Sample records for constellation observing system

  1. The constellation observing Atlas

    CERN Document Server

    Privett, Grant


    Designed for anyone who wishes to learn the constellations or observe the best and brightest deep sky objects and double stars, this book contains an alphabetical list of constellations complete with star maps, historical background, and highlights of deep sky objects. Each entry contains position and physical information on enough stars to support astronomers in star-hopping, swinging the telescope from star to star to star to arrive at a faint target. It provides a carefully selected list of accessible and rewarding deep sky objects. Full-color maps show the constellations, with star types (spectral and physical) indicated by the colors used on the map. Extended objects such as galaxies and nebulae are shown with the approximate apparent size in the sky. With unmatched thoroughness and accessibility, this is a constellation atlas that makes the ideal companion to a night's telescope viewing, for novices and expert amateur astronomers alike. Easy to navigate and refer to, it is the key that unlocks the do...

  2. Constellations: A New Paradigm for Earth Observations (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Volz, Stephen M.; Yuhas, Cheryl L.; Case, Warren F.


    The last decade has seen a significant increase in the number and the capabilities of remote sensing satellites launched by the international community. A relatively new approach has been the launching of satellites into heterogeneous constellations. Constellations provide the scientists a capability to acquire science data, not only from specific instruments on a single satellite, but also from instruments on other satellites that fly in the same orbit. Initial results from the A-Train (especially following the CALIPSO/CloudSat launch) attest to the tremendous scientific value of constellation flying. This paper provides a history of the constellations (particularly the A-Train) and how the A-Train mission design was driven by science requirements. The A-Train has presented operational challenges which had not previously been encountered. Operations planning had to address not only how the satellites of each constellation operate safely together, but also how the two constellations fly in the same orbits without interfering with each other when commands are uplinked or data are downlinked to their respective ground stations. This paper discusses the benefits of joining an on-orbit constellation. When compared to a single, large satellite, a constellation infrastructure offers more than just the opportunities for coincidental science observations. For example, constellations reduce risks by distributing observing instruments among numerous satellites; in contrast, a failed launch or a system failure in a single satellite would lead to loss of all observations. Constellations allow for more focused, less complex satellites. Constellations distribute the development, testing, and operations costs among various agencies and organizations for example, the Morning and Afternoon Constellations involve several agencies within the U.S. and in other countries. Lastly, this paper addresses the need to plan for the long-term evolution of a constellation. Agencies need to have

  3. The atmospheric composition geostationary satellite constellation for air quality and climate science: Evaluating performance with Observation System Simulation Experiments (United States)

    Edwards, D. P.; Barre, J.; Worden, H. M.; Arellano, A. F.; Gaubert, B.; Anderson, J. L.; Mizzi, A. P.; Lahoz, W. A.


    Current satellite observations of tropospheric composition made from low Earth orbit provide at best one or two measurements each day at any given location. Coverage is global but sparse, often with large uncertainties in individual measurements that limit examination of local and regional atmospheric composition over short time periods. This has hindered the operational uptake of these data for monitoring air quality and population exposure, and for initializing and evaluating chemical weather forecasts. By the end of the current decade there are planned geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of GEO platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations of continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability on diurnal and local scales. We describe Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) to evaluate the contributions of these GEO missions to improve knowledge of near-surface air pollution due to intercontinental long-range transport and quantify chemical precursor emissions. We discuss the requirements on measurement simulation, chemical transport modeling, and data assimilation for a successful OSSE infrastructure. Our approach uses an efficient computational method to sample a high-resolution global GEOS-5 chemistry Nature Run over each geographical region of the GEO constellation. The demonstration carbon monoxide (CO) observation simulator, which is being expanded to other chemical pollutants, currently produces multispectral retrievals and captures realistic scene-dependent variation in measurement vertical sensitivity and cloud cover. We use the DART Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter to assimilate the simulated observations in a CAM-Chem global chemistry-climate model Control Run. The impact of observing over each region is evaluated using data

  4. The Solar system.Stars and constellations (United States)

    Horia Minda, Octavian


    It is important for students to understand what is in our Solar System. The Students need to know that there are other things besides the Earth, Sun and Moon in the solar sky. The students will learn about the other eight planets and a few other celestial objects like stars and constellations. Constellations are useful because they can help people to recognize stars in the sky. By looking for patterns, the stars and locations can be much easier to spot. The constellations had uses in ancient times. They were used to help keep track of the calendar. This was very important so that people knew when to plant and harvest crops. Another important use for constellations was navigation. By finding Ursa Minor it is fairly easy to spot the North Star (Polaris). Using the height of the North Star in the sky, navigators could figure out their latitude helping ships to travel across the oceans. Objective: 1. The students will be introduced to the origin of the stars they see at night. 2. They will learn that there are groups of stars called constellations. The students will individually create their own constellations. They will be given the chance to tell the class a small story explaining their constellation. Evaluation of Children: The children will be evaluated through the creation of their constellations and ability to work in groups on the computers.

  5. Science and the Constellation Systems Program Office (United States)

    Mendell, Wendell


    An underlying tension has existed throughout the history of NASA between the human spaceflight programs and the external scientific constituencies of the robotic exploration programs. The large human space projects have been perceived as squandering resources that might otherwise be utilized for scientific discoveries. In particular, the history of the relationship of science to the International Space Station Program has not been a happy one. The leadership of the Constellation Program Office, created in NASA in October, 2005, asked me to serve on the Program Manager s staff as a liaison to the science community. Through the creation of my position, the Program Manager wanted to communicate and elucidate decisions inside the program to the scientific community and, conversely, ensure that the community had a voice at the highest levels within the program. Almost all of my technical contributions at NASA, dating back to the Apollo Program, has been within the auspices of what is now known as the Science Mission Directorate. However, working at the Johnson Space Center, where human spaceflight is the principal activity, has given me a good deal of incidental contact and some more direct exposure through management positions to the structures and culture of human spaceflight programs. I entered the Constellation family somewhat naive but not uninformed. In addition to my background in NASA science, I have also written extensively over the past 25 years on the topic of human exploration of the Moon and Mars. (See, for example, Mendell, 1985). I have found that my scientific colleagues generally have little understanding of the structure and processes of a NASA program office; and many of them do not recognize the name, Constellation. In many respects, the international ILEWG community is better informed. Nevertheless, some NASA decision processes on the role of science, particularly with respect to the formulation of a lunar surface architecture, are not well known

  6. The Global Positioning System constellation as a space weather monitor (United States)

    Morley, S.; Henderson, M. G.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Brito, T. V.


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites are distributed across six orbital planes and follow near-circular orbits, with a 12 hour period, at an altitude of approximately 20200 km. The six orbital planes are distributed around the Earth and are nominally inclined at 55 degrees. Energetic particle detectors have been flown on the GPS constellation for more than two decades; by February 2016 there were 23 GPS satellites equipped with energetic particle instrumentation. The Combined X-ray Dosimeter (CXD), which is flown on 21 GPS satellites, has recently been cross-calibrated against electron data from the Van Allen Probes mission, demonstrating its utility for scientific research and radiation environment specification. Recently electron and proton flux data from these instruments, for the month of January 2014, have been publicly released. We will describe the GPS constellation from the perspective of its use as a monitor for space weather, review some of the key scientific results enabled by these instruments and show some recent observations from the constellation, including the 2015 St. Patrick's Day storm. Using data from multiple satellite missions we describe the dynamics of this storm in detail.

  7. The CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation: Enhancing the Value of Space-Based Observations (United States)

    Eckman, Richard; Zehner, Claus; Al-Saadi, Jay


    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth. Participating agencies strive to enhance international coordination and data exchange and to optimize societal benefit. In recent years, CEOS has collaborated closely with the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) in implementing the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) space-based objectives. The goal of the CEOS Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) is to collect and deliver data to improve monitoring, assessment and predictive capabilities for changes in the ozone layer, air quality and climate forcing associated with changes in the environment through coordination of existing and future international space assets. A project to coordinate and enhance the science value of a future constellation of geostationary sensors measuring parameters relevant to air quality supports the forthcoming European Sentinel-4, Korean GEMS, and US TEMPO missions. Recommendations have been developed for harmonization to mutually improve data quality and facilitate widespread use of the data products.

  8. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis


    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  9. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren


    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated...

  10. Platform Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staykova, Kalina Stefanova; Damsgaard, Jan


    This research paper presents an initial attempt to introduce and explain the emergence of new phenomenon, which we refer to as platform constellations. Functioning as highly modular systems, the platform constellations are collections of highly connected platforms which co-exist in parallel...

  11. Westward tilt of low-latitude plasma blobs as observed by the Swarm constellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Luehr, Hermann; Michaelis, Ingo


    In this study we investigate the three-dimensional structure of low-latitude plasma blobs using multi-instrument and multisatellite observations of the Swarm constellation. During the early commissioning phase the Swarm satellites were flying at the same altitude with zonal separation of about 0......., which are similar to the shell structure of equatorial plasma bubbles suggested by previous studies....

  12. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.


    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  13. Intraocular pressure fluctuation during microincision vitrectomy with constellation vision system. (United States)

    Sugiura, Yoshimi; Okamoto, Fumiki; Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Hiraoka, Takahiro; Oshika, Tetsuro


    To investigate intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuation during various vitrectomy maneuvers using the vitrectomy system (Alcon Constellation Vision System). An experimental study as laboratory investigation. In porcine eyes, 23- and 25-gauge vitrectomy was performed, and IOP fluctuations were evaluated in vitreous cutting mode, in aspiration mode, and during scleral compression. The measurements were performed with the IOP control setting turned on or off. Using the 23-gauge system with the IOP control setting turned on, IOP decreased from 30 to 23.7 mm Hg after starting vitreous cutting, and then returned to 30 mm Hg in 2.6 seconds. When the IOP control setting was turned off, IOP decreased to 19.1 mm Hg in 0.9 seconds, and remained at that pressure. Under aspiration at 650 mm Hg without cutting, IOP showed a sharp depression from 30 to 12.2 mm Hg, and then returned to 30.6 mm Hg in 2.6 seconds with the IOP control setting turned on. When the IOP control setting was turned off, IOP decreased to 2.2 mm Hg in 9.7 seconds, and did not recover. When the sclera was compressed without aspiration, IOP rapidly increased to 70-100 mm Hg, and then slowly decreased to 30 mm Hg in 3.5-4.0 seconds, with or without the IOP control system. Similar data were obtained with 25-gauge vitrectomy. The IOP control system can attenuate IOP fluctuations during vitrectomy maneuvers. There was no significant difference in IOP fluctuations between 23- and 25-gauge systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Constellation Program Human-System Integration Requirements. Revision E, Nov. 19, 2010 (United States)

    Dory, Jonathan


    The Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) in this document drive the design of space vehicles, their systems, and equipment with which humans interface in the Constellation Program (CxP). These requirements ensure that the design of Constellation (Cx) systems is centered on the needs, capabilities, and limitations of the human. The HSIR provides requirements to ensure proper integration of human-to-system interfaces. These requirements apply to all mission phases, including pre-launch, ascent, Earth orbit, trans-lunar flight, lunar orbit, lunar landing, lunar ascent, Earth return, Earth entry, Earth landing, post-landing, and recovery. The Constellation Program must meet NASA's Agency-level human rating requirements, which are intended to ensure crew survival without permanent disability. The HSIR provides a key mechanism for achieving human rating of Constellation systems.

  15. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred


    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  16. Secure optical generalized filter bank multi-carrier system based on cubic constellation masked method. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun


    A secure optical generalized filter bank multi-carrier (GFBMC) system with carrier-less amplitude-phase (CAP) modulation is proposed in this Letter. The security is realized through cubic constellation-masked method. Large key space and more flexibility masking can be obtained by cubic constellation masking aligning with the filter bank. An experiment of 18 Gb/s encrypted GFBMC/CAP system with 25-km single-mode fiber transmission is performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. Multi-objective optimization to support mission planning for constellations of unmanned aerial systems (United States)

    Tenenbaum, S.; Stouch, D.; McGraw, K.; Fichtl, T.


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have proven themselves indispensable in providing intelligence, reconnaissance, and surveillance (ISR). We foresee a future where constellations of multi-purpose UAVs will be tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. Automated systems will process imagery and other sensor data gathered by the constellations to provide continuous situational awareness for the warfighter on the ground. In this paper, we present a tool that generates coordinated mission plans for constellations of UAVs with multiple goals and objectives. We call this tool Spatially Produced Airspace Routes from Tactical Evolved Networks, or SPARTEN. SPARTEN uses evolutionary algorithm (EA)-based, multi-objective optimization to generate coordinated sortie routes for constellations of UAVs. These sortie routes maximize sensor coverage, avoid conflicts between UAVs, minimize the latency of sensor data, and avoid areas of poor weather to provide valid route solutions. We use an Air Maneuver Network (AMN) based on terrain reasoning to constrain the solution space. We make two contributions to the field of UAV route planning. We develop a tool to optimize planning across multiple objectives for constellations of UAVs, and we explore the performance of this tool on a battlefield scenario.

  18. Adaptation and Re-Use of Spacecraft Power System Models for the Constellation Program (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ayres, Mark; Han, Augustina H.; Adamson, Adrian M.


    NASA's Constellation Program is embarking on a new era of space exploration, returning to the Moon and beyond. The Constellation architecture will consist of a number of new spacecraft elements, including the Orion crew exploration vehicle, the Altair lunar lander, and the Ares family of launch vehicles. Each of these new spacecraft elements will need an electric power system, and those power systems will need to be designed to fulfill unique mission objectives and to survive the unique environments encountered on a lunar exploration mission. As with any new spacecraft power system development, preliminary design work will rely heavily on analysis to select the proper power technologies, size the power system components, and predict the system performance throughout the required mission profile. Constellation projects have the advantage of leveraging power system modeling developments from other recent programs such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the Mars Exploration Program. These programs have developed mature power system modeling tools, which can be quickly modified to meet the unique needs of Constellation, and thus provide a rapid capability for detailed power system modeling that otherwise would not exist.

  19. The CEOS-Land Surface Imaging Constellation Portal for GEOSS: A resource for land surface imaging system information and data access (United States)

    Holm, Thomas; Gallo, Kevin P.; Bailey, Bryan


    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites is an international group that coordinates civil space-borne observations of the Earth, and provides the space component of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The CEOS Virtual Constellations concept was implemented in an effort to engage and coordinate disparate Earth observing programs of CEOS member agencies and ultimately facilitate their contribution in supplying the space-based observations required to satisfy the requirements of the GEOSS. The CEOS initially established Study Teams for four prototype constellations that included precipitation, land surface imaging, ocean surface topography, and atmospheric composition. The basic mission of the Land Surface Imaging (LSI) Constellation [1] is to promote the efficient, effective, and comprehensive collection, distribution, and application of space-acquired image data of the global land surface, especially to meet societal needs of the global population, such as those addressed by the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of agriculture, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy, health, water, and weather. The LSI Constellation Portal is the result of an effort to address important goals within the LSI Constellation mission and provide resources to assist in planning for future space missions that might further contribute to meeting those goals.

  20. CarbonSat Constellation (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Tobehn, Carsten; Ernst, Robert; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Buchwitz, Michael; Burrows, John P.; Notholt, John

    1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are the most important manmade greenhouse gases (GHGs) which are driving global climate change. Currently, the CO2 measurements from the ground observing network are still the main sources of information but due to the limited number of measurement stations the coverage is limited. In addition, CO2 monitoring and trading is often based mainly on bottom-up calculations and an independent top down verification is limited due to the lack of global measurement data with local resolution. The first CO2 and CH4 mapping from SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT shows that satellites add important missing global information. Current GHG measurement satellites (GOSAT)are limited either in spatial or temporal resolution and coverage. These systems have to collect data over a year or even longer to produce global regional fluxes products. Conse-quently global, timely, higher spatial resolution and high accuracy measurement are required for: 1. A good understanding of the CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks for reliable climate predic-tion; and 2. Independent and transparent verification of accountable sources and sinks in supporting Kyoto and upcoming protocols The CarbonSat constellation idea comes out the trade off of resolution and swath width during CarbonSat mission definition studies. In response to the urgent need to support the Kyoto and upcoming protocols, a feasibility study has been carried out. The proposed solution is a constellation of five CarbonSat satellites in 614km LTAN 13:00, which is able to provide global, daily CO2 and CH4 measurement everywhere on the Earth with high spatial resolution 2 × 2 km and low uncertainty lt;2ppm (CO2) and lt;8ppb (CH4). The unique global daily measurement capability significantly increases the number of cloud free measurements, which enables more reliable services associated with reduced uncertainty, e.g. to 0.15ppm (CO2) per month in 10km and even more timely products. The CarbonSat Constellation in

  1. An analytical framework for common-pool resource–large technical system (CPR-LTS constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Blomkvist


    Full Text Available This paper introduces an analytical framework for a special phenomenon: when a common-pool resource (CPR institution and a large technical system (LTS are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system; here named CPR-LTS constellations. Our framework is empirically derived from two historical investigations of CPR institutions within two LTSs, the agricultural-technical system and the road transport system of Sweden. By comparing similarities and differences it is possible to identify paths to successes and failures. To understand why one survived and the other disappeared we connect Elinor Ostrom’s theories about management of CPRs with Thomas P. Hughes’s theories about LTSs. We are proposing a framework that can bridge the gap between theories about management of CPRs and LTSs. By combining the two theories it should be possible to better understand how small-scale producers using bottom-up CPRs can be linked to top-down LTSs.We will argue that to fit within an LTS, a CPR needs alignment between different parts or components within the constellation/system and alignment with other systems and institutions in society. We propose three analytical levels to deal with the phenomenon of aligning a CPR project to an existing, large sociotechnical system:Local alignment (CPR: How are CPRs organized and managed at local sites?Sociotechnical alignment (CPR-LTS: How are CPRs connected to the sociotechnical system?Contextual alignment: How are CPR-LTS constellations aligned with neighboring institutions and systems in society?Our work indicates that for successful management of a CPR-LTS constellation it is important that the CPR be included in legislation and that government agencies support the CPR in alignment with the LTS. Legislators must recognize the CPR-part in the CPR-LTS constellation so that its institutional body is firmly established in

  2. Greenlandic water and sanitation systems-identifying system constellation and challenges. (United States)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte


    A good water supply and wastewater management is essential for a local sustainable community development. This is emphasized in the new global goals of the UN Sustainable Development, where the sixth objective is to: "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all" (United Nations 2015). This obviously raises the question of how this can be achieved considering the very different conditions and cultures around the globe. This article presents the Greenlandic context and elucidates the current Greenland water supply system and wastewater management system from a socio-technical approach, focusing on the geographic, climatic and cultural challenges. The article identifies a diverse set of system constellations in different parts of Greenland and concludes with a discussion of health and quality of life implications.

  3. Capacity Maximizing Constellations (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged; Jones, Christopher


    Some non-traditional signal constellations have been proposed for transmission of data over the Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel using such channel-capacity-approaching codes as low-density parity-check (LDPC) or turbo codes. Computational simulations have shown performance gains of more than 1 dB over traditional constellations. These gains could be translated to bandwidth- efficient communications, variously, over longer distances, using less power, or using smaller antennas. The proposed constellations have been used in a bit-interleaved coded modulation system employing state-ofthe-art LDPC codes. In computational simulations, these constellations were shown to afford performance gains over traditional constellations as predicted by the gap between the parallel decoding capacity of the constellations and the Gaussian capacity

  4. Energetic Particle Data From the Global Positioning System Constellation (United States)

    Morley, S. K.; Sullivan, J. P.; Carver, M. R.; Kippen, R. M.; Friedel, R. H. W.; Reeves, G. D.; Henderson, M. G.


    Since 2000, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Combined X-ray and Dosimeter (CXD) and Burst Detector Dosimeter for Block II-R (BDD-IIR) instruments have been fielded on Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites. Today, 21 of the 31 operational GPS satellites are equipped with a CXD detector and a further 2 carry a BDD-IIR. Each of these instruments measures a wide range of energetic electrons and protons. These data have now been publicly released under the terms of the Executive Order for Coordinating Efforts to Prepare the Nation for Space Weather Events. The specific goal of releasing space weather data from the GPS satellites is to enable broad scientific community engagement in enhancing space weather model validation and improvements in space weather forecasting and situational awareness. The time period covered by this data release is approximately 16 years, which corresponds to more than 167 satellite years of data. The large number of GPS satellites, distributed over six orbital planes, will provide important context for ongoing and historical science missions, as well as enabling new types of research not previously possible.

  5. A novel 3D constellation-masked method for physical security in hierarchical OFDMA system. (United States)

    Zhang, Lijia; Liu, Bo; Xin, Xiangjun; Liu, Deming


    This paper proposes a novel 3D constellation-masked method to ensure the physical security in hierarchical optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access (OFDMA) system. The 3D constellation masking is executed on the two levels of hierarchical modulation and among different OFDM subcarriers, which is realized by the masking vectors. The Lorenz chaotic model is adopted for the generation of masking vectors in the proposed scheme. A 9.85 Gb/s encrypted hierarchical QAM OFDM signal is successfully demonstrated in the experiment. The performance of illegal optical network unit (ONU) with different masking vectors is also investigated. The proposed method is demonstrated to be secure and efficient against the commonly known attacks in the experiment.

  6. Electric Propulsion System for Constellation Deployment and Orbit Control of Minisats (United States)

    Bianco, P.; de Rocco, L.; Lovera, M.


    The late technology developments and the demand for low-cost space missions have raised the interest in small satellites and in their potential use as parts of satellite formations as well as building units of satellite constellations. Formation flying of small satellites can be used to bring in-orbit spares for failed payloads on larger satellites as well as to replace large satellites at all by flying the mission on more small satellites, each carrying a single payload. Small satellites can be used in constellations for scientific missions (e.g. remote sensing) as well as for commercial purposes (e.g. data relay). Yet, "small satellite" doesn't necessarily mean "cheap satellite": cost reduction must be enforced into the space mission design since the very beginning of it, at system level. This usually implies seeking for trade-offs on most expensive system items for a small sat. Among these, we surely have the launch and the onboard propulsion system for orbital manoeuvres and station keeping: the stricter the requirements, the higher the costs. And, when dealing with satellite constellations or formations, orbital requirements can be quite challenging. The system designer is faced with the dilemma on whether to buy a relatively expensive dedicated launch or to have a highly cost-impactive autonomous onboard propulsion system that should perform orbit transfers as well. The present paper, which is an up-to-date version of the one presented at IAF-99, introduces a system based on FEEP (Field Emission Electric Propulsion) technology, featuring low thrust plug-on propulsion units. Thanks to the self-contained concept of FEEP thrusters and to the plug-on feature of the whole system, a very low cost-impactive onboard propulsion system can be implemented in order to serve for both orbital manoeuvres (constellation / formation deployment, orbit rising) and orbit maintenance (drag compensation, station keeping relative to other satellites). Most convenient strategies to

  7. Precise positioning with current multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems: GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou. (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ren, Xiaodong; Fritsche, Mathias; Wickert, Jens; Schuh, Harald


    The world of satellite navigation is undergoing dramatic changes with the rapid development of multi-constellation Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSSs). At the moment more than 70 satellites are already in view, and about 120 satellites will be available once all four systems (BeiDou + Galileo + GLONASS + GPS) are fully deployed in the next few years. This will bring great opportunities and challenges for both scientific and engineering applications. In this paper we develop a four-system positioning model to make full use of all available observations from different GNSSs. The significant improvement of satellite visibility, spatial geometry, dilution of precision, convergence, accuracy, continuity and reliability that a combining utilization of multi-GNSS brings to precise positioning are carefully analyzed and evaluated, especially in constrained environments.

  8. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Spacecraft Constellation System, Mission Results, and Prospect for Follow-On Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Joe Fong


    Full Text Available The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC spacecraft constellation consisting of six LEO satellites is the world's first operational GPS Radio Occultation (RO mission. The mission is jointly developed by Taiwan¡¦s National Space Organization (NSPO and the United States¡¦UCAR in collaboration with NSF, USAF, NOAA, NASA, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the US Naval Research Laboratory. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites were successfully launched from Vandenberg US AFB in California at 0140 UTC 15 April 2006 into the same orbit plane of the designated 516 km altitude. The mission goal is to deploy the six satellites into six orbit planes at 800 km altitude with a 30-degree separation for evenly distributed global coverage. All six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites are currently maintaining a satisfactory good state-of-health. Five out of six satellites have reached their final mission orbit of 800 km as of November 2007. The data as received by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites constellation have been processed in near real time into 2500 good ionospheric profiles and 1800 good atmospheric profiles per day. These have outnumbered the worldwide radiosondes (~900 mostly over land launched from the ground per day. The processed atmospheric RO data have been assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP models for real-time weather prediction and typhoon/hurricane forecasting by many major weather centers in the world. This paper describes the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellite constellation system performance and the mission results that span the period from April 2006 to October 2007; and reviews the prospect of a future follow-on mission.

  9. System and antenna design considerations for highly elliptical orbits as applied to the proposed Archimedes Constellation (United States)

    Paynter, C.; Cuchanski, M.


    The paper discusses various aspects of the system design for a satellite in a highly elliptical inclined orbit, and presents a number of antenna design options for the proposed Archimedes mission. A satellite constellation was studied for the provision of multi media communication services in the L and S Band for northern latitudes. The inclined elliptical orbit would allow coverage of Europe, America, and East Asia. Using Canada and North America as the baseline coverage area, this paper addresses system considerations such as the satellite configuration and pointing, beam configuration, and requirements for antennas. A trade-off is performed among several antenna candidates including a direct radiating array, a focal-fed reflector, and a single reflector imaging system. Antenna geometry, performance, and beam forming methods are described. The impact of the designs on the antenna deployment is discussed.

  10. Low-complexity blind equalization for OFDM systems with general constellations

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.


    This paper proposes a low-complexity algorithm for blind equalization of data in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based wireless systems with general constellations. The proposed algorithm is able to recover the transmitted data even when the channel changes on a symbol-by-symbol basis, making it suitable for fast fading channels. The proposed algorithm does not require any statistical information about the channel and thus does not suffer from latency normally associated with blind methods. The paper demonstrates how to reduce the complexity of the algorithm, which becomes especially low at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Specifically, it is shown that in the high SNR regime, the number of operations is of the order O(LN), where L is the cyclic prefix length and N is the total number of subcarriers. Simulation results confirm the favorable performance of the proposed algorithm. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Performance Analysis of Circular 8-QAM Constellation with MMSE Equalizer for OFDM System Using USRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Alfan Taufiqurrahman


    Full Text Available Bandwidth is very important in communication system, and it is a limited resource. In order to save the limited bandwidth resource, high order M-ary modulation is widely employed in modern communication and broadcasting systems. In Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM, fading environment lead to a loss of orthogonality between the subcarriers. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of circular 8-Quadrature Ampilutude Modulation (QAM constellation for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM system. We also combine the system with Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE equalizer to mitigate the effect of Inter Symbol Interference (ISI. Then, all of this system is implemented practically using Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP. The performance of circular 8-QAM and MMSE equalizer is evaluated by comparing with other 8-QAM modulation models such as circular-Zero Forcing (ZF, star-ZF, Square-ZF, Star-MMSE, and Square-MMSE. The performance of circular 8-QAM with MMSE equalizer is  better than the other combinations. Bit Error Rate (BER graph shows that the performance of circular-MMSE is better than star-MMSE. The performance improvement using circular-MMSE is about 1.6%. The performance will decrease when the distance is increased. The performance of this system is greatly affected by the distance between transmitter and receiver.

  12. Research on navigation of satellite constellation based on an asynchronous observation model using X-ray pulsar (United States)

    Guo, Pengbin; Sun, Jian; Hu, Shuling; Xue, Ju


    Pulsar navigation is a promising navigation method for high-altitude orbit space tasks or deep space exploration. At present, an important reason for restricting the development of pulsar navigation is that navigation accuracy is not high due to the slow update of the measurements. In order to improve the accuracy of pulsar navigation, an asynchronous observation model which can improve the update rate of the measurements is proposed on the basis of satellite constellation which has a broad space for development because of its visibility and reliability. The simulation results show that the asynchronous observation model improves the positioning accuracy by 31.48% and velocity accuracy by 24.75% than that of the synchronous observation model. With the new Doppler effects compensation method in the asynchronous observation model proposed in this paper, the positioning accuracy is improved by 32.27%, and the velocity accuracy is improved by 34.07% than that of the traditional method. The simulation results show that without considering the clock error will result in a filtering divergence.

  13. First Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation Structure and Storm Intensity with a Constellation of Smallsats (TROPICS) Mission Applications Workshop Summary Report (United States)

    Zavodsky, B.; Dunion, J.; Blackwell, W.; Braun, S.; Velden, C.; Brennan, M.; Adler, R.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Time-Resolved Observations of Precipitation structure and storm Intensity with a Constellation of SmallSats (TROPICS) mission is a constellation of state-of-the-science observing platforms that will measure temperature and humidity soundings and precipitation with spatial resolution comparable to current operational passive microwave sounders but with unprecedented temporal resolution. TROPICS is a cost-capped ($30 million) Venture-class mission funded by the NASA Earth Science Division (ESD) and led by principal investigator Dr. William Blackwell from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT LL). The mission is comprised of a constellation of six, three-unit (3U) Cube-Sats (approximately 10 by 10 by 34 centimeters), each hosting a 12-channel passive microwave spectrometer based on the Micro-sized Microwave Atmospheric Satellite 2 (MicroMAS-2) developed at MIT LL. TROPICS will provide imagery at frequencies near 91 and 205 gigahertz, temperature sounding near 118 gigahertz, and moisture sounding near 183 gigahertz. Spatial resolution at nadir will be around 27 kilometers for temperature and 17 kilometers for moisture and precipitation with a swath width of approximately 2,000 kilometers. Both the spatial resolution and swath width are similar to the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) that is being flown as part of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership and will fly starting in 2017 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). In addition, TROPICS meets many of the requirements outlined in the 2007 Decadal Survey for the Precision and All-Weather Temperature and Humidity mission, which was originally envisioned as a microwave instrument in geostationary orbit. TROPICS enables temporal resolution similar to geostationary orbit but at a much lower cost, demonstrating a technology that could impact the design of future

  14. Constellation Shaping for WDM systems using 256QAM/1024QAM with Probabilistic Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yankov, Metodi P; da Silva, Edson P; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J; Oxenløwe, Leif K; Galili, Michael; Zibar, Darko


    In this paper, probabilistic shaping is numerically and experimentally investigated for increasing the transmission reach of wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical communication system employing quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). An optimized probability mass function (PMF) of the QAM symbols is first found from a modified Blahut-Arimoto algorithm for the optical channel. A turbo coded bit interleaved coded modulation system is then applied, which relies on many-to-one labeling to achieve the desired PMF, thereby achieving shaping gain. Pilot symbols at rate at most 2% are used for synchronization and equalization, making it possible to receive input constellations as large as 1024QAM. The system is evaluated experimentally on a 10 GBaud, 5 channels WDM setup. The maximum system reach is increased w.r.t. standard 1024QAM by 20% at input data rate of 4.65 bits/symbol and up to 75% at 5.46 bits/symbol. It is shown that rate adaptation does not require changing of the modulation format. The performanc...

  15. Ancient Chinese constellations (United States)

    Xu, Junjun


    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  16. Mistic winds, a microsatellite constellation approach to high-resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3d winds measurements (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.


    MISTiC Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  17. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Susskind, J.; Aumann, H. H.


    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sun-synchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  18. MISTiC Winds: A micro-satellite constellation approach to high resolution observations of the atmosphere using infrared sounding and 3D winds measurements (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.


    MISTiCTM Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiC's extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenas-at much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  19. MISTiC Winds, a Micro-Satellite Constellation Approach to High Resolution Observations of the Atmosphere Using Infrared Sounding and 3D Winds Measurements (United States)

    Maschhoff, K. R.; Polizotti, J. J.; Aumann, H. H.; Susskind, J.


    MISTiC(TM) Winds is an approach to improve short-term weather forecasting based on a miniature high resolution, wide field, thermal emission spectrometry instrument that will provide global tropospheric vertical profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity at high (3-4 km) horizontal and vertical ( 1 km) spatial resolution. MISTiCs extraordinarily small size, payload mass of less than 15 kg, and minimal cooling requirements can be accommodated aboard a 27U-class CubeSat or an ESPA-Class micro-satellite. Low fabrication and launch costs enable a LEO sunsynchronous sounding constellation that would collectively provide frequent IR vertical profiles and vertically resolved atmospheric motion vector wind observations in the troposphere. These observations are highly complementary to present and emerging environmental observing systems, and would provide a combination of high vertical and horizontal resolution not provided by any other environmental observing system currently in operation. The spectral measurements that would be provided by MISTiC Winds are similar to those of NASA's AIRS that was built by BAE Systems and operates aboard the AQUA satellite. These new observations, when assimilated into high resolution numerical weather models, would revolutionize short-term and severe weather forecasting, save lives, and support key economic decisions in the energy, air transport, and agriculture arenasat much lower cost than providing these observations from geostationary orbit. In addition, this observation capability would be a critical tool for the study of transport processes for water vapor, clouds, pollution, and aerosols. Key remaining technical risks are being reduced through laboratory and airborne testing under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program.

  20. Frontier constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Michael


    Borderland regions in Southeast Asia have increasingly been reimagined as resource-rich, unexploited ‘wastelands’ targeted for large-scale development schemes for economic integration and control. Common and overlapping features of these regions are processes of resource extraction, agricultural...... expansion, population resettlement and securitization, and the confluence of these dynamic processes creates special frontier constellations. Through the case of the Indonesian-Malaysian borderlands, I explore how processes of frontier colonization through agricultural expansion have been a recurrent...... contemporary state-capitalist processes of agricultural expansion in the borderlands of Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia are justified through discourses of national sovereignty and notions of ‘untamed’ and ‘wild’ resource frontiers. I highlight the multiple meanings and notions associated...

  1. Egyptian Constellations (United States)

    Lull, José; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The ancient Egyptians had a wide range of constellations, which populated the skies of ancient Egypt (see Chap. 133, "Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_146) for more than three millennia, whose knowledge has come to us through lists of stars and other representations which have mainly appeared in a dozen of coffins, a few clepsydrae, and a good set of astronomical ceilings. Hence, by making very simple assumptions and using the information provided by the ancient Egyptian sky-watchers, it is possible to uncover a great part of the ancient Egyptian firmament. This celestial tapestry was populated by the images of animals, symbols, and divinities that were most significant in understanding the Egyptian interpretation of the cosmos.

  2. Triple system HD 201433 with a SPB star component seen by BRITE - Constellation: Pulsation, differential rotation, and angular momentum transfer (United States)

    Kallinger, T.; Weiss, W. W.; Beck, P. G.; Pigulski, A.; Kuschnig, R.; Tkachenko, A.; Pakhomov, Y.; Ryabchikova, T.; Lüftinger, T.; Palle, , P. L.; Semenko, E.; Handler, G.; Koudelka, O.; Matthews, J. M.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Pablo, H.; Popowicz, A.; Rucinski, S.; Wade, G. A.; Zwintz, K.


    Context. Stellar rotation affects the transport of chemical elements and angular momentum and is therefore a key process during stellar evolution, which is still not fully understood. This is especially true for massive OB-type stars, which are important for the chemical enrichment of the Universe. It is therefore important to constrain the physical parameters and internal angular momentum distribution of massive OB-type stars to calibrate stellar structure and evolution models. Stellar internal rotation can be probed through asteroseismic studies of rotationally split non radial oscillations but such results are still quite rare, especially for stars more massive than the Sun. The slowly pulsating B9V star HD 201433 is known to be part of a single-lined spectroscopic triple system, with two low-mass companions orbiting with periods of about 3.3 and 154 days. Aims: Our goal is to measure the internal rotation profile of HD 201433 and investigate the tidal interaction with the close companion. Methods: We used probabilistic methods to analyse the BRITE - Constellation photometry and radial velocity measurements, to identify a representative stellar model, and to determine the internal rotation profile of the star. Results: Our results are based on photometric observations made by BRITE - Constellation and the Solar Mass Ejection Imager on board the Coriolis satellite, high-resolution spectroscopy, and more than 96 yr of radial velocity measurements. We identify a sequence of nine frequency doublets in the photometric time series, consistent with rotationally split dipole modes with a period spacing of about 5030 s. We establish that HD 201433 is in principle a solid-body rotator with a very slow rotation period of 297 ± 76 days. Tidal interaction with the inner companion has, however, significantly accelerated the spin of the surface layers by a factor of approximately one hundred. The angular momentum transfer onto the surface of HD 201433 is also reflected by the

  3. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Sensors for the Constellation Space Suit Life Support System for Surface Exploration (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Paul, Heather L.; Conger, Bruce C.


    This paper presents the findings of the trade study to evaluate carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing technologies for the Constellation (Cx) space suit life support system for surface exploration. The trade study found that nondispersive infrared absorption (NDIR) is the most appropriate high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technology for the CO2 sensor for the Cx space suit. The maturity of the technology is high, as it is the basis for the CO2 sensor in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). The study further determined that while there is a range of commercial sensors available, the Cx CO2 sensor should be a new design. Specifically, there are light sources (e.g., infrared light emitting diodes) and detectors (e.g., cooled detectors) that are not in typical commercial sensors due to cost. These advanced technology components offer significant advantages in performance (weight, volume, power, accuracy) to be implemented in the new sensor. The exact sensor design (light source, transmitting optics, path length, receiving optics and detector) will be specific for the Cx space suit and will be determined by the performance requirements of the Cx space suit. The paper further identifies specifications for some of the critical performance parameters as well as discussing the engineering aspects of implementing the sensor into the Portable Life Support System (PLSS). The paper then presents testing results from three CO2 sensors with respect to issues important to Extravehicular Activity (EVA) applications; stability, humidity dependence and low pressure compatibility. The three sensors include two NDIR sensors, one commercial and one custom-developed by NASA (for a different purpose), and one commercial electrochemical sensor. The results show that both NDIR sensors have excellent stability, no dependence on ambient humidity (when the ambient temperature is above the dew point) and operate in low pressure conditions and after being exposed to a full vacuum. The commercial

  4. Measuring Earth's Radiation Imbalance using Cubesat Constellations (United States)

    Collins, W. D.; Courtade, S.; Immel, T. J.; Feldman, D.; Lorentz, S. R.; Dyrud, L. P.


    At present, the global annual-mean Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) is estimated to be of order 1 W/m2, although the uncertainty in ERI is much larger than this estimate. The best current satellite-only observational determinations of ERI range from -2 to +7 W/m2 unless major adjustments are made using ocean observations. Since measurements of ERI accurate to better than 0.5 W/m2 are essential for understanding and predicting changes in our climate, new missions to determine ERI in conjunction with ongoing ocean observations are urgently needed. These missions should reliably determine Earth's radiation balance at the temporal and spatial scales sufficient for relating ERI to the physical processes responsible for variability. The compelling objective of measuring ERI can be met using a constellation of satellites making global, high-frequency radiation measurements of the solar energy reflected and infrared energy radiated back to space with sufficient accuracy to determine the ERI to within 0.5 W/m2. In this presentation, we discuss the reasons and prospects for deploying a Cubesat constellation to realize this objective, simulations of the data that could be produced by this constellation, and the advantages of the spatial coverage and high temporal frequency afforded by the constellation. These advantages apply both to estimating long-term ERI and to quantifying the radiation budgets of individual synoptic-scale weather systems. The innovations in this system involve both the use of Cubesats and of compact, continuously calibrated wide-field-of-view radiometers. We demonstrate the feasibility of such a constellation using the ongoing proof-of-concept deployment of the target radiometers onboard the upcoming NASA RAVAN (Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes) mission.

  5. Greenlandic water and sanitation systems-identifying system constellation and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre; Hoffmann, Birgitte


    A good water supply and wastewater management is essential for a local sustainable community development. This is emphasized in the new global goals of the UN Sustainable Development, where the sixth objective is to: "Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all......" (United Nations 2015). This obviously raises the question of how this can be achieved considering the very different conditions and cultures around the globe. This article presents the Greenlandic context and elucidates the current Greenland water supply system and wastewater management system from...

  6. Heat Exchanger/Humidifier Trade Study and Conceptual Design for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Ventilation Subsystem (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Sompayrac, Robert; Conger, Bruce; Chamberlain, Mateo


    As development of the Constellation Space Suit Element progresses, designing the most effective and efficient life support systems is critical. The baseline schematic analysis for the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) indicates that the ventilation loop will need some method of heat exchange and humidification prior to entering the helmet. A trade study was initiated to identify the challenges associated with conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream for temperature and water vapor control, to survey technological literature and resources on heat exchanger and humidifiers to provide solutions to the problems of conditioning the spacesuit breathing gas stream, and to propose potential candidate technologies to perform the heat exchanger and humidifier functions. This paper summarizes the results of this trade study and also describes the conceptual designs that NASA developed to address these issues.

  7. Code Single Point Positioning Using Nominal GNSS Constellations (Future Perception) (United States)

    Farah, A. M. A.

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have an endless number of applications in industry, science, military, transportation and recreation & sports. Two systems are currently in operation, namely GPS (the USA Global Positioning System) and GLONASS (the Russian GLObal NAvigation Satellite System), and a third is planned, the European satellite navigation system GALILEO. The potential performance improvements achievable through combining these systems could be significant and expectations are high. The need is inevitable to explore the future of positioning from different nominal constellations. In this research paper, Bernese 5.0 software could be modified to simulate and process GNSS observations from three different constellations (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) using different combinations. This study presents results of code single point positioning for five stations using the three constellations and different combinations.

  8. Macrosecuritization and Security Constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzan, Barry; Wæver, Ole


    The Copenhagen school's theory of securitization has mainly focused on the middle level of world politics in which collective political units, often but not always states, construct relationships of amity or enmity with each other. Its argument has been that this middle level would be the most...... the middle and system levels, and asks whether there is not more of substance there than the existing Copenhagen school analyses suggests. It revisits the under-discussed concept of security constellations in Copenhagen school theory, and adds to it the idea of macrosecuritizations as ways of getting...

  9. Simulation of a Lunar Surface Base Power Distribution Network for the Constellation Lunar Surface Systems (United States)

    Mintz, Toby; Maslowski, Edward A.; Colozza, Anthony; McFarland, Willard; Prokopius, Kevin P.; George, Patrick J.; Hussey, Sam W.


    The Lunar Surface Power Distribution Network Study team worked to define, breadboard, build and test an electrical power distribution system consistent with NASA's goal of providing electrical power to sustain life and power equipment used to explore the lunar surface. A testbed was set up to simulate the connection of different power sources and loads together to form a mini-grid and gain an understanding of how the power systems would interact. Within the power distribution scheme, each power source contributes to the grid in an independent manner without communication among the power sources and without a master-slave scenario. The grid consisted of four separate power sources and the accompanying power conditioning equipment. Overall system design and testing was performed. The tests were performed to observe the output and interaction of the different power sources as some sources are added and others are removed from the grid connection. The loads on the system were also varied from no load to maximum load to observe the power source interactions.

  10. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  11. Dependency of geodynamic parameters on the GNSS constellation (United States)

    Scaramuzza, Stefano; Dach, Rolf; Beutler, Gerhard; Arnold, Daniel; Sušnik, Andreja; Jäggi, Adrian


    Significant differences in time series of geodynamic parameters determined with different Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) exist and are only partially explained. We study whether the different number of orbital planes within a particular GNSS contributes to the observed differences by analyzing time series of geocenter coordinates (GCCs) and pole coordinates estimated from several real and virtual GNSS constellations: GPS, GLONASS, a combined GPS/GLONASS constellation, and two virtual GPS sub-systems, which are obtained by splitting up the original GPS constellation into two groups of three orbital planes each. The computed constellation-specific GCCs and pole coordinates are analyzed for systematic differences, and their spectral behavior and formal errors are inspected. We show that the number of orbital planes barely influences the geocenter estimates. GLONASS' larger inclination and formal errors of the orbits seem to be the main reason for the initially observed differences. A smaller number of orbital planes may lead, however, to degradations in the estimates of the pole coordinates. A clear signal at three cycles per year is visible in the spectra of the differences between our estimates of the pole coordinates and the corresponding IERS 08 C04 values. Combinations of two 3-plane systems, even with similar ascending nodes, reduce this signal. The understanding of the relation between the satellite constellations and the resulting geodynamic parameters is important, because the GNSS currently under development, such as the European Galileo and the medium Earth orbit constellation of the Chinese BeiDou system, also consist of only three orbital planes.

  12. An analytical framework for common-pool resource–large technical system (CPR-LTS) constellations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomkvist, Pär; Larsson, Jesper


    ...) institution and a large technical system (LTS) are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system...

  13. An analytical framework for common-pool resource-large technical system (CPR-LTS) constellations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blomkvist, Pär; Larsson, Jesper


    ...) institution and a large technical system (LTS) are connected and mutually interdependent. The CPR in this case is a node managed by its appropriators within a centrally planned and managed system...

  14. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Constellation (United States)

    Tooley, C. R.; Black, R. K.; Robertson, B. P.; Stone, J. M.; Pope, S. E.; Davis, G. T.


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission is the fourth mission of the Solar Terrestrial Probe (STP) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The MMS mission was launched on March 12, 2015. The MMS mission consists of four identically instrumented spin-stabilized observatories which are flown in formation to perform the first definitive study of magnetic reconnection in space. The MMS mission was presented with numerous technical challenges, including the simultaneous construction and launch of four identical large spacecraft with 100 instruments total, stringent electromagnetic cleanliness requirements, closed-loop precision maneuvering and pointing of spinning flexible spacecraft, on-board GPS based orbit determination far above the GPS constellation, and a flight dynamics design that enables formation flying with separation distances as small as 10 km. This paper describes the overall mission design and presents an overview of the design, testing, and early on-orbit operation of the spacecraft systems and instrument suite.

  15. Constellation Shaping for WDM systems using 256QAM/1024QAM with Probabilistic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson


    In this paper, probabilistic shaping is numerically and experimentallyinvestigated for increasing the transmission reach of wavelength divisionmultiplexed (WDM) optical communication system employing quadrature amplitudemodulation (QAM). An optimized probability mass function (PMF) of the QAMsymb...

  16. The Application of Software Safety to the Constellation Program Launch Control System (United States)

    Kania, James; Hill, Janice


    The application of software safety practices on the LCS project resulted in the successful implementation of the NASA Software Safety Standard NASA-STD-8719.138 and CxP software safety requirements. The GOP-GEN-GSW-011 Hazard Report was the first report developed at KSC to identify software hazard causes and their controls. This approach can be applied to similar large software - intensive systems where loss of control can lead to a hazard.

  17. Nonlinear pre-coding apparatus of multi-antenna system, has pre-coding unit that extents original constellation points of modulated symbols to several constellation points by using limited perturbation vector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A Coding/Modulating units (200-1-200-N) outputs modulated symbols by modulating coding bit streams based on certain modulation scheme. The limited perturbation vector is calculated by using distribution of perturbation vectors. The original constellation points of modulated symbols are extended...... to several constellation points by using limited perturbation vector by pre-coding unit (204). One of extended constellation points is selected according to reference value and power normalization unit (208) multiplies power normalization constant to output symbols of pre-coding unit....

  18. BICM-based cooperative communication systems with relay selection: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha


    We propose a new bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM)-based cooperative communication system where different BICM modules can be optimized jointly considering the average signal to noise ratios of the direct and the two-hop Rayleigh fading channels. As such, the full benefit of BICM can be exploited in the context of cooperative communication. Our design considers cooperative communication systems with so called max-min relay selection scheme that has no loss in performance in terms of diversity- multiplexing trade off in orthogonal cooperation. The presented numerical results for rate 1/2 convolutional code with 8-ary pulse amplitude modulation equivalently 64-ary quadrature amplitude modulation show that the proposed design can offer gains up to 1.4 dB over the traditional BICM design for a target bit error rate of 10-6. Moreover the results show that the amount of gain depends on the relays\\' positions and increases with the number of relays available for selection.

  19. High-Resolution NDVI from Planet's Constellation of Earth Observing Nano-Satellites: A New Data Source for Precision Agriculture

    KAUST Repository

    Houborg, Rasmus


    Planet Labs ("Planet") operate the largest fleet of active nano-satellites in orbit, offering an unprecedented monitoring capacity of daily and global RGB image capture at 3-5 m resolution. However, limitations in spectral resolution and lack of accurate radiometric sensor calibration impact the utility of this rich information source. In this study, Planet\\'s RGB imagery was translated into a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI): a common metric for vegetation growth and condition. Our framework employs a data mining approach to build a set of rule-based regression models that relate RGB data to atmospherically corrected Landsat-8 NDVI. The approach was evaluated over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia where the use of near-coincident (within five days) Planet and Landsat-8 acquisitions in the training of the regression models resulted in NDVI predictabilities with an r2 of approximately 0.97 and a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) on the order of 0.014 (~9%). The MAD increased to 0.021 (~14%) when the Landsat NDVI training image was further away (i.e., 11-16 days) from the corrected Planet image. In these cases, the use of MODIS observations to inform on the change in NDVI occurring between overpasses was shown to significantly improve prediction accuracies. MAD levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.011 (3.9% to 9.1%) for the best performing 80% of the data. The technique is generic and extendable to any region of interest, increasing the utility of Planet\\'s dense time-series of RGB imagery.

  20. Longline Observer Data System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LODS, the Hawaii Longline Observer Data System, is a complete suite of tools designed to collect, process, and manage quality fisheries data and information. Guided...

  1. Macedonian Folk Constellations (United States)

    Cenev, G.


    Ethno-astronomical researches started to be performed on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia in 1982 and since then they are constantly carried out. Information gathered directly from the elderly inhabitants of around 130 villages all over the country, enlighten the folk presentation of sky, division of the stars and constellations, but also provided a vast scope of myths, beliefs and rituals linked to the sky, stars, and constellations. More in-depth analyses of the gathered data lead to the reconstruction of the ancient stars map of the Macedonian people. Due to the fact that in the past people recognized only two seasons, most of the stars and constellations are presented on the so-called winter and summer sky. People were also familiar with the part of the sky around the Polaris and knew about the constellations that did not rise and set, but are special part of the folk sky map. The mentioned study provides a comparative analysis of the folk constellations known among the Macedonian people and folk constellations know among the others, mos tly neighbouring people living on the Balkan Peninsula.

  2. 3-Dimensional Necklace Flower Constellations (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva; Mortari, Daniele


    A new approach in satellite constellation design is presented in this paper, taking as a base the 3D Lattice Flower Constellation Theory and introducing the necklace problem in its formulation. This creates a further generalization of the Flower Constellation Theory, increasing the possibilities of constellation distribution while maintaining the characteristic symmetries of the original theory in the design.

  3. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted


    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly......In Denmark, agriculture is becoming increasingly specialised, and more and more actors are becoming involved in farm decision making. These trends are more or less pronounced in other European countries as well. We therefore find that to understand modern farming systems, we have to shift the focus...

  4. Armenian Names of Sky Constellations (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, A. A.


    The work is devoted to the correction and recovery of the Armenian names of the sky constellations, as they were forgotten or distorted during the Soviet years, mainly due to the translation from Russian. A total of 34 constellation names have been corrected. A brief overview of the history of the division of the sky into constellations and their naming is also given. At the end, the list of all 88 constellations is given with the names in Latin, English, Russian and Armenian.

  5. Guidebook to the Constellations Telescopic Sights, Tales, and Myths

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Phil


    This handbook is a guide to exploring the night sky and its wonderful telescopic sights. All eighty-eight officially recognized constellations in both hemispheres are presented in natural groups, related by their origin and location. The author, a former astronomy instructor and planetarium director, has for over thirty-five years, researched myths from all over the world to identify the most memorable stories which link multiple constellations in a single story. Thus, the interested observer may discover that it will be easier to use already known constellations to locate and remember new constellations. The author has found that showing each constellation figure with a simple line drawing is helpful for remembering each constellation. He includes photographs of many of the brighter celestial objects, as well as many accompanying drawings which illustrate how the telescopic views differ from the photographs. One way to use this handbook, which is useful to beginners as well as experienced astronomers, is to ...

  6. New interpretation of the ancient constellations (United States)

    Dementev, M. S.

    New method of study of the ancient constellations and mythes is discussed. It is based on the comparison of two maps - the sky and the Earth. The Stellar map is built in an equatorial system of coordinates, the geografic map - in the Mercator's projection and of the same scale. The former map is put on the laster one. The constellation of Pleiades (seven daughter of Atlant) is placed on the meridian of Atlant (Western coast of Africa). If the Stellar map is constructed for a epoch J-3000 (3000 years up to B.C.) then we could found the following. The constellations Andromeda (the daughter of the Ethiopian tsar), Cetus, Perseus and Cassiopeia (mother of Andromeda) are projected on the centre, south and west of Ancient Ethiopia and Mediterranean Sea, respectively. That is all the constellations fall to the places, where events described in mythes occured. A constellation Cepheus (Arabian name is "Burning") covers the Caucasus. Possibly, before a epoch J-1000 this group of stars was connected with Prometheus. It is known Prometheus was chained to the Caucasian rock because of stealing of a fire. Ancient Chineses divided the sky in other way. They called "The Heavenly Town" the area of sky consisting of stars in Herculis, Aquilae and Ophiuchi. Parts of the mentioned constellation were called as a provinces in Ancient China. If the Heavenly Town locate near the Ancient China then the Greek constellations (Andromeda, Perseus and Cetus) will appear over Africa. Three important conclusions follow from this: (i) the geography of the Earth is reflected on the sky; (ii) the ancient astronomers were investigating a connection between the sky and Earth; (iii) the ancient peoples exchanged by the information about a construction of the world.

  7. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  8. Nonlinear phase noise tolerance for coherent optical systems using soft-decision-aided ML carrier phase estimation enhanced with constellation partitioning (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wu, Mingwei; Du, Xinwei; Xu, Zhuoran; Gurusamy, Mohan; Yu, Changyuan; Kam, Pooi-Yuen


    A novel soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (SDA-ML) carrier phase estimation method and its simplified version, the decision-aided and soft-decision-aided maximum likelihood (DA-SDA-ML) methods are tested in a nonlinear phase noise-dominant channel. The numerical performance results show that both the SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML methods outperform the conventional DA-ML in systems with constant-amplitude modulation formats. In addition, modified algorithms based on constellation partitioning are proposed. With partitioning, the modified SDA-ML and DA-SDA-ML are shown to be useful for compensating the nonlinear phase noise in multi-level modulation systems.

  9. Constellations-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala


    The paper presents a science and technology studies and actor-network-theory inspired approach to understanding the development and ongoing re-didactication and re-design of a Danish developed presentation tool called the Theme Board ( It is argued that this approach provides a par...... a particularly useful point of departure for engaging in researching innovation and didactic design of digital teaching and learning instruments such as the Theme Board that are programmed and serviced 'in the sky'. I call this approach: constellation-driven innovations....

  10. Machines and cutters: Constellation®. (United States)

    Witmer, Matthew T; Dugel, Pravin U


    The Alcon Constellation® provides state-of-the-art technology for vitrectomy surgery. Its innovative features include utilization of high-speed and small-gauge vitrectomy systems, surgeon-controlled duty cycle, fine intraocular pressure control, and integrated laser and intraocular gas mixing capabilities. The goal of vitrectomy surgery is the safe and efficient removal of vitreous while avoiding iatrogenic retinal tears or iatrogenic incarceration of retinal tissue. This requires the removal of vitreous in a controlled manner while maintaining safe levels of intraocular pressure. The Alcon Constellation contains improvements in technology that allow a surgeon to consistently accomplish these goals. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Mission Status for Earth Science Constellation MOWG Meeting at KSC: EOS Aura (United States)

    Fisher, Dominic


    This will be presented at the Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) meeting at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) in December 2017 to discus EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura status. Reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Sciences Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  12. Transition to a novel advanced integrated vitrectomy platform: comparison of the surgical impact of moving from the Accurus vitrectomy platform to the Constellation Vision System for microincisional vitrectomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray TG


    Full Text Available Timothy G Murray,1,2 Andrew J Layton,3 Kuo B Tong,3 Michael Gittelman,2 Azeema Latiff,1,2 Daniel Gologorsky,2 Michael M Vigoda21Murray Ocular Oncology and Retina, Miami, FL, USA; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, Departments of Ophthalmology, Anesthesiology and Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 3Quorum Consulting, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Microincisional vitrectomy surgery (MIVS is the current standard surgical approach for pars plana vitrectomy. Historically, the most common surgical platform for vitrectomy surgery, since its introduction in 1997, has been the Accurus vitrectomy system. Recent introduction of the next generation of vitrectomy platforms has generated concerns associated with transitioning to new technology in the operating room environment. This study compared, in a matched fashion, surgical use of the Accurus vitrectomy system and the next generation Constellation Vision System to evaluate surgical efficiencies, complications, and user perceptions of this transition.Methods: Electronic health records were abstracted as a hospital quality assurance activity and included all vitreoretinal surgical procedures at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Anne Bates Leach Eye Hospital, during two discrete 12-month time periods. These two periods reflected dedicated usage of the Accurus (June 2008–May 2009 and Constellation Vision (July 2009–June 2010 systems. Data were limited to a single surgeon and evaluated for operating room (OR total time usage/day, OR case time/case, and OR surgical time/case. Further analysis evaluated all patients undergoing combined MIVS and clear cornea phacoemulsification/intraocular lens (IOL implantation during each individual time period to determine the impact of the instrumentation on these parameters. All records were evaluated for intraoperative complications.Results: Five hundred and fourteen eligible patients

  13. Small Satellite Constellations for Geospace Sciences (United States)

    Spence, H. E.


    The recent National Academy of Sciences Solar and Space Physics Decadal Survey (DS) identified community-consensus science priorities for the decade spanning 2013 - 2022. In this talk, we discuss the ways by which small satellite constellations are already and may soon accelerate progress toward achieving many of these science targets. The DS outlined four overarching science goals: (1) determine the origins of the Sun's activity and predict the variations in the space environment; (2) determine the dynamics and coupling of Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere and their response to solar and terrestrial inputs; (3) determine the interaction of the Sun with the solar system and the interstellar medium; and, (4) discover and characterize fundamental processes that occur both within the heliosphere and throughout the universe. These DS science goals provide the context for key science challenges in the three connected parts of the system that encompass all of solar and space physics, herein referred to as geospace: the Sun and heliosphere; the coupled solar wind-magnetosphere system; and, the coupled atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. The DS further presented the role that small satellites play in resolving many of these science challenges, with a particular emphasis on the role that constellations of small satellites will play. While once considered by many as being "futuristic" or even "unrealizable", constellations of small satellites are already making important contributions to geospace science and with the promise for more to come. Using the DS as a guidepost, in this presentation, we outline representative small satellite constellation missions alread underway, some in development, and others notionally proposed over the next several years that employ small satellite constellations to tackle large science imperatives. Finally, we give examples of key small satellite technologies in development that will potentially enable great scientific

  14. How to Enter, Fly In, and Exit the A-Train Constellation (United States)

    Vincent, Mark A.


    The collaborative science obtained from the satellites in the A-Train is an unparalleled success. The constellation framework that has evolved is well-formulated and documented by its international members. Communication between teams is enhanced by a web-based Constellation Coordination System. Safety and correlated observations are ensured by defining independent control boxes with buffers in between. Each mission stays within its control box by regular drag makeup maneuvers. Annual inclination adjustments are coordinated by all missions to maintain their absolute and relative Mean Local Time of Ascending Node (MLTAN). Since the satellites are in different orbit planes their separation involves a three-dimensional triad made up of the along track separations, reference groundtracks and MLTAN's. For further safety, a Constellation Envelope has been defined to determine safe entry and exit orbits.

  15. Scheduling algorithms for rapid imaging using agile Cubesat constellations (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Li, Alan S.; Merrick, James H.


    Distributed Space Missions such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important Earth Observation solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Cubesats are increasing in size (27U, ∼40 kg in development) with increasing capabilities to host imager payloads. Given the precise attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, Cubesats now have the ability to slew and capture images within short notice. We propose a modular framework that combines orbital mechanics, attitude control and scheduling optimization to plan the time-varying, full-body orientation of agile Cubesats in a constellation such that they maximize the number of observed images and observation time, within the constraints of Cubesat hardware specifications. The attitude control strategy combines bang-bang and PD control, with constraints such as power consumption, response time, and stability factored into the optimality computations and a possible extension to PID control to account for disturbances. Schedule optimization is performed using dynamic programming with two levels of heuristics, verified and improved upon using mixed integer linear programming. The automated scheduler is expected to run on ground station resources and the resultant schedules uplinked to the satellites for execution, however it can be adapted for onboard scheduling, contingent on Cubesat hardware and software upgrades. The framework is generalizable over small steerable spacecraft, sensor specifications, imaging objectives and regions of interest, and is demonstrated using multiple 20 kg satellites in Low Earth Orbit for two case studies - rapid imaging of Landsat's land and coastal images and extended imaging of global, warm water coral reefs. The proposed algorithm captures up to 161% more Landsat images than nadir-pointing sensors with the same field of view, on a 2-satellite constellation over a 12-h simulation. Integer programming was able to verify that

  16. Night sky a field guide to the constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Poppele, Jonathan


    Stargazing is among the most peaceful and inspiring outdoor activities. Night Sky, the award-winning book by Jonathan Poppele, makes it more fun than ever! Take a simple approach to finding 62 constellations by focusing on one constellation at a time, instead of attempting to study dizzying charts. Start with the easy-to-find constellations during each season and work toward the more difficult ones. Better yet, you'll learn how to locate any constellation in relation to the Big Dipper, the North Star and the top of the sky. With two ways to locate each constellation, you'll know where in the sky to look and what to look for! Along the way, you'll be introduced to mythology, facts and tidbits, as well as details about the planets, solar system and more! As an added bonus, the book comes with a red-light flashlight for night reading.

  17. Aquarius-Pisces Constellation Boundary Update (United States)

    Durst, Steve


    Observation, mapping and study of Galaxy Stars has provided humanity direction, foundation, clarity and understanding through the ages.Human civilization advances itself using increasing intelligence and knowledge to develop tools and know how, the science of constellation star maps included: All that has been created by humanity, is to serve humanity.When people continue to use constellation star maps that no longer serve people effectively, the maps are updated, as is now the Aquarius-Pisces Constellation Boundary Update (APCBU), which marks 2000 as the year the Sun is in Aquarius at the vernal equinox.The 21st Century APCBU accounts for and incorporates science factors of precession, relativity and galacticity for professional astronomers, and social imperatives of increasing freedom, liberation and egalitarian culture for the 7.5 billion people of Earth.Twenty years into this first century of a new millennium and a new age is an effective time for an APCBU of such elegant simplicity that it changes less than 0.1% of the area of the IAU 1930 official constellation map, which marks 2597 about the year the Sun is in Aquarius at the time of the vernal equinox.The 21st Century APCBU results provide clarity and direction for humanity's next 2,000 years, if not 10,000 or 12,000 years, and advance the official astronomy / science start of the Aquarius Age -- long anticipated, desired, and imperative, especially in America -- by some 600 years.How much attention is increasingly focused on this region of the sky -- such as the recent discovery of 7 Earth-like worlds orbiting the Trappist-1 star in the Aquarius constellation -- will be an epochal 21st Century phenomenon of human science, society, and starlife.

  18. Our Pittsburgh Constellation (United States)

    Turnshek, Diane


    Riding on the Pittsburgh mayor’s keen interest in astronomy and the ongoing change of 40,000 city lights from mercury and sodium vapor to shielded LEDs, we organized a series of city-wide celestial art projects to bring attention to the skies over Pittsburgh. Light pollution public talks were held at the University of Pittsburgh’s Allegheny Observatory and other colleges. Earth Hour celebrations kicked off an intensive year of astronomy outreach in the city. Lights went out on March 28, 2015 from 8:30 to 9:30 pm in over fifty buildings downtown and in Oakland (the “Eds and Meds” center, where many Pittsburgh universities and hospitals are located). Our art contest was announced at the De-Light Pittsburgh celebration at the Carnegie Science Center during Astronomy Weekend. “Our Pittsburgh Constellation” is an interactive Google map of all things astronomical in the city. Different colored stars mark locations of planetariums, star parties, classes, observatories, lecture series, museums, telescope manufacturers and participating art galleries. Contest entrants submitted artwork depicting their vision of the constellation figure that incorporates and connects all the “stars” in our custom city map. Throughout the year, over a dozen artists ran workshops on painting star clusters, galaxies, nebulae, comets, planets and aurorae with discussions of light pollution solutions and scientific explanations of what the patrons were painting, including demonstrations with emission tubes and diffraction grating glasses. We will display the celestial art created in this International Year of Light at an art gallery as part of the City’s Department of Innovation & Performance March 2016 Earth Hour gala. We are thankful for the Astronomical Footprint grant from the Heinz Endowments, which allowed us to bring the worlds of science and art together to enact social change.

  19. BRITE-Constellation Science Operations (United States)

    Kuschnig, R.


    BRITE-Constellation is a nanosatellite mission designed for stellar astrophysical research in collaboration between Austria, Canada and Poland. A fleet of six spacecrafts was funded, built and launched, two from each country, all designed to perform precise time-series photometry of the brightest stars in the sky. While the spacecrafts have the same basic design, three satellites host an instrument sensitive in a red bandpass, the others, for a blue wavelength range. From the six satellites launched, five are operational. The sixth one did not separate from the upper stage of the rocket and remains idle. The first pair, the Austrian satellites, started to collect science measurements with their wide field (˜24°) cameras in early December 2013. Since then, more than 340 stars were observed during 16 campaigns, the majority for more than 100 days (up to 168 days) continuously. In total, more than 2.1 million measurements have been collected so far. Originally, the limiting magnitude for target stars was set to \\mag(V)=4. However, even stars as faint as \\mag(V)=6.5 have been observed with sufficient precision. This is a review of science operations conducted during the past 3.5 years.

  20. Methodology and Method and Apparatus for Signaling with Capacity Optimized Constellations (United States)

    Barsoum, Maged F. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)


    Communication systems are described that use geometrically shaped constellations that have increased capacity compared to conventional constellations operating within a similar SNR band. In several embodiments, the geometrically shaped is optimized based upon a capacity measure such as parallel decoding capacity or joint capacity. In many embodiments, a capacity optimized geometrically shaped constellation can be used to replace a conventional constellation as part of a firmware upgrade to transmitters and receivers within a communication system. In a number of embodiments, the geometrically shaped constellation is optimized for an Additive White Gaussian Noise channel or a fading channel.

  1. Capacity of BICM Using (Bi-)Orthogonal Signal Constellations in Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Andreas


    Bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) using (bi-)orthogonal signals is especially well suited for the application in impulse-radio ultra-wideband transmission systems, which typically operate in the power-limited regime and require a very low-complexity transmitter and receiver design. In this paper we analyze the capacity of BICM using (bi-)orthogonal signals with coherent and noncoherent detection and put particular focus on the power-limited or wideband regime. We give analytical expressions for the ratio energy per bit vs. noise power spectral density in the limit of infinite bandwidth and the respective wideband slope, and thus, are able to quantify the loss incurred by the restriction to BICM in contrast to coded modulation. The gained theoretical insights allow to derive design rules for impulse-radio ultra-wideband transmission systems.

  2. Window observers for linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkin Vadim


    Full Text Available Given a linear system x ˙ = A x + B u with output y = C x and a window function ω ( t , i.e., ∀ t , ω ( t ∈ {0,1 }, and assuming that the window function is Lebesgue measurable, we refer to the following observer, x ˆ = A x + B u + ω ( t L C ( x − x ˆ as a window observer. The stability issue is treated in this paper. It is proven that for linear time-invariant systems, the window observer can be stabilized by an appropriate design under a very mild condition on the window functions, albeit for linear time-varying system, some regularity of the window functions is required to achieve observer designs with the asymptotic stability. The corresponding design methods are developed. An example is included to illustrate the possible applications

  3. SCARF - The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils


    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, has been launched in November 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution, which...... will bring new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of Swarm, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. Scientific users will also benefit significantly from...... derived products, the so-called Level-2 products, that take into account the features of the constellation. The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products...

  4. The Global Geodetic Observing System (United States)

    Plag, H.-P.; Rothacher, M.; Pearlman, M.; Neilan, R.; Ma, C.


    The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) was established by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) in July 2003. In April 2004 the IAG, represented by GGOS, became a participating organization of the Group on Earth Observation (GEO) and in May 2006 GGOS was accepted as a member of the Integrated Global Observation Strategy Partnership (IGOS-P). GGOS is the contribution of geodesy to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). It provides the reference systems and frames, which are crucial for Earth observing systems. GGOS is built on the IAG Services (IGS, IVS, ILRS, IDS, IERS, IGFS, etc.) and the products they derive on an operational basis for Earth monitoring, making use of space- and ground-based geodetic techniques such as Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging (SLR/LLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS), altimetry, InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar), gravity satellite missions, and gravimetry, etc. All these observation techniques are considered integral parts of GGOS, allowing the monitoring of the Earth's shape and deformation (including water surface), the Earth's orientation and rotation, and the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations with an unprecedented accuracy. The observed parameters give direct evidence of many global processes that have a crucial impact on human society such as earthquakes, volcanism, floods, sea-level change, climate change, groundwater redistribution, mass balance of the polar ice sheets, etc. GGOS relies on the observing systems and analysis capabilities already in place in the IAG Services and envisions the continued development of innovative technologies, methods, and models to improve our understanding of global change processes. GGOS provides a framework that ranges from the acquisition, transfer, and processing of a tremendous amount of observational data

  5. Micro-Satellite Constellation for Global Surface Water Data (United States)

    Apperson, A. T.; Vanderbilt, V. C.


    Alsdorf et al. [1] have proposed a Ka band interferometric radar system for global monitoring of surface waters from space. We explore the feasibility of a constellation of micro-satellites with optical sensors measuring the sun's specular reflection by surface waters. Our approach, which is complementary to that of Alsdorf et al., would provide weekly global coverage with a 10m ground spatial resolution if a six micro-satellite constellation used a 0.7° ground swath width and the ADEOS 1 orbital parameters. Optical sensing has three main obstacles; smoke, clouds and canopy structures. The sun's specular reflection provides a signal strength that, from observations, penetrates aerosols with an optical depth approaching 1.0 and provides detection down to perhaps 1/32 of a pixel, which would potentially allow detection of surface waters under many plant canopies. Our system would provide data to help answer Alsdorf's question, "What is the spatial and temporal variability in terrestrial surface water storage, and how can we predict these variations more accurately?" [1] In addition, modifying the arrangement of the satellites in the constellation could potentially provide data on the canopy structure. Including an additional instrument could provide estimates on atmospheric column methane and other estimates of other atmospheric trace gases concentration. [2] [1] D. E. Alsdorf, E. Rodríguez, and D. P. Lettenmaier, "Measuring surface water from space," Rev. Geophys, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 1-24, 2007. [2] North F. Larsen and Knut Stamnes, "Methane detection from space: use of sunglint", Opt. Eng. 45, 016202 (Feb 01, 2006); doi:10.1117/1.2150835

  6. The Global Geodetic Observing System (United States)

    Neilan, Ruth


    Global Geodetic Observing System GGOS - 2017 until 2019 International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Ruth Neilan Vice Chair GGOS NASA/Caletch/Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California USA This talk will provide an update on the status of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) and plans for the next years, until 2020. A summary of relationships of GGOS to other relevant international organizations will be defined. For this background, GGOS components work with the the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and their IAG Scientific Services for integration of applications and their timely provision of data and products for geodesy and geoscience. Please see:

  7. Solar System Observations with JWST (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide


    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid- infrared, with sensitivity and spatial-spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010 (Lunine et al., 2010). It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV in 2012.

  8. Constellation-masked secure communication technique for OFDM-PON. (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Yu, Jianjun


    This paper proposes a novel secure communication technique using constellation masking for applications in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON). The constellation masking is applied both on each subcarrier and among different subcarriers. The Arnold mapping is utilized as the parameter function for the mask factors. A interleave length is employed to provide a scalable masking granularity for different ONUs. A 15.54 Gb/s constellation-masked 32QAM-OFDM signal has been successfully transmitted over 25-km single mode fiber in the experiment. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can effectively protect the system from illegal ONU without wasting the bandwidth. The constellation-masked technique suggests an effective solution for the physical secure communication in future OFDM access network.

  9. An Integrated Global Atmospheric Composition Observing System: Progress and Impediments (United States)

    Keating, T. J.


    In 2003-2005, a vision of an integrated global observing system for atmospheric composition and air quality emerged through several international forums (IGACO, 2004; GEO, 2005). In the decade since, the potential benefits of such a system for improving our understanding and mitigation of health and climate impacts of air pollution have become clearer and the needs more urgent. Some progress has been made towards the goal: technology has developed, capabilities have been demonstrated, and lessons have been learned. In Europe, the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service has blazed a trail for other regions to follow. Powerful new components of the emerging global system (e.g. a constellation of geostationary instruments) are expected to come on-line in the near term. But there are important gaps in the emerging system that are likely to keep us from achieving for some time the full benefits that were envisioned more than a decade ago. This presentation will explore the components and benefits of an integrated global observing system for atmospheric composition and air quality, some of the gaps and obstacles that exist in our current capabilities and institutions, and efforts that may be needed to achieve the envisioned system.

  10. Adaptive Resource Management Technology for Satellite Constellations (United States)

    Welch, Lonnie; Tjaden, Brett; Pfarr, Barbara B.; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)


    This manuscript describes the Sensor Web Adaptive Resource Manager (SWARM) project. The primary focus of the project is on the design and prototyping of middleware for managing computing and network resources in a way that enables the information systems of satellite constellations to provide realtime performance within dynamic environments. The middleware has been prototyped, and it has been evaluated by employing it to manage a pool of distributed resources for the ITOS (Integrated Test and Operations System) satellite command and control software system. The design of the middleware is discussed and a summary of the evaluation effort is provided.

  11. Influence of the Arctic Oscillation on the vertical distribution of clouds as observed by the A-Train constellation of satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the Arctic Oscillation (AO, the dominant mode of natural variability over the northerly high latitudes, on the spatial (horizontal and vertical distribution of clouds in the Arctic. To that end, we use a suite of sensors onboard NASA's A-Train satellites that provide accurate observations of the distribution of clouds along with information on atmospheric thermodynamics. Data from three independent sensors are used (AQUA-AIRS, CALIOP-CALIPSO and CPR-CloudSat covering two time periods (winter half years, November through March, of 2002–2011 and 2006–2011, respectively along with data from the ERA-Interim reanalysis.

    We show that the zonal vertical distribution of cloud fraction anomalies averaged over 67–82° N to a first approximation follows a dipole structure (referred to as "Greenland cloud dipole anomaly", GCDA, such that during the positive phase of the AO, positive and negative cloud anomalies are observed eastwards and westward of Greenland respectively, while the opposite is true for the negative phase of AO. By investigating the concurrent meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity and winds, we show that differences in the meridional energy and moisture transport during the positive and negative phases of the AO and the associated thermodynamics are responsible for the conditions that are conducive for the formation of this dipole structure. All three satellite sensors broadly observe this large-scale GCDA despite differences in their sensitivities, spatio-temporal and vertical resolutions, and the available lengths of data records, indicating the robustness of the results. The present study also provides a compelling case to carry out process-based evaluation of global and regional climate models.

  12. High-Resolution NDVI from Planet’s Constellation of Earth Observing Nano-Satellites: A New Data Source for Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Houborg


    Full Text Available Planet Labs (“Planet” operate the largest fleet of active nano-satellites in orbit, offering an unprecedented monitoring capacity of daily and global RGB image capture at 3–5 m resolution. However, limitations in spectral resolution and lack of accurate radiometric sensor calibration impact the utility of this rich information source. In this study, Planet’s RGB imagery was translated into a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI: a common metric for vegetation growth and condition. Our framework employs a data mining approach to build a set of rule-based regression models that relate RGB data to atmospherically corrected Landsat-8 NDVI. The approach was evaluated over a desert agricultural landscape in Saudi Arabia where the use of near-coincident (within five days Planet and Landsat-8 acquisitions in the training of the regression models resulted in NDVI predictabilities with an r2 of approximately 0.97 and a Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD on the order of 0.014 (~9%. The MAD increased to 0.021 (~14% when the Landsat NDVI training image was further away (i.e., 11–16 days from the corrected Planet image. In these cases, the use of MODIS observations to inform on the change in NDVI occurring between overpasses was shown to significantly improve prediction accuracies. MAD levels ranged from 0.002 to 0.011 (3.9% to 9.1% for the best performing 80% of the data. The technique is generic and extendable to any region of interest, increasing the utility of Planet’s dense time-series of RGB imagery.

  13. The power of inexpensive satellite constellations (United States)

    Dyrud, Lars P.; La Tour, Rose; Swartz, William H.; Nag, Sreeja; Lorentz, Steven R.; Hilker, Thomas; Wiscombe, Warren J.; Papadakis, Stergios J.


    Two thematic drivers are motivating the science community towards constellations of small satellites, the revelation that many next generation system science questions are uniquely addressed with sufficient numbers of simultaneous space based measurements, and the realization that space is historically expensive, and in an environment of constrained costs, we must innovate to ―do more with less‖. We present analysis that answers many of the key questions surrounding constellations of scientific satellites, including research that resulted from the GEOScan community based effort originally intended as hosted payloads on Iridium NEXT. We present analysis that answers the question how many satellites does global system science require? Perhaps serendipitously, the analyses show that many of the key science questions independently converge towards similar results, i.e. that approximately 60+ satellites are needed for transformative, as opposed to incremental capability in system science. The current challenge is how to effectively transition products from design to mass production for space based instruments and vehicles. Ideally, the lesson learned from past designs and builds of various space products should pave the way toward a better manufacturing plan that utilizes just a fraction of the prototype`s cost. Using the commercial products industry implementations of mass customization as an example, we will discuss about the benefits of standardization in design requirements for space instruments and vehicles. For example, the instruments (payloads) are designed to have standardized elements, components, or modules that interchangeably work together within a linkage system. We conclude with a discussion on implementation plans and the new paradigms for community and international cooperation enabled by small satellite constellations.

  14. ACE Observatory Control System - 16 years of remote intercontinental observing (United States)

    Mack, Peter


    The ACE Observatory Control System has been used for remote control since 1995. The system was designed for use at isolated observatories with no-one present on the mountain-top. The software provides complete diagnostic feedback to the astronomer and is supplemented by live audio-visual. Accessories include environmental sensors (weather station, all-sky camera, constellation cameras), automated mirror covers and remote power control. This gives the astronomer the same experience as being present at the observatory. The system is installed on 30 telescopes and many of them are used for routine nightly intercontinental observations, such as Taejeon (S. Korea) to Mt. Lemmon (Arizona) and southeast USA to KPNO and CTIO. The system has fully integrated autoguider acquisition and science camera control. We describe the building blocks of the system and the accessories including automated mirror covers, weather station, all sky camera, remote power control and dome control. Future plans are presented for a fully autonomous platform-independent scheduler and robot for use on multiple telescopes.

  15. NASA's Constellation Program (United States)

    Baumeister, Joseph


    NASA has established 6 Themes for Exploration: 1) USE THE MOON: Reduce risks and cost and increase productivity of future missions by testing technologies, systems, and operations in a planetary environment other than the Earth. 2) PURSUE SCIENTIFIC: Engage in scientific investigations of the Moon (solar system processes), on the Moon (use the unique environment), and from the Moon (to study other celestial phenomena). 3) EXTEND PERMANENT HUMAN PRESENCE: Develop the capabilities and infrastructure required to expand the number of people, the duration, the self-sufficiency, and the degree of non-governmental activity. 4) EXPAND EARTH S ECONOMIC SPHERE: Create new markets based on lunar activity that will return economic, technological, and quality-of-life benefits. 5) ENHANCE GLOBAL SECURTIY: Provide a challenging, shared, and peaceful global vision that unites nations in pursuit of common objectives. 6) ENGAGE, INSPIRE: Excite the public about space, encourage students to pursue careers in high technology fields, ensure that individuals enter the workforce with the scientific and technical knowledge necessary to sustain exploration.

  16. A New Synthesis for the Origin of the Greek Constellations (United States)

    Schaefer, B. E.


    The Greek constellations constitute one of the longest enduring intellectual properties of humanity. While various papers attribute the origin of the constellations to many diverse possibilities, main stream historians view the origin as largely being in Mesopotamia after around 1350 BC with transmission to the Greeks around 500 BC or so. The evidence for this synthesis is cuneiform and iconographic records that first mention constellations from roughly 1350-500 BC. My recent research on precessional dating has added much detail to this old synthesis. The earliest surviving written description of the Greek constellations is Aratus' Phaenomenon, which is a copy of Eudoxus' lost book of the same name. Hipparchus' Commentary also extensively quotes from Eudoxus. With 172 observations from Eudoxus, I derive a precessional date of 1130 ± 80 BC and a latitude of 36.0 ± 0.9 degrees north. Further, the positioning of the southern void amongst the Greek constellations yields a date of 690 BC (with an uncertainty of 2-4 centuries) and a latitude of 33 degrees (with an uncertainty of 1-3 degrees) for the six southernmost constellations. The earliest surviving description of the Mesopotamian constellations is the MUL.APIN tablet series, with the oldest dated example from the 8th century BC. My precessional calculation gives a date of 1100 BC and a latitude of 33 north. I also see that Eudoxus and MUL.APIN share a substantial number of observations. In all, some Assyrian observer(s) between 33-36 degrees north latitude around the time of 1300-1000 BC apparently invented many of the constellations adopted by the Greeks and made a database of observations later repeated by MUL.APIN, Eudoxus, Aratus, and Hipparchus. But this is not the whole story, as this only accounts for 19 Greek constellations which are identical in stars and representation with the Mesopotamian sky. An additional 12 Greek constellations have the same star groups as the Babylonians yet have completely

  17. Streamlining the Design Tradespace for Earth Imaging Constellations (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Hughes, Steven P.; Le Moigne, Jacqueline J.


    Satellite constellations and Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) architectures offer unique benefits to Earth observation scientists and unique challenges to cost estimators. The Cost and Risk (CR) module of the Tradespace Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) being developed by NASA Goddard seeks to address some of these challenges by providing a new approach to cost modeling, which aggregates existing Cost Estimating Relationships (CER) from respected sources, cost estimating best practices, and data from existing and proposed satellite designs. Cost estimation through this tool is approached from two perspectives: parametric cost estimating relationships and analogous cost estimation techniques. The dual approach utilized within the TAT-C CR module is intended to address prevailing concerns regarding early design stage cost estimates, and offer increased transparency and fidelity by offering two preliminary perspectives on mission cost. This work outlines the existing cost model, details assumptions built into the model, and explains what measures have been taken to address the particular challenges of constellation cost estimating. The risk estimation portion of the TAT-C CR module is still in development and will be presented in future work. The cost estimate produced by the CR module is not intended to be an exact mission valuation, but rather a comparative tool to assist in the exploration of the constellation design tradespace. Previous work has noted that estimating the cost of satellite constellations is difficult given that no comprehensive model for constellation cost estimation has yet been developed, and as such, quantitative assessment of multiple spacecraft missions has many remaining areas of uncertainty. By incorporating well-established CERs with preliminary approaches to approaching these uncertainties, the CR module offers more complete approach to constellation costing than has previously been available to mission architects or Earth

  18. Aerosol Observing System (AOS) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A


    The Aerosol Observing System (AOS) is a suite of in situ surface measurements of aerosol optical and cloud-forming properties. The instruments measure aerosol properties that influence the earth’s radiative balance. The primary optical measurements are those of the aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients as a function of particle size and radiation wavelength and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements as a function of percent supersaturation. Additional measurements include those of the particle number concentration and scattering hygroscopic growth. Aerosol optical measurements are useful for calculating parameters used in radiative forcing calculations such as the aerosol single-scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, mass scattering efficiency, and hygroscopic growth. CCN measurements are important in cloud microphysical models to predict droplet formation.

  19. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Natural Hazard Response (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Crum, Gary; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Ong, Lawrence; Holt, Ben; Maharaja, Rishabh


    The authors on this paper are team members of the Earth Observing 1 (E0-1) mission which has flown an imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) instrument called Hyperion for the past 15+ years. The satellite is able to image any spot on Earth in the nadir looking direction every 16 days and with slewing, of the satellite for up to a 23 degree view angle, any spot on the Earth can be imaged approximately every 2 to 3 days. EO-1 has been used to track many natural hazards such as wildfires, volcanoes and floods. An enhanced capability that has been sought is the ability to image natural hazards in a daily time series for space-based imaging spectrometers. The Hyperion cannot provide this capability on EO-1 with the present polar orbit. However, a constellation of cubesats, each with the same imaging spectrometer, positioned strategically can be used to provide daily coverage or even diurnal coverage, cost-effectively. This paper sought to design a cubesat constellation mission that would accomplish this goal and then to articulate the key tradeoffs.

  20. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  1. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong


    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  2. EKOSAT/DIAMANT - The Earth Observation Programme at OHB- System (United States)

    Penne, B.; Tobehn, C.; Kassebom, M.; Luebberstedt

    This paper covers the EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme heading for superspectral geo-information products. The EKOSAT / DIAMANT programme is based on a commercial strategy just before the realization of the first step - the EKOSAT launch in 2004. Further, we give an overview on OHB-System earth observation prime activities especially for infrared and radar. The EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is based on the MSRS sensor featuring 12 user dedicated spectral bands in the VIS/NIR with 5m spatial resolution and 26 km swath at an orbit of 670 km. The operational demonstrator mission EKOSAT is a Korean-Israelean-German-Russian initiative that aims in utilizing the existing proto-flight model of the KOMPSAT-1 spacecraft for the MSRS sensor, which development is finished. The EKOSAT pointing capability will allow a revisit time of 3 days. DIAMANT stands for the future full operational system based on dedicated small satellites. The basic constellation relying on 2-3 satellites with about one day revisit is extendend on market demand. EKOSAT/ DIAMANT is designed to fill the gap between modern high spatial resolution multispectral (MS) systems and hyperspectral systems with moderate spatial resolution. On European level, there is currently no remote sensing system operational with comparable features and capabilities concerning applications especially in the field of environmental issues, vegetation, agriculture and water bodies. The Space Segment has been designed to satisfy the user requirements based on a balance between commercial aspects and scientific approaches. For example eight spectral bands have been identified to cover almost the entire product range for the current market. Additional four bands have been implemented to be prepared for future applications as for example the improved red edge detection, which give better results regarding environmental conditions. The spacecraft design and its subsystems are still reasonable small in order to keep the mass below 200 kg. This is an

  3. Regional positioning using a low Earth orbit satellite constellation (United States)

    Shtark, Tomer; Gurfil, Pini


    Global and regional satellite navigation systems are constellations orbiting the Earth and transmitting radio signals for determining position and velocity of users around the globe. The state-of-the-art navigation satellite systems are located in medium Earth orbits and geosynchronous Earth orbits and are characterized by high launching, building and maintenance costs. For applications that require only regional coverage, the continuous and global coverage that existing systems provide may be unnecessary. Thus, a nano-satellites-based regional navigation satellite system in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), with significantly reduced launching, building and maintenance costs, can be considered. Thus, this paper is aimed at developing a LEO constellation optimization and design method, using genetic algorithms and gradient-based optimization. The preliminary results of this study include 268 LEO constellations, aimed at regional navigation in an approximately 1000 km × 1000 km area centered at the geographic coordinates [30, 30] degrees. The constellations performance is examined using simulations, and the figures of merit include total coverage time, revisit time, and geometric dilution of precision (GDOP) percentiles. The GDOP is a quantity that determines the positioning solution accuracy and solely depends on the spatial geometry of the satellites. Whereas the optimization method takes into account only the Earth's second zonal harmonic coefficient, the simulations include the Earth's gravitational field with zonal and tesseral harmonics up to degree 10 and order 10, Solar radiation pressure, drag, and the lunisolar gravitational perturbation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Prnjat


    Full Text Available In contemporary astronomical literature, there is no uniform definition of the term asterism. This inconsistency is the consequence of differences between traditional understanding of the term constellation, from the standpoint of the naked eye astronomy, and its contemporary understanding from the standpoint of the International Astronomical Union. A traditional constellation is a recognizable star configuration with a well-established name, whereas the International Astronomical Union defines a constellation as an exactly defined sector of the cosmic space that belongs to a particular traditional constellation. Asterism is a lower rank term in comparison to constellation, and as such it may not denote a whole traditional constellation, as these terms would become synonymous and parts of constellations would become “asterisms of asterisms“. Similarly, asterism cannot define a macro configuration composed of the brightest stars in more constellations, thus, the Summer Triangle and other sky polygons are not asterisms. Therefore, asterisms are neither constellations nor sky polygons, but the third – easily recognizable parts of traditional constellations with historically well-established names, including separate groups of smaller stars that belong to star clusters (autonomous asterisms. Forms and names of asterisms may or may not be consistent with the parent constellation, and accordingly asterisms can be divided into compatible and incompatible. If asterisms have outlived the exact division of the celestial sphere and remained irreplaceable celestial landmarks in the naked eye astronomy, it is high time for the International Astronomical Union to agree on the definition of asterism and to compile their official list.

  5. Precise Point Positioning Using Triple GNSS Constellations in Various Modes. (United States)

    Afifi, Akram; El-Rabbany, Ahmed


    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines the observations from three different global navigation satellite system (GNSS) constellations, namely GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou. Combining measurements from different GNSS systems introduces additional biases, including inter-system bias and hardware delays, which require rigorous modelling. Our model is based on the un-differenced and between-satellite single-difference (BSSD) linear combinations. BSSD linear combination cancels out some receiver-related biases, including receiver clock error and non-zero initial phase bias of the receiver oscillator. Forming the BSSD linear combination requires a reference satellite, which can be selected from any of the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou systems. In this paper three BSSD scenarios are tested; each considers a reference satellite from a different GNSS constellation. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets collected at four different IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the International GNSS Service Multi-GNSS Experiment (IGS-MGEX) network are used to correct the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou measurements in the post-processing PPP mode. A real-time PPP solution is also obtained, which is referred to as RT-PPP in the sequel, through the use of the IGS real-time service (RTS) for satellite orbit and clock corrections. However, only GPS and Galileo observations are used for the RT-PPP solution, as the RTS-IGS satellite products are not presently available for BeiDou system. All post-processed and real-time PPP solutions are compared with the traditional un-differenced GPS-only counterparts. It is shown that combining the GPS, Galileo, and BeiDou observations in the post-processing mode improves the PPP convergence

  6. Future Geostationary Earth Observation Systems (United States)

    Munzenmayer, R.; Bovensmann, H.; Grafmuller, B.; Mager, R.; Reinert, T.

    EUMETSAT and ESA have initiated joint preparatory activities for the definition of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) geostationary system that needs to be available in the 2015 timeframe as a replacement for the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) system. Based on the first outputs of the EUMETSAT post-MSG User Consultation process initiated in 2000, ESA and EUMETSAT have started pre-phase A studies at instrument and system levels with the support of industry and representatives of the user and science communities. Early 2006 Astrium GmbH completed one of the Pre-Phase-A system studies with the preliminary definition of possible mission and system concepts. Beside EUMETSAT's need to have a replacement for MSG there are also ideas to have an additional operational system in GEO in the frame of the EU GMES (Global Monitoring of Environment and Security) program. For this program currently 5 satellite systems, called Sentinels 1-5 are proposed. For Atmospheric Chemistry applications a LEO component Sentinel-5 and a GEO component Sentinel 4 constitute the prelimi- nary definition. First dedicated system studies concerning Sentinel 4 and 5 are expected in 2006. Obviously between MTG and Sentinel 4 there are synergies and a coordinated approach is needed, e.g. in EUMETSAT user needs also the atmospheric chemistry applications are addressed, namely the UVS (Ultraviolet - Visible - Sounding) mission. Furthermore, there were already different mission proposals in the frame of the ESA Earth Explorer Programme regarding Atmospheric Chemistry from GEO (e.g. GeoSCIA, GeoTROPE and GeoTROPE-R proposals). Additional ideas regarding Microwave Sounding missions from GEO were also proposed, which would be very interesting for the meteorological community but due to the lack of maturity the microwave sounding mission it is not an element of the MTG program. This paper provides a short overview of the different proposed missions and the relevant instrument ideas are presented based on

  7. SAC-C Mission and the Morning Constellation (United States)

    Colomb, F. R.; Alonso, C.; Hofmann, C.; Frulla, L.; Nollmann, I.; Milovich, J.; Kuba, J.; Ares, F.; Kalemkarian, M.


    SAC-C is an international Earth observing satellite mission conceived as a partnership between CONAE and NASA, but with additional support in instrumentation and satellite development from the Danish DSRI, the Italian ASI, the French CNES and the Brazilian INPE. A Delta II rocket successfully launched it on November 21st, 2000, from Vandenberg AFB, California, USA. SAC-C has been designed primarily to fulfill the requirements of countries with large extension of territory or scarcely populated like Argentina. Its design is a good compromise between resolution and swath width that makes SAC-C an appropriate tool for global and high dynamic phenomena studies. There are ten instruments on board of SAC-C that will perform different studies, the Multispectral Medium Resolution Scanner (MMRS), provided by CONAE, Argentina, will help in the studies about desertification processes evaluation and their evolution in time (i.e., Patagonia, Argentina), to identify and predict agriculture production, to monitor flood areas and to make studies in coastal and fluvial areas. The MMRS will be associated with a High Resolution Technological Camera (HRTC), also provided by CONAE that will permit improvement in the MMRS resolution in the areas where it will be required. A High Sensitivity Technological Camera (HSTC) is also included in the mission. SAC-C also carries instruments to monitor the condition and dynamics of the terrestrial and marine biosphere and environment (GPS OccuLtation and Passive reflection Experiment (GOLPE)) from NASA/JPL. The Magnetic Mapping Payload, (MMP) developed by the Danish Space Research Institute helps to better understand the Earth's magnetic field and related Sun -Earth interactions .Italian Star Tracker (IST) and Italian Navigation Experiment (INES) developed by the Italian Space Agency, constitute a technological payload that will permit testing a fully autonomous system for attitude and orbit determination. Influence of space radiation on advanced

  8. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited) (United States)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.


    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  9. Observing System Simulation Experiments for air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.M.A.; Lahoz, W.A.; Attié, J.L.; Peuch, V.H.; Curier, R.L.; Edwards, D.P.; Eskes, H.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.


    This review paper provides a framework for the application of the Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) methodology to satellite observations of atmospheric constituents relevant for air quality. The OSSEs are experiments used to determine the potential benefit of future observing systems

  10. Time distributions in satellite constellation design (United States)

    Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva


    The aim of the time distribution methodology presented in this paper is to generate constellations whose satellites share a set of relative trajectories in a given time, and maintain that property over time without orbit corrections. The model takes into account a series of orbital perturbations such as the gravitational potential of the Earth, the atmospheric drag, the Sun and the Moon as disturbing third bodies and the solar radiation pressure. These perturbations are included in the design process of the constellation. Moreover, the whole methodology allows to design constellations with multiple relative trajectories that can be distributed in a minimum number of inertial orbits.

  11. Development of the Counselor Response Observation System (United States)

    Rantanen, Antti P.; Soini, Hannu S.


    The purpose of this study was to validate the measures included in the Counselor Response Observation System. The Counselor Response Observation System consists of the Counselor Response Coding System and the Skilled Verbal Responding Scale. Detailed results of their validity and reliability are presented.

  12. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG (United States)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios


    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  13. SaVi: satellite constellation visualization


    Wood, Lloyd


    SaVi, a program for visualizing satellite orbits, movement, and coverage, is maintained at the University of Surrey. This tool has been used for research in academic papers, and by industry companies designing and intending to deploy satellite constellations. It has also proven useful for demonstrating aspects of satellite constellations and their geometry, coverage and movement for educational and teaching purposes. SaVi is introduced and described briefly here.

  14. Information-Theoretic Analysis of a Family of Improper Discrete Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Santamaria


    Full Text Available Non-circular or improper Gaussian signaling has proven beneficial in several interference-limited wireless networks. However, all implementable coding schemes are based on finite discrete constellations rather than Gaussian signals. In this paper, we propose a new family of improper constellations generated by widely linear processing of a square M-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation signal. This family of discrete constellations is parameterized by κ , the circularity coefficient and a phase ϕ . For uncoded communication systems, this phase should be optimized as ϕ * ( κ to maximize the minimum Euclidean distance between points of the improper constellation, therefore minimizing the bit error rate (BER. For the more relevant case of coded communications, where the coded symbols are constrained to be in this family of improper constellations using ϕ * ( κ , it is shown theoretically and further corroborated by simulations that, except for a shaping loss of 1.53 dB encountered at a high signal-to-noise ratio (snr, there is no rate loss with respect to the improper Gaussian capacity. In this sense, the proposed family of constellations can be viewed as the improper counterpart of the standard proper M-QAM constellations widely used in coded communication systems.

  15. Research on the configuration design method of heterogeneous constellation reconstruction under the multiple objective and multiple constraint (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Yanli; Dai, Huayu


    Aiming at the problem of configuration design of heterogeneous constellation reconstruction, a design method of heterogeneous constellation reconstruction based on multi objective and multi constraints is proposed. At first, the concept of heterogeneous constellation is defined. Secondly, the heterogeneous constellation reconstruction methods were analyzed, and then the two typical existing design methods of reconstruction, phase position uniformity method and reconstruction configuration design method based on optimization algorithm are summarized. The advantages and shortcomings of different reconstruction configuration design methods are compared, finally the heterogeneous constellation reconstruction configuration design is currently facing problems are analyzed and put forward the thinking about the reconstruction index system of heterogeneous constellation and the selection of optimal variables and the establishment of constraints in the optimization design of the configuration.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Pre-gpm Microwave Precipitation Observations in the Goddard WRF Ensemble Data Assimilation System (United States)

    Chambon, Philippe; Zhang, Sara Q.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zupanski, Milija; Cheung, Samson


    The forthcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will provide next generation precipitation observations from a constellation of satellites. Since precipitation by nature has large variability and low predictability at cloud-resolving scales, the impact of precipitation data on the skills of mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) is largely affected by the characterization of background and observation errors and the representation of nonlinear cloud/precipitation physics in an NWP data assimilation system. We present a data impact study on the assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave (MW) radiances from a pre-GPM satellite constellation using the Goddard WRF Ensemble Data Assimilation System (Goddard WRF-EDAS). A series of assimilation experiments are carried out in a Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model domain of 9 km resolution in western Europe. Sensitivities to observation error specifications, background error covariance estimated from ensemble forecasts with different ensemble sizes, and MW channel selections are examined through single-observation assimilation experiments. An empirical bias correction for precipitation-affected MW radiances is developed based on the statistics of radiance innovations in rainy areas. The data impact is assessed by full data assimilation cycling experiments for a storm event that occurred in France in September 2010. Results show that the assimilation of MW precipitation observations from a satellite constellation mimicking GPM has a positive impact on the accumulated rain forecasts verified with surface radar rain estimates. The case-study on a convective storm also reveals that the accuracy of ensemble-based background error covariance is limited by sampling errors and model errors such as precipitation displacement and unresolved convective scale instability.

  17. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.


    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  18. Operable Data Management for Ocean Observing Systems (United States)

    Chavez, F. P.; Graybeal, J. B.; Godin, M. A.


    As oceanographic observing systems become more numerous and complex, data management solutions must follow. Most existing oceanographic data management systems fall into one of three categories: they have been developed as dedicated solutions, with limited application to other observing systems; they expect that data will be pre-processed into well-defined formats, such as netCDF; or they are conceived as robust, generic data management solutions, with complexity (high) and maturity and adoption rates (low) to match. Each approach has strengths and weaknesses; no approach yet fully addresses, nor takes advantage of, the sophistication of ocean observing systems as they are now conceived. In this presentation we describe critical data management requirements for advanced ocean observing systems, of the type envisioned by ORION and IOOS. By defining common requirements -- functional, qualitative, and programmatic -- for all such ocean observing systems, the performance and nature of the general data management solution can be characterized. Issues such as scalability, maintaining metadata relationships, data access security, visualization, and operational flexibility suggest baseline architectural characteristics, which may in turn lead to reusable components and approaches. Interoperability with other data management systems, with standards-based solutions in metadata specification and data transport protocols, and with the data management infrastructure envisioned by IOOS and ORION, can also be used to define necessary capabilities. Finally, some requirements for the software infrastructure of ocean observing systems can be inferred. Early operational results and lessons learned, from development and operations of MBARI ocean observing systems, are used to illustrate key requirements, choices, and challenges. Reference systems include the Monterey Ocean Observing System (MOOS), its component software systems (Software Infrastructure and Applications for MOOS, and

  19. BRITE Constellation: data processing and photometry (United States)

    Popowicz, A.; Pigulski, A.; Bernacki, K.; Kuschnig, R.; Pablo, H.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Zocłońska, E.; Baade, D.; Handler, G.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Rucinski, S. M.; Weiss, W. W.; Koudelka, O.; Orleański, P.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Zwintz, K.


    Context. The BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE) mission is a pioneering space project aimed at the long-term photometric monitoring of the brightest stars in the sky by means of a constellation of nanosatellites. Its main advantage is high photometric accuracy and time coverage which are inaccessible from the ground. Its main drawback is the lack of cooling of the CCD detectors and the absence of good shielding that would protect them from energetic particles. Aims: The main aim of this paper is the presentation of procedures used to obtain high-precision photometry from a series of images acquired by the BRITE satellites in two modes of observing, stare and chopping. The other aim is a comparison of the photometry obtained with two different pipelines and a comparison of the real scatter with expectations. Methods: We developed two pipelines corresponding to the two modes of observing. They are based on aperture photometry with a constant aperture, circular for stare mode of observing and thresholded for chopping mode. Impulsive noise is a serious problem for observations made in the stare mode of observing and therefore in the pipeline developed for observations made in this mode, hot pixels are replaced using the information from shifted images in a series obtained during a single orbit of a satellite. In the other pipeline, the hot pixel replacement is not required because the photometry is made in difference images. Results: The assessment of the performance of both pipelines is presented. It is based on two comparisons, which use data from six runs of the UniBRITE satellite: (I) comparison of photometry obtained by both pipelines on the same data, which were partly affected by charge transfer inefficiency (CTI), (II) comparison of real scatter with theoretical expectations. It is shown that for CTI-affected observations, the chopping pipeline provides much better photometry than the other pipeline. For other observations, the results are comparable only for data

  20. Blind Carrier Phase Recovery for General 2{\\pi}/M-rotationally Symmetric Constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Slimane, Emna Ben; Bouallègue, Ammar; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4104


    This paper introduces a novel blind carrier phase recovery estimator for general 2{\\Pi}/M-rotationally symmetric constellations. This estimation method is a generalization of the non-data-aided (NDA) nonlinear Phase Metric Method (PMM) estimator already designed for general quadrature amplitude constellations. This unbiased estimator is seen here as a fourth order PMM then generalized to Mth order (Mth PMM) in such manner that it covers general 2{\\Pi}/M-rotationally symmetric constellations such as PAM, QAM, PSK. Simulation results demonstrate the good performance of this Mth PMM estimation algorithm against competitive blind phase estimators already published for various modulation systems of practical interest.

  1. An ocean observing system for climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlin, W.D. Jr. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Smith, N. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Needler, G. [Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Nova Scotia (Canada)] [and others


    Designs and implementations are proceeding for Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The initial design for the ocean component of the GCOS, which is also the climate module of the GOOS, was completed in 1995 by the Ocean Observing System Development Panel (OOSDP). This design for an ocean observing system for climate aims to provide ocean observations leading to gridded products, analyses forecasts, indexes, assessments, and other items needed to detect, monitor, understand, and predict climate variations and change. A summary of the OOSDP report is presented here, beginning with the rationale for such a system and the series of specific goals and subgoals used to focus the design. The instruments, platforms, transmission systems, or processing required to observe the climate variables or quantifiable aspects of the climate system to meet these subgoals are identified. These observing system elements are divided into three categories: (1) elements of existing operational operational systems, (2) those that should be added now to complete the initial observing system, or (3) elements perhaps not now readily attainable but that should be added to the system at the earliest feasible time. Future research and development likely needed for further development of the system are also identified in the report. The elements needed for each subgoal are ranked as to feasibility (i.e., routine, systematic, timely, and cost-effective characteristics) versus their impact on attaining the subgoal. Priorities among the various subgoals are presented based on the panel`s perception of where the immediate and important issues lie. This then provides the basis for an incremental approach to implementation, leading to a coherent conceptual design. 26 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The DUBAISAT-2/DEIMOS-2 constellation: public-private cooperation between Emirates and Spain (United States)

    Pirondini, Fabrizio; Al Marri, Salem


    The Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST) was established by the Dubai Government in 2006 with the goal of promoting a culture of advanced scientific research and technology innovation in Dubai and the UAE, and enhancing technology innovation and scientific skills among UAE nationals. EIAST launched in November 2013 the DubaiSat-2, its second Earth Observation satellite, and the first to provide VHR multispectral imagery. The satellite has successfully completed its in-orbit commissioning and it is now fully operational. ELECNOR DEIMOS is a private Spanish company, part of the Elecnor industrial group, which owns and operates DEIMOS-1, the first Spanish Earth Observation satellite, launched in 2009. ELECNOR DEIMOS launched in June 2014 its second satellite, DEIMOS-2, a VHR, agile satellite capable of providing 4-bands multispectral imagery. The whole end-to-end DEIMOS- 2 system has been designed to provide a cost-effective and highly responsive service to cope with the increasing need of fast access to VHR imagery. The two satellites, with a mass of 300 kg each, were developed in cooperation with Satrec-I (South Korea), and are based on the SpaceEye-1 platform. The two satellites have an identical payload, and produce 75- cm resolution pan-sharpened imagery across a 12-km swath. Together, they have a combined collection capacity of more than 300,000 sqkm per day. EIAST and ELECNOR DEIMOS have set up a unique, trans-national public-private partnership to operate the two satellites as a constellation, jointly commercialize the imagery of both satellites, and interchange technical and operational information to increase the efficiency of both systems. The operations of the constellation are based on four ground stations: Al Khawaneej (Dubai), Puertollano (Spain), Kiruna (Sweden) and Inuvik (Canada), which assure at least a contact per orbit with each satellite. The constellation functionalities of the ground segment were developed by EIAST

  3. On the Feasibility of Monitoring Carbon Monoxide in the Lower Troposphere from a Constellation of Northern Hemisphere Geostationary Satellites: Global Scale Assimilation Experiments (Part II) (United States)

    Barre, Jerome; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Arellano, Avelino; Gaubert, Benjamin; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William; Anderson, Jeffrey


    This paper describes the second phase of an Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) that utilizes the synthetic measurements from a constellation of satellites measuring atmospheric composition from geostationary (GEO) Earth orbit presented in part I of the study. Our OSSE is focused on carbon monoxide observations over North America, East Asia and Europe where most of the anthropogenic sources are located. Here we assess the impact of a potential GEO constellation on constraining northern hemisphere (NH) carbon monoxide (CO) using data assimilation. We show how cloud cover affects the GEO constellation data density with the largest cloud cover (i.e., lowest data density) occurring during Asian summer. We compare the modeled state of the atmosphere (Control Run), before CO data assimilation, with the known 'true' state of the atmosphere (Nature Run) and show that our setup provides realistic atmospheric CO fields and emission budgets. Overall, the Control Run underestimates CO concentrations in the northern hemisphere, especially in areas close to CO sources. Assimilation experiments show that constraining CO close to the main anthropogenic sources significantly reduces errors in NH CO compared to the Control Run. We assess the changes in error reduction when only single satellite instruments are available as compared to the full constellation. We find large differences in how measurements for each continental scale observation system affect the hemispherical improvement in long-range transport patterns, especially due to seasonal cloud cover. A GEO constellation will provide the most efficient constraint on NH CO during winter when CO lifetime is longer and increments from data assimilation associated with source regions are advected further around the globe.

  4. Local Observability of Systems on Time Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Bartosiewicz


    unified way using the language of real analytic geometry, ideals of germs of analytic functions, and their real radicals. It is shown that some properties related to observability are preserved under various discretizations of continuous-time systems.

  5. Atlantic-THORpex Observing System Test (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atlantic - THORpex Observing System Test (ATOST) is part of an international research program to accelerate improvements in the accuracy of 1 to 14 day weather...

  6. An Introduction to Observing System Simulation Experiments (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.


    Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are used to estimate the potential impact of proposed new instruments and data on numerical weather prediction. OSSEs can also be used to help design new observing platforms and to investigate the behavior of data assimilation systems. A basic overview of how to design and perform an OSSE will be given, as well as best practices and pitfalls. Some examples using the OSSE framework developed at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office will be shown.

  7. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.


    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  8. Millisecond pulsar observation system at CRL (United States)

    Hanado, Yuko; Kiuchi, H.; Hama, S.; Kaneko, A.; Imae, M.


    Millisecond pulsars have attracted attention as future reference clocks in place of present atomic clocks. The Communications Research Laboratory (CRL) has been developing an observation system to measure the pulse timing of a millisecond pulsar precisely, and has recently completed the basic part of the task. We observed PSR1937+21 at 1.5GHz band and got a pulse timing with a precision of 16 micro sec/tau by five days of observation.

  9. Optimizing the Attitude Control of Small Satellite Constellations for Rapid Response Imaging (United States)

    Nag, S.; Li, A.


    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) such as formation flight and constellations, are being recognized as important solutions to increase measurement samples over space and time. Given the increasingly accurate attitude control systems emerging in the commercial market, small spacecraft now have the ability to slew and point within few minutes of notice. In spite of hardware development in CubeSats at the payload (e.g. NASA InVEST) and subsystems (e.g. Blue Canyon Technologies), software development for tradespace analysis in constellation design (e.g. Goddard's TAT-C), planning and scheduling development in single spacecraft (e.g. GEO-CAPE) and aerial flight path optimizations for UAVs (e.g. NASA Sensor Web), there is a gap in open-source, open-access software tools for planning and scheduling distributed satellite operations in terms of pointing and observing targets. This paper will demonstrate results from a tool being developed for scheduling pointing operations of narrow field-of-view (FOV) sensors over mission lifetime to maximize metrics such as global coverage and revisit statistics. Past research has shown the need for at least fourteen satellites to cover the Earth globally everyday using a LandSat-like sensor. Increasing the FOV three times reduces the need to four satellites, however adds image distortion and BRDF complexities to the observed reflectance. If narrow FOV sensors on a small satellite constellation were commanded using robust algorithms to slew their sensor dynamically, they would be able to coordinately cover the global landmass much faster without compensating for spatial resolution or BRDF effects. Our algorithm to optimize constellation satellite pointing is based on a dynamic programming approach under the constraints of orbital mechanics and existing attitude control systems for small satellites. As a case study for our algorithm, we minimize the time required to cover the 17000 Landsat images with maximum signal to noise ratio fall

  10. Motherhood constellation and representational change in pregnancy. (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Sarracino, Diego; Dazzi, Nino


    The main aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and development of the motherhood constellation in pregnant women. The participants of the study were 162 pregnant women who were divided into three subgroups according to their gestation period (7 months). The women were assessed using the Breakfast Interview, a microanalytic method devised by D.N. Stern (1995, 2004a). Two judges coded the transcripts of the interviews for the presence of the motherhood constellation themes using three-level rating scales. Results showed that the Life/Growth theme was the most frequent theme during pregnancy, and supported the hypothesis of a "peak" of the motherhood constellation themes around Month 6 to Month 7. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  11. Galileo and the IGS: Taking advantage of multiple GNSS constellations (United States)

    Dow, J. M.; Neilan, R. E.; Weber, R.; Gendt, G.

    The paper reviews some objectives and preparatory activities of the International GNSS Service (IGS), in relation to the developing European Global Navigation Satellite System Galileo. Experience already acquired in the IGS in monitoring multiple global navigation satellite systems (GPS and GLONASS) is reviewed. Some significant features of the Galileo system are outlined, including constellation design, and some areas are identified in which Galileo will influence IGS operations in the future and in which the IGS and its active elements can continue to contribute to new GNSS developments. These include the IGS GNSS Working Group, the Galileo System Test Bed GSTB-V2 and the Galileo Geodetic Service Provider (GGSP) Prototype.

  12. The lost constellations a history of obsolete, extinct, or forgotten star lore

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C


    Casual stargazers are familiar with many classical figures and asterisms composed of bright stars (e.g., Orion and the Plough), but this book reveals not just the constellations of today but those of yesteryear. The history of the human identification of constellations among the stars is explored through the stories of some influential celestial cartographers whose works determined whether new inventions survived. The history of how the modern set of 88 constellations was defined by the professional astronomy community is recounted, explaining how the constellations described in the book became permanently “extinct.”  Dr. Barentine addresses why some figures were tried and discarded, and also directs observers to how those figures can still be picked out on a clear night if one knows where to look. These lost constellations are described in great detail using historical references, ennabling observers to rediscover them on their own surveys of the sky. Treatment of the obsolete constellations as ...

  13. Hybrid dynamical systems observation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Defoort, Michael


    This book is a collection of contributions defining the state of current knowledge and new trends in hybrid systemssystems involving both continuous dynamics and discrete events – as described by the work of several well-known groups of researchers. Hybrid Dynamical Systems presents theoretical advances in such areas as diagnosability, observability and stabilization for various classes of system. Continuous and discrete state estimation and self-triggering control of nonlinear systems are advanced. The text employs various methods, among them, high-order sliding modes, Takagi–Sugeno representation and sampled-data switching to achieve its ends. The many applications of hybrid systems from power converters to computer science are not forgotten; studies of flexible-joint robotic arms and – as representative biological systems – the behaviour of the human heart and vasculature, demonstrate the wide-ranging practical significance of control in hybrid systems. The cross-disciplinary origins of study ...

  14. Connect the Dots and Pinhole Constellations. (United States)

    Kominski, John


    Identifies a variety of methods to introduce constellations and asterisms to students in the classroom and planetarium prior to their study of the night sky. Materials used include transparencies, oatmeal boxes, photographic slides, and tracing paper. Exercises incorporate storytelling and prediction of location, movement, and seasonal patterns of…

  15. Observability of Nonlinear Fractional Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balachandran


    Full Text Available We study the observability of linear and nonlinear fractional differential systems of order 0<α<1 by using the Mittag-Leffler matrix function and the application of Banach’s contraction mapping theorem. Several examples illustrate the concepts.

  16. TRICLOBS portable triband color lowlight observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.


    We present the design and first test results of the TRICLOBS (TRI-band Color Low-light OBServation) system The TRICLOBS is an all-day all-weather surveillance and navigation tool. Its sensor suite consists of two digital image intensifiers (Photonis ICU's) and an uncooled longwave infrared

  17. An Observing System for the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Newman, L.; Schofield, O.; Wahlin, A.; Constable, A.; Swart, S.


    The Southern Ocean is fundamental to the operation of the Earth system, as it plays a central role in global climate and planetary-scale biogeochemical cycles. The Southern Ocean is changing rapidly, and the critical need to observe and understand the Southern Ocean is well established; however, the harsh conditions and remote location have led to it being the most under-sampled region of the world. Sustained observations are required to detect, interpret, and respond to the physical, chemical, and biological changes that are, and will continue to be measured. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) is an international initiative with the mission to integrate the global assets and efforts of the international community to enhance data collection, provide access to datasets, and guide the development of strategic-sustained-multidisciplinary science in the Southern Ocean. This presentation will provide an update on SOOS implementation activities, key products and tools, and data management efforts.

  18. Sonmicat: Sea Level Observation System of Catalonia (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.


    SONMICAT is the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges (relative sea levels) and from modern geodetic techniques (vertical land motion and absolute sea levels) for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims to be: - an integrated sea level monitoring system (different types of data, sources, time and space scales), - a sea level information system handling the data measured by different observation networks, - a local/regional component of international sea level observing systems (GLOSS, ESEAS, etc.), and - a local/regional interface for related European and Global projects and databases (PSML, TIGA, etc.) There is a gap of sea level data (GLOSS, PSML, TIGA) in the coast of Catalonia, although several groups and institutions have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it. Up to now, the system has started at l'Estartit and Barcelona harbours. A description of the actual SONMICAT infraestructure and campaigns - especially at Barcelona harbour - are presented. In June 2014, an airborne LiDAR campaign has been carrying on in Barcelona following two ICESat tracks. First results of the airborne survey will also be presented.

  19. Precise orbit determination of BeiDou constellation based on BETS and MGEX network. (United States)

    Lou, Yidong; Liu, Yang; Shi, Chuang; Yao, Xiuguang; Zheng, Fu


    Chinese BeiDou Navigation Satellite System is officially operational as a regional constellation with five Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites, five Inclined Geosynchronous Satellite Orbit (IGSO) satellites and four Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) satellites. Observations from the BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) and the IGS Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) network from 1 January to 31 March 2013 are processed for orbit determination of the BeiDou constellation. Various arc lengths and solar radiation pressure parameters are investigated. The reduced set of ECOM five-parameter model produces better performance than the full set of ECOM nine-parameter model for BeiDou IGSO and MEO. The orbit overlap for the middle days of 3-day arc solutions is better than 20 cm and 14 cm for IGSO and MEO in RMS, respectively. Satellite laser ranging residuals are better than 10 cm for both IGSO and MEO. For BeiDou GEO, the orbit overlap of several meters and satellite laser ranging residuals of several decimetres can be achieved.

  20. Level-2 product generation for the Swarm satellite constellation mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Poul Erik Holmdahl; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Olsen, Nils

    In order to take advantage of the unique constellation aspect of ESA's Swarm constellation mission, considerably advanced data analysis tools have been developed. The Swarm ESL/SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility), a consortium of several research institutions, derives...

  1. Point pattern match-based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paglieroni, David W.


    A method and system is provided that applies attribute- and topology-based change detection to objects that were detected on previous scans of a medium. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, detection strength, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The locations define a three-dimensional network topology forming a constellation of previously detected objects. The change detection system stores attributes of the previously detected objects in a constellation database. The change detection system detects changes by comparing the attributes and topological consistency of newly detected objects encountered during a new scan of the medium to previously detected objects in the constellation database. The change detection system may receive the attributes of the newly detected objects as the objects are detected by an object detection system in real time.

  2. Uncontrollable dissipative systems: observability and embeddability (United States)

    Karikalan, Selvaraj; Belur, Madhu N.; Athalye, Chirayu D.; Razak, Rihab Abdul


    The theory of dissipativity is well developed for controllable systems. A more appropriate definition of dissipativity in the context of uncontrollable systems is in terms of the existence of a storage function, namely a function such that, along every system trajectory, its rate of change at each time instant is at most the power supplied to the system at that time. However, even when the supplied power is expressible in terms of just the external variables, the dissipativity property for uncontrollable systems crucially hinges on whether or not the storage function depends on variables unobservable/hidden from the external variables: this paper investigates the key aspects of both cases, and also proposes another intuitive definition of dissipativity. These three definitions are compared: we show that drawbacks of one definition are addressed by another. Dealing first with observable storage functions, under the conditions that no two uncontrollable poles add to zero and that dissipativity is strict as frequency tends to infinity, we prove that the dissipativities of a system and its controllable part are equivalent. We use the behavioural approach for formalising key notions: a system behaviour is the set of all system trajectories. We prove that storage functions have to be unobservable for 'lossless' uncontrollable systems. It is known, however, that unobservable storage functions result in certain 'fallacious' examples of lossless systems. We propose an intuitive definition of dissipativity: a system/behaviour is called dissipative if it can be embedded in a controllable dissipative superbehaviour. We prove embeddability results and use them to resolve the fallacy in the example termed 'lossless' due to unobservable storage functions. We next show that, quite unreasonably, the embeddability definition admits behaviours that are both strictly dissipative and strictly antidissipative. Drawbacks of the embeddability definition in the context of RLC circuits are

  3. Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) surface observation data. (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — GMOS global surface elemental mercury (Hg0) observations from 2013 & 2014. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sprovieri, F., N. Pirrone,...

  4. An Investigation into Establishing a Formation of Small Satellites in a Lunar Flower Constellation (United States)

    McManus, Lauren

    maneuvers are calculated. A 4 kg cubesat with 1 kg of fuel is assumed, and various thruster types are used to correlate required maintenance Delta-Vs to propellant mass required. It is found that the flower constellations at the Moon can be maintained for between 100 and 800 days, depending on the eciency of the thruster system used. Ultimately, a small satellite constellation at the Moon is found to be feasible to establish and maintain for a science or communication mission.

  5. Modified empirical Solar Radiation Pressure model for IRNSS constellation (United States)

    Rajaiah, K.; Manamohan, K.; Nirmala, S.; Ratnakara, S. C.


    Navigation with Indian Constellation (NAVIC) also known as Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is India's regional navigation system designed to provide position accuracy better than 20 m over India and the region extending to 1500 km around India. The reduced dynamic precise orbit estimation is utilized to determine the orbit broadcast parameters for IRNSS constellation. The estimation is mainly affected by the parameterization of dynamic models especially Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP) model which is a non-gravitational force depending on shape and attitude dynamics of the spacecraft. An empirical nine parameter solar radiation pressure model is developed for IRNSS constellation, using two-way range measurements from IRNSS C-band ranging system. The paper addresses the development of modified SRP empirical model for IRNSS (IRNSS SRP Empirical Model, ISEM). The performance of the ISEM was assessed based on overlap consistency, long term prediction, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) residuals and compared with ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 models developed by Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). For IRNSS Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit (IGSO) satellites, ISEM has shown promising results with overlap RMS error better than 5.3 m and 3.5 m respectively. Long term orbit prediction using numerical integration has improved with error better than 80%, 26% and 7.8% in comparison to ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 respectively. Further, SLR based orbit determination with ISEM shows 70%, 47% and 39% improvement over 10 days orbit prediction in comparison to ECOM9, ECOM5 and new-ECOM9 respectively and also highlights the importance of wide baseline tracking network.

  6. Satellite Constellations for Space Weather and Ionospheric Studies: Overview of the COSMIC and COSMIC-2 Missions (United States)

    Schreiner, W. S.; Pedatella, N. M.; Weiss, J.


    Measurements from constellations of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are proving highly useful for ionospheric science and space weather studies. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), a joint US/Taiwan mission launched in April 2006, is a six micro-satellite constellation carrying Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) receivers. COSMIC has collected a large amount of useful data from these scientific payloads and is still currently collecting up to 1,000 RO measurement events per day on average. The GPS RO dual-frequency L-band phase and amplitude measurements can be used to observe absolute Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation on lines of sight between the LEO and GPS satellites, and electron density profiles via the RO method. The large number and complete global and local time coverage of COSMIC data are allowing scientists to observe ionospheric and plasmaspheric phenomena that are difficult to see with other instruments. The success of COSMIC has prompted U.S. agencies and Taiwan to execute a COSMIC follow-on mission (called COSMIC-2) that will put twelve satellites with GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) RO payloads into orbit on two launches in the 2017-20 time frame. The first launch in 2017 will place six satellites in a 520-km altitude 24 deg inclination orbit, which is ideal for low latitude ionospheric research and space weather forecasting. The planned second launch (not currently funded) places six additional satellites in a 750 km 72 deg inclination orbit to provide global coverage and increased sampling density. COSMIC-2 will make use of an advanced radio occultation receiver with an innovative beam-forming antenna design, and is expected to produce at least 10,000 high-quality atmospheric and ionospheric profiles per day from GPS and GLONASS signals to support operational weather prediction, climate monitoring, and space weather forecasting. Each COSMIC-2 spacecraft

  7. Spatiotemporal Evaluation of GNSS-R Based on Future Fully Operational Global Multi-GNSS and Eight-LEO Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Gao


    Full Text Available Spaceborne GNSS-R (global navigation satellite system reflectometry is an innovative and powerful bistatic radar remote sensing technique that uses specialized GNSS-R instruments on LEO (low Earth orbit satellites to receive GNSS L-band signals reflected by the Earth’s surface. Unlike monostatic radar, the illuminated areas are elliptical regions centered on specular reflection points. Evaluation of the spatiotemporal resolution of the reflections is necessary at the GNSS-R mission design stage for various applications. However, not all specular reflection signals can be received because the size and location of the GNSS-R antenna’s available reflecting ground coverage depends on parameters including the on-board receiver antenna gain, the signal frequency and power, the antenna face direction, and the LEO’s altitude. Additionally, the number of available reflections is strongly related to the number of GNSS-R LEO and GNSS satellites. By 2020, the Galileo and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS constellations are scheduled to be fully operational at global scale and nearly 120 multi-GNSS satellites, including Global Positioning System (GPS and Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS satellites, will be available for use as illuminators. In this paper, to evaluate the future capacity for repetitive GNSS-R observations, we propose a GNSS satellite selection method and simulate the orbit of eight-satellite LEO and partial multi-GNSS constellations. We then analyze the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of the reflections in two cases: (1 When only GPS satellites are available; (2 when multi-GNSS satellites are available separately. Simulation and analysis results show that the multi-GNSS-R system has major advantages in terms of available satellite numbers and revisit times over the GPS-R system. Additionally, the spatial density of the specular reflections on the Earth’s surface is related to the LEO inclination and

  8. The Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (United States)

    Proctor, R.; Meyers, G.; Roughan, M.; Operators, I.


    The Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) is a 92M project established with 50M from the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy (NCRIS) and co-investments from 10 operators including Universities and government agencies (see below). It is a nationally distributed set of equipment established and maintained at sea, oceanographic data and information services that collectively will contribute to meeting the needs of marine research in both open oceans and over the continental shelf around Australia. In particular, if sustained in the long term, it will permit identification and management of climate change in the marine environment, an area of research that is as yet almost a blank page, studies relevant to conservation of marine biodiversity and research on the role of the oceans in the climate system. While as an NCRIS project IMOS is intended to support research, the data streams are also useful for many societal, environmental and economic applications, such as management of offshore industries, safety at sea, management of marine ecosystems and fisheries and tourism. The infrastructure also contributes to Australia's commitments to international programs of ocean observing and international conventions, such as the 1982 Law of the Sea Convention that established the Australian Exclusive Economic Zone, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Global Ocean Observing System and the intergovernmental coordinating activity Global Earth Observation System of Systems. IMOS is made up of nine national facilities that collect data, using different components of infrastructure and instruments, and two facilities that manage and provide access to data and enhanced data products, one for in situ data and a second for remotely sensed satellite data. The observing facilities include three for the open (bluewater) ocean (Argo Australia, Enhanced Ships of Opportunity and Southern Ocean Time Series), three facilities for coastal

  9. The Future of Southern Ocean Observing Systems (United States)

    Talley, L. D.


    Knowledge of the Southern Ocean's role in global climate from seasonal to millennial timescales is evolving, with rapidly increasing recognition of the centrality of the Southern Ocean to Earth's heat, carbon, nutrient, and freshwater budgets, and of the impact of interactions between the ocean and the major ice shelves and grounded ice sheets of Antarctica, which have been decreasing in mass. Observations in this data-sparse and logistically remote region have never been so important, and many nations are rising to the challenge of supporting both experiments and long-term sustained observations. As illustrated in the figure from Meredith et al. (Current Op. Env. Sustain. 2013), autonomous in situ technologies are at the fore because of the difficulty and expense of sending ships year-round and because the crucial satellite remote sensing must be accompanied by in situ observations, including beneath sea ice and ice shelves. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has grown out of this recognized need for coordinated observations from the Antarctic coastline northward to the subtropics, from the bottom water production regions in coastal polynyas over the continental shelves, to the regions of interaction of warm ocean waters with Antarctic ice shelves, beneath the vast seasonal sea ice region, and in the hot spots of air-sea fluxes and cross-Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) mixing where the ACC interacts with topography and continental boundaries. The future includes international coordination and collaboration and strengthening of new and existing technologies, which include satellite observing, ice-enabled profiling floats, profiling from marine mammals, moored measurements in many strategic locations, glider and other autonomous operations in all regions, and drilling through floating ice shelves to measure the ocean waters below. Improved and consistent weather observations around the Antarctic coastlines will improve forecasting and reanalysis. Ice

  10. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.


    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  11. Constellation design with geometric and probabilistic shaping (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoliang; Yaman, Fatih


    A systematic study, including theory, simulation and experiments, is carried out to review the generalized pairwise optimization algorithm for designing optimized constellation. In order to verify its effectiveness, the algorithm is applied in three testing cases: 2-dimensional 8 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM), 4-dimensional set-partitioning QAM, and probabilistic-shaped (PS) 32QAM. The results suggest that geometric shaping can work together with PS to further bridge the gap toward the Shannon limit.

  12. Penn State Radar Systems: Implementation and Observations (United States)

    Urbina, J. V.; Seal, R.; Sorbello, R.; Kuyeng, K.; Dyrud, L. P.


    Software Defined Radio/Radar (SDR) platforms have become increasingly popular as researchers, hobbyists, and military seek more efficient and cost-effective means for radar construction and operation. SDR platforms, by definition, utilize a software-based interface for configuration in contrast to traditional, hard-wired platforms. In an effort to provide new and improved radar sensing capabilities, Penn State has been developing advanced instruments and technologies for future radars, with primary objectives of making such instruments more capable, portable, and more cost effective. This paper will describe the design and implementation of two low-cost radar systems and their deployment in ionospheric research at both low and mid-latitudes. One radar has been installed near Penn State campus, University Park, Pennsylvania (77.97°W, 40.70°N), to make continuous meteor observations and mid-latitude plasma irregularities. The second radar is being installed in Huancayo (12.05°S, -75.33°E), Peru, which is capable of detecting E and F region plasma irregularities as well as meteor reflections. In this paper, we examine and compare the diurnal and seasonal variability of specular, non- specular, and head-echoes collected with these two new radar systems and discuss sampling biases of each meteor observation technique. We report our current efforts to validate and calibrate these radar systems with other VHF radars such as Jicamarca and SOUSY. We also present the general characteristics of continuous measurements of E-region and F-region coherent echoes using these modern radar systems and compare them with coherent radar events observed at other geographic mid-latitude radar stations.

  13. Assessment of the impact of FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 GNSS RO observations on mid- and low-latitude ionosphere specification and forecast using observing system simulation experiments (United States)

    Hsu, C. T.; Matsuo, T.; Yue, X.; Liu, J. Y. G.; Yue, X.


    The Formosa Satellite-7/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate-2 (FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2) GNSS RO payload can provide global observations of slant total electron content (sTEC) with unprecedentedly high spatial temporal resolution. By using observing system simulation experiments, we can quantitatively assess the impact of FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 GNSS RO data on ionospheric specification and forecast. For this purpose, a coupled model of the Global Ionosphere Plasmasphere and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model is incorporated into the NOAA ensemble Kalman filter data assimilation system. In ensemble Kalman filtering, it is critical to minimize the effects of sampling errors on the ensemble-based estimation of the correlation between observations and model states, in order to obtain high quality assimilation analysis. This presentation will demonstrate how an auxiliary ensemble Kalman filtering technique designed specifically for the FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 sTEC observations can enhance the impacts of FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 GNSS RO data on mid- and low-latitude ionospheric specification and forecast.

  14. An Approach to Speed up Single-Frequency PPP Convergence with Quad-Constellation GNSS and GIM. (United States)

    Cai, Changsheng; Gong, Yangzhao; Gao, Yang; Kuang, Cuilin


    The single-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) technique has attracted increasing attention due to its high accuracy and low cost. However, a very long convergence time, normally a few hours, is required in order to achieve a positioning accuracy level of a few centimeters. In this study, an approach is proposed to accelerate the single-frequency PPP convergence by combining quad-constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and global ionospheric map (GIM) data. In this proposed approach, the GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou, and Galileo observations are directly used in an uncombined observation model and as a result the ionospheric and hardware delay (IHD) can be estimated together as a single unknown parameter. The IHD values acquired from the GIM product and the multi-GNSS differential code bias (DCB) product are then utilized as pseudo-observables of the IHD parameter in the observation model. A time varying weight scheme has also been proposed for the pseudo-observables to gradually decrease its contribution to the position solutions during the convergence period. To evaluate the proposed approach, datasets from twelve Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) stations on seven consecutive days are processed and analyzed. The numerical results indicate that the single-frequency PPP with quad-constellation GNSS and GIM data are able to reduce the convergence time by 56%, 47%, 41% in the east, north, and up directions compared to the GPS-only single-frequency PPP.

  15. Observed ices in the Solar System (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.


    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  16. The NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture Study (United States)

    Volz, Stephen; Maier, Mark; Di Pietro, David


    NOAA is beginning a study, the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (NSOSA) study, to plan for the future operational environmental satellite system that will follow GOES and JPSS, beginning about 2030. This is an opportunity to design a modern architecture with no pre-conceived notions regarding instruments, platforms, orbits, etc. The NSOSA study will develop and evaluate architecture alternatives to include partner and commercial alternatives that are likely to become available. The objectives will include both functional needs and strategic characteristics (e.g., flexibility, responsiveness, sustainability). Part of this study is the Space Platform Requirements Working Group (SPRWG), which is being commissioned by NESDIS. The SPRWG is charged to assess new or existing user needs and to provide relative priorities for observational needs in the context of the future architecture. SPRWG results will serve as input to the process for new foundational (Level 0 and Level 1) requirements for the next generation of NOAA satellites that follow the GOES-R, JPSS, DSCOVR, Jason-3, and COSMIC-2 missions.

  17. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.


    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  18. The Swarm Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility (SCARF) and Swarm data products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Floberghagen, R.


    Swarm, a three-satellite constellation to study the dynamics of the Earth's magnetic field and its interactions with the Earth system, is expected to be launched in late 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution......, in order to gain new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior and environment. In order to derive advanced models of the geomagnetic field (and other higher-level data products) it is necessary to take explicit advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm....... The Swarm SCARF (Satellite Constellation Application and Research Facility) has been established with the goal of deriving Level-2 products by combination of data from the three satellites, and of the various instruments. The present paper describes the Swarm input data products (Level-1b and auxiliary data...

  19. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems (United States)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.


    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  20. The Integrated Carbon Observation System in Germany (United States)

    Kutsch, Werner Leo


    Due to the strong anthropogenic disturbance of the global carbon cycle, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases increase in the atmosphere and contribute to climatic change. Currently, the ocean and the land biosphere still sequester parts of this anthropogenically emitted carbon dioxide. However, the sustainability of these sinks is not guaranteed. Measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases are depending on our ability to monitor atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and changes in the environment with high precision. Understanding the complex interactions between the climate system and biosphere, hydrosphere as well as atmosphere must, therefore, be based on long-term precise and internationally comparable measurements. An infrastructure that provides these observations is the best investment for reducing uncertainties and for avoiding future surprises. In order to develop a long-term perspective for a European monitoring system for greenhouse gases the Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) has been approved by the European Council of Research Ministries as an important research infrastructure and will be established officially as a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC) in 2013. ICOS will be organized as a decentralized research infrastructure with the observational networks run by national programs. The German component, ICOS-D, consists currently of a consortium of 13 research institutions, contributes to all monitoring networks and will provide the Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL), consisting of a Flask and Calibration Laboratory (FCL) and a Central Radiocarbon Laboratory (CRL) in Jena and Heidelberg, respectively, as central facilities for the entire ICOS Research Infrastructure (ICOS RI). In the Atmospheric Program continuous and grab sample measurements of trace gas concentrations as well as their isotopic composition will be conducted at tall-tower stations. In combination with transport models, these measurements

  1. Conference on Earth Observation and Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Lawrence


    The NATO Science Committee and its subsidiary Programme Panels provide support for Advanced Research Institutes (ARI) in various fields. The idea is to bring together scientists of a chosen field with the hope that they will achieve a consensus on research direc­ tions for the future, and make recommendations for the benefit of a wider scientific community. Attendance is therefore limited to those whose experience and expertise make the conclusions significant and acceptable to the wider community. Participants are selected on the basis of substantial track records in research or in the synthesis of research results to serve mankind. The proposal for a one-week ARIon Earth Observation and In­ formation Systems was initiated by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science (SPPOSS). In approving the ARI, the senior NATO Science Committee identified the subject as one of universal impor­ tance, requiring a broad perspective on the development of opera­ tional systems based on successful experimental s...

  2. Observation of the Earth system from space

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd


    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  3. Constellation modulation - an approach to increase spectral efficiency. (United States)

    Dash, Soumya Sunder; Pythoud, Frederic; Hillerkuss, David; Baeuerle, Benedikt; Josten, Arne; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Leuthold, Juerg


    Constellation modulation (CM) is introduced as a new degree of freedom to increase the spectral efficiency and to further approach the Shannon limit. Constellation modulation is the art of encoding information not only in the symbols within a constellation but also by encoding information by selecting a constellation from a set of constellations that are switched from time to time. The set of constellations is not limited to sets of partitions from a given constellation but can e.g., be obtained from an existing constellation by applying geometrical transformations such as rotations, translations, scaling, or even more abstract transformations. The architecture of the transmitter and the receiver allows for constellation modulation to be used on top of existing modulations with little penalties on the bit-error ratio (BER) or on the required signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The spectral bandwidth used by this modulation scheme is identical to the original modulation. Simulations demonstrate a particular advantage of the scheme for low SNR situations. So, for instance, it is demonstrated by simulation that a spectral efficiency increases by up to 33% and 20% can be obtained at a BER of 10-3 and 2×10-2 for a regular BPSK modulation format, respectively. Applying constellation modulation, we derive a most power efficient 4D-CM-BPSK modulation format that provides a spectral efficiency of 0.7 bit/s/Hz for an SNR of 0.2 dB at a BER of 2 × 10-2.

  4. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.


    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  5. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory's Data Tracking System (United States)

    Cully, L. E.; Williams, S. F.


    The NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) maintains an extensive collection of complex, multi-disciplinary datasets from national and international, current and historical projects accessible through field project web pages ( Data orders are processed through the EOL Metadata Database and Cyberinfrastructure (EMDAC) system. Behind the scenes is the institutionally created EOL Computing, Data, and Software/Data Management Group (CDS/DMG) Data Tracking System (DTS) tool. The DTS is used to track the complete life cycle (from ingest to long term stewardship) of the data, metadata, and provenance for hundreds of projects and thousands of data sets. The DTS is an EOL internal only tool which consists of three subsystems: Data Loading Notes (DLN), Processing Inventory Tool (IVEN), and Project Metrics (STATS). The DLN is used to track and maintain every dataset that comes to the CDS/DMG. The DLN captures general information such as title, physical locations, responsible parties, high level issues, and correspondence. When the CDS/DMG processes a data set, IVEN is used to track the processing status while collecting sufficient information to ensure reproducibility. This includes detailed "How To" documentation, processing software (with direct links to the EOL Subversion software repository), and descriptions of issues and resolutions. The STATS subsystem generates current project metrics such as archive size, data set order counts, "Top 10" most ordered data sets, and general information on who has ordered these data. The DTS was developed over many years to meet the specific needs of the CDS/DMG, and it has been successfully used to coordinate field project data management efforts for the past 15 years. This paper will describe the EOL CDS/DMG Data Tracking System including its basic functionality, the provenance maintained within the system, lessons learned, potential improvements, and future developments.

  6. Fault Management Technology Maturation for NASA's Constellation Program (United States)

    Waterman, Robert D.


    This slide presentation reviews the maturation of fault management technology in preparation for the Constellation Program. There is a review of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and a discussion of a couple of incidents with the shuttle main engine and tanking that indicated the necessity for predictive maintenance. Included is a review of the planned Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype (GDP) and further information about detection and isolation of faults using Testability Engineering and Maintenance System (TEAMS). Another system that being readied for use that detects anomalies, the Inductive Monitoring System (IMS). The IMS automatically learns how the system behaves and alerts operations it the current behavior is anomalous. The comparison of STS-83 and STS-107 (i.e., the Columbia accident) is shown as an example of the anomaly detection capabilities.

  7. The Apollo Expericence Lessons Learned for Constellation Lunar Dust Management (United States)

    Wagner, Sandra


    Lunar dust will present significant challenges to NASA's Lunar Exploration Missions. The challenges can be overcome by using best practices in system engineering design. For successful lunar surface missions, all systems that come into contact with lunar dust must consider the effects throughout the entire design process. Interfaces between all these systems with other systems also must be considered. Incorporating dust management into Concept of Operations and Requirements development are the best place to begin to mitigate the risks presented by lunar dust. However, that is only the beginning. To be successful, every person who works on NASA's Constellation lunar missions must be mindful of this problem. Success will also require fiscal responsibility. NASA must learn from Apollo the root cause of problems caused by dust, and then find the most cost-effective solutions to address each challenge. This will require a combination of common sense existing technologies and promising, innovative technical solutions

  8. On the optimum signal constellation design for high-speed optical transport networks. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In this paper, we first describe an optimum signal constellation design algorithm, which is optimum in MMSE-sense, called MMSE-OSCD, for channel capacity achieving source distribution. Secondly, we introduce a feedback channel capacity inspired optimum signal constellation design (FCC-OSCD) to further improve the performance of MMSE-OSCD, inspired by the fact that feedback channel capacity is higher than that of systems without feedback. The constellations obtained by FCC-OSCD are, however, OSNR dependent. The optimization is jointly performed together with regular quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (LDPC) code design. Such obtained coded-modulation scheme, in combination with polarization-multiplexing, is suitable as both 400 Gb/s and multi-Tb/s optical transport enabling technology. Using large girth LDPC code, we demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulations that a 32-ary signal constellation, obtained by FCC-OSCD, outperforms previously proposed optimized 32-ary CIPQ signal constellation by 0.8 dB at BER of 10(-7). On the other hand, the LDPC-coded 16-ary FCC-OSCD outperforms 16-QAM by 1.15 dB at the same BER.

  9. Long Term Measurement of the Earth's Radiation Budget using a constellation of Broadband Radiometers hosted on Iridium NEXT (United States)

    Gupta, Om Prakash; Thoma, Donald; Chaloner, Chris; Russell, Jacqueline; Simpson, Bill; Spilling, David; Morris, Nigel; Caldwell, Martin; Oneill, Alan

    The WMO called for "bringing new missions to operational status" and that "ERB should be measured through a constellation of sensors". A unique opportu-nity exists to host a set of Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) sensors on the Iridium NEXT (NEXT) LEO constellation in a cost effective manner that can deliver these requirements. The NEXT constellation, with 66 interconnected satellites in 6 near polar orbiting planes, provides a unique platform for hosting a variety of Earth observation missions including ERB. Launches are planned to begin in 2014 through 2016. The ERB both drives and responds to global climate and monitoring it can provide much insight into the climate system and how it might be changing. A climate quality measurement of the ERB requires high absolute accuracy and excellent stability and a long-term (decades) data record in order to inform the debate about global warming. Measurement of the ERB in terms of the broadband reflected solar (0.3 to 4 µm) and emitted thermal (4 to 200 µm) components have been identified as high priority by the WMO for climate observations. High temporal resolution is the key advantage offered by the NEXT platform and can provide a great step forward in accurately monitoring the energy balance of the planet. The sensor we propose will consist of a broad band instrument and associated imager for scene identification and cloud classification. There is the chance to place two such sensors in each of six different orbital planes this will improve the product refresh time from currently 12 hours to 3 hours. The increased temporal resolution will allow direct measure-ment of the changes to the broadband radiances that result from rapidly varying components of the climate such as cloud and aerosol, and avoid the need of relying on narrow band sensors to infer such changes. Considering that the prediction of cloud response to climate change is still a major source of uncertainty; improved measurement of the cloud effect and

  10. Trade-space Analysis for Constellations (United States)

    Le Moigne, J.; Dabney, P.; de Weck, O. L.; Foreman, V.; Grogan, P.; Holland, M. P.; Hughes, S. P.; Nag, S.


    Traditionally, space missions have relied on relatively large and monolithic satellites, but in the past few years, under a changing technological and economic environment, including instrument and spacecraft miniaturization, scalable launchers, secondary launches as well as hosted payloads, there is growing interest in implementing future NASA missions as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM). The objective of our project is to provide a framework that facilitates DSM Pre-Phase A investigations and optimizes DSM designs with respect to a-priori Science goals. In this first version of our Trade-space Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C), we are investigating questions such as: "How many spacecraft should be included in the constellation? Which design has the best cost/risk value?" The main goals of TAT-C are to: Handle multiple spacecraft sharing a mission objective, from SmallSats up through flagships, Explore the variables trade space for pre-defined science, cost and risk goals, and pre-defined metrics Optimize cost and performance across multiple instruments and platforms vs. one at a time. This paper describes the overall architecture of TAT-C including: a User Interface (UI) interacting with multiple users - scientists, missions designers or program managers; an Executive Driver gathering requirements from UI, then formulating Trade-space Search Requests for the Trade-space Search Iterator first with inputs from the Knowledge Base, then, in collaboration with the Orbit & Coverage, Reduction & Metrics, and Cost& Risk modules, generating multiple potential architectures and their associated characteristics. TAT-C leverages the use of the Goddard Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to compute coverage and ancillary data, streamlining the computations by modeling orbits in a way that balances accuracy and performance. TAT-C current version includes uniform Walker constellations as well as Ad-Hoc constellations, and its cost model represents an aggregate model

  11. Electrical Arc Ignition Testing for Constellation Program (United States)

    Sparks, Kyle; Gallus, Timothy; Smith, Sarah


    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Materials and Processes Branch requested that NASA JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) perform testing for the Constellation Program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition of materials that could be in close proximity to batteries. Specifically, WSTF was requested to perform wire-break electrical arc tests to determine the current threshold for ignition of generic cotton woven fabric samples with a fixed voltage of 3.7 V, a common voltage for hand-held electrical devices. The wire-break test was developed during a previous test program to evaluate the hazard of electrical arc ignition inside the Extravehicular Mobility Unit [1].

  12. Interactions of the space debris environment with mega constellations-Using the example of the OneWeb constellation (United States)

    Radtke, Jonas; Kebschull, Christopher; Stoll, Enrico


    Recently, several announcements have been published to deploy satellite constellations into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) containing several hundred to thousands of rather small sized objects. The purpose of these constellations is to provide a worldwide internet coverage, even to the remotest areas. Examples of these mega-constellations are one from SpaceX, which is announced to comprise of about 4000 satellites, the Norwegian STEAM network, which is told to contain 4257 satellites, and the OneWeb constellation, which forms one of the smaller constellations with 720 satellites. As example constellation, OneWeb has been chosen. From all announced constellation, OneWeb by far delivered most information, both in regards to constellation design and their plans to encounter space debris issues, which is the reason why it has been chosen for these analyses. In this paper, at first an overview of the planned OneWeb constellation setup is given. From this description, a mission life-cycle is deduced, splitting the complete orbital lifetime of the satellites into four phases. Following, using ESA-MASTER, for each of the mission phases the flux on both single constellations satellites and the complete constellation are performed and the collision probabilities are derived. The focus in this analysis is set on catastrophic collisions. This analysis is then varied parametrically for different operational altitudes of the constellation as well as different lifetimes with different assumptions for the success of post mission disposal (PMD). Following the to-be-expected mean number of collision avoidance manoeuvres during all active mission phases is performed using ARES from ESA's DRAMA tool suite. The same variations as during the flux analysis are considered. Lastly the characteristics of hypothetical OneWeb satellite fragmentation clouds, calculated using the NASA Breakup model, are described and the impact of collision clouds from OneWeb satellites on the constellation itself is

  13. Constellation pharmacology: a new paradigm for drug discovery. (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Schmidt, Eric W; Olivera, Baldomero M


    Constellation pharmacology is a cell-based high-content phenotypic-screening platform that utilizes subtype-selective pharmacological agents to elucidate the cell-specific combinations (constellations) of key signaling proteins that define specific cell types. Heterogeneous populations of native cells, in which the different individual cell types have been identified and characterized, are the foundation for this screening platform. Constellation pharmacology is useful for screening small molecules or for deconvoluting complex mixtures of biologically active natural products. This platform has been used to purify natural products and discover their molecular mechanisms. In the ongoing development of constellation pharmacology, there is a positive feedback loop between the pharmacological characterization of cell types and screening for new drug candidates. As constellation pharmacology is used to discover compounds with novel targeting-selectivity profiles, those new compounds then further help to elucidate the constellations of specific cell types, thereby increasing the content of this high-content platform.

  14. Uncharted constellations asterisms, single-source and rebrands

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C


    This book compiles an array of interesting constellations that fell by the wayside before the IAU established the modern canon of constellations. That decision left out lesser known ones whose history is nevertheless interesting, but at last author John Barentine is giving them their due. This book is a companion to "The Alternate Constellations", highlighting the more obscure configurations.  The 16 constellations found in this volume fall into one or more of three broad categories: asterims, such as the Big Dipper in Ursa Major; single-sourced constellations introduced on surviving charts by a cartographer perhaps currying the favor of sponsors; and re-brands, new figures meant to displace existing constellations, often for an ideological reason. All of them reveal something unique about the development of humanity's map of the sky. .

  15. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David


    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  16. a Novel Proposal of GAOFEN-3 Satellite Constellation for Multi-Applications (United States)

    Qiu, X.; Ding, C.; Lei, B.; Han, B.; Li, F.


    Gaofen-3 is the first C-band fully polarimetric SAR satellite in China, which is widely used in various fields such as ocean monitoring, disaster reduction and so on. In this paper, a new satellite constellation is proposed based on the orbit of Gaofen-3 satellite. The constellation includes Gaofen-3 and other two duplicates. It is able to do repeat-pass interferometry, repeat-pass differential interferometry, along-track interferometry and stereo measurement. With these abilities, it can generate the earth DEM without ground control points and have better performance in moving target identification and monitoring. The performance and the system requirements are analysed, which provides a good reference for the design of spaceborne SAR constellation.

  17. Sibling constellation effects on learning and career aspirations of pupils.




    The thesis "Sibling Constellation Effects on Learning and Career Aspirations of Pupils" is aimed at the description of a relationship between birth order and personality development. It also deals with the general characteristics of sibling constellation and its historical development. It points out the importance of sibling constellation in human life and presents the personality description with regard to birth order in relation to parents, siblings, peers, education and occupation. The the...

  18. Estimation of the magnetic field gradient tensor using the Swarm constellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils


    For the first time, part of the magnetic field gradient tensor is estimated in space by the Swarm mission. We investigate the possibility of a more complete estimation of the gradient tensor exploiting the Swarm constellation. The East-West gradients can be approximated by observations from...

  19. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.


    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  20. Development of a Nonlinear Probability of Collision Tool for the Earth Observing System (United States)

    McKinley, David P.


    The Earth Observing System (EOS) spacecraft Terra, Aqua, and Aura fly in constellation with several other spacecraft in 705-kilometer mean altitude sun-synchronous orbits. All three spacecraft are operated by the Earth Science Mission Operations (ESMO) Project at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In 2004, the ESMO project began assessing the probability of collision of the EOS spacecraft with other space objects. In addition to conjunctions with high relative velocities, the collision assessment method for the EOS spacecraft must address conjunctions with low relative velocities during potential collisions between constellation members. Probability of Collision algorithms that are based on assumptions of high relative velocities and linear relative trajectories are not suitable for these situations; therefore an algorithm for handling the nonlinear relative trajectories was developed. This paper describes this algorithm and presents results from its validation for operational use. The probability of collision is typically calculated by integrating a Gaussian probability distribution over the volume swept out by a sphere representing the size of the space objects involved in the conjunction. This sphere is defined as the Hard Body Radius. With the assumption of linear relative trajectories, this volume is a cylinder, which translates into simple limits of integration for the probability calculation. For the case of nonlinear relative trajectories, the volume becomes a complex geometry. However, with an appropriate choice of coordinate systems, the new algorithm breaks down the complex geometry into a series of simple cylinders that have simple limits of integration. This nonlinear algorithm will be discussed in detail in the paper. The nonlinear Probability of Collision algorithm was first verified by showing that, when used in high relative velocity cases, it yields similar answers to existing high relative velocity linear relative trajectory algorithms. The

  1. Open Sourcing Social Change: Inside the Constellation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonya Surman


    Full Text Available The constellation model was developed by and for the Canadian Partnership for Children's Health and the Environment. The model offers an innovative approach to organizing collaborative efforts in the social mission sector and shares various elements of the open source model. It emphasizes self-organizing and concrete action within a network of partner organizations working on a common issue. Constellations are self-organizing action teams that operate within the broader strategic vision of a partnership. These constellations are outwardly focused, placing their attention on creating value for those in the external environment rather than on the partnership itself. While serious effort is invested into core partnership governance and management, most of the energy is devoted to the decision making, resources and collaborative effort required to create social value. The constellations drive and define the partnership. The constellation model emerged from a deep understanding of the power of networks and peer production. Leadership rotates fluidly amongst partners, with each partner having the freedom to head up a constellation and to participate in constellations that carry out activities that are of more peripheral interest. The Internet provided the platform, the partner network enabled the expertise to align itself, and the goal of reducing chemical exposure in children kept the energy flowing. Building on seven years of experience, this article provides an overview of the constellation model, discusses the results from the CPCHE, and identifies similarities and differences between the constellation and open source models.

  2. A Constellation of CubeSat InSAR Sensors for Rapid-Revisit Surface Deformation Studies (United States)

    Wye, L.; Lee, S.; Yun, S. H.; Zebker, H. A.; Stock, J. D.; Wicks, C. W., Jr.; Doe, R.


    The 2007 NRC Decadal Survey for Earth Sciences highlights three major Earth surface deformation themes: 1) solid-earth hazards and dynamics; 2) human health and security; and 3) land-use change, ecosystem dynamics and biodiversity. Space-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a key change detection tool for addressing these themes. Here, we describe the mission and radar payload design for a constellation of S-band InSAR sensors specifically designed to provide the global, high temporal resolution, sub-cm level deformation accuracy needed to address some of the major Earth system goals. InSAR observations with high temporal resolution are needed to properly monitor certain nonlinearly time-varying features (e.g., unstable volcanoes, active fault lines, and heavily-used groundwater or hydrocarbon reservoirs). Good temporal coverage is also needed to reduce atmospheric artifacts by allowing multiple acquisitions to be averaged together, since each individual SAR measurement is corrupted by up to several cm of atmospheric noise. A single InSAR platform is limited in how often it can observe a given scene without sacrificing global spatial coverage. Multiple InSAR platforms provide the spatial-temporal flexibility required to maximize the science return. However, building and launching multiple InSAR platforms is cost-prohibitive for traditional satellites. SRI International (SRI) and our collaborators are working to exploit developments in nanosatellite technology, in particular the emergence of the CubeSat standard, to provide high-cadence InSAR capabilities in an affordable package. The CubeSat Imaging Radar for Earth Science (CIRES) subsystem, a prototype SAR elec­tronics package developed by SRI with support from a 2014 NASA ESTO ACT award, is specifically scaled to be a drop-in radar solution for resource-limited delivery systems like CubeSats and small airborne vehicles. Here, we present our mission concept and flow-down requirements for a

  3. Increasing Usability in Ocean Observing Systems (United States)

    Chase, A. C.; Gomes, K.; O'Reilly, T.


    As observatory systems move to more advanced techniques for instrument configuration and data management, standardized frameworks are being developed to benefit from commodities of scale. ACE (A Configuror and Editor) is a tool that was developed for SIAM (Software Infrastructure and Application for MOOS), a framework for the seamless integration of self-describing plug-and-work instruments into the Monterey Ocean Observing System. As a comprehensive solution, the SIAM infrastructure requires a number of processes to be run to configure an instrument for use within its framework. As solutions move from the lab to the field, the steps needed to implement the solution must be made bulletproof so that they may be used in the field with confidence. Loosely defined command line interfaces don't always provide enough user feedback and business logic can be difficult to maintain over a series of scripts. ACE is a tool developed for guiding the user through a number of complicated steps, removing the reliance on command-line utilities and reducing the difficulty of completing the necessary steps, while also preventing operator error and enforcing system constraints. Utilizing the cross-platform nature of the Java programming language, ACE provides a complete solution for deploying an instrument within the SIAM infrastructure without depending on special software being installed on the users computer. Requirements such as the installation of a Unix emulator for users running Windows machines, and the installation of, and ability to use, a CVS client, have all been removed by providing the equivalent functionality from within ACE. In order to achieve a "one stop shop" for configuring instruments, ACE had to be written to handle a wide variety of functionality including: compiling java code, interacting with a CVS server and maintaining client-side CVS information, editing XML, interacting with a server side database, and negotiating serial port communications through Java

  4. Understanding Business Strategies of Networked Value Constellations Using Goal- and Value Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Jaap; Petit, Michael; Wieringa, Roelf J.


    In goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE), one usually proceeds from a goal analysis to a requirements specification, usually of IT systems. In contrast, we consider the use of GORE for the design of IT-enabled value constellations, which are collections of enterprises that jointly satisfy a

  5. Participants' Experiences in Hellinger's Family Constellation Work: A Grounded Theory Study (United States)

    Georgiadou, Sofia


    As a recently introduced to the U.S. model of intergenerational systemic therapy from Germany, Bert Hellinger's Family Constellation Work (FCW) has very limited research support. Hellinger himself has authored a number of publications referencing hundreds of cases, where he implemented his method to approach a broad array of physical,…

  6. Hyperspectral Cubesat Constellation for Rapid Natural Hazard Response (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Huemmrich, Karl; Crum, Gary; Ly, Vuong; Handy, Matthew; Ong, Lawrence


    Earth Observing 1 (E0-1) satellite has an imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) instrument called Hyperion. The satellite is able to image any spot on Earth in the nadir looking direction every 16 days. With slewing of the satellite and allowing for up to a 23 degree view angle, any spot on the Earth can be imaged approximately every 2 to 3 days. EO-1 has been used to track many natural hazards such as wildfires, volcanoes and floods. An enhanced capability that is sought is the ability to image natural hazards in a daily time series for space based imaging spectrometers. The Hyperion can not provide this capability on EO-1 with the present polar orbit. However, a constellation of cubesats, each with the same imaging spectrometer, positioned strategically in the same orbit, can be used to provide daily coverage, cost-effectively.

  7. NOAA Observing System Integrated Analysis (NOSIA): development and support to the NOAA Satellite Observing System Architecture (United States)

    Reining, R. C.; Cantrell, L. E., Jr.; Helms, D.; LaJoie, M.; Pratt, A. S.; Ries, V.; Taylor, J.; Yuen-Murphy, M. A.


    There is a deep relationship between NOSIA-II and the Federal Earth Observation Assessment (EOA) efforts (EOA 2012 and 2016) chartered under the National Science and Technology Council, Committee on Environment, Natural Resources, and Sustainability, co-chaired by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, NASA, NOAA, and USGS. NOSIA-1, which was conducted with a limited scope internal to NOAA in 2010, developed the methodology and toolset that was adopted for EOA 2012, and NOAA staffed the team that conducted the data collection, modeling, and analysis effort for EOA 2012. EOA 2012 was the first-ever integrated analysis of the relative impact of 379 observing systems and data sources contributing to the key objectives identified for 13 Societal Benefit Areas (SBA) including Weather, Climate, Disasters, Oceans and Coastal Resources, and Water Resources. This effort culminated in the first National Plan for Civil Earth Observations. NOAA conducted NOSIA-II starting in 2012 to extend the NOSIA methodology across all of NOAA's Mission Service Areas, covering a representative sample (over 1000) of NOAA's products and services. The detailed information from NOSIA-II is being integrated into EOA 2016 to underpin a broad array of Key Products, Services, and (science) Objectives (KPSO) identified by the inter-agency SBA teams. EOA 2016 is expected to provide substantially greater insight into the cross-agency impacts of observing systems contributing to a wide array of KPSOs, and by extension, to societal benefits flowing from these public-facing products. NOSIA-II is being adopted by NOAA as a corporate decision-analysis and support capability to inform leadership decisions on its integrated observing systems portfolio. Application examples include assessing the agency-wide impacts of planned decommissioning of ships and aircraft in NOAA's fleet, and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative space-based architectures in the post-GOES-R and JPSS era

  8. A 6U CubeSat Constellation for Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Sounding (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Brown, Shannon; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Cofield, Richard; Russell, Damon; Stachnik, Robert; Steinkraus, Joel; Lim, Boon


    We are currently developing a 118/183 GHz sensor that will enable observations of temperature and precipitation profiles over land and ocean. The 118/183 GHz system is well suited for a CubeSat deployment as 10cm antenna aperture provides sufficiently small footprint sizes (is approx. 25km). This project will enable low cost, compact radiometer instrumentation at 118 and 183 GHz that would fit in a 6U CubeSat with the objective of mass-producing this design to enable a suite of small satellites to image the key geophysical parameters that are needed to improve prediction of extreme weather events. We will take advantage of past and current technology developments at JPL viz. HAMSR (High Altitude Microwave Scanning Radiometer), Advanced Component Technology (ACT'08) to enable low-mass and low-power high frequency airborne radiometers. The 35 nm InP enabling technology provides significant reduction in power consumption (Low Noise Amplifier + Mixer Block consumes 24 mW). In this paper, we will describe the design and implementation of the 118 GHz temperature sounder and 183 GHz humidity sounder instrument on the 6U CubeSat. In addition, a summary of radiometer calibration and retrieval techniques of the temperature and humidity will be discussed. The successful demonstration of this instrument on the 6U CubeSat would pave the way for the development of a constellation consisting of suite of these instruments. The proposed constellation of these 6U CubeSat radiometers would allow sampling of tropospheric temperature and humidity with fine temporal (on the order of minutes) and spatial resolution (is approx. 25 km).

  9. Using CYGNSS to Observe Convectively Driven Near-Surface Winds in Tropical Precipitation Systems During Madden-Julian Oscillation Events (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Li, Xuanli; Mecikalski, John; Hoover, Kacie; Castillo, Tyler; Chronis, Themis


    The Cyclone Global Navigation OKLMA 1411 UTC Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a multi-satellite constellation that launched 15 December 2016. The primary objective of CYGNSS is to use bistatic Global Positioning System (GPS) reflectometry to accurately measure near-surface wind speeds within the heavily raining inner core of tropical cyclones. CYGNSS also features rapid revisit times over a given region in the tropics - ranging from several minutes to a few hours, depending on the constellation geometry at that time. Despite the focus on tropical cyclones, the ability of CYGNSS to provide rapid updates of winds, unbiased by the presence of precipitation, has many other potential applications related to general tropical convection.

  10. Cubesat Constellation Design for Air Traffic Monitoring (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Rios, Joseph Lucio; Gerhardt, David; Pham, Camvu


    Suitably equipped global and local air traffic can be tracked. The tracking information may then be used for control from ground-based stations by receiving the Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) signal. The ADS-B signal, emitted from the aircraft's Mode-S transponder, is currently tracked by terrestrial based receivers but not over remote oceans or sparsely populated regions such as Alaska or the Pacific Ocean. Lack of real-time aircraft time/location information in remote areas significantly hinders optimal planning and control because bigger "safety bubbles" (lateral and vertical separation) are required around the aircraft until they reach radar-controlled airspace. Moreover, it presents a search-and-rescue bottleneck. Aircraft in distress, e.g. Air France AF449 that crashed in 2009, take days to be located or cannot be located at all, e.g. Malaysia Airlines MH370 in 2014. In this paper, we describe a tool for designing a constellation of small satellites which demonstrates, through high-fidelity modeling based on simulated air traffic data, the value of space-based ADS-B monitoring and provides recommendations for cost-efficient deployment of a constellation of small satellites to increase safety and situational awareness in the currently poorly-served surveillance area of Alaska. Air traffic data has been obtained from the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET), developed at NASA Ames Research Center, simulated over the Alaskan airspace over a period of one day. The simulation is driven by MATLAB with satellites propagated and coverage calculated using AGI's Satellite ToolKit(STK10).

  11. Determination of global Earth outgoing radiation at high temporal resolution using a theoretical constellation of satellites (United States)

    Gristey, Jake J.; Chiu, J. Christine; Gurney, Robert J.; Han, Shin-Chan; Morcrette, Cyril J.


    New, viable, and sustainable observation strategies from a constellation of satellites have attracted great attention across many scientific communities. Yet the potential for monitoring global Earth outgoing radiation using such a strategy has not been explored. To evaluate the potential of such a constellation concept and to investigate the configuration requirement for measuring radiation at a time resolution sufficient to resolve the diurnal cycle for weather and climate studies, we have developed a new recovery method and conducted a series of simulation experiments. Using idealized wide field-of-view broadband radiometers as an example, we find that a baseline constellation of 36 satellites can monitor global Earth outgoing radiation reliably to a spatial resolution of 1000 km at an hourly time scale. The error in recovered daily global mean irradiance is 0.16 W m-2 and -0.13 W m-2, and the estimated uncertainty in recovered hourly global mean irradiance from this day is 0.45 W m-2 and 0.15 W m-2, in the shortwave and longwave spectral regions, respectively. Sensitivity tests show that addressing instrument-related issues that lead to systematic measurement error remains of central importance to achieving similar accuracies in reality. The presented error statistics therefore likely represent the lower bounds of what could currently be achieved with the constellation approach, but this study demonstrates the promise of an unprecedented sampling capability for better observing the Earth's radiation budget.

  12. Consumer Perceptions of Service Constellations : Implications for Service Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Riel, A.C.R.; Calabretta, G.; Driessen, P.H.; Hillebrand, B.; Humphreys, A.; Krafft, M.; Beckers, S.F.M.


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the service constellation perspective affects innovation strategies and potentially contributes to the innovation literature, proposing a research agenda. Design/methodology/approach - By analyzing the notion of a service constellation, the

  13. Signal Constellations for Multilevel Coded Modulation with Sparse Graph Codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronie, H.S.


    A method to combine error-correction coding and spectral efficient modulation for transmission over channels with Gaussian noise is presented. The method of modulation leads to a signal constellation in which the constellation symbols have a nonuniform distribution. This gives a so-called shape gain

  14. Navigation Constellation Design Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (United States)


    to validate their success. The FUEGO constellation is a constellation of small satellites that detect forest fires from LEO. The first algorithm... Urbana -Champaign, 2001. 26. N. Srinivas and K. Deb, "Multi-Objective Optimization Using Non-Dominating Sorting in Genetic Algorithms," Evolutionary

  15. Swarm: A constellation to study the Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Luhr, H.; Hulot, G.


    attitude), thereby measuring the East-West gradient of the magnetic field, and the third one flying at higher attitude (530 km). High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric...... and its effect on Geospace, the vast region around the Earth where electrodynamic processes are influenced by the Earth's magnetic field. Scheduled for launch in 2010, the mission will comprise a constellation of three satellites, with two spacecraft flying side-by-side at lower attitude (450 km initial......The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. The mission will provide the best ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution that will lead to new insights into the Earth system by improving our understanding of the Earth's interior...

  16. AFSC/FMA/Observer Logistics System (OLS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska groundfish fisheries observers have been monitoring domestic groundfish fishing activities in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off Alaska for over...

  17. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen


    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik


    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...

  19. Terra - the Earth Observing System flagship observatory (United States)

    Thome, K. J.


    The Terra platform enters its teenage years with an array of accomplishments but also with the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to build upon its array of accomplishments and make its data more valuable by creating a record length that allows examination of inter annual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to the define climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, 'How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?' Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National Objectives for agriculture, air quality, climate, disaster management, ecological forecasting, public health, water

  20. Pacific Islands Region Observer Program System (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This system integrates the longline debriefing steps and procedures for Hawaii and American Samoa into one tool to standardize and streamline the debriefing process....

  1. Efficiently learning timed system models from observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.


    This paper describes an efficient algorithm for learning a timed model from observations. The algorithm is based on the state merging method for learning a deterministic finite state automaton (DFA). This method and its problem have been the subject of many studies within the grammatical inference

  2. 75 FR 2163 - Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Constellation Energy; Notice of Docketing of Special Nuclear Material License SNM-2505 Amendment... June 15, 2009, from Constellation Energy (Constellation) to amend its Special Nuclear Material License...

  3. SLR tracking of GNSS constellations for improved future ITRF realizations (United States)

    Pavlis, Erricos C.; Koenig, Daniel; Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena

    The development of various future products for the Global Geodetic Observing System—GGOS, will rely heavily on the IAG Services that comprise GGOS, and the synergisms that can be built amongst them. The International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) is the first product that has been since long identified as the prime GGOS contribution by the organization itself, as well as the Services contributing to its development. The ITRF has been pledged to the international community as the GGOS contribution to the greater effort under the auspices of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). To meet the stringent requirements imposed by the user community, GGOS set strict goals for the accuracy and stability attributes of its products. The goal for the ITRF accuracy in the definition of the origin is 1 mm or better with a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, and similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. These goals are based on extensive deliberations within the Earth science community. None of the IAG positioning techniques can achieve this goal alone. In part this is due to the non-observability of certain TRF attributes from each technique. Another reason is the poor and deteriorating state of some of the tracking networks (ground segment) and in the case of SLR, a further limitation is the lack of suitable available targets (space segment). The poor distribution of the aging SLR tracking stations is now being addressed through an international effort to rebuilt the network (along with those of the other techniques) in a well-planned, optimized fashion that will address all of these concerns and ensure full support the GGOS requirements. As far as the rather small number of satellite targets in orbit that are useful for ITRF development, there are multiple in-progress approaches to address this also at the moment. A new cannonball target (LARES) was recently added to the existing two LAGEOS’ and efforts are being made to

  4. Analysis and design of Cubesat constellation for the Mediterranean south costal monitoring against illegal immigration (United States)

    Lazreg, Nissen; Ben Bahri, Omar; Besbes, Kamel


    Costal monitoring is focused on fast response to illegal immigration and illegal ship traffic. Especially, the illegal ship traffic has been present in media since April 2015, as the number of reported deaths of immigrants crossing the Mediterranean significantly increased. Satellite images provide a possibility to at least partially control both types of events. This paper defines the principal criteria to select the best satellite constellation architecture for maritime and coastal monitoring, filling the gaps of imagery techniques in term of real-time control. The primary purpose of a constellation is to obtain global measurement improving the temporal resolution. The small size and low-cost are the main factors, which make CubeSats ideal for use in constellations. We propose a constellation of 9 Cubesats distributed evenly in 3 different planes. This reduces the revisit time enhancing the coverage duration. In addition, it also allows observing fire, damage on building and similar disasters. In this analysis, the performance criteria were reported such as the revisit time, the vision duration and the area coverage.

  5. System of video observation for electron beam welding process (United States)

    Laptenok, V. D.; Seregin, Y. N.; Bocharov, A. N.; Murygin, A. V.; Tynchenko, V. S.


    Equipment of video observation system for electron beam welding process was developed. Construction of video observation system allows to reduce negative effects on video camera during the process of electron beam welding and get qualitative images of this process.

  6. SHIELD: Observations of Three Candidate Interacting Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvolo, Elizabeth; Miazzo, Masao; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; Adams, Elizabeth A.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Salzer, John Joseph; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Elson, Edward C.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Huang, Shan; Janowiecki, Steven; Jozsa, Gyula; Leisman, Luke; Ott, Juergen; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Rhode, Katherine L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Van Sistine, Angela; Warren, Steven R.

    Abstract:The “Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs” (SHIELD) is a multiwavelength study of local volume low-mass galaxies. Using the now-complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) source catalog, 82 systems are identified that meet distance, line width, and HI flux criteria for being gas-rich,

  7. Dedicated System for Observation of Polaris (United States)

    Gavin, Andrew


    Polaris, the North Star, has been known to be a Cepheid variable star for over 150 years (Seidel, 1852). Special interest has been given to Polaris’ variations because of its changing period and periods of cessation (D. Turner et al, 2005). The continuous monitoring of Polaris’ brightness provides us with insights on the behaviors of Cepheid variable stars that are undergoing transformations. Since its inception in 2004, the Polaris project has been somewhat of a white whale for PARI and the numerous interns that have worked on the project. The primary goal of this project is the production of a continuous light curve of Polaris through an automated system. Along with providing a continuous light curve of Polaris, this system will be able to produce an archive of data on the seeing conditions of the PARI site.

  8. Efficient mission control for the 48-satellite Globalstar Constellation (United States)

    Smith, Dan


    The Globalstar system is being developed by Globalstar, Limited Partnership and will utilize 48 satellites in low earth orbit (See Figure 1) to create a world-wide mobile communications system consistent with Vice President Gore's vision of a Global Information Infrastructure. As a large long term commercial system developed by a newly formed organization, Globalstar provides an excellent opportunity to explore innovative solutions for highly efficient satellite command and control. Design and operational concepts being developed are unencumbered by existing physical and organizational infrastructures. This program really is 'starting with a clean sheet of paper'. Globalstar operations challenges can appear enormous. Clearly, assigning even a single person around the clock to monitor and control each satellite is excessive for Globalstar (it would require a staff of 200] . Even with only a single contact per orbit per satellite, data acquisitions will start or stop every 45 seconds] Although essentially identical, over time the satellites will develop their own 'personalities'and will re quire different data calibrations and levels of support. This paper discusses the Globalstar system and challenges and presents engineering concepts, system design decisions, and operations concepts which address the combined needs and concerns of satellite, ground system, and operations teams. Lessons from past missions have been applied, organizational barriers broken, partnerships formed across the mission segments, and new operations concepts developed for satellite constellation management. Control center requirements were then developed from the operations concepts.

  9. Observing the carbon-climate system

    CERN Document Server

    Schimel, David; Moore, Berrien; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Baker, David; Berry, Joe; Bowman, Kevin; Crisp, Phillipe Ciais David; Crowell, Sean; Denning, Scott; Duren, Riley; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gierach, Michelle; Gurney, Kevin; Hibbard, Kathy; Houghton, Richard A; Huntzinger, Deborah; Hurtt, George; Jucks, Ken; Kawa, Randy; Koster, Randy; Koven, Charles; Luo, Yiqi; Masek, Jeff; McKinley, Galen; Miller, Charles; Miller, John; Moorcroft, Paul; Nassar, Ray; ODell, Chris; Ott, Leslie; Pawson, Steven; Puma, Michael; Quaife, Tristan; Riris, Haris; Romanou, Anastasia; Rousseaux, Cecile; Schuh, Andrew; Shevliakova, Elena; Tucker, Compton; Wang, Ying Ping; Williams, Christopher; Xiao, Xiangming; Yokota, Tatsuya


    Increases in atmospheric CO2 and CH4 result from a combination of forcing from anthropogenic emissions and Earth System feedbacks that reduce or amplify the effects of those emissions on atmospheric concentrations. Despite decades of research carbon-climate feedbacks remain poorly quantified. The impact of these uncertainties on future climate are of increasing concern, especially in the wake of recent climate negotiations. Emissions, long concentrated in the developed world, are now shifting to developing countries, where the emissions inventories have larger uncertainties. The fraction of anthropogenic CO2 remaining in the atmosphere has remained remarkably constant over the last 50 years. Will this change in the future as the climate evolves? Concentrations of CH4, the 2nd most important greenhouse gas, which had apparently stabilized, have recently resumed their increase, but the exact cause for this is unknown. While greenhouse gases affect the global atmosphere, their sources and sinks are remarkably he...

  10. Cell assemblies at multiple time scales with arbitrary lag constellations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russo, Eleonora; Durstewitz, Daniel


    .... Yet progress in this area is hampered by the lack of statistical tools that would enable to extract assemblies with arbitrary constellations of time lags, and at multiple temporal scales, partly due...

  11. On the Feasibility of Monitoring Carbon Monoxide in the Lower Troposphere from a Constellation of Northern Hemisphere Geostationary Satellites (PART 1) (United States)

    Barre, Jerome; Edwards, David; Worden, Helen; Da Silva, Arlindo; Lahoz, William


    By the end of the current decade, there are plans to deploy several geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite missions for atmospheric composition over North America, East Asia and Europe with additional missions proposed. Together, these present the possibility of a constellation of geostationary platforms to achieve continuous time-resolved high-density observations over continental domains for mapping pollutant sources and variability at diurnal and local scales. In this paper, we use a novel approach to sample a very high global resolution model (GEOS-5 at 7 km horizontal resolution) to produce a dataset of synthetic carbon monoxide pollution observations representative of those potentially obtainable from a GEO satellite constellation with predicted measurement sensitivities based on current remote sensing capabilities. Part 1 of this study focuses on the production of simulated synthetic measurements for air quality OSSEs (Observing System Simulation Experiments). We simulate carbon monoxide nadir retrievals using a technique that provides realistic measurements with very low computational cost. We discuss the sampling methodology: the projection of footprints and areas of regard for geostationary geometries over each of the North America, East Asia and Europe regions; the regression method to simulate measurement sensitivity; and the measurement error simulation. A detailed analysis of the simulated observation sensitivity is performed, and limitations of the method are discussed. We also describe impacts from clouds, showing that the efficiency of an instrument making atmospheric composition measurements on a geostationary platform is dependent on the dominant weather regime over a given region and the pixel size resolution. These results demonstrate the viability of the "instrument simulator" step for an OSSE to assess the performance of a constellation of geostationary satellites for air quality measurements.

  12. Design of meo constellations for galileo: towards a ''design to cost'' approach (United States)

    Abbondanza, S.; Zwolska, F.


    GALILEO aims at involving Europe in a new generation of satellite navigation services. In the context of the phase A of this programme, many system options are still widely open: detailed requirements, constraints and hypotheses are not yet fully stabilised. In order to design a satellite constellation satisfying civil aviation and other users needs in this early stage of the system definition, it is necessary not only to take into account classical performance aspects, such as accuracy and availability of accuracy, but also cost constraints. The paper describes the design and dimensioning method which has led ALCATEL to propose a set of MEO constellations in the frame of the GALILEO project for ESA. It especially places emphasis upon the sensitivity of the system design to numerous parameters as well as its sensitivity to performance requirements. Potential candidate constellations obviously need to meet given performance specifications which are determined by operational aspects such as: satellite reliability, maintenance strategy (spare in orbit, launch on schedule, launch on need), deployment strategy (launcher choice, etc.). The estimated cost of a potential solution is mainly derived from the number of satellites and the deployment/maintenance strategy, but it is representative of the whole life-cycle of the constellation. Furthermore, the exhibited solution shall be "as robust as" possible to requirement or assumption changes. So, it should be a baseline solution that could be easily updated in order to take into account small upgrades. This has led to the performance of some trend analyses to understand the actual influence of some constraints or requirements on the system design, and to see how initial requirements can be efficiently relaxed in order to obtain the maximum system cost diminution for a minimum constraint relaxation. This will be very useful, if cost reduction is necessary, to quickly propose alternative or sub-solutions to the baseline one.

  13. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    to utilize advanced solutions by observing the system state in real time. Existing distribution automation and control system have to be upgraded to meet this technological challenge. This necessitates the use of real time system states of the grid which is a crucial factor for system operation in higher...... for active distribution network which satisfies the need for higher observability reach with less field observation. Improved state estimation with composite load forecasting model is aimed for enhanced observability. This paper also summarizes the application of intelligent architecture in the operation...

  14. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) (United States)

    Behnke, Jeanne


    EOSDIS is a data system created by NASA to manage its collection of Earth Science data. This presentation is a brief description of the data system provided to the general user community. The presentation reviews the data types, management and software development techniques in use to organize the system.

  15. The interhemispheric and F region dynamo currents revisited with the Swarm constellation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luehr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Michaelis, Ingo


    Based on magnetic field data sampled by the Swarm satellite constellation it is possible for the first time to determine uniquely F region currents at low latitudes. Initial results are presented from the first 200days of formation flight (17 April to 5 November 2014). Detailed results have been...... morning and evening hours. Furthermore, we could confirm the existence of vertical currents above the dip equator, downward around noon and upward around sunset. For both current systems we present and discuss longitudinal variations....

  16. Efficient Estimation of the Impact of Observing Systems using EFSO (United States)

    Kalnay, E.; Chen, T. C.; Jung, J.; Hotta, D.


    Massive amounts of observations are being assimilated every day into modern Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. This makes difficult to estimate the impact of a new observing system with Observing System Experiments (OSEs) because there is already so much information provided by existing observations. In addition, the large volume of data also prevents monitoring the impact of each assimilated observation with OSEs. We demonstrate in this study how effectively the use of Ensemble Forecast Sensitivity to Observations (EFSO) can help to monitor and improve the impact of observations on the analyses and forecasts. In the first part, we show how to identify detrimental observations within each observing system using EFSO, which has been termed as Proactive Quality Control (PQC). The withdrawal of these detrimental observations leads to improved analyses and subsequent 5-day forecasts, which also serves as a verification of EFSO. We display the feasibility of PQC towards operational implementation. In the second part, it is found that in the estimated impact of MODIS polar winds, one of the contributors of detrimental observations, a positive u-component of the innovation, is associated with detrimental observations, whereas negative u-innovations are generally associated with beneficial impacts. Other biases associated with height, and other variables when the net impact is detrimental were also found. By contrast, such biases do not appear in systems using similar cloud drift wind algorithm, such as GOES satellite winds. The finding provides guidance towards improving the system and gives a clear example of efficient monitoring observations and testing new observing systems using EFSO. The potential of using EFSO to efficiently improve both observations and analyses is clearly shown in this study.

  17. A model of Earth’s magnetic field derived from 2 years of Swarm satellite constellation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    dependence for n=7–15, demonstrates the possibility to determine high-quality field models from only 2 years of Swarm data, thanks to the unique constellation aspect of Swarm. To account for the magnetic signature caused by ionospheric electric currents at polar latitudes we co-estimate, together......More than 2 years of magnetic field data taken by the three-satellite constellation mission Swarm are used to derive a model of Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation. This model is called SIFMplus. In addition to the magnetic field observations provided by each of the three Swarm satellites......, explicit advantage is taken of the constellation aspect of Swarm by including East–West magnetic intensity and vector field gradient information from the lower satellite pair. Along-track differences of the magnetic intensity as well as of the vector components provide further information concerning...

  18. George Marinesco in the Constellation of Modern Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Opris


    Full Text Available George Marinesco is the founder of Romanian School of Neurology and one of the most remarkable neuroscientists of the last century. He was the pupil of Jean-Martin Charcot in Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, France, but visited many other neurological centers where he met the entire constellation of neurologists of his time, including Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal. The last made the preface of Nervous Cell, written in French by Marinesco. The original title was “La Cellule Nerveuse” and is considered even now a basic reference book for specialists in the field. He was a refined clinical observer with an integrative approach, as could be seen from the multitude of his discoveries. The descriptions of the succulent hand in syringomyelia, senile plaque in old subjects, palmar jaw reflex known as Marinesco-Radovici sign, or the application of cinematography in medicine are some of his important contributions. He was the first who described changes of locus niger in a patient affected by tuberculosis, as a possible cause in Parkinson disease. Before modern genetics, Marinesco and Sjögren described a rare and complex syndrome bearing their names. He was a hardworking man, focused on his scientific research, did not accepted flattering of others and was a great fighter against the injustice of the time.

  19. Radiometric and geometric assessment of data from the RapidEye constellation of satellites (United States)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Haque, Md. Obaidul; Sampath, Aparajithan; Brunn, A.; Trosset, G.; Hoffmann, D.; Roloff, S.; Thiele, M.; Anderson, C.


    To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface using imagery acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. The RapidEye (RE) satellite constellation acquires high-resolution satellite images covering the entire globe within a very short period of time by sensors identical in construction and cross-calibrated to each other. To evaluate the RE high-resolution Multi-spectral Imager (MSI) sensor capabilities, a cross-comparison between the RE constellation of sensors was performed first using image statistics based on large common areas observed over pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) by the sensors and, second, by comparing the on-orbit radiometric calibration temporal trending over a large number of calibration sites. For any spectral band, the individual responses measured by the five satellites of the RE constellation were found to differ B2B) alignment of the image data sets. The position accuracy was assessed by comparing the RE imagery against high-resolution aerial imagery, while the B2B characterization was performed by registering each band against every other band to ensure that the proper band alignment is provided for an image product. The B2B results indicate that the internal alignments of these five RE bands are in agreement, with bands typically registered to within 0.25 pixels of each other or better.

  20. Enhanced Spatial & Temporal Sampling of Air/Sea Interaction with the NASA CYGNSS MicroSat Constellation (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Ridley, A. J.; O'Brien, A.; Johnson, J.; Yi, Y.


    The NASA Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) is a new spaceborne mission to address the deficiencies with current tropical cyclone (TC) intensity forecasts related to inadequate observations and modeling of the inner core. The inadequacy results from two causes: 1) much of the inner core ocean surface is obscured from conventional remote sensing instruments by intense precipitation in the eye wall and inner rain bands; and 2) the rapidly evolving (genesis and intensification) stages of the TC life cycle are poorly sampled by conventional polar-orbiting imagers. CYGNSS is specifically designed to address these two limitations by combining the all-weather performance of GNSS-R bistatic ocean surface scatterometry with the enhanced sampling properties of a constellation of satellites. CYGNSS will provide surface wind measurements of the TC inner core that could not previously be measured from space. Mission simulations predict a median(mean) revisit time of 2(5) hours. The CYGNSS wind fields, when combined with as-frequent precipitation fields (e.g. produced by the upcoming Global Precipitation Measurement mission), will resolve the evolution of both the precipitation and underlying wind fields throughout the TC life cycle. They will provide near simultaneous and continuous observations and enable new insights into TC inner core dynamics and energetics. The use of a dense constellation of GNSS-R microsats results in spatial and temporal sampling properties that are markedly different from previous wide swath polar imagers. In particular, revisit times in the tropics are characterized by a probability distribution rather than a single, deterministic number of hours. The asymmetric shape of the probability distribution results in median revisit times that are less than half that of the mean, and mean revisit times that are less than half that of current polar orbiting imagers. CYGNSS is currently in Phase B project development. In parallel with the

  1. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.


    Observed hyperbolic minor bodies might have an interstellar origin, but they can be natives of the Solar system as well. Fly-bys with the known planets or the Sun may result in the hyperbolic ejection of an originally bound minor body; in addition, members of the Oort cloud could be forced to follow inbound hyperbolic paths as a result of secular perturbations induced by the Galactic disc or, less frequently, due to impulsive interactions with passing stars. These four processes must leave distinctive signatures in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic objects, both in terms of coordinates and velocity. Here, we perform a systematic numerical exploration of the past orbital evolution of known hyperbolic minor bodies using a full N-body approach and statistical analyses to study their radiants. Our results confirm the theoretical expectations that strong anisotropies are present in the data. We also identify a statistically significant overdensity of high-speed radiants towards the constellation of Gemini that could be due to the closest and most recent known fly-by of a star to the Solar system, that of the so-called Scholz's star. In addition to and besides 1I/2017 U1 (`Oumuamua), we single out eight candidate interstellar comets based on their radiants' velocities.

  2. Integrated Arctic Observation System Development Under Horizon 2020 (United States)

    Sandven, S.


    The overall objective of INTAROS is to develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the in situ observing network. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism, fishing), in order to strengthen the societal and economic role of the Arctic region and support the EU strategy for the Arctic and related maritime and environmental policies.

  3. The Rorschach Suicide Constellation: assessing various degrees of lethality. (United States)

    Fowler, J C; Piers, C; Hilsenroth, M J; Holdwick, D J; Padawer, J R


    In this article we examine the relation between the Rorschach Comprehensive System's Suicide Constellation (S-CON; Exner, 1993; Exner & Wiley, 1977) and lethality of suicide attempts during the course of patients' hospitalization at the Austen Riggs Center (Stockbridge, MA). Patient records were rated as nonsuicidal (n = 37), parasuicidal (n = 37), or near-lethal (n = 30) based on the presence and lethality of self-destructive acts. Diagnostic efficiency statistics utilizing a cutoff score of 7 or more positive indicators successfully predicted which patients would engage in near-lethal suicidal activity relative to parasuicidal patients (overall correct classification rate [OCC] = .79), nonsuicidal inpatients (OCC = .79), and college students (OCC = .89). Although these predictions were influenced by relatively high base rates in the hospital population (14.5%), base rate estimates were calculated for other hypothetical populations revealing different prediction estimates that should be considered when judging the relative efficacy of the S-CON. Logistic regression analysis revealed that an S-CON score of 7 or more was the sole predictor of near-lethal suicide attempts among 9 psychiatric and demographic variables.

  4. Prehistory of Zodiac Dating: Three Strata of Upper Paleolithic Constellations (United States)

    Gurshtein, Alex A.

    A pattern of archaic proto-constellations is extracted from Aratus' "The Phaenomena" didactic poem list according to a size criterion elaborated earlier, and their symbolism is analyzed. As a result of this approach three celestial symbolical strata are discovered to be probably a reflection of the symbols for the Lower, the Middle and the Upper Worlds; the Under-World creatures have a water character, the Middle World ones are mostly anthropomorphic and flying beings are for the Upper World. The strata excerpted from Aratus' sky seems to be in agreement with the well-known Babylonian division into three god pathways for Ea (Enki), Anu and Enlil. There is a possibility of dating the pattern discovered because of precession's strong influence as far back as 16 thousand years, the result being supported by the comparison of different star group mean sizes. The archaic constellation pattern under consideration is a reasonable background of symbolical meanings for the first Zodiacal generation quartet (7.5 thousand years old) examined by the author previously. The enormous size of the Argo constellation (Ship of Argo and his Argonauts) as well as the large sizes of other southern constellations are explained as due to the existence of an accumulation zone near the South celestial pole. Some extra correlations between the reconstruction proposed and cultural data available are discussed. The paper is the second part of the investigation "On the Origin of the Zodiacal constellations" published in Vistas in Astronomy, vol.36, pp.171-190, 1993.

  5. Constellation Pharmacology: A new paradigm for drug discovery (United States)

    Schmidt, Eric W.; Olivera, Baldomero M.


    Constellation Pharmacology is a cell-based high-content phenotypic-screening platform that utilizes subtype-selective pharmacological agents to elucidate the cell-specific combinations (“constellations”) of key signaling proteins that define specific cell types. Heterogeneous populations of native cells, in which the different individual cell types have been identified and characterized, are the foundation for this screening platform. Constellation Pharmacology is useful for screening small molecules or for deconvoluting complex mixtures of biologically-active natural products. This platform has been used to purify natural products and discover their molecular mechanisms. In the on-going development of Constellation Pharmacology, there is a positive-feedback loop between the pharmacological characterization of cell types and screening for new drug candidates. As Constellation Pharmacology is used to discover compounds with novel targeting-selectivity profiles, those new compounds then further help to elucidate the constellations of specific cell types, thereby increasing the content of this high-content platform. PMID:25562646

  6. Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X (United States)

    Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier


    Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

  7. Observing System Simulation Experiments for Fun and Profit (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.


    Observing System Simulation Experiments can be powerful tools for evaluating and exploring both the behavior of data assimilation systems and the potential impacts of future observing systems. With great power comes great responsibility - given a pure modeling framework, how can we be sure our results are meaningful? The challenges and pitfalls of OSSE calibration and validation will be addressed, as well as issues of incestuousness, selection of appropriate metrics, and experiment design. The use of idealized observational networks to investigate theoretical ideas in a fully complex modeling framework will also be discussed

  8. Using constellation pharmacology to define comprehensively a somatosensory neuronal subclass. (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Memon, Tosifa; Aman, Joseph W; Olivera, Baldomero M


    Change is intrinsic to nervous systems; change is required for learning and conditioning and occurs with disease progression, normal development, and aging. To better understand mammalian nervous systems and effectively treat nervous-system disorders, it is essential to track changes in relevant individual neurons. A critical challenge is to identify and characterize the specific cell types involved and the molecular-level changes that occur in each. Using an experimental strategy called constellation pharmacology, we demonstrate that we can define a specific somatosensory neuronal subclass, cold thermosensors, across different species and track changes in these neurons as a function of development. Cold thermosensors are uniformly responsive to menthol and innocuous cool temperature (17 °C), indicating that they express TRPM8 channels. A subset of cold thermosensors expressed α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) but not other nAChR subtypes. Differences in temperature threshold of cold thermosensors correlated with functional expression of voltage-gated K channels Kv1.1/1.2: Relatively higher expression of KV1.1/1.2 channels resulted in a higher threshold response to cold temperature. Other signaling components varied during development and between species. In cold thermosensors of neonatal mice and rats, ATP receptors were functionally expressed, but the expression disappeared with development. This developmental change occurred earlier in low-threshold than high-threshold cold thermosensors. Most rat cold thermosensors expressed TRPA1 channels, whereas mouse cold thermosensors did not. The broad implications of this study are that it is now feasible to track changes in receptor and ion-channel expression in individual neuronal subclasses as a function of development, learning, disease, or aging.

  9. Virtual Estimator for Piecewise Linear Systems Based on Observability Analysis (United States)

    Morales-Morales, Cornelio; Adam-Medina, Manuel; Cervantes, Ilse; Vela-Valdés and, Luis G.; García Beltrán, Carlos Daniel


    This article proposes a virtual sensor for piecewise linear systems based on observability analysis that is in function of a commutation law related with the system's outpu. This virtual sensor is also known as a state estimator. Besides, it presents a detector of active mode when the commutation sequences of each linear subsystem are arbitrary and unknown. For the previous, this article proposes a set of virtual estimators that discern the commutation paths of the system and allow estimating their output. In this work a methodology in order to test the observability for piecewise linear systems with discrete time is proposed. An academic example is presented to show the obtained results. PMID:23447007

  10. Intelligent Architecture for Enhanced Observability for Active Distribution System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Nainar, Karthikeyan; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    to utilize advanced solutions by observing the system state in real time. Existing distribution automation and control system have to be upgraded to meet this technological challenge. This necessitates the use of real time system states of the grid which is a crucial factor for system operation in higher...... accuracy. Therefore, in this paper observability scope and evaluation methodology for the future active distribution network with high penetration of renewable resources and flexible loads are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the state of the art a high level architecture has been formulated and presented...

  11. Observing Solar System Objects with the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Sonneborn, George; Issacs, J.; Balzano, V.; Nelan, E.P.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Hammel, H.


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will have the capability to observe Solar System objects having apparent rates of motion up to 30 milliarcseconds/sec. The key science drivers are the study of Kuiper Belt Objects, asteroids, comets, and the outer planets and their moons at near and mid-infrared wavelengths. This poster presents the results from a recent study that defined the conceptual design for a capability for JWST to track and observe moving targets. We illustrate about how guide star acquisition and tracking wi11 be handled while retaining the efficient and flexible execution characteristics of JWST event-driven operations. We also show how the JWST pointing control system can readily support moving target observations. The characteristics of Solar System objects that can be observed by JWST are summarized along with descriptions of the major aspects of moving target science observation planning and on-board event-driven execution.

  12. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data, 2004-2011 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  13. Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system. (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Tessier, Damien; Tzioumakis, Yannis; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul; Sarrazin, Philippe; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Duda, Joan L


    This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda's [2013] conceptualization of "empowering" and "disempowering" climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes' reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.

  14. Deep information from limited observation of robust yet fragile systems (United States)

    LaViolette, Randall A.; Glass, Kristin; Colbaugh, Richard


    We show how one can completely reconstruct even moderately optimized configurations of the Forest Fire model with relatively few observations. We discuss the relationship between the deep information from limited observations (DILO) to the robust-yet-fragile (RYF) property of the Forest Fire model and propose that DILO may be a general property of RYF complex systems.

  15. Promoting discovery and access to real time observations produced by regional coastal ocean observing systems (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Snowden, D. P.; Bochenek, R.; Bickel, A.


    In the U.S. coastal waters, a network of eleven regional coastal ocean observing systems support real-time coastal and ocean observing. The platforms supported and variables acquired are diverse, ranging from current sensing high frequency (HF) radar to autonomous gliders. The system incorporates data produced by other networks and experimental systems, further increasing the breadth of the collection. Strategies promoted by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) ensure these data are not lost at sea. Every data set deserves a description. ISO and FGDC compliant metadata enables catalog interoperability and record-sharing. Extensive use of netCDF with the Climate and Forecast convention (identifying both metadata and a structured format) is shown to be a powerful strategy to promote discovery, interoperability, and re-use of the data. To integrate specialized data which are often obscure, quality control protocols are being developed to homogenize the QC and make these data more integrate-able. Data Assembly Centers have been established to integrate some specialized streams including gliders, animal telemetry, and HF radar. Subsets of data that are ingested into the National Data Buoy Center are also routed to the Global Telecommunications System (GTS) of the World Meteorological Organization to assure wide international distribution. From the GTS, data are assimilated into now-cast and forecast models, fed to other observing systems, and used to support observation-based decision making such as forecasts, warnings, and alerts. For a few years apps were a popular way to deliver these real-time data streams to phones and tablets. Responsive and adaptive web sites are an emerging flexible strategy to provide access to the regional coastal ocean observations.

  16. Fault Diagnosis in Dynamic Systems Using Fuzzy Interacting Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kolesov


    Full Text Available A method of fault diagnosis in dynamic systems based on a fuzzy approach is proposed. The new method possesses two basic specific features which distinguish it from the other known fuzzy methods based on the application of fuzzy logic and a bank of state observers. First, this method uses a bank of interacting observers instead of traditional independent observers. The second specific feature of the proposed method is the assumption that there is no strict boundary between the serviceable and disabled technical states of the system, which makes it possible to specify a decision making rule for fault diagnosis.

  17. Observation of action and autonomic nervous system responses. (United States)

    Bolliet, Olivier; Collet, Christian; Dittmar, André


    Observing somebody performing an action has been shown to elicit neuronal activity in the premotor cortex. This paper investigated physiological effect of observing an effortful action at the peripheral level. As Autonomic Nervous System responses reflect central nervous system processes such as movement planning and programming, it was expected that observing an action would elicit a pattern of ANS responses matching those recorded during actual movement. 12 male subjects, ages 23 to 28 years (M = 25.5, SD = 1.9), were selected as they were experienced in weight lifting. They were asked to observe a squat movement followed by returning to the upright position under 3 different conditions: (i) observation of actual movement performed by somebody else, (ii) observation of a video of the subject himself (first-person video), and (iii) observation of a video of somebody else performing the same movement (third-person video). Moreover, each movement was observed when performed at 50% and 90% of each participant's personal best mark (% of the highest weight which could be lifted). Three ANS parameters were continuously recorded: skin resistance, temperature and heart rate. ANS responses varied as a function of movement intensity: autonomic responses recorded during movement observation at 90% were significantly higher and longer than those recorded during movement observation at 50%. Thus, autonomic responses were linked to the amount of observed effort. Conversely, no difference was found among the three conditions of observation. ANS responses from observation of actual movement were shown to resemble those recorded under the two conditions of video observation.

  18. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.


    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  19. Observing Solar System Targets with the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre


    With its anticipated launch date in October 2018, the James Webb Space Telescope will tremendously advance astronomy in the near- and mid-infrared, offering sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. We have developed a white paper that explores observations of Solar System targets with JWST, with the goals of highlighting anticipated Solar System capabilities, motivation of potential observers, and encouragement of further interest and discussion. This paper presents the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. It also illustrates example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System objects, including the giant planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Europa, Titan, and more. We are also collaborating with a set of focus groups that have expanded upon this work, producing a series of further white papers dealing with individual subdisciplines. This work has been supported by NASA Grant NAG5-12457.

  20. Weather Observation Systems and Efficiency of Fighting Forest Fires (United States)

    Khabarov, N.; Moltchanova, E.; Obersteiner, M.


    Weather observation is an essential component of modern forest fire management systems. Satellite and in-situ based weather observation systems might help to reduce forest loss, human casualties and destruction of economic capital. In this paper, we develop and apply a methodology to assess the benefits of various weather observation systems on reductions of burned area due to early fire detection. In particular, we consider a model where the air patrolling schedule is determined by a fire hazard index. The index is computed from gridded daily weather data for the area covering parts Spain and Portugal. We conduct a number of simulation experiments. First, the resolution of the original data set is artificially reduced. The reduction of the total forest burned area associated with air patrolling based on a finer weather grid indicates the benefit of using higher spatially resolved weather observations. Second, we consider a stochastic model to simulate forest fires and explore the sensitivity of the model with respect to the quality of input data. The analysis of combination of satellite and ground monitoring reveals potential cost saving due to a "system of systems effect" and substantial reduction in burned area. Finally, we estimate the marginal improvement schedule for loss of life and economic capital as a function of the improved fire observing system.

  1. Video Games, Identity, and the Constellation of Information (United States)

    Martin, Crystle


    This article explores the identity of youth in relation to the information sources they choose in the constellation of information of video games, using the massively multiplayer online game "World of Warcraft" as an example. From this study, several identities are recognized that are combinations of the participants skill and level in the game,…

  2. Human Activity Recognition Using Hierarchically-Mined Feature Constellations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulos, A.; Pantic, Maja

    In this paper we address the problem of human activity modelling and recognition by means of a hierarchical representation of mined dense spatiotemporal features. At each level of the hierarchy, the proposed method selects feature constellations that are increasingly discriminative and

  3. Optimal design of the satellite constellation arrangement reconfiguration process (United States)

    Fakoor, Mahdi; Bakhtiari, Majid; Soleymani, Mahshid


    In this article, a novel approach is introduced for the satellite constellation reconfiguration based on Lambert's theorem. Some critical problems are raised in reconfiguration phase, such as overall fuel cost minimization, collision avoidance between the satellites on the final orbital pattern, and necessary maneuvers for the satellites in order to be deployed in the desired position on the target constellation. To implement the reconfiguration phase of the satellite constellation arrangement at minimal cost, the hybrid Invasive Weed Optimization/Particle Swarm Optimization (IWO/PSO) algorithm is used to design sub-optimal transfer orbits for the satellites existing in the constellation. Also, the dynamic model of the problem will be modeled in such a way that, optimal assignment of the satellites to the initial and target orbits and optimal orbital transfer are combined in one step. Finally, we claim that our presented idea i.e. coupled non-simultaneous flight of satellites from the initial orbital pattern will lead to minimal cost. The obtained results show that by employing the presented method, the cost of reconfiguration process is reduced obviously.

  4. Pattern recognition of star constellations for spacecraft applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian


    knowledge of the satellite orientation and a high-accuracy attitude determination based on prediction and averaging of several identified star constellations. In the high-accuracy mode the star image aims at an accuracy better than 2 arc sec with a processing time of less than a few seconds. The star imager...

  5. Consumer perceptions of service constellations: implications for service innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riel, A.C.R. van; Calabretta, G.; Driessen, P.H.; Hillebrand, B.; Humphreys, A.; Krafft, M.; Beckers, S.F.M.


    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how the service constellation perspective affects innovation strategies and potentially contributes to the innovation literature, proposing a research agenda. - Design/methodology/approach – By analyzing the notion of a service

  6. Pattern recognition of star constellations for spacecraft applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebe, Carl Christian


    knowledge of the satellite orientation and a high-accuracy attitude determination based on prediction and averaging of several identified star constellations. In the high accuracy mode the star imager aims at an accuracy better than 2 arc sec with a processing time of less than a few seconds. The star...

  7. The new aesthetic and art : constellations of the postdigital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras-Koterbay, Scott; Mirocha, Łukas; Rasch, M.D.; Roestenburg, N.C.H.F.


    The New Aesthetic and Art: Constellations of the Postdigital is an interdisciplinary analysis focusing on new digital phenomena at the intersections of theory and contemporary art. Asserting the unique character of New Aesthetic objects, Contreras-Koterbay and Mirocha trace the origins of the New

  8. EOS Terra Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update (United States)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios


    This EOS Terra Constellation Exit/Future Maneuver Plans Update presentation will discuss brief history of Terra EOM work; lifetime fuel estimates; baseline vs. proposed plan origin; resultant exit orbit; baseline vs. proposed exit plan; long term orbit altitude; revised lifetime proposal and fallback options.

  9. CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System): Automating animal observation and training. (United States)

    Oh, Jinook; Fitch, W Tecumseh


    In animal behavioral biology, an automated observing/training system may be useful for several reasons: (a) continuous observation of animals for documentation of specific, irregular events, (b) long-term intensive training of animals in preparation for behavioral experiments, (c) elimination of potential cues and biases induced by humans during training and testing. Here, we describe an open-source-based system named CATOS (Computer Aided Training/Observing System) developed for such situations. There are several notable features in this system. CATOS is flexible and low cost because it is based on free open-source software libraries, common hardware parts, and open-system electronics based on Arduino. Automated video condensation is applied, leading to significantly reduced video data storage compared to the total active hours of the system. A data-viewing utility program helps a user browse recorded data quickly and more efficiently. With these features, CATOS has the potential to be applied to many different animal species in various environments such as laboratories, zoos, or even private homes. Also, an animal's free access to the device without constraint, and a gamified learning process, enhance the animal's welfare and enriches their environment. As a proof of concept, the system was built and tested with two different species. Initially, the system was tested for approximately 10 months with a domesticated cat. The cat was successfully and fully automatically trained to discriminate three different spoken words. Then, in order to test the system's adaptability to other species and hardware components, we used it to train a laboratory rat for 3 weeks.

  10. Characterization of two neuronal subclasses through constellation pharmacology. (United States)

    Teichert, Russell W; Raghuraman, Shrinivasan; Memon, Tosifa; Cox, Jeffrey L; Foulkes, Tucker; Rivier, Jean E; Olivera, Baldomero M


    Different types of neurons diverge in function because they express their own unique set or constellation of signaling molecules, including receptors and ion channels that work in concert. We describe an approach to identify functionally divergent neurons within a large, heterogeneous neuronal population while simultaneously investigating specific isoforms of signaling molecules expressed in each. In this study we characterized two subclasses of menthol-sensitive neurons from cultures of dissociated mouse dorsal-root ganglia. Although these neurons represent a small fraction of the dorsal-root ganglia neuronal population, we were able to identify them and investigate the cell-specific constellations of ion channels and receptors functionally expressed in each subclass, using a panel of selective pharmacological tools. Differences were found in the functional expression of ATP receptors, TRPA1 channels, voltage-gated calcium-, potassium-, and sodium channels, and responses to physiologically relevant cold temperatures. Furthermore, the cell-specific responses to various stimuli could be altered through pharmacological interventions targeted to the cell-specific constellation of ion channels expressed in each menthol-sensitive subclass. In fact, the normal responses to cold temperature could be reversed in the two neuronal subclasses by the coapplication of the appropriate combination of pharmacological agents. This result suggests that the functionally integrated constellation of signaling molecules in a particular type of cell is a more appropriate target for effective pharmacological intervention than a single signaling molecule. This shift from molecular to cellular targets has important implications for basic research and drug discovery. We refer to this paradigm as "constellation pharmacology."

  11. Demonstrating the Alaska Ocean Observing System in Prince William Sound (United States)

    Schoch, G. Carl; McCammon, Molly


    The Alaska Ocean Observing System and the Oil Spill Recovery Institute developed a demonstration project over a 5 year period in Prince William Sound. The primary goal was to develop a quasi-operational system that delivers weather and ocean information in near real time to diverse user communities. This observing system now consists of atmospheric and oceanic sensors, and a new generation of computer models to numerically simulate and forecast weather, waves, and ocean circulation. A state of the art data management system provides access to these products from one internet portal at The project culminated in a 2009 field experiment that evaluated the observing system and performance of the model forecasts. Observations from terrestrial weather stations and weather buoys validated atmospheric circulation forecasts. Observations from wave gages on weather buoys validated forecasts of significant wave heights and periods. There was an emphasis on validation of surface currents forecasted by the ocean circulation model for oil spill response and search and rescue applications. During the 18 day field experiment a radar array mapped surface currents and drifting buoys were deployed. Hydrographic profiles at fixed stations, and by autonomous vehicles along transects, were made to acquire measurements through the water column. Terrestrial weather stations were the most reliable and least costly to operate, and in situ ocean sensors were more costly and considerably less reliable. The radar surface current mappers were the least reliable and most costly but provided the assimilation and validation data that most improved ocean circulation forecasts. We describe the setting of Prince William Sound and the various observational platforms and forecast models of the observing system, and discuss recommendations for future development.

  12. Observer-based Fault Detection and Isolation for Nonlinear Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lootsma, T.F.

    systems. It consists of four different contributions. First, it presents a review of the idea and the theory behind the geometric approach for FDI. Starting from the original solution for linear systems up to the latest results for input-affine systems the theory and solutions are described....... Then the geometric approach is applied to a nonlinear ship propulsion system benchmark. The calculations and application results are presented in detail to give an illustrative example. The obtained subsystems are considered for the design of nonlinear observers in order to obtain FDI. Additionally, an adaptive...... for the observers designed for the ship propulsion system. Furthermore, it stresses the importance of the time-variant character of the linearization along a trajectory. It leads to a different stability analysis than for linearization at one operation point. Finally, the preliminary concept of (actuator) fault...

  13. Status of the NASA GMAO Observing System Simulation Experiment (United States)

    Prive, Nikki C.; Errico, Ronald M.


    An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is a pure modeling study used when actual observations are too expensive or difficult to obtain. OSSEs are valuable tools for determining the potential impact of new observing systems on numerical weather forecasts and for evaluation of data assimilation systems (DAS). An OSSE has been developed at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO, Errico et al 2013). The GMAO OSSE uses a 13-month integration of the European Centre for Medium- Range Weather Forecasts 2005 operational model at T511/L91 resolution for the Nature Run (NR). Synthetic observations have been updated so that they are based on real observations during the summer of 2013. The emulated observation types include AMSU-A, MHS, IASI, AIRS, and HIRS4 radiance data, GPS-RO, and conventional types including aircraft, rawinsonde, profiler, surface, and satellite winds. The synthetic satellite wind observations are colocated with the NR cloud fields, and the rawinsondes are advected during ascent using the NR wind fields. Data counts for the synthetic observations are matched as closely as possible to real data counts, as shown in Figure 2. Errors are added to the synthetic observations to emulate representativeness and instrument errors. The synthetic errors are calibrated so that the statistics of observation innovation and analysis increments in the OSSE are similar to the same statistics for assimilation of real observations, in an iterative method described by Errico et al (2013). The standard deviations of observation minus forecast (xo-H(xb)) are compared for the OSSE and real data in Figure 3. The synthetic errors include both random, uncorrelated errors, and an additional correlated error component for some observational types. Vertically correlated errors are included for conventional sounding data and GPS-RO, and channel correlated errors are introduced to AIRS and IASI (Figure 4). HIRS, AMSU-A, and MHS have a component of horizontally

  14. 75 FR 53688 - Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... (United States)


    ...-000] Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Constellation Mystic Power, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  15. Predicting the future completing models of observed complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Abarbanel, Henry


    Predicting the Future: Completing Models of Observed Complex Systems provides a general framework for the discussion of model building and validation across a broad spectrum of disciplines. This is accomplished through the development of an exact path integral for use in transferring information from observations to a model of the observed system. Through many illustrative examples drawn from models in neuroscience, fluid dynamics, geosciences, and nonlinear electrical circuits, the concepts are exemplified in detail. Practical numerical methods for approximate evaluations of the path integral are explored, and their use in designing experiments and determining a model's consistency with observations is investigated. Using highly instructive examples, the problems of data assimilation and the means to treat them are clearly illustrated. This book will be useful for students and practitioners of physics, neuroscience, regulatory networks, meteorology and climate science, network dynamics, fluid dynamics, and o...

  16. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and metrological support for measuring radiometric properties of objects of observations (United States)

    Krutikov, V. N.; Sapritsky, V. I.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Morozova, S. P.; Ogarev, S. A.; Panfilov, A. S.; Sakharov, M. K.; Samoylov, M. L.; Bingham, G.; Humpherys, T.; Thurgood, A.; Privalsky, V. E.


    The international Global Earth Observation System of Systems is at its initial stage. We present some general information about the program and formulate the task of ensuring the uniformity of radiometric measurements to be conducted by all the participating national systems. Methods of solving the task are suggested on the basis of the wide application of standard sources that use phase transition of eutectic alloys and pure metals as well as with the help of improved ground calibration facilities.

  17. Development of KIAPS Observation Processing Package for Data Assimilation System (United States)

    Kang, Jeon-Ho; Chun, Hyoung-Wook; Lee, Sihye; Han, Hyun-Jun; Ha, Su-Jin


    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) was founded in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) to develop Korea's own global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system as nine year (2011-2019) project. Data assimilation team at KIAPS has been developing the observation processing system (KIAPS Package for Observation Processing: KPOP) to provide optimal observations to the data assimilation system for the KIAPS Global Model (KIAPS Integrated Model - Spectral Element method based on HOMME: KIM-SH). Currently, the KPOP is capable of processing the satellite radiance data (AMSU-A, IASI), GPS Radio Occultation (GPS-RO), AIRCRAFT (AMDAR, AIREP, and etc…), and synoptic observation (SONDE and SURFACE). KPOP adopted Radiative Transfer for TOVS version 10 (RTTOV_v10) to get brightness temperature (TB) for each channel at top of the atmosphere (TOA), and Radio Occultation Processing Package (ROPP) 1-dimensional forward module to get bending angle (BA) at each tangent point. The observation data are obtained from the KMA which has been composited with BUFR format to be converted with ODB that are used for operational data assimilation and monitoring at the KMA. The Unified Model (UM), Community Atmosphere - Spectral Element (CAM-SE) and KIM-SH model outputs are used for the bias correction (BC) and quality control (QC) of the observations, respectively. KPOP provides radiance and RO data for Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) and also provides SONDE, SURFACE and AIRCRAFT data for Three-Dimensional Variational Assimilation (3DVAR). We are expecting all of the observation type which processed in KPOP could be combined with both of the data assimilation method as soon as possible. The preliminary results from each observation type will be introduced with the current development status of the KPOP.

  18. Verifying Embedded Systems using Component-based Runtime Observers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Marian, Nicolae; Angelov, Christo K.

    Formal verification methods, such as exhaustive model checking, are often infeasible because of high computational complexity. Runtime observers (monitors) provide an alternative, light-weight verification method, which offers a non-exhaustive yet feasible approach to monitoring system behavior...... specified properties via simulation. The presented method has been experimentally validated in an industrial case study---a control system for a safety-critical medical ventilator unit....... against formally specified properties. This paper presents a component-based design method for runtime observers, which are configured from instances of prefabricated reusable components---Predicate Evaluator (PE) and Temporal Evaluator (TE). The PE computes atomic propositions for the TE; the latter...

  19. Mobile/Real-Time Seafloor Seismic Observation System (United States)

    Sugioka, H.; Kawaguchi, K.; Mikada, H.; Suyehiro, K.


    Since 1997, Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) started a project to develop submarine cable systems for building a series of geophysical observation network at active seismogenic zones around Japan. These cabled systems are very powerful tool for real-time and long-term geophysical observation. However, it has weakness in mobility compared to a land or a free-fall, pop-up ocean bottom observation systems. We developed an adaptable observation system with a concept to realize both mobile and real-time observations. This system consists of a Branch Multiplexer (B-MUX), a Joint Multiplexer (J-MUX), a fiber cable, a battery pack and a sensor package. The B-MUX branches the main optical-fiber line and allows to install J-MUX at the end of the branched line. The J-MUX is a hub for adaptable observatories, which can be accept up to 4 satellite stations extending up to 10 km distance away. All this setup can be done using a towed vehicle and ROV. No cable ship is required. First of all, a broadband seismometer (3-component Guralp CMG-1T system) was installed off Kushiro-Tokachi, Hokkaido, at a water depth of 2133 m, in July 2001. Real-time seismic data are being successfully acquired at 100 Hz sampling rate. The system has an advantage which the sensor control signals can be transmitted from the land station and are demultiplexed and distributed by the telemetry unit to the each interface through the B-MUX. The battery pack can operate the sensor system for 7.5 months. Several large teleseismic earthquake (M > 6.5) were recorded with high S/N. The prominent microseism peak at 0.2 Hz divides into long- and short-period quiet bands. The longer period band between 0.03 and 0.1 Hz provides a low-noise window for the detection of long-period body waves and higher mode Rayleigh waves propagated from the teleseismic earthquakes. Our mobile observation system provides an opportunity to extend existing seafloor observation network, and that any geo


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B.; Wahhaj, Z.; Dumas, C.; Marsset, M. [European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile); Beauvalet, L. [National Observatory, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Marchis, F.; Nielsen, E. L. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Vachier, F., E-mail: [Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides, Paris (France)


    We present the discovery of a new satellite of asteroid (130) Elektra—S/2014 (130) 1—in differential imaging and in integral field spectroscopy data over multiple epochs obtained with Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research/Very Large Telescope. This new (second) moonlet of Elektra is about 2 km across, on an eccentric orbit, and about 500 km away from the primary. For a comparative study, we also observed another triple asteroid system, (93) Minerva. For both systems, component-resolved reflectance spectra of the satellites and primary were obtained simultaneously. No significant spectral difference was observed between the satellites and the primary for either triple system. We find that the moonlets in both systems are more likely to have been created by sub-disruptive impacts as opposed to having been captured.

  1. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide


    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  2. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Exelon Generation Company, LLC...

  3. Ocean Observing using SMART subsea telecommunications cable systems (United States)

    Howe, B. M.


    Planning is underway to integrate ocean sensors into SMART subsea cable systems providing basin and ultimately global array coverage within the next decades (SMART: Scientific Monitoring And Reliable Telecommunications). SMART cables will: contribute to the understanding of ocean dynamics and climate; improve knowledge of earthquakes and forecasting of tsunamis; and complement and enhance existing satellite and in-situ observing systems. SMART cables will be a first order addition to the ocean observing system, with unique contributions, strengthening and complementing satellite and in situ systems. Cables spanning the ocean basins with repeaters every ~50 km will host sensors/mini-observatories, providing power and real-time communications. The current global infrastructure of commercial submarine telecommunications cable systems consists of 1 Gm of cable with ~20,000 repeaters (to boost optical signals); the overall system is refreshed and expanded on time scales of 10 - 20 years and individual systems have lifetimes in excess of 25 years. Initial instrumentation of the cables with bottom temperature, pressure and acceleration sensors will provide unique information for monitoring and studying climate change and for improved tsunami and earthquake warning. These systems will be a new highly reliable, long-lived component of the ocean observing system, complementing satellite, float and other in situ platforms and measurements. Several UN agencies, the International Telecommunication Union, the World Meteorological Organization, and the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have formed a Joint Task Force to move this concept to fruition (ITU/WMO/IOC JTF; A review of the overall planning effort and two NASA-funded workshops focusing on the ocean circulation and climate is presented. [Funding provided by NASA.

  4. Photoelectric Observations of the Close Eclipsing Binary System CW Cephei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Han


    Full Text Available Photoelectric observations of the close eclipsing binary system CW Cep, which is well known of its apsidal motion, were made on 20 nights during August and November in 1983 using two 61cm reflectors at the Sobaeksan Observing Station of Korean National Astronomical Observatory and Ilsan Observing Station of Yonsei University Observatory. Standardized new light curves in UBV system are presented with a total of 1,422 individual observations. For the corrections of regional and instrumental differences, same standard stars were observed at the two observatories. Four new times of minimum light were determined with the method of Kwee and van Woerden (1956. With all of the collected times of minima, apsidal motion of this system was checked, but the O-C values calculated by the light elements of Nha (1975 and S derhjelm (1976 did not coincide well with new times of minima. New light elements which satisfy most times of minima better, and are deduced the apsidal period derived by the new light elements turns out to be 43 years, somewhat longer than those of values previously known.

  5. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photometric observations of the over-contact binary ER ORI were performed during November 2007 and February to April 2008 with the 51 cm telescope of Biruni Observatory of Shiraz University in U, B and V filters (Johnson system) and an RCA 4509 photomultiplier. We used these data to obtain the light curves and ...

  6. INVIS : Integrated night vision surveillance and observation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Dijk, J.; Son, R. van


    We present the design and first field trial results of the all-day all-weather INVIS Integrated Night Vision surveillance and observation System. The INVIS augments a dynamic three-band false-color nightvision image with synthetic 3D imagery in a real-time display. The night vision sensor suite

  7. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barre, de la Suzanne; Maher, Patrick; Dawson, Jackie; Hillmer-Pegram, Kevin; Huijbens, Edward; Lamers, M.A.J.; Liggett, D.; Müller, D.; Pashkevich, A.; Stewart, Emma


    The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing

  8. Rational Observational Systems of Educational Accountability and Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Amrein-Beardsley


    Full Text Available There is something incalculable about teacher expertise and whether it can be observed, detected, quantified, and as per current educational policies, used as an accountability tool to hold America's public school teachers accountable for that which they do (or do not do well. In this commentary, authors (all of whom are former public school teachers argue that rubric-based teacher observational systems, developed to assess the extent to which teachers adapt and follow sets of rubric-based rules, might actually constrain teacher expertise. Moreover, authors frame their comments using the Dreyfus Model (1980, 1986 to illustrate how observational systems and the rational conceptions on which they are based might be stifling educational progress and reform.

  9. Emerging Methods and Systems for Observing Life in the Sea (United States)

    Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Simmons, S. E.


    There is a growing need for observations of life in the sea at time and space scales consistent with those made for physical and chemical parameters. International programs such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Marine Biodiversity Observation Networks (MBON) are making the case for expanded biological observations and working diligently to prioritize essential variables. Here we review past, present and emerging systems and methods for observing life in the sea from the perspective of maintaining continuous observations over long time periods. Methods that rely on ships with instrumentation and over-the-side sample collections will need to be supplemented and eventually replaced with those based from autonomous platforms. Ship-based optical and acoustic instruments are being reduced in size and power for deployment on moorings and autonomous vehicles. In parallel a new generation of low power, improved resolution sensors are being developed. Animal bio-logging is evolving with new, smaller and more sophisticated tags being developed. New genomic methods, capable of assessing multiple trophic levels from a single water sample, are emerging. Autonomous devices for genomic sample collection are being miniaturized and adapted to autonomous vehicles. The required processing schemes and methods for these emerging data collections are being developed in parallel with the instrumentation. An evolving challenge will be the integration of information from these disparate methods given that each provides their own unique view of life in the sea.

  10. Observation of thermal fluctuations in a superfluid optomechanical system (United States)

    Kashkanova, A. D.; Shkarin, A. B.; Brown, C. D.; Flowers-Jacobs, N. E.; Childress, L.; Hoch, S. W.; Hohmann, L.; Ott, K.; Garcia, S.; Reichel, J.; Harris, J. G. E.


    In cavity optomechanics the state of a mechanical element can be manipulated by interfacing it with light via radiation pressure, electrostriction, or related phenomena. The majority of mechanical elements employed in optomechanical systems to date are solid objects (membranes, nanowires, mirrors, etc); however fluids can also be used as a mechanical element. Compared to solids, fluids have an advantage: they readily achieve precise alignment with the optical cavity, as the fluid can conformally fill or coat the optical cavity. However, almost all optomechanical systems need to be cooled to sub-Kelvin temperatures in order for quantum effects to be observed. Liquid helium is the only fluid that doesn't solidify under its own pressure at these temperatures. Additionally, helium has almost no optical absorption, high thermal conductivity and very low acoustic loss at cryogenic temperatures. We have developed an optomechanical system in which the mechanical mode is a standing density wave in superfluid helium inside a 70 μm long Fabry-Perot cavity. The optical mode is also a mode of the same cavity. Thus, the system is completely self-aligned. In this system, we used electrostriction to drive the mechanical mode with light by modulating the optical intensity. We also observed the mode's undriven Brownian motion and from that extracted it mean phonon number. We measured phonon number as low as nac=11. The optomechanical effects of optical spring and optical damping were observed, and agreed well with the predictions of conventional optomechanical theory.

  11. Architecture of scalability file system for meteorological observation data storing (United States)

    Botygin, I. A.; Popov, V. N.; Tartakovsky, V. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.


    The approach allows to organize distributed storage of large amounts of diverse data in order to further their parallel processing in high performance cluster systems for problems of climatic processes analysis and forecasting. For different classes of data was used the practice of using meta descriptions - like formalism associated with certain categories of resources. Development of a metadata component was made based on an analysis of data of surface meteorological observations, atmosphere vertical sounding, atmosphere wind sounding, weather radar observing, observations from satellites and others. A common set of metadata components was formed for their general description. The structure and content of the main components of a generalized meta descriptions are presented in detail on the example of reporting meteorological observations from land and sea stations.

  12. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Observing the Atmosphere, Land, Oceans, and Ice from Space (United States)

    King, Michael D.


    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by whch scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. During this year, the last of the first series of EOS missions, Aura, was launched. Aura is designed exclusively to conduct research on the composition, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's upper and lower atmosphere, employing multiple instruments on a single spacecraft. Aura is the third in a series of major Earth observing satellites to study the environment and climate change and is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise. The first and second missions, Terra and Aqua, are designed to study the land, oceans, atmospheric constituents (aerosols, clouds, temperature, and water vapor), and the Earth's radiation budget. The other seven EOS spacecraft include satellites to study (i) land cover & land use change, (ii) solar irradiance and solar spectral variation, (iii) ice volume, (iv) ocean processes (vector wind and sea surface topography), and (v) vertical variations of clouds, water vapor, and aerosols up to and including the stratosphere. Aura's chemistry measurements will also follow up on measurements that began with NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite and continue the record of satellite ozone data collected from the TOMS missions. In this presentation I will describe how scientists are using EOS data to examine the health of the earth's atmosphere, including atmospheric chemistry, aerosol properties, and cloud properties, with a special look at the latest earth observing mission, Aura.

  13. Carbon Observations from Geostationary Earth Orbit as Part of an Integrated Observing System for Atmospheric Composition (United States)

    Edwards, D. P.


    This presentation describes proposed satellite carbon measurements from the CHRONOS mission. The primary goal of this experiment is to measure the atmospheric pollutants carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4) from geostationary orbit, with hourly observations of North America at high spatial resolution. CHRONOS observations would provide measurements not currently available or planned as part of a surface, suborbital and satellite integrated observing system for atmospheric composition over North America. Carbon monoxide is produced by combustion processes such as urban activity and wildfires, and serves as a proxy for other combustion pollutants that are not easily measured. Methane has diverse anthropogenic sources ranging from fossil fuel production, animal husbandry, agriculture and waste management. The impact of gas exploration in the Western States of the USA and oil extraction from the Canadian tar sands will be particular foci of the mission, as will the poorly-quantified natural CH4 emissions from wetlands and thawing permafrost. In addition to characterizing pollutant sources, improved understanding of the domestic CH4 budget is a priority for policy decisions related to short-lived climate forcers. A primary motivation for targeting CO is its value as a tracer of atmospheric pollution, and CHRONOS measurements will provide insight into local and long-range transport across the North American continent, as well as the processes governing the entrainment and venting of pollution in and out of the planetary boundary layer. As a result of significantly improved characterization of diurnal changes in atmospheric composition, CHRONOS observations will find direct societal applications for air quality regulation and forecasting. We present a quantification of this expected improvement in the prediction of near-surface concentrations when CHRONOS measurements are used in Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). If CHRONOS and the planned NASA Earth

  14. Impact of receiver and constellation on high rate GNSS phase rate measurements to monitor ionospheric irregularities (United States)

    Ghoddousi-Fard, Reza


    High rate (1 Hz) GPS and GLONASS phase rate measurements from the global Real Time International GNSS Service (RT-IGS) network are used to monitor ionospheric irregularities. In this paper, impact of different receiver types and satellite constellations on GNSS-derived indices are studied. Constellation dependent background phase noise is quantified at RT-IGS stations for different receiver categories. Improved sampling of the ionosphere is achieved using multiple constellations. Correlation of hourly mean values of dual constellation GNSS indices with hourly magnetic ranges at a co-located auroral magnetic observatory slightly increased compared to when single constellation is used.

  15. The Priangan Batik in the Constellation of Modern Aesthetics


    Yan Yan Sunarya; Biranul Anas


    A study of the aspect of identity in the aesthetic domain of Priangan Batik, from the old Priangan Batik to the present day Priangan Batik, in relation to the constellation change of its aesthetic elements. It considers various impacts of modernity, enriching batik through its ornaments, themes, colors, composition, techniques, and naming to the characteristics of each of the Priangan Batik production areas. Priangan Batik has also been influenced by other cultures. When its local know-how an...

  16. Constellation Program: Lessons Learned. Volume 1; Executive Summary (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer L. (Editor)


    This document (Volume I) provides an executive summary of the lessons learned from the Constellation Program. A companion Volume II provides more detailed analyses for those seeking further insight and information. In this volume, Section 1.0 introduces the approach in preparing and organizing the content to enable rapid assimilation of the lessons. Section 2.0 describes the contextual framework in which the Constellation Program was formulated and functioned that is necessary to understand most of the lessons. Context of a former program may seem irrelevant in the heady days of new program formulation. However, readers should take some time to understand the context. Many of the lessons would be different in a different context, so the reader should reflect on the similarities and differences in his or her current circumstances. Section 3.0 summarizes key findings developed from the significant lessons learned at the program level that appear in Section 4.0. Readers can use the key findings in Section 3.0 to peruse for particular topics, and will find more supporting detail and analyses in Section 4.0 in a topical format. Appendix A contains a white paper describing the Constellation Program formulation that may be of use to readers wanting more context or background information. The reader will no doubt recognize some very similar themes from previous lessons learned, blue-ribbon committee reviews, National Academy reviews, and advisory panel reviews for this and other large-scale human spaceflight programs; including Apollo, Space Shuttle, Shuttle/Mir, and the ISS. This could represent an inability to learn lessons from previous generations; however, it is more likely that similar challenges persist in the Agency structure and approach to program formulation, budget advocacy, and management. Perhaps the greatest value of these Constellation lessons learned can be found in viewing them in context with these previous efforts to guide and advise the Agency and its

  17. The Priangan Batik in the Constellation of Modern Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan Sunarya


    Full Text Available A study of the aspect of identity in the aesthetic domain of Priangan Batik, from the old Priangan Batik to the present day Priangan Batik, in relation to the constellation change of its aesthetic elements. It considers various impacts of modernity, enriching batik through its ornaments, themes, colors, composition, techniques, and naming to the characteristics of each of the Priangan Batik production areas. Priangan Batik has also been influenced by other cultures. When its local know-how and spirit are traced back in its various forms and dimensions, we can find a reflection of the aesthetic cultural identity of the Priangan community. It has experienced cultural transformation diachronically as well as synchronically, and at the same time adopted elements from various new cultures, including the modern paradigm as well as commercial culture. In the 20th century, batik activity developed in the following Priangan areas: Ciamis, Tasik, and Garut. The development of batik in these areas has expanded it to incorporate a number of values within the dimensions of meaning, principles, and goals. Also, it has been influenced by the heterogeneity Indonesian culture within the constellation of modern aesthetics.Keywords: constellation; modern aesthetics; Priangan Batik.

  18. Power constellations between Roma pupils and their teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Rožníčková


    Full Text Available The goal of this empirical study is to describe power constellations that are generated in interactions between Roma pupils and their teachers, and also to summarize the basic findings of this research and to point out some real situations that can occur during the teaching lessons. The first part of the thesis describes the differences in the social interaction of Roma pupils. The second part is focused on the authority of the teachers and also on using this authority during the lessons. The third part is focused on pupils‘ strategies that are created based on the requirements of teachers. The basic findings of the research are selected in the methodological section. The research survey revealed five power constellations, which are the subject of this empirical study. The empirical study suggests how teachers and pupils define and shape relationships. From the present paper, a lot of influences are involved in the formation of power constellation, ranging from the personality of the teachers, socializing in school, through family upbringing to cultural differences.

  19. Imaging sensor constellation for tomographic chemical cloud mapping. (United States)

    Cosofret, Bogdan R; Konno, Daisei; Faghfouri, Aram; Kindle, Harry S; Gittins, Christopher M; Finson, Michael L; Janov, Tracy E; Levreault, Mark J; Miyashiro, Rex K; Marinelli, William J


    A sensor constellation capable of determining the location and detailed concentration distribution of chemical warfare agent simulant clouds has been developed and demonstrated on government test ranges. The constellation is based on the use of standoff passive multispectral infrared imaging sensors to make column density measurements through the chemical cloud from two or more locations around its periphery. A computed tomography inversion method is employed to produce a 3D concentration profile of the cloud from the 2D line density measurements. We discuss the theoretical basis of the approach and present results of recent field experiments where controlled releases of chemical warfare agent simulants were simultaneously viewed by three chemical imaging sensors. Systematic investigations of the algorithm using synthetic data indicate that for complex functions, 3D reconstruction errors are less than 20% even in the case of a limited three-sensor measurement network. Field data results demonstrate the capability of the constellation to determine 3D concentration profiles that account for ~?86%? of the total known mass of material released.


    Ott, William; Rivas, Mauricio A; West, James


    Can Lyapunov exponents of infinite-dimensional dynamical systems be observed by projecting the dynamics into ℝ (N) using a 'typical' nonlinear projection map? We answer this question affirmatively by developing embedding theorems for compact invariant sets associated with C(1) maps on Hilbert spaces. Examples of such discrete-time dynamical systems include time-T maps and Poincaré return maps generated by the solution semigroups of evolution partial differential equations. We make every effort to place hypotheses on the projected dynamics rather than on the underlying infinite-dimensional dynamical system. In so doing, we adopt an empirical approach and formulate checkable conditions under which a Lyapunov exponent computed from experimental data will be a Lyapunov exponent of the infinite-dimensional dynamical system under study (provided the nonlinear projection map producing the data is typical in the sense of prevalence).

  1. The function of the earth observing system - Data information system Distributed Active Archive Centers (United States)

    Lapenta, C. C.


    The functionality of the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) which are significant elements of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is discussed. Each DAAC encompasses the information management system, the data archival and distribution system, and the product generation system. The EOSDIS DAACs are expected to improve the access to earth science data set needed for global change research.

  2. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  3. Autonomic nervous system correlates in movement observation and motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eCollet


    Full Text Available The purpose of the current article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature offering a better understanding on the autonomic nervous system (ANS correlates in motor imagery (MI and movement observation. These are two high brain functions involving sensori-motor coupling, mediated by memory systems. How observing or mentally rehearsing a movement affect ANS activity has not been extensively investigated. The links between cognitive functions and ANS responses are not so obvious. We first describe the organization of the ANS whose main purposes are controlling vital functions by maintaining the homeostasis of the organism and providing adaptive responses when changes occur either in the external or internal milieu. We will then review how scientific knowledge evolved, thus integrating recent findings related to ANS functioning, and show how these are linked to mental functions. In turn, we will describe how movement observation or MI may elicit physiological responses at the peripheral level of the autonomic effectors, thus eliciting autonomic correlates to cognitive activity. Key features of this paper are to draw a step-by step progression from the understanding of ANS physiology to its relationships with high mental processes such as movement observation or MI. We will further provide evidence that mental processes are co-programmed both at the somatic and autonomic levels of the central nervous system. We will thus detail how peripheral physiological responses may be analyzed to provide objective evidence that MI is actually performed. The main perspective is thus to consider that, during movement observation and MI, ANS activity is an objective witness of mental processes.

  4. Aerosol Observing System Surface Meteorology (AOSMET) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyrouac, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerosol Observing System (AOS) surface meteorology instrument is an ancillary sensor that provides temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction, and precipitation data relevant to the AOS. It consists of a Vaisala WXT520 Weather Transmitter mounted on top of the AOS aerosol inlet, at a height of approximately 10 meters.

  5. Climate Outreach Using Regional Coastal Ocean Observing System Portals (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Hernandez, D. L.; Wakely, A.; Bochenek, R. J.; Bickel, A.


    Coastal oceans are dynamic, changing environments affected by processes ranging from seconds to millennia. On the east and west coast of the U.S., regional observing systems have deployed and sustained a remarkable diverse array of observing tools and sensors. Data portals visualize and provide access to real-time sensor networks. Portals have emerged as an interactive tool for educators to help students explore and understand climate. Bringing data portals to outreach events, into classrooms, and onto tablets and smartphones enables educators to address topics and phenomena happening right now. For example at the 2015 Charleston Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) Festival, visitors navigated the SECOORA (Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing regional Association) data portal to view the real-time marine meteorological conditions off South Carolina. Map-based entry points provide an intuitive interface for most students, an array of time series and other visualizations depict many of the essential principles of climate science manifest in the coastal zone, and data down-load/ extract options provide access to the data and documentation for further inquiry by advanced users. Beyond the exposition of climate principles, the portal experience reveals remarkable technologies in action and shows how the observing system is enabled by the activity of many different partners.

  6. A Regional CO2 Observing System Simulation Experiment Using ASCENDS Observations and WRF-STILT Footprints (United States)

    Wang, James S.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Collatz, G. J.; Mountain, Marikate; Henderson, John; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Aschbrenner, Ryan; Zaccheo, T. Scott


    Knowledge of the spatiotemporal variations in emissions and uptake of CO2 is hampered by sparse measurements. The recent advent of satellite measurements of CO2 concentrations is increasing the density of measurements, and the future mission ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days and Seasons) will provide even greater coverage and precision. Lagrangian atmospheric transport models run backward in time can quantify surface influences ("footprints") of diverse measurement platforms and are particularly well suited for inverse estimation of regional surface CO2 fluxes at high resolution based on satellite observations. We utilize the STILT Lagrangian particle dispersion model, driven by WRF meteorological fields at 40-km resolution, in a Bayesian synthesis inversion approach to quantify the ability of ASCENDS column CO2 observations to constrain fluxes at high resolution. This study focuses on land-based biospheric fluxes, whose uncertainties are especially large, in a domain encompassing North America. We present results based on realistic input fields for 2007. Pseudo-observation random errors are estimated from backscatter and optical depth measured by the CALIPSO satellite. We estimate a priori flux uncertainties based on output from the CASA-GFED (v.3) biosphere model and make simple assumptions about spatial and temporal error correlations. WRF-STILT footprints are convolved with candidate vertical weighting functions for ASCENDS. We find that at a horizontal flux resolution of 1 degree x 1 degree, ASCENDS observations are potentially able to reduce average weekly flux uncertainties by 0-8% in July, and 0-0.5% in January (assuming an error of 0.5 ppm at the Railroad Valley reference site). Aggregated to coarser resolutions, e.g. 5 degrees x 5 degrees, the uncertainty reductions are larger and more similar to those estimated in previous satellite data observing system simulation experiments.

  7. Reading hypermedia narrative stars, 88 Constellations For Wittgenstein by David Clark. Analytical approach to Constellation 18 Cassiopeia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohelia Meza


    Full Text Available This article presents an approach to analyze hypermedia discourse elements found in Cassiopeia, one of the constellations that compose 88 Constellations for Wittgenstein (To Be Played with the Left Hand (2011 by artist David Clark. Even though there are many approaches to the subject of electronic literature, there are still many unexplored e-lit works waiting to be studied that undoubtedly will raise questions about the literariness of electronic literature. This article briefly outlines issues of representation, temporality, semiotics, interaction, and manipulation on this specific constellation of the aforementioned e-lit work. Specific new media literary theories (temporal possibilities in programmed texts; temporal levels for cybertexts with narrative content; pluricode couplings, lability of digital works have been applied to the selected corpus in order to examine the nuances and gradations of electronic textuality and literary reception. The analysis shows that the user’s manipulation and interaction with the e-lit work affect certain elements in the hypermedia narrative discourse so as to suggest new possibilities of temporal and semiotic interpretation.

  8. Small Satellite Constellations for LIDAR Monitoring Forest Ecosystems, Ice, and Global Change (United States)

    Paige, D. A.


    LIDAR is proving to be a powerful, quantitative tool for characterizing global change. The ability to acquire ranging information with centimeter accuracy at meter and sub-meter scales is revolutionizing diverse fields such as ecology, glaciology, geomorphology, climatology, agriculture, hydrology and geography. Applications for LIDAR data within the geosciences are growing more rapidly than the availability of high quality LIDAR data. Only a small fraction of the Earth has been surveyed by LIDAR, and existing LIDAR coverage is insufficient to fully assess and monitor the impacts of human activities on the global environment on interannual timescales. Recent advances in laser and detector technology, combined with the availability of low-cost, high performance small satellites will soon make it possible to deploy constellations of LIDAR satellites in low Earth orbit to provide continuous, global monitoring of forest ecosystems, ice volume and land use. The designs of these constellations will involve a large number of tradeoffs regarding the capabilities of the satellites versus their costs. Central to this effort is a thorough understanding of the measurement and coverage requirements of the LIDAR systems as they apply to diverse fields. For instance, monitoring ice sheets and glaciers requires very high absolute elevation accuracy, whereas monitoring forests requires rich laser return information to assess canopy structure and carbon sequestration potential. We have developed a design tool that allows for parametric estimation and optimization of satellite payload capacity and coverage, as well as the performance of multi-sensor single photon orbital LIDAR instruments. The tool has the ability to input existing high-resolution airborne LIDAR data and create simulated real-world orbital datasets that can be evaluated by a diverse range of anticipated user communities. Examples of the simulated datasets and coverage for low, medium and high cost satellite

  9. Identification of Postclassic Maya Constellations from the Venus Pages of the Dresden Codex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changbom Park


    Full Text Available Ancient Mayan civilization, flourished from 1200 B.C. to 1500 A.D., has left numerous hieroglyphic texts on astronomical observations and calendar. In particular, the Dresden Codex contains the most details of such ancient Mayan heritage. Page 24 and those from 46 to 50 of the Dresden Codex describe the Mayan Venus calendar along with the augural descriptions. We note that the calendar in Dresden Codex is Venus-solar calendar. Our work focuses on the possibility that the calendar was made to work in conjunction with the periodic appearance of constellations on the sky. By analyzing the descriptions in the Venus pages, we propose that the columns in each page describe the motion of Venus with respect to major constellations at dates corresponding to special events while the calendar dates increase horizontally in the synodic period of Venus. We present twenty Mayan constellations identified from the Venus pages assuming that the first date of page 46 is February 6, 1228. We also report our understanding of verb expressions about the relative movement of constellations and Venus.La civilización maya, que floreció del 1200 a.C. a 1500 d.C., dejó numerosos textos jeroglíficos sobre el calendario y observaciones astronómicos. El Códice de Dresde, en particular, contiene el más detallado de dichos antiguos legados mayas. Las páginas 24 y 46 a 50 de dicho códice describen el calendario de Venus con los augurios correspondientes. Nosotros hemos notado que éste es un calendario Venus-Solar, y nuestro trabajo se enfoca sobre la posibilidad de que estuviera hecho para trabajar en conjunción con la aparición de determinadas constelaciones en el cielo. Es a través del análisis y descripción de las páginas de Venus que proponemos que las columnas en cada página describen el movimiento de Venus respecto de constelaciones mayores, en fechas que corresponden a eventos especiales, mientras que las fechas calendáricas se incrementan

  10. Development of NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) (United States)

    Niamsuwan, N.; Tanelli, S.; Johnson, M. P.; Jacob, J. C.


    NASA Earth Observing System Simulator Suite (NEOS3) is a web-based integrated simulator for Earth remote sensing applications. Initially developed for atmospheric remote sensing instruments, NEOS3 is equipped with start-of-the-art modules to enable the realistic simulation of satellite observables. The main objective of the development is to provide an advanced, sophisticated, and user-friendly simulator package that can be used by both scientists for research-oriented applications and by system engineers for an instrument design purpose. This system is accessible via a web interface and capable of distributing computationally intensive tasks to remote servers such as those at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing (NAS) Division. Among other advanced models, the propagation models integrated in NEOS3 include DOMUS (DOppler MUltiple-Scattering simulator) and SHDOM (Spherical Harmonic Discrete Ordinate Method) for simulation of radars and radiometers, respectively. These two models enable 3D simulation of wave propagation through the atmosphere. The electromagnetic scattering properties of snow and cloud ice particles can be obtained from the Snowfake database (built upon a realistic snow growth model and the Discrete Dipole Approximation technique). Alternatively, different libraries of models can be selected for individual components of the simulation procedure. The presentation will cover an overview of 3 distinct perspectives of the NEOS3 system: capabilities, architecture and basic workflow. It will serve as an introduction for prospective users as well as contributors who desire to further enhance this simulator suite by providing an improved model.

  11. IMOS, an Integrated Marine Observing System for Australia (United States)

    Seuront, L.; Leterme, S. C.


    IMOS is a distributed set of equipment and data-information services which collectively contribute to meeting the needs of marine climate research in Australia. The observing system provides data in the open oceans around Australia out to a few thousand kilometres as well as the coastal oceans through 11 facilities (Argo Australia, Ships of Opportunity, Southern Ocean Time Series, Australian National Facility for Ocean Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Facility, Australian National Mooring Network, Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network, Australian Acoustic Tagging and Monitoring System, Facility for Automated Intelligent Monitoring of Marine Systems, eMarine Information Infrastructure and Satellite Remote Sensing) and 5 nodes (Blue Water, Great Barrier Reef Ocean Observing System, New South Wales IMOS, Southern Australia IMOS and Western Australia IMOS).The data are made available to researchers through the electronic Marine Information Infrastructure (eMII). Specifically, IMOS also incorporates a National Reference Station infrastructure (NRS) based on 9 stations in the coastal ocean around Australia. The NRS is (i) multi-disciplinary and integrated with the collection of over 60 marine parameters, (ii) modular, which allows for deployment with or without a surface signature, and (iii) versatilely based on regionally scaled logistics. After introducing the philosophy of IMOS and its implementation, the first results obtained through a suite of facilities will be illustrated across different nodes.

  12. MODIS - A global ocean facility for the Earth Observing System (United States)

    Barnes, W. L.


    A Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) is being planned as a NASA furnished facility for the Earth Observing System (Eos). This sensor will be the primary source of optical global ocean data for a ten-year period following the Eos launch in the mid-1990's. During this period, the MODIS will survey the Earth's surface continuously once every three days in over 100 spectral bands ranging from 0.4 to 14.2 micrometers at a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. The system is to be divided into two units, MODIS-T which consists of 64 visible and near-infrared channels and which is capable of tilting to avoid specular reflectance from the ocean surface, and MODIS-N with 31-40 spectral channels including ocean color, ocean temperature and atmospheric characterization bands. The total system is anticipated to be a powerful tool for studying global ocean productivity, dynamics and long-term trends.

  13. Review of the Constellation Level II Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Documents during Participation in the Constellation Level II SR&QA Forum (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Gentz, Steven J.; Beil, Robert J.; Minute, Stephen A.; Currie, Nancy J.; Scott, Steven S.; Thomas, Walter B., III; Smiles, Michael D.; Schafer, Charles F.; Null, Cynthia H.; hide


    At the request of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and the Constellation Program (CxP) Safety, Reliability; and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) Requirements Director, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) participated in the Cx SR&QA Requirements forum. The Requirements Forum was held June 24-26; 2008, at GRC's Plum Brook Facility. The forums purpose was to gather all stakeholders into a focused meeting to help complete the process of refining the CxP to refine its Level II SR&QA requirements or defining project-specific requirements tailoring. Element prime contractors had raised specific questions about the wording and intent of many requirements in areas they felt were driving costs without adding commensurate value. NESC was asked to provide an independent and thorough review of requirements that contractors believed were driving Program costs, by active participation in the forum. This document contains information from the forum.

  14. Survey of Constellation-Era LOX/Methane Development Activities and Future Development Needs (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin; Greene, Sandra Elam; Hurlbert, Eric A.


    NASA formed the Constellation Program in 2005 to achieve the objectives of maintaining American presence in low-Earth orbit, returning to the moon for purposes of establishing an outpost, and laying the foundation to explore Mars and beyond in the first half of the 21st century. The Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) was formulated to address the technology needs to address Constellation architecture decisions. The Propellants and Cryogenic Advanced Development (PCAD) project was tasked with risk mitigation of specific propulsion related technologies to support ETDP. Propulsion systems were identified as critical technologies owing to the high gear-ratio of lunar Mars landers Cryogenic propellants offer performance advantage over storables (NTOMMH) Mass savings translate to greater payload capacity In-situ production of propellant an attractive feature; methane and oxygen identified as possible Martian in-situ propellants New technologies were required to meet more difficult missions High performance LOX/LH2 deep throttle descent engines High performance LOX/LCH4 ascent main and reaction control system (RCS) engines The PCAD project sought to provide those technologies through Reliable ignition pulse RCS Fast start High efficiency engines Stable deep throttling.

  15. Tourism and Arctic Observation Systems: exploring the relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne de la Barre


    Full Text Available The Arctic is affected by global environmental change and also by diverse interests from many economic sectors and industries. Over the last decade, various actors have attempted to explore the options for setting up integrated and comprehensive trans-boundary systems for monitoring and observing these impacts. These Arctic Observation Systems (AOS contribute to the planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental change and responsible social and economic development in the Arctic. The aim of this article is to identify the two-way relationship between AOS and tourism. On the one hand, tourism activities account for diverse changes across a broad spectrum of impact fields. On the other hand, due to its multiple and diverse agents and far-reaching activities, tourism is also well-positioned to collect observational data and participate as an actor in monitoring activities. To accomplish our goals, we provide an inventory of tourism-embedded issues and concerns of interest to AOS from a range of destinations in the circumpolar Arctic region, including Alaska, Arctic Canada, Iceland, Svalbard, the mainland European Arctic and Russia. The article also draws comparisons with the situation in Antarctica. On the basis of a collective analysis provided by members of the International Polar Tourism Research Network from across the polar regions, we conclude that the potential role for tourism in the development and implementation of AOS is significant and has been overlooked.

  16. Observational Research on Star and Planetary System Formation (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.


    Institute scientists collaborate with a number of NASA Ames scientists on observational studies of star and planetary system formation to their mutual benefit. As part of this collaboration, SETI scientists have, from 1988 to the present: (1) contributed to the technical studies at NASA Ames of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), an infrared 2.5 meter telescope in a Boeing 747, which will replace the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), a 0.9 meter telescope in a Lockheed C-141. SOFIA will be an important facility for the future exploration of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and the origins of life, and as such will be an important future facility to SETI scientists; (2) worked with the Laboratory Astrophysics Group at Ames, carrying out laboratory studies of the spectroscopic properties of ices and pre-biotic organics, which could be formed in the interstellar or interplanetary media; (3) helped develop a photometric approach for determining the Frequency of Earth-Sized Inner Planets (FRESIP) around solar-like stars, a project (now called Kepler) which complements the current efforts of the SETI Institute to find evidence for extraterrestrial intelligence; and (4) carried out independent observational research, in particular research on the formation of stars and planetary systems using both ground-based telescopes as well as the KAO.

  17. Determination of System Dimensionality from Observing Near-Normal Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Razzaq


    Full Text Available This paper identifies a previously undiscovered behavior of uniformly distributed data points or vectors in high dimensional ellipsoidal models. Such models give near normal distributions for each of its dimensions. Converse of this may also be true; that is, for a normal-like distribution of an observed variable, it is possible that the distribution is a result of uniform distribution of data points in a high dimensional ellipsoidal model, to which the observed variable belongs. Given the currently held notion of normal distributions, this new behavior raises many interesting questions. This paper also attempts to answer some of those questions. We cover both volume based (filled and surface based (shell ellipsoidal models. The phenomenon is demonstrated using statistical as well as mathematical approaches. We also show that the dimensionality of the latent model, that is, the number of hidden variables in a system, can be calculated from the observed distribution. We call the new distribution “Tanazur” and show through experiments that it is at least observed in one real world scenario, that of the motion of particles in an ideal gas. We show that the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of particle speeds can be explained on the basis of Tanazur distributions.

  18. Further development of the EUMETNET Composite Observing System (EUCOS) (United States)

    Klink, S.; Dibbern, J.


    EUCOS, which stands for EUMETNET Composite Observing System, is a EUMETNET programme whose main objective is a central management of surface based operational observations on a European-wide scale serving the needs of regional scale NWP. EUMETNET is a consortium of currently 26 national meteorological services in Europe that provides a framework for different operational and developmental co-operative programmes between the services. The work content of the EUCOS Programme includes the management of the operational observing networks, through the E-AMDAR, E-ASAP, E-SURFMAR and E-WINPROF programmes. The coordination of NMSs owned territorial networks (e.g. radiosonde stations and synoptic stations), data quality monitoring, fault reporting and recovery, a studies programme for the evolution of the observing networks and liaison with other organisations like WMO are among the tasks of the programme. The current period of the EUCOS programme has a five year duration (2007-2011) and a two stage approach was proposed in the programme definition. During the transition phase 2007-2008 no new programmatic objectives had been set because amongst others the Space-Terrestrial (S-T) study which investigated the relative contributions of selected space based and ground based observing systems to the forecast skill of global and regional NWP models had to be finalised first. Based on the findings of this study EUCOS currently prepares a redesign of its upper-air network. The original EUCOS upper-air network design was prepared in 2000 in order to define a set of stations serving the common general NWP requirement. Additional considerations were to make it possible to supply a common set of performance standards across the territory of EUMETNET Members and to ensure that the radiosonde network interleaved with AMDAR airports. The EUCOS upper-air network now requires a redesign because of several reasons. There is a need to take into account the significant evolution of the AMDAR

  19. Photometric Observations of the Contact Binary System V523 Cassiopeiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hae Jeong


    Full Text Available A total of 920 observations (230 in Delta B, 230 in Delta V, 230 in Delta R, 230 in Delta I for V523 Cas were made on 5 nights from January 6 to 24 in 2003 using the 61cm telescope with 2K CCD camera of the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory of KASI. From our observations 9 times of minimum light were newly determined. Combined analysis of our new BVRI light curves with the double-lined radial velocity curves of the Rucinski et al.'s (2003 were made with the 2004 Wilson-Devinney (WD binary model to yield new physical parameters of the V523 system. Small asymmetries in light curves were explained with the adoption of a cool spot on the hot primary and a hot spot on the cool secondary.

  20. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.


    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  1. Observation (United States)

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.


    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children understand how to remove…

  2. Photometric Observations of the Contact Binary System V523 Cassiopeiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hae Jeong


    Full Text Available A total of 583 observations (193 in Δb, 190 in Δv, 200 in Δr for V523 Cas was made on 9 nights from September to December in 2008 using the 100 cm telescope with 2K CCD camera of the Chungbuk National University Observatory. With our data BVR light curves were constructed and 9 times of minimum light were determined. We also obtained physical parameters of the V523 Cas system by analysis of the BVR light curves using the Wilson-Devinney code.

  3. Program on Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS), appendixes (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Bay, S. M.; Foutch, T. K.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Makin, K. P.; Power, M. A.


    The needs of state, regional, and local agencies involved in natural resources management in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Wisconsin are investigated to determine the design of satellite remotely sensed derivable information products. It is concluded that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be most beneficial if it provides a full range of services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products. Included is a cost and performance analysis of alternative processing centers, and an assessment of the impacts of policy, regulation, and government structure on implementing large scale use of remote sensing technology in this community of users.

  4. Accuracy improvement techniques in Precise Point Positioning method using multiple GNSS constellations (United States)

    Vasileios Psychas, Dimitrios; Delikaraoglou, Demitris


    The future Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), including modernized GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, offer three or more signal carriers for civilian use and much more redundant observables. The additional frequencies can significantly improve the capabilities of the traditional geodetic techniques based on GPS signals at two frequencies, especially with regard to the availability, accuracy, interoperability and integrity of high-precision GNSS applications. Furthermore, highly redundant measurements can allow for robust simultaneous estimation of static or mobile user states including more parameters such as real-time tropospheric biases and more reliable ambiguity resolution estimates. This paper presents an investigation and analysis of accuracy improvement techniques in the Precise Point Positioning (PPP) method using signals from the fully operational (GPS and GLONASS), as well as the emerging (Galileo and BeiDou) GNSS systems. The main aim was to determine the improvement in both the positioning accuracy achieved and the time convergence it takes to achieve geodetic-level (10 cm or less) accuracy. To this end, freely available observation data from the recent Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service, as well as the open source program RTKLIB were used. Following a brief background of the PPP technique and the scope of MGEX, the paper outlines the various observational scenarios that were used in order to test various data processing aspects of PPP solutions with multi-frequency, multi-constellation GNSS systems. Results from the processing of multi-GNSS observation data from selected permanent MGEX stations are presented and useful conclusions and recommendations for further research are drawn. As shown, data fusion from GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou systems is becoming increasingly significant nowadays resulting in a position accuracy increase (mostly in the less favorable East direction) and a large reduction of convergence

  5. Upper wind observing systems used for meteorological operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nash

    Full Text Available Methods of upper wind measurements used in operational meteorology have been reviewed to provide guidance to those developing wind profiler radar systems. The main limitations of the various methods of tracking weather balloons are identified using results from the WMO radiosonde comparisons and additional tests in the United Kingdom. Costs associated with operational balloon measurements are reviewed. The sampling and quality of operational aircraft wind observations are illustrated with examples from the ASDAR system. Measurement errors in horizontal winds are quantified wherever possible. When tracking equipment is functioning correctly, random errors in southerly and westerly wind component measurements from aircraft and weather balloons are usually in the range 0.5-2 m s-1.

  6. a Three-Dimensional Acoustical Imaging System for Zooplankton Observations (United States)

    McGehee, Duncan Ewell

    This dissertation describes the design, testing, and use of a three-dimensional acoustical imaging system, called Fish TV, or FTV, for tracking zooplankton swimming in situ. There is an increasing recognition that three -dimensional tracks of individual plankters are needed for some studies in behavioral ecology including, for example, the role of individual behavior in patch formation and maintenance. Fish TV was developed in part to provide a means of examining zooplankton swimming behavior in a non-invasive way. The system works by forming a set of 64 acoustic beams in an 8 by 8 pattern, each beam 2 ^circ by 2^circ , for a total coverage of 16^circ by 16^circ. The 8 by 8 beams form two dimensions of the image; range provides the third dimension. The system described in the thesis produces three-dimensional images at the rate of approximately one per second. A set of laboratory and field experiments is described that demonstrates the capabilities of the system. The final field experiment was the in situ observation of zooplankton swimming behavior at a site in the San Diego Trough, 15 nautical miles southwest of San Diego. 314 plankters were tracked for one minute. It was observed that there was no connection between the acoustic size of the animals and their repertoire of swimming behaviors. Other contributions of the dissertation include the development of two novel methods for generating acoustic beams with low side lobes. The first is the method of dense random arrays. The second is the optimum mean square quantized aperture method. Both methods were developed originally as ways to "build a better beam pattern" for Fish TV, but also have general significance with respect to aperture theory.

  7. Investigating data assimilation system performance with an Observing System Simulation Experiment (United States)

    Prive, N.


    Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) can be used to evaluate and explore the behavior of data assimilation systems (DAS) as the analysis and background errors can be calculated directly using the Nature Run as truth. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA GMAO) OSSE system is used to investigate the behavior of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) DAS with the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5). The influence of the background error and observation error covariances on the performance of the GSI will be discussed, and the background and analysis errors will be characterized.

  8. Functional and evolutionary correlates of gene constellations in the Drosophila melanogaster genome that deviate from the stereotypical gene architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn Michael H


    observation of high evolutionary rates of male reproductive genes. Conclusion Given the rarity of the solitary stereotypical gene, and the abundance of gene constellations that deviate from it, the presence of gene constellations, while once thought to be exceptional in large Eukaryote genomes, might have broader relevance to the understanding and study of the genome. However, according to our definition, while gene constellations can be significant correlates of functional properties of genes, they generally are weak correlates of the evolution of genes. Thus, the need for their consideration would depend on the context of studies.

  9. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  10. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Utilization of Earth Observation Data (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.; McConaughy, G. R.; Morse, H. S.


    The addition of raw data and derived geophysical parameters from several Earth observing satellites over the last decade to the data held by NASA data centers has created a data rich environment for the Earth science research and applications communities. The data products are being distributed to a large and diverse community of users. Due to advances in computational hardware, networks and communications, information management and software technologies, significant progress has been made in the last decade in archiving and providing data to users. However, to realize the full potential of the growing data archives, further progress is necessary in the transformation of data into information, and information into knowledge that can be used in particular applications. Sponsored by NASA s Intelligent Systems Project within the Computing, Information and Communication Technology (CICT) Program, a conceptual architecture study has been conducted to examine ideas to improve data utilization through the addition of intelligence into the archives in the context of an overall knowledge building system (KBS). Potential Intelligent Archive concepts include: 1) Mining archived data holdings to improve metadata to facilitate data access and usability; 2) Building intelligence about transformations on data, information, knowledge, and accompanying services; 3) Recognizing the value of results, indexing and formatting them for easy access; 4) Interacting as a cooperative node in a web of distributed systems to perform knowledge building; and 5) Being aware of other nodes in the KBS, participating in open systems interfaces and protocols for virtualization, and achieving collaborative interoperability.

  11. Systems constellations : A better way to identify branding opportunities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurg, W.; Bloemer, J.; Doorewaard, H.; Peelen, E.


    Building strong brands has become one of the main marketing priorities for brand-supportive companies. The leading positivist paradigm in marketing may not be, however, the most-effective perspective in identifying branding opportunities. This paper offers an alternative phenomenological point of

  12. Constellation Overview: Ares V Solar System Science Workshop (United States)

    Horack, John M.


    Presentation topics include: what is NASA's mission, why the Moon next, options for Moon landings, NASA's exploration roadmap, building on a foundation of proven technologies - launch vehicle comparisons, Ares nationwide team, Ares I elements, vehicle integration accomplishments, Aires I-X test flight, Ares I-X accomplishments, Orion crew exploration vehicle, Altair lunar lander, and Ares V elements.

  13. Development of Constellation-X Optics Technologies at MSFC (United States)

    ODell, S. L.; Jones, W. D.; Smith, W. S.; Ramsey, B. D.; Engelhaupt, D.


    One of the major technological challenges for the Constellation X-ray Mission is the development of light-weight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence optics. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing and evaluating candidate technologies, based upon full-shell replication off precision mandrels. Here we report on recent progress in meeting the weight and imaging-performance requirements, using very thin, high-strength electroformed nickel alloys. In addition, we briefly describe MSFC's optics fabrication, metrology, and x-ray test facilities.

  14. Trade-Space Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C) (United States)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Dabney, Philip; de Weck, Olivier; Foreman, Veronica; Grogan, Paul; Holland, Matthew; Hughes, Steven; Nag, Sreeja


    Traditionally, space missions have relied on relatively large and monolithic satellites, but in the past few years, under a changing technological and economic environment, including instrument and spacecraft miniaturization, scalable launchers, secondary launches as well as hosted payloads, there is growing interest in implementing future NASA missions as Distributed Spacecraft Missions (DSM). The objective of our project is to provide a framework that facilitates DSM Pre-Phase A investigations and optimizes DSM designs with respect to a-priori Science goals. In this first version of our Trade-space Analysis Tool for Constellations (TAT-C), we are investigating questions such as: How many spacecraft should be included in the constellation? Which design has the best costrisk value? The main goals of TAT-C are to: Handle multiple spacecraft sharing a mission objective, from SmallSats up through flagships, Explore the variables trade space for pre-defined science, cost and risk goals, and pre-defined metrics Optimize cost and performance across multiple instruments and platforms vs. one at a time.This paper describes the overall architecture of TAT-C including: a User Interface (UI) interacting with multiple users - scientists, missions designers or program managers; an Executive Driver gathering requirements from UI, then formulating Trade-space Search Requests for the Trade-space Search Iterator first with inputs from the Knowledge Base, then, in collaboration with the Orbit Coverage, Reduction Metrics, and Cost Risk modules, generating multiple potential architectures and their associated characteristics. TAT-C leverages the use of the Goddard Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to compute coverage and ancillary data, streamlining the computations by modeling orbits in a way that balances accuracy and performance.TAT-C current version includes uniform Walker constellations as well as Ad-Hoc constellations, and its cost model represents an aggregate model consisting of

  15. Some Northern Constellations used for Navigation in Antiquity


    Bilić, Tomislav


    The text analyses the myth of Arion the citharode and his miraculous deliverance. It is believed that the background of this myth is actually the use of stars from the constellation Delphinus in celestial navigation by ancient sea-farers on the maritime route from Magna Graecia to Greece. The author further analyses the myth of Apollo Delphinius, according to which the god assumed the shape of a dolphin and thus guided a Cretan ship to Delphi. Further he considers the use of stars from the co...

  16. Nanosatellites constellation as an IoT communication platform for near equatorial countries (United States)

    Narayanasamy, A.; Ahmad, Y. A.; Othman, M.


    Anytime, anywhere access for real-time intelligence by Internet of Things (IoT) is changing the way that the whole world will operate as it moves toward data driven technologies. Over the next five years, IoT related devices going to have a dramatic breakthrough in current and new applications, not just on increased efficiency and cost reduction on current system, but it also will make trillion-dollar revenue generation and improve customer satisfaction. IoT communications is the networking of intelligent devices which enables data collection from remote assets. It covers a broad range of technologies and applications which connect to the physical world while allowing key information to be transferred automatically. The current terrestrial wireless communications technologies used to enable this connectivity include GSM, GPRS, 3G, LTE, WIFI, WiMAX and LoRa. These connections occur short to medium range distance however, none of them can cover a whole country or continent and the networks are getting congested with the multiplication of IoT devices. In this study, we discuss a conceptual design of a nanosatellite constellation those can provide a space-based communication platform for IoT devices for near Equatorial countries. The constellation design i.e. the orbital plane and number of satellites and launch deployment concepts are presented.

  17. Accuracy assessment of Precise Point Positioning with multi-constellation GNSS data under ionospheric scintillation effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Haroldo Antonio


    Full Text Available GPS and GLONASS are currently the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS with full operational capacity. The integration of GPS, GLONASS and future GNSS constellations can provide better accuracy and more reliability in geodetic positioning, in particular for kinematic Precise Point Positioning (PPP, where the satellite geometry is considered a limiting factor to achieve centimeter accuracy. The satellite geometry can change suddenly in kinematic positioning in urban areas or under conditions of strong atmospheric effects such as for instance ionospheric scintillation that may degrade satellite signal quality, causing cycle slips and even loss of lock. Scintillation is caused by small scale irregularities in the ionosphere and is characterized by rapid changes in amplitude and phase of the signal, which are more severe in equatorial and high latitudes geomagnetic regions. In this work, geodetic positioning through the PPP method was evaluated with integrated GPS and GLONASS data collected in the equatorial region under varied scintillation conditions. The GNSS data were processed in kinematic PPP mode and the analyses show accuracy improvements of up to 60% under conditions of strong scintillation when using multi-constellation data instead of GPS data alone. The concepts and analyses related to the ionospheric scintillation effects, the mathematical model involved in PPP with GPS and GLONASS data integration as well as accuracy assessment with data collected under ionospheric scintillation effects are presented.

  18. System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN). (United States)

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Webster, Collin; Huberty, Jennifer


    Frontline-staff are critical to achieving policies related to child physical activity and nutrition (PAaN) in out-of-school-time programs (OSTP). Recent policies call upon staff to demonstrate behaviors related to PAaN. Currently, no instrument exists to measure these behaviors. This study fills the gap between policy mandates and staff behaviors by describing the development of the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition (SOSPAN) in OSTP. SOSPAN items were aligned with existing OSTP policies. Reliability and validity data of SOSPAN were collected across 8 OSTP: 4 summer day camps and 4 afterschool programs. Validity of SOSPAN staff behaviors/management of PA was established using the percent of children active measured concurrently via direct observation. A total of 6437 scans were performed. Interrater percent agreement ranged from 74%-99% across PAaN behaviors. Children's activity was associated with staff facilitative behaviors/management, such as playing with the children and providing 2 or more activities for children to choose, while prohibitive behaviors/management, such as waiting in line were related to increased sedentary behavior. Staff nutrition behaviors were observed in less than 0.6% of scans. SOSPAN is a reliable and valid tool to assess staff behaviors/management of PAaN in OSTPs.

  19. Satellite Observation Systems for Polar Climate Change Studies (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.


    The key observational tools for detecting large scale changes of various parameters in the polar regions have been satellite sensors. The sensors include passive and active satellite systems in the visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. The monitoring started with Tiros and Nimbus research satellites series in the 1970s but during the period, not much data was stored digitally because of limitations and cost of the needed storage systems. Continuous global data came about starting with the launch of ocean color, passive microwave, and thermal infrared sensors on board Nimbus-7 and Synthetic Aperture Radar, Radar Altimeter and Scatterometer on board SeaSat satellite both launched in 1978. The Nimbus-7 lasted longer than expected and provided about 9 years of useful data while SeaSat quit working after 3 months but provided very useful data that became the baseline for follow-up systems with similar capabilities. Over the years, many new sensors were launched, some from Japan Aeronautics and Space Agency (JAXA), some from the European Space Agency (ESA) and more recently, from RuSSia, China, Korea, Canada and India. For polar studies, among the most useful sensors has been the passive microwave sensor which provides day/night and almost all weather observation of the surface. The sensor provide sea surface temperature, precipitation, wind, water vapor and sea ice concentration data that have been very useful in monitoring the climate of the region. More than 30 years of such data are now available, starting with the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus-7, the Special Scanning Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) on board a Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on board the EOS/ Aqua satellite. The techniques that have been developed to derive geophysical parameters from data provided by these and other sensors and associated instrumental and algorithm errors and validation techniques

  20. Capacity-Approaching Signal Constellations for the Additive Exponential Noise Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Goff, Stéphane Y Le


    We present a new family of signal constellations, called log constellations, that can be used to design near-capacity coded modulation schemes over additive exponential noise (AEN) channels. Log constellations are designed by geometrically approximating the input distribution that maximizes the AEN channel capacity. The mutual information achievable over AEN channels with both coded modulation (CM) and bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) approaches is evaluated for various signal sets. In the case of CM, the proposed log constellations outperform, sometimes by over half a decibel, the best existing signal sets available from the literature, and can display error performance within only 0.12 dB of the AEN channel capacity. In the context of BICM, log constellations do not offer significant performance advantages over the best existing constellations. As the potential performance degradation resulting from the use of BICM instead of CM is larger than 1 dB, BICM may however not be a suitable design approach ...

  1. Identification of system misregistrations during AO-corrected observations (United States)

    Béchet, C.; Thiébaut, É.; .; Tallon, M.; Kolb, J.; Madec, P.-Y.


    The E-ELT will be equipped with a deformable mirror inside the telescope. The performance of reconstruction and control depends on the calibration of the interaction matrix- or a model of the interaction matrix- , which characterizes the system and the relationship between the commands sent to the deformable mirrors (DM) and the wavefront sensors (WFS) slopes. Such a calibration will be more complex than for the current systems at the VLT since it will have to be at least partly measured on sky and for a much larger number of degrees of freedom (more than 5000). In addition, gravity or temperature variations for instance are likely to introduce slow evolution of the matching between the M4 Deformable mirror and the WFS geometry. This can occur during observations and therefore degrade the adaptive optics (AO) correction. To relax the need of frequent painful calibrations and to prevent a loss of performance due to misregistrations, we investigate how to track the evolution of the interaction matrix errors in closed-loop without introducing any degradation in the observations. This is done thanks to identification methods and optimization theory. First, we formally describe the problem and the difficulties of such an identification in closed-loop configuration. Then, we present 2 solutions, based on the optimization of the error of estimates of the WFS slopes, at the output of the closed-loop AO. The performance of the methods and their limitations are discussed formally and thanks to numerical simulations of a high order AO system. We finally explore to which extent these methods currently studied for the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) at the VLT can be applied to the E-ELT.

  2. SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment: validation of observing system simulations (United States)

    Emmitt, George D.; Miller, Timothy; Kavaya, Michael J.


    NASA recently approved a mission to fly a Doppler Wind Lidar on a US Space Shuttle. SPARCLE, managed by Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, is targeted for launch in March 2001. This mission is viewed as a necessary demonstration of a solid state lidar using coherent detection before committing resources to a 3-5 year research or operational mission. While, to many, this shuttle mission is seen as the first step in a series leading to a fully operational wind observing system, to others, it is a chance to validate predictions of performance based upon theoretical models, analyses of airborne and ground-based data and sophisticated observing system simulation experiments. The SPARCLE instrument is a 100 mJ, 6 Hz, diode pumped 2 micron laser with a .25 m telescope using heterodyne mixing in a fiber and an InGaAs detector. A 25 cm silicon wedge scanner will be used in step-stare modes with dwells ranging from 60 seconds to .5 seconds. Pointing knowledge is achieved with a dedicated GPS/INS mounted close to the lidar. NASA's hitchhiker program is providing the instrument enclosures and mission logistics support. An on- board data system in sized to record 80 Gbytes of raw signal from two 400 MHz A/D converters. On-board signal processing will be used to control the frequency of the Master Oscillator. SPARCLE is predicted to have a singleshot backscatter sensitivity near 5 by 10-6 m-1 sr-1. To achieve higher sensitivity, shot accumulation will be employed. Ground-based, 2 micron DWLs have been used to assess the benefits of shot accumulation. Airborne programs like MACAWS have provided good data st for evaluating various sampling strategies and signal processing algorithms. Using these real data to calibrate out simulation models, we can describe when and how well SPARCLE is expected to perform.

  3. The "Classroom Systems Observation Scale": Development of an Instrument To Assess Classrooms Using a Systems Perspective. (United States)

    Fish, Marian C.; Dane, Elizabeth


    Describes the development of the Classroom Systems Observation Scale (CSOS), which assesses preschool through sixth grade classroom functioning from a systems perspective using a theoretical framework based on the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems. Discusses influences of home environment and parental support on learning; and…

  4. An operational monitoring and display system for phenological observations (United States)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Koch, Elisabeth


    Some national weather services operate a special web interface, where citizens can enter their phenological observations. Such a system opens the opportunity to immediately display the current state of the seasonal vegetation development. Here a few simple tools are introduced to evaluate and display near real time phenological observations with respect to the interannual variability and trends over the last decades. For many phenological phases continuous time series since 1946 are available in Austria, which is a time period sufficiently long to study the climate impact on phenology. Phenological observations can be entered in near real time via the ZAMG web - portal or be digitised after the season from the observer sheets with a considerable time lag. About 30% to 50% of the total phenological data stem from the near real time system, which can be used for near real time monitoring of the phenological season. The minimum number of observations, which must be available for inclusion in the procedure has arbitrarily been set to 12 in order to allow a reasonable height regression. The system installed at the ZAMG produces a nightly update of the statistical analysis and figures, which can then for instance be summarised for a news release. At the moment there is no spatial differentiation possible. All conclusions and figures are based on phenological entry dates over all Austrian observations, which have been standardised to an arbitrary station elevation of 200 m above sea level via height regression. The 2012 Austrian phenological season in relation to 1946 - 2011 The cold period from end of January to beginning of February 2012 in Austria has also left its marks on the phenological season. The early phases like beginning of flowering of snow drop, hazel or willow are to be found in the median position of rank 32 of 67 years since 1946. The remainder of the 2012 season generally shows rather early entry dates. On average the phenological entry dates range at

  5. Generalized BICM-T transceivers: Constellation and multiplexer design

    KAUST Repository

    Malik, Muhammad Talha


    Recently, it has been shown that the performance of bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) using convolutional codes in nonfading channels can be significantly improved if the coded bits are not interleaved at all. This particular BICM design is referred to as BICM trivial (BICM-T) and is shown to be asymptotically as good as Ungerboeck\\'s one dimensional (1D) trellis coded modulation (TCM). This BICM-T design and analysis considered a simple case of rate 1/2 channel encoder with equally spaced 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellation where the code rate matches with the modulation order as required in TCM transmission. In this paper, we consider and analyze a new BICM-T design that uses a non equally spaced signal constellation in conjunction with a bit level multiplexer. With this design and analysis, one can not only exploit the full benefit of BICM-T design by jointly optimizing different transceiver\\'s modules but also enjoys the same design flexibility as the traditional BICM to independently choose the code rate and the modulation order. The presented numerical results for 64-ary QAM with rate 1/3 code shows that the considered design can offer gains up to 2.5 dB over the traditional optimal BICM design for a target bit error rate (BER) of 10-6. © 2013 IEEE.

  6. The BRITE Constellation Nanosatellite Mission: Testing, Commissioning, and Operations (United States)

    Pablo, H.; Whittaker, G. N.; Popowicz, A.; Mochnacki, S. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Grant, C. C.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Matthews, J. M.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.; Handler, G.; Weiss, W. W.; Baade, D.; Wade, G. A.; Zocłońska, E.; Ramiaramanantsoa, T.; Unterberger, M.; Zwintz, K.; Pigulski, A.; Rowe, J.; Koudelka, O.; Orleański, P.; Pamyatnykh, A.; Neiner, C.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Marciniszyn, G.; Romano, P.; Woźniak, G.; Zawistowski, T.; Zee, R. E.


    BRIght Target Explorer (BRITE) Constellation, the first nanosatellite mission applied to astrophysical research, is a collaboration among Austria, Canada and Poland. The fleet of satellites (6 launched; 5 functioning) performs precise optical photometry of the brightest stars in the night sky. A pioneering mission like BRITE—with optics and instruments restricted to small volume, mass and power in several nanosatellites, whose measurements must be coordinated in orbit—poses many unique challenges. We discuss the technical issues, including problems encountered during on-orbit commissioning (especially higher-than-expected sensitivity of the CCDs to particle radiation). We describe in detail how the BRITE team has mitigated these problems, and provide a complete overview of mission operations. This paper serves as a template for how to effectively plan, build and operate future low-cost niche-driven space astronomy missions. Based on data collected by the BRITE Constellation satellite mission, designed, built, launched, operated and supported by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the University of Vienna, the Technical University of Graz, the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS), the Foundation for Polish Science & Technology (FNiTP MNiSW), and National Science Centre (NCN).

  7. The behavioural constellation of deprivation: causes and consequences. (United States)

    Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel


    Socioeconomic differences in behaviour are pervasive and well documented, but their causes are not yet well understood. Here, we make the case that there is a cluster of behaviours associated with lower socioeconomic status, which we call the behavioural constellation of deprivation. We propose that the relatively limited control associated with lower socioeconomic status curtails the extent to which people can expect to realise deferred rewards, leading to more present-oriented behaviour in a range of domains. We illustrate this idea using the specific factor of extrinsic mortality risk, an important factor in evolutionary theoretical models. We emphasise the idea that the present-oriented behaviours of the constellation are a contextually appropriate response to structural and ecological factors, rather than pathology or a failure of willpower. We highlight some principles from evolutionary theoretical models that can deepen our understanding of how socioeconomic inequalities can become amplified and embedded. These principles are that: 1) Small initial disparities can lead to larger eventual inequalities, 2) Feed-back loops can operate to embed early life circumstances, 3) Constraints can breed further constraints, and 4) Feed-back loops can operate over generations. We discuss some of the mechanisms by which socioeconomic status may influence behaviour. We then review how the contextually appropriate response perspective that we have outlined fits with other findings about control and temporal discounting. Finally, we discuss the implications of this interpretation for research and policy.

  8. Constellation C3I Crew-Ground-Experimenter-Developer Collaboration Services Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Command, Control, Communications and Information (C3I) environment will be significantly different for Constellation than for Shuttle and International Space...

  9. Constellation and Mapping Optimization of APSK Modulations used in DVB-S2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jordanova


    Full Text Available This article represents the algorithms of APSK constellation and mapping optimization. The dependencies of the symbol error probability Ps on the parameters of the 16APSK and 32APSK constellations are examined and several options that satisfy the requirements to the minimum value of Ps are selected. Mapping optimization is carried out for the selected APSK constellations. BER characteristics of the satellite DVB-S2 channels are represented when using optimized and standard 16APSK and 32APSK constellations and a comparative analysis of the results achieved is made.

  10. Constellation Map: Downstream visualization and interpretation of gene set enrichment results. (United States)

    Tan, Yan; Wu, Felix; Tamayo, Pablo; Haining, W Nicholas; Mesirov, Jill P


    Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) approaches are widely used to identify coordinately regulated genes associated with phenotypes of interest. Here, we present Constellation Map, a tool to visualize and interpret the results when enrichment analyses yield a long list of significantly enriched gene sets. Constellation Map identifies commonalities that explain the enrichment of multiple top-scoring gene sets and maps the relationships between them. Constellation Map can help investigators take full advantage of GSEA and facilitates the biological interpretation of enrichment results. Constellation Map is freely available as a GenePattern module at

  11. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer for the Earth Observing System (United States)

    Glavich, Thomas A.; Beer, Reinhard


    A Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) for the Earth Observing System (EOS) series of polar-orbiting platforms is described. TES is aimed at studying tropospheric chemistry, in particular, the exchange of gases between the surface and the atmosphere, urban and regional pollution, acid rain precursors, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases, and the interchange of gases between the troposphere and the stratosphere. TES is a high-resolution (0.025/cm) infrared Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the passive thermal-emission mode in a very wide spectral range (600 to 4350/cm; 2.3 to 16.7 microns). TES has 32 spatial pixels in each of four optically conjugated linear detector arrays, each optimized for a different spectral region.

  12. The challenging ultrasound diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in children: constellations of sonographic findings improve specificity. (United States)

    Tulin-Silver, Sheryl; Babb, James; Pinkney, Lynne; Strubel, Naomi; Lala, Shailee; Milla, Sarah S; Tomita, Sandra; Fefferman, Nancy R


    the association of diagnosis with the presence versus absence of each US finding. We conducted multivariable analysis to identify constellations of sonographic findings that were predictive of perforated appendicitis. The individual US findings of abscess/loculated fluid, appendicolith, dilated bowel and increased hepatic periportal echogenicity were significantly associated with perforated appendicitis when compared with acute appendicitis (P < 0.01). The sonographic observation of increased hepatic periportal echogenicity demonstrated a statistically significant association with perforated appendicitis compared with acute appendicitis (P < 0.01). The presence of complex fluid yielded a specificity of 87.7% for perforated appendicitis compared with the acute appendicitis group. The US findings of ≥2 regions or ≥3 regions with fluid had specificity of 87.3% and 99.0%, respectively, for perforated appendicitis compared with the acute appendicitis group. Select combinations of sonographic findings yielded high specificity in the diagnosis of perforated appendicitis compared with acute appendicitis. These constellations yielded higher specificity than that of each individual finding in isolation. The constellation of dilated bowel, RLQ echogenic fat, and complex fluid had the highest specificity (99.5%) for perforated appendicitis (P < 0.01). Our study demonstrates that identification of select constellations of findings using abdominal sonography, in addition to focused US examination of the right lower quadrant, can improve sonographic diagnosis of perforated appendicitis in the pediatric population.

  13. Synergistic Opportunities for the Geostationary Satellite Constellation: Status of the CEOS Activity (United States)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.


    This talk will summarize activities of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) to collaboratively advance the next generation of air quality monitoring from space. Over the past 2 years, CEOS ACC have developed a position paper describing the benefits to be derived from such collaboration. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. We will discuss next steps toward implementing this vision, starting with a new 3-year CEOS Action in 2012. Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) missions in 2017-2022 to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors. These missions include Europe's ESA Sentinel-4 with EUMETSAT IRS, the United States' NASA GEO-CAPE, Korea's ME/MEST/KARI GEMS, and Japan's JAXA GMAP-Asia. GEO observations offer a quantum advance in air quality monitoring from space by providing measurements many times per day. However, a single GEO satellite views only a portion of the globe. These satellites, positioned to view Europe, East Asia, and North America, will collectively provide hourly coverage of the industrialized Northern Hemisphere at similar spatial resolutions. Planned low Earth orbit (LEO) missions will provide complementary daily global observations. Observations from a single LEO satellite will overlap those from each GEO satellite once per day, providing a means for combining the GEO observations and a necessary perspective for interpreting global impacts of smaller scale processes. The EUMETSAT Metop series, NOAA/NASA JPSS series, and ESA Sentinel-5 Precursor and Sentinel-5 missions will each provide such daily overlap with the GEO missions. The Canadian PCW PHEMOS mission will make an additional unique suite of observations. PCW will provide quasi-geostationary coverage over the Arctic that

  14. Digital Object Identifiers for NASA's Earth Observing System Products (United States)

    Moses, J. F.; James, N.


    The science community has long recognized the importance of citing data in published literature to encourage replication of experiments and verification of results. Authors that try to cite their data often find that publishers will not accept Internet addresses because they are viewed as transient references, frequently changed by the data provider after the paper is published. Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) and the DOI® System were created to avoid this problem by providing a unique and persistent identifier scheme and an online resolution service. DOIs and the Internet service provided by the DOI System have emerged as the most acceptable scheme for publishers. NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project, in cooperation with several Earth Observing System (EOS) instrument teams and data providers, has developed methods for assigning DOIs to EOS products. By assigning DOIs we are enabling authors and publishers to find it easier and more compelling to cite EOS data products. DOIs are unique alphanumeric strings that consist of a prefix and suffix. The prefix is assigned by a registration agency for the DOI System. The suffix must be unique, but is otherwise free to be constructed by the publisher, in this case NASA ESDIS Project. A strategy was needed for constructing DOI suffix names that corresponds to each EOS product. Since the onset of the DOI System, publishers have developed conventions to suit their own purposes. These range from random generation to complex, formally controlled vocabularies. An overarching ESDIS goal has been for the DOI names to be attractive for researchers to use in publication applications. Keeping them short and simple is paramount. When adding meaning to the string, it is also important that the name only refer to the data and not to the publisher, so that the DOI can be accepted as persistent even if the data is moved to a new publisher. Most users download EOS product files to their local facilities when

  15. Intelligent Systems: Terrestrial Observation and Prediction Using Remote Sensing Data (United States)

    Coughlan, Joseph C.


    NASA has made science and technology investments to better utilize its large space-borne remote sensing data holdings of the Earth. With the launch of Terra, NASA created a data-rich environment where the challenge is to fully utilize the data collected from EOS however, despite unprecedented amounts of observed data, there is a need for increasing the frequency, resolution, and diversity of observations. Current terrestrial models that use remote sensing data were constructed in a relatively data and compute limited era and do not take full advantage of on-line learning methods and assimilation techniques that can exploit these data. NASA has invested in visualization, data mining and knowledge discovery methods which have facilitated data exploitation, but these methods are insufficient for improving Earth science models that have extensive background knowledge nor do these methods refine understanding of complex processes. Investing in interdisciplinary teams that include computational scientists can lead to new models and systems for online operation and analysis of data that can autonomously improve in prediction skill over time.

  16. The Role and Quality of Software Safety in the NASA Constellation Program (United States)

    Layman, Lucas; Basili, Victor R.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.


    In this study, we examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Obtaining an accurate, program-wide picture of software safety risk is difficult across multiple, independently-developing systems. We leverage one source of safety information, hazard analysis, to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. The goal of this research is two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to quantify the level of risk presented by software in the hazard analysis. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. To quantify the importance of software, we collected metrics based on the number of software-related causes and controls of hazardous conditions. To quantify the level of risk presented by software, we created a metric scheme to measure the specificity of these software causes. We found that from 49-70% of hazardous conditions in the three systems could be caused by software or software was involved in the prevention of the hazardous condition. We also found that 12-17% of the 2013 hazard causes involved software, and that 23-29% of all causes had a software control. Furthermore, 10-12% of all controls were software-based. There is potential for inaccuracy in these counts, however, as software causes are not consistently scoped, and the presence of software in a cause or control is not always clear. The application of our software specificity metrics also identified risks in the hazard reporting process. In particular, we found a number of traceability risks in the hazard reports may impede verification of software and system safety.

  17. Program on Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS) (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Gohagan, J. K.; Hill, C. T.; Morgan, R. P.; Hays, T. R.; Ballard, R. J.; Crnkovick, G. R.; Schaeffer, M. A.


    An assessment was made of the needs of a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data (state, regional, and local agencies) involved in natural resources management in five states, and alternative data management systems to satisfy these needs are outlined. Tasks described include: (1) a comprehensive data needs analysis of state and local users; (2) the design of remote sensing-derivable information products that serve priority state and local data needs; (3) a cost and performance analysis of alternative processing centers for producing these products; (4) an assessment of the impacts of policy, regulation and government structure on implementing large-scale use of remote sensing technology in this community of users; and (5) the elaboration of alternative institutional arrangements for operational Earth Observation Data Management Systems (EODMS). It is concluded that an operational EODMS will be of most use to state, regional, and local agencies if it provides a full range of information services -- from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  18. Securing OFDM over Wireless Time-Varying Channels Using Subcarrier Overloading with Joint Signal Constellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill R. Tsouri


    Full Text Available A method of overloading subcarriers by multiple transmitters to secure OFDM in wireless time-varying channels is proposed and analyzed. The method is based on reverse piloting, superposition modulation, and joint decoding. It makes use of channel randomness, reciprocity, and fast decorrelation in space to secure OFDM with low overheads on encryption, decryption, and key distribution. These properties make it a good alternative to traditional software-based information security algorithms in systems where the costs associated with such algorithms are an implementation obstacle. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving information theoretic security in accordance with channel and system parameters is derived. Security by complexity is assessed for cases where the condition for information theoretic security is not satisfied. In addition, practical means for implementing the method are derived including generating robust joint constellations, decoding data with low complexity, and mitigating the effects of imperfections due to mobility, power control errors, and synchronization errors.

  19. Characterizing the RF Quiescence of the Lunar Far Side Using a Constellation of Small Satellites (United States)

    Bergman, J. E. S.; Bridges, C.; Bruhn, F.; Gao, Y.; Lappas, V.; Liddle, D.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Nunes, M.; Sorensen, T.; Underwood, C.


    Observations of highly red-shifted 21-cm hydrogen signals have been suggested as the only means to probe the early Universe from recombination to reionization. During this era, called the Dark Ages, the Universe consisted of neutral hydrogen gas and was opaque to light. It did not become transparent, as we see it today, until reionization was completed. The Dark Ages was the time period when matter clumped together, the very first stars and black holes were born, and, eventually, the first galaxies were formed. To enable observations of the Dark Ages is therefore one of the top priorities in cosmology and astrophysics. Today, the cosmological 21-cm signals are highly red-shifted and should peak in the FM radio band. Observing the Dark Ages from Earth is therefore next to impossible, due to man-made radio frequency interference (RFI) and ionospheric disturbances. To efficiently block the RFI, which would otherwise overwhelm the weak cosmological signal; it has been proposed to use the Moon as a radio shield and either place a satellite equipped with an ultra-sensitive radio instrument in lunar orbit or to deploy a large low-frequency radio array on the far-side of the Moon. Such missions are technically challenging and expensive and have so far failed to gain support from any national or international space program. Our goal is therefore to use a constellation of small inexpensive satellites in lunar orbit to collect pathfinder data, which would demonstrate EPSC Abstracts Vol. 9, EPSC2014-798, 2014 European Planetary Science Congress 2014 c Author(s) 2014 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress the feasibility of using the Moon as a radio shield, and map out the spatial extent of this RF quiescent zone to support future missions to explore the cosmos. This paper examines the design and radio payload of this mission. Alternative orbits, constellation and payload designs are analyzed to optimize the mission for performance and cost.

  20. Extending Hydrologic Information Systems to accommodate Arctic marine observations data (United States)

    Hersh, Eric S.; Maidment, David R.


    The Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) project characterizes the biota and chemistry of the continental shelf ecosystem of a region of the Chukchi Sea to form a baseline survey of environmental conditions before drilling for oil commences. This paper describes the COMIDA CAB project data and processing methods, which provide a novel approach to data tracking and archiving from marine sampling cruises. This approach features an adaptation of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science. Observations Data Model for application with physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic data - a new extension of the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System - thus bringing hydroinformatics into the oceanographic realm. Environmental sampling has been carried out by five separate scientific teams who characterize particular classes of physical, chemical and biological variables, and who each have their own methods of processing samples in their laboratories following the two sampling cruises made to the Chukchi Sea in the summers of 2009 and 2010. The results of their observations and analyses are stored in data files, mostly in Excel format, whose structure is defined differently by each scientific team. In all, the 2009 and 2010 COMIDA CAB field efforts yielded a database of 510,405 data values. Of these, 474,129 were derived from continuous in-situ data sonde profiles and 36,276 were derived from non-sonde extracted samples of the sediment, epibenthos, and water column. These data values represent 301 variables measured at 65 sites and originated from 26 different source files. The biological observations represented 519 distinct taxa. The data from these files are transformed and synthesized into a comprehensive project database in which a set of standardized descriptors of each observed data value are specified and each data value is linked to the data file from which it was created to establish a

  1. Development of Dense Time Series 30-m Image Products from the Chinese HJ-1A/B Constellation: A Case Study in Zoige Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhu Bian


    Full Text Available Time series remote sensing products with both fine spatial and dense temporal resolutions are urgently needed for many earth system studies. The development of small satellite constellations with identical sensors affords novel opportunities to provide such kind of earth observations. In this paper, a new dense time series 30-m image product was proposed respectively based on an 8-day, 16-day and monthly composition. The products were composited by the Charge Coupled Device (CCD images from the 2-day revisit small satellite constellation for environmental monitoring and disaster mitigation of China (HJ-1A/B. Taking the Zoige plateau in China as a case area where it is covered by highly heterogeneous vegetation landscapes, a detailed methodology was introduced on how to use 183 scenes of CCD images in 2010 to create composite products. The quality of the HJ CCD composites was evaluated by inter-comparison with the monthly 30-m global Web-Enabled Landsat Data (WELD, 16-day 500-m MODIS NDVI, and 8-day 500-m MODIS surface reflectance products. Results showed that the radiometric consistency between HJ and WELD composited Top Of Atmosphere (TOA reflectance was in good agreement except for May, June, July and August when more clouds and invalid data gaps appeared in WELD. Visual assessment and temporal profile analysis also revealed that HJ possessed better visual effects and temporal coherence than that of WELD. The comparison between HJ and MODIS products indicated that HJ composites were radiometrically consistent with MODIS products over areas consisting of large patches of homogeneous surface types, but can better reflect the detailed spatial differences in regions with heterogeneous landscapes. This paper highlights the potential of compositing HJ-1A/B CCD images, allowing for providing a cloud free, time-space consistent, 30-m spatial resolution, and dense in time series image product. Meanwhile, the proposed products could also be treated as a

  2. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner


    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  3. Coyote unmanned aircraft system observations in Hurricane Edouard (2014) (United States)

    Cione, J. J.; Kalina, E. A.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Farber, A. M.; Damiano, B.


    Horizontal wind, temperature, and moisture observations are presented from two Coyote unmanned aircraft system (UAS) flights in the boundary layer of Hurricane Edouard (2014). The first flight sampled the meteorological conditions in the eye and eyewall at altitudes from 900 to 1500 m while Edouard was a major hurricane (105 kt) on 16 September 2014. The following day, a second Coyote sampled the inflow layer outside of the storm core at 760 m altitude, when Edouard had weakened to an 80-kt hurricane. These flights represent the first deployments of a UAS from an airborne manned aircraft into a tropical cyclone. Comparisons between the Coyote data and the Lockheed WP-3D Orion (WP-3D) flight-level measurements and analyses constructed from dropsonde data are also provided. On 16 September 2014, the Coyote-measured horizontal wind speeds agree, on average, to within 1 m s-1 of the wind speeds observed by the WP-3D and reproduce the shape of the radial wind profile from the WP-3D measurements. For the inflow layer experiment on 17 September, the mean wind speeds from the Coyote and the dropsonde analysis differ by only 0.5 m s-1, while the Coyote captured increased variability (σ = 3.4 m s-1) in the horizontal wind field compared to the dropsonde analysis (σ = 2.2 m s-1). Thermodynamic data from the Coyote and dropsondes agree well for both flights, with average discrepancies of 0.4°C and 0.0°C for temperature and 0.7°C and 1.3°C for dew point temperature on 16 and 17 September, respectively

  4. 3-D electromagnetic induction studies using the Swarm constellation: Mapping conductivity anomalies in the Earth's mantle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvshinov, A.; Sabaka, T.; Olsen, Nils


    An approach is presented to detect deep-seated regional conductivity anomalies by analysis of magnetic observations taken by low-Earth-orbiting satellites. The approach deals with recovery of C-responses on a regular grid and starts with a determination of time series of external and internal....... For validation of the approach, 3 years of realistic synthetic data at Simulated orbits of the forthcoming Swarm constellation of 3 satellites have been used. To obtain the synthetic data for a given 3-D conductivity Earth's model a time-domain scheme has been applied which relies oil a Fourier transformation...... the geometry of the mantle heterogeneities used in the forward approach. numerical experiments have been undertaken using various satellite combinations, sampling periods of the resulting time series, and numbers of internal coefficients. The possibility of the approach to map anomalies in the mantle using...

  5. A Spatial Data Infrastructure for the Global Mercury Observation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.


    Full Text Available The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS Project includes a specific Work Package aimed at developing tools (i.e. databases, catalogs, services to collect GMOS datasets, harvest mercury databases, and offer services like search, view, and download spatial datasets from the GMOS portal ( The system will be developed under the framework of the Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE Directive and the Directive 2003/4/EC on public access to environmental information, which both aim to make relevant, harmonized, high-quality geographic information available to support the formulation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and activities that have a direct or indirect impact on the environment. Three databases have been proposed (on emissions, field data and model results, and each will be equipped with state-of-the-art, open-source software to allow for the highest performance possible. Web-based user-interfaces and prototype applications will be developed to demonstrate the potential of blending different datasets from different servers for environmental assessment studies. Several services (i.e. catalog browsers, WMS and WCS services, web GIS services will be developed to facilitate data integration, data re-use, and data exchange within and beyond the GMOS project. Different types of measurement and model datasets provided by project partners and other sources will be integrated into PostgreSQL-PostGIS, harmonized by creating INSPIRE-compliant metadata and made available to a larger community of stakeholders, policy makers, scientists, and NGOs (as well as to other public and private institutions, as dictated by the Directive 2003/4/EC. Since interoperability is a central concept for the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS, the Global Monitoring for Environmental and Security (GMES and the INSPIRE Directive, guidelines developed in these three frameworks will be

  6. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark


    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  7. Autonomous Spacecraft Navigation Using Above-the-Constellation GPS Signals (United States)

    Winternitz, Luke


    GPS-based spacecraft navigation offers many performance and cost benefits, and GPS receivers are now standard GNC components for LEO missions. Recently, more and more high-altitude missions are taking advantage of the benefits of GPS navigation as well. High-altitude applications pose challenges, however, because receivers operating above the GPS constellations are subject to reduced signal strength and availability, and uncertain signal quality. This presentation will present the history and state-of-the-art in high-altitude GPS spacecraft navigation, including early experiments, current missions and receivers, and efforts to characterize and protect signals available to high-altitude users. Recent results from the very-high altitude MMS mission are also provided.

  8. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos (United States)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David


    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  9. COSMOS: the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zreda


    Full Text Available The newly-developed cosmic-ray method for measuring area-average soil moisture at the hectometer horizontal scale is being implemented in the COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (or the COSMOS. The stationary cosmic-ray soil moisture probe measures the neutrons that are generated by cosmic rays within air and soil and other materials, moderated by mainly hydrogen atoms located primarily in soil water, and emitted to the atmosphere where they mix instantaneously at a scale of hundreds of meters and whose density is inversely correlated with soil moisture. The COSMOS has already deployed more than 50 of the eventual 500 cosmic-ray probes, distributed mainly in the USA, each generating a time series of average soil moisture over its horizontal footprint, with similar networks coming into existence around the world. This paper is written to serve a community need to better understand this novel method and the COSMOS project. We describe the cosmic-ray soil moisture measurement method, the instrument and its calibration, the design, data processing and dissemination used in the COSMOS project, and give example time series of soil moisture obtained from COSMOS probes.

  10. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.


    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  11. Mesoscale climate hydrology: Earth Observation System - definition phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Bastiaanssen, W.G.M.


    The use of airborne and space observations to map surface heat fluxes and soil water content at heterogeneous land surfaces was studied. Algorithms to estimate evaporation fluxes with satellite observations were evaluated against measurements. Spatialcorrelation lengths were studied with estimated

  12. USGEO National Earth Observation Assessment Methods for Evaluating the Relative Contributions of Earth Observing Systems to Societal Benefit (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T.


    The second National Civil Earth Observation Assessment identifies the inputs and relative contributions of the portfolio of observing systems currently relied upon by Federal agencies to meet key Earth observing objectives. The Assessment employs a hierarchical value-tree framework that traces the pathways through which Earth observing systems contribute value across 13 societal benefit areas, utilizing multiple levels to provide logical traceability. This presentation describes the methods used to construct societal benefit area value-trees that include key objectives and the information products, services, and research derived from Earth observations that help satisfy them. It describes the methods for weighting nodes at multiple levels of each value-tree and the expert elicitation process for assessing the relative contributions of Earth observing systems to the development of information products, services, and research. The methodology employed in the Assessment is especially useful at assessing the interdependence and relative contributions of multiple Earth observing systems on the development of blended information products and tracing information pathways from direct observations through intermediate products, such as models, to end-products used to improve decision-making. This presentation will highlight case study examples from the 13 societal benefit areas (agriculture and forestry, biodiversity, climate, disasters, ecosystems, energy and mineral resources, human health, ocean and costal resources, space weather, transportation, water resources weather, and reference measurements) to demonstrate tractability from Earth observing systems, through information products and research that satisfy key objectives, to societal benefit.

  13. SPOT Tandem completed : A unique constellation of optical satellites from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmens, M.J.P.M.


    The launch of SPOT 7 on 30 June 2014 at 6:22 a.m. CET completed the constellation of four optical spacecraft operating in the same orbit. The constellation further consists of twin sister SPOT 6 and Pléiades 1A and 1B. To mark the occasion, the author discusses the features of the extended family of

  14. Factorization properties of the optimal signaling distribution of multi-dimensional QAM constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J.


    In this work we study the properties of the optimal Proba- bility Mass Function (PMF) of a discrete input to a general Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channel. We prove that when the input constellation is constructed as a Cartesian product of 1-dimensional constellations, the optimal PMF...

  15. Tabitha's One Teacher Rural School: Insights into the Arts through the Use of a Story Constellation (United States)

    Garvis, Susanne


    This paper presents a story constellation about a beginning teacher (who is also the principal) located in a one-teacher school in an isolated community in Queensland, Australia. The constellation documents the teacher's self-efficacy for teaching the arts (music, dance, drama, visual arts and media). Tabitha, the participant, shares insights…

  16. Constellation Program Design Challenges as Opportunities for Educational Outreach- Lessons Learned (United States)

    Trevino, Robert C.


    The Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC) and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Education Office both have programs that present design challenges for university senior design classes that offer great opportunities for educational outreach and workforce development. These design challenges have been identified by NASA engineers and scientists as actual design problems faced by the Constellation Program in its exploration missions and architecture. Student teams formed in their senior design class select and then work on a design challenge for one or two semesters. The senior design class follows the requirements set by their university, but it must also comply with the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) in order to meet the class academic requirements. Based on a one year fellowship at a TSGC university under the NASA Administrator's Fellowship Program (NAFP) and several years of experience, lessons learned are presented on the NASA Design Challenge Program.

  17. The Influence of Observation Errors on Analysis Error and Forecast Skill Investigated with an Observing System Simulation Experiment (United States)

    Prive, N. C.; Errico, R. M.; Tai, K.-S.


    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework is used to explore the response of analysis error and forecast skill to observation quality. In an OSSE, synthetic observations may be created that have much smaller error than real observations, and precisely quantified error may be applied to these synthetic observations. Three experiments are performed in which synthetic observations with magnitudes of applied observation error that vary from zero to twice the estimated realistic error are ingested into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation for a one-month period representing July. The analysis increment and observation innovation are strongly impacted by observation error, with much larger variances for increased observation error. The analysis quality is degraded by increased observation error, but the change in root-mean-square error of the analysis state is small relative to the total analysis error. Surprisingly, in the 120 hour forecast increased observation error only yields a slight decline in forecast skill in the extratropics, and no discernable degradation of forecast skill in the tropics.

  18. The influence of observation errors on analysis error and forecast skill investigated with an observing system simulation experiment (United States)

    Privé, N. C.; Errico, R. M.; Tai, K.-S.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework is used to explore the response of analysis error and forecast skill to observation quality. In an OSSE, synthetic observations may be created that have much smaller error than real observations, and precisely quantified error may be applied to these synthetic observations. Three experiments are performed in which synthetic observations with magnitudes of applied observation error that vary from zero to twice the estimated realistic error are ingested into the Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation for a 1 month period representing July. The analysis increment and observation innovation are strongly impacted by observation error, with much larger variances for increased observation error. The analysis quality is degraded by increased observation error, but the change in root-mean-square error of the analysis state is small relative to the total analysis error. Surprisingly, in the 120 h forecast, increased observation error only yields a slight decline in forecast skill in the extratropics and no discernible degradation of forecast skill in the tropics.

  19. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.


    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  20. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.


    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  1. The Core Services of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) (United States)

    Hoffmann, T. L.; Euteneuer, F. H.; Lauterjung, J.


    The ESFRI project European Plate Observing System (EPOS) was launched in November 2010 and has now completed its year 3 of the four-year preparatory phase. EPOS will create a single sustainable, permanent observation infrastructure, integrating existing geophysical monitoring networks, local observatories and experimental laboratories in Europe and adjacent regions. EPOS' technical Work Package 6 has developed a three layer architectural model for the construction of the EPOS Core Services (CS) during the subsequent implementation phase. The Poster will present and detail on these three layers, consisting of the EPOS Integrated Core Services (ICS), the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and the existing National Research Infrastructures & Data Centers. The basic layer of the architecture is established by the National Research Infrastructures (RIs) & Data Centers, which generate data and information and are responsible for the operation of the instrumentation. National RIs will provide their data to the Thematic Cores Services. The Thematic Core Services constitute the community layer of EPOS architecture and they will: 1) consist of existing (e.g. ORFEUS, EMSC), developing (e.g. EUREF/GNSS) or still to be developed Service Providers for specific thematic communities, as represented within EPOS through the technical EPOS Working Groups (e.g., seismology, volcanology, geodesy, geology, analytic labs for rock physics, geomagnetism, geo-resources ... and many others), 2) provide data services to specific communities, 3) link the National Research Infrastructures to the EPOS Integrated Services, 4) include Service Providers (e.g. OneGeology+, Intermagnet) that may be merely linked or partially integrated and 5) consist of Integrated Laboratories and RIs spanning multiple EPOS disciplines and taking advantage of other existing Thematic Services. The EPOS Integrated Services constitute the ICT layer of the EPOS portal and they will: 1) provide access to multidisciplinary data

  2. Conewise Linear Systems : Non-Zenoness and Observability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, M. Kanat; Pang, Jong-Shi; Shen, Jinglai


    Conewise linear systems are dynamical systems in which the state space is partitioned into a finite number of nonoverlapping polyhedral cones on each of which the dynamics of the system is described by a linear differential equation. This class of dynamical systems represents a large number of

  3. Observing the observers - uncovering the role of values in research assessments of organic food systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsøe, Martin Hermansen; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Noe, Egon


    as a necessary foundation for research assessment across perspectives; (2) openly discuss the choice of perspective, because it is decisive; (3) formulate common goals that can be translated into the different perspectives; and (4) consider assessment of food system sustainability a learning process and design......-network theory. Value has various meanings according to different scientific perspectives. A strategy for including and balancing different forms of knowledge in overall assessments of the effects of food systems is needed. Based on the analysis, we recommend four courses of action: (1) elucidate values......Assessing the overall effects of organic food systems is important, but also a challenge because organic food systems cannot be fully assessed from one single research perspective. The aim of our research was to determine the role of values in assessments of organic food systems as a basis...

  4. Observing System Simulations for Small Satellite Formations Estimating Bidirectional Reflectance (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; Gatebe, Charles K.; de Weck, Olivier


    The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) gives the reflectance of a target as a function of illumination geometry and viewing geometry, hence carries information about the anisotropy of the surface. BRDF is needed in remote sensing for the correction of view and illumination angle effects (for example in image standardization and mosaicing), for deriving albedo, for land cover classification, for cloud detection, for atmospheric correction, and other applications. However, current spaceborne instruments provide sparse angular sampling of BRDF and airborne instruments are limited in the spatial and temporal coverage. To fill the gaps in angular coverage within spatial, spectral and temporal requirements, we propose a new measurement technique: Use of small satellites in formation flight, each satellite with a VNIR (visible and near infrared) imaging spectrometer, to make multi-spectral, near-simultaneous measurements of every ground spot in the swath at multiple angles. This paper describes an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) to evaluate the proposed concept and select the optimal formation architecture that minimizes BRDF uncertainties. The variables of the OSSE are identified; number of satellites, measurement spread in the view zenith and relative azimuth with respect to solar plane, solar zenith angle, BRDF models and wavelength of reflection. Analyzing the sensitivity of BRDF estimation errors to the variables allow simplification of the OSSE, to enable its use to rapidly evaluate formation architectures. A 6-satellite formation is shown to produce lower BRDF estimation errors, purely in terms of angular sampling as evaluated by the OSSE, than a single spacecraft with 9 forward-aft sensors. We demonstrate the ability to use OSSEs to design small satellite formations as complements to flagship mission data. The formations can fill angular sampling gaps and enable better BRDF products than currently possible.

  5. Towards An Oceanographic Component Of A Global Earth Observation System Of Systems: Progress And Challenges (United States)

    Ackleson, S. G.


    Ocean observatories (systems of coordinated sensors and platforms providing real-time in situ observations across multiple temporal and spatial scales) have advanced rapidly during the past several decades with the integration of novel hardware, development of advanced cyber-infrastructures and data management software, and the formation of researcher networks employing fixed, drifting, and mobile assets. These advances have provided persistent, real-time, multi-disciplinary observations representing even the most extreme environmental conditions, enabled unique and informative views of complicated ocean processes, and aided in the development of more accurate and higher fidelity ocean models. Combined with traditional ship-based and remotely sensed observations, ocean observatories have yielded new knowledge across a broad spectrum of earth-ocean scales that would likely not exist otherwise. These developments come at a critical time in human history when the demands of global population growth are creating unprecedented societal challenges associated with rapid climatic change and unsustainable consumption of key ocean resources. Successfully meeting and overcoming these challenges and avoiding the ultimate tragedy of the commons will require greater knowledge of environmental processes than currently exists, including interactions between the ocean, the overlying atmosphere, and the adjacent land and synthesizing new knowledge into effective policy and management structures. To achieve this, researchers must have free and ready access to comprehensive data streams (oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial), regardless of location and collection system. While the precedent for the concept of free and open access to environmental data is not new (it traces back to the International Geophysical Year, 1957), implementing procedures and standards on a global scale is proving to be difficult, both logistically and politically. Observatories have been implemented in many

  6. Aerosol Observing System Greenhouse Gas (AOS GhG) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Reichl, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The Greenhouse Gas (GhG) Measurement system is a combination of two systems in series: (1) the Tower Gas Processing (TGP) System, an instrument rack which pulls, pressurizes, and dries air streams from an atmospheric sampling tower through a series of control and monitoring components, and (2) the Picarro model G2301 cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS), which measures CO2, CH4, and H2O vapor; the primary measurements of the GhG system.

  7. Coronagraphic Observations of Fomalhaut at Solar System Scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenworthy, M.A.; Meshkat, T.R.; Quanz, S.; Girard, J.; Meyer, M.; Kasper, M.


    We report on a search for low mass companions within 10 AU of the star Fomalhaut, using narrowband observations at 4.05 {$μ$}m obtained with the Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraph on the VLT/NaCo. Our observations place a model-dependent upper mass limit of 12-20 M $_{jup}$ from 4 to 10 AU, covering

  8. Observations of Warm Water in Young Solar-System Analogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm

    of water vapor in Earth’s atmosphere. Many of the lines that are observable from the ground are masing in star forming regions, making it hard to deduce abundances. The few lines that are observable, and shown not be masing are isotopologues, like HDO and D2O, making the estimates of the main isotopologue...... form of water difficult. A solution to this has been to send up space based observatories, which observe outside of the atmosphere free from disturbances. These observations are, because of the small telescope sizes, of low resolution, making it hard to separate the different source components......In star formation, water is an essential molecule. It affects the oxygen based chemistry, the physical conditions and energy balance in the protostellar envelope, and it is associated with the emergence of life as we know it. Ground based observations of water are hampered by the high amount...

  9. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory (United States)

    Thome, K. J.


    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  10. Solar Occultation Constellation for Retrieving Aerosols and Trace Element Species (SOCRATES) Mission Concept (United States)

    Bailey, S. M.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Fish, C. S.; Gordley, L. L.; Fromm, M. D.


    The goal of SOCRATES is to quantify the critical role of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) in the climate system. The mission would provide, for the first time, the suite of measurements required to quantify stratosphere/troposphere exchange (STE) pathways and their contribution to UTLS composition, and to evaluate the radiative forcing implications of potential changes in STE pathways with climate change. The discrimination and quantification of STE pathways requires simultaneous measurement of several key trace gases and aerosols with high precision, accuracy, and vertical resolution. Furthermore, aerosol and clouds, often present in the UTLS, complicate the measurement of trace gases. The SOCRATES sensor is a 23-channel Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR), referred to as GLO (GFCR Limb solar Occultation), with heritage from HALOE on UARS, and SOFIE on AIM. GLO measures aerosol extinction from 0.45 to 3.88 μm, important radiatively active gases in the UTLS (H2O, O3, CH4, N2O), key tracers of STE (HCN, CO, HDO), gases important in stratospheric O3 chemistry (HCl and HF), and temperature from cloud top to 50 km at a vertical resolution of 1 km. Improved pointing knowledge will provide dramatically better retrieval precision in the UTLS, even in the presence of aerosols, than possible with HALOE. In addition, the GLO form factor is only a few percent of that of HALOE, and costs for a constellation of GLO sensors is within the cost cap of a NASA Venture mission. The SOCRATES mission concept is an 8-element constellation of autonomous CubeSats, each mated with a GLO sensor, deployed from a single launch vehicle. The SOCRATES/GLO approach reaps the advantages of solar occultation: high precision and accuracy; robust calibration; and high vertical resolution, while mitigating the sparse coverage of a single solar occultation sensor. We present the SOCRATES science case, and key elements of the SOCRATES mission and GLO instrument concepts.

  11. Cubesat-Based Dtv Receiver Constellation for Ionospheric Tomography (United States)

    Bahcivan, H.; Leveque, K.; Doe, R. A.


    The Radio Aurora Explorer mission, funded by NSF's Space Weather and Atmospheric Research program, has demonstrated the utility of CubeSat-based radio receiver payloads for ionospheric research. RAX has primarily been an investigation of microphysics of meter-scale ionospheric structures; however, the data products are also suitable for research on ionospheric effects on radio propagation. To date, the spacecraft has acquired (1) ground-based UHF radar signals that are backscattered from meter-scale ionospheric irregularities, which have been used to measure the dispersion properties of meter-scale plasma waves and (2) ground-based signals, directly on the transmitter-spacecraft path, which have been used to measure radio propagation disturbances (scintillations). Herein we describe the application of a CubeSat constellation of UHF receivers to expand the latter research topic for global-scale ionospheric tomography. The enabling factor for this expansion is the worldwide availability of ground-based digital television (DTV) broadcast signals whose characteristics are optimal for scintillation analysis. A significant part of the populated world have transitioned, or soon to be transitioned, to DTV. The DTV signal has a standard format that contains a highly phase-stable pilot carrier that can be readily adapted for propagation diagnostics. A multi-frequency software-defined radar receiver, similar to the RAX payload, can measure these signals at a large number of pilot carrier frequencies to make radio ray and diffraction tomographic measurements of the ionosphere and the irregularities contained in it. A constellation of CubeSats, launched simultaneously, or in sequence over years, similar to DMSPs, can listen to the DTV stations, providing a vast and dense probing of the ionosphere. Each spacecraft can establish links to a preprogrammed list of DTV stations and cycle through them using time-division frequency multiplexing (TDFM) method. An on board program can

  12. 77 FR 11168 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station... (United States)


    ... Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; Nine Mile Nuclear Station, LLC; Nine Mile Point... Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG), acting on behalf of itself, and the licensee... Committee of Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC, shall prepare an Annual Report regarding the status of...

  13. 77 FR 11169 - In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power... (United States)


    ... License] In the Matter of Exelon Corporation; Constellation Energy Group, Inc.; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power... (Exelon), and Exelon Ventures Company, LLC (Exelon Ventures), and Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC... Advisory Committee of Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC, shall prepare an Annual Report regarding the...

  14. Disturbance Observers for Rigid Mechanical Systems: Equivalence, Stability and Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, E.; van Dijk, Johannes


    Mechanical (direct-drive) systems designed for high-speed and high-accuracy applications require control systems that eliminate the influence of disturbances like cogging forces and friction. One way to achieve additional disturbance rejection is to extend the usual (P(I)D) controller with a

  15. Partial Linearization of Mechanical Systems with Application to Observer Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarras, Ioannis; Venkatraman, Aneesh; Ortega, Romeo; Schaft, Arjan van der


    We consider general mechanical systems and establish a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a suitable change in the generalized momentum coordinates such that the new dynamics become linear in the transformed momenta. The class of systems which can be (partially) linearized by

  16. Infrared observations of small solar-system bodies (United States)

    Brown, R. H.


    A major accomplishment during last year is the recongition of and modeling of the solid-state greenhouse effect for icy satellites. Recent observations of eclipse reappearances suggest that this effect may in fact be observed on Europa and Ganymede. Also the PI has obtained important new data on Europa and Enceladus. Evidence for the transient presence of a volatile, perhaps NH3, OH, on Europa has been obtained. Newly obtained spectra of Enceladus suggest that it does not at present have ammonia or methane in detectable quantities on its surface.

  17. Optimal Earth's reentry disposal of the Galileo constellation (United States)

    Armellin, Roberto; San-Juan, Juan F.


    Nowadays there is international consensus that space activities must be managed to minimize debris generation and risk. The paper presents a method for the end-of-life (EoL) disposal of spacecraft in Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). The problem is formulated as a multiobjective optimisation one, which is solved with an evolutionary algorithm. An impulsive manoeuvre is optimised to reenter the spacecraft in Earth's atmosphere within 100 years. Pareto optimal solutions are obtained using the manoeuvre Δv and the time-to-reentry as objective functions to be minimised. To explore at the best the search space a semi-analytical orbit propagator, which can propagate an orbit for 100 years in few seconds, is adopted. An in-depth analysis of the results is carried out to understand the conditions leading to a fast reentry with minimum propellant. For this aim a new way of representing the disposal solutions is introduced. With a single 2D plot we are able to fully describe the time evolution of all the relevant orbital parameters as well as identify the conditions that enables the eccentricity build-up. The EoL disposal of the Galileo constellation is used as test case.

  18. Nucleotide sequence conservation in paramyxoviruses; the concept of codon constellation. (United States)

    Rima, Bert K


    The stability and conservation of the sequences of RNA viruses in the field and the high error rates measured in vitro are paradoxical. The field stability indicates that there are very strong selective constraints on sequence diversity. The nature of these constraints is discussed. Apart from constraints on variation in cis-acting RNA and the amino acid sequences of viral proteins, there are other ones relating to the presence of specific dinucleotides such CpG and UpA as well as the importance of RNA secondary structures and RNA degradation rates. Recent other constraints identified in other RNA viruses, such as effects of secondary RNA structure on protein folding or modification of cellular tRNA complements, are also discussed. Using the family Paramyxoviridae, I show that the codon usage pattern (CUP) is (i) specific for each virus species and (ii) that it is markedly different from the host - it does not vary even in vaccine viruses that have been derived by passage in a number of inappropriate host cells. The CUP might thus be an additional constraint on variation, and I propose the concept of codon constellation to indicate the informational content of the sequences of RNA molecules relating not only to stability and structure but also to the efficiency of translation of a viral mRNA resulting from the CUP and the numbers and position of rare codons. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Orbital Maneuvers Using Low Thrust to Place a Satellite in a Constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Martins Gomes


    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of low thrust suboptimal maneuvers to insert a satellite in a constellation. It is assumed that a satellite constellation is given with all the Keplerian elements of the satellite members having known values. Then, it is necessary to maneuver a new satellite from a parking orbit to its position in the constellation. The control available to perform this maneuver is the application of a low thrust to the satellite and the objective is to perform this maneuver with minimum fuel consumption.

  20. Parts of the Whole: Observing the State of the System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Wallace


    Full Text Available This column draws on the approach of statistician J. Edwards Deming to analyze sources and consequences of variation in an education system. Educational systems are not immune from the effects of poor statistical control, which makes it difficult for teachers to teach effectively and for managers such as principals to improve on school performance. It is also argued that the need for statistical control in these areas is in tension, if not outright conflict, with our goals for educating students.

  1. Science-Grade Observing Systems as Process Observatories: Mapping and Understanding Nonlinearity and Multiscale Memory with Models and Observations (United States)

    Barros, A. P.; Wilson, A. M.; Miller, D. K.; Tao, J.; Genereux, D. P.; Prat, O.; Petersen, W. A.; Brunsell, N. A.; Petters, M. D.; Duan, Y.


    Using the planet as a study domain and collecting observations over unprecedented ranges of spatial and temporal scales, NASA's EOS (Earth Observing System) program was an agent of transformational change in Earth Sciences over the last thirty years. The remarkable space-time organization and variability of atmospheric and terrestrial moist processes that emerged from the analysis of comprehensive satellite observations provided much impetus to expand the scope of land-atmosphere interaction studies in Hydrology and Hydrometeorology. Consequently, input and output terms in the mass and energy balance equations evolved from being treated as fluxes that can be used as boundary conditions, or forcing, to being viewed as dynamic processes of a coupled system interacting at multiple scales. Measurements of states or fluxes are most useful if together they map, reveal and/or constrain the underlying physical processes and their interactions. This can only be accomplished through an integrated observing system designed to capture the coupled physics, including nonlinear feedbacks and tipping points. Here, we first review and synthesize lessons learned from hydrometeorology studies in the Southern Appalachians and in the Southern Great Plains using both ground-based and satellite observations, physical models and data-assimilation systems. We will specifically focus on mapping and understanding nonlinearity and multiscale memory of rainfall-runoff processes in mountainous regions. It will be shown that beyond technical rigor, variety, quantity and duration of measurements, the utility of observing systems is determined by their interpretive value in the context of physical models to describe the linkages among different observations. Second, we propose a framework for designing science-grade and science-minded process-oriented integrated observing and modeling platforms for hydrometeorological studies.

  2. Large-objective optical system for TV night observation (United States)

    He, Xin; Pan, Junhua


    A relatively large aperture (375 mm) optical system working at f/1.6 for a low-light-level movable TV camera has been designed. In the process of designing, advantages and defects of a catadioptric system with all spherical surfaces and three kinds of aspherical systems have been compared. The optical system we finally adopted is a reflecting system with two aspherical surfaces. Its primary mirror is hyperboloid and the secondary is a high order planary aspherical surface. Maximal asphericity is 0.048 mm and 0.007 mm, respectively. There are also two small correcting lenses (crown and flint glass) near focus in order to correct curvature of field and astigmatism. Within 2.4 degree(s) field of view, spot diagrams show that the maximal image is 0.035 mm in diameter with a flat focal plane over the wavelength 4861 angstrom to 6563 angstrom. The total weight of the optical elements is about 14 Kg. The optical tube length is about 277 mm and its T/Number is 2.

  3. Observable measure of quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. (United States)

    Girolami, Davide


    Quantum coherence is the key resource for quantum technology, with applications in quantum optics, information processing, metrology, and cryptography. Yet, there is no universally efficient method for quantifying coherence either in theoretical or in experimental practice. I introduce a framework for measuring quantum coherence in finite dimensional systems. I define a theoretical measure which satisfies the reliability criteria established in the context of quantum resource theories. Then, I present an experimental scheme implementable with current technology which evaluates the quantum coherence of an unknown state of a d-dimensional system by performing two programmable measurements on an ancillary qubit, in place of the O(d2) direct measurements required by full state reconstruction. The result yields a benchmark for monitoring quantum effects in complex systems, e.g., certifying nonclassicality in quantum protocols and probing the quantum behavior of biological complexes.

  4. Photometric Observation and Light Curve Analysis of Binary System ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... was calculated according to the ephemeris given by Florja. (1931):. Min. I = HJD 2426386.184 + 0d.4233994 × E,. Min. II = HJD 2426386.396 + 0d.4233994 × E. The results can be seen in Table 1. Also for all the observed times of primary and secondary from 1930 to 2007 (according to Czech O–C gateway website) the ...

  5. Taming Big Data Variety in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Walter, Jeff


    Although the volume of the remote sensing data managed by the Earth Observing System Data and Information System is formidable, an oft-overlooked challenge is the variety of data. The diversity in satellite instruments, science disciplines and user communities drives cost as much or more as the data volume. Several strategies are used to tame this variety: data allocation to distinct centers of expertise; a common metadata repository for discovery, data format standards and conventions; and services that further abstract the variations in data.

  6. Characteristics of cloud microphysical properties observed at the Cloud Physical Observation System (CPOS) site in Korea (United States)

    Cha, J.; Yum, S.; Chang, K.


    The Cloud Physics Observation Site (CPOS) site was established in 2004 over the mountainous area in the eastern part of Korea to collect cloud physics data on a long term basis. The instruments installed included a Micro Rain Radar (MRR), a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP), a Microwave radiometer (MWR), and a disdrometer. This study mainly focuses on the bright band and raindrop size distribution (RDSD) characteristics of precipitating clouds measured at the CPOS site for the three year period of 2004-2006. As a comparison we also analyzed the MRR data measured at a western coastal site in Korea, Hae-Nam, HN. First we classified the vertical equivalent reflectivity factor profiles from MRR into three types, low level rain (Type 1), rain with a distinct bright band (Type 2), and convective rain (Type 3). It was found that the mountainous site (CPOS) had more proportion of Types 1 and 2 profiles while Type 3 covered 51% of the coastal site (HN) precipitation, suggesting the prevalence of orographically induced stratiform precipitation at the CPOS and convective precipitation at HN. Furthermore, the bright band appeared to be thicker but the sharpness of the band is weaker for the CPOS Type 2 profiles than those of HN. It was argued that the contrast was due to the dominant growth and melting of unrimed snow particles at HN and the prevailing rimmed ice crystals with the supercooled drops at the CPOS in stratiform precipitation. Preliminary analysis showed that on average the RDSD of HN is larger than those of the CPOS. The difference in RDSD was prominent for the diameter greater than 2.5 mm, where the RDSD of HN was definitely larger than those of the CPOS. As discussed above, these results might be due to the differences in geographical settings between the CPOS and HN; HN was generally affected by convective precipitation and the CPOS has more occurrence of straitform precipitation. Further analyses of the date from other instruments will be presented

  7. A miniature, low-power scientific fluxgate magnetometer: A stepping-stone to cube-satellite constellation missions (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Mann, I. R.; Ciurzynski, M.; Barona, D.; Narod, B. B.; Bennest, J. R.; Pakhotin, I. P.; Kale, A.; Bruner, B.; Nokes, C. D. A.; Cupido, C.; Haluza-DeLay, T.; Elliott, D. G.; Milling, D. K.


    Difficulty in making low noise magnetic measurements is a significant challenge to the use of cube-satellite (CubeSat) platforms for scientific constellation class missions to study the magnetosphere. Sufficient resolution is required to resolve three-dimensional spatiotemporal structures of the magnetic field variations accompanying both waves and current systems of the nonuniform plasmas controlling dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This paper describes the design, validation, and test of a flight-ready, miniature, low-mass, low-power, and low-magnetic noise boom-mounted fluxgate magnetometer for CubeSat applications. The miniature instrument achieves a magnetic noise floor of 150-200 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz, consumes 400 mW of power, has a mass of 121 g (sensor and boom), stows on the hull, and deploys on a 60 cm boom from a three-unit CubeSat reducing the noise from the onboard reaction wheel to less than 1.5 nT at the sensor. The instrument's capabilities will be demonstrated and validated in space in late 2016 following the launch of the University of Alberta Ex-Alta 1 CubeSat, part of the QB50 constellation mission. We illustrate the potential scientific returns and utility of using a CubeSats carrying such fluxgate magnetometers to constitute a magnetospheric constellation using example data from the low-Earth orbit European Space Agency Swarm mission. Swarm data reveal significant changes in the spatiotemporal characteristics of the magnetic fields in the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system, even when the spacecraft are separated by only approximately 10 s along track and approximately 1.4° in longitude.

  8. Observer-Based Fault Estimation and Accomodation for Dynamic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ke; Shi, Peng


    Due to the increasing security and reliability demand of actual industrial process control systems, the study on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of dynamic systems has received considerable attention. Fault accommodation (FA) is one of effective methods that can be used to enhance system stability and reliability, so it has been widely and in-depth investigated and become a hot topic in recent years. Fault detection is used to monitor whether a fault occurs, which is the first step in FA. On the basis of fault detection, fault estimation (FE) is utilized to determine online the magnitude of the fault, which is a very important step because the additional controller is designed using the fault estimate. Compared with fault detection, the design difficulties of FE would increase a lot, so research on FE and accommodation is very challenging. Although there have been advancements reported on FE and accommodation for dynamic systems, the common methods at the present stage have design difficulties, whi...

  9. Controllers with Minimal Observation Power (Application to Timed Systems)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulychev, Petr; Cassez, Franck; David, Alexandre


    . Our solution avoids a full exploration of all possi- ble subsets of predicates and reuses some information between different iterations. We apply our approach to timed systems. We have developed a tool prototype and analyze the performance of our optimization algo- rithm on two case studies....

  10. Typology of person-environment fit constellations: a platform addressing accessibility problems in the built environment for people with functional limitations. (United States)

    Slaug, Björn; Schilling, Oliver; Iwarsson, Susanne; Carlsson, Gunilla


    Making the built environment accessible for all regardless of functional capacity is an important goal for public health efforts. Considerable impediments to achieving this goal suggest the need for valid measurements of acccessibility and for greater attention to the complexity of person-environment fit issues. To address these needs, this study aimed to provide a methodological platform, useful for further research and instrument development within accessibility research. This was accomplished by the construction of a typology of problematic person-environment fit constellations, utilizing an existing methodology developed to assess and analyze accessibility problems in the built environment. By means of qualitative review and statistical methods we classified the person-environment fit components covered by an existing application which targets housing accessibility: the Housing Enabler (HE) instrument. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used as a conceptual framework. Qualitative classification principles were based on conceptual similarities and for quantitative analysis of similarities, Principal Component Analysis was carried out. We present a typology of problematic person-environment fit constellations classified along three dimensions: 1) accessibility problem range and severity 2) aspects of functioning 3) environmental context. As a result of the classification of the HE components, 48 typical person-environment fit constellations were recognised. The main contribution of this study is the proposed typology of person-environment fit constellations. The typology provides a methodological platform for the identification and quantification of problematic person-environment fit constellations. Its link to the globally accepted ICF classification system facilitates communication within the scientific and health care practice communities. The typology also highlights how relations between aspects of functioning

  11. An Earth Observation Land Data Assimilation System (EO-LDAS) (United States)

    Gomez-Dans, Jose; Lewis, Philip; Quaife, Tristan; Kaminski, Tomas; Styles, Jon


    In order to monitor the land surface, EO data provides the means of achieving global coverage in a timely fashion. Different sensors orbit the Earth acquiring data at different times and with different spectral and spatial properties. Blending all these observations presents a considerable challenge. Purely statistical methods based on machine learning techniques require accurate and extensive ground truth for "training" models. The complexities of the processes that take place in the scene result in limited usefulness of these models outside their training region or period. Models that describe the physical processes that give rise to the measurements, based on radiative transfer theory, offer a more robust way of interpreting the recorded data and relating it to surface properties such as leaf area index, chlorophyll concentration, etc. Unfortunately, the information content in the signals is rarely sufficient to unambigously determine the many parameters that are required in typical radiative transfer models. To improve on this, the use of prior information is required. Typically, this information is given as parameter ranges, or maybe even distributions, which can have a positive effect in the so-called "inverse problem". Data assimilation techniques allow one to use models of the land surface as priors, to constrain the inverse problem. These models can be very useful in improving the ability of inverting the observations, as the models can give very valuable information on the dynamics of some parameters, like LAI. However, some parameters that have a strong bearing on the observations (some pigments, leaf angle distributions...) have no analogues in typical DGVMs. In this work, we introduce and demonstrate the use of weak constraint 4DVAR data assimilation to the problem of inverting optical RT models. We demonstrate that the use of this technique results in important gains in parameter uncertainty reduction for a typical satellite mission, including

  12. Mastermind mutations generate a unique constellation of midline cells within the Drosophila CNS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Notch pathway functions repeatedly during the development of the central nervous system in metazoan organisms to control cell fate and regulate cell proliferation and asymmetric cell divisions. Within the Drosophila midline cell lineage, which bisects the two symmetrical halves of the central nervous system, Notch is required for initial cell specification and subsequent differentiation of many midline lineages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we provide the first description of the role of the Notch co-factor, mastermind, in the central nervous system midline of Drosophila. Overall, zygotic mastermind mutations cause an increase in midline cell number and decrease in midline cell diversity. Compared to mutations in other components of the Notch signaling pathway, such as Notch itself and Delta, zygotic mutations in mastermind cause the production of a unique constellation of midline cell types. The major difference is that midline glia form normally in zygotic mastermind mutants, but not in Notch and Delta mutants. Moreover, during late embryogenesis, extra anterior midline glia survive in zygotic mastermind mutants compared to wild type embryos. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is an example of a mutation in a signaling pathway cofactor producing a distinct central nervous system phenotype compared to mutations in major components of the pathway.

  13. Open Source Dataturbine (OSDT) Android Sensorpod in Environmental Observing Systems (United States)

    Fountain, T. R.; Shin, P.; Tilak, S.; Trinh, T.; Smith, J.; Kram, S.


    The OSDT Android SensorPod is a custom-designed mobile computing platform for assembling wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring applications. Funded by an award from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the OSDT SensorPod represents a significant technological advance in the application of mobile and cloud computing technologies to near-real-time applications in environmental science, natural resources management, and disaster response and recovery. It provides a modular architecture based on open standards and open-source software that allows system developers to align their projects with industry best practices and technology trends, while avoiding commercial vendor lock-in to expensive proprietary software and hardware systems. The integration of mobile and cloud-computing infrastructure represents a disruptive technology in the field of environmental science, since basic assumptions about technology requirements are now open to revision, e.g., the roles of special purpose data loggers and dedicated site infrastructure. The OSDT Android SensorPod was designed with these considerations in mind, and the resulting system exhibits the following characteristics - it is flexible, efficient and robust. The system was developed and tested in the three science applications: 1) a fresh water limnology deployment in Wisconsin, 2) a near coastal marine science deployment at the UCSD Scripps Pier, and 3) a terrestrial ecological deployment in the mountains of Taiwan. As part of a public education and outreach effort, a Facebook page with daily ocean pH measurements from the UCSD Scripps pier was developed. Wireless sensor networks and the virtualization of data and network services is the future of environmental science infrastructure. The OSDT Android SensorPod was designed and developed to harness these new technology developments for environmental monitoring applications.

  14. USAFA Integrated Miniaturized Electrostatic Analyzer (iMESA)—An Undergraduate Space Weather Constellation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McHarg, Geoff; Neal, Parris; Taormina, Nikolas; Strom, Alex; Balthazor, Richard


    Air Force Academy cadets design and build a space weather constellation Instruments measure plasma density and temperature, spacecraft charging, total dose, and dose rate Increasing density of in situ...

  15. A walk through the heavens : a guide to stars and constellations and their legends (United States)

    Heifetz, Milton D.; Tirion, Wil

    What star is that? Where's the Great Bear? Who was Andromeda? A Walk through the Heavens is your guide to the pathways of the night sky, answering the commonest questions about what you can see up there. There are simplified maps of the constellations, together with instructions on how to gauge their sizes and the distances between them. With this information you can find the constellations easily, and make a journey by eye from one constellation to the next. Ancient myths surrounding the constellations are retold, enriching our understanding of how historical peoples saw the awe-inspiring spectacle of a sky sprinkled with stars. This book, magically illustrated by Wil Tirion, does not require any instrument or telescope. It is an ideal introduction to launch a young astronomer on a journey across starlit skies.

  16. The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Planetary Systems (HOSTS) (United States)

    Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W. C.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Skemer, A.; Stapeldfeld, K.; Weinberger, A.; Wyatt, M.; Absil, O.; Bailey, V.; Beichman, C.; Downey, E.; Grenz, P.; Haniff, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Kennedy, G.; Lebreton, J.; Leisenring, J.; Marion, L.; Mahon, T. M.; Montoya, M.; Rieke, G.; Roberge, A.; Serabyn, E.; Su, K.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Vaz, A.


    The presence of large amounts of exozodiacal dust around nearby main sequence stars is considered as a potential threat for the direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets and, hence, the search for biosignatures (Roberge et al. 2012). However, it is also considered as a signpost for the presence of terrestrial planets that might be hidden in the dust disk (Stark and Kuchner 2008). Characterizing exozodiacal dust around nearby sequence stars is therefore a crucial step toward one of the main goals of modern astronomy: finding extraterrestrial life. After briefly reviewing the latest results in this field, we present the exozodiacal dust survey on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI). The survey is called HOSTS and is specifically designed to determine the prevalence and brightness of exozodiacal dust disks with the sensitivity required to prepare for future New Worlds Missions that will image Earth-like exoplanets. To achieve this objective, the LBTI science team has carefully established a balanced list of 50 nearby main-sequence stars that are likely candidates of these missions and/or can be observed with the best instrument performance (see companion abstract by Roberge et al.). Exozodiacal dust disk candidates detected by the Keck Interferometer Nuller will also be observed. The first results of the survey will be presented. To precisely detect exozodiacal dust, the LBTI combines the two 8-m primary mirrors of the LBT using N-band nulling interferometry. Interferometric combination provides the required angular resolution (70-90 mas) to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main sequence stars while nulling is used to subtract the stellar light and reach the required contrast of a few 10-4. A Kband fringe tracker ensures the stability of the null. The current performance of the instrument and the first nulling measurements will be presented.

  17. Investigating GAIM-GM’s Capability to Sense Ionospheric Irregularities via Walker Satellite Constellations (United States)



  18. Observing the Anthropocene from Space (United States)

    Dittus, Hansjörg


    Influence of mankind on Earth's climate is evident. The growing population using the resources available, especially by burning goal, oil and gas, changes the composition of the Earth's atmosphere with the result of a continuously increasing temperature. Effects are not limited to the regional scale but are evident on the whole planet, meanwhile named Anthropocene. According to this global influence, it's necessary to also extend monitoring to the entire planet. Space-based observation systems are not limited by any artificial borders and are in principle able, to cover the whole Earth. In principle, two different ways of observation can be selected: Either a dedicated spacecraft will be send into low earth orbit (LEO) or existing platforms are used. Advantages of satellites are the more or less freely selectable orbit (with orbits covering also the polar regions) and the possible adaption of spacecraft platform for the dedicated instrument. On the other hand platforms like the ISS space station enable continuous long term coverage with different instruments. The drawback of an only limited coverage based on the orbit inclination is made up by the possibility to service systems on the station. Furthermore different generations of sensors can be run in parallel and therefore cross calibrated if needed. This paper reviews the currently available sensors types and discusses potential future needs. Included in this discussion is the international space station as an already available platform for earth observation. Furthermore, discussion should also take into account, that an increasing number of constellations with dozens or even thousand satellites are planned. Are these constellations also an option for an increased temporal and spatial monitoring of the Earth?

  19. OOSTethys - Open Source Software for the Global Earth Observing Systems of Systems (United States)

    Bridger, E.; Bermudez, L. E.; Maskey, M.; Rueda, C.; Babin, B. L.; Blair, R.


    An open source software project is much more than just picking the right license, hosting modular code and providing effective documentation. Success in advancing in an open collaborative way requires that the process match the expected code functionality to the developer's personal expertise and organizational needs as well as having an enthusiastic and responsive core lead group. We will present the lessons learned fromOOSTethys , which is a community of software developers and marine scientists who develop open source tools, in multiple languages, to integrate ocean observing systems into an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS). OOSTethys' goal is to dramatically reduce the time it takes to install, adopt and update standards-compliant web services. OOSTethys has developed servers, clients and a registry. Open source PERL, PYTHON, JAVA and ASP tool kits and reference implementations are helping the marine community publish near real-time observation data in interoperable standard formats. In some cases publishing an OpenGeospatial Consortium (OGC), Sensor Observation Service (SOS) from NetCDF files or a database or even CSV text files could take only minutes depending on the skills of the developer. OOSTethys is also developing an OGC standard registry, Catalog Service for Web (CSW). This open source CSW registry was implemented to easily register and discover SOSs using ISO 19139 service metadata. A web interface layer over the CSW registry simplifies the registration process by harvesting metadata describing the observations and sensors from the “GetCapabilities” response of SOS. OPENIOOS is the web client, developed in PERL to visualize the sensors in the SOS services. While the number of OOSTethys software developers is small, currently about 10 around the world, the number of OOSTethys toolkit implementers is larger and growing and the ease of use has played a large role in spreading the use of interoperable standards compliant web services widely

  20. Towards a regional coastal ocean observing system: An initial design for the Southeast Coastal Ocean Observing Regional Association (United States)

    Seim, H. E.; Fletcher, M.; Mooers, C. N. K.; Nelson, J. R.; Weisberg, R. H.


    A conceptual design for a southeast United States regional coastal ocean observing system (RCOOS) is built upon a partnership between institutions of the region and among elements of the academic, government and private sectors. This design envisions support of a broad range of applications (e.g., marine operations, natural hazards, and ecosystem-based management) through the routine operation of predictive models that utilize the system observations to ensure their validity. A distributed information management system enables information flow, and a centralized information hub serves to aggregate information regionally and distribute it as needed. A variety of observing assets are needed to satisfy model requirements. An initial distribution of assets is proposed that recognizes the physical structure and forcing in the southeast U.S. coastal ocean. In-situ data collection includes moorings, profilers and gliders to provide 3D, time-dependent sampling, HF radar and surface drifters for synoptic sampling of surface currents, and satellite remote sensing of surface ocean properties. Nested model systems are required to properly represent ocean conditions from the outer edge of the EEZ to the watersheds. An effective RCOOS will depend upon a vital "National Backbone" (federally supported) system of in situ and satellite observations, model products, and data management. This dependence highlights the needs for a clear definition of the National Backbone components and a Concept of Operations (CONOPS) that defines the roles, functions and interactions of regional and federal components of the integrated system. A preliminary CONOPS is offered for the Southeast (SE) RCOOS. Thorough system testing is advocated using a combination of application-specific and process-oriented experiments. Estimates of costs and personnel required as initial components of the SE RCOOS are included. Initial thoughts on the Research and Development program required to support the RCOOS are

  1. The European Marine Observing Network and the development of an Integrated European Ocean Observing System. An EuroGOOS perspective (United States)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Gorringe, Patrick; Nolan, Glenn


    The ocean benefits many sectors of society, being the biggest reservoir of heat, water, carbon and oxygen and playing a fundamental role regulating the earth's climate. We rely on the oceans for food, transport, energy and recreation. Therefore, a sustained marine observation network is crucial to further our understanding of the oceanic environment and to supply scientific data to meet society's need. Marine data and observations in Europe, collected primarily by state governmental agencies, is offered via five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) within the context of EuroGOOS (, an International Non-Profit Association of national governmental agencies and research organizations (40 members from 19 member states) committed to European-scale operational oceanography within the context of the Intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Strong cooperation within these regions, enabling the involvement of additional partners and countries, forms the basis of EuroGOOS work. Ocean data collected from different type of sensors (e.g. moored buoys, tide gauges, Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars, gliders and profiling floats) is accessible to scientist and other end users through data portals and initiatives such as the European Marine Observations and Data Network (EMODnet) ( and the Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus ( Although a relatively mature European ocean observing capability already exists and its well-coordinated at European level, some gaps have been identified, for example the demand for ecosystem products and services, or the case that biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. Assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems is still

  2. Towards European organisation for integrated greenhouse gas observation system (United States)

    Kaukolehto, Marjut; Vesala, Timo; Sorvari, Sanna; Juurola, Eija; Paris, Jean-Daniel


    Climate change is one the most challenging problems that humanity will have to cope with in the coming decades. The perturbed global biogeochemical cycles of the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) are a major driving force of current and future climate change. Deeper understanding of the driving forces of climate change requires full quantification of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks and their evolution. Regional greenhouse gas budgets, tipping-points, vulnerabilities and the controlling mechanisms can be assessed by long term, high precision observations in the atmosphere and at the ocean and land surface. ICOS RI is a distributed infrastructure for on-line, in-situ monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHG) necessary to understand their present-state and future sinks and sources. ICOS RI provides the long-term observations required to understand the present state and predict future behaviour of the global carbon cycle and greenhouse gas emissions. Linking research, education and innovation promotes technological development and demonstrations related to greenhouse gases. The first objective of ICOS RI is to provide effective access to coherent and precise data and to provide assessments of GHG inventories with high temporal and spatial resolution. The second objective is to provide profound information for research and understanding of regional budgets of greenhouse gas sources and sinks, their human and natural drivers, and the controlling mechanisms. ICOS is one of several ESFRI initiatives in the environmental science domain. There is significant potential for structural and synergetic interaction with several other ESFRI initiatives. ICOS RI is relevant for Joint Programming by providing the data access for the researchers and acting as a contact point for developing joint strategic research agendas among European member states. The preparatory phase ends in March 2013 and there will be an interim period before the legal entity will

  3. Compensation of Imperfections for Vibratory Gyroscope Systems Using State Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu CHI


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach that can compensate errors resulting from the imperfections of mechanical structures and interface circuits for MEMS gyroscope systems. Different from most of existing researches on gyroscopes wherein the mechanical structure and interface circuit are either assumed to be ideal or optimized individually, this approach uses state estimation techniques to compensate all those errors and to obtain correct angular rates in real time. The mechanical structure errors discussed in this paper may come from structure designs and fabrication imperfections. The interface circuit errors include: mismatch of differential capacitors, parasitic capacitance, offset voltage of operation amplifiers, and circuit noise. Simulation results indicates that, with the presence of those errors and a signal-to-noise ratio around 20, the proposed method can measure time-varying angular rates with a bandwidth up to 30 Hz and a sensing accuracy of 1×10-2 rad/sec.

  4. Observing the stars. Love in the age of systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjetil Ansgar Jakobsen


    Full Text Available A number of scholars have demonstrated how the cultural industry involves people in a participatory culture in which users actively construct personal identities. However, the link between a public of mass-mediated entertainment and the private sphere of intimacy and personal identity is a paradox. A consistent theory to clarify that paradox is lacking in the cultural studies literature. I suggest that social systems theory in the Luhmannian tradition may explain in economical terms why the continuous performance and intensification of the paradox of mass-mediated intimacy is a major trait of contemporary culture. Nevertheless, the article does not address normative issues. It is neither an apology for the culture industry, nor a condemnation. The aim is simply to bring one of the most powerful tools of analysis in social theory today to bear on an aspect of modern society which is as important as it is baffling.

  5. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  6. A UAV System for Observing Volcanoes and Natural Hazards (United States)

    Saggiani, G.; Persiani, F.; Ceruti, A.; Tortora, P.; Troiani, E.; Giuletti, F.; Amici, S.; Buongiorno, M.; Distefano, G.; Bentini, G.; Bianconi, M.; Cerutti, A.; Nubile, A.; Sugliani, S.; Chiarini, M.; Pennestri, G.; Petrini, S.; Pieri, D.


    Fixed or rotary wing manned aircraft are currently the most commonly used platforms for airborne reconnaissance in response to natural hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, oil spills, wild fires, earthquakes. Such flights are very often undertaken in hazardous flying conditions (e.g., turbulence, downdrafts, reduced visibility, close proximity to dangerous terrain) and can be expensive. To mitigate these two fundamental issues-- safety and cost--we are exploring the use of small (less than 100kg), relatively inexpensive, but effective, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for this purpose. As an operational test, in 2004 we flew a small autonomous UAV in the airspace above and around Stromboli Volcano. Based in part on this experience, we are adapting the RAVEN UAV system for such natural hazard surveillance missions. RAVEN has a 50km range, with a 3.5m wingspan, main fuselage length of 4.60m, and maximum weight of 56kg. It has autonomous flight capability and a ground control Station for the mission planning and control. It will carry a variety of imaging devices, including a visible camera, and an IR camera. It will also carry an experimental Fourier micro-interferometer based on MOEMS technology, (developed by IMM Institute of CNR), to detect atmospheric trace gases. Such flexible, capable, and easy-to-deploy UAV systems may significantly shorten the time necessary to characterize the nature and scale of the natural hazard threats if used from the outset of, and systematically during, natural hazard events. When appropriately utilized, such UAVs can provide a powerful new hazard mitigation and documentation tool for civil protection hazard responders. This research was carried out under the auspices of the Italian government, and, in part, under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  7. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools (United States)

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.


    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  8. Projective Synchronization of Fractional Order Chaotic Systems Based on State Observer (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Hu, Zun-Wen


    Based on the stability theory of fractional order systems and the pole placement technique, this paper designs a synchronization scheme with the state observer method and achieves the projective synchronization of a class of fractional order chaotic systems. Taking an example for the fractional order unified system by using this observer controller, and numerical simulations of fractional order Lorenz-like system, fractional order Lü system and fractional order Chen system are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  9. Observation of CP violation in the B(0) meson system. (United States)

    Aubert, B; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Palano, A; Chen, G P; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Reinertsen, P L; Stugu, B; Abbott, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Clark, A R; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kluth, S; Kolomensky, Y G; Kral, J F; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Liu, T; Lynch, G; Meyer, A B; Momayezi, M; Oddone, P J; Perazzo, A; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Zisman, M S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Krug, J; Kunze, M; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Andress, J C; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; De Groot, N; Dyce, N; Foster, B; McFall, J D; Wallom, D; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Tinslay, J; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Bukin, D A; Buzykaev, A R; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Salnikov, A A; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Y I; Telnov, V I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Ahsan, A; Arisaka, K; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; Branson, J G; MacFarlane, D B; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Sharma, V; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Witherell, M; Yellin, S; Beringer, J; Dorfan, D E; Eisner, A M; Frey, A; Grillo, A A; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Johnson, R P; Kroeger, W; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Sadrozinski, H; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Metzler, S; Oyang, J; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Weaver, M; Yang, S; Zhu, R Y; Devmal, S; Geld, T L; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Bloom, P; Dima, M O; Fahey, S; Ford, W T; Johnson, D R; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Park, H; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Sen, S; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Wagner, D L; Blouw, J; Harton, J L; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dahlinger, G; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Behr, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; Roussot, E; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Dittongo, S; Folegani, M; Piemontese, L; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Xie, Y; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Fabbricatore, P; Farinon, S; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Musenich, R; Pallavicini, M; Parodi, R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Pia, M G; Priano, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Morii, M; Bartoldus, R; Dignan, T; Hamilton, R; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Fischer, P A; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Rosenberg, E I; Benkebil, M; Grosdidier, G; Hast, C; Höcker, A; Lacker, H M; Laplace, S; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Valassi, A; Wormser, G; Bionta, R M; Brigljević, V; Lange, D J; Mugge, M; Shi, X; van Bibber, K; Wenaus, T J; Wright, D M; Wuest, C R; Carroll, M; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, M; Kay, M; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Aspinwall, M L; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gunawardane, N J; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Smith, D; Azzopardi, D E; Back, J J; Dixon, P; Harrison, P F; Potter, R J; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Williams, M I; Cowan, G; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McGrath, P; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Scott, I; Vaitsas, G; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Boyd, J T; Forti, A C; Fullwood, J; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Savvas, N; Simopoulos, E T; Weatherall, J H; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Lillard, V; Olsen, J; Roberts, D A; Schieck, J R; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Moore, T B; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Brau, B; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Trischuk, J; Lanni, F; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Booke, M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Martin, J P; Nief, J Y; Seitz, R; Taras, P; Zacek, V; Nicholson, H; Sutton, C S; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; LoSecco, J M; Alsmiller, J R; Gabriel, T A; Handler, T; Brau, J; Frey, R; Iwasaki, M; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Colecchia, F; Dal Corso, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Michelon, G; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Torassa, E; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de La Vaissière, C; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; Le Diberder, F; Leruste, P; Lory, J; Roos, L; Stark, J; Versillé, S; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Speziali, V; Frank, E D; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J H; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Simi, G; Triggiani, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Turnbull, L; Wagoner, D E; Albert, J; Bula, C; Elmer, P; Lu, C; McDonald, K T; Miftakov, V; Schaffner, S F; Smith, A J; Tumanov, A; Varnes, E W; Cavoto, G; del Re, D; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Fratini, K; Lamanna, E; Leonardi, E; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Serra, M; Voena, C; Christ, S; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; De Domenico, G; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P F; Hamel De Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Serfass, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, C; Zito, M; Copty, N; Purohit, M V; Singh, H; Yumiceva, F X; Adam, I; Anthony, P L; Aston, D; Baird, K; Berger, J P; Bloom, E; Boyarski, A M; Bulos, F; Calderini, G; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Coward, D H; Dorfan, J; Dorser, M; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G L; Gowdy, S J; Grosso, P; Himel, T; Hryn'ova, T; Huffer, M E; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langennegger, U; Leith, D W; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Mount, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Quinn, H; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Rochester, L S; Roodman, A; Schietinger, T; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Seeman, J T; Serbo, V V; Snyder, S R; Soha, A; Spanier, S M; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Tanaka, H A; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weinstein, A J; Wienands, U; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Cheng, C H; Kirkby, D; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Henderson, R; Bugg, W; Cohn, H; Weidemann, A W; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Turcotte, M; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; DiGirolamo, B; Gamba, D; Smol, A; Zanin, D; Bosisio, L; Della Ricci, G; Lanceri, L; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Brown, C M; De Silva, A; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Charles, E; Dasu, S; Di Lodovico, F; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Liu, R; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Scott, I J; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Zobernig, H; Kordich, T M; Neal, H


    We present an updated measurement of time-dependent CP-violating asymmetries in neutral B decays with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC. This result uses an additional sample of Upsilon(4S) decays collected in 2001, bringing the data available to 32 x 10(6) BB macro pairs. We select events in which one neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in a final state containing charmonium and the flavor of the other neutral B meson is determined from its decay products. The amplitude of the CP-violating asymmetry, which in the standard model is proportional to sin2 beta, is derived from the decay time distributions in such events. The result sin2 beta = 0.59+/-0.14(stat)+/-0.05(syst) establishes CP violation in the B(0) meson system. We also determine absolute value of lambda = 0.93+/-0.09(stat)+/-0.03(syst), consistent with no direct CP violation.

  10. Rebuilding Afghanistan’s Higher Educational System: Observations from Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper describes the crucial issues and challenges facing Afghanistan’s universities as they begin the demanding task of rebuilding and restructuring their university system after two decades of war and civil unrest. The setting for this qualitative study is a four-day professional development conference for Afghan university presidents and academic deans sponsored and funded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Afghanistan Ministry of Higher Education. Cooperative Studies (an NGO, not-for-profit educational organization located in Kansas City provided a team of academics to Kabul, Afghanistan, to offer professional development workshops. Using the Grounded Theory Methodology as a theoretical framework for this research, data was derived from interactive sessions, questionnaires, informal dialogue, small group sessions and question and answer sessions; the perspectives of the 39 Afghan academic leaders are presented as they describe the problems facing university administrators in their country today. Findings identify these challenges and center on 1 the lack of autonomy; 2 the need for qualified faculty; 3 concerns regarding students’ access and preparation; and 4 concerns about funding and budget issues. Based on these findings, policy suggestions and recommendations are provided.

  11. Mid- and long-term effects of family constellation seminars in a general population sample: 8- and 12-month follow-up. (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Weinhold, Jan; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Schweitzer, Jochen


    In a previous randomized controlled trial (RCT), short-term efficacy of family constellation seminars (FCSs) in a general population sample was demonstrated. In this article, we examined mid- and long-term stability of these effects. Participants were 104 adults (M = 47 years; SD = 9; 84% female) who were part of the intervention group in the original RCT (3-day FCS; 64 active participants and 40 observing participants). FCSs were carried out according to manuals. It was predicted that FCSs would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 8- and 12-month follow-up. Additionally, we assessed the effects of FCSs on psychological distress, motivational incongruence, individuals' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. Participants yielded significant improvement in psychological functioning (d = 0.41 at 8-month follow-up, p = .000; d = 0.40 at 12-month follow-up, p = .000). Results were confirmed for psychological distress, motivational incongruence, the participants' experience in their personal social systems, and overall goal attainment. No adverse events were reported. This study provides first evidence for the mid- and long-term efficacy of FCSs in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  12. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico


    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  13. Advancing the Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective (United States)

    Edwards, A. W.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.


    The purpose of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), a network of Earth observation and information systems, contributed on a voluntary basis by Members and Participating Organisations of the intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, in order to improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behaviour of the Earth system. Such a global research effort requires an integrated multi-disciplinary effort that is underpinned by a cyber-infrastructure which is able to discover and access vast quantities of data across heterogeneous information systems and many disciplines. As GEO develops and the implementation of the GEOSS gathers pace, it is becoming common practice for groups to be organised at national, regional and international level to address critical issues. In many cases these groups evolve to become "communities", organising themselves to carry out tasks of interest to that community. In most cases, communities develop their own "community portal" to provide a focal point on the web for their activities. The data and information held by the members of a specific community can normally be discovered via their particular "community portal". There is now a clear recognition that the many thematic community initiatives, each with their own information system and portal, need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomes possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to

  14. Assimilating Remote Sensing Observations of Leaf Area Index and Soil Moisture for Wheat Yield Estimates: An Observing System Simulation Experiment (United States)

    Nearing, Grey S.; Crow, Wade T.; Thorp, Kelly R.; Moran, Mary S.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Gupta, Hoshin V.


    Observing system simulation experiments were used to investigate ensemble Bayesian state updating data assimilation of observations of leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture (theta) for the purpose of improving single-season wheat yield estimates with the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) CropSim-Ceres model. Assimilation was conducted in an energy-limited environment and a water-limited environment. Modeling uncertainty was prescribed to weather inputs, soil parameters and initial conditions, and cultivar parameters and through perturbations to model state transition equations. The ensemble Kalman filter and the sequential importance resampling filter were tested for the ability to attenuate effects of these types of uncertainty on yield estimates. LAI and theta observations were synthesized according to characteristics of existing remote sensing data, and effects of observation error were tested. Results indicate that the potential for assimilation to improve end-of-season yield estimates is low. Limitations are due to a lack of root zone soil moisture information, error in LAI observations, and a lack of correlation between leaf and grain growth.

  15. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation (United States)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.


    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  16. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.


    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  17. Radiated EMC& EMI Management During Design Qualification and Test Phases on LEO Satellites Constellation (United States)

    Blondeaux, H.; Terral, M.; Gutierrez-Galvan, R.; Baud, C.


    The aim of the proposed paper is to present the global radiated EMC/EMI approach applied by Thales Alenia Space in the frame of a telecommunication Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites constellation program. The paper will present this approach in term of analyses, of specific characterisation and of sub-system and satellite tests since first design reviews up-to satellite qualification tests on Prototype Flight Model (PFM) and to production tests on reduced FMs. The global aim is : 1 - to reduce risk and cost (units EMC delta qualification, EMC tests at satellite level for the 81 Space Vehicles (SV) through appropriated EMC analyses (in term of methodologies and contours) provided in the frame of design reviews.2 - to early anticipate potential critical case to reduce the impact in term of engineering/qualification/test extra cost and of schedule.3 - to secure/assure the payload and SV design/layout.4 - to define and optimize the EMC/EMI test campaigns to be performed on Prototype Flight Model (PFM) for complete qualification and on some FMs for industrial qualification/validation.The last part of the paper is dedicated to system Bite Error Rate (BER) functional test performed on PFM SV to demonstrate the final compatibility between the three on-board payloads and to the Internal EMC tests performed on PFM and some FMs to demonstrate the SV panel RF shielding efficiency before and after environmental tests and the Thales Alenia Space (TAS) and Orbital AKT (OATK) workmanships reproducibility.

  18. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Constellation Space Suit Element Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Study (United States)

    Tang, Henry H.; Orndoff, Evelyne S.; Thomas, Gretchen A.


    This paper discusses the effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be very robust and function in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment for up to one hundred Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam protection materials. It also presents the materials properties test results and impact drop test results of the various foam materials evaluated in the study. The findings from this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam properties or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  19. Misfire detection based on switched state observer of hybrid system in internal combustion engine (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tonglin; Zheng, Taixiong; Han, Weimin; Tan, Rui; Wang, Yanjun


    This paper proposes a novel switched state observer of hybrid system using Luenberger sliding mode observer to estimate crankshaft angular acceleration which is further applied to detect misfire fault. The output error of hybrid system of internal combustion engine (engine speed) and the designed observer (estimated speed) is taken as input of observer to estimate crankshaft acceleration. Convergence of hybrid system is proven through Lyapunov stability theory. The experimental results show that the presented estimated technique has a higher accuracy and can be effectively used to misfire detection compared with reduced-order observer and sliding mode observer.

  20. An Overview of the Earth Observing System MODIS Instrument and Associated Data Systems Performance (United States)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Barnes, William; Xiong, Jack; Kempler, Steve; Masuoka, Ed


    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra Mission began to produce data in February 2000. Now a little over 2 years from that time, the instrument continues to produce good data and products for land, oceans, and atmospheres studies are reaching or achieved maturity for science and applications studies. All subsystems of the instrument are performing as expected: the signal-to-noise (S/N) performance meets or exceeds specifications, band-to-band registration meets specifications, geodetic registration of observations is nearing 50 meters (one sigma) and the spectral bands are located where they were intended to be pre-launch and attendant gains and offsets are stable to date. Some problems with electronic noise, optical leaks, etc. have been identified and solutions to compensate or eliminate these effects have been successful. The data systems have produced a complete year or more for all data products extending from November 2000. Efforts are underway to provide data sets for the greater Earth science community and to improve access to these products at the various Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's). The MODIS instrument on the EOS Aqua mission should also be expected to be in orbit and functioning in the Spring of 2002.

  1. Earth Radiation Imbalance from a Constellation of 66 Iridium Satellites: Climate Science Aspects (United States)

    Wiscombe, W.; Chiu, CJ. Y.


    The "global warming hiatus" since the 1998 El Nino, highlighted by Meehl et al., and the resulting "missing energy" problem highlighted by Trenberth et al., has opened the door to a more fundamental view of climate change than mere surface air temperature. That new view is based on two variables which are strongly correlated: the rate of change of ocean heat content d(OHC)/dt; and Earth Radiation Imbalance (ERI) at the top of the atmosphere, whose guesstimated range is 0.4 to 0.9 Watts per square meters (this imbalance being mainly due to increasing CO2). The Argo float array is making better and better measurements of OHC. But existing satellite systems cannot measure ERI to even one significant digit. So, climate model predictions of ERI are used in place of real measurements of it, and the satellite data are tuned to the climate model predictions. Some oceanographers say "just depend on Argo for understanding the global warming hiatus and the missing energy", but we don't think this is a good idea because d(OHC)/dt and ERI have different time scales and are never perfectly correlated. We think the ERB community needs to step up to measuring ERI correctly, just as oceanographers have deployed Argo to measure OHC correctly. This talk will overview a proposed constellation of 66 Earth radiation budget instruments, hosted on Iridium satellites, that will actually be able to measure ERI to at least one significant digit, thus enabling a crucial test of climate models. This constellation will also be able to provide ERI at two-hourly time scales and 500-km spatial scales without extrapolations from uncalibrated narrowband geostationary instruments, using the highly successful methods of GRACE to obtain spatial resolution. This high time resolution would make ERI a synoptic variable like temperature, and allow studies of ERI's response to fast-evolving phenomena like dust storms and hurricanes and even brief excursions of Total Solar Irradiance. Time permitting, we

  2. Development of in-situ fatigue crack observing system for rotating bending fatigue testing machine


    Lian, B.; Ueno, A; Iwashita, T


    To substitute for a traditional replication technique, an in-situ fatigue crack observing system for rotating bending testing machine has been newly developed. For verifying performance of this observing system, fatigue tests were carried out by using fatigue specimen having a small artificial defect. It is proved that this system can be detect a small fatigue crack and its propagation behavior.

  3. Development of in-situ fatigue crack observing system for rotating bending fatigue testing machine


    Lian, B.; Ueno, A; Iwashita, T


    To substitute for a traditional replication technique, an in-situ fatigue crack observing system for rotating bending testing machine has been newly developed. For verifying performance of this observing system, fatigue tests were carried out by using fatigue specimen having a small artificial defect. It is proved that this system can be detect a small fatigue crack and its propagation behavior.

  4. Habitability and Observability of Proxima Cen and TRAPPIST-1 Planetary Systems (United States)

    Turbet, M.; Forget, F.; Leconte, J.; Selsis, F.; Bolmont, E.


    We use sophisticated 3-D numerical climate models to explore the habitability of two nearby planetary systems: Proxima Cen and TRAPPIST-1. Then we produce synthetic observables to prepare future observations with JWST and ELT-class telescopes.

  5. Remote-sensing imperatives of the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Summerhayes, C.; Desa, E.; Swamy, G.N.

    This paper discusses the implications of the recent progress in the implementation of Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), to the satellite remote-sensing community. The imperatives are to increase the scales of observation and thus to extend...

  6. Wavelength conversion of optical 64QAM through FWM in HNLF and its performance optimization by constellation monitoring. (United States)

    Lu, Guo-Wei; Sakamoto, Takahide; Kawanishi, Tetsuya


    All-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) plays an important role in the future transparent optical networks, in order to enhance the re-configurability and non-blocking capacity. On the other hand, high-order quadrature amplitude modulations (QAMs) have been extensively studied for achieving the high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical transmission. Since high-order QAMs are more sensitive to phase and amplitude noise, to implement an AOWC sub-system suitable for high-order QAM signals with minimized power penalty, it is important to optimize the operation conditions in order to avoid extra nonlinear distortions co-existed in the AOWC process. Our experimental results show that, constellation monitoring provides a more intuitive and accurate approach to monitor the converted high-order QAM signals, especially in presence of nonlinear phase noise such as self-phase modulation (SPM). We experimentally demonstrate an AOWC of 64QAM signal through four-wave mixing (FWM) in highly-nonlinear (HNLF). The performance of the AOWC is optimized through the constellation monitoring of the converted signal, achieving a negligible power penalty (<0.3 dB at BER of 10(-3)) for 60-Gbps 64QAM after conversion.

  7. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS) (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann


    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  8. Transitions Towards Operational Space-Based Ocean Observations: From Single Research Missions into Series and Constellations (United States)


    globalisation has definitely advantages in terms of meeting temporal and spatial requirements provided that timely open access to data is guaranteed and... impacts of human activities. Ocean Salinity is a new community in satellite oceanography and therefore trailing with respect to transitioning into...Robinson, I., Casey, K., Vazquez, J., Armstrong, E.. Arino, O .. Gentcmann, C, May, D., Le Borgne, P., Piolle. J.-F.. Barton, I., Beggs. H , Poulter, D

  9. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - Many Mechanisms for On-Going Evolution (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.


    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System has been serving a broad user community since August 1994. As a long-lived multi-mission system serving multiple scientific disciplines and a diverse user community, EOSDIS has been evolving continuously. It has had and continues to have many forms of community input to help with this evolution. Early in its history, it had inputs from the EOSDIS Advisory Panel, benefited from the reviews by various external committees and evolved into the present distributed architecture with discipline-based Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), Science Investigator-led Processing Systems and a cross-DAAC search and data access capability. EOSDIS evolution has been helped by advances in computer technology, moving from an initially planned supercomputing environment to SGI workstations to Linux Clusters for computation and from near-line archives of robotic silos with tape cassettes to RAID-disk-based on-line archives for storage. The network capacities have increased steadily over the years making delivery of data on media almost obsolete. The advances in information systems technologies have been having an even greater impact on the evolution of EOSDIS. In the early days, the advent of the World Wide Web came as a game-changer in the operation of EOSDIS. The metadata model developed for the EOSDIS Core System for representing metadata from EOS standard data products has had an influence on the Federal Geographic Data Committee's metadata content standard and the ISO metadata standards. The influence works both ways. As ISO 19115 metadata standard has developed in recent years, EOSDIS is reviewing its metadata to ensure compliance with the standard. Improvements have been made in the cross-DAAC search and access of data using the centralized metadata clearing house (EOS Clearing House - ECHO) and the client Reverb. Given the diversity of the Earth science disciplines served by the DAACs, the DAACs have developed a

  10. Blind Source Separation Algorithms Using Hyperbolic and Givens Rotations for High-Order QAM Constellations

    KAUST Repository

    Shah, Syed Awais Wahab


    This paper addresses the problem of blind demixing of instantaneous mixtures in a multiple-input multiple-output communication system. The main objective is to present efficient blind source separation (BSS) algorithms dedicated to moderate or high-order QAM constellations. Four new iterative batch BSS algorithms are presented dealing with the multimodulus (MM) and alphabet matched (AM) criteria. For the optimization of these cost functions, iterative methods of Givens and hyperbolic rotations are used. A pre-whitening operation is also utilized to reduce the complexity of design problem. It is noticed that the designed algorithms using Givens rotations gives satisfactory performance only for large number of samples. However, for small number of samples, the algorithms designed by combining both Givens and hyperbolic rotations compensate for the ill-whitening that occurs in this case and thus improves the performance. Two algorithms dealing with the MM criterion are presented for moderate order QAM signals such as 16-QAM. The other two dealing with the AM criterion are presented for high-order QAM signals. These methods are finally compared with the state of art batch BSS algorithms in terms of signal-to-interference and noise ratio, symbol error rate and convergence rate. Simulation results show that the proposed methods outperform the contemporary batch BSS algorithms.

  11. Mt Pamola, the Electromagnetic Field, EMF, Thunderbird, Mothman and Environmental Monitoring Signals Via the Southern Constellation Phoenix As Detectable In Potato Cave, Acton, MA. (United States)

    Pecora, Andrea S.; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo


    Just below the peak of Mt Pamola in ME, at the juncture with the Knife Edge, downwardly arcing segments of Earths EMF, are manifested by a faint lotus-blossom-blue, neon-like glow at 3 pm some sunny afternoons. Similarly hued glows, and horizontal but variable-arced segmented trajectories, are somewhat periodically detectable under certain conditions in chambers at Acton, MA. These phenomena curiously have the filled-in profile that precisely matches the outline of the southern constellation Phoenix, which is never visible above the nighttime horizon locally. The stick-figure representation of the constellation Canis Major can also be detected in a chamber at Americas Stonehenge, two hours before it has arisen, at certain times. The sequence of phenomena visible at Acton correctly correlates with eclipses and other alignments of our solar system. Phoenix, a.k.a. Thunderbird and Mothman, is detectable elsewhere in MA.

  12. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective (United States)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.


    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  13. Optimizing coverage and revisit time in sparse military satellite constellations a comparison of traditional approaches and genetic algorithms


    Parish, Jason A.


    Sparse military satellite constellations were designed using two methods: a traditional approach and a genetic algorithm. One of the traditional constellation designs was the Discoverer II space based radar. Discoverer II was an 8 plane, 24 satellite, Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Walker constellation designed to provide high-range resolution ground moving target indication (HRR-GMTI), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging and high resolution digital terrain mapping. The traditional method designed...

  14. Observing Participating Observation—A Re-description Based on Systems Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Bering Keiding


    Full Text Available Current methodology concerning participating observation in general leaves the act of observation unobserved. Approaching participating observation from systems theory offers fundamental new insights into the topic. Observation is always participation. There is no way to escape becoming a participant and, as such, co-producer of the observed phenomenon. There is no such thing as a neutral or objective description. As observation deals with differences and process meaning, all descriptions are re-constructions and interpretations of the observed. Hence, the idea of neutral descriptions as well as the idea of the naïve observer becomes a void. Not recognizing and observing oneself as observer and co-producer of empirical data simply leaves the process of observation as the major unobserved absorber of contingency in data production based on participating observation. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1003119

  15. Neural-network-observer-based optimal control for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming (United States)

    Liu, Derong; Huang, Yuzhu; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai


    In this paper, an observer-based optimal control scheme is developed for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm. First, a neural-network (NN) observer is designed to estimate system states. Then, based on the observed states, a neuro-controller is constructed via ADP method to obtain the optimal control. In this design, two NN structures are used: a three-layer NN is used to construct the observer which can be applied to systems with higher degrees of nonlinearity and without a priori knowledge of system dynamics, and a critic NN is employed to approximate the value function. The optimal control law is computed using the critic NN and the observer NN. Uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. The actor, critic, and observer structures are all implemented in real-time, continuously and simultaneously. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  16. Mapping the flow of information within the putative mirror neuron system during gesture observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schippers, Marleen B.; Keysers, Christian


    The putative mirror neuron system may either function as a strict feed-forward system or as a dynamic control system. A strict feed-forward system would predict that action observation leads to a predominantly temporal -> parietal -> premotor flow of information in which a visual representation is

  17. Constellation Shaping for Fiber-optic Channels with QAM and High Spectral Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Zibar, Darko; Larsen, Knud J.


    In this letter the fiber-optic communication channel with Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) input constella- tion is treated. Using probabilistic shaping, we show that high order QAM constellations can achieve and slightly exceed the lower bound on the channel capacity, set by ring constellat......In this letter the fiber-optic communication channel with Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) input constella- tion is treated. Using probabilistic shaping, we show that high order QAM constellations can achieve and slightly exceed the lower bound on the channel capacity, set by ring...... constellations in [1]. We then propose a mapping function for turbo coded bit interleaved coded modulation based on optimization of the mu- tual information between the channel input and output. Using this mapping, spectral efficiency as high as 6.5 bits/s/Hz/polarization is achieved on a simulated single...

  18. Tracing the Energetics of the Universe with Constellation-X: Example Scientific Investigations (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann


    Constellation-X will enable us to trace the energetics of a broad range of astrophysical phenomena owing to its capabilities for high spectral resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The dominant baryonic component of galaxy clusters and groups resides in the X-ray bandpass, and the hot phase of the ISM in galaxies harbors the heavy metal production from previous generation of stars. This talk will focus on a few example science questions that are expected to be important during the Constellation-X era. These include the nature of the missing baryons expected to reside in the hot portion of the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium, which Constellation-X will address via absorption spectroscopy studies of background AGN. We will also discuss spatially resolved spectroscopy of metal enrichment and the effects of turbulence in clusters & groups and of starburst galaxy winds which deposit energy & metals into the Intergalactic Medium.

  19. A New Constellation Configuration Scheme for Communicating Architecture in Cislunar Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu


    Full Text Available A new constellation configuration is proposed to provide near-constant communications between any two points in the cislunar space. Four satellites were allocated on some natural orbits near points by a multiple shooting corrector numerically. The revisiting intervals between the successive revisits on specified points by the constellation are demonstrated both on the geographical maps of the Earth and the Moon, with a consideration of equatorial inclinations with respect to the Earth-Moon orbital plane. Moreover, the coverage periodicity on the Moon is induced by Metonic cycle of 19 years. Cost analysis on stationkeeping and launching is implemented for this constellation in detail. Finally, some aspects about communications, such as satellite links, delays, ground stations, and communication devices, are surveyed preliminarily.

  20. Improving Observability of an Inertial System by Rotary Motions of an IMU. (United States)

    Du, Shuang; Sun, Wei; Gao, Yang


    It has been identified that the inertial system is not a completely observable system in the absence of maneuvers. Although the velocity errors and the accelerometer bias in the vertical direction can be solely observable, other error states, including the attitude errors, the accelerometer biases in the east and north directions, and the gyro biases, are just jointly observable states with velocity measurements, which degrades the estimation accuracy of these error states. This paper proposes an innovative method to improve the system observability for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS)-based Inertial Navigation System (INS) in the absence of maneuvers by rotary motions of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Three IMU rotation schemes, namely IMU continuous rotation about the X, Y and Z axes are employed. The observability is analyzed for the rotating system with a control-theoretic approach, and tests are also conducted based on a turntable to verify the improvements on the system observability by IMU rotations. Both theoretical analysis and the results indicate that the system observability is improved by proposed IMU rotations, the roll and pitch errors, the accelerometer biases in the east and north directions, the gyro biases become observable states in the absence of vehicle maneuvers. Although the azimuth error is still unobservable, the enhanced estimability of the gyro bias in the vertical direction can effectively mitigate the azimuth error accumulation.

  1. Improving Observability of an Inertial System by Rotary Motions of an IMU (United States)

    Du, Shuang; Sun, Wei; Gao, Yang


    It has been identified that the inertial system is not a completely observable system in the absence of maneuvers. Although the velocity errors and the accelerometer bias in the vertical direction can be solely observable, other error states, including the attitude errors, the accelerometer biases in the east and north directions, and the gyro biases, are just jointly observable states with velocity measurements, which degrades the estimation accuracy of these error states. This paper proposes an innovative method to improve the system observability for a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS)-based Inertial Navigation System (INS) in the absence of maneuvers by rotary motions of the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). Three IMU rotation schemes, namely IMU continuous rotation about the X, Y and Z axes are employed. The observability is analyzed for the rotating system with a control-theoretic approach, and tests are also conducted based on a turntable to verify the improvements on the system observability by IMU rotations. Both theoretical analysis and the results indicate that the system observability is improved by proposed IMU rotations, the roll and pitch errors, the accelerometer biases in the east and north directions, the gyro biases become observable states in the absence of vehicle maneuvers. Although the azimuth error is still unobservable, the enhanced estimability of the gyro bias in the vertical direction can effectively mitigate the azimuth error accumulation. PMID:28350344

  2. Commentary on Two Classroom Observation Systems: Moving toward a Shared Understanding of Effective Teaching (United States)

    Connor, Carol McDonald


    In this commentary, I make five points: that designing observation systems that actually predict students' outcomes is challenging; second that systems that capture the complex and dynamic nature of the classroom learning environment are more likely to be able to meet this challenge; three, that observation tools are most useful when developed to…

  3. The international earth observing system: a cultural debate about earth sciences from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.


    This paper gives an overview of the International Earth Observing System, i.e. the combined earth observation programmes of space agencies worldwide and of the relevance of advanced space-borne sensor systems to the study and understanding of interactions between land surface and atmosphere. The

  4. Optimal State Estimation for Discrete-Time Markov Jump Systems with Missing Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Sun


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the optimal linear estimation for a class of direct-time Markov jump systems with missing observations. An observer-based approach of fault detection and isolation (FDI is investigated as a detection mechanic of fault case. For systems with known information, a conditional prediction of observations is applied and fault observations are replaced and isolated; then, an FDI linear minimum mean square error estimation (LMMSE can be developed by comprehensive utilizing of the correct information offered by systems. A recursive equation of filtering based on the geometric arguments can be obtained. Meanwhile, a stability of the state estimator will be guaranteed under appropriate assumption.

  5. Performance and Evaluation of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Observing System Simulation Experiment (United States)

    Prive, Nikki; Errico, R. M.; Carvalho, D.


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO) has spent more than a decade developing and implementing a global Observing System Simulation Experiment framework for use in evaluting both new observation types as well as the behavior of data assimilation systems. The NASA/GMAO OSSE has constantly evolved to relect changes in the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation data assimiation system, the Global Earth Observing System model, version 5 (GEOS-5), and the real world observational network. Software and observational datasets for the GMAO OSSE are publicly available, along with a technical report. Substantial modifications have recently been made to the NASA/GMAO OSSE framework, including the character of synthetic observation errors, new instrument types, and more sophisticated atmospheric wind vectors. These improvements will be described, along with the overall performance of the current OSSE. Lessons learned from investigations into correlated errors and model error will be discussed.

  6. Constellation Architecture Team-Lunar Scenario 12.0 Habitation Overview (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry D.; Rudisill, Marianne


    This paper will describe an overview of the Constellation Architecture Team Lunar Scenario 12.0 (LS-12) surface habitation approach and concept performed during the study definition. The Lunar Scenario 12 architecture study focused on two primary habitation approaches: a horizontally-oriented habitation module (LS-12.0) and a vertically-oriented habitation module (LS-12.1). This paper will provide an overview of the 12.0 lunar surface campaign, the associated outpost architecture, habitation functionality, concept description, system integration strategy, mass and power resource estimates. The Scenario 12 architecture resulted from combining three previous scenario attributes from Scenario 4 "Optimized Exploration", Scenario 5 "Fission Surface Power System" and Scenario 8 "Initial Extensive Mobility" into Scenario 12 along with an added emphasis on defining the excursion ConOps while the crew is away from the outpost location. This paper will describe an overview of the CxAT-Lunar Scenario 12.0 habitation concepts and their functionality. The Crew Operations area includes basic crew accommodations such as sleeping, eating, hygiene and stowage. The EVA Operations area includes additional EVA capability beyond the suitlock function such as suit maintenance, spares stowage, and suit stowage. The Logistics Operations area includes the enhanced accommodations for 180 days such as enhanced life support systems hardware, consumable stowage, spares stowage, interconnection to the other habitation elements, a common interface mechanism for future growth, and mating to a pressurized rover or Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM). The Mission & Science Operations area includes enhanced outpost autonomy such as an IVA glove box, life support, medical operations, and exercise equipment.

  7. A Case Study: Using Delmia at Kennedy Space Center to Support NASA's Constellation Program (United States)

    Kickbusch, Tracey; Humeniuk, Bob


    The presentation examines the use of Delmia (Digital Enterprise Lean Manufacturing Interactive Application) for digital simulation in NASA's Constellation Program. Topics include an overview of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Design Visualization Group tasks, NASA's Constellation Program, Ares 1 ground processing preliminary design review, and challenges and how Delmia is used at KSC, Challenges include dealing with large data sets, creating and maintaining KSC's infrastructure, gathering customer requirements and meeting objectives, creating life-like simulations, and providing quick turn-around on varied products,

  8. A Model of the Earth's Magnetic Field From Two Year of Swarm Satellite Constellation Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Finlay, Chris; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars

    More than two year of data from ESA's Swarm constellation mission are used to derive a model of the Earth’s magnetic field and its time variation (secular variation). The model describes contributions from the core and lithosphere as well as large-scale contributions from the magnetosphere (and its...... satellites and alongtrack first differences we include the East-west magnetic gradient information provided by the lower Swarm satellite pair, thereby explicitly taking advantage of the constellation aspect of Swarm. We assess the spatial and temporal model resolution that can be obtained from two years...

  9. Leo Satellite Communication through a LEO Constellation using TCP/IP Over ATM (United States)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.


    The simulated performance characteristics for communication between a terrestrial client and a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite server are presented. The client and server nodes consist of a Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over ATM configuration. The ATM cells from the client or the server are transmitted to a gateway, packaged with some header information and transferred to a commercial LEO satellite constellation. These cells are then routed through the constellation to a gateway on the globe that allows the client/server communication to take place. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is specified as the quality of service (QoS). Various data rates are considered.

  10. Approximating the constellation constrained capacity of the MIMO channel with discrete input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J.


    In this paper the capacity of a Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) channel is considered, subject to average power constraint, for multi-dimensional discrete input, in the case when no channel state information is available at the transmitter. We prove that when the constellation size grows, t...... for the equivalent orthogonal channel, obtained by the singular value decomposition. Furthermore, lower bounds on the constrained capacity are derived for the cases of square and tall MIMO matrix, by optimizing the constellation for the equivalent channel, obtained by QR decomposition....

  11. Observational Astrology. (United States)

    Mayer, Ben


    Discusses the use of astrological signs as a vehicle for getting students interested in astronomy. Describes the construction and use of simple stellaphane starframes that can be used to locate astrological constellations. Provides instructions for photographing constellations with a 35 millimeter camera. (TW)

  12. Large Extent Volunteer Roadkill and Wildlife Observation Systems as Sources of Reliable Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Waetjen


    Full Text Available Large-extent wildlife-reporting systems have sets of goals and methods to facilitate standardized data collection, statistical analysis, informative visualizations, and use in decision-making within the system area. Many systems employ “crowds” of volunteers to collect these data at large spatial extents (e.g., US state or small country scale, especially along roadways. This raises the important question of how these systems could be standardized and the data made broadly useful in ecological and transportation studies, i.e., beyond the system area or goals. We describe two of the first and longest-running systems for volunteer observation of road-associated wildlife (live and dead at the US state scale. The California Roadkill Observation System (CROS, uses a form-based data entry system to report carcasses resulting from wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC. Operating since 2009, it currently (June, 2017 contains 1,338 users and >54,000 observations of 424 species of ground-dwelling vertebrates and birds, making it one of the most successful examples of crowd-sourced, roadkill and wildlife reporting. Its sister system, the Maine Audubon Wildlife Road Watch ( has a similar structure, and can accept data from transect surveys, animal tracks and scat observations, and reports of “no animal observed.” Both systems can operate as web-applications on a smart-phone (using a web browser, providing the ability to enter observations in the field. Locational accuracy for California observations was estimated to be ±14 m (n = 552 records. Species identification accuracy rate for observations with photographs was 97% (n = 3,700 records. We propose that large extent, volunteer systems can be used to monitor wildlife occurrences along or away from roads and that these observations can be used to inform ecological studies and transportation mitigation planning.

  13. Development of in-situ fatigue crack observing system for rotating bending fatigue testing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lian


    Full Text Available To substitute for a traditional replication technique, an in-situ fatigue crack observing system for rotating bending testing machine has been newly developed. For verifying performance of this observing system, fatigue tests were carried out by using fatigue specimen having a small artificial defect. It is proved that this system can be detect a small fatigue crack and its propagation behavior.

  14. A new reduced-order observer design for the synchronization of Lorenz systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Guerra, R. [Departamento de Control Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, CP 07360, Mexico, DF (Mexico)] e-mail:; Cruz-Victoria, J.C. [Departamento de Control Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, CP 07360, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Gonzalez-Galan, R. [Departamento de Control Automatico, CINVESTAV-IPN, AP 14-740, CP 07360, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Aguilar-Lopez, R. [Departamento de Energia, UAM-Azcapotzalco, 02200 (Mexico)


    In this paper we tackle the synchronization of Lorenz system problem using a new proportional reduced-order observer design in the algebraic and differential setting. We prove the asymptotic stability of the resulting error system and by means of algebraic manipulations we obtain the estimates of the current states (master system), the construction of a proportional reduced-order observer is the main ingredient in our approach. Finally, we present a simulation to illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.

  15. Studying Dark Energy, Black Holes and Cosmic Feedback at X-ray Wavelengths: NASA's Constellation-X Mission (United States)

    Hornschemeier, A.


    Among the most important topics in modern astrophysics are the nature of the dark energy equation of state, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in concert with galaxy bulges, and the self-regulating symmetry imposed by both stellar and AGN feedback. All of these topics are readily addressed with observations at X-ray wavelengths. For instance, theoretical models predict that the majority (98%) of the energy and metal content in starburst superwinds exists in the hot million-degree gas. The Constellation-X observatory is being developed to perform spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy so that we may directly measure the absolute element abundances and velocities of this hot gas. This talk focuses on the driving science behind this mission, which is one of two flagship missions in NASA's Beyond Einstein program. A general overview of the observatory's capabilities and basic technology will also be given.

  16. Construction of a meteor orbit calculation system for comprehensive meteor observation (United States)

    Mizumoto, S.; Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.


    At Kochi University of Technology (KUT), the development of an HRO (Ham-band Radio meteor Observation) -Interferometer (IF) was started in 2003, and we realized the meteor orbit calculation system by multiple-site radio observation with GPS time-keeping combining with the 5 channel (5ch) HRO-IF in 2012. Here, we introduce a future plan of comprehensive meteor observation by Radio, Optical and Infrasound observation.

  17. Observability-Based Approach to Design, Analysis and Optimization of Dynamical Systems (United States)

    Alaeddini, Atiye

    The present dissertation aims to use the coupling between actuation and sensing in nonlinear systems to alternatively design a set of feasible control policies, to find the minimum number of sensors, or to find an optimal sensors configuration. Feasibility, here, means a combination of sensory system and control policy which guarantees observability. In some cases the optimality of the obtained solution is also considered. In some nonlinear systems, full observability requires active sensing, and will be shown how control policies that guarantee observability can be obtained by considering the geometry of the system dynamics. The observability matrix is used to test observability, whereas for the optimization problem observability Gramian matrix is used. This dissertation also considers the stability in designing controllers. The problem of designing a stabilizing control policy for a control-affine nonlinear system is addressed. The effect of time-varying control on the observability is investigated and shown to potentially improve the system observability. A particular application of the techniques considered here is the problem of designing network sensing and topology based on the observability criteria. The goal is to develop a protocol for the network which guarantees privacy. Furthermore, given a network of connected agents, we would like to determine which nodes should be observed to maximize information about the entire network. This dissertation begins with theoretical basis then moves towards applications of the theory. The first application is navigation of an autonomous ground robot with limited inertial sensing, motivated by the visuomotor system of insects. The second application is the problem of detecting an epidemic disease, which demonstrates design of an observability-based optimal network.

  18. A Neuro-Augmented Observer for Robust Fault Detection in Nonlinear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huajun Gong


    Full Text Available A new fault detection method using neural-networks-augmented state observer for nonlinear systems is presented in this paper. The novelty of the approach is that instead of approximating the entire nonlinear system with neural network, we only approximate the unmodeled part that is left over after linearization, in which a radial basis function (RBF neural network is adopted. Compared with conventional linear observer, the proposed observer structure provides more accurate estimation of the system state. The state estimation error is proved to asymptotically approach zero by the Lyapunov method. An aircraft system demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed fault detection scheme, simulation results of which show that the proposed RBF neural network-based observer scheme is effective and has a potential application in fault detection and identification (FDI for nonlinear systems.

  19. Adaptive fuzzy observer based synchronization design and secure communications of chaotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Chang-Ho [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] e-mail:; Kim, Jae-Hun [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Euntai [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mignon [ICS Laboratory (B723), Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Shinchon-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper proposes a synchronization design scheme based on an alternative indirect adaptive fuzzy observer and its application to secure communication of chaotic systems. It is assumed that their states are unmeasurable and their parameters are unknown. Chaotic systems and the structure of the fuzzy observer are represented by the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. Using Lyapunov stability theory, an adaptive law is derived to estimate the unknown parameters and the stability of the proposed system is guaranteed. Through this process, the asymptotic synchronization of chaotic systems is achieved. The proposed observer is applied to secure communications of chaotic systems and some numerical simulation results show the validity of theoretical derivations and the performance of the proposed observer.

  20. The "Volcano Observations" Thematic Core Service of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS): status of the implementation. (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe


    The European volcanological community contributes to implementation of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) by making operational an integrated platform to guarantee a seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. To achieve this objective, the Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) will implement a Thematic Core Services (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; as university departments, laboratories, etc.); both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) over which to build the TCS. Currently, the networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). In Europe also operate laboratories for sample analysis (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), and almost continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing centres. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS is addressing technical and management issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state of the art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the frame of the VO and VRI is now too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure, thus the main effort planned in the frame of the EPOS-IP is focused to create services aimed at

  1. The contribution of the Volcano Observations Work Package to the implementation of the European Plate Observing System (United States)

    Puglisi, Giuseppe


    The overall aim of the implementation phase of European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to make the integrated platform operational in order to guarantee seamless access to the data provided by the European Solid Earth communities. The Volcano Observations Work Package (WP11) contributes to this objective by implementing a Thematic Core Service (TCS) which is planned to give access to the data and services provided by the European Volcano Observatories (VO) and some Volcanological Research Institutions (VRI; such as university departments, laboratories, etc.). Both types are considered as national research infrastructures (RI) which the TCS will integrate. Currently, monitoring networks on European volcanoes consist of thousands of stations or sites where volcanological parameters are continuously or periodically measured. These sites are equipped with instruments for geophysical (seismic, geodetic, gravimetric, electromagnetic), geochemical (volcanic plumes, fumaroles, groundwater, rivers, soils), environmental observations (e.g. meteorological and air quality parameters), as well as various prototypal monitoring systems (e.g. Doppler radars, ground based SAR). Across Europe several laboratories provide sample characterization (rocks, gases, isotopes, etc.), quasi-continuous analysis of space-borne data (SAR, thermal imagery, SO2 and ash), as well as high-performance computing facilities. All these RIs provide high-quality information (observations) on the current status of European volcanoes and the geodynamic background of the surrounding areas. The implementation of the Volcano Observations TCS will address technical as well as managerial issues, both considering the current heterogeneous state-of-the-art of the volcanological research infrastructures in Europe. Indeed, the current arrangement of individual VO and VRI is considered too fragmented to be considered as a unique distributed infrastructure. Therefore, the main effort in the framework of the EPOS

  2. Whole genomic constellation of the first human G8 rotavirus strain detected in Japan. (United States)

    Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Doan, Yen Hai; Nakagomi, Osamu


    Human G8 Rotavirus A (RVA) strains are commonly detected in Africa but are rarely detected in Japan and elsewhere in the world. In this study, the whole genome sequence of the first human G8 RVA strain designated AU109 isolated in a child with acute gastroenteritis in 1994 was determined in order to understand how the strain was generated including the host species origin of its genes. The genotype constellation of AU109 was G8-P[4]-I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N2-T2-E2-H2. Phylogenetic analyses of the 11 genome segments revealed that its VP7 and VP1 genes were closely related to those of a Hungarian human G8P[14] RVA strain and these genes shared the most recent common ancestors in 1988 and 1982, respectively. AU109 possessed an NSP2 gene closely related to those of Chinese sheep and goat RVA strains. The remaining eight genome segments were closely related to Japanese human G2P[4] strains which circulated around 1985-1990. Bayesian evolutionary analyses revealed that the NSP2 gene of AU109 and those of the Chinese sheep and goat RVA strains diverged from a common ancestor around 1937. In conclusion, AU109 was generated through genetic reassortment event where Japanese DS-1-like G2P[4] strains circulating around 1985-1990 obtained the VP7, VP1 and NSP2 genes from unknown ruminant G8 RVA strains. These observations highlight the need for comprehensive examination of the whole genomes of RVA strains of less explored host species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Robust fractional-order proportional-integral observer for synchronization of chaotic fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    N U+02BC Doye, Ibrahima


    In this paper, we propose a robust fractional-order proportional-integral U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer for the synchronization of nonlinear fractional-order chaotic systems. The convergence of the observer is proved, and sufficient conditions are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities U+0028 LMIs U+0029 approach by using an indirect Lyapunov method. The proposed U+0028 FOPI U+0029 observer is robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. It is also compared to the fractional-order proportional U+0028 FOP U+0029 observer and its performance is illustrated through simulations done on the fractional-order chaotic Lorenz system.

  4. ℋ∞ Adaptive observer for nonlinear fractional-order systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ndoye, Ibrahima


    In this paper, an adaptive observer is proposed for the joint estimation of states and parameters of a fractional nonlinear system with external perturbations. The convergence of the proposed observer is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) by using an indirect Lyapunov method.The proposed ℋ∞ adaptive observer is also robust against Lipschitz additive nonlinear uncertainty. The performance of the observer is illustrated through some examples including the chaotic Lorenz and Lü\\'s systems. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Impulsive Controllability/Observability for Interconnected Descriptor Systems with Two Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Zhang


    Full Text Available The problem of decentralized impulse controllability/observability for large-scale interconnected descriptor systems with two subsystems by derivative feedback is studied. Necessary conditions for the existence of a derivative feedback controller for the first subsystem of the large-scale interconnected descriptor systems ensuring the second subsystem to be impulse controllable and impulse observable are derived, respectively. Based on the results, a derivative feedback controller for the first subsystem of the large-scale interconnected descriptor systems is constructed easily such that the second subsystem is impulse controllable or impulse observable. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the results obtained in this paper.

  6. Ranging Consistency Based on Ranging-Compensated Temperature-Sensing Sensor for Inter-Satellite Link of Navigation Constellation. (United States)

    Meng, Zhijun; Yang, Jun; Guo, Xiye; Zhou, Yongbin


    Global Navigation Satellite System performance can be significantly enhanced by introducing inter-satellite links (ISLs) in navigation constellation. The improvement in position, velocity, and time accuracy as well as the realization of autonomous functions requires ISL distance measurement data as the original input. To build a high-performance ISL, the ranging consistency among navigation satellites is an urgent problem to be solved. In this study, we focus on the variation in the ranging delay caused by the sensitivity of the ISL payload equipment to the ambient temperature in space and propose a simple and low-power temperature-sensing ranging compensation sensor suitable for onboard equipment. The experimental results show that, after the temperature-sensing ranging compensation of the ISL payload equipment, the ranging consistency becomes less than 0.2 ns when the temperature change is 90 °C.

  7. High Fidelity Airborne Imaging System for Remote Observation of Space Launch/Reentry Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The utility of airborne remote observation of hypersonic reentry vehicles was demonstrated by the NASA Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurement (HYTHIRM)...

  8. Rate-adaptive Constellation Shaping for Near-capacity Achieving Turbo Coded BICM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren; Larsen, Knud J.


    is derived for finding the Huffman code with such properties for a variety of alphabet sizes, and near-capacity performance is achieved for a wide SNR region by dynamically choosing the optimal code rate, constellation size and mapping function based on the operating SNR point and assuming perfect channel...

  9. The Netherlands in the constellation of the eighteenth-century Western revolutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jourdan, A.


    In the constellation of the eighteenth-century revolutions, the French events have always occupied a dominant position. Consequently the other European upheavals have been considered as being provoked or strongly influenced by France. Yet, the Dutch revolutions in the 1780s and 1790s provide some

  10. Tradeoffs between Spreading Factor, Symbol Constellation Size and Rake Fingers in UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potman, J.; Hoeksema, F.W.; Slump, Cornelis H.


    As an example of a systematic procedure for evaluating UMTS downlink DSP functions for adaptivity we study bit-error-rate performance tradeoffs between the spreading factor, the symbol constellation size and the number of used Rake fingers in UMTS despreading and demodulation. After an overview of

  11. A walk through the heavens a guide to stars and constellations and their legends

    CERN Document Server

    Heifetz, Milton D


    A Walk through the Heavens is a beautiful and easy-to-use guide to the constellations of the northern hemisphere. Written for the complete beginner, this practical guide introduces the patterns of the starry skies in a memorable way. No equipment is needed, apart from normal sight and clear skies.

  12. Classified and Clustered Data Constellation: An Efficient Approach of 3D Urban Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azri, Suhaibah; Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc


    it involves various types of data, such as multiple types of zoning themes in the case of urban mixed-use development. Thus, a special technique for efficient handling and management of urban data is necessary. This paper proposes a structure called Classified and Clustered Data Constellation (CCDC) for urban...

  13. Reach for the Stars: A Constellational Approach to Ethnographies of Elite Schools (United States)

    Prosser, Howard


    This paper offers a method for examining elite schools in a global setting by appropriating Theodor Adorno's constellational approach. I contend that arranging ideas and themes in a non-deterministic fashion can illuminate the social reality of elite schools. Drawing on my own fieldwork at an elite school in Argentina, I suggest that local and…

  14. Overview of segmented glass optics development for the Constellation-X hard X-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, C.J; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.


    We report recent work on segmented glass optics for the Constellation-H hard x-ray telescope. This effort seeks to both improve the figure of the free-standing glass substrates, and to refine a newly-developed mounting technology for the substrates. We discuss metrology on recently characterized...

  15. 77 FR 16828 - Constellation Energy Commodities Group, Inc.; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission... (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Constellation Energy Commodities Group, Inc.; Notice of Designation of Certain Commission Personnel as Non-Decisional Commission staff members Sandra Waldstein and Joyce Davidson, both of the Office of External Affairs,...

  16. Investigation of Preservice Science Teachers' Comprehension of the Star, Sun, Comet and Constellation Concepts (United States)

    Cevik, Ebru Ezberci; Kurnaz, Mehmet Altan


    The purpose of this study is to reveal preservice science teachers' perceptions related to the sun, star, comet and constellation concepts. The research was carried out by 56 preservice science teachers (4th grade) at Kastamonu University taking astronomy course in 2014-2015 academic year. For data collection open-ended questions that required…

  17. The Orion Constellation as an Installation: An Innovative Three-Dimensional Teaching and Learning Environment (United States)

    Brown, Daniel


    Visualizing the three-dimensional distribution of stars within a constellation is highly challenging for both students and educators, but when carried out in an interactive collaborative way, it can create an ideal environment to explore common misconceptions about size and scale within astronomy. We present how the common tabletop activities…

  18. Optimal signal constellation design for ultra-high-speed optical transport in the presence of nonlinear phase noise. (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Djordjevic, Ivan B


    In this paper, we first describe an optimal signal constellation design algorithm suitable for the coherent optical channels dominated by the linear phase noise. Then, we modify this algorithm to be suitable for the nonlinear phase noise dominated channels. In optimization procedure, the proposed algorithm uses the cumulative log-likelihood function instead of the Euclidian distance. Further, an LDPC coded modulation scheme is proposed to be used in combination with signal constellations obtained by proposed algorithm. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the LDPC-coded modulation schemes employing the new constellation sets, obtained by our new signal constellation design algorithm, outperform corresponding QAM constellations significantly in terms of transmission distance and have better nonlinearity tolerance.

  19. Reviews and syntheses: Systematic Earth observations for use in terrestrial carbon cycle data assimilation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scholze


    Full Text Available The global carbon cycle is an important component of the Earth system and it interacts with the hydrology, energy and nutrient cycles as well as ecosystem dynamics. A better understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for improved projections of climate change including corresponding changes in water and food resources and for the verification of measures to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. An improved understanding of the carbon cycle can be achieved by data assimilation systems, which integrate observations relevant to the carbon cycle into coupled carbon, water, energy and nutrient models. Hence, the ingredients for such systems are a carbon cycle model, an algorithm for the assimilation and systematic and well error-characterised observations relevant to the carbon cycle. Relevant observations for assimilation include various in situ measurements in the atmosphere (e.g. concentrations of CO2 and other gases and on land (e.g. fluxes of carbon water and energy, carbon stocks as well as remote sensing observations (e.g. atmospheric composition, vegetation and surface properties.We briefly review the different existing data assimilation techniques and contrast them to model benchmarking and evaluation efforts (which also rely on observations. A common requirement for all assimilation techniques is a full description of the observational data properties. Uncertainty estimates of the observations are as important as the observations themselves because they similarly determine the outcome of such assimilation systems. Hence, this article reviews the requirements of data assimilation systems on observations and provides a non-exhaustive overview of current observations and their uncertainties for use in terrestrial carbon cycle data assimilation. We report on progress since the review of model-data synthesis in terrestrial carbon observations by Raupach et al.(2005, emphasising the rapid advance in relevant space

  20. Observation and integrated Earth-system science: A roadmap for 2016-2025 (United States)

    Simmons, Adrian; Fellous, Jean-Louis; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Trenberth, Kevin; Asrar, Ghassem; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Burrows, John P.; Ciais, Philippe; Drinkwater, Mark; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gobron, Nadine; Guilyardi, Eric; Halpern, David; Heimann, Martin; Johannessen, Johnny; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Penner, Joyce; Scholes, Robert; Shepherd, Ted


    This report is the response to a request by the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of interacting components of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. All types of observation are considered, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. Observations that are organised on a systematic basis and observations that are made for process understanding and model development, or other research or demonstration purposes, are covered. Specific accounts are given for many of the variables of the Earth system. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. The evolution towards applying Earth-system models for environmental monitoring and prediction as well as for climate simulation and projection is outlined. General aspects of the improvement of models, whether through refining the

  1. Developing a Model-based Capability to Analyze Requirements for the Climate Observing System (United States)

    Gelaro, Ronald


    Models are foundational for estimating states of the earth's climate system, both as tools to extrapolate information in time and space, and as observation 'operators' used to relate what is analyzed and predicted to what is observed. Expanding the simulation approach further, observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are designed to mimic the complete process of analyzing the climate state by replacing real observations with entirely simulated ones determined from a model-based depiction of nature. OSSEs provide a framework to 'fly' simulated satellite instruments through a synthetic atmosphere and investigate the trade-spaces of measurements for various satellite configurations and sampling strategies, and assess their measurement impact on modeling and forecasting capabilities. Such a tool is a crucial but as yet unfulfilled need for future mission selection and design. The components of a state-of-the-art OSSE system are being assembled at the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO, Code 610.1) at NASA/GSFC, leveraging on the GMAO's existing modeling and data assimilation infrastructure for numerical weather prediction (NWP). The OSSE framework is based on the GMAO's Goddard Earth Observing System atmospheric general circulation model, version 5 (GEOS-5) and the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) observational analysis scheme, combined with the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) model developed by the Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch (Code 613.3). This system is an evolving, key component of Goddard's planned development of an Integrated Earth System Analysis (IESA) capability, which will bring together into a single, fully interactive system Goddard's modeling and assimilation efforts in atmosphere, ocean and chemistry and aerosols to provide a comprehensive analysis and prediction system for weather and climate In addition to providing a state-of-the-art capability for assimilating current observation

  2. Multi-layer observer as new structure for state estimation in linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Jakub


    Full Text Available A new structure to design observers for linear systems is presented in this work. The key step is the construction of two layers where the first consists of multiple observers and the second connects them providing the weighted estimation state. The main difficulty is to find a new feedback which is responsible for control weights. To define observation law, we rely on multi observers from the first layer. The proposed structure significantly improves the transient characteristics of the observation process, which is shown in illustrative examples.

  3. The COSMO-SkyMed Constellation Monitors the Costa Concordia Wreck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Raspini


    Full Text Available On 13 January 2012, the Italian vessel, Costa Concordia, wrecked offshore Giglio Island, along the coast of Tuscany (Italy. The ship partially sunk, lying on the starboard side on a 22° steep rocky seabed, making the stability conditions of the ship critically in danger of sliding, shifting and settling. The tilted position of the ship created also pernicious conditions for the divers involved in the search and rescue operations. It became immediately clear that a continuous monitoring of the position and movements of the ship was of paramount importance to guarantee the security of the people working around and within the wreck. Starting from January 19, the Italian constellation of synthetic aperture radar (SAR satellites, COSMO-SkyMed (CSK, was tasked to acquire high resolution images of the wreck. Thanks to CSK’s short response and revisiting time and its capability to acquire high resolution images in Spotlight mode, satellite data were integrated within the real time, ground-based monitoring system implemented to provide the civil protection authorities with a regular update on the ship stability. Exploitation of both the phase (satellite radar interferometry, InSAR and amplitude (speckle tracking information from CSK images, taken along the acquisition orbit, Enhanced Spotlight (ES-29, revealed a general movement of the translation of the vessel, consistent with sliding toward the east of the hull on the seabed. A total displacement, with respect to the coastline, of 1666 mm and 345 mm of the bow and stern, respectively, was recorded, over the time period of 19 January–23 March 2012.

  4. Field-aligned current and auroral Hall current characteristics derived from the Swarm constellation (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Hermann, Luehr


    On the basis of field-aligned currents (FACs) and Hall currents derived from high-resolution magnetic field data of the Swarm constellation the average characteristics of these two current systems in the auroral regions are comprehensively investigated by statistical methods. This is the first study considering both current types simultaneously and for both hemispheres. The FAC distribution, derived from the Swarm dual-spacecraft approach, reveals the well-known features of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) FACs. At high latitudes, Region 0 (R0) FACs appear on the dayside. Their direction depends on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component. Of particular interest is the distribution of auroral Hall currents. The most prominent auroral electrojets are found to be closely controlled by the solar wind input. But there is no dependence on the IMF By orientation. The eastward electrojet is about twice as strong in summer as in winter. Conversely, the westward electrojet shows less dependence on season. Part of the electrojet current is closed over the polar cap. Here the seasonal variation of conductivity mainly controls the current density. There is a clear channeling of return currents over the polar cap. Depending on IMF By orientation most of the current is flowing either on the dawn or dusk side. The direction of Hall currents in the noon sector depends directly on the orientation of the IMF By. This is true for both signs of the IMF Bz component. But largest differences between summer and winter seasons are found for northward IMF Bz. Around the midnight sector the westward substorm electrojet is dominating. As expected, it is highly dependent on magnetic activity, but shows only little response to the IMF By polarity.

  5. Installation of seafloor cabled seismic and tsunami observation system developed by using ICT (United States)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shiobara, Hajime; Kanazawa, Toshihiko


    A seafloor cabled system is useful for study of earth science and disaster mitigation, because real-time and long-term observation can be performed. Therefore seafloor cabled systems with seismometers and tsunami-meters have been used over the past 25 years around Japan. Because increase of a number of sensors is needed, a new system with low costs for production, deployment and operation is expected. In addition, the new system should have sufficient for flexibility of measurements after installation. To achieve these demands, we started development of a new system using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for data transmission and system control. The new system can be made compact since software processes various measurements. Reliability of the system is kept by using redundant system which is easily constructed using the ICT. The first system based on this concept was developed as Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer (OBCS) system and deployed in Japan Sea. Development of the second system started from 2012. The Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometer and Tsunami-meter (OBCST) system has both seismometers and tsunami-meters. Each observation node has a CPU and FPGAs. The OBCST system uses standard TCP/IP protocol with a speed of 1 Gbps for data transmission, system control and monitoring. IEEE-1588 (PTP) is implemented to synchronize a real-time clock, and accuracy is less than 300 ns. We developed two types of observation node. One equips a pressure gauge as tsunami sensor, and another has an external port for additional observation sensor using PoE. Deployment of the OBCST system was carried out in September 2015 by using a commercial telecommunication cable ship. The noise levels at the OBCST system are comparable to those at the existing cabled system off Sanriku. It is found that the noise levels at the OBCST system are low at frequencies greater than 2 Hz and smaller than 0.1 Hz. This level of ambient seismic noise is close to a typical system noise. From

  6. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radoslaw Guzinski; Steve Kass; Silvia Huber; Peter Bauer-Gottwein; Iris Hedegaard Jensen; Vahid Naeimi; Marcela Doubkova; Andreas Walli; Christian Tottrup


      The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO) data...

  7. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data, 2004-2008 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  8. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data, 2004-2008 (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  9. Validation of the forecast skill of the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office Observing System Simulation Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Privé, N. C; Errico, R. M; Tai, K.‐S


    A global Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) framework has been developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO). The OSSE uses a 13...

  10. THe Observing-system Research and predictability experiment ER2 MODIS Airborne Simmulator (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — THORPEX_ER2_MAS data are THe Observing-system Research and Predictability EXperiment (THORPEX) ER_2 MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Data in HDF covering Hawaii and...

  11. Bidirectional Reflectance Round-Robin in Support of the Earth Observing System Program (United States)

    Early, E.; Barnes, P.; Johnson, B.; Butler, J.; Bruegge, C.; Biggar, S.; Spyak, P.; Pavlov, M.


    Laboratory measurements of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDRF) of diffuse reflectors are required to support calibration in the Earth Observing System (EOS) program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. NCDC feed of Global Telecommunication System (GTS) marine observations in International Maritime Meteorological Archive (IMMA) Format (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data contained here are surface marine observations from many different sources via the NCDC Global Telecommunication System (GTS) Marine in International...

  13. INTAROS: Development of an integrated Arctic observation system under Horizon 2020 (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Sandven, Stein; Sagen, Hanne


    INTAROS is a research and innovation action funded under the H2020-BG-09 call for the five-year period 2016-2021. INTAROS will develop an integrated Arctic Observation System (iAOS) by extending, improving and unifying existing systems in the different regions of the Arctic. INTAROS will have a strong multidisciplinary focus, with tools for integration of data from atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and terrestrial sciences, provided by institutions in Europe, North America and Asia. Satellite earth observation (EO) data plays an increasingly important role in such observing systems, because the amount of EO data for observing the global climate and environment grows year by year. EO data will therefore be integrated into iAOS based on existing products and databases. In situ observing systems are much more limited due to logistical constraints and cost limitations. The sparseness of in situ data is therefore the largest gap in the overall observing system. INTAROS will assess strengths and weaknesses of existing Arctic observing systems and contribute with innovative solutions to fill some of the critical gaps in the selected networks. INTAROS will develop a platform, iAOS, to search for and access data from distributed databases. The evolution into a sustainable Arctic observing system requires coordination, mobilization and cooperation between the existing European and international infrastructures (in-situ and remote, including space-based), the modeling communities and relevant stakeholder groups. INTAROS will include development of community-based observing systems, where local knowledge is merged with scientific data. Multidisciplinary data integrated under INTAROS will contribute to better understanding of interactions and coupling in the complex Arctic ice-ocean-land-atmosphere system. An integrated Arctic Observation System will enable better-informed decisions and better-documented processes within key sectors (e.g. local communities, shipping, tourism

  14. User Driven Data Mining, Visualization and Decision Making for NOAA Observing System and Data Investments (United States)

    Austin, M.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) observing system enterprise represents a $2.4B annual investment. Earth observations from these systems are foundational to NOAA's mission to describe, understand, and predict the Earth's environment. NOAA's decision makers are charged with managing this complex portfolio of observing systems to serve the national interest effectively and efficiently. The Technology Planning & Integration for Observation (TPIO) Office currently maintains an observing system portfolio for NOAA's validated user observation requirements, observing capabilities, and resulting data products and services. TPIO performs data analytics to provide NOAA leadership business case recommendations for making sound budgetary decisions. Over the last year, TPIO has moved from massive spreadsheets to intuitive dashboards that enable Federal agencies as well as the general public the ability to explore user observation requirements and environmental observing systems that monitor and predict changes in the environment. This change has led to an organizational data management shift to analytics and visualizations by allowing analysts more time to focus on understanding the data, discovering insights, and effectively communicating the information to decision makers. Moving forward, the next step is to facilitate a cultural change toward self-serve data sharing across NOAA, other Federal agencies, and the public using intuitive data visualizations that answer relevant business questions for users of NOAA's Observing System Enterprise. Users and producers of environmental data will become aware of the need for enhancing communication to simplify information exchange to achieve multipurpose goals across a variety of disciplines. NOAA cannot achieve its goal of producing environmental intelligence without data that can be shared by multiple user communities. This presentation will describe where we are on this journey and will provide examples of

  15. Using SKA to observe relativistic jets from X-ray binary systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fender, R.P.


    I briefly outline our current observational understanding of the relativistic jets observed from X-ray binary systems, and how their study may shed light on analogous phenomena in active galactic nuclei and gamma ray bursts. How SKA may impact on this field is sketched, including the routine

  16. A conceptual Saturn ring observer mission using standard radioisotope power systems (United States)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Spilker, Thomas R.


    Saturn remains of the most fascinating planets within the solar system. To better understand the complex ring structure of this planet, a conceptual Saturn Ring Observer (SRO) mission is presented that would spend one year in close proximity to Saturn's A and B rings, and perform detailed observations and measurements of the ring particles and electric and magnetic fields.

  17. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.


    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  18. Mathematical Foundations for Efficient Structural Controllability and Observability Analysis of Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Zufiria


    Full Text Available The relationship between structural controllability and observability of complex systems is studied. Algebraic and graph theoretic tools are combined to prove the extent of some controller/observer duality results. Two types of control design problems are addressed and some fundamental theoretical results are provided. In addition new algorithms are presented to compute optimal solutions for monitoring large scale real networks.

  19. Learning from Teacher Observations: Challenges and Opportunities Posed by New Teacher Evaluation Systems (United States)

    Hill, Heather C.; Grossman, Pam


    In this article, Heather C. Hill and Pam Grossman discuss the current focus on using teacher observation instruments as part of new teacher evaluation systems being considered and implemented by states and districts. They argue that if these teacher observation instruments are to achieve the goal of supporting teachers in improving instructional…

  20. Biomass burning emissions estimated with a global fire assimilation system based on observed fire radiative power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.W.; Heil, A.; Andreae, M.O.; Benedetti, A.; Chubarova, N.; Jones, L.; Morcrette, J.J.; Razinger, M.; Schultz, M.G.; Suttie, M.; Werf, van der G.R.


    The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0) calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters