier has one of the largest glacial catchments in West Antarctica. The future stability of Thwaites Glacier's catchment is of great concern, as this part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet has recently been hypothesized to already be en route towards collapse. Although an oceanic trigger is thought to be responsible for current change at the grounding line of Thwaites Glacier, in order to determine the effects of this coastal change further in the interior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet it is essential to also better constrain basal conditions that control the dynamics of fast glacial flow within the catchment itself. One major contributor to fast glacial flow is the presence of subglacial water, the production of which is a result of both glaciological shear heating and geothermal heat flux. The primary goal of our study is to investigate the crustal thickness beneath Thwaites Glacier, which is an important contributor to regional-scale geothermal heat flux patterns. Crustal structure is an indicator of past tectonic events and hence provides a geophysical proxy for the thermal status of the crust and mantle. Terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity disturbances are used here to estimate depths to the Moho and mid-crustal boundary. The thin continental crust we reveal beneath Thwaites Glacier supports the hypothesis that the West Antarctic Rift System underlies the region and is expressed topographically as the Byrd Subglacial Basin. This rifted crust is of similar thickness to that calculated from airborne gravity data beneath neighboring Pine Island Glacier, and is more extended than crust in the adjacent Siple Coast sector of the Ross Sea Embayment. A zone of thinner crust is also identified near the area's subaerial volcanoes lending support to a recent interpretation predicting that this part of Marie Byrd Land is a major volcanic dome, likely within the West Antarctic Rift System itself. Near-zero Bouguer gravity disturbances for the subglacial highlands

  18. Crustal structure and rift tectonics across the Cauvery–Palar basin, eastern continental margin of India based on seismic and potential field modelling

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Twinkle, D.; Rao, G.S.; Radhakrishna, M.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    Cauvery–Palar basin. The 2D gravity and magnetic crustal models indicate several crustal blocks separated by major structures or faults, and the rift-related volcanic intrusive rocks that characterize the basin. The crustal models further reveal...

  19. Links between crustal melting, plate boundary forces, and syn-convergent exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina (United States)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, W.; Jourdan, F.; Renne, P. R.; Vervoort, J. D.; Vujovich, G. I.


    Transitions from convergence to extension during an orogenic cycle result from the dynamic interaction between plate bounding forces, the thermal and rheologic evolution of the lithosphere, and contrasts in gravitational potential energy within an orogen. The presence of melt in the middle and lower crust, in particular, exerts a profound effect on the rheology of orogenic belts and in facilitating a change from convergence to extension and orogenic collapse. Determining whether or not melting was as an effective driving mechanism of extension within a given orogen requires accurately constraining the timing and duration of melting in the crust with respect to plate convergence, crustal thickening, and lithospheric extension. The Sierras Pampeanas of northwest Argentina record the transition from a Cambrian convergent margin to an Ordovician collisional orogen with the accretion of the allochthonous Precordillera terrane. Regional convergence associated with Famatina arc magmatism initiated as a result of east dipping subduction by ˜515-495 Ma and the majority of arc magmatism occurred from ˜485 to 465 Ma. Initial collision of the Precordillera terrane with the Famatina arc margin began by ~470 Ma and the terrane had fully collided by the Late Ordovician (˜458-449 Ma). Syn-convergent extension within the Sierra de Pie de Palo initiated at middle to lower crustal depths at ~436 Ma and continued through ~417 Ma. We present new U-Pb zircon and sphene, Lu-Hf garnet, and 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and mica ages and thermobarometry from lower crustal granulite facies migmatites of the Loma de Las Charcas. These data, coupled with existing regional isotopic ages and one-dimensional thermal modeling, suggest that: 1) regional peak granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ~465 Ma with near isothermal temperatures of ~850° C from ~5-12 kb within the Famatina arc; 2) Ordovician melts remained at temperatures above their solidus for 20-30 million years following peak granulite

  20. Crustal structure of the rifted volcanic margins and uplifted plateau of Western Yemen from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Tiberi, Christel; Leroy, Sylvie; Stuart, Graham W.; Keir, Derek; Sholan, Jamal; Khanbari, Khaled; Al-Ganad, Ismael; Basuyau, Clémence


    We analyse P-wave receiver functions across the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea continental margins in Western Yemen to constrain crustal thickness, internal crustal structure and the bulk seismic velocity characteristics in order to address the role of magmatism, faulting and mechanical crustal thinning during continental breakup. We analyse teleseismic data from 21 stations forming the temporary Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory (YOCMAL) network together with GFZ and Yemeni permanent stations. Analysis of computed receiver functions shows that (1) the thickness of unextended crust on the Yemen plateau is ˜35 km; (2) this thins to ˜22 km in coastal areas and reaches less than 14 km on the Red Sea coast, where presence of a high-velocity lower crust is evident. The average Vp/Vs ratio for the western Yemen Plateau is 1.79, increasing to ˜1.92 near the Red Sea coast and decreasing to 1.68 for those stations located on or near the granitic rocks. Thinning of the crust, and by inference extension, occurs over a ˜130-km-wide transition zone from the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coasts to the edges of the Yemen plateau. Thinning of continental crust is particularly localized in a <30-km-wide zone near the coastline, spatially co-incident with addition of magmatic underplate to the lower crust, above which on the surface we observe the presence of seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) and thickened Oligo-Miocene syn-rift basaltic flows. Our results strongly suggest the presence of high-velocity mafic intrusions in the lower crust, which are likely either synrift magmatic intrusion into continental lower crust or alternatively depleted upper mantle underplated to the base of the crust during the eruption of the SDRs. Our results also point towards a regional breakup history in which the onset of rifting was synchronous along the western Gulf of Aden and southern Red Sea volcanic margins followed by a second phase of extension along the Red Sea margin.

  1. The Crustal Structure of Beira High, Central Mozambique - Combined Investigation of Wide-angle Seismic and Potential Field Data (United States)

    Müller, C. O.; Schreckenberger, B.; Heyde, I.; Jokat, W.


    Up to Jurassic times the Antarctic and African continents were part of the supercontinent Gondwana. Some 185 Ma the onset of rifting caused the dispersal of this vast continent into several minor plates. The timing and geometry of the initial break-up between Africa and Antarctica as well as the amount of volcanism connected to this Jurassic rifting are still controversial. In the southern part of the Mozambique Channel a prominent basement high, the Beira High, forms a distinct crustal anomaly along the Mozambican margin. It is still controversial if this area of shallow basement is a continental fragment or was formed during a period of enhanced magmatism and is of oceanic origin. Therefore, a wide-angle seismic profile with 37 OBS/H was acquired starting from the deep Mozambique Channel, across the Beira High and terminating on the shelf off the Zambezi River. The main objectives are to provide constraints on the crustal composition and origin of the Beira High as well as the amount of volcanism and the position of the continent-ocean transition below the Zambezi Delta. To obtain a P-wave velocity model of this area the data were forward modeled by means of the 2D-Raytracing method. Preliminary results indicate a clear thickening of the crust below the Beira High up to 20-24 km. Evidences for a high velocity body are found in the area below the Zambezi shelf with velocities of 7.2-7.4 km/s and up to 5 km thickness. Oceanic basement velocities at the very eastern part of the line start with values of 5.5 km/s, and increase to 6.9 km/s at lower crustal levels, that are typical for Jurassic oceanic crust. Across the Beira High the starting velocity and its gradient slightly change, presenting typical values for continental fragments. However, due to a sparse ray coverage of diving waves for the Beira High lower crust, these velocities still have to be proved. Thus, we will introduce the final results of a Finite Difference amplitude modeling, which will constrain

  2. Quantifying Crustal Thickness in Continental Collisional Belts: Global Perspective and a Geologic Application. (United States)

    Hu, Fangyang; Ducea, Mihai N; Liu, Shuwen; Chapman, James B


    We present compiled geochemical data of young (mostly Pliocene-present) intermediate magmatic rocks from continental collisional belts and correlations between their whole-rock Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios and modern crustal thickness. These correlations, which are similar to those obtained from subduction-related magmatic arcs, confirm that geochemistry can be used to track changes of crustal thickness changes in ancient collisional belts. Using these results, we investigate temporal variations of crustal thickness in the Qinling Orogenic Belt in mainland China. Our results suggest that crustal thickness remained constant in the North Qinling Belt (~45-55 km) during the Triassic to Jurassic but fluctuates in the South Qinling Belt, corresponding to independently determined tectonic changes. In the South Qinling Belt, crustal thickening began at ~240 Ma and culminated with 60-70-km-thick crust at ~215 Ma. Then crustal thickness decreased to ~45 km at ~200 Ma and remained the same to the present. We propose that coupled use of Sr/Y and La/Yb is a feasible method for reconstructing crustal thickness through time in continental collisional belts. The combination of the empirical relationship in this study with that from subduction-related arcs can provide the crustal thickness evolution of an orogen from oceanic subduction to continental collision.

  3. Crustal and upper mantle structure of Siberia from teleseismic receiver functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    . The current results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed models of crustal structure in the area and with seismic models for similar geodynamic...

  4. Satellite gravity anomalies and crustal features of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Grinko, B.N.

    Satellite free-air gravity anomaly contour map at 5 mGal interval, seismic reflection and bathymetric data lead to the identification of deformed crustal structure of the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Twenty-three NE-SW trending deformed crustal...

  5. Modeling Crustal Thickness Variations Beneath the East Pacific Rise: Mantle Diapirs or Plate Kinematics? (United States)

    George, S. A.; Toomey, D. R.


    Geophysical studies along the East Pacific Rise between the Siqueiros and Clipperton fracture zones reveal along- and cross-axis variations in crustal thickness whose origins are poorly understood. By one view, variations in crustal thickness are the result of three-dimensional upwelling of the mantle associated with a melt-rich diapir centered at 9° 50'N. Alternatively, it has been proposed that the migration of the 9° 03'N overlapping spreading center (OSC) alters the thickness of crust by increasing the amount of time that a crustal unit resides near the spreading axis. In this case, crustal thickness variations arise from plate kinematics, and not from three-dimensional variations in mantle upwelling. We report on a modeling study designed to explore how the evolution of OSCs may alter the thickness of newly-formed crust. OSC propagation is modeled using the kinematic algorithm developed by Wilson [1990], modified to track parcels of crust through time. Given an OSC's kinematic history and two-dimensional descriptions of the melt flux out of the mantle (i.e. invariant along the rise), we predict relative variations in crustal thickness. Our modeling assumes that underplating increases the thickness of the crust and/or Moho transition zone as long as a crustal unit resides over the source of mantle-derived melt. Results suggest two general kinematic mechanisms whereby variations in crustal thickness can occur: those due to an offset between the mantle-level magmatic system and the spreading axis, and those due to any relative reduction in the velocity of a crustal unit as it moves off axis. Offset-induced crustal thickness variations are manifest as long-wavelength ( ˜50 km), low-amplitude cross-axis asymmetries. Local slowing of crustal units as they move off axis -- in direct association with the OSC and its overlap basins -- results in relatively short-wavelength ( ˜10 km), high-amplitude variations in crustal thickness. Using a kinematic history

  6. Neutron Powder Diffraction and Constrained Refinement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Dietrich, O. W.


    The first use of a new program, EDINP, is reported. This program allows the constrained refinement of molecules in a crystal structure with neutron diffraction powder data. The structures of p-C6F4Br2 and p-C6F4I2 are determined by packing considerations and then refined with EDINP. Refinement...

  7. Semantic Web in a Constrained Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, L.J.; Schlobach, K.S.


    The semantic web is intrinsically constrained by its environment. These constraints act as a bottlenecks and limit the performance of applications in various ways. Examples of such constraints are the limited availability of memory, disk space, or a limited network bandwidth. But how do these bounds

  8. Constrained superfields from inflation to reheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dalianis


    Full Text Available We construct effective supergravity theories from customized constrained superfields which provide a setup consistent both for the description of inflation and the subsequent reheating processes. These theories contain the minimum degrees of freedom in the bosonic sector required for single-field inflation.

  9. Constrained Optimization in Simulation : A Novel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; van Beers, W.C.M.; van Nieuwenhuyse, I.


    This paper presents a novel heuristic for constrained optimization of random computer simulation models, in which one of the simulation outputs is selected as the objective to be minimized while the other outputs need to satisfy prespeci¯ed target values. Besides the simulation outputs, the

  10. Integrating job scheduling and constrained network routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette


    This paper examines the NP-hard problem of scheduling jobs on resources such that the overall profit of executed jobs is maximized. Job demand must be sent through a constrained network to the resource before execution can begin. The problem has application in grid computing, where a number...

  11. A model for optimal constrained adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Reese, Lynda M.


    A model for constrained computerized adaptive testing is proposed in which the information on the test at the ability estimate is maximized subject to a large variety of possible constraints on the contents of the test. At each item-selection step, a full test is first assembled to have maximum

  12. Constrained Registration of the Wrist Joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Giessen, M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Strackee, S.D.; Maas, M.; Grimbergen, K.A.; Van Vliet, L.J.; Vos, F.M.


    Comparing wrist shapes of different individuals requires alignment of these wrists into the same pose. Unconstrained registration of the carpal bones results in anatomically nonfeasible wrists. In this paper, we propose to constrain the registration using the shapes of adjacent bones, by keeping the

  13. Constrained registration of the wrist joint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Giessen, M.; Streekstra, G.J.; Strackee, S.D.; Maas, M.; Grimbergen, K.A.; van Vliet, L.J.; Vos, F.M.


    Comparing wrist shapes of different individuals requires alignment of these wrists into the same pose. Unconstrained registration of the carpal bones results in anatomically nonfeasible wrists. In this paper, we propose to constrain the registration using the shapes of adjacent bones, by keeping the

  14. Factors Constraining Farmers Use of Improved Cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that land and labour problems, marketing problems, poor technical information, cultural incompatibility, high cost of farm inputs and unavailability of necessary inputs were the major factors constraining the use of improved cowpea technologies in the area. These findings suggest that there is an urgent ...

  15. Can Neutron stars constrain Dark Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter


    temperature that could in principle be detected. Due to their compactness, neutron stars can acrete WIMPs efficiently even if the WIMP-to-nucleon cross section obeys the current limits from direct dark matter searches, and therefore they could constrain a wide range of dark matter candidates....

  16. Client's constraining factors to construction project management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analyzed client's related factors that constrain project management success of public and private sector construction in Nigeria. Issues that concern clients in any project can not be undermined as they are the owners and the initiators of project proposals. It is assumed that success, failure or abandonment of ...

  17. A Constrained Vision of the Writing Classroom. (United States)

    Phelps, Louise Wetherbee


    Proposes that writing teachers and administrators think, first, in terms of the truly political realities--the situated interconnections of interests, accidents, luck, and consequences--that constrain our abilities to realize utopian goals and, second, in terms of ethical constraints to which they are willing to be bound by. (RS)

  18. Algorithm Solves Constrained and Unconstrained Optimization Problems (United States)

    Denson, M. A.


    Is quasi-Newton iteration utilizing Broyden/Fletcher/Goldfarb/Shanno update on inverse Hessian matrix. Capable of solving constrained optimization unconstrained optimization and constraints only problems with one to five independent variables from one to five constraint functions and one dependent function optimized.

  19. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini


    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...

  20. Modeling the Microstructural Evolution During Constrained Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pryds, Nini


    A numerical model able to simulate solid-state constrained sintering is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo model for free sintering with a finite element model (FEM) for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response to the local stress...

  1. Modeling the microstructural evolution during constrained sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Tikare, V.

    A numerical model able to simulate solid state constrained sintering of a powder compact is presented. The model couples an existing kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) model for free sintering with a finite element (FE) method for calculating stresses on a microstructural level. The microstructural response...

  2. Entanglement-assisted capacity of constrained channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.


    In this paper we fil a gap in previous work by proving the conjectured formula for the antanglement-assisted capacity of quantum channel with additive input constraint (such as Bosonic Gaussian channel). The main tools are the coding theorem for classical-quantum constrained channels and a finite dimensional approximation of the input density operators for the entanglement-assisted capacity.

  3. Crustal stress pattern in China and its adjacent areas (United States)

    Hu, Xingping; Zang, Arno; Heidbach, Oliver; Cui, Xiaofeng; Xie, Furen; Chen, Jiawei


    During the update of the World Stress Map (WSM) database, we integrated the China stress database by strictly using the internationally developed quality ranking scheme for each individual stress data record. This effort resulted in a comprehensive and reliable dataset for the crustal stress of China and its adjacent areas with almost double the amount of data records from the WSM database release 2008, i.e., a total of 8228 data records with reliable A-C qualities in the region of 45-155° East and 0-60° North. We use this dataset for an analysis of the stress pattern for the orientation of maximum compressive horizontal stress (SHmax). In contrast to earlier findings that suggested that the mean SHmax orientation would be aligned with the direction of plate motion, we clearly see from our results that the plate boundary forces, as well as topography and faulting, are important control factors for the overall stress pattern. Furthermore, the smoothing results indicate that the SHmax orientation in China rotates clockwise from the west to the east, which results in a fan-shaped crustal stress pattern for the continental scale. The plate boundary forces around China, which are the Indian-Eurasian plate collision in the west and the Pacific plate subduction and the push from the Philippine plate in the east, can still be seen as the key driving processes and the first-order controls for the crustal stress pattern. The South-North seismic zone can be seen as the separation zone for the western and eastern plate boundary forces. Topographic variation and faulting activity, however, provide second-order changes, and lead to local variations and different inhomogeneity scales for the stress pattern. Due to differences in these factors, Northeast China and the central part of the Tibetan plateau have notably homogeneous stress patterns, while the South-North seismic zone, the Hindu Kush-Pamir region, and the Taiwan region have extremely inhomogeneous stress patterns

  4. A global estimate of the Earth's magnetic crustal thickness (United States)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Thébault, Erwan


    The Earth's lithosphere is considered to be magnetic only down to the Curie isotherm. Therefore the Curie isotherm can, in principle, be estimated by analysis of magnetic data. Here, we propose such an analysis in the spectral domain by means of a newly introduced regional spatial power spectrum. This spectrum is based on the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) formalism (Thébault et al., 2006). We briefly discuss its properties and its relationship with the Spherical Harmonic spatial power spectrum. This relationship allows us to adapt any theoretical expression of the lithospheric field power spectrum expressed in Spherical Harmonic degrees to the regional formulation. We compared previously published statistical expressions (Jackson, 1994 ; Voorhies et al., 2002) to the recent lithospheric field models derived from the CHAMP and airborne measurements and we finally developed a new statistical form for the power spectrum of the Earth's magnetic lithosphere that we think provides more consistent results. This expression depends on the mean magnetization, the mean crustal thickness and a power law value that describes the amount of spatial correlation of the sources. In this study, we make a combine use of the R-SCHA surface power spectrum and this statistical form. We conduct a series of regional spectral analyses for the entire Earth. For each region, we estimate the R-SCHA surface power spectrum of the NGDC-720 Spherical Harmonic model (Maus, 2010). We then fit each of these observational spectra to the statistical expression of the power spectrum of the Earth's lithosphere. By doing so, we estimate the large wavelengths of the magnetic crustal thickness on a global scale that are not accessible directly from the magnetic measurements due to the masking core field. We then discuss these results and compare them to the results we obtained by conducting a similar spectral analysis, but this time in the cartesian coordinates, by means of a published

  5. Lower Crustal and Moho Reflections Beneath Mount St. Helens (United States)

    Levander, A.; Kiser, E.; Zelt, C. A.; Creager, K.; Ulberg, C. W.; Schmandt, B.; Hansen, S. M.; Abers, G. A.


    The multi-disciplinary project iMUSH (imaging Magma Under St. Helens) was designed to illuminate the magmatic system beneath Mount St Helens (MSH) from the subducting Juan de Fuca slab to the surface using seismic, magnetotelluric, and petrologic data. The iMUSH active source experiment consisted of 23 large shots and 6000 seismograph locations. Included in the active-source seismic experiment were 2 dense linear profiles striking NW-SE and NE-SW, each with over 1000 receivers ( 150 m spacing) and 8 shots. Using the 1D average velocity model around MSH determined from travel-time analysis (Kiser et al., 2016, Geology), we have common-midpoint stacked STA/LTA envelope functions from all of the data along the NW-SE profile. A number of bright reflection events in the CMP section show remarkably good correspondence with abrupt velocity changes that were imaged in the 2D travel-time analysis in the mid to lower crust and at the Moho: Reflections appear at 20-25 km depth at the tops of two lower crustal high velocity (Vp > 7.5 km/s) bodies. One of these high velocity bodies is directly beneath MSH. The other is 40 km SE of MSH, under the Indian Heaven volcanic field, a basaltic field last active 9 ka. We have interpreted the high velocity bodies as cumulates from Quaternary or Tertiary volcanism. Separating the two high Vp bodies is a lower velocity column (Vp ≤ 6.5 km/s) dipping to the SE from the midcrust to the Moho. In the CMP section, the Moho reflection is bright under the region of low velocity and dims beneath both of the high velocity lower crustal bodies. Seismicity associated with the 1980 eruption extended from the summit to 20 km depth, stopping just above the bright reflection at the top of the MSH high Vp body. Deep long period events under MSH, often associated with motion of magmatic fluids, cluster at 20-30 km depth along the southeastern edge of the same reflection. This leads us to suggest that lower crustal magmas migrate along the southeastern

  6. Constrained target controllability of complex networks (United States)

    Guo, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wei, Ze-Gang; Zeng, Tao; Liu, Fei; Zhang, Jingsong; Wu, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Luonan


    It is of great theoretical interest and practical significance to study how to control a system by applying perturbations to only a few driver nodes. Recently, a hot topic of modern network researches is how to determine driver nodes that allow the control of an entire network. However, in practice, to control a complex network, especially a biological network, one may know not only the set of nodes which need to be controlled (i.e. target nodes), but also the set of nodes to which only control signals can be applied (i.e. constrained control nodes). Compared to the general concept of controllability, we introduce the concept of constrained target controllability (CTC) of complex networks, which concerns the ability to drive any state of target nodes to their desirable state by applying control signals to the driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. To efficiently investigate the CTC of complex networks, we further design a novel graph-theoretic algorithm called CTCA to estimate the ability of a given network to control targets by choosing driver nodes from the set of constrained control nodes. We extensively evaluate the CTC of numerous real complex networks. The results indicate that biological networks with a higher average degree are easier to control than biological networks with a lower average degree, while electronic networks with a lower average degree are easier to control than web networks with a higher average degree. We also show that our CTCA can more efficiently produce driver nodes for target-controlling the networks than existing state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, we use our CTCA to analyze two expert-curated bio-molecular networks and compare to other state-of-the-art methods. The results illustrate that our CTCA can efficiently identify proven drug targets and new potentials, according to the constrained controllability of those biological networks.

  7. Constrains on the topography of the Moroccan High Atlas: Contribution of the SIMA (Seismic Imaging across the Moroccan Atlas) project (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Carbonell, R.; Teixell, A.; Kchikach, A.; Harnafi, M.; Marti, D.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; Arboleya, M. L.; Charroud, M.; Amrahr, M.


    The Atlas Mountain Range is a young intra-continental Cenozoic orogenic belt located at the southern edge of the diffuse plate boundary zone separating Africa and Europe. The Moroccan High Atlas, part of this range, features high topographies that locally exceed 4000 m. However, geological studies suggest that it has experienced low to moderate shortening. Furthermore, shortenning and elevation keep an inverse relationship: while shortening decreases to the west, elevation increases in the same direction. Geophysical studies support these interpretations with potential field models where crustal thickness never exceeds 40 km. These observations rise the question about the origin of the Atlas Mountains topography. If topography does not respond to isostatic equilibrium at a crustal level, then the mantle must be involved in this process. Potential field based multidisciplinary models suggest that an astenospheric upwelling place the mantle as shallow as 70 km and that it is this feature that helps to support the mountain load. The only uncertainty related to these models lies in the assumed crustal thickness: if it increased, the LAB would be displaced downwards and conversely. In order to picture the Moho topography and depth, and to constrain the seismic velocity structure of this mountain system, a 700 km long, seismic wide-angle reflection and refraction transect was acquired in 2010 by an international team. The north-south transect extends from the Sahara Desert south of Merzouga, to Ceuta at the Gibraltar arc, crossing the High and Middle Atlas and the Rif mountains. Seismic energy released at 6 shot points was generated by the detonation of 1 TN of explosives and was recorded by ~ 900 Reftek-125a seismic recorders from the IRIS-PASSCAL pool. Even with a low signal/noise ratio, the data allows the identification of crustal phases (Pg and PiP) and mantle reflected/refracted phases (PmP and Pn). Forward modeling pictures the Moho as an asymmetric feature that

  8. Dislocation model for aseismic crustal deformation at Hollister, California (United States)

    Matsuura, Mitsuhiro; Jackson, David D.; Cheng, Abe


    A model of crustal deformation during the interseismic phase is developed and applied (using the improved Bayesian inversion algorithm described by Jackson and Matsu'ura, 1985) to trilateration data for the USGS Hollister (CA) network. In the model, rigid blocks in motion relative to each other experience friction only in a brittle upper zone, while their ductile lower zones slide freely; the Hollister model comprises five blocks and nine rectangular fault patches. The data and results are presented in tables, graphs, and maps and characterized in detail. The model predicts steady block motion on time scales between 10 yr and 1 Myr, with net motion across the San Andreas/Calaveras fault system 38 + or - 3 mm/yr and brittle/ductile transition depths ranging from 0.4 to 11 km. Two San Andreas segments with higher probabilities of moderate-to-large earthquakes are identified.

  9. Moho depth and crustal composition in Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    heterogeneous crustal structure with short wavelength variations in thickness (H), Vp/Vs-ratio (composition), and Moho sharpness, which defines ~20 blocks that do not everywhere coincide with surface tectonic features. In the Zimbabwe Craton, the Tokwe block has H = 35–38 km and Vp/Vs = 1.74–1.79 whereas......-existing lower crust, which is further supported by a very sharp Moho transition. The exposed cross-section in the Vredefort impact crater is non-representative of cratonic crust due to shallowMoho (34 km) and high Vp/Vs ~ 1.80 attributed to shock metamorphism. High Vp/Vs = 1.76 is typical of the Witwatersrand...

  10. Kinematics of the Sierra Nevada and Oregon Crustal Blocks (United States)

    Vollick, J. J.; McCaffrey, R.; Sella, G.


    Northern California contains the intersection of the NW moving Sierra Nevada block and the clockwise rotating Oregon block. Adding to the tectonic complexity of the region are the interactions of the Pacific plate, Basin and Range, California Coast Ranges, Mendocino fracture zone, San Andreas fault and the Juan de Fuca plate. Our research focuses on how the interactions of these features influence the motions of the Oregon and Sierra Nevada blocks. We processed Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected during the 1998 and 1999 National Geodetic Survey High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) surveys and by us in 2003. Our preliminary analysis of the velocity field indicates that the Oregon crustal block is rotating clockwise relative to the Sierra Nevada block around a pole approximately west of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Our future work involves finding a more exact location of the relative pole rotation between the blocks, the degree of rotation, and how this motion is being taken up.

  11. Current knowledge on the crustal properties of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Morelli


    Full Text Available The recent advances in experimental petrography together with the information derived from the super-deep drilling projects have provided additional constraints for the interpretation of refraction and reflection seismic data. These constraints can also be used in the interpretation of magnetic and gravity data to resolve nonuniqueness. In this study, we re-interpret the magnetic and gravity data of the Italian peninsula and neighbouring areas. In view of the constraints mentioned above, it is now possible to find an agreement between the seismic and gravity models of the Central Alps. By taking into account the overall crustal thickness, we have recognized the existence of three types of Moho: 1 European which extends to the north and west of the peninsula and in the Corsican-Sardinian block. Its margin was the foreland in the Alpine Orogeny and it was the ramp on which European and Adriatic mantle and crustal slices were overthrusted. This additional load caused bending and deepening and the Moho which now lies beneath the Adriatic plate reaching a maximum depth of approximately 75 km. 2 Adriatic (or African which lies beneath the Po plain, the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea. The average depth of the Moho is about 30-35 km below the Po plain and the Adriatic Sea and it increases toward the Alps and the Tyrrhenian Sea (acting as foreland along this margin. The maximum depth (50 km is reached in Calabria. 3 Pery-Tyrrhenian. This is an oceanic or thinned continental crust type of Moho. It borders the oceanic Moho of the Tyrrhenian Sea and it acquires a transitional character in the Ligurian and Provençal basins (<15 km thickness while further thickening occurs toward the East where the Adriatic plate is overthrusted. In addition, the interpretation of the heat flow data appears to confirm the origin of this Moho and its geodynamic allocation.

  12. Crustal block movements from Holocene shorelines: Rhodes Island (Greece) (United States)

    Pirazzoli, P. A.; Montaggioni, L. F.; Saliège, J. F.; Segonzac, G.; Thommeret, Y.; Vergnaud-Grazzini, C.


    Signs of up to eight stepped Holocene shorelines, which have been reported in a previous study on the east coast of Rhodes Island, have been reinvestigated in detail on the basis of a new geomorphological survey, identification and petrological analysis of many new samples of exposed marine organic crusts and over 30 radiocarbon datings. Confirmation was obtained of the view that the island can be charactered by considering small crustal blocks up to a dozen kilometres long with each block being affected by a specific tectonic history, and a general trend towards an uplift increasing from south to north. Two successive phases of submergence-emergence have been revealed by petrogenetic sequences in many samples, which give evidence of the occurrence of positive and negative vertical movements. This implies possible rejuvenation effects of the later submergence phase on the apparent age of pre-existing algal crusts, and those have been taken into account and estimated. The most likely sequence of vertical crustal movements to have occurred has been specified for each block and a time range has been ascribed to each former shoreline. Independent up and down movements, increasing in amplitude from south to north, appear in most blocks. There is a recurrent periodicity varying from a few hundred to one or at most two thousand years. The largest vertical displacement observed during the late Holocene—a sudden uplift movement of about 3.8 m in the northernmost part of the island—is likely to be linked with the earthquake which destroyed the Colossus in 222 B.C.

  13. Effect of Varying Crustal Thickness on CHAMP Geopotential Data (United States)

    Taylor, P. T.; Kis, K. I.; vonFrese, R. R. B.; Korhonen, J. V.; Wittmann, G.; Kim, H. R.; Potts, L. V.


    To determine the effect of crustal thickness variation on satellite-altitude geopotential anomalies we compared two regions of Europe with vastly different values, Central/Southern Finland and the Pannonian Basin. Crustal thickness exceeds 62 km in Finland and is less than 26 km in the Pannonian Basin. Heat-flow maps indicate that the thinner and more active crust of the Pannonian Basin has a value nearly three times that of the Finnish Svecofennian Province. Ground based gravity mapping in Hungary shows that the free-air gravity anomalies across the Pannonian Basin are near 0 to +20 mGal with shorter wavelength anomalies from +40 to less than +60 mGal and some 0 to greater than -20 mGal. Larger anomalies are detected in the mountainous areas. The minor value anomalies can indicate the isostatic equilibrium for Hungary (the central part of the Pannonian Basin). Gravity data over Finland are complicated by de-glaciation. CHAMP gravity data (400 km) indicates a west-east positive gradient of greater than 4 mGal across Central/Southern Finland and an ovoid positive anomaly (approximately 4 mGal) quasi-coincidental with the magnetic anomaly traversing the Pannonian Basin. CHAMP magnetic data (425 km) reveal elongated semicircular negative anomalies for both regions with South-Central Finland having larger amplitude (less than -6 nT) than that over the Pannonian Basin, Hungary (less than -5 nT). In both regions subducted oceanic lithosphere has been proposed as the anomalous body.

  14. Crustal Velocity Structure of the Rio Grande Rift and Rocky Mountains from Local Earthquakes and Blasts Recorded by USArray and CREST (United States)

    Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Bilek, S. L.


    Arrival times from over 3,100 earthquakes and 2,800 mine blasts recorded at USArray Transportable Array (TA) and other regional broadband seismic stations are inverted to find the regional P and S velocity structure in Colorado and New Mexico. Knowledge of the crustal structure in Colorado will help inform to what extent this structure and composition influences the isostatic compensation of high topography in the region. The relationship between the Rio Grande rift and the surrounding physiographic provinces remains enigmatic, and neither the geology nor geophysical surveys have clearly resolved the rift in Colorado. Therefore, tomography may supply more information about velocity variations along the rift within the context of the Colorado Plateau, the Great Plains, and the Rocky Mountains. Thus far, applications with the TA data to resolve P wave crustal structure are rare due to distant station spacing and small magnitude and shallow (mid to upper crustal) local earthquakes. The depths of the earthquakes range from 4 km to the mid-crust, so we expect dense ray coverage in the upper crust. In order to increase the number of crossing rays, we use mine blast P wave arrivals to constrain shallow surface structure. A total of 70,000 P wave arrivals and 18,000 S wave arrivals constitute the dataset. We develop a reliable 1D regional velocity model using 500 of the largest earthquakes with a fixed Vp/Vs ratio from the arrival data, then use this model as an input to investigate the feasibility of utilization of a 3D inversion algorithm. While use of a 3D inversion algorithm will be explored, construction of a series of 1D velocity and Vp/Vs models may prove to be more robust.

  15. First results on the crustal structure of the Natal Valley from combined wide-angle and reflection seismic data (MOZ3/5 cruise), South Mozambique Margin. (United States)

    Leprêtre, Angélique; Verrier, Fanny; Evain, Mikael; Schnurle, Philippe; Watremez, Louise; Aslanian, Daniel; de Clarens, Philippe; Dias, Nuno; Afilhado, Alexandra; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Elia; Castilla, Raymi; Moulin, Maryline


    The Natal valley (South Mozambique margin) is a key area for the understanding of the SW Indian Ocean history since the Gondwana break-up, and widely, the structure of a margin system at the transition between divergent and strike-slip segments. As one part of the PAMELA project (PAssive Margins Exploration Laboratories), conducted by TOTAL, IFREMER, in collaboration with Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Université Rennes 1, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, CNRS et IFPEN, the Natal Valley and the East Limpopo margin have been explored during the MOZ3/5 cruise (2016), conducted onboard the R/V Pourquoi Pas?, through the acquisition of 7 wide-angle profiles and coincident marine multichannel (720 traces) seismic as well as potential field data. Simultaneously, land seismometers were deployed in the Mozambique coastal plains, extending six of those profiles on land for about 100 km in order to provide information on the onshore-offshore transition. Wide-angle seismic data are of major importance as they can provide constrains on the crustal structure of the margin and the position of the continent-ocean boundary in an area where the crustal nature is poorly known and largely controversial. The aim of this work is to present the first results on the crustal structure from P-waves velocity modeling along two perpendicular MZ1 & MZ7 wide-angle profiles crossing the Natal Valley in an E-W and NNW-SSE direction respectively, which reveal a crust up to 30 km thick below the Natal Valley and thus raises questions of a purely oceanic origin of the Valley. The post-doc of Angélique Leprêtre is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project.

  16. Late Cenozoic extension and crustal doming in the India-Eurasia collision zone: New thermochronologic constraints from the NE Chinese Pamir (United States)

    Thiede, Rasmus C.; Sobel, Edward R.; Chen, Jie; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Sudo, Masafumi; Strecker, Manfred R.


    northward motion of the Pamir indenter with respect to Eurasia has resulted in coeval thrusting, strike-slip faulting, and normal faulting. The eastern Pamir is currently deformed by east-west oriented extension, accompanied by uplift and exhumation of the Kongur Shan (7719 m) and Muztagh Ata (7546 m) gneiss domes. Both domes are an integral part of the footwall of the Kongur Shan extensional fault system (KES), a 250 km long, north-south oriented graben. Why active normal faulting within the Pamir is primarily localized along the KES and not distributed more widely throughout the orogen has remained unclear. In addition, relatively little is known about how deformation has evolved throughout the Cenozoic, despite refined estimates on present-day crustal deformation rates and microseismicity, which indicate where crustal deformation is presently being accommodated. To better constrain the spatiotemporal evolution of faulting along the KES, we present 39 new apatite fission track, zircon U-Th-Sm/He, and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages from a series of footwall transects along the KES graben shoulder. Combining these data with present-day topographic relief, 1-D thermokinematic and exhumational modeling documents successive stages, rather than synchronous deformation and gneiss dome exhumation. While the exhumation of the Kongur Shan commenced during the late Miocene, extensional processes in the Muztagh Ata massif began earlier and have slowed down since the late Miocene. We present a new model of synorogenic extension suggesting that thermal and density effects associated with a lithospheric tear fault along the eastern margin of the subducting Alai slab localize extensional upper plate deformation along the KES and decouple crustal motion between the central/western Pamir and eastern Pamir/Tarim basin.

  17. Constraining dike emplacement conditions from virtual outcrop modelling (United States)

    Jørgen Kjøll, Hans; Andersen, Torgeir; Tegner, Christian


    3 km) in the, now tilted, cross-sections. The outcrops and mountain cliffs have been thoroughly photographed using a UAV and helicopter. 3-dimensional digital outcrop models have been prepared and interpreted together with outcrop observations. The new data give new insight into dike emplacement mechanisms, which in turn provide better constraints for the ambient conditions during emplacement of the dikes. Our regional observations support previous interpretations, that the BDS represented the distal parts of a magma-rich passive margin and the ocean-continent transition. Such tectonic domains are rarely exposed and available for direct observation and the study area in the North Scandinavian Caledonides, therefore represents a unique opportunity to better constrain the conditions during continental break-up as well as the infra-crustal dike emplacement mechanisms at divergent plate margins.

  18. Crustal uplift of the Precambrian cratons due to metamorphism in crustal rocks under infiltration of mantle fluids (United States)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergey; Massonne, Hans-Joachim


    Precambrian cratons cover about 70% of the total area of the continents. During the last several million years cratonic areas underwent rapid uplift, from 100-200 m in East Europe to 1000-1500 m Southern Africa. Shortening of the Precambrian crust terminated half a billion years ago or earlier and this popular mechanism cannot be applied to its recent uplift. Large thickness of cratonic mantle lithosphere, 100-200 km in most regions, together with its low density precludes delamination of this layer and magmatic underplating as possible causes of recent uplift. It cannot be precluded that in some cratonic regions recent uplift occurred due to delamination of the lower part of mantle lithosphere with the density increased by metasomatism. Even a small uplift of ≥ 100-200 m would require delamination of a thick layer of mantle lithosphere. As a result a temperature drop of > 200 C would arise at the base of the lithosphere producing a shear wave velocities drop of > 2%. According to the seismic tomography data such a drop in VS is observed only in some regions with the Precambrian lithosphere, e.g., in Northeastern Africa. Spatial distribution of the Precambrian cratons is quite different from that predicted by the main models of dynamic topography in the mantle. Moreover, many uplifted blocks are bounded by steep slopes hundreds of meters to one kilometer high and only tens of kilometers wide. Such slopes could not have been formed by bending of thick cratonic lithosphere under the forces acting from below. Their recent formation indicates rock expansion within the crust at shallow depth comparable with the slope width. Rocks formed at the pressure P ˜ 0.5-1.0 GPa are widespread on the Precambrian cratons. This indicates that during their lifetime a layer of rocks ˜ 15-30 km thick has been removed from the crustal surface by denudation. As a result rocks which were initially located in the lower crust emerged to the middle or upper crust. Due to metamorphic

  19. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen


    as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far......-cognitive view, peer-review constrains knowledge-making by writers, editors, reviewers. Authors are prompted to recursively re-aggregate symbolizations to present what are deemed acceptable knowledge claims. How, then, can recursive re-embodiment be explored? In illustration, I sketch how the paper’s own content...

  20. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen


    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  1. A constrained supersymmetric left-right model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, Martin [AHEP Group, Instituto de Física Corpuscular - C.S.I.C./Universitat de València, Edificio de Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 València (Spain); Krauss, Manuel E. [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Porod, Werner [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astronomie, Universität Würzburg,Emil-Hilb-Weg 22, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Staub, Florian [Theory Division, CERN,1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)


    We present a supersymmetric left-right model which predicts gauge coupling unification close to the string scale and extra vector bosons at the TeV scale. The subtleties in constructing a model which is in agreement with the measured quark masses and mixing for such a low left-right breaking scale are discussed. It is shown that in the constrained version of this model radiative breaking of the gauge symmetries is possible and a SM-like Higgs is obtained. Additional CP-even scalars of a similar mass or even much lighter are possible. The expected mass hierarchies for the supersymmetric states differ clearly from those of the constrained MSSM. In particular, the lightest down-type squark, which is a mixture of the sbottom and extra vector-like states, is always lighter than the stop. We also comment on the model’s capability to explain current anomalies observed at the LHC.

  2. Doubly Constrained Robust Blind Beamforming Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Song


    Full Text Available We propose doubly constrained robust least-squares constant modulus algorithm (LSCMA to solve the problem of signal steering vector mismatches via the Bayesian method and worst-case performance optimization, which is based on the mismatches between the actual and presumed steering vectors. The weight vector is iteratively updated with penalty for the worst-case signal steering vector by the partial Taylor-series expansion and Lagrange multiplier method, in which the Lagrange multipliers can be optimally derived and incorporated at each step. A theoretical analysis for our proposed algorithm in terms of complexity cost, convergence performance, and SINR performance is presented in this paper. In contrast to the linearly constrained LSCMA, the proposed algorithm provides better robustness against the signal steering vector mismatches, yields higher signal captive performance, improves greater array output SINR, and has a lower computational cost. The simulation results confirm the superiority of the proposed algorithm on beampattern control and output SINR enhancement.

  3. Subducting continental lower crust and crustal thickness variations in the intermediate seismic zone of Pamir-Hindu Kush inferred from Moho underside reflection pmP (United States)

    He, Hangqi; Pan, Fa-Bin; Chen, Hanlin; Zhang, Yujia; Zheng, Xin; He, Xiaobo


    The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is an orogenic belt which formed as a result of recent continental collision between the Indian and Eurasian Plates. A comprehensive understanding of the tectonic history of this region has been hampered due to limited seismological investigations. In this study, we use the Moho underside reflection pmP phase to constrain crustal thickness variations in the intermediate-depth seismic zone (36-37°N, 69-72°E). The seismic events characterized by focal depth deeper than 100 km and magnitude > 5.8 (Mw) were used. The crustal thickness was determined by identifying the depth phase pP and the Moho underside reflection pmP. The measured thickness varies spatially from 58.1 to 76.2 km, with uncertainties most likely resulting from deviation of the average P-wave velocities ( 6.21 km/s with a deviation of 0.22 km/s) in the crust. The strong Moho depth variations imply a large structural deformation of the crust, which reflects a complex collision-related mountain building history. We also detected two strong reflections from deep interfaces down to 97 km underneath the southernmost Pamir. Based on our direct observations and waveform modeling, we interpret that the two reflections are possibly the manifestations of the underplating subducted Eurasian lower crust in this region. Our observations complement those of other seismic results, including receiver functions from previous studies.

  4. Constraining RRc candidates using SDSS colours


    Bányai, E.; Plachy, E.; Molnár, L.; Dobos, L.; Szabó, R.


    The light variations of first-overtone RR Lyrae stars and contact eclipsing binaries can be difficult to distinguish. The Catalina Periodic Variable Star catalog contains several misclassified objects, despite the classification efforts by Drake et al. (2014). They used metallicity and surface gravity derived from spectroscopic data (from the SDSS database) to rule out binaries. Our aim is to further constrain the catalog using SDSS colours to estimate physical parameters for stars that did n...

  5. Analysing Cinematography with Embedded Constrained Patterns


    Wu, Hui-Yin; Christie, Marc


    International audience; Cinematography carries messages on the plot, emotion, or more general feeling of the film. Yet cinematographic devices are often overlooked in existing approaches to film analysis. In this paper, we present Embedded Constrained Patterns (ECPs), a dedicated query language to search annotated film clips for sequences that fulfill complex stylistic constraints. ECPs are groups of framing and sequencing constraints defined using vocabulary in film textbooks. Using a set al...

  6. Constraining neutron star matter with Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Schaffner-Bielich, Jurgen; Vuorinen, Aleksi


    In recent years, there have been several successful attempts to constrain the equation of state of neutron star matter using input from low-energy nuclear physics and observational data. We demonstrate that significant further restrictions can be placed by additionally requiring the pressure to approach that of deconfined quark matter at high densities. Remarkably, the new constraints turn out to be highly insensitive to the amount --- or even presence --- of quark matter inside the stars.

  7. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos


    Given a point set P of customers (e.g., WiFi receivers) and a point set Q of service providers (e.g., wireless access points), where each q 2 Q has a capacity q.k, the capacity constrained assignment (CCA) is a matching M Q × P such that (i) each point q 2 Q (p 2 P) appears at most k times (at most...

  8. Phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction. (United States)

    Willig-Onwuachi, Jacob D; Yeh, Ernest N; Grant, Aaron K; Ohliger, Michael A; McKenzie, Charles A; Sodickson, Daniel K


    A generalized method for phase-constrained parallel MR image reconstruction is presented that combines and extends the concepts of partial-Fourier reconstruction and parallel imaging. It provides a framework for reconstructing images employing either or both techniques and for comparing image quality achieved by varying k-space sampling schemes. The method can be used as a parallel image reconstruction with a partial-Fourier reconstruction built in. It can also be used with trajectories not readily handled by straightforward combinations of partial-Fourier and SENSE-like parallel reconstructions, including variable-density, and non-Cartesian trajectories. The phase constraint specifies a better-conditioned inverse problem compared to unconstrained parallel MR reconstruction alone. This phase-constrained parallel MRI reconstruction offers a one-step alternative to the standard combination of homodyne and SENSE reconstructions with the added benefit of flexibility of sampling trajectory. The theory of the phase-constrained approach is outlined, and its calibration requirements and limitations are discussed. Simulations, phantom experiments, and in vivo experiments are presented.

  9. Constrained Multi-View Video Face Clustering. (United States)

    Cao, Xiaochun; Zhang, Changqing; Zhou, Chengju; Fu, Huazhu; Foroosh, Hassan


    In this paper, we focus on face clustering in videos. To promote the performance of video clustering by multiple intrinsic cues, i.e., pairwise constraints and multiple views, we propose a constrained multi-view video face clustering method under a unified graph-based model. First, unlike most existing video face clustering methods which only employ these constraints in the clustering step, we strengthen the pairwise constraints through the whole video face clustering framework, both in sparse subspace representation and spectral clustering. In the constrained sparse subspace representation, the sparse representation is forced to explore unknown relationships. In the constrained spectral clustering, the constraints are used to guide for learning more reasonable new representations. Second, our method considers both the video face pairwise constraints as well as the multi-view consistence simultaneously. In particular, the graph regularization enforces the pairwise constraints to be respected and the co-regularization penalizes the disagreement among different graphs of multiple views. Experiments on three real-world video benchmark data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of our method over the state-of-the-art methods.

  10. An English language interface for constrained domains (United States)

    Page, Brenda J.


    The Multi-Satellite Operations Control Center (MSOCC) Jargon Interpreter (MJI) demonstrates an English language interface for a constrained domain. A constrained domain is defined as one with a small and well delineated set of actions and objects. The set of actions chosen for the MJI is from the domain of MSOCC Applications Executive (MAE) Systems Test and Operations Language (STOL) directives and contains directives for signing a cathode ray tube (CRT) on or off, calling up or clearing a display page, starting or stopping a procedure, and controlling history recording. The set of objects chosen consists of CRTs, display pages, STOL procedures, and history files. Translation from English sentences to STOL directives is done in two phases. In the first phase, an augmented transition net (ATN) parser and dictionary are used for determining grammatically correct parsings of input sentences. In the second phase, grammatically typed sentences are submitted to a forward-chaining rule-based system for interpretation and translation into equivalent MAE STOL directives. Tests of the MJI show that it is able to translate individual clearly stated sentences into the subset of directives selected for the prototype. This approach to an English language interface may be used for similarly constrained situations by modifying the MJI's dictionary and rules to reflect the change of domain.

  11. Sensing the earth crustal deformation with nano-strain resolution fiber-optic sensors. (United States)

    Liu, Qingwen; He, Zuyuan; Tokunaga, Tomochika


    Crustal deformation measurement with a high resolution on the order of nano-strains in static to low frequency region is required for geophysical research. Optical fiber sensors are very attractive in this research field due to their unique advantages including high resolution, small size and easy deployment. In this paper, a fiber optic strain sensor with nano-strain-resolution and large measurement range for sensing the earth crustal deformation is reported. With this sensor the tide induced crustal deformation and the seismic wave were successfully recorded in field experiments.

  12. Crustal and deep seismicity in Italy (30 years after

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Selvaggi


    Full Text Available The first modern studies of seismicity in Italy date back to the late 60's and early 70's. Although with a sparse seismic network available and only a few telemetered short-period stations, significant studies were carried out that outlined the main features of Italian seismicity (see, e.g., Boschi et al., 1969. Among these studies, one of the most important achievements was the reconnaissance of a Wadati-Benioff zone in Southern Tyrrhenian, described for the first time in detail in the papers of Caputo et al.(1970, 1973. Today, after three decades of more and more detailed seismological monitoring of the Italian region and tens of thousands earthquakes located since then, the knowledge of the earthquake generation processes in our country is much improved, although some of the conclusions reached in these early papers still hold. These improvements were made possible by the efforts of many institutions and seismologists who have been working hard to bring seismological research in Italy to standards of absolute quality, under the pivoting role of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica (ING. From the relocation of about 30000 crustal earthquakes and detailed studies on intermediate and deep shocks carried out in the last few years, we show that seismic release in peninsular Italy is only weakly related to the Africa-Eurasia convergence, but rather is best explained by the existence of two separate subduction/collision arcs (Northern Apennines and Southern Apennines-Calabria-Sicily. The width of the deforming belt running along peninsular Italy is 30 to 60 km, it is broader in the north than in the south, and the two arcs are separated by a region of more distributed deformation and stress rotations in the Central Apennines. Along the belt, the reconnaissance of regions of continuous and weak release of seismic energy, adjacent to fault areas which are currently «locked» (and therefore are the best candidates for future earthquakes is another

  13. The crystal's view of upper-crustal magma reservoirs (United States)

    Cooper, K. M.; Kent, A. J.; Huber, C.; Stelten, M. E.; Rubin, A. E.; Schrecengost, K.


    Upper-crustal magma reservoirs are important sites of magma mixing, crustal refining, and magma storage. Crystals residing in these reservoirs have been shown to represent valuable archives of the chemical and physical evolution of reservoirs, and the time scales of this evolution. This presentation addresses the question of "What do crystals "see" and record about processes within the upper crust? And how is that view similar or different between plutonic and volcanic records?" Three general observations emerge from study of the ages of crystals, combined with crystal-scale geochemical data: 1) Patterns of isotopic and trace-element data over time in zircon crystals from a given magmatic system (e.g., Yellowstone, WY, and Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand) can show systematic changes in the degree of heterogeneity, consistent with extraction of melts from a long-lived (up to 100s of kyr), heterogeneous crystal mush and in some cases continued crystallization and homogenization of the magma during a short period (eruption. 2) Thermal histories of magma storage derived from crystal records also show that the vast majority of time recorded by major phases was spent in storage as a crystal mush, perhaps at near-solidus conditions. 3) Comparison of ages of accessory phases in both plutonic blocks and host magmas that brought them to the surface do not show a consistent relationship between the two. In some cases, zircons from plutonic blocks have age spectra much older than zircon in the host magma. In other cases, host and plutonic block zircons have similar age spectra and chemical characteristics, suggesting a closer genetic connection between the two. These observations suggest that crystals in plutonic bodies, if examined at similar spatial and temporal scales to those in volcanic rocks, would show records that are highly heterogeneous in chemistry and age on the scale of a pluton or a lobe of a pluton, but that local regions of limited chemical and age variability

  14. Fluvial archives, a valuable record of vertical crustal deformation (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Mather, A.; Whittaker, A.


    The study of drainage network response to uplift is important not only for understanding river system dynamics and associated channel properties and fluvial landforms, but also for identifying the nature of crustal deformation and its history. In recent decades, geomorphic analysis of rivers has proved powerful in elucidating the tectonic evolution of actively uplifting and eroding orogens. Here, we review the main recent developments that have improved and expanded qualitative and quantitative information about vertical tectonic motions (the effects of horizontal deformation are not addressed). Channel long profiles have received considerable attention in the literature, and we briefly introduce basic aspects of the behaviour of bedrock rivers from field and numerical modelling perspectives, before describing the various metrics that have been proposed to identify the information on crustal deformation contained within their steady-state characteristics. Then, we review the literature dealing with the transient response of rivers to tectonic perturbation, through the production of knickpoints propagating through the drainage network. Inverse modelling of river profiles for uplift in time and space is also shown to be very effective in reconstructing regional tectonic histories. Finally, we present a synthetic morphometric approach for deducing the tectonic record of fluvial landscapes. As well as the erosional imprint of tectonic forcing, sedimentary deposits, such as fluvial terrace staircases, are also considered as a classical component of tectonic geomorphology. We show that these studies have recently benefited from rapid advances in dating techniques, allowing more reliable reconstruction of incision histories and estimation of incision rates. The combination of progress in the understanding of transient river profiles and larger, more rigorous data sets of terrace ages has led to improved understanding of river erosion and the implications for terrace

  15. A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow (United States)

    Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel


    Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude

  16. Coseismic and postseismic slip ruptures for 2015 Mw 6.4 Pishan earthquake constrained by static GPS solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping He


    Full Text Available On 3 July 2015, a Mw 6.4 earthquake occurred on a blind fault struck Pishan, Xinjiang, China. By combining Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC and other Static Global Positioning System (GPS sites surrounding Pishan region, it provides a rare chance for us to constrain the slip rupture for such a moderate event. The maximum displacement is up to 12 cm, 2 cm for coseismic and postseismic deformation, respectively, and both the deformation patterns show a same direction moving northeastward. With rectangular dislocation model, a magnitude of Mw6.48, Mw6.3 is calculated based on coseismic, postseismic deformation respectively. Our result indicates the western Kunlun range is still moving toward Tarim Basin followed by an obvious postseismic slip associated with this earthquake. To determine a more reasonable model for postseismic deformation, a longer GPS dataset will be needed.

  17. Constraining Early Cenozoic exhumation of the British Isles with vertical profile modelling (United States)

    Doepke, Daniel; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David


    Despite decades of research is the Early Cenozoic exhumation history of Ireland and Britain still poorly understood and subject to contentious debate (e.g., Davis et al., 2012 and subsequent comments). One reason for this debate is the difficultly of constraining the evolution of onshore parts of the British Isles in both time and space. The paucity of Mesozoic and Cenozoic onshore outcrops makes direct analysis of this time span difficult. Furthermore, Ireland and Britain are situated at a passive margin, where the amount of post-rift exhumation is generally very low. Classical thermochronological tools are therefore near the edge of their resolution and make precise dating of post-rift cooling events challenging. In this study we used the established apatite fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He techniques, but took advantage of the vertical profile approach of Gallagher et al. (2005) implemented in the QTQt modelling package (Gallagher, 2012), to better constrain the thermal histories. This method allowed us to define the geographical extent of a Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling event and to show that it was centered around the Irish Sea. Thus, we argue that this cooling event is linked to the underplating of hot material below the crust centered on the Irish Sea (Jones et al., 2002; Al-Kindi et al., 2003), and demonstrate that such conclusion would have been harder, if not impossible, to draw by modelling the samples individually without the use of the vertical profile approach. References Al-Kindi, S., White, N., Sinha, M., England, R., and Tiley, R., 2003, Crustal trace of a hot convective sheet: Geology, v. 31, no. 3, p. 207-210. Davis, M.W., White, N.J., Priestley, K.F., Baptie, B.J., and Tilmann, F.J., 2012, Crustal structure of the British Isles and its epeirogenic consequences: Geophysical Journal International, v. 190, no. 2, p. 705-725. Jones, S.M., White, N., Clarke, B.J., Rowley, E., and Gallagher, K., 2002, Present and past influence of the Iceland

  18. Cascading Constrained 2-D Arrays using Periodic Merging Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby


    We consider a method for designing 2-D constrained codes by cascading finite width arrays using predefined finite width periodic merging arrays. This provides a constructive lower bound on the capacity of the 2-D constrained code. Examples include symmetric RLL and density constrained codes...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3780 - Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3780 Wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (a) Identification. A wrist joint polymer constrained prosthesis is a device made of...

  20. Constraints on the Venusian crustal thickness variations in the isostatic stagnant lid approximation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orth, C. P; Solomatov, V. S


    .... Here we assume that the remaining discrepancy between the observed and model geoid is due to crustal thickness variations and that the crust, the lithosphere and the mantle are in a state of double...

  1. The influence of crustal radioactivity on mantle convection and lithospheric thickness on Mars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiefer, Walter S


    ... . In an important new paper, Plesa et al. (2016, doi: 10.1002/2016JE005126 ) have assessed how these variations in crustal thickness and heat flow affect the spatial pattern of convection in the Martian mantle...

  2. Displaced terranes and crustal evolution of the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Ginzburg, Avihu


    Geophysical data from the Levant and the eastern Mediterranean suggest that this area can be divided into distinct crustal units of different origins. For example, a marked difference in crustal structure and structural style exists in the Levant between Samaria and Judea, south of the Carmel structure, and the Galilee and Lebanon, north of it. On the other hand, several microcontinental fragments such as Cyprus, and the Eratosthenes and Anaximander Seamounts are embedded within the oceanic crust of the eastern Mediterranean. The present location of these units has resulted from complex tectonic processes which were active during the mid Paleozoic-Mesozoic evolution of this area. During this period several crustal units were accreted to the northern margin of Africa while others were detached away from it. The crustal evolution of the eastern Mediterranean and the Levant is intimately linked with the closure of the Paleo-Tethys, the formation of the Neo-Tethys, and its subsequent closure.

  3. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Plasma Interaction with Lunar Crustal Magnetic Anomalies (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.


    We present results from a kinetic plasma simulation on the interaction of ambient plasma with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. We discuss implications of this work for physical phenomena at the Moon, such as lunar swirls and proton implantation.

  4. A New System for Understanding Mid-crustal Sheeted Complexes in a Tilted Crustal Section, Joshua Tree National Park, California (United States)

    Ianno, A. J.; Paterson, S. R.


    The western portion of Joshua Tree National Park exposes a tilted crustal section through continental arc crust from 0-30 km. A significant portion of the middle crust is represented by Mesozoic, tabular, intrusive, igneous bodies ranging from 0.1 to 100 m in thickness. While these igneous bodies range in composition (gabbro to peraluminous granites), texture (equigranular to porphyritic), and grain size (very fine to coarse), patterns emerge between different regions of "sheeted complexes" that may be related to their emplacement and geochemical history. No consistent method of describing and comparing sheeted complexes exists in the literature, so we have developed a method of classifying sheeted complexes at Joshua Tree NP, which may be broadly applicable to all sheeted bodies. We classify these sheeted complexes using the terms homogeneous/heterogeneous and focused/defocused. A homogeneous sheeted complex generally contains magmas within a 10 wt% SiO2 range, although we are still testing the validity of this number. A focused sheeted complex has adjacent sheets or close spacing between sheets and Jurassic to Cretaceous sheeted complexes in western Joshua Tree NP. At Keys View, we observe a heterogeneous, spatially focused sheeted complex with 0.1-2 m thick sheets recording pressures indicating 15-22 km depth from top to bottom. Compositions range from gabbro to peraluminous granite, although tonalites-granodiorites and two-mica garnet granites are volumetrically dominant. A zone of elongate plutons (in map view) lying structurally above this could potentially be considered as a very thickly sheeted, homogeneous, focused sheeted complex and is composed of granodiorites, granites, and two-mica garnet granites. A more thickly sheeted (2-10 m), homogeneous, focused, sheeted granite complex with pressures indicating a depth of approximately 12 km is found along the northern edge of the park. The number of sheets decreases and the average thickness increases as this

  5. Decrease in oceanic crustal thickness since the breakup of Pangaea (United States)

    van Avendonk, Harm J. A.; Davis, Joshua K.; Harding, Jennifer L.; Lawver, Lawrence A.


    Earth's mantle has cooled by 6-11 °C every 100 million years since the Archaean, 2.5 billion years ago. In more recent times, the surface heat loss that led to this temperature drop may have been enhanced by plate-tectonic processes, such as continental breakup, the continuous creation of oceanic lithosphere at mid-ocean ridges and subduction at deep-sea trenches. Here we use a compilation of marine seismic refraction data from ocean basins globally to analyse changes in the thickness of oceanic crust over time. We find that oceanic crust formed in the mid-Jurassic, about 170 million years ago, is 1.7 km thicker on average than crust produced along the present-day mid-ocean ridge system. If a higher mantle temperature is the cause of thicker Jurassic ocean crust, the upper mantle may have cooled by 15-20 °C per 100 million years over this time period. The difference between this and the long-term mantle cooling rate indeed suggests that modern plate tectonics coincide with greater mantle heat loss. We also find that the increase of ocean crustal thickness with plate age is stronger in the Indian and Atlantic oceans compared with the Pacific Ocean. This observation supports the idea that upper mantle temperature in the Jurassic was higher in the wake of the fragmented supercontinent Pangaea due to the effect of continental insulation.

  6. Anomalous crustal movements before great Wenchuan earthquake observed by GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Guohua


    Full Text Available Studies of GPS data carried out before and after the great Wenchuan earthquake of Ms8.0 on May 12, 2008 show that anomalous crustal movements occurred before the earthquake. Data from 4 pre-earthquake observation sessions at a dense network of stations show that there were prominent broad-ranged long- and mid-term anomalies in horizontal displacements and strain and in vertical displacements. Data from the fewer-numbered reference stations of continuous GPS observations since 1999 in West and South China showed short-term preseismic anomalies in horizontal displacements. The detection of co-seismic horizontal displacements at these stations supports the existence of the pre-earthquake anomalies. Results of single-epoch solutions of data from continuous-observation stations near the epicenter also show large imminent anomalies in vertical displacements. Although the Wenchuan earthquake was not predicted, these results give a strong indication that GPS should be the main observation technique for long-term, mid-term, short-term and imminent earthquake predictions.

  7. Maps of North American crustal stability and geothermal potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, R.W.


    A three-year program of analysis of crustal movements in North America was planned with the objective of preparing a series of 1 = 5 million scale maps depicting relative stability/instability. The part of the proposal completed during the first year is described; much of this first year's work was preparatory. Three time scales were considered for the data analysis: 1 - 10/sup 2/ yr., 10/sup 4/ yr., and 10/sup 8/ yr. Significant differences in sign and rate were suspected between short and long-term motions and these are now confirmed. The first part of the program is now complete. It consisted of two principal activities: (a) data collection for the short and mid-term scales on a U.S.-wide basis, excluding Alaska and Hawaii (all of this material has been reduced to compatible computer language and is stored on tape ready for further study, analysis and final cartography); (b) map and data analysis of the long-term scale with a completed draft map, applied specifically to the Mid-West and eastern U.S.

  8. Present three-dimensional crustal deformation in Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yaxuan


    Full Text Available Hainan Island, located at the southeast edge of the Eurasian Plate, is affected by the motion of multiple plates, with its northeast edge mainly dilatating and its western margin presently compressing. By analyzing the GPS rates during 1999 – 2007 in Hainan and its adjacent region, we determined horizontal movement rates of 3. 0–21. 1 mm/a at the west of 104°E, evidently affected by the Indian Plate extrusion. Their directions are SE-SN-SW from east to west and are separated by the main fault. The principal strains have the same characteristics. The stations east of 104°E move mainly in the SEE direction. The eastward rates are 2. 1–8. 5 mm/a and northward rates are 0. 4–2. 7 mm/a. The GPS rates during 2009–2013 show that stations at the edge of the island move SEE relative to the Eurasian Plate, with rates relative to the mean benchmark, indicating that there are small relative movements between stations, whereas QION station, located in the middle, moves in the NW direction at a greater rate. Vertical differential movement is apparent in the northeast zone of the island. Upwelling of mantle plume material possibly influences the local stress. Three-dimensional GPS rates indicate that, at present, inherited crustal movement is dominant in Hainan.

  9. Charged particles constrained to a curved surface

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas


    We study the motion of charged particles constrained to arbitrary two-dimensional curved surfaces but interacting in three-dimensional space via the Coulomb potential. To speed-up the interaction calculations, we use the parallel compute capability of the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of todays graphics boards. The particles and the curved surfaces are shown using the Open Graphics Library (OpenGL). The paper is intended to give graduate students, who have basic experiences with electrostatics and differential geometry, a deeper understanding in charged particle interactions and a short introduction how to handle a many particle system using parallel computing on a single home computer


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Azarskov


    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper deals with adaptive regulation of a discrete-time linear time-invariant plant witharbitrary bounded disturbances whose control input is constrained to lie within certain limits. The adaptivecontrol algorithm exploits the one-step-ahead control strategy and the gradient projection type estimationprocedure using the modified dead zone. The convergence property of the estimation algorithm is shown tobe ensured. The sufficient conditions guaranteeing the global asymptotical stability and simultaneously thesuboptimality of the closed-loop systems are derived. Numerical examples and simulations are presented tosupport the theoretical results.

  11. Gulf Coast Subsidence: Crustal Loading, Geodesy, and Recent InSAR and UAVSAR Observations (United States)

    Blom, R. G.; Dokka, R. K.; Fielding, E. J.; Hawkins, B. P.; Hensley, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Jones, C. E.; Lohman, R. B.; Zheng, Y.


    The vulnerability of the Gulf Coast has received increasing attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. A quantitative geophysical basis for measuring, predicting, and understanding subsidence rates, their geographic distribution, and temporal variability, is necessary for long term protection of lives and property in addition to being a challenging scientific problem. Analysis of historical and continuing geodetic measurements identifies a surprising degree of complexity in subsidence, including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered during planning for hurricane protection of New Orleans and other population centers (, and for coastal restoration planning for coastal Louisiana ( (Dokka, 2011, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008). Meanwhile, traditional geodetic data provide precise information at single points, InSAR observations provide geographically dense constraints on surface deformation. Available radar data sources include C and L band satellite, and NASA/JPL airborne UAVSAR L band data. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. The shorter wavelength C band data decorrelates over short time periods necessitating more elaborate analysis techniques. We have early results from new persistent scatterer methods and masking techniques to eliminate areas affected by water level changes, all applied to C-band satellite radar data. Limited L-Band ALOS/PALSAR satellite data are available for analysis using conventional interferometry, unfortunately this Japanese satellite system recently failed. Most importantly, we now have airborne UAVSAR repeat pass interferometry data sets spanning a total interval of 514 days ( These data can constrain geophysical models of crustal behavior, leading to

  12. Estimating gravity changes caused by crustal strain: application to the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Yin, Zhi; Xu, Caijun


    Temporal gravimetry is an efficient tool for monitoring mass transfers, but distinguishing the contribution of each process to the measured signals is challenging. Few effective methods have been developed to estimate the changes in gravity caused by crustal strain for large-scale geophysical problems. To fill this research gap, we proposed a formula that describes a negative linear correlation between changes in gravity and crustal dilatational strain. Surface observations of gravity changes and dilatational strains were simulated using PSGRN/PSCMP, which is a numerical code used to calculate the surface response to fault dislocations, and the accuracy of the formula was quantitatively verified. Four parameters are required for this formula: the crustal dilatational strain, the crustal density, the Moho depth, and a coefficient that characterizes the degree of crust-mantle coupling. To illustrate the application of this new method to a natural case study, including specifying the values of the necessary parameters, the crustal strain-caused gravity changes (CSGCs) were calculated at 1° × 1° grid nodes over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The CSGC model shows that most of the crust of the TP is undergoing extension, which generates negative gravity signals. The magnitude of the Tibetan CSGC model is approximately 0.2 μGal yr-1, which is similar to the results obtained from numerical modelling of the crustal tectonics of the Taiwanese Orogen. To evaluate the reliability of the Tibetan CSGC model, the uncertainties in the crustal dilatational strain, crustal density, Moho depth, and crust-mantle coupling factor were evaluated and then used to estimate the CSGC uncertainty by applying the error propagation law. The CSGC model was used to analyse the mass transfers of the TP. The results suggest that a significant mass accumulation process may be occurring beneath the crust of the northern TP.

  13. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent (United States)

    Carmichael, R. S.


    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  14. Seismic evidence for widespread western-US deep-crustal deformation caused by extension (United States)

    Moschetti, M.P.; Ritzwoller, M.H.; Lin, F.; Yang, Y.


    Laboratory experiments have established that many of the materials comprising the Earth are strongly anisotropic in terms of seismic-wave speeds. Observations of azimuthal and radial anisotropy in the upper mantle are attributed to the lattice-preferred orientation of olivine caused by the shear strains associated with deformation, and provide some of the most direct evidence for deformation and flow within the Earths interior. Although observations of crustal radial anisotropy would improve our understanding of crustal deformation and flow patterns resulting from tectonic processes, large-scale observations have been limited to regions of particularly thick crust. Here we show that observations from ambient noise tomography in the western United States reveal strong deep (middle to lower)-crustal radial anisotropy that is confined mainly to the geological provinces that have undergone significant extension during the Cenozoic Era (since 65 Myr ago). The coincidence of crustal radial anisotropy with the extensional provinces of the western United States suggests that the radial anisotropy results from the lattice-preferred orientation of anisotropic crustal minerals caused by extensional deformation. These observations also provide support for the hypothesis that the deep crust within these regions has undergone widespread and relatively uniform strain in response to crustal thinning and extension. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Detrital zircon geochronology of lower to mid-crustal rocks associated with a microplate-continent collision, NW Argentina (United States)

    Austin, L. J.; Roeske, S.; Garber, J. M.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q.


    New LA-ICPMS U-Pb detrital zircon data give insight into the age and origin of complexly deformed metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks in an ancient collision zone, and help clarify the structural relationships of lower to mid-crustal structural packages in the Sierra de Pie de Palo, northwest Argentina. The Pie de Palo range contains complexly deformed Precambrian crystalline rocks that have experienced single- or multi-phase metamorphism, the latest of which is associated with convergence and collision of the Precordillera microplate with the Famatina arc of Gondwana. The two main metamorphic events occurred at ~1070 Ma and ~470 Ma, based on isotopic ages from several samples. The regional extent of both events, and thus the geometry of the collisional system, is not well defined. West-vergent shear zones separate two Precambrian basement complexes, the Pie de Palo Complex and Central Complex, from the Caucete Group, a suite of intensely deformed, medium grade Cambrian quartzite and marble. Detrital zircons from the hanging wall of the ductile Duraznos shear zone within the Pie de Palo range constrain the timing of cessation of Precambrian deformation and reflect no significant regional metamorphism between 1070 Ma and 470 Ma. Garnets with one clear phase of growth in the hanging wall are juxtaposed with two-phase garnets in the footwall. ~25% of the detrital zircon grains analyzed from the immediate hanging wall are younger than 1050 Ma, precluding the existence of the hanging wall package and the Duraznos shear zone in the 1070 Ma event. Detrital zircon ages also constrain the geometry of the Las Pirquitas Thrust, and support the interpretation of a structural window within the Pie de Palo Complex into the younger Caucete Group. Age distribution peaks correspond to previous detrital zircon analyses of Caucete Group metasediments. The presence of a window into Caucete Group rocks amidst the Pie de Palo Complex implies a very low-angle thrust and a thin thrust

  16. Changes in epistemic frameworks: Random or constrained?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananka Loubser


    Full Text Available Since the emergence of a solid anti-positivist approach in the philosophy of science, an important question has been to understand how and why epistemic frameworks change in time, are modified or even substituted. In contemporary philosophy of science three main approaches to framework-change were detected in the humanist tradition:1. In both the pre-theoretical and theoretical domains changes occur according to a rather constrained, predictable or even pre-determined pattern (e.g. Holton.2. Changes occur in a way that is more random or unpredictable and free from constraints (e.g. Kuhn, Feyerabend, Rorty, Lyotard.3. Between these approaches, a middle position can be found, attempting some kind of synthesis (e.g. Popper, Lakatos.Because this situation calls for clarification and systematisation, this article in fact tried to achieve more clarity on how changes in pre-scientific frameworks occur, as well as provided transcendental criticism of the above positions. This article suggested that the above-mentioned positions are not fully satisfactory, as change and constancy are not sufficiently integrated. An alternative model was suggested in which changes in epistemic frameworks occur according to a pattern, neither completely random nor rigidly constrained, which results in change being dynamic but not arbitrary. This alternative model is integral, rather than dialectical and therefore does not correspond to position three. 

  17. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path. (United States)

    Babaeian, Amir; Bayestehtashk, Alireza; Bandarabadi, Mojtaba


    The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  18. Multiple Manifold Clustering Using Curvature Constrained Path.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Babaeian

    Full Text Available The problem of multiple surface clustering is a challenging task, particularly when the surfaces intersect. Available methods such as Isomap fail to capture the true shape of the surface near by the intersection and result in incorrect clustering. The Isomap algorithm uses shortest path between points. The main draw back of the shortest path algorithm is due to the lack of curvature constrained where causes to have a path between points on different surfaces. In this paper we tackle this problem by imposing a curvature constraint to the shortest path algorithm used in Isomap. The algorithm chooses several landmark nodes at random and then checks whether there is a curvature constrained path between each landmark node and every other node in the neighborhood graph. We build a binary feature vector for each point where each entry represents the connectivity of that point to a particular landmark. Then the binary feature vectors could be used as a input of conventional clustering algorithm such as hierarchical clustering. We apply our method to simulated and some real datasets and show, it performs comparably to the best methods such as K-manifold and spectral multi-manifold clustering.

  19. Constrained Metric Learning by Permutation Inducing Isometries. (United States)

    Bosveld, Joel; Mahmood, Arif; Huynh, Du Q; Noakes, Lyle


    The choice of metric critically affects the performance of classification and clustering algorithms. Metric learning algorithms attempt to improve performance, by learning a more appropriate metric. Unfortunately, most of the current algorithms learn a distance function which is not invariant to rigid transformations of images. Therefore, the distances between two images and their rigidly transformed pair may differ, leading to inconsistent classification or clustering results. We propose to constrain the learned metric to be invariant to the geometry preserving transformations of images that induce permutations in the feature space. The constraint that these transformations are isometries of the metric ensures consistent results and improves accuracy. Our second contribution is a dimension reduction technique that is consistent with the isometry constraints. Our third contribution is the formulation of the isometry constrained logistic discriminant metric learning (IC-LDML) algorithm, by incorporating the isometry constraints within the objective function of the LDML algorithm. The proposed algorithm is compared with the existing techniques on the publicly available labeled faces in the wild, viewpoint-invariant pedestrian recognition, and Toy Cars data sets. The IC-LDML algorithm has outperformed existing techniques for the tasks of face recognition, person identification, and object classification by a significant margin.

  20. Simplex ACE: a constrained subspace detector (United States)

    Ziemann, Amanda; Theiler, James


    In hyperspectral target detection, one must contend with variability in both target materials and background clutter. While most algorithms focus on the background clutter, there are some materials for which there is substantial variability in the signatures of the target. When multiple signatures can be used to describe a target material, subspace detectors are often the detection algorithm of choice. However, as the number of variable target spectra increases, so does the size of the target subspace spanned by these spectra, which in turn increases the number of false alarms. Here, we propose a modification to this approach, wherein the target subspace is instead a constrained subspace, or a simplex without the sum-to-one constraint. We derive the simplex adaptive matched filter (simplex AMF) and the simplex adaptive cosine estimator (simplex ACE), which are constrained basis adaptations of the traditional subspace AMF and subspace ACE detectors. We present results using simplex AMF and simplex ACE for variable targets, and compare their performances against their subspace counterparts. Our primary interest is in the simplex ACE detector, and as such, the experiments herein seek to evaluate the robustness of simplex ACE, with simplex AMF included for comparison. Results are shown on hyperspectral images using both implanted and ground-truthed targets, and demonstrate the robustness of simplex ACE to target variability.

  1. Upper-crustal velocity structure along 150 km of the Mendeleev Ridge from tomographic inversion of long-offset refraction data collected during HLY0602 (United States)

    Vermeesch, P. M.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Lawver, L. A.


    In the summer of 2006 we acquired a unique seismic refraction data set on the Chukchi Borderlands and Mendeleev Ridge utilizing USCGC Healy and two helicopters. The array on the Mendeleev Ridge consisted of 14 instrument sites with 12 km spacing between instruments. On every site we deployed a Sea-Ice Seismometer (S- IS) especially designed for this experiment in the ice-covered part of the Arctic Ocean. Each S-IS contained a vertical component geophone that was buried in the ice and a hydrophone that was hanging from the ice edge in the water. From the 14 instrument sites, 10 contained useful data with refracted crustal arrivals up to offsets of 40 km. Because of extensive drifting of the receivers (40 km in 5 days and containing numerous loops), and because of the irregular geometry of airgun shots due to the problems of sailing through ice-covered seas, a 3D ray-shooting code was developed to calculate ray paths within a 3D velocity model that extends along 150 km in the X- direction and along 35 km in the Y-direction. Using the velocity model proposed by Lebedeva-Ivanova et al. (2006) we observe that the maximum depth of our calculated ray paths is 11 km below sealevel. Using all the available data, the Root Mean Square (RMS) difference between observed and calculated travel-times is of the order of 500 ms. Initially a simple 1D travel-time inversion was developed to constrain the velocity structure of the basement underneath a layer of water (3D) and a layer of sediment (1D). This inversion was carried out on 2 pairs of receivers: one pair in the NNE and one more towards the SSW part of the line. Inversion of S-IS 45N-42 (NNE) results in a model with a velocity of 5.5 km s-1 at the top of the basement, slowly increasing to a velocity of 5.7 km s-1 at 3 km below the top of the basement (RMS = 117 ms). Inversion of S-IS 49-45S (SSW) results in a model with a velocity of 4.8 km s-1 at the top of the basement, increasing to a velocity of 5.9 km s-1 at 3 km below

  2. Evidence for Cyclical Fractional Crystallization, Recharge, and Assimilation in Basalts of the Kimama Drill Core, Central Snake River Plain, Idaho: 5.5-Million-Years of Petrogenesis in a Mid-crustal Sill Complex

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    Katherine E. Potter


    Full Text Available Basalts erupted in the Snake River Plain of central Idaho and sampled in the Kimama drill core link eruptive processes to the construction of mafic intrusions over 5.5 Ma. Cyclic variations in basalt composition reveal temporal chemical heterogeneity related to fractional crystallization and the assimilation of previously-intruded mafic sills. A range of compositional types are identified within 1,912 m of continuous drill core: Snake River olivine tholeiite (SROT, low K SROT, high Fe-Ti, and evolved and high K-Fe lavas similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon National Monument. Detailed lithologic and geophysical logs document 432 flow units comprising 183 distinct lava flows and 78 flow groups. Each lava flow represents a single eruptive episode, while flow groups document chemically and temporally related flows that formed over extended periods of time. Temporal chemical variation demonstrates the importance of source heterogeneity and magma processing in basalt petrogenesis. Low-K SROT and high Fe-Ti basalts are genetically related to SROT as, respectively, hydrothermally-altered and fractionated daughters. Cyclic variations in the chemical composition of Kimama flow groups are apparent as 21 upward fractionation cycles, six recharge cycles, eight recharge-fractionation cycles, and five fractionation-recharge cycles. We propose that most Kimama basalt flows represent typical fractionation and recharge patterns, consistent with the repeated influx of primitive SROT parental magmas and extensive fractional crystallization coupled with varying degrees of assimilation of gabbroic to ferrodioritic sills at shallow to intermediate depths over short durations. Trace element models show that parental SROT basalts were generated by 5–10% partial melting of enriched mantle at shallow depths above the garnet-spinel lherzolite transition. The distinctive evolved and high K-Fe lavas are rare. Found at four depths, 319, 1045, 1,078, and 1,189 m

  3. Crustal strain-dependent serpentinisation in the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland (United States)

    Prada, Manel; Watremez, Louise; Chen, Chen; O'Reilly, Brian M.; Minshull, Timothy A.; Reston, Tim J.; Shannon, Patrick M.; Klaeschen, Dirk; Wagner, Gerlind; Gaw, Viola


    Mantle hydration (serpentinisation) at magma-poor rifted margins is thought to play a key role in controlling the kinematics of low-angle faults and thus, hyperextension and crustal breakup. However, because geophysical data principally provide observations of the final structure of a margin, little is known about the evolution of serpentinisation and how this governs tectonics during hyperextension. Here we present new observational evidence on how crustal strain-dependent serpentinisation influences hyperextension from rifting to possible crustal breakup along the axis of the Porcupine Basin, offshore Ireland. We present three new P-wave seismic velocity models that show the seismic structure of the uppermost lithosphere and the geometry of the Moho across and along the basin axis. We use neighbouring seismic reflection lines to our tomographic models to estimate crustal stretching (βc) of ∼2.5 in the north at 52.5° N and >10 in the south at 51.7° N. These values suggest that no crustal embrittlement occurred in the northernmost region, and that rifting may have progressed to crustal breakup in the southern part of the study area. We observed a decrease in mantle velocities across the basin axis from east to west. These variations occur in a region where βc is within the range at which crustal embrittlement and serpentinisation are possible (βc 3-4). Across the basin axis, the lowest seismic velocity in the mantle spatially coincides with the maximum amount of crustal faulting, indicating fault-controlled mantle hydration. Mantle velocities also suggest that the degree of serpentinisation, together with the amount of crustal faulting, increases southwards along the basin axis. Seismic reflection lines show a major detachment fault surface that grows southwards along the basin axis and is only visible where the inferred degree of serpentinisation is >15%. This observation is consistent with laboratory measurements that show that at this degree of

  4. The crustal structure beneath the Netherlands from ambient seismic noise (United States)

    Paulssen, Hanneke; Yudistira, Tedi; Trampert, Jeannot


    A 3-D shear velocity model of the crust beneath the Netherlands is determined from fundamental mode Rayleigh and Love wave group measurements derived from ambient seismic noise recordings. The data are obtained from a temporary array of broad-band seismometers in and around the Netherlands (the NARS-Netherlands project, 2008-2012) complemented with data from existing networks in the Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. Rayleigh and Love wave group velocity maps were constructed for the period range of 10 to 30 s. Lateral variations in the group velocity maps primarily reflect variations in sedimentary thickness across the Netherlands. The 2-psi Rayleigh wave and 4-psi Love wave fast directions of the group velocity maps are in agreement with the NW-SE direction of maximum compressive stress as well as with the NW-SE dominant direction of faulting in the Netherlands. The frequency dependence suggests that the azimuthal anisotropy is caused by lattice preferred orientation (LPO) of lower crustal minerals. A 3-D shear-velocity model is obtained by inversion of the group velocity maps using the Neighbourhood Algorithm. The results show a top layer that varies in thickness from 2 to 4 km with with a pattern that is similar to the base of the Rotliegend. A midcrustal discontinuity is found at a depth of about 13 km. The Moho appears to be relatively flat with an average depth of 33 km. Radial anisotropy is mainly positive (Vsh - Vsv > 0) for the lower crust. This can be an expression of LPO but also of horizontal layering or lamination. The top layer shows the largest variations in radial anisotropy with distinct areas of negative radial anisotropy that can be attributed to high-density near-vertical faulting in those regions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellors, R J


    The northern Tien Shan of Central Asia is an area of active mid-continent deformation. Although far from a plate boundary, this region has experienced 5 earthquakes larger than magnitude 7 in the past century and includes one event that may as be as large as Mw 8.0. Previous studies based on GPS measurements indicate on the order of 23 mm/yr of shortening across the entire Tien Shan and up to 15 mm/year in the northern Tien Shan (Figure 1). The seismic moment release rate appears comparable with the geodetic measured slip, at least to first order, suggesting that geodetic rates can be considered a proxy for accumulation rates of stress for seismic hazard estimation. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar may provide a means to make detailed spatial measurements and hence in identifying block boundaries and assisting in seismic hazard. Therefore, we hoped to define block boundaries by direct measurement and by identifying and resolving earthquake slip. Due to political instability in Kyrgzystan, the existing seismic network has not performed as well as required to precisely determine earthquake hypocenters in remote areas and hence InSAR is highly useful. In this paper we present the result of three earthquake studies and show that InSAR is useful for refining locations of teleseismically located earthquakes. ALOS PALSAR data is used to investigate crustal motion in the Tien Shan mountains of Central Asia. As part of the work, considerable software development was undertaken to process PALSAR data. This software has been made freely available. Two damaging earthquakes have been imaged in the Tien Shan and the locations provided by ALOS InSAR have helped to refine seismological velocity models. A third earthquake south of Kyrgyzstan was also imaged. The use of InSAR data and especially L band is therefore very useful in providing groundtruth for earthquake locations.

  6. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe (United States)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz


    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  7. Crustal anisotropy contribution under-evaluated under Tibet ? (United States)

    Herquel, G.; Edme, P.


    Moho P-to-S converted phases may be used to determine the complete crustal component of anisotropy. Phases with a good signal-to-noise ratio and with sufficient azimuthal coverage are required to avoid misleading results. Previous results may be low estimates of this contribution in Tibet (0.15-0.3s) since some very large mantellic delays have been observed in other areas of the plateau. New measurements use data from stations with the largest mantellic delays δt observed in Tibet: at least 2 seconds (stations ST17, ST18 and ST19 from Indepth III and BUDO). As the data for station BUDO was good enough , we compare results obtained by original signals and by single receiver functions obtained in the frequency domain or by iterative deconvolution. The data were processed using waveform rotation-correlation, tangential energy minimization and particle motion analysis methods. The results are remarkably coherent concerning the fast polarization direction and the mean delay value using these different techniques. Using receiver function stacked data in different bins of backazimuth we obtained delay values in good agreement with the other techniques and hence the processing can be accelerated using this approach. At all 4 stations a mean value of delay of 0.15s is retrieved with an uncertainty of 0.05s: no single value exceed 0.3s. These new results are similar to the first estimations in Tibet and confirm the results obtained in other aeras (Ural Montains, New Zealand and Basin and Range). Finally, we observe also a good correlation with the fast polarization direction obtained by teleseismic shear wave analysis.

  8. On the rheology of crustal rocks containing low melt fractions (United States)

    Rosenberg, C. L.; Handy, M. R.


    A review and reinterpretation of older experimental data on the deformation of partially-melted granite reveals a non-linear strength decrease with increasing melt fractions. This decrease is characterised by two sharp discontinuities, each reflecting a dramatic change of strength within a limited range of melt fractions. A first discontinuity is shown by all experiments at melt fractions between 0.0 and 0.1. The change of strength within this range of melt fractions is the largest over the entire melting range. The second discontinuity occurs at higher melt fractions (0.4 to 0.6) and corresponds to the well known rheologically critical melt percentage (RCMP). In contrast to recent interpretations, we infer that the experimental data do indicate the occurrence of the RCMP, for crystallising as well as for melting rocks. However, the magnitude of the stress drop at the RCMP is negligible compared to the stress drop at melt fractions RCMP, at melt fractions >= 0.4, as proposed by several experimentalists. We suggest that the attainment of a melt fraction of 0.03 to 0.08 will control the large-scale localisation of deformation into partially-melted crustal layers, irrespective of the attainment of the RCMP. If the RCMP is achieved, however, the large-scale deformational response of the crust may not be different than that of a crust containing a melt fraction of 0.1. Instead, the RCMP controls localisation of flow within magmatic bodies, where it effects the internal dynamics of magma chambers.

  9. The Origin of the Compositional Diversity of Mercury's Surface Constrained From Experimental Melting of Enstatite Chondrites (United States)

    Boujibar, A.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L.


    Mercury is known as an endmember planet as it is the most reduced terrestrial planet with the highest core/mantle ratio. MESSENGER spacecraft has shown that its surface is FeO-poor (2-4 wt%) and Srich (up to 6-7 wt%), which confirms the reducing nature of its silicate mantle. Moreover, high resolution images revealed large volcanic plains and abundant pyroclastic deposits, suggesting important melting stages of the Mercurian mantle. This interpretation was confirmed by the high crustal thickness (up to 100 km) derived from Mercury's gravity field. This is also corroborated by a recent experimental result that showed that Mercurian partial melts are expected to be highly buoyant within the Mercurian mantle and could have risen from depths as high as the core-mantle boundary. In addition MESSENGER spacecraft provided relatively precise data on major elemental compositions of Mercury's surface. These results revealed important chemical and mineralogical heterogeneities that suggested several stages of differentiation and re-melting processes. However, the extent and nature of compositional variations produced by partial melting remains poorly constrained for the particular compositions of Mercury (very reducing conditions, low FeO-contents and high sulfur-contents). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the processes that lead to the various compositions of Mercury's surface. Melting experiments with bulk Mercury-analogue compositions were performed and compared to the compositions measured by MESSENGER.

  10. A 17-My-old whale constrains onset of uplift and climate change in east Africa. (United States)

    Wichura, Henry; Jacobs, Louis L; Lin, Andrew; Polcyn, Michael J; Manthi, Fredrick K; Winkler, Dale A; Strecker, Manfred R; Clemens, Matthew


    Timing and magnitude of surface uplift are key to understanding the impact of crustal deformation and topographic growth on atmospheric circulation, environmental conditions, and surface processes. Uplift of the East African Plateau is linked to mantle processes, but paleoaltimetry data are too scarce to constrain plateau evolution and subsequent vertical motions associated with rifting. Here, we assess the paleotopographic implications of a beaked whale fossil (Ziphiidae) from the Turkana region of Kenya found 740 km inland from the present-day coastline of the Indian Ocean at an elevation of 620 m. The specimen is ∼ 17 My old and represents the oldest derived beaked whale known, consistent with molecular estimates of the emergence of modern strap-toothed whales (Mesoplodon). The whale traveled from the Indian Ocean inland along an eastward-directed drainage system controlled by the Cretaceous Anza Graben and was stranded slightly above sea level. Surface uplift from near sea level coincides with paleoclimatic change from a humid environment to highly variable and much drier conditions, which altered biotic communities and drove evolution in east Africa, including that of primates.

  11. Scheduling of resource-constrained projects

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Robert


    Project management has become a widespread instrument enabling organizations to efficiently master the challenges of steadily shortening product life cycles, global markets and decreasing profit margins. With projects increasing in size and complexity, their planning and control represents one of the most crucial management tasks. This is especially true for scheduling, which is concerned with establishing execution dates for the sub-activities to be performed in order to complete the project. The ability to manage projects where resources must be allocated between concurrent projects or even sub-activities of a single project requires the use of commercial project management software packages. However, the results yielded by the solution procedures included are often rather unsatisfactory. Scheduling of Resource-Constrained Projects develops more efficient procedures, which can easily be integrated into software packages by incorporated programming languages, and thus should be of great interest for practiti...

  12. Constrained Delaunay Triangulation for Ad Hoc Networks

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    D. Satyanarayana


    Full Text Available Geometric spanners can be used for efficient routing in wireless ad hoc networks. Computation of existing spanners for ad hoc networks primarily focused on geometric properties without considering network requirements. In this paper, we propose a new spanner called constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT which considers both geometric properties and network requirements. The CDT is formed by introducing a small set of constraint edges into local Delaunay triangulation (LDel to reduce the number of hops between nodes in the network graph. We have simulated the CDT using network simulator (ns-2.28 and compared with Gabriel graph (GG, relative neighborhood graph (RNG, local Delaunay triangulation (LDel, and planarized local Delaunay triangulation (PLDel. The simulation results show that the minimum number of hops from source to destination is less than other spanners. We also observed the decrease in delay, jitter, and improvement in throughput.

  13. Spatially constrained propulsion in jumping archer fish (United States)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra


    Archer fish jump multiple body lengths out of the water for prey capture with impressive accuracy. Their remarkable aim is facilitated by jumping from a stationary position directly below the free surface. As a result of this starting position, rapid acceleration to a velocity sufficient for reaching the target occurs with only a body length to travel before the fish leaves the water. Three-dimensional measurements of jumping kinematics and volumetric velocimetry using Synthetic Aperture PIV highlight multiple strategies for such spatially constrained acceleration. Archer fish rapidly extend fins at jump onset to increase added mass forces and modulate their swimming kinematics to minimize wasted energy when the body is partially out of the water. Volumetric measurements also enable assessment of efficiency during a jump, which is crucial to understanding jumping's role as an energetically viable hunting strategy for the fish.

  14. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc. © 2011 ACM.

  15. Mixed-Strategy Chance Constrained Optimal Control (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J.


    This paper presents a novel chance constrained optimal control (CCOC) algorithm that chooses a control action probabilistically. A CCOC problem is to find a control input that minimizes the expected cost while guaranteeing that the probability of violating a set of constraints is below a user-specified threshold. We show that a probabilistic control approach, which we refer to as a mixed control strategy, enables us to obtain a cost that is better than what deterministic control strategies can achieve when the CCOC problem is nonconvex. The resulting mixed-strategy CCOC problem turns out to be a convexification of the original nonconvex CCOC problem. Furthermore, we also show that a mixed control strategy only needs to "mix" up to two deterministic control actions in order to achieve optimality. Building upon an iterative dual optimization, the proposed algorithm quickly converges to the optimal mixed control strategy with a user-specified tolerance.

  16. Constrained multibody system dynamics: An automated approach (United States)

    Kamman, J. W.; Huston, R. L.


    The governing equations for constrained multibody systems are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated, numerical development and solution. The closed loop problem of multibody chain systems is addressed. The governing equations are developed by modifying dynamical equations obtained from Lagrange's form of d'Alembert's principle. The modifications is based upon a solution of the constraint equations obtained through a zero eigenvalues theorem, is a contraction of the dynamical equations. For a system with n-generalized coordinates and m-constraint equations, the coefficients in the constraint equations may be viewed as constraint vectors in n-dimensional space. In this setting the system itself is free to move in the n-m directions which are orthogonal to the constraint vectors.

  17. Shape space exploration of constrained meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yongliang


    We present a general computational framework to locally characterize any shape space of meshes implicitly prescribed by a collection of non-linear constraints. We computationally access such manifolds, typically of high dimension and co-dimension, through first and second order approximants, namely tangent spaces and quadratically parameterized osculant surfaces. Exploration and navigation of desirable subspaces of the shape space with regard to application specific quality measures are enabled using approximants that are intrinsic to the underlying manifold and directly computable in the parameter space of the osculant surface. We demonstrate our framework on shape spaces of planar quad (PQ) meshes, where each mesh face is constrained to be (nearly) planar, and circular meshes, where each face has a circumcircle. We evaluate our framework for navigation and design exploration on a variety of inputs, while keeping context specific properties such as fairness, proximity to a reference surface, etc.

  18. Evaluating Crustal Contamination Effects on the Lithophile Trace Element Budget of Shergottites (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Ferdous, J.; Peslier, A. H.


    The origin of the incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched compositions of shergottites has been a point of contention for decades [1-2]. Two scenarios have been proposed, the first is that enriched shergottite compositions reflect an ITE-enriched mantle source, whereas in the second, the ITE enrichment reflects crustal contamination of mantle-derived parent magmas. Evidence supporting the first scenario is that the ITE-enriched shergottite compositions are consistent with the outcomes of magma ocean crystallization [3], and that Os-Nd isotope relationships for shergottites cannot be explained by realistic crustal contamination models [4]. In contrast, Cl and S isotopes are consistent with shergottite magmas interacting with Mars crust [5,6], and ITE-enriched olivine-hosted melt inclusions and interstitial glass are found in depleted shergottite Yamato 980459 [7]. These findings indicate that some level of crustal interaction occurred but the question of whether ITE-enrichments in some bulk shergottites reflect crustal contamination remains open. Recently, a Mars crustal breccia meteorite has been found, NWA 7034 and its paired stones, that is our best analogue to an average of Mars ancient crust [8-10]. This allows for better constraints on crustal contamination of shergottite magmas. We modeled magma-crust mixing and assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) using ITE-depleted shergottite compositions and bulk NWA 7034 and its clasts as end-members. The results of these models indicate that crustal contamination can only explain the ITE-enriched compositions of some bulk shergottites under unusual circumstances. It is thus likely that the shergottite range of compositions reflects primarily mantle sources.

  19. A unified analysis of crustal motion in Southern California, 1970-2004: The SCEC crustal motion map (United States)

    Shen, Z.-K.; King, R. W.; Agnew, D. C.; Wang, M.; Herring, T. A.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.


    To determine crustal motions in and around southern California, we have processed and combined trilateration data collected from 1970 to 1992, VLBI data from 1979 to 1992, and GPS data from 1986 to 2004: a long temporal coverage required in part by the occurrence of several large earthquakes in this region. From a series of solutions for station positions, we have estimated interseismic velocities, coseismic displacements, and postseismic motions. Within the region from 31°N to 38°N. and east to 114°W, the final product includes estimated horizontal velocities for 1009 GPS, 190 trilateration, and 16 VLBI points, with ties between some of these used to stabilize the solution. All motions are relative to the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF) as realized through the velocities of 20 GPS stations. This provides a relatively dense set of horizontal velocity estimates, with well-tested errors, for the past quarter century over the plate boundary from 31°N to 36.5°N. These velocities agree well with those from the Plate Boundary Observatory, which apply to a later time period. We also estimated vertical velocities, 533 of which have errors below 2 mm/yr. Most of these velocities are less than 1 mm/yr, but they show 2-4 mm/yr subsidence in the Ventura and Los Angeles basins and in the Salton Trough. Our analysis also included estimates of coseismic and postseismic motions related to the 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, and 2003 San Simeon earthquakes. Postseismic motions increase logarithmically over time with a time constant of about 10 days, and generally mimic the direction and relative amplitude of the coseismic offsets.

  20. Density heterogeneity of the upper mantle beneath Siberia from satellite gravity and a new regional crustal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herceg, Matija; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina


    We present a new regional model for the density structure of the upper mantle below Siberia. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE gravity gradients and geopotential models, with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a new...... on regional and global crustal models. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. The new regional density model for the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin complements...

  1. Hard Instances of the Constrained Discrete Logarithm Problem


    Mironov, Ilya; Mityagin, Anton; Nissim, Kobbi


    The discrete logarithm problem (DLP) generalizes to the constrained DLP, where the secret exponent $x$ belongs to a set known to the attacker. The complexity of generic algorithms for solving the constrained DLP depends on the choice of the set. Motivated by cryptographic applications, we study sets with succinct representation for which the constrained DLP is hard. We draw on earlier results due to Erd\\"os et al. and Schnorr, develop geometric tools such as generalized Menelaus' theorem for ...

  2. Crustal structure of the western Indian shield: Model based on regional gravity and magnetic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Kilaru


    This study probes the geometry of the different crustal units in terms of density and susceptibility variations in order to decipher the imprints of the major tectonic processes the region has undergone. In order to decipher the crustal geometry of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile, two NW–SE gravity and magnetic profile vertical sections (A–A′ in the south and B–B′ in the north are modelled on the basis of the constraints provided from previous seismic models. The crustal model of the Gadra–Fatehpur profile is composed of alluvium, Tertiary sediments, MIS, Marwar Supergroup, low-density layers (LDLs and the middle–lower crustal layers, with a distinct change in configuration from the southwest to northeast. The Moho dips from SW to NE, the MIS in the SW gives way to the thick pile of the Marwar Supergroup to the NE. The evolution of MIS has been suggested to have occurred as a consequence of delamination of the upper mantle. LDLs are incorporated in Gadra–Fatehpur model. In the SW, LDL (2550 kg/m3 lies below the MIS in the NE, another LDL (2604 kg/m3 is depicted below the mid-crustal layer.

  3. Crustal moment of inertia of glitching pulsars with the KDE0v1 Skyrme interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhuri, K.; Routray, T.R.; Pattnaik, S.P. [Sambalpur University, School of Physics, Jyotivihar (India); Basu, D.N. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Center, Kolkata (India)


    The mass, radius and crustal fraction of moment of inertia in neutron stars are calculated using β-equilibrated nuclear matter obtained from the Skyrme effective interaction. The transition density, pressure and proton fraction at the inner edge separating the liquid core from the solid crust of the neutron stars are determined from the thermodynamic stability conditions using the KDE0v1 set. The neutron star masses obtained by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations using neutron star matter obtained from this set are able to describe highly massive compact stars ∝ 2M {sub CircleDot}. The crustal fraction of the moment of inertia can be extracted from studying pulsar glitches. This fraction is highly dependent on the core-crust transition pressure and corresponding density. These results for pressure and density at core-crust transition together with the observed minimum crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia provide a limit for the radius of the Vela pulsar, R ≥ 3.69 + 3.44M/M {sub CircleDot}. Present calculations suggest that the crustal fraction of the total moment of inertia can be ∝ 6.3% due to crustal entrainment caused by the Bragg reflection of unbound neutrons by lattice ions. (orig.)

  4. Qinghai-Tibet Plateau crustal thickness derived from EGM2008 and CRSUT2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Hao


    Full Text Available Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most complex region for crustal thickness inversion, while high-resolution earth gravity model (EGM makes it possible to obtain high precision gravity anomaly, which is a key parameter to depict the Earth’s inner structure in geodesy domain. On the basis of this principle, we calculated the Bouguer gravity anomalies in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with EGM2008 and SRTM6. 0 by efficient high-degree spherical harmonic synthesis algorithm. In order to obtain the gravity anomaly caused by Moho density mutant, the noises caused by the topography was removed by wavelet details. Then, the crustal thickness was corrected on the basis of CRUST 2. 0 with the deep-large-scale single density interface formula. The inversion result indicates that the crustal thickness in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is between 50 km and 75 km, which is in correspondence with the recent science research result. Compared with the 2 degree CRUST 2. 0 model, the spatial resolution of crustal thickness in our research can reach 40 arc minutes. In addition, there is a positive relationship between the inversed crustal thickness and topography, which can prove the effectiveness of Airy-Heiskanen isostatic model in gravity reduction.

  5. Crustal Evolution of a Paleozoic Intra-oceanic Island-Arc-Back-Arc Basin System Constrained by the Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Yakuno Ophiolite, Southwest Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu Suda


    Full Text Available The Yakuno ophiolite in southwest Japan is considered to have been obducted by the collision between an intra-oceanic island-arc-back-arc basin (intra-OIA-BAB system and the East Asian continent during the late Paleozoic. New SIMS (SHRIMP zircon U-Pb determinations for amphibolite and metagabbro of BAB origin within the Yakuno ophiolite yield ages of 293.4 ± 9.5 Ma and 288 ± 13 Ma, respectively. These ages are slightly older (however, overlapping within analytical errors than the magmatic age of arc granitoids (ca. 285–282 Ma that intruded into the mafic rocks of BAB origin. Results from geochronological and geochemical data of the Yakuno ophiolite give rise to the following tentative geotectonic model for the Paleozoic intra-OIA-BAB system: the initial stage of BAB rifting (ca. 293–288 Ma formed the BAB crust with island-arc basalt (IAB signatures, which was brought to the OIA setting, and generated the arc granitoids (ca. 285–282 Ma by anatexis of the BAB crust. A later stage of BAB rifting (

  6. Free energy calculations using flexible-constrained, hard-constrained and non-constrained molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Christen, Markus; Christ, Clara D; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F


    A comparison of different treatments of bond-stretching interactions in molecular dynamics simulation is presented. Relative free energies from simulations using rigid bonds maintained with the SHAKE algorithm, using partially rigid bonds maintained with a recently introduced flexible constraints algorithm, and using fully flexible bonds are compared in a multi-configurational thermodynamic integration calculation of changing liquid water into liquid methanol. The formula for the free energy change due to a changing flexible constraint in a flexible constraint simulation is derived. To allow for a more direct comparison between these three methods, three different pairs of models for water and methanol were used: a flexible model (simulated without constraints and with flexible constraints), a rigid model (simulated with standard hard constraints), and an alternative flexible model (simulated with flexible constraints and standard hard constraints) in which the ideal or constrained bond lengths correspond to the average bond lengths obtained from a short simulation of the unconstrained flexible model. The particular treatment of the bonds induces differences of up to 2 % in the liquid densities, whereas (excess) free energy differences of up to 5.7 (4.3) kJ mol(-1) are observed. These values are smaller than the differences observed between the three different pairs of methanol/water models: up to 5 % in density and up to 8.5 kJ mol(-1) in (excess) free energy.

  7. Crustal Structure around Ordos Terrain Derived from Ambient Noise Tomography (United States)

    Liu, J.; Ning, J.; Tang, Y.; Chen, Y. J.


    We performed Rayleigh wave tomography around Ordos terrain by applying the ambient noise method to broadband seismic data. The data was recorded at 85 temporary stations of PKU array operated along Yinchuan-Jinan and 410 permanent stations of CEA network operated between Eastern margin of Tibetan plateau and Huabei basin. Receiver function technique was also applied to study Moho discontinuity in Southern Ordos by PKU array. We developed a new stacking technique to obtain high-quality dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves from cross correlation of seismic ambient noise. This technique is based on phase-matched filter and was implemented in a four-step iterative process: signal compression, stacking, signal extraction and signal decompression. We stack all the compressed Estimated Green Functions that have almost the same path to improve signal to noise ratio. Results show that this new stacking method is stable and can improve the quality of ambient noise inversion. The inversion results present in this study are consistent with tectonic nature in this region. S velocity at depths of 0-10 km beneath Huabei plain, Sichuan basin and Ordos terrain are obviously lower than those beneath Eastern margin of Tibetan plateau. That is probably due to the thick sediments in Huabei plain, Sichuan basin and Ordos block. S velocity beneath Lvliang-Taihang region keeps high in whole crust and this may relate to Cenozoic intrusion of mantle material here. Our results revealed that the crust is thick in the southern part of the Ordos terrain while it is a little thin in the northern part. This confirmed the result given by Chen et al. (2010) and explained the contradiction between the work of Chen's and former results. The contrasting crustal thickness of the Ordos terrain is also in accord with our Receiver Function results. Receiver functions revealed two interfaces at about 40 km and 60 km in southern part of the Ordos terrain, comparing with only one located at about 40 km depth

  8. A hemispherical dynamo model: Implications for the Martian crustal magnetization (United States)

    Dietrich, W.; Wicht, J.; Christensen, U. R.


    In 1999 the Mars Global Surveyor detected a strong but very heterogeneous crustal magnetization mainly localized in the southern hemisphere. Their magnetization dichotomy may have either an external or an internal origin. In the first scenario, the Martian crust was fully magnetized by a dipolar dynamo induced in the Martian liquid core. After the core dynamo cessation, the crust was demagnetized by volcanoes, impacts or any other resurfacing event distributed not homogeneously over the surface. The internal origin, which is investigated here, relies on a per se hemispherical internal magnetric field. For this, we rely on that Mars never developed an inner core. The planets ancient dynamo was thus exclusively driven by secular cooling and radiogenic heating. Due to the small planetary size, the core mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux may be not as homogeneous, as in e.g. Earth. Mantle convection in smaller planets is thought to develope larger scales, maybe even a huge single-plume structure. Giant impacts might have played a crucial role in the thermal history of Mars, hence they are heating mainly one hemisphere. Giant plumes and major impact events would both cause a hemispherical CMB heat flux pattern. Therefore, we model the ancient Martian dynamo as rotating, convecting and conducting fluid heated by an internal heat source and contained in a spherical shell, where the CMB heat flux is perturbed by a sinusoidal anomaly. Compared to the classical columnar convection, we find a drastically different flow pattern. There meridional circulation seeking to equilibrate the heat difference between both hemispheres is diverted into two counterdirected cells of axisymmetric zonal flows (thermal winds) by the strong Coriolis force. Convective plumes are confined to the region of high heat flux in the vicinity of the southern pole. Core convection is thus dominated by equatorially antisymmetric and axisymmetric (EAA) modes. In the columnar regime, poloidal and toroidal

  9. Reflected stochastic differential equation models for constrained animal movement (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Johnson, Devin S.


    Movement for many animal species is constrained in space by barriers such as rivers, shorelines, or impassable cliffs. We develop an approach for modeling animal movement constrained in space by considering a class of constrained stochastic processes, reflected stochastic differential equations. Our approach generalizes existing methods for modeling unconstrained animal movement. We present methods for simulation and inference based on augmenting the constrained movement path with a latent unconstrained path and illustrate this augmentation with a simulation example and an analysis of telemetry data from a Steller sea lion (Eumatopias jubatus) in southeast Alaska.

  10. Fast Constrained Spectral Clustering and Cluster Ensemble with Random Projection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wenfen Liu; Mao Ye; Jianghong Wei; Xuexian Hu


    Constrained spectral clustering (CSC) method can greatly improve the clustering accuracy with the incorporation of constraint information into spectral clustering and thus has been paid academic attention widely...

  11. Resource Management in Constrained Dynamic Situations (United States)

    Seok, Jinwoo

    Resource management is considered in this dissertation for systems with limited resources, possibly combined with other system constraints, in unpredictably dynamic environments. Resources may represent fuel, power, capabilities, energy, and so on. Resource management is important for many practical systems; usually, resources are limited, and their use must be optimized. Furthermore, systems are often constrained, and constraints must be satisfied for safe operation. Simplistic resource management can result in poor use of resources and failure of the system. Furthermore, many real-world situations involve dynamic environments. Many traditional problems are formulated based on the assumptions of given probabilities or perfect knowledge of future events. However, in many cases, the future is completely unknown, and information on or probabilities about future events are not available. In other words, we operate in unpredictably dynamic situations. Thus, a method is needed to handle dynamic situations without knowledge of the future, but few formal methods have been developed to address them. Thus, the goal is to design resource management methods for constrained systems, with limited resources, in unpredictably dynamic environments. To this end, resource management is organized hierarchically into two levels: 1) planning, and 2) control. In the planning level, the set of tasks to be performed is scheduled based on limited resources to maximize resource usage in unpredictably dynamic environments. In the control level, the system controller is designed to follow the schedule by considering all the system constraints for safe and efficient operation. Consequently, this dissertation is mainly divided into two parts: 1) planning level design, based on finite state machines, and 2) control level methods, based on model predictive control. We define a recomposable restricted finite state machine to handle limited resource situations and unpredictably dynamic environments

  12. Crustal evolution of South American Platform based on Sm-Nd isotope geochemistry; Evolucao crustal da plataforma sul americana com base na geoquimica isotopica Sm-Nd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kei


    Sm-Nd isotopic systematics is relevant to the topics of origin and evolution the of continental crust, where model ages refer to the time when crustal material was differentiated from the upper mantle. Alternative interpretations are due to a lack of adequate information on crustal processes and the variable composition of the mantle sources. The Sm-Nd methods are presented, and applied on rock materials from the South American Platform. The main conclusions indicate juvenile accretion with higher growth rates (peaks), around 3.7-3.5 Ga ({approx} 0.5% in volume), 3.1 - 2.9 Ga ({approx}16%), 2.7 - 2.6 ({approx} 9%), 2.2 - 1.9 (35%) and 1.3-1.0 (7%). The continental growth curve indicates that about 35 % of the crust was formed by 2.5 Ga, 88% by 1.8 Ga and 99% by 1.0 Ga, and the remaining {approx} 1 % was added in the Phanerozoic. Rapid crustal growth occurred between 2.2 and 1.9 Ga. The main period of continental crust formation occurred during the Paleoproterozoic, corresponding to 54 % in volume. Sm-Nd model ages, when compared with the crystallisation ages of granitoid rocks, furnish a rough estimate of juvenile vs. reworked material. Within the South American Platform about 45% of juvenile continental crust is still preserved within tectonic provinces of different ages. The remainder represents continental crust reworked in younger tectono-thermal events. In particular crustal reworking was predominating over juvenile accretion during Meso-Neoproterozoic. The Transbrasiliano Lineament is a megasuture, active in the Neoproterozoic, which separates a large northwestern mass, including the Amazonian and Sao Luis Cratons, from a southeastern mass, formed by a collage of cratonic fragments, of which the Sao Francisco and Rio de La Plata are the largest. The crustal evolutions of these two large continental masses are considered individually, and can be resumed following form: I - Old Archean rocks (>3.4 Ga) are found only within the south-eastern part (Gaviao Block

  13. A Reinvestigation of Crustal Thickness in the Tibetan Plateau Using Absolute Gravity, GPS and GRACE Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Sun


    Full Text Available The geodetic evidence of the uplift and crustal thickness of the Tibetan Plateau has been presented for the first time (Sun et al. 2009 using gravity and GPS observations. In this paper, we reinvestigate this tectonic deformation in more detail using GRACE data and taking the GIA effect into account. We first summarize the previous gravity and GPS observations and a local gravity network in the Dali County. The comparison between the surface absolute gravity and space GRACE gravity measurements shows that they are harmonic, agree well. Finally, we assume that the residual gravity change reflects material transport accompanying vertical movements on the crustal bottom; the crustal thickening rate is inferred as 1.9 ¡_ 1.4 cm yr-1. As the crust thickens, the mass of a column of rock beneath the station decreases because mantle is displaced by crust, causing a reduction in gravity.

  14. Structural and Geologic Mapping of Southern Tellus Regio, Venus: Implications for Crustal Plateau Formation (United States)

    Graupner, Melanie


    Crustal plateau formation on Venus is subject to animated debate, centered on plateau support and resulting surface deformation. Detailed mapping provides critical clues for plateau evolution. Southern Tellus Regio records broadly synchronous formation of contractional and extensional structures, accompanied by deposition of flood material. Short-wavelength folds occur across the entire plateau, the extent of which has previously been undocumented. Generally the early-formed structures record a high structural fluidity, marked by variable orientation of structures or juxtaposition of neighboring structural suites. This interpretation of the geologic history of the region indicates the necessity of an extremely high geothermal gradient and provides a means to evaluate the different crustal plateau hypotheses. The mantle downwelling, mantle upwelling, and pulsating continents hypotheses fail to accommodate the surface features recorded in this study. However, the lava pond hypothesis provides a suitable hypothesis of crustal plateau formation that accommodates structural elements recorded in this study.

  15. Fast crustal deformation computing method for multiple computations accelerated by a graphics processing unit cluster (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takuma; Ichimura, Tsuyoshi; Yagi, Yuji; Agata, Ryoichiro; Hori, Takane; Hori, Muneo


    As high-resolution observational data become more common, the demand for numerical simulations of crustal deformation using 3-D high-fidelity modelling is increasing. To increase the efficiency of performing numerical simulations with high computation costs, we developed a fast solver using heterogeneous computing, with graphics processing units (GPUs) and central processing units, and then used the solver in crustal deformation computations. The solver was based on an iterative solver and was devised so that a large proportion of the computation was calculated more quickly using GPUs. To confirm the utility of the proposed solver, we demonstrated a numerical simulation of the coseismic slip distribution estimation, which requires 360 000 crustal deformation computations with 82 196 106 degrees of freedom.

  16. On the precursors to the 2011 Tohoku earthquake: crustal movements and electromagnetic signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kamiyama


    Full Text Available We compare the precursory behaviour of crustal movements with electromagnetic signatures for the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake. First, we present the Global Positioning System (GPS data on the co-seismic variations and pre-seismic precursors (medium-term, short-term and imminent precursors. Then, we will review recently published results on electromagnetic precursors, including mainly short-term subionospheric very low frequency (VLF/LF propagation anomaly, ultralow frequency (ULF magnetic field depression and ULF/extremely low frequency (ELF atmospheric radiation. Finally, we examine the relationship between the crustal movements and electromagnetic phenomena. We conclude that at least short-term electromagnetic precursors are closely correlated in time with the corresponding crustal movements. This seems to provide evidence on the link between lithospheric and electromagnetic processes. Some discussions will be given on the possible mechanism of this link.

  17. Joint Chance-Constrained Dynamic Programming (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Balaram, J. Bob


    This paper presents a novel dynamic programming algorithm with a joint chance constraint, which explicitly bounds the risk of failure in order to maintain the state within a specified feasible region. A joint chance constraint cannot be handled by existing constrained dynamic programming approaches since their application is limited to constraints in the same form as the cost function, that is, an expectation over a sum of one-stage costs. We overcome this challenge by reformulating the joint chance constraint into a constraint on an expectation over a sum of indicator functions, which can be incorporated into the cost function by dualizing the optimization problem. As a result, the primal variables can be optimized by a standard dynamic programming, while the dual variable is optimized by a root-finding algorithm that converges exponentially. Error bounds on the primal and dual objective values are rigorously derived. We demonstrate the algorithm on a path planning problem, as well as an optimal control problem for Mars entry, descent and landing. The simulations are conducted using a real terrain data of Mars, with four million discrete states at each time step.

  18. Stochastic optimal control of state constrained systems (United States)

    van den Broek, Bart; Wiegerinck, Wim; Kappen, Bert


    In this article we consider the problem of stochastic optimal control in continuous-time and state-action space of systems with state constraints. These systems typically appear in the area of robotics, where hard obstacles constrain the state space of the robot. A common approach is to solve the problem locally using a linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method. We take a different approach and apply path integral control as introduced by Kappen (Kappen, H.J. (2005a), 'Path Integrals and Symmetry Breaking for Optimal Control Theory', Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 2005, P11011; Kappen, H.J. (2005b), 'Linear Theory for Control of Nonlinear Stochastic Systems', Physical Review Letters, 95, 200201). We use hybrid Monte Carlo sampling to infer the control. We introduce an adaptive time discretisation scheme for the simulation of the controlled dynamics. We demonstrate our approach on two examples, a simple particle in a halfspace and a more complex two-joint manipulator, and we show that in a high noise regime our approach outperforms the iterative LQG method.

  19. How peer-review constrains cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen


    Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far as ‘cognit......Peer-review is neither reliable, fair, nor a valid basis for predicting ‘impact’: as quality control, peer-review is not fit for purpose. Endorsing the consensus, I offer a reframing: while a normative social process, peer-review also shapes the writing of a scientific paper. In so far...... as ‘cognition’ describes enabling conditions for flexible behavior, the practices of peer-review thus constrain knowledge-making. To pursue cognitive functions of peer-review, however, manuscripts must be seen as ‘symbolizations’, replicable patterns that use technologically enabled activity. On this bio-cognitive...... came to be re-aggregated: agonistic review drove reformatting of argument structure, changes in rhetorical ploys and careful choice of wordings. For this reason, the paper’s knowledge-claims can be traced to human activity that occurs in distributed cognitive systems. Peer-review is on the frontline...

  20. Constrained Sypersymmetric Flipped SU (5) GUT Phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John; /CERN /King' s Coll. London; Mustafayev, Azar; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst.; Olive, Keith A.; /Minnesota U., Theor. Phys. Inst. /Minnesota U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC


    We explore the phenomenology of the minimal supersymmetric flipped SU(5) GUT model (CFSU(5)), whose soft supersymmetry-breaking (SSB) mass parameters are constrained to be universal at some input scale, Min, above the GUT scale, M{sub GUT}. We analyze the parameter space of CFSU(5) assuming that the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) provides the cosmological cold dark matter, paying careful attention to the matching of parameters at the GUT scale. We first display some specific examples of the evolutions of the SSB parameters that exhibit some generic features. Specifically, we note that the relationship between the masses of the lightest neutralino {chi} and the lighter stau {tilde {tau}}{sub 1} is sensitive to M{sub in}, as is the relationship between m{sub {chi}} and the masses of the heavier Higgs bosons A,H. For these reasons, prominent features in generic (m{sub 1/2}, m{sub 0}) planes such as coannihilation strips and rapid-annihilation funnels are also sensitive to Min, as we illustrate for several cases with tan {beta} = 10 and 55. However, these features do not necessarily disappear at large Min, unlike the case in the minimal conventional SU(5) GUT. Our results are relatively insensitive to neutrino masses.

  1. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu


    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  2. Constraining New Physics with D meson decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barranco, J.; Delepine, D.; Gonzalez Macias, V. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Lopez-Lozano, L. [Departamento de Física, División de Ciencias e Ingeniería, Universidad de Guanajuato, Campus León, León 37150 (Mexico); Área Académica de Matemáticas y Física, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42184, Pachuca, HGO (Mexico)


    Latest Lattice results on D form factors evaluation from first principles show that the Standard Model (SM) branching ratios prediction for the leptonic D{sub s}→ℓν{sub ℓ} decays and the semileptonic SM branching ratios of the D{sup 0} and D{sup +} meson decays are in good agreement with the world average experimental measurements. It is possible to disprove New Physics hypothesis or find bounds over several models beyond the SM. Using the observed leptonic and semileptonic branching ratios for the D meson decays, we performed a combined analysis to constrain non-standard interactions which mediate the cs{sup ¯}→lν{sup ¯} transition. This is done either by a model-independent way through the corresponding Wilson coefficients or in a model-dependent way by finding the respective bounds over the relevant parameters for some models beyond the Standard Model. In particular, we obtain bounds for the Two Higgs Doublet Model Type-II and Type III, the Left–Right model, the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with explicit R-parity violation and Leptoquarks. Finally, we estimate the transverse polarization of the lepton in the D{sup 0} decay and we found it can be as high as P{sub T}=0.23.

  3. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schild, Aaron V [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  4. Flexible constrained de Finetti reductions and applications (United States)

    Lancien, Cécilia; Winter, Andreas


    De Finetti theorems show how sufficiently exchangeable states are well-approximated by convex combinations of independent identically distributed states. Recently, it was shown that in many quantum information applications, a more relaxed de Finetti reduction (i.e., only a matrix inequality between the symmetric state and one of the de Finetti forms) is enough and that it leads to more concise and elegant arguments. Here we show several uses and general flexible applicability of a constrained de Finetti reduction in quantum information theory, which was recently discovered by Duan, Severini, and Winter. In particular, we show that the technique can accommodate other symmetries commuting with the permutation action and permutation-invariant linear constraints. We then demonstrate that, in some cases, it is also fruitful with convex constraints, in particular separability in a bipartite setting. This is a constraint particularly interesting in the context of the complexity class QMA(2) of interactive quantum Merlin-Arthur games with unentangled provers, and our results relate to the soundness gap amplification of QMA(2) protocols by parallel repetition. It is also relevant for the regularization of certain entropic channel parameters. As an aside, we present an alternative way of attacking this problem, relying on an entanglement measure theory rather than the de Finetti approach. Finally, we explore an extension to infinite-dimensional systems, which usually pose inherent problems to de Finetti techniques in the quantum case.

  5. Electropore Formation in Mechanically Constrained Phospholipid Bilayers. (United States)

    Fernández, M Laura; Risk, Marcelo Raúl; Vernier, P Thomas


    Molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers in aqueous systems reveal how an applied electric field stabilizes the reorganization of the water-membrane interface into water-filled, membrane-spanning, conductive pores with a symmetric, toroidal geometry. The pore formation process and the resulting symmetric structures are consistent with other mathematical approaches such as continuum models formulated to describe the electroporation process. Some experimental data suggest, however, that the shape of lipid electropores in living cell membranes may be asymmetric. We describe here the axially asymmetric pores that form when mechanical constraints are applied to selected phospholipid atoms. Electropore formation proceeds even with severe constraints in place, but pore shape and pore formation time are affected. Since lateral and transverse movement of phospholipids may be restricted in cell membranes by covalent attachments to or non-covalent associations with other components of the membrane or to membrane-proximate intracellular or extracellular biomolecular assemblies, these lipid-constrained molecular models point the way to more realistic representations of cell membranes in electric fields.

  6. Three-dimensional velocity model of crustal structure in the southern Korean Peninsula and its full-waveform validations (United States)

    Rhie, J.; Kim, S.; Woo, J. U.; Song, J. H.


    To obtain a high-resolution crustal three-dimensional (3-D) model, we incorporate multiple regional ambient noise datasets in different scales, which consist of 150 accelerometer stations (1-6 s group velocity), 37 regional broadband stations (5-30 s group and phase velocity), and longer period phase velocity maps from previous study (25-40 s phase velocity). A 3-D structure of shear wave velocity is constrained by integrating one-dimensional depth profiles from inversions of surface wave dispersions. The model estimation is carried out thoroughly in a trans-dimensional and hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework, such that the resulting model is less biased by arbitrary assumptions in the inversion process. To obtain P-wave velocity structure, then, a previous estimation of the variation of Vp/Vs ratio is applied. A 1-D velocity model will be replaced by this new 3-D model for determining accurate hypocenters and source processes of local earthquakes in the region. In addition, the new model will make more reliable seismic hazard analysis for scenario earthquakes possible. Before adopting the new model for various applications, it is necessary to validate it. To verify the validity of the model, full-waveform simulations for recent local earthquakes are performed. Two well observed moderate earthquakes occurred at NE and SW of the southern Korean Peninsula are considered for waveform simulations. The comparison between synthetic and observed waveforms shows that the new model reasonably well represents the seismic wave propagation characteristics in the southern Korean Peninsula.

  7. Crustal imaging of the Northwest Himalaya and its foredeep region from teleseismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowrav Saikia


    Full Text Available Over 450 receiver functions from 8 broadband stations located in the Indo-Gangetic plain and Northwest Himalayan region are analyzed to examine the crustal properties across the contiguous region. We identified the P-to-S phase beneath each station and estimated the crustal thickness from time delay of this phase with respect to the direct P arrival. With the help of the slant stacking technique, we determined bulk crustal chemical properties and validated our estimate of crustal thickness. The Moho was encountered in the Indo-Gangetic plain at an average depth of 33 km and thickened towards the Northwest Himalaya with the Moho depth varying from 37 to 52 km. The thickest crust matched the highest topography, which is strong evidence of the occurrence of a crustal root of the mountain range. The time domain iterative linearized inversion technique is used to invert radial receiver functions to wave velocity structures for both tectonic regimes. From the forward modelling, we found mid-crustal low-velocity layers at different patches at a depth of 10–30 km in the Northwest Himalaya region. The presence of melts may be inferred in the mid crust with high values of Poisson ratio (σ ≥ 0.260 for the stations in the Northwest Himalaya. Towards south in the Indo-Gangetic alluvium plain, we estimated a medium to higher value of Poisson ratio (0.240 ≤ σ ≤ 0.290, but velocity modelling implies absence of an intracrustal low-velocity zone around the region.

  8. Crustal structure of north Peru from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Condori, Cristobal; França, George S.; Tavera, Hernando J.; Albuquerque, Diogo F.; Bishop, Brandon T.; Beck, Susan L.


    In this study, we present results from teleseismic receiver functions, in order to investigate the crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio beneath northern Peru. A total number of 981 receiver functions were analyzed, from data recorded by 28 broadband seismic stations from the Peruvian permanent seismic network, the regional temporary SisNort network and one CTBTO station. The Moho depth and average crustal Vp/Vs ratio were determined at each station using the H-k stacking technique to identify the arrival times of primary P to S conversion and crustal reverberations (PpPms, PpSs + PsPms). The results show that the Moho depth correlates well with the surface topography and varies significantly from west to east, showing a shallow depth of around 25 km near the coast, a maximum depth of 55-60 km beneath the Andean Cordillera, and a depth of 35-40 km further to the east in the Amazonian Basin. The bulk crustal Vp/Vs ratio ranges between 1.60 and 1.88 with the mean of 1.75. Higher values between 1.75 and 1.88 are found beneath the Eastern and Western Cordilleras, consistent with a mafic composition in the lower crust. In contrast values vary from 1.60 to 1.75 in the extreme flanks of the Eastern and Western Cordillera indicating a felsic composition. We find a positive relationship between crustal thickness, Vp/Vs ratio, the Bouguer anomaly, and topography. These results are consistent with previous studies in other parts of Peru (central and southern regions) and provide the first crustal thickness estimates for the high cordillera in northern Peru.

  9. Monitoring Vertical Crustal Deformation and Gravity Variations during Water Level Changes at the Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Wei


    Full Text Available Monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level changes at the Three Gorges reservoir is important for the safe operation of the Three Gorges Dam and for the monitoring and prevention of a regional geological disaster. In this study, we determined vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the Three Gorges reservoir from direct calculations and actual measurements and a comprehensive solution. We used water areas extracted image data from the ZY-3 satellite and water level data to calculate gravity changes and vertical crustal deformation caused by every 5 m change in the water level due to storage and drainage of the Three Gorges reservoir from 145 m to 175 m. The vertical crustal deformation was up to 30 mm. The location of gravity change above 20 μ Gal(1 Gal=10-2 m/s2 was less than 2 km from the centerline of the Yangtze River. The CORS ES13 in Badong, near the reservoir, measured the vertical crustal deformation during water level changes. Because of the small number of CORS and gravity stations in the Three Gorges reservoir area, monitoring deformation and gravity related to changes in the Three Gorges reservoir water level cannot be closely followed. Using 26 CORS and some of the gravity stations in the Three Gorges area and based on loading deformation and the spherical harmonic analysis method, an integrated solution of vertical deformation and gravity variations during water level changes of the reservoir was determined, which is consistent with the actual CORS monitoring results. By comparison, we found that an integrated solution based on a CORS network can effectively enhance the capability of monitoring vertical crustal deformation and gravity changes during water level variations of the reservoir.

  10. Abrupt variations in brittle-ductile transition depth and lower crustal properties beneath two branches of the north Anatolian fault zone, Turkey. (United States)

    Cornwell, D. G.; Kahraman, M.; Thompson, D. A.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G. A.; Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Gülen, L.; Utkucu, M.


    As part of the multi-disciplinary Faultlab project, we present new detailed images of the crust and upper mantle beneath a major continental strike-slip fault system. Our study region samples the north Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) near the epicentres of two large earthquakes that occurred in 1999 at Izmit (M7.5) and Düzce (M7.2) and where estimates of current slip rate are 20-25 mm/yr. We calculated receiver functions from teleseismic earthquakes that were recorded by a rectangular seismometer array spanning the NAFZ with 66 stations at a nominal inter-station spacing of 7 km and 7 additional stations further afield. We use a combination of H-K stacking, common conversion point migration and non-linear inversion of receiver function stacks to constrain the subsurface velocity structure and illuminate major changes in the architecture and properties of the upper crust, lower crust and upper mantle, both across the two NAFZ branches and along the NAFZ, at length scales of less than 20 km. We show that the northern NAFZ branch depth extent varies from the mid-crust to the upper mantle and it is likely to be less than 5 km wide. A high velocity lower crust and a region of crustal underthrusting appear to add strength to a heterogeneous crust and play a role in dictating the variation in faulting style and postseismic deformation. Furthermore, we show a direct relationship between crustal terrane, seismicity rate and seismicity depth, indicating that the brittle-ductile transition is likely to vary over horizontal length scales of less than 10 km.

  11. Late-Archaean crustal growth in the Lewisian Complex of Northwest Scotland: Diachroneity in magmatic accretion and implications for models of crustal growth (United States)

    Whitehouse, M. J.

    The Lewisian Complex of northwestern Scotland is an Archaean basement terrain that was reworked during the Proterozoic. Previous geochronological studies have established that the complex represents an entirely new crustal addition during late-Archaean times, and the difference between a Sm-Nd accretion date of 2920 + or - 50 Ma and a Pb/Pb metamorphic date of 2680 + or - 70 Ma was interpreted as indicating a crustal accretion-differentiation superevent (CADS) lasting 240 + or - 110 Ma. A combined Rb-Sr, Pb/Pb, and Sm-Nd isotopic study reported was applied to the Lewisian CADS to attempt to address the problem of whether this comprised a short regional scale magmatic accretion event followed approximately 200 Ma later by regional high-grade metamorphism, or a long period of episodic or semi-continuous magmatic accretion prior to high-grade metamorphism.

  12. Subduction and slab tearing dynamics constrained by thermal anomalies in the Anatolia-Aegean region (United States)

    Roche, Vincent; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Loiselet, Christelle; Bouchot, Vincent


    D shape of the Aegean slab to discuss mantle and crustal dynamics. In order to constrain the development and the propagation of slab tears during subduction beneath western Anatolia, we used spatial and temporal data on magmatic activity, geochemical signatures of this activity (e.g. increase of mantle source component), seismic tomography models and seismicity data. We also discuss the origin of the thermal anomalies propagating all the way to the surface, whether they relate to deep-seated mantle processes only (western Anatolia, Turkey) or to more superficial volcanic processes above a hot mantle like in Central and Eastern Anatolia.

  13. Effects of crustal thickness on magmatic differentiation in subduction zone volcanism: A global study (United States)

    Farner, Michael J.; Lee, Cin-Ty A.


    The majority of arc magmas are highly evolved due to differentiation within the lithosphere or crust. Some studies have suggested a relationship between crustal thickness and magmatic differentiation, but the exact nature of this relationship is unclear. Here, we examine the interplay of crustal thickness and magmatic differentiation using a global geochemical dataset compiled from active volcanic arcs and elevation as a proxy for crustal thickness. With increasing crustal thickness, average arc magma compositions become more silicic (andesitic) and enriched in incompatible elements, indicating that on average, arc magmas in thick crust are more evolved, which can be easily explained by the longer transit and cooling times of magmas traversing thick arc lithosphere and crust. As crustal thickness increases, arc magmas show higher degrees of iron depletion at a given MgO content, indicating that arc magmas saturate earlier in magnetite when traversing thick crust. This suggests that differentiation within thick crust occurs under more oxidizing conditions and that the origin of oxidation is due to intracrustal processes (contamination or recharge) or the role of thick crust in modulating melting degree in the mantle wedge. We also show that although arc magmas are on average more silicic in thick crust, the most silicic magmas (>70 wt.% SiO2) are paradoxically found in thin crust settings, where average compositions are low in silica (basaltic). We suggest that extreme residual magmas, such as those exceeding 70 wt.% SiO2, are preferentially extracted from shallow crustal magma bodies than from deep-seated magma bodies, the latter more commonly found in regions of thick crust. We suggest that this may be because the convective lifespan of crustal magma bodies is limited by conductive cooling through the overlying crustal lid and that magma bodies in thick crust cool more slowly than in thin crust. When the crust is thin, cooling is rapid, preventing residual magmas

  14. Magnetic crustal thickness in Greenland from CHAMP and Ørsted data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maule, Cathrine Fox; Purucker, Michael E.; Olsen, Nils


    The magnetic crustal thickness of Greenland and the surrounding area is determined by inversion of gridded values of the magnetic radial component as given by the IDEMM model, which is based on CHAMP and Ørsted data alone, and by the Comprehensive Model (CM4), which is based on satellite and obse......The magnetic crustal thickness of Greenland and the surrounding area is determined by inversion of gridded values of the magnetic radial component as given by the IDEMM model, which is based on CHAMP and Ørsted data alone, and by the Comprehensive Model (CM4), which is based on satellite...

  15. Crustal growth of the Izu-Ogasawara arc estimated from structural characteristics of Oligocene arc (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Yamashita, M.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Sato, T.; No, T.; Tatsumi, Y.


    Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) carried out seismic surveys using a multichannel reflection system and ocean bottom seismographs, and we have clarified crustal structures of whole Izu-Ogasawara (Bonin)-Marina (IBM) arc since 2002. These refection images and velocity structures suggest that the crustal evolution in the intra-oceanic island arc accompanies with much interaction of materials between crust and mantle. Slow mantle velocity identified beneath the thick arc crusts suggests that dense crustal materials transformed into the mantle. On the other hand, high velocity lower crust can be seen around the bottom of the crust beneath the rifted region, and it suggests that underplating of mafic materials occurs there. Average crustal production rate of the entire arc is larger than expected one and approximately 200 km3/km/Ma. The production rate of basaltic magmas corresponds to that of oceanic ridge. Repeated crustal differentiation is indispensable to produce much light materials like continental materials, however, the real process cannot still be resolved yet. We, therefore, submitted drilling proposals to obtain in-situ middle crust with P-wave velocity of 6 km/s. In the growth history of the IBM arc, it is known by many papers that boninitic volcanisms preceded current bimodal volcanisms based on basaltic magmas. The current volcanisms accompanied with basaltic magmas have been occurred since Oligocene age, however, the tectonic differences to develop crustal architecture between Oligocene and present are not understood yet. We obtained new refraction/reflection data along an arc strike of N-S in fore-arc region. Then, we estimate crustal structure with severe change of the crustal thickness from refraction data, which are similar to that along the volcanic front. Interval for location of the thick arc crust along N-S is very similar to that along the volcanic front. The refection image indicates that the basement of the fore

  16. Crustal structure of western Hispaniola (Haiti) from a teleseismic receiver function study (United States)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Guerrier, K.; Keir, D.; Stuart, G.; Clouard, V.; Gallacher, R.; Ulysse, S.; Boisson, D.; Bien-aimé Momplaisir, R.; Saint Preux, F.; Prépetit, C.; Saurel, J.-M.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Meyer, B.


    Haiti, located at the northern Caribbean plate boundary, records a geological history of terrane accretion from Cretaceous island arc formations to the Eocene to Recent oblique collision with the Bahamas platform. Little is presently known about the underlying crustal structure of the island. We analyze P-waveforms arriving at 27 temporary broadband seismic stations deployed over a distance of 200 km across the major terrane boundaries in Haiti to determine the crustal structure of western Hispaniola. We compute teleseismic receiver functions using the Extended-Time Multi-Taper method and determine crustal thickness and bulk composition (Vp/Vs) using the H-k stacking method. Three distinctive and fault-bounded crustal domains, defined by their characteristic Moho depth distributions and bulk crustal Vp/Vs, are imaged across Haiti. We relate these domains to three crustal terranes that have been accreted along the plate boundary during the northeastwards displacement of the Caribbean plate and are presently being deformed in a localized fold and thrust belt. In the northern domain, made up of volcanic arc facies, the crust has a thickness of 23 km and Vp/Vs of 1.75 ± 0.1 typical of average continental crust. The crust in the southern domain is part of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (Caribbean LIP), and is 22 km thick with Vp/Vs of 1.80 ± 0.03 consistent with plume-related rocks of late Cretaceous age. Significantly thicker, the crust in central Haiti has values of Moho depths averaging 41 km and with Vp/Vs of 1.80 ± 0.05. We propose that the central domain is likely constructed of an island arc upper crust with fragments of dense material originating from mafic lavas or LIP material. We produce a crustal profile along a N-S transect across Haiti accounting for the surface geology, shallow structural history, and new seismological constraints provided by variations of crustal thickness and bulk composition.

  17. Crustal Thickness and Structure in Southern Chile: Patagonia plate assembly structures and continental arc modifications (United States)

    Rodriguez, E. E.; Russo, R. M.


    Crustal structure is the product of the processes that operated during a region's tectonic history. For Patagonia, these tectonic processes include its early Paleozoic assembly and accretion to the South America portion of Gondwana, Triassic rifting of Gondwana, and a long history as the upper plate during oceanic subduction since the Mesozoic. To assess the crustal structure and glean insight into how these tectonic processes affected the region, we combined data from two seismic networks, the Chile Ridge Subduction Project and Seismic Experiment of Aisen Chile - yielding a total of 77 broadband seismic stations - deployed from 2004 to 2007. The stations were concentrated 300 km inboard of the Chile trench, above structures unlikely to have been affected by ongoing Chile Ridge subduction. Events suitable for receiver function (RF) analyses (M > 5.9, of various backazimuths, epicentral distances of 30 - 90°) yielded 995 radial RFs, constructed using iterative time deconvolution (Ligorria and Ammon, 1999). We estimated crustal thicknesses and compressional to shear wave velocity ratios (Vp/Vs) using the H-k grid search method (Zhu and Kanamori, 2000); common conversion point (CCP) stacking (Zhu, et al., 2006) allowed imaging of crustal structure. Results limit crustal thicknesses to between 30 and 45 km. The crust varies smoothly from 30 km at the N margin of our study area ( 43°S) to a max depth of 45 km at 44.75°S, shallowing to 30 km at 49°S. On E-W CCP sections north of 46°S, the Moho dips westward, from a depth of 35 at 71°W to 45 km at its deepest near 72.75°W. Beneath the active Southern Volcanic Zone, which is bounded to the west by the Liquiñe-Ofqui fault, the Moho is ambiguous, producing unclear Ps phases possibly reflecting a lack of sharp impedance contrast or poor conversion efficiency at the base of the crust, perhaps due to deep-seated volcanic arc processes. The proximity of the Liquiñe-Ofqui strike-slip fault may also complicate the

  18. I/O-Efficient Construction of Constrained Delaunay Triangulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Arge, Lars; Yi, Ke


    In this paper, we designed and implemented an I/O-efficient algorithm for constructing constrained Delaunay triangulations. If the number of constraining segments is smaller than the memory size, our algorithm runs in expected O( N B logM/B NB ) I/Os for triangulating N points in the plane, where M...

  19. Balance of payments constrained economic growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With Nigeria adopting the import substitution industrialization policy in 1960, we apply cointegration test on time series data to estimate the long-run ... BOP constrained model as a suitable framework to explain Nigeria's long term growth and reinforces the opinion that external factors constrain Nigeria's economic growth.

  20. Vertical crustal movements in Southern California, 1974 to 1978 (United States)

    Burford, R.O.; Gilmore, Thomas D.


    An extensive resurvey of most of the first-order leveling network in southern California, known as the Southern California Releveling Program (SCRP), was carried out during the first 5 months of 1978. The primary scientific purpose of these measurements was to rapidly update the vertical control record throughout a recently uplifted region of southern California in order to more thoroughly document the vertical component of tectonic movement and to provide a reliable base for comparison with future levelings. Analyses of historic first-order leveling results have clearly demonstrated that a broad crustal upwarping, largely contained within a region consisting of the Transverse Ranges province and an area along the intervening section of the San Andreas fault system, had developed between about 1959 and 1974. Unfortunately, there is strong evidence that parts of the 1978 SCRP data are contaminated by the effects of intrasurvey tectonic deformation, limited surficial failures, and, less certainly, magnetically induced systematic error associated with the use of automatic levels. However, any distortions in leveling results caused by these or other factors are not so serious as to render the SCRP data useless. In fact, the bulk of these data can be accepted at face value, and most of the remaining data can be incorporated with some caution to augment the more reliable parts of the network. The evaluation of the 1978 leveling is based on a combination of circuit-misclosures, local timing of the field observations, analysis of profiles of apparent height changes derived from comparisons with previous levelings, and an analysis of the position and orientation of the various routes in relation to the regional structural grain and the gradients of differential vertical motion established by previous investigations. Comparisons of the 1978 SCRP results with the latest of the previous surveys along each route retained in the analysis show that all but about one-third of the

  1. Crustal and mantle structure and anisotropy beneath the incipient segments of the East African Rift System: Preliminary results from the ongoing SAFARI (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Reed, C. A.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.; Massinque, B.; Mdala, H. S.; moidaki, M.; Mutamina, D. M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Ingate, S. F.; Reusch, A.; Barstow, N.


    Despite the vast wealth of research conducted toward understanding processes associated with continental rifting, the extent of our knowledge is derived primarily from studies focused on mature rift systems, such as the well-developed portions of the East African Rift System (EARS) north of Lake Malawi. To explore the dynamics of early rift evolution, the SAFARI (Seismic Arrays for African Rift Initiation) team deployed 50 PASSCAL broadband seismic stations across the Malawi, Luangwa, and Okavango rifts of the EARS during the summer of 2012. The cumulative length of the profiles is about 2500 km and the planned recording duration is 2 years. Here we present the preliminary results of systematic analyses of data obtained from the first year of acquisition for all 50 stations. A total of 446 high-quality shear-wave splitting measurements using PKS, SKKS, and SKS phases from 84 teleseismic events were used to constrain fast polarization directions and splitting times throughout the region. The Malawi and Okavango rifts are characterized by mostly NE trending fast directions with a mean splitting time of about 1 s. The fast directions on the west side of the Luangwa Rift Zone are parallel to the rift valley, and those on the east side are more N-S oriented. Stacking of approximately 1900 radial receiver functions reveals significant spatial variations of both crustal thickness and the ratio of crustal P and S wave velocities, as well as the thickness of the mantle transition zone. Stations situated within the Malawi rift demonstrate a southward increase in observed crustal thickness, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the Malawi rift originated at the northern end of the rift system and propagated southward. Both the Okavango and Luangwa rifts are associated with thinned crust and increased Vp/Vs, although additional data is required at some stations to enhance the reliability of the observations. Teleseismic P-wave travel-time residuals show a delay of about

  2. Evaluating Crustal Contamination Effects On The Lithophile Trace Element Budget Of Shergottites, NWA 856 As A Test Case (United States)

    Brandon, A. D.; Ferdous, J.; Peslier, A. H.


    The issue of whether crustal contamination has affected the lithophile trace element budget of shergottites has been a point of contention for decades. The evaluation has focused on the enriched shergottite compositions as an outcome of crustal contamination of mantle-derived parent magmas or, alternatively, the compositions of these stones reflect an incompatible trace element (ITE) enriched mantle source.

  3. Constraining blazar physics with polarization signatures (United States)

    Zhang, Haocheng; Boettcher, Markus; Li, Hui


    Blazars are active galactic nuclei whose jets are directed very close to our line of sight. They emit nonthermal-dominated emission from radio to gamma-rays, with the radio to optical emissions known to be polarized. Both radiation and polarization signatures can be strongly variable. Observations have shown that sometimes strong multiwavelength flares are accompanied by drastic polarization variations, indicating active participation of the magnetic field during flares. We have developed a 3D multi-zone time-dependent polarization-dependent radiation transfer code, which enables us to study the spectral and polarization signatures of blazar flares simultaneously. By combining this code with a Fokker-Planck nonthermal particle evolution scheme, we are able to derive simultaneous fits to time-dependent spectra, multiwavelength light curves, and time-dependent optical polarization signatures of a well-known multiwavelength flare with 180 degree polarization angle swing of the blazar 3C279. Our work shows that with detailed consideration of light travel time effects, the apparently symmetric time-dependent radiation and polarization signatures can be naturally explained by a straight, helically symmetric jet pervaded by a helical magnetic field, without the need of any asymmetric structures. Also our model suggests that the excess in the nonthermal particles during flares can originate from magnetic reconnection events, initiated by a shock propagating through the emission region. Additionally, the magnetic field should generally revert to its initial topology after the flare. We conclude that such shock-initiated magnetic reconnection event in an emission environment with relatively strong magnetic energy can be the driver of multiwavelength flares with polarization angle swings. Future statistics on such observations will constrain general features of such events, while magneto-hydrodynamic simulations will provide physical scenarios for the magnetic field evolution

  4. Constraining Cosmic Evolution of Type Ia Supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Garnavich, P.M.; Jha, S.; Kirshner, R.P.; Krisciunas, K.; Leibundgut, B.; Li, W.; Matheson, T.; Miceli, A.; Miknaitis, G.; Pignata, G.; Rest, A.; Riess, A.G.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Chile U., Catolica /Bohr Inst. /Notre Dame U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Texas A-M /European Southern Observ. /NOAO, Tucson /Fermilab /Chile U., Santiago /Harvard U., Phys. Dept. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U. /Res. Sch. Astron. Astrophys., Weston Creek /Stockholm U. /Hawaii U. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept.


    We present the first large-scale effort of creating composite spectra of high-redshift type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and comparing them to low-redshift counterparts. Through the ESSENCE project, we have obtained 107 spectra of 88 high-redshift SNe Ia with excellent light-curve information. In addition, we have obtained 397 spectra of low-redshift SNe through a multiple-decade effort at Lick and Keck Observatories, and we have used 45 ultraviolet spectra obtained by HST/IUE. The low-redshift spectra act as a control sample when comparing to the ESSENCE spectra. In all instances, the ESSENCE and Lick composite spectra appear very similar. The addition of galaxy light to the Lick composite spectra allows a nearly perfect match of the overall spectral-energy distribution with the ESSENCE composite spectra, indicating that the high-redshift SNe are more contaminated with host-galaxy light than their low-redshift counterparts. This is caused by observing objects at all redshifts with similar slit widths, which corresponds to different projected distances. After correcting for the galaxy-light contamination, subtle differences in the spectra remain. We have estimated the systematic errors when using current spectral templates for K-corrections to be {approx}0.02 mag. The variance in the composite spectra give an estimate of the intrinsic variance in low-redshift maximum-light SN spectra of {approx}3% in the optical and growing toward the ultraviolet. The difference between the maximum-light low and high-redshift spectra constrain SN evolution between our samples to be < 10% in the rest-frame optical.

  5. Carbon-constrained health care enterprise. (United States)

    Gell, Michael


    The health economy is a significant part of a national economy accounting typically for about 8% of GDP spent. As national economies respond to the dual challenges of severe economic turbulence on the global scale and climate change mitigation, the health economy is coming under increasing pressure to respond. Indications for sharp reductions in budgets and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, are widespread. In this paper an analysis is undertaken of the diverse forces acting on a typical health care enterprise. The forces, both economic and carbon related, are investigated in terms of their effects through the enterprise and across its boundaries on the supply, demand and waste sides. The overall aim is to show how the enterprise and whole supply chains may flip synchronously into a low-carbon evolutionary pathway. By illustrating how different elements of the health care enterprise may respond to these developments, diverse opportunities for cost reduction, carbon reduction and product (goods and services) development are identified. These opportunities involve a variety of waste reduction and energy and materials conservation measures as well as new ways of collaborating with other enterprises going through similar transformations. The overall objective is to show that the carbon-constrained health care enterprise and the low-carbon health economy in which it sits may broaden its role in the coming decades to include a degree of responsibility for the health of the environment. This broader role is likely to supplement and entangle with the traditional role of the health economy, currently focused narrowly on human health, and lead to extensive organisational transformation, and infrastructure and product developments.

  6. A REE-in-plagioclase-clinopyroxene thermometer for crustal rocks (United States)

    Sun, Chenguang; Liang, Yan


    A REE-in-plagioclase-clinopyroxene thermometer has been developed on the basis of the temperature- and composition-dependent rare-earth element (REE) partitioning between coexisting plagioclase and clinopyroxene. This two-mineral exchange thermobarometer is constructed using parameters from lattice strain models for REE + Y partitioning in plagioclase and in clinopyroxene that were independently calibrated against experimentally determined mineral-melt partitioning data. An important advantage of this REE-based thermometer is that it can provide accurate temperatures through linear least-squares analysis of REE + Y as a group. Applications of the REE-in-plagioclase-clinopyroxene thermometer to volcanic and cumulate rocks show that temperatures derived from the new thermometer agree well with independently constrained magma crystallization temperatures, which adds confidence to applications of the REE-exchange thermometer to natural rocks with a wide spectrum of composition (i.e., from basalt to rhyolite). However, systematic temperature differences appear between the REE- and Mg-exchange thermometers for the volcanic and cumulate rocks. Through numerical simulations of diffusion in plagioclase-clinopyroxene systems, we demonstrate that (1) due to their slower diffusion rates, REE in minerals preferentially records crystallization or near-crystallization temperatures of the rock, and that (2) Mg is readily rest to lower temperatures for rocks from intermediately or slowly cooled magma bodies but records the initial crystallization temperatures of rocks from rapidly cooled magmas. Given their distinct diffusive responses to temperature changes, REE and Mg closure temperatures recorded by the two thermometers can be used in concert to study thermal and magmatic histories of plagioclase- and clinopyroxene-bearing rocks.

  7. Lu/Hf dating of garnet constrains timing of metamorphism and deformation, Prince Rupert Area, British Columbia (United States)

    Wolf, D. E.; Andronicos, C. L.; Vervoort, J. D.; Mansfield, M.


    We present new Lu-Hf garnet ages that constrain the timing of deformation and metamorphism in the Western Metamorphic Belt (WMB), near Prince Rupert, British Columbia. We examined four samples of grt- bearing schist collected within the aureole to the Ecstall Pluton in the WMB. Garnets were separated from these rocks and dated using the Lu-Hf method at Washington State University. We determined geologically meaningful ages from three of these samples. The tectonic history of the Prince Rupert area is marked by phases of transpressive deformation, which included the development of crustal scale strike-slip shear zones and thrust slices with inverted metamorphic gradients. The Grenville Channel shear zone (GCSZ) is a crustal-scale sinistral-slip shear zone over 300 km long that strikes NW with a steep dip and shallow lineation. The GCSZ cuts through the WMB, a ductile fold and thrust belt composed of gneiss and schist with an inverted metamorphic sequence. Index minerals range from: chl and chd-grade units at the bottom of the sequence, str-bearing rocks in the middle, and ky-grt schist and local migmatites at the top of the thrust stack. The WMB was deformed and intruded by the Ecstall Pluton after the inverted metamorphic sequence had formed. The Ecstall is an epi-bearing hbl-qtz diorite emplaced between 91 and 93.5±1 Ma (Butler et al., 2001). Sample G-16A from Kumeleon Inlet (W of the Ecstall pluton) is a schist containing grt+biot+musc+qtz+epi+amph+sil, with small (date garnet growth during metamorphism and deformation in the Prince Rupert area, and show that development of the inverted metamorphic sequence predated emplacement of the Ecstall pluton by 10 to 15 Ma. The data further indicate that left lateral strike slip shearing occurred between 107 and 102 Ma, at the same time much of the North American Cordillera was undergoing major contractional deformation.

  8. Moho fabrics of North Qinling Belt, Weihe Graben and Ordos Block in China constrained from large dynamite shots (United States)

    Li, Hongqiang; Gao, Rui; Xiong, Xiaosong; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui


    The Qinling Orogen Belt (QOB), Weihe Graben (WG) and the southern margin of the Ordos Block (SOB), lying on the central portion of China, had been involved into the amalgamation of China (Asian continent) through subduction, collision to exhumation processes. The Moho fabrics beneath this region, recorded part of the evolution. Therefore, its thickness and internal structure may provide significant knowledge and contribute to the understanding the intracontinental deformation of central China. In this paper, in order to place constrain on the nature beneath the study area, nine large dynamite shots (the charge ≥500 kg) used to infer the internal structure and characteristics of the crustal boundary. We analyse the specific characteristics of the Moho reflection, the amplitude decay curves in near vertical zone and generate a single-fold profile; in addition, it also address the internal structure and discuss its implication. The Moho is approximately at the depth of 39 km beneath the North Qinling Orogen (NQB) and the WG, and at the depth of 42 km beneath the SOB. The Moho shows a subtle uplift and the crust is thin under the NQB. The north-dipping reflectors between the lower crust and the uppermost mantle extend to the middle of the WG, and the south-dipping reflectors in the lower crust of the NQB are truncated by the Moho, therefore both of features and structures exhibit a 'Crocodile' like structure and are most probably the remnants of the amalgamation of the NQB and the NCB. The transparent reflection Moho beneath the southern part of the WG may indicate the existence of a magma channel. The Weihe Fault is interpreted as a shallow, near-surface feature resulted from the upwelling magma; SOB represents a relatively weak region and could accommodate the crustal shortening during the formation of the China continent in Triassic.

  9. Seasonal crustal seismic velocity changes in Japan from noise-based monitoring (United States)

    WANG, Q. Y.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lecointre, A.; Takeda, T.; Aoki, Y.; Longuevergne, L.


    The general framework of this work is to study how environmental seasonal perturbations impact the solid Earth in an active tectonic region. For this purpose we continuously monitor crustal seismic velocity changes using noise-based monitoring over the entire Japan. We perform a massive data analysis of the continuous seismic records of the very dense Hi-net short-period network (800 stations) from 2008 to 2012. When mapping seasonal velocity changes over the entire Japan we find large anomalies in the southern Kyushu island and in the Northern Hokkaido island. Transient seasonal crustal drops of seismic velocity in Kyushu are well explained by a model of pore pressure increase induced by heavy precipitation in summer during typhoon period. The other large seasonal anomaly located in Eastern Hokkaido (North Japan) shows both an effect of increased pore pressure during precipitation in summer (velocity decrease) and of closure of crustal cracks in winter (velocity increase) explained by both the effects of snow loading and pore pressure decrease by water drainage. The response of the crust in western Japan (Hokkaido and Honshu) is more enigmatic as it shows a very small sensitivity to both precipitation and snow loads effects. Finally, we show how better understanding these environmentally induced crustal perturbations improves our observations of tectonic-induced seismic property changes in the special case of the M9, 2011, Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

  10. Volcanoes: Where and Why? Crustal Evolution Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation. (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  11. Electron impact ionization in the Martian atmosphere: Interplay between scattering and crustal magnetic field effects (United States)

    Lillis, Robert J.; Fang, Xiaohua


    Precipitating electrons are typically the dominant source of energy input into Mars' nighttime upper atmosphere, with consequences for atmospheric and ionospheric structure, composition, chemistry, and electrodynamics. Mars' spatially heterogeneous crustal magnetic fields affect the fluxes of precipitating electrons, via both the magnetic mirror force and Gauss' law of conservation of magnetic flux. We use a kinetic electron transport model to examine ionization rate profiles that result from the combination of these magnetic effects and elastic and inelastic scattering by atmospheric neutrals. Specifically, we calculate ionization rates as a function of altitude, crustal magnetic field strength, and the initial energy and pitch angle of the precipitating electrons, covering the relevant ranges of these parameters. Several complex behaviors are exhibited, including bifurcating ionization peaks with distinct characteristics and energy-dependent and crustal field strength-dependent increases in ionization with decreasing pitch angle. Elucidating such behavior is important for understanding the effect of Mars' unique crustal fields on the Mars upper atmosphere and ionosphere, both to predict the consequences of measured electron precipitation and to enable, for the first time, downward coupling of global plasma models with thermosphere-ionosphere models.

  12. Oceanic crustal carbon cycle drives 26-million-year atmospheric carbon dioxide periodicities. (United States)

    Müller, R Dietmar; Dutkiewicz, Adriana


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) data for the last 420 million years (My) show long-term fluctuations related to supercontinent cycles as well as shorter cycles at 26 to 32 My whose origin is unknown. Periodicities of 26 to 30 My occur in diverse geological phenomena including mass extinctions, flood basalt volcanism, ocean anoxic events, deposition of massive evaporites, sequence boundaries, and orogenic events and have previously been linked to an extraterrestrial mechanism. The vast oceanic crustal carbon reservoir is an alternative potential driving force of climate fluctuations at these time scales, with hydrothermal crustal carbon uptake occurring mostly in young crust with a strong dependence on ocean bottom water temperature. We combine a global plate model and oceanic paleo-age grids with estimates of paleo-ocean bottom water temperatures to track the evolution of the oceanic crustal carbon reservoir over the past 230 My. We show that seafloor spreading rates as well as the storage, subduction, and emission of oceanic crustal and mantle CO 2 fluctuate with a period of 26 My. A connection with seafloor spreading rates and equivalent cycles in subduction zone rollback suggests that these periodicities are driven by the dynamics of subduction zone migration. The oceanic crust-mantle carbon cycle is thus a previously overlooked mechanism that connects plate tectonic pulsing with fluctuations in atmospheric carbon and surface environments.

  13. Lithospheric Thickness Variations from Gravity and Topography in Areas of High Crustal Remanent Magnetization on Mars (United States)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Raymond, C. A.


    Large regions of intense crustal re- manent magnetization were fortuitously discovered on Mars by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. Gravity and topography admittance studies are used to examine lithospheric structure in the areas of intense magnetization. Areas with positively magnetized crust appear to have thinner crust and elastic lithosphere than negatively magnetized crust. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Tropics in Antarctica? Crustal Evaluation Education Project. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Investigation. (United States)

    Stoever, Edward C., Jr.

    Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) modules were designed to: (1) provide students with the methods and results of continuing investigations into the composition, history, and processes of the earth's crust and the application of this knowledge to man's activities and (2) to be used by teachers with little or no previous background in the…

  15. Reconstruction of the pre-breakup crustal thickness in Australia/Antarctica (United States)

    Goncharov, A.


    Some 140 million years ago, Australia and Antarctica were parts of a single continent Gondwana. Before it broke into parts there was a process of extensive crustal extension. Thinning of the crust during this process was accompanied by deposition of vast amounts of sedimentary rocks along Australia’s Southern Margin, where the total sediment thickness locally (e.g., Ceduna Sub-basin) reaches 15 km. These sedimentary rocks may have been involved in oil and gas formation. Knowledge of the pre-breakup crustal thickness in Australia/Antarctica is important because it provides additional constraints for plate tectonic reconstructions of the two continents and ultimately leads to a more accurate assessment of the petroleum potential of Australia’s Southern Margin. Most reliable estimates of crustal thickness come from refraction seismic measurements which define the depth to the Moho boundary, where seismic velocity increases to 8 km/s or more. Such measurements were used in this research for Australia. Unlike Australia, Antarctica has poor coverage of seismic measurements of crustal thickness. For Antarctica, seismic measurements were supplemented by values predicted by the regression between seismically defined crustal thickness and upwardly continued gravity. Upward continuation emphasizes the effects of variations in crustal thickness in the total gravity signal. After compilation and computation of crustal thickness was completed, data points located on Australian continent were reconstructed to their pre-breakup position. The most up-to-date finite rotation parameters defining the movement of Australia relative to Antarctica were used in this process. To ensure that pre-breakup extension and thinning of the crust (during the 140 to 95 Ma time interval) were accounted for, points with crustal thickness values less than 30 km on both Australian and Antarctic margins were excluded from subsequent gridding. Crust thinner than 30 km was taken to have been affected

  16. On the geographical distribution of induced time-varying crustal magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thebault, E.; Hemant, K.; Hulot, G.


    of the Earth's crust. For spherical harmonic degrees 15-90, we estimate the root mean square of the crustal magnetic field secular variation to amount 0.06-0.12 nT/yr at the terrestrial surface between epochs 1960-2002.5. The geographical distribution of the signal shows absolute values reaching 0.65-1.30 n...

  17. A Unified Global Reference Frame of Vertical Crustal Movements by Satellite Laser Ranging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Zhu


    Full Text Available Crustal movement is one of the main factors influencing the change of the Earth system, especially in its vertical direction, which affects people’s daily life through the frequent occurrence of earthquakes, geological disasters, and so on. In order to get a better study and application of the vertical crustal movement,as well as its changes, the foundation and prerequisite areto devise and establish its reference frame; especially, a unified global reference frame is required. Since SLR (satellite laser ranging is one of the most accurate space techniques for monitoring geocentric motion and can directly measure the ground station’s geocentric coordinates and velocities relative to the centre of the Earth’s mass, we proposed to take the vertical velocity of the SLR technique in the ITRF2008 framework as the reference frame of vertical crustal motion, which we defined as the SLR vertical reference frame (SVRF. The systematic bias between other velocity fields and the SVRF was resolved by using the GPS (Global Positioning System and VLBI (very long baseline interferometry velocity observations, and the unity of other velocity fields and SVRF was realized,as well. The results show that it is feasible and suitable to take the SVRF as a reference frame, which has both geophysical meanings and geodetic observations, so we recommend taking the SLR vertical velocity under ITRF2008 as the global reference frame of vertical crustal movement.

  18. Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern Tibet inferred from magnetotelluric data (United States)

    Unsworth, M. J.; Jones, A. G.; Wei, W.; Marquis, G.; Gokarn, S. G.; Spratt, J. E.; Bedrosian, Paul; Booker, John; Leshou, Chen; Clarke, Greg; Shenghui, Li; Chanhong, Lin; Ming, Deng; Sheng, Jin; Solon, Kurt; Handong, Tan; Ledo, Juanjo; Roberts, Brian


    The Cenozoic collision between the Indian and Asian continents formed the Tibetan plateau, beginning about 70million years ago. Since this time, at least 1,400km of convergence has been accommodated by a combination of underthrusting of Indian and Asian lithosphere, crustal shortening, horizontal extrusion and lithospheric delamination. Rocks exposed in the Himalaya show evidence of crustal melting and are thought to have been exhumed by rapid erosion and climatically forced crustal flow. Magnetotelluric data can be used to image subsurface electrical resistivity, a parameter sensitive to the presence of interconnected fluids in the host rock matrix, even at low volume fractions. Here we present magnetotelluric data from the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen from 77°E to 92°E, which show that low resistivity, interpreted as a partially molten layer, is present along at least 1,000km of the southern margin of the Tibetan plateau. The inferred low viscosity of this layer is consistent with the development of climatically forced crustal flow in Southern Tibet.

  19. Relaxation of compensated topography and the evolution of crustal plateaus on Venus (United States)

    Nunes, Daniel Cahn; Phillips, Roger J.; Brown, C. David; Dombard, Andrew J.


    Crustal plateaus, dominant physiographic features on Venus, likely originate through dynamic mantle processes, although a debate exists on whether they formed by mantle upwellings or downwellings. Regardless of the mode of formation, several observations led to the hypothesis that viscous relaxation may be the driving force behind the apparent evolutionary sequence from a high-standing plateau to a low-standing plateau with elevated margins. We apply analytic and finite element models to test this hypothesis for isostatically compensated topography, as modeling of gravity data suggests that crustal plateaus are presently supported by crustal roots. Geotherm values combined with a surface temperature of 740 K preclude relaxation within 109 years, while geotherm values >=20 K km-1 can yield relaxation times of 108 years or less. Hence significant relaxation requires hot conditions in order to occur within the appropriate 1-Gyr timescale set by crustal plateau ages. We also show that a compensated plateau can either retain its shape as it relaxes or become more domical in appearance. Mantle temperatures plateau and produces domical relaxed profiles. Higher temperatures lead to a relatively inviscid mantle and relaxation that is largely insensitive to topographic wavelength, thus preserving the original topographic shape during relaxation. In either case, relaxation of compensated plateaus does not yield elevated rims. We propose that the state of compensation must be considered variable.

  20. New images of the crustal structure beneath eastern Tibet from a high-density seismic array (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Tian, Xiaobo; Gao, Rui; Wang, Gaochun; Wu, Zhenbo; Zhou, Beibei; Tan, Ping; Nie, Shitan; Yu, Guiping; Zhu, Gaohua; Xu, Xiao


    An east-west trending, high-density seismic array was deployed along the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau to investigate its eastward expansion. The 160 km long array spans the Ruoergai basin, Minjiang fault, Minshan Mountains, Tazang fault, and West Qinling. The array included 330 short-period seismographs spaced at 500 m intervals, which recorded teleseismic 3-component waveforms over a one month period. P-wave receiver functions calculated from 35 teleseismic events provided an image of crustal structure. The results show a massive thrust nappe structure around the Minshan Mountains and beneath the Minjiang fault. We suggest that this nappe formed after the closure of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean. The resultant Triassic thrusting contributed to partial uplift of the eastern Ruoergai basin and the Minshan Mountains in middle-to-late Miocene time. Receiver function images show that the Tazang fault is a crustal-scale rupture cutting across the Moho. The western Tazang fault appears as a nearly vertical strike-slip fault accommodating left lateral shear at the terminus of the eastern Kunlun fault. After clockwise rotation from an approximate east-west orientation to a nearly north-south orientation, the eastern Tazang fault became a west-dipping thrust fault, which caused crustal thickening beneath the Minshan Mountains and the West Qinling. Our results suggest that late Cenozoic uplift of the eastern margin of the plateau is produced by eastward overthrusting and crustal shortening, processes that absorbed slip along the Tazang and Kunlun faults.

  1. High resolution regional crustal models from irregularly distributed data: application to Asia and adjacent areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, W.; Kaban, M.K.; Beekman, F.; Tesauro, M.; Mooney, W.D.; Cloetingh, S.


    We propose a new methodology to obtain crustal models in areas where data is sparse and data spreading is heterogeneous. This new method involves both interpolating the depth to the Moho discontinuity between observations and estimating a velocity–depth curve for the crust at each interpolation

  2. Crustal thickness, discontinuity depth, and upper mantle structure beneath southern Africa: constraints from body wave conversions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; Che, Sébastien; Hilst, R.D. van der; Wit, Maarten J. de


    The technique of receiver function analysis is applied to the study of crustal and upper mantle structures beneath the Kaapvaal craton in southern Africa and its surroundings. Seismic data were recorded by the seismic array of 82 sites deployed from April 1997 to April 1999 across southern Africa,

  3. A crustal thickness map of Africa derived from a global gravity field model using Euler deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tedla, G.E.; Meijde, M. van der; Nyblade, A.A.; Meer, F.D. van der


    We develop a new continental scale crustal model for Africa by modelling the free-air gravity anomaly EIGEN-GL04C, which was developed from 30 months of GRACE Level 1B data covering the period from 2003 February to 2005 July, and surface gravity data from seven different sources. From this gravity

  4. Global maps of the CRUST 2.0 crustal components stripped gravity disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tenzer, R.; Hamayun, K.; Vajda, P.


    We use the CRUST 2.0 crustal model and the EGM08 geopotential model to compile global maps of the gravity disturbances corrected for the gravitational effects (attractions) of the topography and of the density contrasts of the oceans, sediments, ice, and the remaining crust down to the Moho

  5. The Crustal Thickness of the Philippine Sea Plate Derived from Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen


    Full Text Available We constructed a new free-air gravity anomaly map of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP using ship-tracked gravity data from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC. Our results show that the isogals trend correlates well with the tectonic structures in the PSP. After removing the gravity induced by sea water from the free-air gravity data, we obtained the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly, which is later used to compute the Moho geometry in the PSP by applying the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. Our results indicate that in the southern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB the crustal thickness is nearly homogeneous with a value of about 5 km, which implies that the WPB is quite stable. The low-amplitude and near-zero free-air gravity anomalies clearly indicate that the whole WPB, except at trenches and island arcs, is nearly in a state of isostatic equilibrium. The average crustal thickness of the Palau Kyushu Ridge (PKR is more than 10 km. In the eastern PSP the crustal thickness gradually increases eastward. Our results also imply that a relatively thin and low density mantle exists beneath the Parece Vela Basin (PVB as a consequence of back-arc spreading and serpentinized upwells of the thin crustal thickness.

  6. Existence of torsional surface waves in an earth's crustal layer lying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper aims to study the dispersion of torsional surface waves in a crustal layer being sandwiched between a rigid boundary plane and a sandy mantle. In the mantle, rigidity and initial stress vary linearly while density remains constant. Dispersion relation has been deduced in a closed form by means of variable ...

  7. Crustal thickness mapping in Raipur–Katni area of Narmada–Son ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is seismically active and geologically complex with different geological formations. Magnetic data divides the area into two ... era (Ravi Shanker 1988). NSL is a sub-crustal fea- .... Figure 1. Map of the surface geology with various formations along with Narmada, Son and Ken Rivers (after Geological. Survey of India 1993).

  8. Folding of small proteins using constrained molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Balaraman, Gouthaman S; Park, In-Hee; Jain, Abhinandan; Vaidehi, Nagarajan


    The focus of this paper is to examine whether conformational search using constrained molecular dynamics (MD) method is more enhanced and enriched toward "native-like" structures compared to all-atom MD for the protein folding as a model problem. Constrained MD methods provide an alternate MD tool for protein structure prediction and structure refinement. It is computationally expensive to perform all-atom simulations of protein folding because the processes occur on a time scale of microseconds. Compared to the all-atom MD simulation, constrained MD methods have the advantage that stable dynamics can be achieved for larger time steps and the number of degrees of freedom is an order of magnitude smaller, leading to a decrease in computational cost. We have developed a generalized constrained MD method that allows the user to "freeze and thaw" torsional degrees of freedom as fit for the problem studied. We have used this method to perform all-torsion constrained MD in implicit solvent coupled with the replica exchange method to study folding of small proteins with various secondary structural motifs such as, α-helix (polyalanine, WALP16), β-turn (1E0Q), and a mixed motif protein (Trp-cage). We demonstrate that constrained MD replica exchange method exhibits a wider conformational search than all-atom MD with increased enrichment of near-native structures. "Hierarchical" constrained MD simulations, where the partially formed helical regions in the initial stretch of the all-torsion folding simulation trajectory of Trp-cage were frozen, showed a better sampling of near-native structures than all-torsion constrained MD simulations. This is in agreement with the zipping-and-assembly folding model put forth by Dill and co-workers for folding proteins. The use of hierarchical "freeze and thaw" clustering schemes in constrained MD simulation can be used to sample conformations that contribute significantly to folding of proteins. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. Onomatopoeia characters extraction from comic images using constrained Delaunay triangulation (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Shoji, Kenji; Mori, Hiroshi; Toyama, Fubito


    A method for extracting onomatopoeia characters from comic images was developed based on stroke width feature of characters, since they nearly have a constant stroke width in a number of cases. An image was segmented with a constrained Delaunay triangulation. Connected component grouping was performed based on the triangles generated by the constrained Delaunay triangulation. Stroke width calculation of the connected components was conducted based on the altitude of the triangles generated with the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The experimental results proved the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Blue moon sampling, vectorial reaction coordinates, and unbiased constrained dynamics. (United States)

    Ciccotti, Giovanni; Kapral, Raymond; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric


    We give a new formula expressing the components of the mean force in terms of a conditional expectation which can be computed by Blue Moon sampling. This generalizes to the vectorial case a formula first derived by Ruiz-Montero et al. for a scalar reaction coordinate. We also discuss how to compute this conditional average by means of constrained stochastic dynamics which, unlike the usual constrained molecular dynamics, introduces no bias. Finally, we give a new perspective on bias removal by using constrained molecular dynamics.

  11. Crustal Structure Beneath India and Tibet: New Constraints From Inversion of Receiver Functions (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Ravi Kumar, M.; Mohanty, Debasis D.; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Srinagesh, D.


    The Indian subcontinent comprises geological terranes of varied age and structural character. In this study, we provide new constraints to existing crustal models by inverting the P-to-s receiver functions (RFs) at 317 broadband seismic stations. Inversion results fill crucial gaps in existing velocity models (CRUST1.0 and SEAPS) by capturing regions which are less represented. The final model produced is much more heterogeneous and is able to capture the structural variations between closely spaced seismic stations. In comparison to the global models, major differences are seen for seismic stations located over various rift zones (e.g., Godavari, Narmada, and Cambay) and those close to the coastal regions where transition from oceanic to continental crust is expected to create drastic changes in the crustal configuration. Seismic images are produced along various profiles using 49,682 individual RFs recorded at 442 seismic stations. Lateral variations captured using migrated images across the Himalayan collisional front revealed the hitherto elusive southern extent of the Moho and intracrustal features south of the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Poisson's ratio and crustal thickness estimates obtained using H-k stacking technique and inversion of RFs are grossly similar lending credence to the robustness of inversions. An updated crustal thickness map produced using 1,525 individual data points from controlled source seismics and RFs reveals a (a) thickened crust (>55 km) at the boundary of Dharwar Craton and Southern Granulite Terrain, (b) clear difference in crustal thickness estimates between Eastern Dharwar Craton and Western Dharwar Craton, (c) thinner crust beneath Cambay Basin between southwest Deccan Volcanic Province and Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, (d) thinner crust (40 km) beneath paleorift zones like Narmada Son Lineament and Godavari Graben, and (f) very thick crust beneath central Tibet (>65 km) with maximum lateral variations along the Himalayan collision

  12. Reconstructing the Mid-Tertiary Southwestern North America Cordilleran Crust: Crustal Anisotropy (United States)

    Porter, R. C.; Zandt, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Gilbert, H. J.; Hacker, B. R.


    The deployment of EarthScope USArray stations provides researchers with unprecedented quantities and coverage of publicly available seismic data that can be combined with other techniques to better understand the tectonic evolution of western North America. We utilize the receiver function method to map the crustal thickness and investigate the occurrence and orientation of lower crustal anisotropy for the southwestern U.S. Using the tectonic reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005), we then reconstruct the location and orientation of the anisotropy back to 36 Ma. We have completed the reconstruction for central and southern California, and found a dominant SW-NE oriented trend that we interpret as a fossilized fabric within underplated schists created from top-to-southwest sense of shear that existed along the length of coastal California during pre-transform, early-Tertiary subduction. Initial results from the Basin and Range show a generally consistent E-W anisotropy trend within the northern and central Basin and Range, orthogonal to modern faulting and mountain ranges. Within this area there is a correlation of generally stronger crustal anisotropy and thinner crust in the eastern Basin and Range. In the southern Basin and Range we observe more scatter in our anisotropy results, with a majority of stations exhibiting either a SW-NE or NNW-SSE orientation. Despite the variability in results, most anisotropy orientations appear to be orthogonal to nearby mountain ranges. These observations suggest that Tertiary extension in the Basin and Range is producing a lower crustal zone of anisotropy throughout the province. We are currently working to expand on these results by integrating elasticity tensors calculated from electron-backscatter diffraction measurements of samples of lower crustal rocks from the southwestern U.S.

  13. Three-dimensional seismic model of crustal structure in Southern Norway (United States)

    Loidl, B.; Behm, M.; Thybo, H.; Stratford, W.


    New insights in crustal structure in southern Norway are given by combining stacking techniques and traveltime tomography of 3-D wide-angle reflection/refraction data. The Magnus Rex crustal scale wide-angle refraction/reflection data set in Southern Norway covers an area of 400 km × 430 km where 716 receivers on three profiles recorded seismic waves from 26 explosive sources. Previous data analysis focused on 2-D interpretation along the profiles. Here we extract additional P-wave velocity information by inverting inline and cross-line data simultaneously. We combine stacking routines, traveltime tomography, and interpolation algorithms to the high quality inline and cross-line data. A smooth 3-D crustal velocity model is inverted from traveltimes of diving Pg waves with similar results for two initial models. Initial models include a 1-D average model and an interpolated 3-D model based on robust, local 1-D velocity-depth functions derived from CMP-sorted and stacked records. The depth to Moho is determined from reflected waves (PmP) by traditional exploration seismology processing routines (CMP sorting, NMO correction, stacking, depth conversion). We find that this combination of stacking methods and traveltime tomography is well suited to exploit sparse 3-D wide-angle data. The results along the profiles are similar to the earlier 2-D models and the 3-D velocity model shows little lateral variation. The crust in SW Norway is generally 35-40 km thick and has relatively low average velocity, as it lacks the characteristic high-velocity lower crust, otherwise observed in the Baltic Shield. However, the Oslo Graben is characterized by high crustal velocities and a slightly elevated Moho. Our results suggest that this crustal structure continues towards the north along the strike of the graben.

  14. Implications for the crustal Architecture in West Antarctica revealed by the means of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) mapping and 3D FEM geothermal heat flux models (United States)

    Dziadek, Ricarda; Gohl, Karsten; Kaul, Norbert


    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest rift systems in the world, which displays unique coupled relationships between tectonic processes and ice sheet dynamics. Palaeo-ice streams have eroded troughs across the Amundsen Sea Embayment (ASE) that today route warm ocean deep water to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding zone and reinforce dynamic ice sheet thinning. Rift basins, which cut across West Antarctica's landward-sloping shelves, promote ice sheet instability. Young, continental rift systems are regions with significantly elevated geothermal heat flux (GHF), because the transient thermal perturbation to the lithosphere caused by rifting requires 100 m.y. to reach long-term thermal equilibrium. The GHF in this region is, especially on small scales, poorly constrained and suspected to be heterogeneous as a reflection of the distribution of tectonic and volcanic activity along the complex branching geometry of the WARS, which reflects its multi-stage history and structural inheritance. We investigate the crustal architecture and the possible effects of rifting history from the WARS on the ASE ice sheet dynamics, by the use of depth-to-the-bottom of the magnetic source (DBMS) estimates. These are based on airborne-magnetic anomaly data and provide an additional insight into the deeper crustal properties. With the DBMS estimates we reveal spatial changes at the bottom of the igneous crust and the thickness of the magnetic layer, which can be further incorporated into tectonic interpretations. The DBMS also marks an important temperature transition zone of approximately 580°C and therefore serves as a boundary condition for our numerical FEM models in 2D and 3D. On balance, and by comparison to global values, we find average GHF of 90 mWm-2 with spatial variations due to crustal heterogeneities and volcanic activities. This estimate is 30% more than commonly used in ice sheet models in the ASE region.

  15. CONDORR--CONstrained Dynamics of Rigid Residues: a molecular dynamics program for constrained molecules. (United States)

    York, William S; Yi, Xiaobing


    A computer program CONDORR (CONstrained Dynamics of Rigid Residues) was developed for molecular dynamics simulations of large and/or constrained molecular systems, particularly carbohydrates. CONDORR efficiently calculates molecular trajectories on the basis of 2D or 3D potential energy maps, and can generate such maps based on a simple force field. The simulations involve three translational and three rotational degrees of freedom for each rigid, asymmetrical residue in the model. Total energy and angular momentum are conserved when no stochastic or external forces are applied to the model, if the time step is kept sufficiently short. Application of Langevin dynamics allows longer time steps, providing efficient exploration of conformational space. The utility of CONDORR was demonstrated by application to a constrained polysaccharide model and to the calculation of residual dipolar couplings for a disaccharide. [Figure: see text]. Molecular models (bottom) are created by cloning rigid residue archetypes (top) and joining them together. As defined here, the archetypes AX, HM and BG respectively correspond to an alpha-D-Xyl p residue, a hydroxymethyl group, and a beta-D-Glc p residue lacking O6, H6a and H6b. Each archetype contains atoms (indicated by boxes) that can be shared with other archetypes to form a linked structure. For example, the glycosidic link between the two D-Glc p residues is established by specifying that O1 of the nonreducing beta-D-Glc p (BG) residue (2) is identical to O4 of the reducing Glc p (BG) residue (1). The coordinates of the two residues are adjusted so as to superimpose these two (nominally distinct) atoms. Flexible hydroxymethyl (HM) groups (3 and 4) are treated as separate residues, and the torsional angles (normally indicated by the symbol omega) that define their geometric relationships to the pyranosyl rings of the BG residues are specified as psi3 and psi4, respectively. The torsional angles phi3 and phi4, defined solely to

  16. Constraining the age and origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean using geophysical techniques (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; O'Neill, Craig


    The breakup of western margin of Australia from Greater India started around 155 Ma and progressed southwards. After the separation, the interceding intraplate region experienced large volumes of submarine volcanism, extending over 100 Myrs. The Christmas Island Seamount Province (CHRISP, as it has been dubbed) lies south of the Java-Sunda Trench, and contains numerous submerged volcanic seamounts, and two sub-aerially exposed island groups—Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. While recent geochronological investigations have shed light on the diverse eruption ages of the volcanics of this region, some islands/seamounts have demonstrated protracted volcanic histories, and it is not clear how the volcanic loading, tectonic subsidence, and subsequent emergence history of the islands relates to these discrete volcanic episodes. This study utilises a number of geophysical techniques to determine the crustal structure, loading and subsidence history, and last sub-aerial exposure age for the CHRISP. The study shows that flexural and subsidence modelling are reliable techniques in constraining the age of the seamounts when geochronological techniques are not possible. Utilising regional gravity signatures, we model the crustal structure underneath the Cocos (Keeling) Island, and constrain the thickness of the limestone cover between 900 and 2,100 m. Using age-depth subsidence curves for oceanic lithosphere the time since these seamounts were exposed above sea-level was determined, and a trend in exposure ages that youngs towards the west is observed. Two episodes of volcanism have been recorded at Christmas Island and they are of different origin. The younger phase in the Pliocene is a manifestation of flexure induced cracks produced in the lithosphere as it rides the subduction fore-bulge, whereas a low velocity seismic zone rising from the lower mantle, and tectonic reorganization, may be associated with the older Eocene volcanic phase, as well as much of

  17. Deep structure and crustal configuration of the Jeffara basin (Southern Tunisia) based on regional gravity, seismic reflection and borehole data: How to explain a gravity maximum within a large sedimentary basin? (United States)

    Gabtni, H.; Jallouli, C.; Mickus, K. L.; Zouari, H.; Turki, M. M.


    The Jeffara basin of southern Tunisia contains a thick sequence of mainly Triassic and Permian sediments that is characterized by a gravity maximum. To explain the positive gravity signature over the Jeffara sedimentary basin and to obtain a more quantitative representation of the subsurface structure, a regional 2.5D gravity model constrained by seismic reflection and borehole data was constructed along a NE-SW trending profile. The depth to the crust/mantle implies that the Jeffara basin is associated with crustal thinning. The gravity model also implies that subsidence is controlled by a basement stepped down by relatively low-displacement faulting. This sedimentary subsidence, as described by a listric-faulting model, is probably caused by a thinned crust.

  18. A first modeling of dynamic and static crustal strain field from near-field dilatation measurements: example of the 2013 M_w 6.2 Ruisui earthquake, Taiwan (United States)

    Canitano, Alexandre; Hsu, Ya-Ju; Lee, Hsin-Ming; Linde, Alan T.; Sacks, Selwyn


    We analyze the high-resolution dilatation data for the October 2013 M_w 6.2 Ruisui, Taiwan, earthquake, which occurred at a distance of 15-20 km away from a Sacks-Evertson dilatometer network. Based on well-constrained source parameters (strike=217°, dip=48°, rake=49°), we propose a simple rupture model that explains the permanent static deformation and the dynamic vibrations at short period (˜ 3.5-4.5 s) for most of the four sites with less than 20 % of discrepancies. This study represents a first attempt of modeling simultaneously the dynamic and static crustal strain using dilatation data. The results illustrate the potential for strain recordings of high-frequency seismic waves in the near-field of an earthquake to add constraints on the properties of seismic sources.

  19. Routing Military Aircraft with a Constrained Shortest-Path Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlyle, W. M; Royset, Johannes O; Wood, R. K


    .... We use a constrained-shortest path (CSP) model that discretizes the relevant airspace into a grid of vertices representing potential waypoints, and connects vertices with directed edges to represent potential flight segments...

  20. Ensemble image registration by a spatially constrained clustering approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhu


    Full Text Available In this article, a novel spatially constrained clustering approach is proposed for ensemble image registration. We use a spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model, which is based on a joint Gaussian mixture model and Markov random field, to model the joint intensity scatter plot of the unregistered images. The spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model has the capability of performing the correlation among neighboring observations. A cost function of reducing the dispersion in the joint intensity scatter plot is proposed using the spatially constrained Gaussian mixture model to simultaneously register a group of images. We derive an expectation maximization algorithm for the proposed model. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations (United States)

    Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He


    We investigate the thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations for the first time in the literature. Without loss of generality, we study the thin-shell wormholes in ωCDM model and analyze their stability under perturbations preserving the symmetry. Firstly, we constrain the ωCDM model using a combination of Union 2.1 SNe Ia data, the latest H(z) data and CMB data. Secondly, we use the constrained dark energy equation of state (EoS) ω which lies in [ - 1 . 05 , - 0 . 89 ] to investigate thin-shell wormholes generated by various black hole spacetimes. We find that the stable Schwarzschild and Reinssner-Nordström thin-shell wormholes constrained by cosmological observations do not exist. In addition, the method we developed can be applied in exploring the stable thin-shell wormholes from any black hole spacetime in the framework of any cosmological theory.

  2. Is oil consumption constrained by industrial structure? Evidence from China (United States)

    Jia, Y. Q.; Duan, H. M.


    This paper examines whether oil consumption is constrained by output value, applying a cointegration test and an ECM to the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors in China during 1985-2013. The empirical results indicate that oil consumption in China is constrained by the industrial structure both in the short run and in the long run. Regardless of the time horizon considered, the oil consumption constraint is the lowest for the primary sector as well as the highest for the tertiary sector. This is because the long-term industrial structure formation and the technological level of each sector underlines the existence of long run equilibrium and short run fluctuations of output value and oil consumption, with the latter being constrained by adjustments in industrial structure. In order to decrease the constraining effect of output value on oil consumption, the government should take some measures to improve the utilization rate, reducing the intensity of oil consumption, and secure the supply of oil.

  3. Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation (United States)

    Wu, X.; Hu, X.; Zhang, Y.


    Ionospheric radio occultation inversion constrained with the data assimillation Wu Xiaocheng, Hu Xiong, Zhang Yanan National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences The assumption that electron density distribution is spherically symmetric, is usually used in the traditional ionospheric radio occultation (IRO) inversion, and it is the main error source of IRO inversion. In order to improve the IRO inversion, many methods were studied. One of them uses known ionosphere background to constrain the inversion of IRO, but it has not been used in the routine processing of observation data, due to that it is difficult to get the proper ionosphere background. Data assimilation can provide accurate electron density on the three dimensional grid, which may be used to constrain the IRO inversion and improve the inversion result. This article assimilates the TEC of ground GPS and IRO observation, and the constrains the IRO inversion. The inversion result is greatly improved. Key Words: Ionospheric radio occultation, Data assimilation, Inversion, GPS

  4. In vitro transcription of a torsionally constrained template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentin, Thomas; Nielsen, Peter E


    of torsionally constrained DNA by free RNAP. We asked whether or not a newly synthesized RNA chain would limit transcription elongation. For this purpose we developed a method to immobilize covalently closed circular DNA to streptavidin-coated beads via a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-biotin conjugate in principle...... mimicking a SAR/MAR attachment. We used this construct as a torsionally constrained template for transcription of the beta-lactamase gene by Escherichia coli RNAP and found that RNA synthesis displays similar characteristics in terms of rate of elongation whether or not the template is torsionally...... constrained. We conclude that transcription of a natural bacterial gene may proceed with high efficiency despite the fact that newly synthesized RNA is entangled around the template in the narrow confines of torsionally constrained supercoiled DNA....

  5. Evaluation of six NEHRP B/C crustal amplification models proposed for use in western North America (United States)

    Boore, David; Campbell, Kenneth W.


    We evaluate six crustal amplification models based on National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) B/C crustal profiles proposed for use in western North America (WNA) and often used in other active crustal regions where crustal properties are unknown. One of the models is based on an interpolation of generic rock velocity profiles previously proposed for WNA and central and eastern North America (CENA), in conjunction with material densities based on an updated velocity–density relationship. A second model is based on the velocity profile used to develop amplification factors for the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA)‐West2 project. A third model is based on a near‐surface velocity profile developed from the NGA‐West2 site database. A fourth model is based on velocity and density profiles originally proposed for use in CENA but recently used to represent crustal properties in California. We propose two alternatives to this latter model that more closely represent WNA crustal properties. We adopt a value of site attenuation (κ0) for each model that is either recommended by the author of the model or proposed by us. Stochastic simulation is used to evaluate the Fourier amplification factors and their impact on response spectra associated with each model. Based on this evaluation, we conclude that among the available models evaluated in this study the NEHRP B/C amplification model of Boore (2016) best represents median crustal amplification in WNA, although the amplification models based on the crustal profiles of Kamai et al. (2013, 2016, unpublished manuscript, see Data and Resources) and Yenier and Atkinson (2015), the latter adjusted to WNA crustal properties, can be used to represent epistemic uncertainty.

  6. Sink or Swim? the Role of Intracrustal Differentiation in the Generation of Compositional Diversity and Crustal Delamination in the Archean (United States)

    VanTongeren, J. A.; Herzberg, C. T.; Kaus, B.; Johnson, T. E.; Brown, M.


    Significant debate exists regarding the processes of crustal formation and stabilization in the Archean, with some researchers advocating for continuous subduction-like processes throughout earth history, and others advocating crustal recycling by lithospheric delamination or 'drip tectonics'. Much of the debate hinges on whether Archean mantle potential temperatures (Tp) were significantly hotter than the present day. The rock record of non-arc Archean primary magma compositions (Herzberg et al., 2010) has been used to infer higher ambient Tp (Tp = 1500-1650C) during the Archean, causing high melt fractions during decompression melting, and leading to extreme primary (oceanic) crustal thicknesses of 30-40 km (Herzberg and Rudnick, 2012). Such crustal thicknesses might inhibit subduction, in which case an alternative mechanism of crustal recycling would be required. In their recent paper, Johnson et al. (2014) showed that at Tp > 1500C, the lower portions of a thick homogenous Archean primary crust generated would be density unstable with respect to the ambient mantle. Additionally, they showed that given realistic rheological constraints, large-scale lower crustal delamination is a very efficient crustal recycling mechanism at Tp >1600C. The Archean crust, however, is likely to be internally differentiated. Here we present pMELTS and Perple_X modeling results on the intracrustal differentiation of Archean primary crust, resulting in the formation of TTG-like granitoids in the upper crust and a lower crust dominated by clinopyroxenite. Using the composition and density profiles generated by intracrustal differentiation, our geodynamic modeling extends the Tp over which efficient crustal delamination will occur to lower values, consistent with those likely throughout the Archean. Efficient crustal differentiation and delamination of dense mafic residues throughout the Archean may explain the apparent paucity of mafic lithologies relative to TTGs that characterize

  7. The large-scale surface uplift in the Altiplano-Puna region of Bolivia: A parametric study of source characteristics and crustal rheology using finite element analysis (United States)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Joachim; del Potro, Rodrigo


    This paper focuses on the driving mechanism behind a 70 km wide region of ground uplift centered on Uturuncu volcano, in the Altiplano-Puna region of southern Bolivia. We present a series of forward models using finite element analysis to simultaneously test for first-order parameters that help constrain a viable model for the observed maximum line of sight uplift rate of 1-2 cm/yr between 1992 and 2006. Stresses from pressure sources with finite geometries are solved numerically, accounting for both homogeneous and heterogeneous mechanical rock properties in elastic and viscoelastic rheologies. Crustal heterogeneity is constrained by seismic velocity data that indicate the presence of a large low-velocity zone, the Altiplano-Puna magma body, at depths of 17 km below the surface. A viscoelastic rheology is employed to account for time-dependent deformation and an inelastic crust. Comparing homogeneous and heterogeneous models demonstrates the significant impact of a mechanically weak, source-depth layer, which alters surface displacement patterns by buffering subsurface deformation. Elastic model results guide the source parameters tested in the viscoelastic models and demonstrate a range of possible causative source geometries. Our preferred model suggests that pressurization of a magma source extending upward from the Altiplano-Puna magma body is causing the observed surface uplift and alludes to a continued increase in this pressure to explain both the spatial and temporal patterns. We also demonstrate how a pressure-time function plays a first-order role in explaining the observed temporal deformation pattern.

  8. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid


    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  9. Generalized bracket formulation of constrained dynamics in phase space. (United States)

    Sergi, Alessandro


    A generalized bracket formalism is used to define the phase space flow of constrained systems. The generalized bracket naturally subsumes the approach to constrained dynamics given by Dirac some time ago. The dynamical invariant measure and the linear response of systems subjected to holonomic constraints are explicitly derived. In light of previous results, it is shown that generalized brackets provide a simple and unified view of the statistical mechanics of non-Hamiltonian phase space flows with a conserved energy.

  10. Lithospheric rheology constrained from twenty-five years of postseismic deformation following the 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake (United States)

    Huang, Mong-Han; Bürgmann, Roland; Pollitz, Fred


    The October 17, 1989 Mw 6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake provides the first opportunity of probing the crustal and upper mantle rheology in the San Francisco Bay Area since the 1906 Mw 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Here we use geodetic observations including GPS and InSAR to characterize the Loma Prieta earthquake postseismic displacements from 1989 to 2013. Pre-earthquake deformation rates are constrained by nearly 20 yr of USGS trilateration measurements and removed from the postseismic measurements prior to the analysis. We observe GPS horizontal displacements at mean rates of 1-4 mm/yr toward Loma Prieta Mountain until 2000, and ∼2 mm/yr surface subsidence of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains between 1992 and 2002 shown by InSAR, which is not associated with the seasonal and longer-term hydrological deformation in the adjoining Santa Clara Valley. Previous work indicates afterslip dominated in the early (1989-1994) postseismic period, so we focus on modeling the postseismic viscoelastic relaxation constrained by the geodetic observations after 1994. The best fitting model shows an elastic 19-km-thick upper crust above an 11-km-thick viscoelastic lower crust with viscosity of ∼ 6 ×1018 Pas, underlain by a viscous upper mantle with viscosity between 3 ×1018 and 2 ×1019 Pas. The millimeter-scale postseismic deformation does not resolve the viscosity in the different layers very well, and the lower-crustal relaxation may be localized in a narrow shear zone. However, the inferred lithospheric rheology is consistent with previous estimates based on post-1906 San Francisco earthquake measurements along the San Andreas fault system. The viscoelastic relaxation may also contribute to the enduring increase of aseismic slip and repeating earthquake activity on the San Andreas fault near San Juan Bautista, which continued for at least a decade after the Loma Prieta event.

  11. Crustal structure of the Siberian craton and the West Siberian basin: An appraisal of existing seismic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherepanova, Yulia; Artemieva, Irina M.; Thybo, Hans


    We present a digital model SibCrust of the crustal structure of the Siberian craton (SC) and the West Siberian basin (WSB), based on all seismic profiles published since 1960 and sampled with a nominal interval of 50 km. Data quality is assessed and quantitatively assigned to each profile based...... on acquisition and interpretation method and completeness of crustal model. The database represents major improvement in coverage and resolution and includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity...

  12. Dissolution-precipitation creep at mid-crustal levels of the Scandian Caledonides: the COSC-1 case study (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Menegon, Luca; Warren, Clare


    The thermo-mechanical properties of the middle and lower crust exert a fundamental control on the structure of orogenic belts, and on the amount and style of shortening during continental collision. By virtue of the deep erosional level, the internal parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides expose middle and lower crustal sections involved in subduction-exhumation history and nappe stacking. In this study we analysed the development of a mylonitic microstructure and the associated deformation mechanisms in amphibolites from the middle portion (1.5-2.2 km of depth) of the COSC-1 drill core, central Sweden. Mylonitic amphibolites are common in the drill core. They are composed of hornblende, plagioclase, chlorite, quartz, epidote, carbonate and ilmenite. The plagioclase displays two generations: (1) fractured millimetric porphyroclast cores (Plag1; Ab 99), which are wrapped by the foliation and are dark in the SEM-cathodoluminescence images, and (2) rims (Plag2; Ab 80-90), some tens of microns in size, are bright in the cathodoluminescence images, heal the fractures and overgrow the cores of Plag1. Plag2 grows syn-deformationally, as it is commonly found in strain shadows around Plag1 porphyroclasts. The hornblende preserves corroded cores (Amp1) with higher Mg number compared to the rims (Amp2). The Amp2 is lengthened as the foliation and shows intergrowths with Plag2 and chlorite in strain shadows. Amphibole crystals are commonly boudinaged parallel to the foliation, with chlorite filling the boudin necks. Preliminary pressure and temperature estimates, using Amp2 and Plag2 pairs, constrain their growth at 600°C and 1GPa. EBSD analysis indicates a homogeneous orientation of the porphyroclastic Plag1 without the development of low-angle boundaries, suggesting that Plag1 crystals are strain free. Furthermore, the fractures are sealed by the Plag2 with the same crystallographic orientation as the plagioclase core. The Plag2 grains have their [100] axes oriented

  13. Crustal Deformation Field Around Rift Zone In Southeastern Afar Derived From Jers-1/in-sar (United States)

    Ozawa, T.; Nogi, Y.; Shibuya, K.

    Afar is one of the major active rift zones recognized on the ground and located around the triple junction of Arabia, Somalia and Nubian plates. Afar is one of the major rift zones recognized on the ground. The crustal deformation of Afar has been deduced from paleomagnetism, geology and seismology by many scientists. The current crustal deformation must be detected by geodetic measurements. Ruegg et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 1984) showed the crustal deformation across the Asal-Ghoubbet rift with rate of about 60 mm/yr extension derived from triangulation and trilateration. Walpersdorf et al. (J. Geodyn., 1999) show the opening between South Djibouti and Yemen with rate of 16 mm/yr by GPS surveys. Denser observations are required for detailed crustal deformation, however it is difficult to construct such observation network because of harsh environment. The geodetic application of remote sensing is useful in this region, and we apply JERS-1 SAR interferometry in southeastern Afar, which is one of the most active deformation area. In this study, we use six SAR scenes observed from 1996/5/20 to 1997/5/7, and generate five interferograms; these repeat cycles are 88 (2 pairs), 176, 264, 352 days. First, we generate the digital elevation model (DEM) from two 88 repeat cycle pairs applying the multiple pass SAR interferometry method by Kwok and Fahnestock (IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 1996). Next, the topographic fringes of all pairs are removed using the DEM. The crustal deformation derived from SAR interferometry increases with expanding repeat cycle. Finally, the velocity field is estimated by fitting to linear trend for each pixel. The spreading rate of Asal-Ghoubbet rift derived from SAR interferometry is good agreement with that by Ruegg et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 1984). We can see the crustal deformation with the subsidence sense in the west of Asal-Ghoubbet rift. This suggests that the extension is distinguished in this area. The subsidence sense deformation

  14. An Inversion of Gravity and Topography for Mantle and Crustal Structure on Mars (United States)

    Kiefer, Walter S.; Bills, Bruce G.; Nerem, R. Steven


    Analysis of the gravity and topography of Mars presently provides our primary quantitative constraints on the internal structure of Mars. We present an inversion of the long-wavelength (harmonic degree less than or equal to 10) gravity and topography of Mars for lateral variations of mantle temperature and crustal thickness. Our formulation incorporates both viscous mantle flow (which most prior studies have neglected) and isostatically compensated density anomalies in the crust and lithosphere. Our nominal model has a 150-km-thick high-viscosity surface layer over an isoviscous mantle, with a core radius of 1840 km. It predicts lateral temperature variations of up to a few hundred degrees Kelvin relative to the mean mantle temperature, with high temperature under Tharsis and to a lesser extent under Elysium and cool temperatures elsewhere. Surprisingly, the model predicts crustal thinning beneath Tharsis. If correct, this implies that thinning of the crust by mantle shear stresses dominates over thickening of the crust by volcanism. The major impact basins (Hellas, Argyre, Isidis, Chryse, and Utopia) are regions of crustal thinning, as expected. Utopia is also predicted to be a region of hot mantle, which is hard to reconcile with the surface geology. An alternative model for Utopia treats it as a mascon basin. The Utopia gravity anomaly is consistent with the presence of a 1.2 to 1.6 km thick layer of uncompensated basalt, in good agreement with geologic arguments about the amount of volcanic fill in this area. The mantle thermal structure is the dominant contributor to the observed geoid in our inversion. The mantle also dominates the topography at the longest wavelengths, but shorter wavelengths (harmonic degrees greater than or equal to 4) are dominated by the crustal structure. Because of the uncertainty about the appropriate numerical values for some of the model's input parameters, we have examined the sensitivity of the model results to the planetary

  15. Numerical model of crustal accretion and cooling rates of fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Machetel


    Full Text Available We designed a thermo-mechanical numerical model for fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge with variable viscosity, hydrothermal cooling, latent heat release, sheeted dyke layer, and variable melt intrusion possibilities. The model allows for modulating several accretion possibilities such as the "gabbro glacier" (G, the "sheeted sills" (S or the "mixed shallow and MTZ lenses" (M. These three crustal accretion modes have been explored assuming viscosity contrasts of 2 to 3 orders of magnitude between strong and weak phases and various hydrothermal cooling conditions depending on the cracking temperatures value. Mass conservation (stream-function, momentum (vorticity and temperature equations are solved in 2-D cartesian geometry using 2-D, alternate direction, implicit and semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. In a first step, an Eulerian approach is used solving iteratively the motion and temperature equations until reaching steady states. With this procedure, the temperature patterns and motions that are obtained for the various crustal intrusion modes and hydrothermal cooling hypotheses display significant differences near the mid-ocean ridge axis. In a second step, a Lagrangian approach is used, recording the thermal histories and cooling rates of tracers travelling from the ridge axis to their final emplacements in the crust far from the mid-ocean ridge axis. The results show that the tracer's thermal histories are depending on the temperature patterns and the crustal accretion modes near the mid-ocean ridge axis. The instantaneous cooling rates obtained from these thermal histories betray these discrepancies and might therefore be used to characterize the crustal accretion mode at the ridge axis. These deciphering effects are even more pronounced if we consider the average cooling rates occurring over a prescribed temperature range. Two situations were tested at 1275–1125 °C and 1050–850 °C. The first temperature range covers mainly the

  16. Lower-crustal xenoliths from Jurassic kimberlite diatremes, upper Michigan (USA): Evidence for Proterozoic orogenesis and plume magmatism in the lower crust of the southern Superior Province (United States)

    Zartman, Robert E.; Kempton, Pamela D.; Paces, James B.; Downes, Hilary; Williams, Ian S.; Dobosi, Gábor; Futa, Kiyoto


    Jurassic kimberlites in the southern Superior Province in northern Michigan contain a variety of possible lower-crustal xenoliths, including mafic garnet granulites, rare garnet-free granulites, amphibolites and eclogites. Whole-rock major-element data for the granulites suggest affinities with tholeiitic basalts. P–T estimates for granulites indicate peak temperatures of 690–730°C and pressures of 9–12 kbar, consistent with seismic estimates of crustal thickness in the region. The granulites can be divided into two groups based on trace-element characteristics. Group 1 granulites have trace-element signatures similar to average Archean lower crust; they are light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched, with high La/Nb ratios and positive Pb anomalies. Most plot to the left of the geochron on a 206Pb/€204Pb vs 207Pb/€204Pb diagram, and there was probably widespread incorporation of Proterozoic to Archean components into the magmatic protoliths of these rocks. Although the age of the Group 1 granulites is not well constrained, their protoliths appear to be have been emplaced during the Mesoproterozoic and to be older than those for Group 2 granulites. Group 2 granulites are also LREE-enriched, but have strong positive Nb and Ta anomalies and low La/Nb ratios, suggesting intraplate magmatic affinities. They have trace-element characteristics similar to those of some Mid-Continent Rift (Keweenawan) basalts. They yield a Sm–Nd whole-rock errorchron age of 1046 ± 140 Ma, similar to that of Mid-Continent Rift plume magmatism. These granulites have unusually radiogenic Pb isotope compositions that plot above the 207Pb/€204Pb vs 206Pb/€204Pb growth curve and to the right of the 4·55 Ga geochron, and closely resemble the Pb isotope array defined by Mid-Continent Rift basalts. These Pb isotope data indicate that ancient continental lower crust is not uniformly depleted in U (and Th) relative to Pb. One granulite xenolith, S69-5, contains quartz, and has a

  17. Crustal thickening in Gansu-Qinghai, lithospheric mantle subduction, and oblique, strike-slip controlled growth of the Tibet plateau (United States)

    Meyer, B.; Tapponnier, P.; Bourjot, L.; Métivier, F.; Gaudemer, Y.; Peltzer, G.; Shunmin, Guo; Zhitai, Chen


    Fieldwork complemented by SPOT image analysis throws light on current crustal shortening processes in the ranges of northeastern Tibet (Gansu and Qinghai provinces, China). The ongoing deformation of Late-Pleistocene bajada aprons in the forelands of the ranges involves folding, at various scales, and chiefly north-vergent, seismogenic thrusts. The most active thrusts usually break the ground many kilometres north of the range-fronts, along the northeast limbs of growing, asymmetric ramp-anticlines. Normal faulting at the apex of other growing anticlines, between the range fronts and the thrust breaks, implies slip on blind ramps connecting distinct active décollement levels that deepen southwards. The various patterns of uplift of the bajada surfaces can be used to constrain plausible links between contemporary thrusts downsection. Typically, the foreland thrusts and décollements appear to splay from master thrusts that plunge at least 15-20 km down beneath the high ranges. Plio-Quaternary anticlinal ridges rising to more than 3000 m a.s.l. expose Palaeozoic metamorphic basement in their core. In general, the geology and topography of the ranges and forelands imply that structural reliefs of the order of 5-10 km have accrued at rates of 1-2 mm yr-1 in approximately the last 5 Ma. From hill to range size, the elongated reliefs that result from such Late-Cenozoic, NE-SW shortening appear to follow a simple scaling law, with roughly constant length/width ratio, suggesting that they have grown self-similarly. The greatest mountain ranges, which are over 5.5 km high, tens of kilometres wide and hundreds of kilometres long may thus be interpreted to have formed as NW-trending ramp anticlines, at the scale of the middle-upper crust. The fairly regular, large-scale arrangement of those ranges, with parallel crests separated by piggy-back basins, the coevality of many parallel, south-dipping thrusts, and a change in the scaling ratio (from ~5 to 8) for range widths

  18. Recent crustal movement and great earthquakes in Qinghai-Tibet sub-plate

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    Guo Liangqian


    Full Text Available Crustal movement and incremental-movement data observed repeatedly at GPS stations during 1999–2009 were analyzed to study the effect of two earthquakes of Ms8.1 and Ms8.0 that occurred in 2001 and 2008, respectively, in Qinghai-Tibet sub-plate and its eastern margin. The result revealed certain anomalous pre-earthquake deformation and some large co-seismic changes. Prior to the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake, the seismogenic Kunlunshan fault zone became a geographic boundary between different regional movements. At the time of the earthquake, there was an average cross-fault crustal shortening of −1.04 m and an average right-lateral strike slip of 0.76 m along the ruptured segment, as well as a strain-energy release of −62. 66 × 10.7.

  19. The use of satellite laser observations in studying the crustal movements

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    Gamal F. Attia


    Full Text Available The mutual tectonic displacements of the lithospheric blocks take place within the deep fracture dividing them into hundreds and thousands kilometers long. It is possible to suggest that the reason of the accumulation of considerable local shift deformations is the change of the velocity of the tectonic motion in some or other parts of fractures as a result of different physical, chemical and mechanical processes. Nowadays, the range precision of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR technique reaches a few millimeters level. Therefore, the space geodesy technique becomes a very important tool in detecting and monitoring recent crustal movements. Regular repeated measurements of the baselines between some stations on different plates give the possibility to construct precise and detail models of crustal movements. In this paper, the length of four baselines between Helwan-SLR station and other four SLR stations are calculated using satellite geodetical technique.


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    Cahit Tağı ÇELİK


    Full Text Available Monitoring the Crustal Movement in Geodesy is performed by the deformation survey and analysis. If monitoring the crustal movements involves more than two epochs of survey campaign then from the plate tectonic theory, stations do not move randomly from one epoch to the other, therefore Kalman Filter may be suitable to use. However, if sudden movements happened in the crust in particular earthquake happened, the crust moves very fast in a very short period of time. When Kalman Filter used for monitoring these movements, from associated epoch, for a number of epochs the results may be biased. In the paper, comparison of two methods for elimination of the above mentioned biases have been performed. These methods are Fading Memory Filter and Adaptive Kalman Filter for an unknown bias.

  1. Espisodic detachment of Martian crustal magnetic fields leading to bulk atmospheric plasma escape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain, D A; Baker, A H; Briggs, J; Eastwood, J P; Halekas, J S; Phan, T


    We present an analysis of magnetic field and suprathermal electron measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft that reveals isolated magnetic structures filled with Martian atmospheric plasma located downstream from strong crustal magnetic fields with respect to the flowing solar wind. The structures are characterized by magnetic field enhancements and rotations characteristic of magnetic flux ropes, and characteristic ionospheric electron energy distributions with angular distributions distinct from surrounding regions. These observations indicate that significant amounts of atmosphere are intermittently being carried away from Mars by a bulk removal process: the top portions of crustal field loops are stretched through interaction with the solar wind and detach via magnetic reconnection. This process occurs frequently and may account for as much as 10% of the total present-day ion escape from Mars.

  2. Crustal architecture beneath the Tibet-Ordos transition zone, NE Tibet, and the implications for plateau expansion (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui; Keller, G. R.; Xu, Xiao; Li, Hongqiang; Encarnacion, John


    Most previous studies of the Tibetan Plateau have focused on the processes of crustal thickening and subsequent outward growth. However, lithospheric structure across the tectonic boundaries of the plateau has not yet been fully imaged, and therefore, how geological structures evolved in association with the lateral expansion of the margins remains unclear. Here together with interpretation of regional aeromagnetic anomalies, we employ a recently acquired 165 km long deep seismic reflection image that crosses the northeastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau. The resulting crustal "architecture" suggests that crustal shortening is a primary driver for plateau uplift of northeastern Tibet and that the Xiaoguan Shan to the east of the Liupan Shan belt marks the easternmost edge of the strata that has been affected by the northeastward growth of the plateau. In addition, decoupled crustal deformation owing to differential structural integrity has been accommodated during the subsequent northeastward growth of the plateau.

  3. Pulsating continents on Venus: An explanation for crustal plateaus and tessera terrains


    Romeo Briones, Ignacio; Turcotte, Donald L.


    We propose that tessera terrains on Venus represent continental crust that does not participate in the periodic recycling of the lithosphere through global subduction events.We have studied the force balance on the boundary of a continental area that survives a global subduction event using an analytical model. In the proposed model, the ratio between the crustal and lithospheric mantle thicknesses controls the force balance. If the crust thickness is less than ∼2/5 of the lithosp...

  4. Crustal structure of the Agulhas Ridge (South Atlantic Ocean): Formation above a hotspot? (United States)

    Jokat, Wilfried; Hagen, Claudia


    The southern South Atlantic Ocean contains several features believed to document the traces of hotspot volcanism during the early formation of the ocean basin, namely the Agulhas Ridge and the Cape Rise seamounts located in the southeast Atlantic between 36°S and 50°S. The Agulhas Ridge parallels the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone, one of the major transform zones of the world. The morphology of the ridge changes dramatically from two parallel segments in the southwest, to the broad plateau-like Agulhas Ridge in the northeast. Because the crustal fabric of the ridge is unknown relating its evolution to hotspots in the southeast Atlantic is an open question. During the RV Polarstern cruise ANT-XXIII-5 seismic reflection and refraction data were collected along a 370 km long profile with 8 Ocean Bottom Stations to investigate its crustal fabric. The profile extends in NNE direction from the Agulhas Basin, 60 km south of the Agulhas Ridge, and continues into the Cape Basin crossing the southernmost of the Cape Rise seamounts. In the Cape Basin we found a crustal thickness of 5.5-7.5 km, and a velocity distribution typical for oceanic crust. The Cape Rise seamounts, however, show a higher velocity in comparison to the surrounding oceanic crust and the Agulhas Ridge. Underplated material is evident below the southernmost of the Cape Rise seamounts. It also has a 5-8% higher density compared to the Agulhas Plateau. The seismic velocities of the Agulhas Ridge are lower, the crustal thickness is approximately 14 km, and age dating of dredge samples from its top provides clear evidence of rejuvenated volcanism at around 26 Ma. Seismic data indicate that although the Cape Rise seamounts formed above a mantle thermal anomaly it had a limited areal extent, whereas the hotspot material that formed the Agulhas Ridge likely erupted along a fracture zone.

  5. Temperature and redox effect on mineral colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge flank subsurface crustal fluids

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    Jean-Paul eBaquiran


    Full Text Available To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for one year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B. In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%. Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the one-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen.

  6. Stochastic Stick - Slip Model Linking Crustal Shear Strength and Earthquake Interevent Times


    Dionissios T. Hristopulos; V. Mouslopoulou


    The current understanding of the earthquake interevent times distribution (ITD) is incomplete. The Weibull distribution is often used to model the earthquake ITD. We link the earthquake ITD on single faults with the Earth's crustal shear strength distribution by means of a phenomenological stick - slip model. We obtain Weibull ITD for power-law stress accumulation, i.e., $\\sigma(t) = \\alpha t^{\\beta}$, where $\\beta >0$ for single faults or systems with homogeneous strength statistics. We show...

  7. Shallow and deep crustal control on differentiation of calc-alkaline and tholeiitic magma (United States)

    Hora, John M.; Singer, Brad S.; Wörner, Gerhard; Beard, Brian L.; Jicha, Brian R.; Johnson, Clark M.


    The role of changing crustal interaction and plumbing geometry in modulating calc-alkaline vs. tholeiitic magma affinity is well illustrated by the influence of 70 km thick crust beneath Volcán Parinacota. Changes in petrologic affinity correlate with periods of cone-building, sector collapse, and rebuilding of the volcano over the last 52 ka, and are well explained by changes in magma recharge regime. With increasing recharge and magma output, lavas transition from low-Fe, strongly calc-alkaline, phenocryst-rich silicic compositions to medium-Fe, near-tholeiitic, mafic, and aphanitic characteristics. Strontium isotope data show that the change in magma regime did not affect all parts of the system simultaneously; these are characterized by distinctive 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios, which suggest an initially compartmentalized system. Relatively high ( 230Th/ 232Th) activity ratios of ~ 0.72 in early-erupted calc-alkaline lavas are consistent with interaction with high-U upper crust. Low ( 230Th/ 232Th) activity ratios of ~ 0.55 and up to 33% Th-excess in younger near-tholeiitic lavas correlate with steep REE patterns, indicating lower-crustal interaction. Thorium-excesses at the time of eruption approach the maximum that can be generated via small-degree garnet-residual melting in the lower crust or mantle and imply that transit time through the crustal column for the most tholeiitic magmas had to be short, on the order of secular equilibrium, suggesting stagnation times > 3 × 10 5 yr in the upper crust. In addition to more traditional explanations tied to magma source, expression of low-Fe 'calc-alkaline' (CA) vs. medium-Fe 'near-tholeiitic' (TH) magma series at the scale of individual volcanoes is likely to be modulated by transitions from compartmentalized, stagnant, assimilation-prone 'dirty' systems (CA) to 'clean' systems (TH) that are characterized by rapid magma throughput and minimal opportunity for upper-crustal contamination.

  8. The Crustal and Mantle Velocity Structure in Central Asia from 3D Travel Time Tomography (United States)


    that the deformation in the shallow brittle crust occurs on a distributed network of faults, and some regions, such as the Tarim Basin , the Ordos and...Kunlun and the Tarim Basin (Molnar and Tapponnier, 1978). The Main Pamir Thrust has been interpreted to have accommodated about 300 km of crustal...southern Pamir, Kazakh shield, and the Tarim basin . High velocities delineate the subduction zones and active or fossil slabs. The Moho depth in the

  9. Crustal velocity structure of the Deccan Volcanic Province, Indian Peninsula, from observed surface wave dispersion

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    Gaddale Suresh


    Full Text Available Through inversion of fundamental mode group velocities of Love and Rayleigh waves, we study the crustal and subcrustal structure across the central Deccan Volcanic Province (DVP, which is one of the world’s largest terrestrial flood basalts. Our analysis is based on broadband seismograms recorded at seismological station Bhopal (BHPL in the central India from earthquakes located near west coast of India, with an average epicentral distance about 768 km. The recording station and epicentral zone are situated respectively on the northern and southern edges of DVP with wave paths across central DVP. The period of group velocity data ranges from 5 to 60 s for Rayleigh waves and 5 to 45 s for Love waves. Using the genetic algorithm, the observed data have been inverted to obtain the crust and subcrustal velocity structure along the wavepaths. Using this procedure, a similar velocity structure was also obtained earlier for the northwestern DVP, which is in the west of the present study region. Comparison of results show that the crustal thickness decreases westward from central DVP (39.6 km to northwestern DVP (37.8 km along with the decrease of thickness of upper crust; while the thickness of lower crust remains nearly same. From east to west S-wave velocity in the upper crust decreases by 2 to 3 per cent, while P-wave velocity in the whole crust and subcrust decreases by 3 to 6 per cent. The P- and S-wave velocities are positively correlated with crustal thickness and negatively correlated with earth’s heat flow. It appears that the elevated crustal and subcrustal temperature in the western side is the main factor for low velocities on this side.

  10. The diverse crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the Manihiki Plateau, central Pacific (United States)

    Hochmuth, K.; Gohl, K.; Uenzelmann-Neben, G.; Werner, R.


    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) in the central Pacific. It was emplaced as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong Java Nui and experienced fragmentation into three sub-plateaus, possibly during the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. The Manihiki Plateau is presumably the centerpiece of this "Super-LIP" and its investigation can therefore decipher the break-up mechanisms as well as the evolution of the plateau after its initial emplacement. By analyzing two seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection profiles crossing the two largest sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau, the High Plateau and the Western Plateaus, we give new insights into their crustal structure and magmatic evolution. The High Plateau shows a crustal structure of 20 km thickness and a seismic P wave velocity distribution, which is comparable to other LIPs. The High Plateau experienced a strong secondary volcanism, which can be seen in relicts of seamount chain volcanism. The Western Plateaus on the other hand show no extensive secondary volcanism and are mainly structured by fault systems and sedimentary basins. A constant decrease in Moho depth (9-17 km) is a further indicator of crustal stretching on the Western Plateaus. Those findings lead to the conclusion, that the two sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau experienced a different magmatic and tectonic history. Whereas the High Plateau experienced a secondary volcanism, the Western Plateaus underwent crustal stretching during and after the break-up of Ontong Java Nui. This indicates, that the sub-plateaus of the Manihiki Plateau play an individual part in the break-up history of Ontong Java Nui.

  11. Influence of crustal fluids on growth and activity of marine deep biosphere microbial populations


    Fichtel, Katja


    Like seawater, hydrothermal crustal fluids might support abundance, diversity and activity of microorganisms in marine sediments. The present work shows high numbers of metabolically active microorganisms in deep sediments overlying a midoceanic ridge. Sulfate diffusion from the bedrock fuels microbial sulfate reduction and anaerobic oxidation of methane. From crust-near layers non-sporeforming, sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria were isolated, able to grow chemoheterotrophically, ferme...

  12. High resolution regional crustal models from irregularly distributed data: Application to Asia and adjacent areas


    Stolk, W; Mikhail Kaban; F. Beekman; Magdala Tesauro; Mooney, W.D.; Cloetingh, S.


    We propose a new methodology to obtain crustal models in areas where data is sparse and data spreading is heterogeneous. This new method involves both interpolating the depth to the Moho discontinuity between observations and estimating a velocity–depth curve for the crust at each interpolation location. The Moho observations are interpolated using a remove–compute–restore technique, used in for instance geodesy. Observations are corrected first for Airy type isostasy. The residual observatio...

  13. A crustal model for a northeast-southwest profile through Ireland (United States)

    Jacob, A. W. B.; Kaminski, W.; Murphy, T.; Phillips, W. E. A.; Prodehl, C.


    The Irish Caledonian Suture Seismic Project (ICSSP) consisting of a 250 km seismic refraction line was carried out in conjunction with, and as an extension of, the Caledonian Suture Seismic Project (CSSP) of the University of Durham. 51 seismic recording sites at 5 km intervals were deployed on the northwest flank of the Suture Zone in Ireland. Recordings were made from three shot points at the southwest of the line and from 31 shot points of the Durham programme in the North Irish Sea. A crustal model is presented which is based exclusively on a travel-time interpretation. The Pg velocities recorded in eastern Ireland rise quite rapidly with depth to 6.3-6.5 km/s but in the western part of the profile lower velocities between 6.0 and 6.3 km/s were recorded. Prominent energy in later arrivals can be correlated by two reflected phases from a mid-crustal boundary and the Moho. A low-velocity zone is present at the northeastern end of the line and a mid-crustal layer with an average velocity of about 6.4 km/s is separated from the lower crust, mean velocity 6.8 km/s, by a well established mid-crustal boundary zone of 1-2 km thickness at about 20 km depth. The Moho, around 32 km at its deepest, shallows towards the sea at both ends of the line. It is a sharp discontinuity under western Ireland but a transition zone of 3-4 km thickness in the east. An interpretation is given which takes into account (a) the geologic and tectonic history of Ireland and (b) data derived from the gravity and magnetic fields.

  14. Crustal architecture and geodynamics of North Queensland, Australia: Insights from deep seismic reflection profiling (United States)

    Korsch, R. J.; Huston, D. L.; Henderson, R. A.; Blewett, R. S.; Withnall, I. W.; Fergusson, C. L.; Collins, W. J.; Saygin, E.; Kositcin, N.; Meixner, A. J.; Chopping, R.; Henson, P. A.; Champion, D. C.; Hutton, L. J.; Wormald, R.; Holzschuh, J.; Costelloe, R. D.


    A deep crustal seismic reflection and magnetotelluric survey, conducted in 2007, established the architecture and geodynamic framework of north Queensland, Australia. Results based on the interpretation of the deep seismic data include the discovery of a major, west-dipping, Paleoproterozoic (or older) crustal boundary, considered to be an ancient suture zone, separating relatively nonreflective, thick crust of the Mount Isa Province from thinner, two layered crust to the east. Farther to the east, a second major crustal boundary also dips west or southwest, offsetting the Moho and extending below it, and is interpreted as a fossil subduction zone. Across the region, the lower crust is mostly highly reflective and is subdivided into three mappable seismic provinces, but they have not been tracked to the surface. In the east, the Greenvale and Charters Towers Provinces, part of the Thomson Orogen, have been mapped on the surface as two discrete provinces, but the seismic interpretation raises the possibility that these two provinces are continuous in the subsurface, and also extend northwards to beneath the Hodgkinson Province, originally forming part of an extensive Neoproterozoic-Cambrian passive margin. Continuation of the Thomson Orogen at depth beneath the Hodgkinson and Broken River Provinces suggests that these provinces (which formed in an oceanic environment, possibly as an accretionary wedge at a convergent margin) have been thrust westwards onto the older continental passive margin. The Tasman Line, originally defined to represent the eastern limit of Precambrian rocks in Australia, has a complicated geometry in three dimensions, which is related to regional deformational events during the Paleozoic. Overall, the seismic data show evidence for a continental margin with a long history (Paleoproterozoic to early Mesozoic) but showing only limited outward growth by crustal accretion, because of a repeated history of overthrust shortening during repeated

  15. Crustal structure of the SW Iberian passive margin: The westernmost remnant of the Ligurian Tethys? (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Fernández, O.; Torne, M.; Sánchez de la Muela, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Terrinha, P.; Manatschal, G.; Salas, M. C.


    At present, the SW Iberian margin is located along the convergent Iberia-Nubia plate boundary. In Mesozoic times, the margin was located at the triple junction of the Ligurian Tethys, Central Atlantic and Northern Atlantic. The characterization of its crustal structure has allowed us to propose a configuration for this triple junction and to determine the role that this transform margin played within the plate kinematic system. In this paper we present an integrated study based on the interpretation of a 2D regional multichannel seismic survey consisting of 58 profiles, tied with onshore geology and exploratory wells, and on gravimetric modeling performed over four NW-SE trending profiles. Integrated interpretation of MCS data combined with 2D gravity modeling reveals a complex pattern in the southward crustal thinning of SW Iberia and supports the possible presence of oceanic crust under the Gulf of Cadiz. The tapering of Iberian crust is characterized by steps with rapid changes in the thickness of the crust, and thinning to Based on gravimetric modeling results and the structures interpreted on reflection seismic profiles, 3 crustal domains reflecting progressive thinning have been defined for the SW Iberian margin. These domains trend roughly WSW-ENE, parallel to the main extensional fabric of the margin. Gravimetric modeling results are compatible with the presence of exhumed sub-continental mantle in the distal part of the margin. Integrated modeling also supports the fact that Cenozoic contraction is responsible for major uplift along the Guadalquivir Bank. Margin inversion and the pre-existing extensional crustal structure are responsible for the areal distribution and amplitude of the prominent positive gravity anomaly observed in the Gulf of Cadiz.

  16. Improved images of crustal structures in the Bergslagen, central Sweden, through seismic reprocessing of BABEL lines 1, 6 and 7 (United States)

    Buntin, Sebastian; Malehmir, Alireza; Malinowski, Michał; Högdahl, Karin; Juhlin, Christopher; Buske, Stefan


    In a joint effort through the BABEL project, geoscientists from five countries acquired marine seismic data in the Baltic Sea with a total length of 2268 km in the year 1989. These consisted of near-vertical reflection and wide-angle refraction seismic data, providing insights into the subsurface down to the Moho and suggesting the existence of plate tectonics already during the Paleoproterozoic. The seismic data were acquired using a receiver group interval of 50 m and a total cable length of 3 km. In total, 60 groups of 64 hydrophones at 15 m depth were used. An airgun array consisting of six equal subarrays towed at 7.5 m depth was used to generate the seismic signal. The shot interval and the corresponding record lengths were different among the lines. A record length of 25 s and 75 m shot spacing for lines 1 and 7, respectively and 23 s and 62.5 m for line 6, respectively was used. The sampling rate was 4 ms for all three profiles. Lines 1, 6 and 7 are located at the boundary to the world-class and historical Bergslagen mineral district, and are being revisited in this study. Improved images can be used to refine previous interpretations, particularly at shallower depths (< 5 km). About 27 years after the acquisition, these data have been processed again in our study. Aside from the original processing steps, like spherical divergence correction, deconvolution and NMO corrections, additional processing steps such as DMO corrections or pre- and post-stack deconvolutions and coherency enhancements were applied. The reprocessing revealed reflections in the shallow part of the profiles, likely from major deformation (multi-phase) zones extending down to the lower crust, which were not present in the previous images. Also the images of the reflections in the deeper parts are remarkably improved. This also includes a few sub-Moho reflections. The three reprocessed profiles help constrain the nature of the northern boundary of Bergslagen and associated crustal

  17. Gravity-based model for regional flexure induced by crustal loading by the 14-km-thick Mississippi delta (United States)

    Ajala, R. A.; Mann, P.


    We used gravity data constrained by deep-penetration seismic reflection lines to determine the crustal structure beneath the Mississippi delta, the seventh-largest deltaic accumulation on Earth. The observed gravity anomaly at the margin consist of a high of 50 mGal over the shelf with a low of -27 mGal at a landward distance of 250 km, a low of -18 mGal at a seaward distance of 136 km, and another high of 23 mGal at a seaward distance of 178 km from the shelf edge. The gravity high is centered over the thickest part of the delta, much of which has been deposited since the Miocene. The elastic thickness of the underlying crust is estimated by comparing the amplitude and wavelength of the observed gravity anomaly to the predicted anomaly based on simple elastic plate models. The process-oriented gravity modeling approach has been used to flexurally backstrip the sediments and add the present-day water depth to obtain the total tectonic subsidence (TTS). The gravity effect due to the initial rift structure obtained from the TTS known as the "rifting anomaly" and sediment loading called the "sedimentation anomaly" are used to compute the present-day gravity anomaly. The best fit result is for a margin which sediments were deposited on thinned transitional crust with an elastic thickness of 48 km. Results from flexural modeling show that top of basement has been flexed up to 8 km over a lateral distance of more than 500 km by the deltaic load. The map-view shape of the uplifted rim with a predicted, maximum topographic expression of 40 m is egg-shaped with its northern, more narrow tip crossing the Mississippi Valley near Memphis, its northwestern part running parallel to the northern Ouachita Mountains, its western part tracking parallel to the Mexia-Balcones fault system of Texas, and its eastern edge parallel to the west coast of Florida. While the overall magnitude of the topographic flexure is low, delta-related flexure may have contributed to the Miocene

  18. Effects of near-source heterogeneity on wave fields emanating from crustal sources observed at regional and teleseismic distances (United States)

    Avants, Megan S.

    Near-source path effects imprint the wave field emanating from a seismic source and, if not well resolved, can obscure the details of source characteristics determined from observations of the seismic waves at regional and teleseismic distances (≥200 km). These effects are particularly strong for crustal sources such as shallow earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions. First, I explore 2D effects of random seismic P-wave velocity heterogeneity resulting from volumetric heterogeneity in the upper mantle and variability of the Moho on the amplitude decay of the regional phase Pn. Results indicate that the pattern of amplitude decay due to geometric spreading for a simple Earth model is more complex than that for an Earth model containing strong heterogeneity in the mantle lid. Next, I implement the representation theorem in a method which collects displacement and strain components output from a 3D finite difference program capable of including realistic surface topography and geologic structure in a 3D velocity model, and calculates teleseismic 3D Green functions (3DGFs) to specified receiver locations. Green functions produced from a 3D source model match Green functions produced from a 1D source model for theoretical source-receiver geometries. This new method is then applied to the problem of constraining the source depth and location of the three nuclear tests conducted by North Korea, by using a realistic topography model for the mountainous test region to calculate 3DGFs for several possible locations of each event. Amplitude ratios of P and pP from 3DGFs are correlated to those in observed stacked traces. Results show a sensitivity of this method to source depth and location across the test site region with source depths slightly greater than published estimates, but relative locations consistent with other studies. Finally, I determine a rupture model of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake using 3DGFs calculated in a velocity model containing the dramatic

  19. Paleozoic adakitic rocks in the northern Altyn Tagh, northwest China: Evidence for progressive crustal thickening beneath the Dunhuang Block (United States)

    Bao, Weihang; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Wang, Yujing; Guan, Yili; Zhang, Yunying


    To constrain the Phanerozoic crustal evolution of the Dunhuang Block, new whole-rock geochemistry, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data were determined for three Paleozoic granitic plutons in the northern Altyn Tagh, northwest China. Zircon U-Pb dating of these plutons, including gneissic granite, mylonitic granite and augen gneiss, yielded Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous crystallization ages of 358 ± 4 Ma, 382 ± 4 Ma and 332 ± 2 Ma, respectively. The gneissic granites are characterized by a small SiO2 variation (69.11-70.33 wt.%) with moderate K2O (3.07-3.55 wt.%), Na2O (3.61-4.08 wt.%), low Fe2O3T (2.25-2.84 wt.%) and MgO (1.04-1.25 wt.%). The granites are weakly peraluminous with moderate aluminium saturation indexes (ASI = 1.02-1.08) and exhibit the geochemical features of high-K calc-alkaline igneous rocks. Although the major element contents of the mylonitic granites and the augen gneisses are different from those of the gneissic granites, all three plutons show similar REE patterns and trace element variations. Rocks from these plutons are all LREE-enriched and show relatively flat HREE patterns with pronounced depletions in Ba, Nb, Ta, Ti and negative Eu anomalies. Moreover, the rocks are characterized by high Sr (330.7-656 ppm), low Yb (0.513-1.521 ppm) and Y (5.199-13.73 ppm), and thus have high Sr/Y ratios (32-122), showing geochemical affinities of adakitic rocks. Their negative εHf(t) values, low MgO, Cr, Co and Ni contents indicate a continental crust origin without significant involvement of mantle-derived materials. The negative Eu anomalies, low Yb and Y contents of these granitic rocks reveal that plagioclase and garnet are major residue minerals in the magma source. All the geochemical characteristics demonstrate that these adakitic plutons were produced by partial melting of thickened lower crust at relatively shallow depths under high amphibolite or granulite facies and did not reach the eclogite facies. Combining this with the

  20. A modified least-squares collocation method for the determination of crustal deformation: first results in the Swiss Alps


    Egli, R.; Geiger, A.; Wiget, A.; Kahle, H.-G


    The calculation of recent crustal movements and the associated crustal deformation rely on a suitable interpolation of geodetic measurements with repetition cycles of years or decades and modern GPS permanent networks. A common interpolation methods is the least-square collocation (LSC). LSC requires some a priori assumptions about the characteristics of the velocity field, that is, stocasticity in Moritz's definition of LSC. We present a novel approach, called adaptative LSC (ALSC) to the in...

  1. Distinct crustal isostasy trends east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (United States)

    Schmandt, Brandon; Lin, Fan-Chi; Karlstrom, Karl E.


    Seismic structure beneath the contiguous U.S. was imaged with multimode receiver function stacking and inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity measurements. Crust thickness and elevation are weakly correlated across the contiguous U.S., but the correlation is ~3-4 times greater for separate areas east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Greater lower crustal shear velocities east of the RMF, particularly in low-elevation areas with thick crust, are consistent with deep crustal density as the primary cause of the contrasting crust thickness versus elevation trends. Separate eastern and western trends are best fit by Airy isostasy models that assume lower crust to uppermost mantle density increases of 0.18 g/cm3 and 0.40 g/cm3, respectively. The former value is near the minimum that is plausible for felsic lower crust. Location of the transition at the RMF suggests that Laramide to post-Laramide processes reduced western U.S. lower crustal density.

  2. Crustal thickness estimates for Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, using disperse surface waves (United States)

    López-Pineda, Leobardo; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Quintanar, Luis


    Dispersed surface waves of regional events recorded at Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha (RESBAN) networks located over the Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, were used to estimate shear wave elastic models and crustal thickness. We analyzed fundamental modes of surface waves with period between 10 and 40 s. Multiple filter analysis and the inversion method described by Herrmann and Ammon (2003) was used. Crustal thickness estimates for the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California agree with those obtained by previous studies in the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California. We analyzed dispersion of surface waves with northwest-southeast travel paths along the east and west sides of the Baja California Peninsula as well as a northwest-southeast travel path along the western sides of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. It was found that the crustal structure east of the Baja California Peninsula is similar to the structure of Sonora and Sinaloa. The correlation between those two structures suggests dextral offset of the order of 275 ± 25 km if we consider Baja California Peninsula as a rigid body moving toward the northwest relative to the North America plate. This displacement between the structures is in agreement with the displacement determined by the dating of Miocene deposits located in San Felipe on the Baja California Peninsula (Pacific plate), and Isle Tiburon located west of Sonora (North America plate).

  3. Crustal structure of the NW Moroccan margin from deep seismic data (SISMAR Cruise) (United States)

    Jaffal, Mohammed; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Matias, Luis; Teixeira, Fernando; Amrhar, Mostafa


    During the SISMAR cruise (spring 2001), new deep seismic data were acquired on the Atlantic Moroccan margin. The purpose of the present work is to analyse and to interpret a part of the data consisting of four wide-angle seismic profiles (4, 5, 8 and 10) recorded offshore El Jadida. Lines 4 and 5, perpendicular to the margin, show a crustal thickness of 35 km under the western Moroccan Meseta which thins progressively seaward where it reaches a minimum thickness of 10 km. The calculated velocity models show that this crust consists of two crustal layers overlain by a sedimentary cover corresponding to the post-Paleozoic sediments, characterised by a low velocity. The detailed shallow structure is obtained primarily from multichannel seismic data. Half grabens are imaged and display deeper basins located at the foot of the continental slope where the sedimentary cover reaches a maximum thickness of 6 km. The sedimentary strata are disrupted by salt migration along faults and forming diapirs. The first crustal unit corresponds to the upper crust, with p-wave velocities ranging from 6 km/s at the top to 6.5 km/s at the base. The lower crust represented by the second unit is characterized by velocities increasing from 6.7 to 7.5 km/s at the base of the lower crust.

  4. Crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath the Midcontinent rift from receiver functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moikwathai Moidaki


    Full Text Available The Mesoproterozoic Midcontinent rift (MCR in the central US is an approximately 2000 km long, 100 km wide structure from Kansas to Michigan. During the 20-40 million years of rifting, a thick (up to 20 km layer of basaltic lava was deposited in the rift valleys. Quantifying the effects of the rifting and associated volcanic eruptions on the structure and composition of the crust and mantle beneath the MCR is important for the understanding of the evolution of continental lithosphere. In this study we measure the crustal thickness (H, and the sharpness of the Moho (R at about 24 portable and permanent stations in Iowa, Kansas, and South Dakota by stacking Pto- S converted waves (PmS and their multiples (PPmS and PSmS. Under the assumption that the crustal mean velocity in the study area is the same as the IASP91 earth model, we find a significantly thickened crust beneath the MCR of about 53 km. The crustal Vp/Vs ratios increases from about 1.80 off rift to as large as 1.95 within the rift, which corresponds to an increase of Poisson’s ratio from 0.28 to 0.32, suggesting a more mafic crust beneath the MCR. The R measurements are spatially variable and are relatively small in the vicinity of the MCR, indicating the disturbance of the original sharp Moho by the rifting and magmatic intrusion and volcanic eruption.

  5. Distinct crustal isostasy trends east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front

    KAUST Repository

    Schmandt, Brandon


    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Seismic structure beneath the contiguous U.S. was imaged with multimode receiver function stacking and inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity measurements. Crust thickness and elevation are weakly correlated across the contiguous U.S., but the correlation is ∼3-4 times greater for separate areas east and west of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF). Greater lower crustal shear velocities east of the RMF, particularly in low-elevation areas with thick crust, are consistent with deep crustal density as the primary cause of the contrasting crust thickness versus elevation trends. Separate eastern and western trends are best fit by Airy isostasy models that assume lower crust to uppermost mantle density increases of 0.18 g/cm3 and 0.40 g/cm3, respectively. The former value is near the minimum that is plausible for felsic lower crust. Location of the transition at the RMF suggests that Laramide to post-Laramide processes reduced western U.S. lower crustal density.

  6. Outcomes of Constrained Prostheses in Primary and Revision TKR (United States)

    Parkinson, Ben; Lorimer, Michelle; Lewis, Peter


    Introduction: The decision to use varus/valgus constrained or hinge knee prostheses in complex Total Knee Replacement (TKR) cases is difficult. There are few publications that compare survival rates, to aid this decision-making. This study compares the survival rates of unlinked fully constrained and hinge constrained prostheses in the primary and revision settings. Methods: Data from the AOANJRR to 31st of December 2013 was analysed to determine the survival rate of unlinked and hinge constrained TKR in the primary and revision settings (excluding the diagnosis of tumour and infection). Only first-time revisions of a known primary TKR were included in the revision analysis. Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivorship were calculated for the two categories of constraint and were matched for age and diagnosis in both primary and revision TKR situations. Hazard ratios using the Cox proportional-hazards model were used. The survivorship of individual prosthesis models was determined. Results: There were 3237 prostheses implanted during the study period that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 1896 were for primary TKR and 1341 for revision TKR. There were 1349 unlinked fully constrained and 547 hinge prostheses for primary TKR and 991 unlinked fully constrained and 350 hinge prostheses for revision TKR. In both the primary and revision settings when matched by age, there was no difference in rates of revision for either level of constraint. When matched by indication in the primary setting, there was no difference in the rates of revision for either level of constraint. The rate of revision for both categories of constrained prosthesis was significantly higher in younger patients <55 years of age (p < 0.05). There were no differences in survival rates of individual models of constrained TKR. Conclusions: The survival rates of unlinked constrained and hinge knee prostheses are similar when matched by age or diagnosis. In complex TKR instability cases, surgeons should feel


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    studies. In: Henderson P (ed) Rare earth element geochemistry. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 63-107. Brownlow AH 1996 Geochemistry. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Haldemann EG 1961 QDS 274 – Milo. Geological Survey of Tanganyika. Ludwig KR 1994 Isoplot — a plotting and regression program for radiogenic isotope data.

  8. Mantle-derived helium in sedimentary basins of Central Mediterranean: Geologic and tectonic constrains on fluids accumulation and migration. (United States)

    Caracausi, Antonio; Grassa, Fausto; Pennino, Valentina; Rizzo, Andrea; Sulli, Attilio


    The geodynamics of the central Mediterranean is characterized by the interaction between the European plate and the African one. In this setting Sicily is a sector of the Appenine-Maghrebide accretionary prism, which is located between two areas affected by extensional tectonics (Sicily Channel to the south and the Thyrrenian back arc basin to the north). In the present study we present the first dataset of helium isotopic composition measured in fluids released from the central-western Sicily. With the aim to constrain the transfer system of fluids in this area we relate the results of geochemical investigations with the stratigraphy and structural setting, derived from field geology, deep boreholes and new seismic reflection, gravimetry and magnetometry data. Significant mantle-derived helium (0.4Belice valley), which involves the deeper portions of the chain; in addition gravimetry and magnetic data displayed a shallow crustal basement, whose involvement in the deformation suggests a link with the fault systems recognized in the overlying tectonic wedge.

  9. Particle-in-cell simulations of the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies: Magnetic cusp regions (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.


    As the solar wind is incident upon the lunar surface, it will occasionally encounter lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields. These magnetic fields are small-scale, highly non-dipolar, have strengths up to hundreds of nanotesla, and typically interact with the solar wind in a kinetic fashion. Simulations, theoretical analyses, and spacecraft observations have shown that crustal fields can reflect solar wind protons via a combination of magnetic and electrostatic reflection; however, analyses of surface properties have suggested that protons may still access the lunar surface in the cusp regions of crustal magnetic fields. In this first report from a planned series of studies, we use a 11/2-dimensional, electrostatic particle-in-cell code to model the self-consistent interaction between the solar wind, the cusp regions of lunar crustal remanent magnetic fields, and the lunar surface. We describe the self-consistent electrostatic environment within crustal cusp regions and discuss the implications of this work for the role that crustal fields may play regulating space weathering of the lunar surface via proton bombardment.

  10. The Crustal Structure of the North-South Earthquake Belt in China Revealed from Deep Seismic Soundings and Gravity Data (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Guo, Lianghui; Shi, Lei; Li, Yonghua


    The North-South earthquake belt (NSEB) is one of the major earthquake regions in China. The studies of crustal structure play a great role in understanding tectonic evolution and in evaluating earthquake hazards in this region. However, some fundamental crustal parameters, especially crustal interface structure, are not clear in this region. In this paper, we reconstructed the crustal interface structure around the NSEB based on both the deep seismic sounding (DSS) data and the gravity data. We firstly reconstructed the crustal structure of crystalline basement (interface G), interface between upper and lower crusts (interface C) and Moho in the study area by compiling the results of 38 DSS profiles published previously. Then, we forwardly calculated the gravity anomalies caused by the interfaces G and C, and then subtracted them from the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the regional gravity anomalies mainly due to the Moho interface. We then utilized a lateral-variable density interface inversion technique with constraints of the DSS data to invert the regional anomalies for the Moho depth model in the study area. The reliability of our Moho depth model was evaluated by comparing with other Moho depth models derived from other gravity inversion technique and receiver function analysis. Based on our Moho depth model, we mapped the crustal apparent density distribution in the study area for better understanding the geodynamics around the NSEB.

  11. How can we constrain the amount of heat producing elements in the interior of Mars? (United States)

    Grott, M.; Plesa, A.; Breuer, D.


    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission to be launched in 2016 will study Mars' deep interior and help improving our knowledge about the interior structure and the thermal evolution of the planet - the latter is also directly linked to its volcanic history and atmospheric evolution. Measurements planned with the two main instruments, SEIS (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure) and HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package) aim to constrain the main structure of the planet, i.e. core, mantle and crust as well as the rate at which the planet loses the interior heat over its surface. Since the surface heat flow depends on the amount of radiogenic heat elements (HPE) present in the interior, it offers a measurable quantity which could constrain the heat budget. Being the principal agent regulating the heat budget which in turn influences partial melting in the interior, crustal and atmospheric evolution, the heat producing elements have a major impact on the entire the present temperature thermal history of the planet. To constrain the radiogenic heat elements of the planet from the surface heat flow is possible assuming that the urey number of the planet, which describes the contribution of internal heat production to the surface heat loss, is known. We have tested this assumption by calculating the thermal evolution of the planet with fully dynamical numerical simulations and by comparing the obtained present-day urey number for a set of different models/parameters (Fig. 1). For one-plate planets like Mars, numerical models show - in contrast to models for the Earth, where plate tectonics play a major role adding more complexity to the system - that the urey ratio is mainly sensitive to two effects: the efficiency of cooling due to the temperature-dependence of the viscosity and the mean half-life time of the long lived radiogenic isotopes. The temperature-dependence of the viscosity results in the

  12. Crustal deformation in the Kumano Basin along the Nankai Trough inferred from repeated seafloor geodetic observations (United States)

    Watanabe, T.; Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Okuda, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Miyata, K.; Kuno, M.


    At the Nankai Trough (NT), the Philippine Sea plate (PH) subducts beneath the southwest Japan at a rate of about 4-6 cm/yr, where great interplate earthquakes have repeatedly occurred every 100-200 years. A number of researchers have investigated crustal deformation caused by subduction of the PH based on geodetic measurements as represented by GPS observation. However it is difficult to infer the plate coupling strength in offshore areas, due to the poverty of offshore geodetic data. From a viewpoint of disaster mitigation, it is important to know the updip and downdip limit of the plate locking depth. For this issue, we have conducted observations of the seafloor crustal deformations around the NT using a GPS/Acoustic technique since 2004. In this system, we estimate the position of a surveying vessel by Kinematic GPS analysis and measure the distance between the vessel and the benchmark on the sea floor by Acoustic measurements. Next we determine the location of the benchmark. For the repeatability of observation, the location of benchmark is determined within a precision of 2-3 cm at horizontal components (Tadokoro et al., 2006). In the Kumano Basin, we have two seafloor benchmarks, which are located about 60 and 80 km away from the deformation front of the NT. The observations from 2005 to 2008 have illustrated that these benchmarks are moving at rates of about 5-6 cm/yr with velocity uncertainties of 1-3 cm/yr relative to the Amurian plate. In this study, in order to estimate interplate coupling at the NT, we calculated surface deformations accompanied with plate subduction in an elastic half-space and compared them with on- and offshore GPS velocities. Then, we investigated the effect of observation for the seafloor crustal deformations on slip resolution on the plate interface. We conclude that offshore crustal deformation data provide good constraints for the estimation of fault slips at the shallower part of the plate interface, especially at the depths

  13. Residual flexibility test method for verification of constrained structural models (United States)

    Admire, John R.; Tinker, Michael L.; Ivey, Edward W.


    A method is described for deriving constrained modes and frequencies from a reduced model based on a subset of the free-free modes plus the residual effects of neglected modes. The method involves a simple modification of the MacNeal and Rubin component mode representation to allow development of a verified constrained (fixed-base) structural model. Results for two spaceflight structures having translational boundary degrees of freedom show quick convergence of constrained modes using a measureable number of free-free modes plus the boundary partition of the residual flexibility matrix. This paper presents the free-free residual flexibility approach as an alternative test/analysis method when fixed-base testing proves impractical.

  14. Mapping Antarctic Crustal Thickness using Gravity Inversion and Comparison with Seismic Estimates (United States)

    Kusznir, Nick; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Jordan, Tom


    Using gravity anomaly inversion, we produce comprehensive regional maps of crustal thickness and oceanic lithosphere distribution for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Crustal thicknesses derived from gravity inversion are consistent with seismic estimates. We determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness, continental lithosphere thinning (1-1/β) and ocean-continent transition location using a 3D spectral domain gravity inversion method, which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir 2008). The gravity anomaly contribution from ice thickness is included in the gravity inversion, as is the contribution from sediments which assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. Data used in the gravity inversion are elevation and bathymetry, free-air gravity anomaly, the Bedmap 2 ice thickness and bedrock topography compilation south of 60 degrees south and relatively sparse constraints on sediment thickness. Ocean isochrons are used to define the cooling age of oceanic lithosphere. Crustal thicknesses from gravity inversion are compared with independent seismic estimates, which are still relatively sparse over Antarctica. Our gravity inversion study predicts thick crust (> 45 km) under interior East Antarctica, which is penetrated by narrow continental rifts featuring relatively thinner crust. The largest crustal thicknesses predicted from gravity inversion lie in the region of the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, and are consistent with seismic estimates. The East Antarctic Rift System (EARS), a major Permian to Cretaceous age rift system, is imaged by our inversion and appears to extend from the continental margin at the Lambert Rift to the South Pole region, a distance of 2500 km. Offshore an extensive region of either thick oceanic crust or highly thinned continental crust lies adjacent to Oates Land and north Victoria Land, and also off West Antarctica around the Amundsen Ridges. Thin crust is

  15. Exact methods for time constrained routing and related scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas


    This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set of custo......This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set...

  16. A proposal for constraining initial vacuum by cosmic microwave background (United States)

    Chandra, Debabrata; Pal, Supratik


    We propose a theoretical framework that can possibly constrain the initial vacuum by observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). With a generic vacuum without any particular choice a priori, thereby keeping both the Bogolyubov coefficients in the analysis, we compute observable parameters from two- and three-point correlation functions. We are thus left with constraining four model parameters from the two complex Bogolyubov coefficients. We also demonstrate a method of finding out the constraint relations between the Bogolyubov coefficients using the theoretical normalization condition and observational data of power spectrum and bispectrum from CMB. Finally, we discuss the possible pros and cons of the analysis.

  17. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B., E-mail: [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Raduta, Ad.R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bonnet, E. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Gruyer, D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Marini, P. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others


    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4–12 AMeV [S. Piantelli, et al., INDRA Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. A 809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  18. Hamiltonian Monte Carlo with Constrained Molecular Dynamics as Gibbs Sampling. (United States)

    Spiridon, Laurentiu; Minh, David D L


    Compared to fully flexible molecular dynamics, simulations of constrained systems can use larger time steps and focus kinetic energy on soft degrees of freedom. Achieving ergodic sampling from the Boltzmann distribution, however, has proven challenging. Using recent generalizations of the equipartition principle and Fixman potential, here we implement Hamiltonian Monte Carlo based on constrained molecular dynamics as a Gibbs sampling move. By mixing Hamiltonian Monte Carlo based on fully flexible and torsional dynamics, we are able to reproduce free energy landscapes of simple model systems and enhance sampling of macrocycles.

  19. 21 CFR 888.3210 - Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented... metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A finger joint metal/metal constrained..., 1996 for any finger joint metal/metal constrained cemented prosthesis that was in commercial...

  20. Geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic study on metabasalt in the Cathaysia Block: Implications of Paleozoic migmatization of Precambrian crustal and mantle materials in South China (United States)

    Zeng, Wen; Zhou, Hanwen; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Fitzsimons, Ian C. W.; Zhong, Zengqiu; Xiang, Hua; Liu, Rui; Jin, Song


    Metamorphic rocks scattered in northeastern Cathaysia Block experienced upper-amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism. This study focuses on the mafic metamorphic rocks (including biotite-amphibolite and amphibolite) found in migmatite. The whole rock geochemical characteristics of ten mafic metamorphic rock samples suggest that their protoliths are subalkaline basalts, including tholeiites and calc-alkaline basalts resemble those in E-MORB, within-plate and volcanic-arc tectonic settings. Eighty zircon grains from three representative samples (samples FJ39-1, FJ61-3 and FJ125-4) were picked for geochronology analyses. Cathodo-luminescence images show that most zircons are elongated subhedral to eueuhedral crystals with oscillatory zoning. Some of them are surrounded by thin, homogeneous luminescent overgrowth rims, which may present a later thermal event. LA-ICP-MS analyses indicate that most analyzed zircon grains have high Th/U ratios (0.16-1.41, n = 69) and yield U-Pb zircon ages of 444 ± 3 Ma (FJ39-1), 445 ± 2 Ma (FJ61-3), 448 ± 3 Ma and 473 ± 4 Ma (FJ125-4), respectively for each sample. The Hf model ages calculated for these zircons ranges from ˜3613 to ˜853 Ma with ɛHf(t) values from -20.0 to +7.1; zircons with model ages of 1121-853 Ma show positive ɛHf(t) values (+0.2 - +7.1). This implies that the protoliths of the mafic metamorphic rocks contain diverse basalts erupted in various tectonic settings during the Precambrian, rather than being Ordovician new crustal addition. The data suggest that there could be an Archaean basement component in the Cathaysia Block and the basement possibly had crustal additions during the Meso- to Neoproterozoic. The zircon U-Pb ages of the mafic metamorphic rocks are the same as those of leucosomes (471 ± 4 Ma and 445 ± 3 Ma). The metamorphic P-T conditions are constrained by the zircon Ti-content thermometer, the Amp-Pl thermobarometer and mineral stability fields of titanite and garnet to be 722-779

  1. 4-D crustal structure of the conterminous U.S.: Continental assembly, crustal growth, and deformation history from receiver functions, xenoliths, and structural mapping (United States)

    Schulte-Pelkum, V.; Mahan, K. H.


    We investigate seismic and geological features related to the tectonic evolution of the crust on a continent-wide scale. We present continent-wide features using Transportable Array data receiver function analysis, followed by regional comparisons to tie to ground truth from xenolith studies and structural mapping. We stress that the Transportable Array, at ~75 km station spacing, only offers a collection of point measurements of the crust due to the lack of crossing raypaths. 7.x layers (lower crust with high seismic velocities) can be created during crustal growth processes such as magmatic or mechanical underplating and during crustal modification such as large-scale melting. We present receiver function results and a compilation of previous regional studies using refraction data or receiver functions from regional dense networks. 7.x layers appear predominantly in parts of the northern U.S. Cordillera and across the southeastern U.S. We compare the seismic results with a xenolith study in Montana that details incremental growth of the 7.x layer from the Archean on. Hydration of a granulitic lower crust can destroy the 7.x layer and has the potential to cause epirogenic uplift. We interpret the pattern seen across the Transportable Array in the light of this hypothesis. Ductile deformation of the deep crust generates shear fabrics that can be detected seismically. Receiver functions detect shear zones via contrasts in foliation to the surrounding material. We map foliation strikes and depths in the crust across the Transportable Array using azimuthal analysis of receiver functions. Strikes from receiver functions typically align with surface fault traces in tectonically active regions, with depths of the converters exceeding the brittle zone. We discuss continent-wide strikes mapped with receiver functions. Contrasting orientations of Proterozoic shear zones and pervasive surrounding foliations in basement exposures in Colorado are reflected in seismic results

  2. Constraints on the crustal structure beneath the Sinai subplate, SE Mediterranean, from analysis of local and regional travel times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed K. Salah


    Full Text Available The Sinai Peninsula has been recognized as a subplate of the African Plate located at the triple junction of the Gulf of Suez rift, the Dead Sea Transform fault, and the Red Sea rift. The upper and lower crustal structures of this tectonically active, rapidly developing region are yet poorly understood because of many limitations. For this reason, a set of P- and S-wave travel times recorded at 14 seismic stations belonging to the Egyptian National Seismographic Network (ENSN from 111 local and regional events are analyzed to investigate the crustal structures and the locations of the seismogenic zones beneath central and southern Sinai. Because the velocity model used for routine earthquake location by ENSN is one-dimensional, the travel-time residuals will show lateral heterogeneity of the velocity structures and unmodeled vertical structures. Seismic activity is strong along the eastern and southern borders of the study area but low to moderate along the northern boundary and the Gulf of Suez to the west. The crustal Vp/Vs ratio is 1.74 from shallow (depth ≤ 10 km earthquakes and 1.76 from deeper (depth > 10 km crustal events. The majority of the regional and local travel-time residuals are positive relative to the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM, implying that the seismic stations are located above widely distributed, tectonically-induced low-velocity zones. These low-velocity zones are mostly related to the local crustal faults affecting the sedimentary section and the basement complex as well as the rifting processes prevailing in the northern Red Sea region and the ascending of hot mantle materials along crustal fractures. The delineation of these low-velocity zones and the locations of big crustal earthquakes enable the identification of areas prone to intense seismotectonic activities, which should be excluded from major future development projects and large constructions in central and southern Sinai.

  3. Crustal structure of the Gulf of Aden southern margin: Evidence from receiver functions on Socotra Island (Yemen) (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Leroy, Sylvie; Keir, Derek; Korostelev, Félicie; Khanbari, Khaled; Rolandone, Frédérique; Stuart, Graham; Obrebski, Mathias


    Breakup of continents in magma-poor setting occurs primarily by faulting and plate thinning. Spatial and temporal variations in these processes can be influenced by the pre-rift basement structure as well as by early syn-rift segmentation of the rift. In order to better understand crustal deformation and influence of pre-rift architecture on breakup we use receiver functions from teleseismic recordings from Socotra which is part of the subaerial Oligo-Miocene age southern margin of the Gulf of Aden. We determine variations in crustal thickness and elastic properties, from which we interpret the degree of extension related thinning and crustal composition. Our computed receiver functions show an average crustal thickness of ~ 28 km for central Socotra, which decreases westward along the margin to an average of ~ 21 km. In addition, the crust thins with proximity to the continent-ocean transition to ~ 16 km in the northwest. Assuming an initial pre-rift crustal thickness of 35 km (undeformed Arabian plate), we estimate a stretching factor in the range of ~ 2.1-2.4 beneath Socotra. Our results show considerable differences between the crustal structure of Socotra's eastern and western sides on either side of the Hadibo transfer zone; the east displays a clear intracrustal conversion phase and thick crust when compared with the western part. The majority of measurements across Socotra show Vp/Vs ratios of between 1.70 and 1.77 and are broadly consistent with the Vp/Vs values expected from the granitic and carbonate rock type exposed at the surface. Our results strongly suggest that intrusion of mafic rock is absent or minimal, providing evidence that mechanical thinning accommodated the majority of crustal extension. From our observations we interpret that the western part of Socotra corresponds to the necking zone of a classic magma-poor continental margin, while the eastern part corresponds to the proximal domain.

  4. Constrained control of a once-through boiler with recirculation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    There is an increasing need to operate power plants at low load for longer periods of time. When a once-through boiler operates at a sufficiently low load, recirculation is introduced, significantly altering the control structure. This paper illustrates the possibilities for using constrained con...

  5. A spatially constrained ecological classification: rationale, methodology and implementation (United States)

    Franz Mora; Louis Iverson; Louis Iverson


    The theory, methodology and implementation for an ecological and spatially constrained classification are presented. Ecological and spatial relationships among several landscape variables are analyzed in order to define a new approach for a landscape classification. Using ecological and geostatistical analyses, several ecological and spatial weights are derived to...

  6. Effect of modified constrained induced movement therapy on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab M. Abdel-Kafy


    Dec 21, 2012 ... Effect of modified constrained induced movement therapy on improving arm function in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Ehab M. Abdel-Kafy, Hebatallah M. Kamal *, Samah A. Elshemy. Department of Physical Therapy for Disturbances of Growth and Developmental Disorders in Children and its ...

  7. Circumstellar disc geometry constrained by infrared line fluxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, C.E.; Molak, A.; Sigut, T.A.A.; de Koter, A.; Lenorzer, A.; Popa, S.C.


    Lenorzer et al. introduce ratios of hydrogen infrared recombination lines as a diagnostic tool to constrain the spatial distribution and physical condition of circumstellar material around hot massive stars. They demonstrate that the observed line flux ratios Hu14/Brα and Hu14/Pfγ from different

  8. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. This paper applies the adjusted balance of payment (BOP) constrained growth framework modified by Thirwall and Hussain (1982) on Nigeria's economic growth to estimate the determinants of the long run rate of growth in Nigeria. With Nigeria adopting the import substitution industrialization policy in 1960, we ...

  9. Reserve-constrained economic dispatch: Cost and payment allocations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misraji, Jaime [Sistema Electrico Nacional Interconectado de la Republica Dominicana, Calle 3, No. 3, Arroyo Hondo 1, Santo Domingo, Distrito Nacional (Dominican Republic); Conejo, Antonio J.; Morales, Juan M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    This paper extends basic economic dispatch analytical results to the reserve-constrained case. For this extended problem, a cost and payment allocation analysis is carried out and a detailed economic interpretation of the results is provided. Sensitivity values (Lagrange multipliers) are also analyzed. A case study is considered to illustrate the proposed analysis. Conclusions are duly drawn. (author)

  10. Adaptive double chain quantum genetic algorithm for constrained optimization problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Kong


    Full Text Available Optimization problems are often highly constrained and evolutionary algorithms (EAs are effective methods to tackle this kind of problems. To further improve search efficiency and convergence rate of EAs, this paper presents an adaptive double chain quantum genetic algorithm (ADCQGA for solving constrained optimization problems. ADCQGA makes use of double-individuals to represent solutions that are classified as feasible and infeasible solutions. Fitness (or evaluation functions are defined for both types of solutions. Based on the fitness function, three types of step evolution (SE are defined and utilized for judging evolutionary individuals. An adaptive rotation is proposed and used to facilitate updating individuals in different solutions. To further improve the search capability and convergence rate, ADCQGA utilizes an adaptive evolution process (AEP, adaptive mutation and replacement techniques. ADCQGA was first tested on a widely used benchmark function to illustrate the relationship between initial parameter values and the convergence rate/search capability. Then the proposed ADCQGA is successfully applied to solve other twelve benchmark functions and five well-known constrained engineering design problems. Multi-aircraft cooperative target allocation problem is a typical constrained optimization problem and requires efficient methods to tackle. Finally, ADCQGA is successfully applied to solving the target allocation problem.

  11. The balance of payment-constrained economic growth in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to empirically test the validity of the simplified version of the balance of payment-constrained economic growth model for Ethiopia during the period 1971-20082. According to the model, economies only grow at a pace allowed by the constraints imposed by the requirement of balance of payment ...

  12. Dark matter, constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model, and lattice QCD. (United States)

    Giedt, Joel; Thomas, Anthony W; Young, Ross D


    Recent lattice measurements have given accurate estimates of the quark condensates in the proton. We use these results to significantly improve the dark matter predictions in benchmark models within the constrained minimal supersymmetric standard model. The predicted spin-independent cross sections are at least an order of magnitude smaller than previously suggested and our results have significant consequences for dark matter searches.

  13. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate partner violence in .... sexual violence before the age of 18 (Reza et al., 2009). In addition 11% of .... modified as necessary to ensure that the intent and translation of each item was clear. A young bilingual female Swazi RA who was familiar with the research.

  14. Constrained Geocast to Support Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) Merging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Wolterink, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Karagiannis, Georgios


    In this paper we introduce a new geocasting concept to target vehicles based on where they will be in the direct future, in stead of their current position. We refer to this concept as constrained geocast. This may be useful in situations where vehicles have interdependencies based on (future)

  15. Revenue Prediction in Budget-constrained Sequential Auctions with Complementarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Verwer (Sicco); Y. Zhang (Yingqian)


    textabstractWhen multiple items are auctioned sequentially, the ordering of auctions plays an important role in the total revenue collected by the auctioneer. This is true especially with budget constrained bidders and the presence of complementarities among items. In such sequential auction

  16. Modeling constrained sintering of bi-layered tubular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye; Kothanda Ramachandran, Dhavanesan; Ni, De Wei


    Constrained sintering of tubular bi-layered structures is being used in the development of various technologies. Densification mismatch between the layers making the tubular bi-layer can generate stresses, which may create processing defects. An analytical model is presented to describe the densi...

  17. Trauma death in a resource constrained setting: Mechanisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Nov 20, 2013 ... experienced personnel, the utilization of high technology. Trauma death in a resource constrained setting: ... staff includes orderlies, cleaners, security personnel and drivers. The ambulance service is for 24 h daily .... pressure<70 mmHg) 20 (13.6). Exploratory laparotomy 9 (6.1%). External fixation 8 (5.4%).

  18. 21 CFR 888.3230 - Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finger joint polymer constrained prosthesis. 888.3230 Section 888.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... made from either a silicone elastomer or a combination pf polypropylene and polyester material. The...

  19. Using Diagnostic Text Information to Constrain Situation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutke, S.; Baadte, C.; Hähnel, A.; Hecker, U. von; Rinck, M.


    During reading, the model of the situation described by the text is continuously accommodated to new text input. The hypothesis was tested that readers are particularly sensitive to diagnostic text information that can be used to constrain their existing situation model. In 3 experiments, adult

  20. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We used structural equation modelling to identify and measure constrained relationship agency (CRA) as a latent variable, and then tested the hypothesis that CRA plays a significant role in the pathway between IPV and transactional sex. After controlling for CRA, receiving more material goods from a sexual partner was ...

  1. Improved Differential Evolution with Shrinking Space Technique for Constrained Optimization (United States)

    Fu, Chunming; Xu, Yadong; Jiang, Chao; Han, Xu; Huang, Zhiliang


    Most of the current evolutionary algorithms for constrained optimization algorithm are low computational efficiency. In order to improve efficiency, an improved differential evolution with shrinking space technique and adaptive trade-off model, named ATMDE, is proposed to solve constrained optimization problems. The proposed ATMDE algorithm employs an improved differential evolution as the search optimizer to generate new offspring individuals into evolutionary population. For the constraints, the adaptive trade-off model as one of the most important constraint-handling techniques is employed to select better individuals to retain into the next population, which could effectively handle multiple constraints. Then the shrinking space technique is designed to shrink the search region according to feedback information in order to improve computational efficiency without losing accuracy. The improved DE algorithm introduces three different mutant strategies to generate different offspring into evolutionary population. Moreover, a new mutant strategy called "DE/rand/best/1" is constructed to generate new individuals according to the feasibility proportion of current population. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by a suite of benchmark functions and practical engineering problems. This research presents a constrained evolutionary algorithm with high efficiency and accuracy for constrained optimization problems.

  2. 3D facial geometric features for constrained local model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Shiyang; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Asthana, Ashish; Asthana, Akshay; Pantic, Maja


    We propose a 3D Constrained Local Model framework for deformable face alignment in depth image. Our framework exploits the intrinsic 3D geometric information in depth data by utilizing robust histogram-based 3D geometric features that are based on normal vectors. In addition, we demonstrate the

  3. Inferring meaningful communities from topology-constrained correlation networks. (United States)

    Hleap, Jose Sergio; Blouin, Christian


    Community structure detection is an important tool in graph analysis. This can be done, among other ways, by solving for the partition set which optimizes the modularity scores [Formula: see text]. Here it is shown that topological constraints in correlation graphs induce over-fragmentation of community structures. A refinement step to this optimization based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and a statistical test for significance is proposed. In structured simulation constrained by topology, this novel approach performs better than the optimization of modularity alone. This method was also tested with two empirical datasets: the Roll-Call voting in the 110th US Senate constrained by geographic adjacency, and a biological dataset of 135 protein structures constrained by inter-residue contacts. The former dataset showed sub-structures in the communities that revealed a regional bias in the votes which transcend party affiliations. This is an interesting pattern given that the 110th Legislature was assumed to be a highly polarized government. The [Formula: see text]-amylase catalytic domain dataset (biological dataset) was analyzed with and without topological constraints (inter-residue contacts). The results without topological constraints showed differences with the topology constrained one, but the LDA filtering did not change the outcome of the latter. This suggests that the LDA filtering is a robust way to solve the possible over-fragmentation when present, and that this method will not affect the results where there is no evidence of over-fragmentation.

  4. Identification of different geologic units using fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography (United States)

    Singh, Anand; Sharma, S. P.


    Different geophysical inversion strategies are utilized as a component of an interpretation process that tries to separate geologic units based on the resistivity distribution. In the present study, we present the results of separating different geologic units using fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography. This was accomplished using fuzzy c means, a clustering procedure to improve the 2D resistivity image and geologic separation within the iterative minimization through inversion. First, we developed a Matlab-based inversion technique to obtain a reliable resistivity image using different geophysical data sets (electrical resistivity and electromagnetic data). Following this, the recovered resistivity model was converted into a fuzzy constrained resistivity model by assigning the highest probability value of each model cell to the cluster utilizing fuzzy c means clustering procedure during the iterative process. The efficacy of the algorithm is demonstrated using three synthetic plane wave electromagnetic data sets and one electrical resistivity field dataset. The presented approach shows improvement on the conventional inversion approach to differentiate between different geologic units if the correct number of geologic units will be identified. Further, fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography was performed to examine the augmentation of uranium mineralization in the Beldih open cast mine as a case study. We also compared geologic units identified by fuzzy constrained resistivity tomography with geologic units interpreted from the borehole information.

  5. Node Discovery and Interpretation in Unstructured Resource-Constrained Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gechev, Miroslav; Kasabova, Slavyana; Mihovska, Albena D.


    A main characteristic of the Internet of Things networks is the large number of resource-constrained nodes, which, however, are required to perform reliable and fast data exchange; often of critical nature; over highly unpredictable and dynamic connections and network topologies. Reducing the num...

  6. Testing a Constrained MPC Controller in a Process Control Laboratory (United States)

    Ricardez-Sandoval, Luis A.; Blankespoor, Wesley; Budman, Hector M.


    This paper describes an experiment performed by the fourth year chemical engineering students in the process control laboratory at the University of Waterloo. The objective of this experiment is to test the capabilities of a constrained Model Predictive Controller (MPC) to control the operation of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger (DPHE) in real time.…

  7. Total Knee Replacement in A Resource Constrained Environment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 6, 2017 ... knee replacement in a resource constrained environment: A preliminary report. Niger J Clin Pract 2017;20:369-75. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons. Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, tweak, and build upon ...

  8. Constrained variational calculus for higher order classical field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Cedric M; De Leon, Manuel; De Diego, David MartIn, E-mail: cedricmc@icmat.e, E-mail: mdeleon@icmat.e, E-mail: david.martin@icmat.e [Instituto de Ciencias Matematicas, CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    We develop an intrinsic geometrical setting for higher order constrained field theories. As a main tool we use an appropriate generalization of the classical Skinner-Rusk formalism. Some examples of applications are studied, in particular to the geometrical description of optimal control theory for partial differential equations.

  9. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    masculinity (Maganja, Maman, Groves, & Mbwambo, 2007). Similarly, bystanders may be less likely to intervene in an impending sexual assault if they believe that a man has. Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate partner violence in different models of transactional sex. Rebecca Fielding-Miller1, 2* ...

  10. Convergence profile of a discretized scheme for constrained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    profile of a quadratic control problem constrained by evolution equation with real coefficients. With an unconstrained formulation of the problem via the penaltymultiplier method, the discretization of the time interval and differential constraint is carried out. An operator, to circumvent the cumbersome calculation inherent in ...

  11. Effective Teaching of Economics: A Constrained Optimization Problem? (United States)

    Hultberg, Patrik T.; Calonge, David Santandreu


    One of the fundamental tenets of economics is that decisions are often the result of optimization problems subject to resource constraints. Consumers optimize utility, subject to constraints imposed by prices and income. As economics faculty, instructors attempt to maximize student learning while being constrained by their own and students'…

  12. Inferring meaningful communities from topology-constrained correlation networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Sergio Hleap

    Full Text Available Community structure detection is an important tool in graph analysis. This can be done, among other ways, by solving for the partition set which optimizes the modularity scores [Formula: see text]. Here it is shown that topological constraints in correlation graphs induce over-fragmentation of community structures. A refinement step to this optimization based on Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and a statistical test for significance is proposed. In structured simulation constrained by topology, this novel approach performs better than the optimization of modularity alone. This method was also tested with two empirical datasets: the Roll-Call voting in the 110th US Senate constrained by geographic adjacency, and a biological dataset of 135 protein structures constrained by inter-residue contacts. The former dataset showed sub-structures in the communities that revealed a regional bias in the votes which transcend party affiliations. This is an interesting pattern given that the 110th Legislature was assumed to be a highly polarized government. The [Formula: see text]-amylase catalytic domain dataset (biological dataset was analyzed with and without topological constraints (inter-residue contacts. The results without topological constraints showed differences with the topology constrained one, but the LDA filtering did not change the outcome of the latter. This suggests that the LDA filtering is a robust way to solve the possible over-fragmentation when present, and that this method will not affect the results where there is no evidence of over-fragmentation.

  13. Dirac's Constrained Hamiltonian Dynamics from an Unconstrained Dynamics


    Rothe, Heinz J.


    We derive the Hamilton equations of motion for a constrained system in the form given by Dirac, by a limiting procedure, starting from the Lagrangean for an unconstrained system. We thereby ellucidate the role played by the primary constraints and their persistance in time.

  14. Factors constraining accessibility and usage of information among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges faced by farmers in using poultry management information were mostly related to poverty, ignorance, and limited literacy. An understanding of the factors that constrain access and use of poultry management information can guide the planners and information providers in setting up appropriate standards for ...

  15. The Balance of Payment-Constrained Economic Growth in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Lopez and Cruz (1986) applied the balance of payment constrained model to four Latin American countries, namely, Argentina, Brazil,. Colombia, and Mexico. They estimate the model using co-integration analysis and a Vector Auto Regression (VAR) specification. In addition, they showed a co-integration between export ...

  16. Protracted weakening during lower crustal shearing along an extensional shear zone (United States)

    degli Alessandrini, Giulia; Menegon, Luca; Giuntoli, Francesco


    This study investigates grain-scale deformation mechanisms in the mafic lower continental crust, with particular focus on the role of syn-kinematic metamorphic reactions and their product - symplectites - in promoting grain size reduction, phase mixing and thus strain localization. The investigated extensional shear zone is hosted in the Finero mafic-ultramafic complex in the Italian Southern Alps. Field and microstructural observations indicate that strain partitioned in gabbroic layers where the primary mineralogical assemblage contained amphibole, forming ultramylonites. These ultramylonites are characterized by isolated porphyroclasts of amphibole, garnet, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, embedded in a matrix of plagioclase (ca. 39 vol%) + amphibole (25 vol%) + clinopyroxene (18 vol%) + orthopyroxene (11 vol%) + Fe-Ti oxides (6 vol%) ± apatite (CPO with [001] axes preferentially aligned parallel to the stretching lineation, which we interpret as oriented grain growth during heterogeneous nucleation of amphibole. Pyroxenes and plagioclase lack a CPO and evidence for dislocation creep and dynamic recrystallization. Protracted shearing was initiated by syn-kinematic metamorphic reactions: garnet porphyroclasts formed orthopyroxene + plagioclase symplectites and amphibole porphyroclasts formed pyroxene + plagioclase symplectites. The latter reaction indicates that strain localization initiated with dehydration reactions leading to primary amphibole breakdown into pyroxene and plagioclase, now preserved in the ultramylonite. Geothermobarometry using plagioclase-amphibole pairs in the ultramylonites indicate temperature conditions of ca. 800˚ C and pressures from 8 to 6kbar. This suggests that protracted shearing in the ultramylonites occurred at decreasing pressure and nearly constant T. We suggest that the fluids released during the dehydration reaction were channelized in the ultramylonites and subsequently assisted amphibole nucleation in dilatant sites during

  17. Constrained Laboratory vs. Unconstrained Steering-Induced Rollover Crash Tests. (United States)

    Kerrigan, Jason R; Toczyski, Jacek; Roberts, Carolyn; Zhang, Qi; Clauser, Mark


    The goal of this study was to evaluate how well an in-laboratory rollover crash test methodology that constrains vehicle motion can reproduce the dynamics of unconstrained full-scale steering-induced rollover crash tests in sand. Data from previously-published unconstrained steering-induced rollover crash tests using a full-size pickup and mid-sized sedan were analyzed to determine vehicle-to-ground impact conditions and kinematic response of the vehicles throughout the tests. Then, a pair of replicate vehicles were prepared to match the inertial properties of the steering-induced test vehicles and configured to record dynamic roof structure deformations and kinematic response. Both vehicles experienced greater increases in roll-axis angular velocities in the unconstrained tests than in the constrained tests; however, the increases that occurred during the trailing side roof interaction were nearly identical between tests for both vehicles. Both vehicles experienced linear accelerations in the constrained tests that were similar to those in the unconstrained tests, but the pickup, in particular, had accelerations that were matched in magnitude, timing, and duration very closely between the two test types. Deformations in the truck test were higher in the constrained than the unconstrained, and deformations in the sedan were greater in the unconstrained than the constrained as a result of constraints of the test fixture, and differences in impact velocity for the trailing side. The results of the current study suggest that in-laboratory rollover tests can be used to simulate the injury-causing portions of unconstrained rollover crashes. To date, such a demonstration has not yet been published in the open literature. This study did, however, show that road surface can affect vehicle response in a way that may not be able to be mimicked in the laboratory. Lastly, this study showed that configuring the in-laboratory tests to match the leading-side touchdown conditions

  18. Coupled interactions between volatile activity and Fe oxidation state during arc crustal processes (United States)

    Humphreys, Madeleine C.S.; Brooker, R; Fraser, D.C.; Burgisser, A; Mangan, Margaret T.; McCammon, C


    Arc magmas erupted at the Earth’s surface are commonly more oxidized than those produced at mid-ocean ridges. Possible explanations for this high oxidation state are that the transfer of fluids during the subduction process results in direct oxidation of the sub-arc mantle wedge, or that oxidation is caused by the effect of later crustal processes, including protracted fractionation and degassing of volatile-rich magmas. This study sets out to investigate the effect of disequilibrium crustal processes that may involve coupled changes in H2O content and Fe oxidation state, by examining the degassing and hydration of sulphur-free rhyolites. We show that experimentally hydrated melts record strong increases in Fe3+/∑Fe with increasing H2O concentration as a result of changes in water activity. This is relevant for the passage of H2O-undersaturated melts from the deep crust towards shallow crustal storage regions, and raises the possibility that vertical variations in fO2 might develop within arc crust. Conversely, degassing experiments produce an increase in Fe3+/∑Fe with decreasing H2O concentration. In this case the oxidation is explained by loss of H2 as well as H2O into bubbles during decompression, consistent with thermodynamic modelling, and is relevant for magmas undergoing shallow degassing en route to the surface. We discuss these results in the context of the possible controls on fO2 during the generation, storage and ascent of magmas in arc settings, in particular considering the timescales of equilibration relative to observation as this affects the quality of the petrological record of magmatic fO2.

  19. Mapping Curie temperature depth in the western United States with a fractal model for crustal magnetization (United States)

    Bouligand, C.; Glen, J.M.G.; Blakely, R.J.


    We have revisited the problem of mapping depth to the Curie temperature isotherm from magnetic anomalies in an attempt to provide a measure of crustal temperatures in the western United States. Such methods are based on the estimation of the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources, which is assumed to correspond to the temperature at which rocks lose their spontaneous magnetization. In this study, we test and apply a method based on the spectral analysis of magnetic anomalies. Early spectral analysis methods assumed that crustal magnetization is a completely uncorrelated function of position. Our method incorporates a more realistic representation where magnetization has a fractal distribution defined by three independent parameters: the depths to the top and bottom of magnetic sources and a fractal parameter related to the geology. The predictions of this model are compatible with radial power spectra obtained from aeromagnetic data in the western United St