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Sample records for constant wilson loop

  1. A new scheme for the running coupling constant in gauge theories using Wilson loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurachi, Masafumi [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bilgici, Erek [AUSTRIA; Flachi, Antonion [KYOTO UNIV; Itou, Etsuko [KOGAKUIN UNIV; David Lin, C J [NATIONAL CHIAO-TUNG UNIV; Matsufuru, Hideo [KEK; Ohki, Hiroshi [KYOTO UNIV; Onogi, Tetsuya [KYOTO UNIV; Yamazaki, Takeshi [UNIV OF TSUKUBA

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new renormalization scheme of the running coupling constant in general gauge theories defined by using the Wilson loops. The renormalized coupling constant is obtained from the Cretz ratio in lattice simulations and the corresponding perturbative coefficient at the leading order. The latter calculation is performed by adopting the zeta-function resummation techniques. We make a benchmark test of our scheme in quenched QCD with the plaquette gauge action. The running of the coupling constant is determined by applying the step scaling procedure. Using several methods to improve the statistical accuracy, we show that the running coupling constant can be determined in a wide range of energy scales with relatively small number of gauge configurations.

  2. Diffusion of Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Brzoska, A M; Negele, J W; Thies, M

    2004-01-01

    A phenomenological analysis of the distribution of Wilson loops in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory is presented in which Wilson loop distributions are described as the result of a diffusion process on the group manifold. It is shown that, in the absence of forces, diffusion implies Casimir scaling and, conversely, exact Casimir scaling implies free diffusion. Screening processes occur if diffusion takes place in a potential. The crucial distinction between screening of fundamental and adjoint loops is formulated as a symmetry property related to the center symmetry of the underlying gauge theory. The results are expressed in terms of an effective Wilson loop action and compared with various limits of SU(2) Yang-Mills theory.

  3. Product Integrals and Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, R L

    2001-01-01

    Using product integrals we review the unambiguous mathematical representation of Wilson line and Wilson loop operators, including their behavior under gauge transformations and the non-abelian Stokes theorem. Interesting consistency conditions among Wilson lines are also presented.

  4. Radial propagators and Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S; Leupold, Stefan; Weigert, Heribert

    1996-01-01

    We present a relation which connects the propagator in the radial (Fock-Schwinger) gauge with a gauge invariant Wilson loop. It is closely related to the well-known field strength formula and can be used to calculate the radial gauge propagator. The result is shown to diverge in four-dimensional space even for free fields, its singular nature is however naturally explained using the renormalization properties of Wilson loops with cusps and self-intersections. Using this observation we provide a consistent regularization scheme to facilitate loop calculations. Finally we compare our results with previous approaches to derive a propagator in Fock-Schwinger gauge.

  5. Continuous smearing of Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Continuum smearing was introduced in section 4.1 of JHEP03, 064 (2006) as a meaningful continuum analogue of the well known set of lattice techniques by the same name. Here we apply continuous smearing in continuous space-time to Wilson loops in order to clarify what it does in the context of field theory and also in the context of the loop calculus of the Makeenko-Migdal equation.

  6. Supersymmetric Wilson loops at two loops

    CERN Document Server

    Bassetto, Antonio; Pucci, Fabrizio; Seminara, Domenico

    2008-01-01

    We study the quantum properties of certain BPS Wilson loops in ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. They belong to a general family, introduced recently, in which the addition of particular scalar couplings endows generic loops on $S^3$ with a fraction of supersymmetry. When restricted to $S^2$, their quantum average has been further conjectured to be exactly computed by the matrix model governing the zero-instanton sector of YM$_2$ on the sphere. We perform a complete two-loop analysis on a class of cusped Wilson loops lying on a two-dimensional sphere, finding perfect agreement with the conjecture. The perturbative computation reproduces the matrix-model expectation through a highly non-trivial interplay between ladder diagrams and self-energies/vertex contributions, suggesting the existence of a localization procedure.

  7. High-loop perturbative renormalization constants for Lattice QCD (II): three-loop quark currents for tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n_f=2 Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Numerical Stochastic Perturbation Theory was able to get three- (and even four-) loop results for finite Lattice QCD renormalization constants. More recently, a conceptual and technical framework has been devised to tame finite size effects, which had been reported to be significant for (logarithmically) divergent renormalization constants. In this work we present three-loop results for fermion bilinears in the Lattice QCD regularization defined by tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and n_f=2 Wilson fermions. We discuss both finite and divergent renormalization constants in the RI'-MOM scheme. Since renormalization conditions are defined in the chiral limit, our results also apply to Twisted Mass QCD, for which non-perturbative computations of the same quantities are available. We emphasize the importance of carefully accounting for both finite lattice space and finite volume effects. In our opinion the latter have in general not attracted the attention they would deserve.

  8. Wilson loops with arbitrary charges

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, Piotr; Wosiek, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    We discuss how to implement, in lattice gauge theories, external charges which are not commensurate with an elementary gauge coupling. It is shown that an arbitrary, real power of a standard Wilson loop (or Polyakov line) can be defined and consistently computed in lattice formulation of non-abelian, two dimensional gauge theories. However, such an observable can excite quantum states with integer fluxes only. Since the non-integer fluxes are not in the spectrum of the theory they cannot be created, no matter which observable is chosen. Also the continuum limit of above averages does not exist unless the powers in question are in fact integer. On the other hand, a new continuum limit exists, which is rather intuitive, and where above observables make perfect sense and lead to the string tension proportional to the square of arbitrary (non necessary commensurate with gauge coupling) charge.

  9. Wilson Loops in Open String Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    Wilson loop elements on torus are introduced into the partition function of open strings as Polyakov’s path integral at one-loop level. Mass spectra from compactification and expected symmetry breaking are illustrated by choosing the correct weight for the contributions from annulus and Möbius strip. We show that Jacobi’s imaginary transformation connects the mass spectra with the Wilson loops. The application to thermopartition function and cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  10. Wilson Loops in Open String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Wilson loop elements on torus are introduced into the partition function of open strings as Polyakov's path integral at one-loop level. Mass spectra from compactification and expected symmetry breaking are illustrated by choosing the correct weight for the contributions from annulus and M\\"obius strip. We show that Jacobi's imaginary transformation connects the mass spectra with the Wilson loops. The application to thermopartition function and cosmological implications are briefly discussed.

  11. Wilson Loop Form Factors: A New Duality

    OpenAIRE

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Heslop, Paul; Korchemsky, Gregory P.; Sokatchev, Emery

    2016-01-01

    We find a new duality for form factors of lightlike Wilson loops in planar $\\mathcal N=4$ super-Yang-Mills theory. The duality maps a form factor involving an $n$-sided lightlike polygonal super-Wilson loop together with $m$ external on-shell states, to the same type of object but with the edges of the Wilson loop and the external states swapping roles. This relation can essentially be seen graphically in Lorentz harmonic chiral (LHC) superspace where it is equivalent to planar graph duality....

  12. Zero Point Energy of Renormalized Wilson Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Pisarski, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    The quark antiquark potential, and its associated zero point energy, can be extracted from lattice measurements of the Wilson loop. We discuss a unique prescription to renormalize the Wilson loop, for which the perturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes identically. A zero point energy can arise nonperturbatively, which we illustrate by considering effective string models. The nonperturbative contribution to the zero point energy vanishes in the Nambu model, but is nonzero wh...

  13. Master Symmetry for Holographic Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Thomas; Munkler, Hagen

    2016-01-01

    We identify the symmetry underlying the recently observed spectral-parameter transformations of holographic Wilson loops alias minimal surfaces in AdS/CFT. The generator of this nonlocal symmetry is shown to furnish a raising operator on the classical Yangian-type charges of symmetric coset models. We explicitly demonstrate how this master symmetry acts on strong-coupling Wilson loops and indicate a possible extension to arbitrary coupling.

  14. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitsky, A.V., E-mail: andrei.belitsky@asu.edu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in conformal theories when one uses dimensional regularization. The rotation matrix to the diagonal basis is found by means of computing the anomaly in the Ward identity for the conformal boost. Presently, we apply this ideology to the super Wilson loop. We compute the one-loop conformal anomaly for the super Wilson loop and find that the anomaly depends on its Grassmann coordinates. By subtracting this anomalous contribution from the super Wilson loop we restore its interpretation as a dual description for reduced non-MHV amplitudes which are expressed in terms of superconformal invariants.

  15. Eigenvalue distributions of Wilson loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2010-07-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we focus on the distribution of the eigenvalues of the unitary Wilson loop matrix in the two-dimensional case at arbitrary finite N. To characterize the distribution of the eigenvalues, we introduce three density functions (the ''symmetric'', the ''antisymmetric'', and the ''true'' eigenvalue density) which differ at finite N but possess the same infinite-N limit, exhibiting the Durhuus-Olesen phase transition. Using expansions of determinants and inverse determinants in characters of totally symmetric or totally antisymmetric representations of SU(N), the densities at finite N can be expressed in terms of simple sums involving only dimensions and quadratic Casimir invariants of certain irreducible representations of SU(N), allowing for a numerical computation of the densities at arbitrary N to any desired accuracy. We find that the true eigenvalue density, adding N oscillations to the monotonic symmetric density, is in some sense intermediate between the symmetric and the antisymmetric density, which in turn is given by a sum of N delta peaks located at the zeros of the average of the characteristic polynomial. Furthermore, we show that the dependence on N can be made explicit by deriving integral representations for the resolvents associated to the three eigenvalue densities. Using saddle-point approximations, we confirm that all three densities reduce to the Durhuus-Olesen result in the infinite-N limit. In the second part, we study an exponential form of the multiplicative random complex matrix model introduced by Gudowska-Nowak et al. Varying a parameter which can be identified with the area of the Wilson loop in the unitary case, the region of non-vanishing eigenvalue density of the N-dimensional complex product matrix undergoes a topological change at a transition point in the infinite-N limit. We study the transition by a detailed analysis of the average of the

  16. Wilson loops in CDT quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjorn, J; Jurkiewicz, J; Loll, R

    2015-01-01

    By explicit construction, we show that one can in a simple way introduce and measure gravitational holonomies and Wilson loops in lattice formulations of nonperturbative quantum gravity based on (Causal) Dynamical Triangulations. We use this set-up to investigate a class of Wilson line observables associated with the world line of a point particle coupled to quantum gravity, and deduce from their expectation values that the underlying holonomies cover the group manifold of SO(4) uniformly

  17. Wilson Loops in Noncommutative Yang Mills

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, N; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Ishibashi, Nobuyuki; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the correlation functions of the Wilson loops in noncommutative Yang-Mills theory based upon its equivalence to twisted reduced models. We point out that there is a crossover at the noncommutativity scale. At large momentum scale, the Wilson loops in noncommmutative Yang-Mills represent extended objects. They coincide with those in ordinary Yang-Mills theory in low energy limit. The correlation functions on D-branes in IIB matrix model exhibit the identical crossover behavior. It is observed to be consistent with the supergravity description with running string coupling. We also explain that the results of Seiberg and Witten can be simply understood in our formalism.

  18. Conformal anomaly of super Wilson loop

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2012-01-01

    Classically supersymmetric Wilson loop on a null polygonal contour possesses all symmetries required to match it onto non-MHV amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. However, to define it quantum mechanically, one is forced to regularize it since perturbative loop diagrams are not well-defined due to presence of ultraviolet divergences stemming from integration in the vicinity of the cusps. A regularization that is adopted by practitioners by allowing one to use spinor helicity formalism, on the one hand, and systematically go to higher orders of perturbation theory is based on a version of dimensional regularization, known as Four-Dimensional Helicity scheme. Recently it was demonstrated that its use for the super Wilson loop at one loop breaks both conformal symmetry and Poincare supersymmetry. Presently, we exhibit the origin for these effects and demonstrate how one can undo this breaking. The phenomenon is alike the one emerging in renormalization group mixing of conformal operators in ...

  19. Rectangular Wilson Loops at Large N

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This work is about pure Yang Mills theory in four Euclidean dimensions with gauge group SU(N). We study rectangular smeared Wilson loops on the lattice at large N and relatively close to the large-N transition point in their eigenvalue density. We show that the string tension can be extracted from these loops but obtain a shape dependence different from the prediction of effective string theory.

  20. Volume reduction through perturbative Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Margarita Garcia; Okawa, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    We derive the perturbative expansion of Wilson loops to order g^4 in a SU(N) lattice gauge theory with twisted boundary conditions. Our expressions show that the thermodynamic limit is attained at infinite N for any number of lattice sites and allow to quantify the deviations from volume independence at finite large N as a function of the twist.

  1. Abelian Duality and Abelian Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Zucchini, R

    2003-01-01

    We consider a pure U(1) quantum gauge field theory on a general Riemannian compact four manifold. We compute the partition function with Abelian Wilson loop insertions. We find its duality covariance properties and derive topological selection rules. Finally, we show that, to have manifest duality, one must assume the existence of twisted topological sectors besides the standard untwisted one.

  2. Super Wilson Loops and Holonomy on Supermanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Groeger, Josua

    2013-01-01

    The classical Wilson loop is the gauge-invariant trace of the parallel transport around a closed path with respect to a connection on a vector bundle over a smooth manifold. We build a precise mathematical model of the super Wilson loop, an extension introduced by Mason-Skinner and Caron-Huot, by endowing the objects occurring with auxiliary Gra{\\ss}mann generators coming from S-points. A key feature of our model is a supergeometric parallel transport, which allows for a natural notion of holonomy on a supermanifold as a Lie group valued functor. Our main results for that theory comprise an Ambrose-Singer theorem as well as a natural analogon of the holonomy principle. Finally, we compare our holonomy functor with the holonomy supergroup introduced by Galaev in the common situation of a topological point. It turns out that both theories are different, yet related in a sense made precise.

  3. Symmetric Wilson Loops beyond leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Chen-Lin, Xinyi

    2016-01-01

    We study the circular Wilson loop in the symmetric representation of U(N) in $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ super-Yang-Mills (SYM). In the large N limit, we computed the exponentially-suppressed corrections for strong coupling, which suggests non-perturbative physics in the dual holographic theory. We also computed the next-to-leading order term in 1/N, and the result matches with the exact result from the k-fundamental representation.

  4. BPS Wilson Loops on S^2 at Higher Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    We consider supersymmetric Wilson loops of the variety constructed by Drukker, Giombi, Ricci, and Trancanelli, whose spatial contours lie on a two-sphere. Working to second order in the 't Hooft coupling in planar N=4 Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory (SYM), we compute the vacuum expectation value of a wavy-latitude and of a loop composed of two longitudes. We evaluate the resulting integrals numerically and find that the results are consistent with the zero-instanton sector calculation of Wilson loops in 2-d Yang-Mills on S^2 performed by Bassetto and Griguolo. We also consider the connected correlator of two distinct latitudes to third order in the 't Hooft coupling in planar N=4 SYM. We compare the result in the limit where the latitudes become coincident to a perturbative calculation in 2-d Yang-Mills on S^2 using a light-cone Wu-Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription. The two calculations produce differing results.

  5. Precision Holography with Supersymmetric Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Faraggi, Alberto; Silva, Guillermo A; Trancanelli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    We consider certain 1/4 BPS Wilson loop operators in $SU(N)$ ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory, whose expectation value can be computed exactly via supersymmetric localization. Holographically, these operators are mapped to fundamental strings in $AdS_5\\times S^5$. The string on-shell action reproduces the large $N$ and large coupling limit of the gauge theory expectation value and, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, there should also be a precise match between subleading corrections to these limits. We perform a test of such match at next-to-leading order in string theory, by computing the 1-loop determinant of the quantum fluctuations around the classical string configuration. A source of ambiguity, related to ghost zero modes, is removed by comparing our operator with the 1/2 BPS circular Wilson loop. We find perfect agreement between the string theory result and the gauge theory prediction. This successful match, besides being a high precision test of the AdS/CFT correspondence, elucidates some o...

  6. Toward precision holography with supersymmetric Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraggi, Alberto; Pando Zayas, Leopoldo A.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Trancanelli, Diego

    2016-04-01

    We consider certain 1/4 BPS Wilson loop operators in SU( N) N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory, whose expectation value can be computed exactly via supersymmetric localization. Holographically, these operators are mapped to fundamental strings in AdS 5 × S 5. The string on-shell action reproduces the large N and large coupling limit of the gauge theory expectation value and, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, there should also be a precise match between subleading corrections to these limits. We perform a test of such match at next-to-leading order in string theory, by deriving the spectrum of quantum fluctuations around the classical string solution and by computing the corresponding 1-loop effective action. We discuss in detail the supermultiplet structure of the fluctuations. To remove a possible source of ambiguity in the ghost zero mode measure, we compare the 1/4 BPS configuration with the 1/2 BPS one, dual to a circular Wilson loop. We find a discrepancy between the string theory result and the gauge theory prediction, confirming a previous result in the literature. We are able to track the modes from which this discrepancy originates, as well as the modes that by themselves would give the expected result.

  7. Product Integral Representations of Wilson Lines and Wilson Loops, and Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, R L; Rno, J S

    2000-01-01

    We make use of product integrals to provide an unambiguous mathematical representation of Wilson line and Wilson loop operators. Then, drawing upon various properties of product integrals, we discuss such properties of these operators as approximating them with partial sums, their convergence, and their behavior under gauge transformations. We also obtain a surface product integral representation for the Wilson loop operator. The result can be interpreted as the non-abelian version of Stokes theorem.

  8. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-12-01

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  9. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Hao, E-mail: ouyangh@ihep.ac.cn; Wu, Jun-Bao, E-mail: wujb@ihep.ac.cn; Zhang, Jia-ju, E-mail: jjzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Rd, 100049, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-21

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelike Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d=4N=4 super Yang–Mills theory, d=3N=2 super Chern–Simons-matter theory, and d=3N=6 Aharony–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence.

  10. BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities, Beijing (China)

    2015-12-15

    We give evidence that spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist in Minkowski spacetime. We show that spacelikeWilson loops in Minkowski spacetime cannot preserve any supersymmetries, in d = 4 N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, d = 3 N = 2 super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and d = 3 N = 6 Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena theory. We not only show this using infinite straight lines and circles as examples, but also we give proofs for general curves. We attribute this to the conflicts of the reality conditions of the spinors. However, spacelike Wilson loops do exist in Euclidean space. There are both BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circular BPS Wilson loops. This is because the reality conditions of the spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  11. ABJM Wilson Loops in Arbitrary Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  12. ABJM Wilson loops in arbitrary representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Honda, Masazumi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Moriyama, Sanefumi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Kobayashi Maskawa Inst. and Graduate School of Mathematics; Okuyama, Kazumi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-06-15

    We study vacuum expectation values (VEVs) of circular half BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations in ABJM theory. We find that those in hook representations are reduced to elementary integrations thanks to the Fermi gas formalism, which are accessible from the numerical studies similar to the partition function in the previous studies. For non-hook representations, we show that the VEVs in the grand canonical formalism can be exactly expressed as determinants of those in the hook representations. Using these facts, we can study the instanton effects of the VEVs in various representations. Our results are consistent with the worldsheet instanton effects studied from the topological string and a prescription to include the membrane instanton effects by shifting the chemical potential, which has been successful for the partition function.

  13. Cusped light-like Wilson loops in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednikov, I O; Van der Veken, F F

    2012-01-01

    We propose and discuss a new approach to the analysis of the correlation functions which contain light-like Wilson lines or loops, the latter being cusped in addition. The objects of interest are therefore the light-like Wilson null-polygons, the soft factors of the parton distribution and fragmentation functions, high-energy scattering amplitudes in the eikonal approximation, gravitational Wilson lines, etc. Our method is based on a generalization of the universal quantum dynamical principle by J. Schwinger and allows one to take care of extra singularities emerging due to light-like or semi-light-like cusps. We show that such Wilson loops obey a differential equation which connects the area variations and renormalization group behavior of those objects and discuss the possible relation between geometrical structure of the loop space and area evolution of the light-like cusped Wilson loops.

  14. Universal properties of Wilson loop operators in large N QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2008-01-01

    Eigenvalues of a Wilson loop operator are gauge invariant and their distribution undergoes a transition at infinite N as the size of the loop is changed. We study this transition using the average characteristic polynomial associated with the Wilson loop operator. We derive the scaling function in a certain double scaling limit for two dimensional QCD and hypothesize that the transition in three and four dimensional QCD are in the same universality class. Numerical evidence for this hypothesisis provided in three dimensions

  15. Morita Duality and Noncommutative Wilson Loops in Two Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cirafici, M; Seminara, D; Szabó, R J; Cirafici, Michele; Griguolo, Luca; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a combinatorial approach to the analysis of the shape and orientation dependence of Wilson loop observables on two-dimensional noncommutative tori. Morita equivalence is used to map the computation of loop correlators onto the combinatorics of non-planar graphs. Several nonperturbative examples of symmetry breaking under area-preserving diffeomorphisms are thereby presented. Analytic expressions for correlators of Wilson loops with infinite winding number are also derived and shown to agree with results from ordinary Yang-Mills theory.

  16. A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Marco S

    2016-01-01

    We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the expectation value at trivial framing and by comparison with the matrix model expression we extract the framing dependence of the fermion diagrams.

  17. A note on multiply wound BPS Wilson loops in ABJM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Marco S.

    2016-09-01

    We consider BPS Wilson loops in planar ABJM theory, wound multiple times around the great circle. We compute the expectation value of the 1/6-BPS and 1/2-BPS Wilson loops to three- and two-loop order in perturbation theory, respectively, dealing with the combinatorics of multiple winding via recursive relations. For the 1/6-BPS Wilson loop we perform the computation at generic framing and at framing 1 we find agreement with the localization result. For the 1/2-BPS Wilson loop we compute the expectation value at trivial framing and by comparison with the matrix model expression we extract the framing dependence of the fermion diagrams.

  18. Renormalization constants of local operators for Wilson type improved fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Korzec, T; Panagopoulos, H; Stylianou, F

    2012-01-01

    Perturbative and non-perturbative results are presented on the renormalization constants of the quark field and the vector, axial-vector, pseudoscalar, scalar and tensor currents. The perturbative computation, carried out at one-loop level and up to second order in the lattice spacing, is performed for a fermion action, which includes the clover term and the twisted mass parameter yielding results that are applicable for unimproved Wilson fermions, as well as for improved clover and twisted mass fermions. We consider ten variants of the Symanzik improved gauge action corresponding to ten different values of the plaquette coefficients. Non-perturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations are performed for pion masses in the range of 480 MeV to 260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing, a, corresponding to beta=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. For each renormalization factor c...

  19. Exact results for Wilson loops in orbifold ABJM theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-Ju

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the exact results for circular 1/4 and 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in the d = 3 mathcal = 4 super Chern-Simons-matter theory that could be obtained by orbifolding Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. The partition function of the mathcal = 4 orbifold ABJM theory has been computed previously in the literature. In this paper, we re-derive it using a slightly different method. We calculate the vacuum expectation values of the circular 1/4 BPS Wilson loops in fundamental representation and of circular 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in arbitrary representations. We use both the saddle point approach and Fermi gas approach. The results for Wilson loops are in accord with the available gravity results. Supported by NSFC (11222549, 11575202), K. C. Wong Education Foundation and Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS (2011016)

  20. QCD Factorization, Wilson Loop Space and Unintegrated Gluon Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednikov, Igor O.

    2017-03-01

    Currently available operator definitions of gauge-invariant unintegrated (transverse momentum dependent) gluon density function available are briefly overviewed, with emphasis on the structure of the associated Wilson lines. A gauge-invariant generating function with maximal path-dependence is proposed, which, as distinct from the common methodology, is based on arbitrary Wilson loops with no reference to any factorization scheme. After the local area differentiation defined in the Wilson loop space, this object can be used to define fully unintegrated gluon distribution functions in a way potentially suitable for the lattice simulations.

  1. Novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2016-02-01

    We show that generic three-dimensional N = 2 quiver super Chern-Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type Wilson loops. We investigate both Wilson loops along timelike infinite straight lines in Minkowski spacetime and circular Wilson loops in Euclidean space. In Aharnoy-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, we find that generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto-Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops happens for special values of the parameters.

  2. Novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern–Simons-matter theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ouyang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that generic three-dimensional N=2 quiver super Chern–Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS Drukker–Trancanelli (DT type Wilson loops. We investigate both Wilson loops along timelike infinite straight lines in Minkowski spacetime and circular Wilson loops in Euclidean space. In Aharnoy–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory, we find that generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto–Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops happens for special values of the parameters.

  3. Scattering Amplitudes/Wilson Loop Duality In ABJM Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Marco S; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Santambrogio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    For N=6 superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories in three dimensions, by a direct superspace Feynman diagram approach, we compute the two-loop four-point scatteringa amplitude with external chiral matter fields. We find that the result is in perfect agreement with the two-loop result for a light-like four-polygon Wilson loop. This is a nontrivial evidence of the scattering amplitudes/Wilson loop duality in three dimensions. Moreover, both the IR divergent and the finite parts of our two-loop result agree with a BDS-like ansatz for all-loop amplitudes where the scaling function is given in terms of the N=4 SYM one, according to the conjectured Bethe equations for ABJM. Consequently, we are able to make a prediction for the four-loop correction to the amplitude. We also discuss the dual conformal invariance of the two-loop result.

  4. Large-N string tension from rectangular Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In pure SU(N) gauge theory in four dimensions, we determine the string tension at large N from smeared rectangular Wilson loops on the lattice. We learn how well loops of sizes barely on the strong-coupling side of the large-N transition in their eigenvalue distribution can be described by effective string theory.

  5. Morita duality and noncommutative Wilson loops in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirafici, Michele; Griguolo, Luca; Seminara, Domenico; Szabo, Richard J.

    2005-10-01

    We describe a combinatorial approach to the analysis of the shape and orientation dependence of Wilson loop observables on two-dimensional noncommutative tori. Morita equivalence is used to map the computation of loop correlators onto the combinatorics of non-planar graphs. Several strong nonperturbative evidences of symmetry breaking under area-preserving diffeomorphisms are thereby presented. Analytic expressions for correlators of Wilson loops with infinite winding number are also derived and shown to agree with results from ordinary Yang-Mills theory.

  6. Universal properties of large N phase transitions in Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2007-01-01

    Numerical studies support the conjecture that in continuum planar QCD the eigenvalue density of a Wilson loop operator undergoes a transition as the loop is dilated while keeping the loop shape fixed. A second part of the conjecture is that the transition obeys large N universality and that this universality class is the same in 2, 3 and 4 Euclidean space-time dimensions. The focus of the talk will be on clarifying precisely what the conjecture is claiming.

  7. Limiting Geometries of Two Circular Maldacena-Wilson Loop Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Arutyunov, G.; Plefka, J.; Staudacher, M.

    2001-01-01

    We further analyze a recent perturbative two-loop calculation of the expectation value of two axi-symmetric circular Maldacena-Wilson loops in [Script N] = 4 gauge theory. Firstly, it is demonstrated how to adapt the previous calculation of anti-symmetrically oriented circles to the symmetric case. By shrinking one of the circles to zero size we then explicitly work out the first few terms of the local operator expansion of the loop. Our calculations explicitly demonstrate that circular Mald...

  8. Light-cone Wilson loop in classical lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, M

    2013-01-01

    The transverse broadening of an energetic jet passing through a non-Abelian plasma is believed to be described by the thermal expectation value of a light-cone Wilson loop. In this exploratory study, we measure the light-cone Wilson loop with classical lattice gauge theory simulations. We observe, as suggested by previous studies, that there are strong interactions already at short transverse distances, which may lead to more efficient jet quenching than in leading-order perturbation theory. We also verify that the asymptotics of the Wilson loop do not change qualitatively when crossing the light cone, which supports arguments in the literature that infrared contributions to jet quenching can be studied with dimensionally reduced simulations in the space-like domain. Finally we speculate on possibilities for full four-dimensional lattice studies of the same observable, perhaps by employing shifted boundary conditions in order to simulate ensembles boosted by an imaginary velocity.

  9. Null Zig-Zag Wilson Loops in N=4 SYM

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    In planar ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory we have studied supersymmetric Wilson loops composed of a large number of light-like segments, i.e., null zig-zags. These contours oscillate around smooth underlying spacelike paths. At one-loop in perturbation theory we have compared the finite part of the expectation value of null zig-zags to the finite part of the expectation value of non-scalar-coupled Wilson loops whose contours are the underlying smooth spacelike paths. In arXiv:0710.1060 [hep-th] it was argued that these quantities are equal for the case of a rectangular Wilson loop. Here we present a modest extension of this result to zig-zags of circular shape and zig-zags following non-parallel, disconnected line segments and show analytically that the one-loop finite part is indeed that given by the smooth spacelike Wilson loop without coupling to scalars which the zig-zag contour approximates. We make some comments regarding the generalization to arbitrary shapes.

  10. Null Zig-Zag Wilson Loops in {N}=4 Sym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhifeng

    In planar {N}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory we have studied one kind of (locally) BPS Wilson loops composed of a large number of light-like segments, i.e. null zig-zags. These contours oscillate around smooth underlying spacelike paths. At one-loop in perturbation theory, we have compared the finite part of the expectation value of null zig-zags to the finite part of the expectation value of non-scalar-coupled Wilson loops whose contours are the underlying smooth spacelike paths. In arXiv:0710.1060 [hep-th] it was argued that these quantities are equal for the case of a rectangular Wilson loop. Here we present a modest extension of this result to zig-zags of circular shape and zig-zags following non-parallel, disconnected line segments and show analytically that the one-loop finite part is indeed that given by the smooth spacelike Wilson loop without coupling to scalars which the zig-zag contour approximates. We make some comments regarding the generalization to arbitrary shapes.

  11. Instanton Corrections of 1/6 BPS Wilson Loops in ABJM Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We study instanton corrections to the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of 1/6 BPS Wilson loops in ABJM theory from the Fermi gas approach. We mainly consider Wilson loops in the fundamental representation and winding Wilson loops, but we also initiate the study of Wilson loops with two boundaries. We find that the membrane instanton corrections to the Wilson loop VEV are determined by the refined topological string in the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit, and the pole cancellation mechanism between membrane instantons and worldsheet instantons works also in the Wilson loop VEVs as in the case of the partition functions.

  12. Semiclassical correlation functions of Wilson loops and local vertex operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    We analyze correlation functions of Wilson loop observables and local vertex operators within the strong-coupling regime of the AdS/CFT correspondence. When the local operator corresponds to a light string state with finite conserved charges the correlation function can be evaluated in the semiclassical approximation of large string tension, where the contribution from the light vertex can be neglected. We consider the cases where the Wilson loops are described by two concentric surfaces and the local vertices are the superconformal chiral primary scalar or a singlet massive scalar operator.

  13. Exact results for Wilson loops in orbifold ABJM theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the exact results for circular 1/4 and 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in the d=3 N=4 super Chern-Simons-matter theory that could be obtained by orbifolding Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. In literature there is the partition function of the N=4 orbifold ABJM theory, and we re-derive it in a slightly different method. We calculate the vacuum expectation values of the circular 1/4 and 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in both the saddle point approach and Fermi gas approach, and the results are in accord to the gravity ones.

  14. Scattering amplitudes and Wilson loops in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim; Mason, Lionel [Mathematical Institute, 24-29 St. Giles' , Oxford OX1 3LB (United Kingdom); Bullimore, Mathew [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Skinner, David, E-mail: adamo@maths.ox.ac.uk [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2 L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2011-11-11

    This paper reviews the recent progress in twistor approaches to Wilson loops, amplitudes and their duality for N=4 super-Yang-Mills. Wilson loops and amplitudes are derived from first principles using the twistor action for maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. We start by deriving the MHV rules for gauge theory amplitudes from the twistor action in an axial gauge in twistor space, and show that this gives rise to the original momentum space version given by Cachazo, Svrcek and Witten. We then go on to obtain from these the construction of the momentum twistor space loop integrand using (planar) MHV rules and show how it arises as the expectation value of a holomorphic Wilson loop in twistor space. We explain the connection between the holomorphic Wilson loop and certain light-cone limits of correlation functions. We give a brief review of other ideas in connection with amplitudes in twistor space: twistor-strings, recursion in twistor space, the Grassmannian residue formula for leading singularities and amplitudes as polytopes. This paper is an invited review for a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to 'Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories'. (review)

  15. Generalized Loop Space and Evolution of the Light-Like Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednikov, I O

    2014-01-01

    Equations of motion for the light-like QCD Wilson loops are studied in the generalized loop space (GLS) setting. To this end, the classically conformal-invariant non-local variations of the cusped Wilson exponentials lying (partially) on the light-cone are formulated in terms of the Fr\\'echet derivative. The rapidity and renormalization-group behaviour of the gauge-invariant quantum correlation functions (in particular, the three-dimensional parton densities) are demonstrated to be connected to certain geometrical properties of the Wilson loops defined in the GLS.

  16. Hexagon Wilson loop = six-gluon MHV amplitude

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, J M; Korchemsky, G P; Sokatchev, E

    2008-01-01

    We compare the two-loop corrections to the finite part of the light-like hexagon Wilson loop with the recent numerical results for the finite part of the MHV six-gluon amplitude in N=4 SYM theory by Bern, Dixon, Kosower, Roiban, Spradlin, Vergu and Volovich (arXiv:0803.1465 [hep-th]) and demonstrate that they coincide within the error bars and, at the same time, they differ from the BDS ansatz by a non-trivial function of (dual) conformal kinematical invariants. This provides strong evidence that the Wilson loop/scattering amplitude duality holds in planar N=4 SYM theory to all loops for an arbitrary number of external particles.

  17. Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageev, Dmitry

    2016-10-01

    The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.

  18. Holographic Wilson loops in anisotropic quark-gluon plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ageev Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonequilibrium properties of the anisotropic quark-gluon plasma are condidered from the holographic viewpoint. Lifshitz-like solution is considered as a holographic dual of anisotropic QGP. The black brane formation in such background is considered as a thermalization in dual theory. As a probe of thermalization we consider rectangular spatial Wilson loops with different orientation.

  19. Supersymmetric Wilson Loops and Super Non-Abelian Stokes Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Karp, R L; Karp, Robert L.; Mansouri, Freydoon

    2000-01-01

    We generalize the standard product integral formalism to incorporateGrassmann valued matrices and show that the resulting supersymmetric productintegrals provide a natural framework for describing supersymmetric Wilsonlines and Wilson loops. We use this formalism to establish the supersymmetricversion of the non-Abelian Stokes Theorem.

  20. The Wilson loop in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    Using the supersymmetric formalism we compute exactly at finite $N$ the expectation of the Wilson loop in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble and derive an exact formula for the spectral density at finite $N$. We obtain the same result by a second method relying on enumerative combinatorics and show that it leads to a novel proof of the Harer-Zagier series formula.

  1. Integrability and Wilson loops: the wavy line contour

    CERN Document Server

    Cagnazzo, A

    2013-01-01

    The Wilson loop with a wavy line contour is studied using integrable methods. The auxiliary problem is solved and the Lax operator is built to first order in perturbation theory, considering a small perturbation from the straight line. Finally the spectral curve of the solution is considered.

  2. String theory duals of Wilson loops from Higgsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietti, Marco; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2017-08-01

    For three-dimensional ABJ(M) theories and N=4 Chern-Simons-matter quiver theories, we construct two sets of 1/2 BPS Wilson loop operators by applying the Higgsing procedure along independent directions of the moduli space, and choosing different massive modes. For theories whose dual M-theory description is known, we also determine the corresponding spectrum of 1/2 BPS M2-brane solutions. We identify the supercharges in M-theory and field theory, as well as the supercharges preserved by M2-/anti-M2-branes and 1/2 BPS Wilson loops. In particular, in N=4 orbifold ABJM theory we find pairs of different 1/2 BPS Wilson loops that preserve exactly the same set of supercharges. In field theory they arise by Higgsing with the choice of either particles or antiparticles, whereas in the dual description they correspond to a pair of M2-/anti-M2-branes localized at different positions in the compact space. This result enlightens the origin of classical Wilson loop degeneracy in these theories, already discussed in arXiv:1506.07614. A discussion on possible scenarios that emerge by comparison with localization results is included.

  3. Wilson loops and topological phases in closed string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R

    2004-01-01

    Using covariant phase space formulations for the natural topological invariants associated with the world-surface in closed string theory, we find that certain Wilson loops defined on the world-surface and that preserve topological invariance, correspond to wave functionals for the vacuum state with zero energy. The differences and similarities with the 2-dimensional QED proposed by Schwinger early are discussed.

  4. Smooth Wilson loops in N=4 non-chiral superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisert, Niklas; Müller, Dennis; Plefka, Jan; Vergu, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    We consider a supersymmetric Wilson loop operator for 4d N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory which is the natural object dual to the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring in the AdS/CFT correspondence. It generalizes the traditional bosonic 1 /2 BPS Maldacena-Wilson loop operator and completes recent constructions in the literature to smooth (non-light-like) loops in the full N=4 non-chiral superspace. This Wilson loop operator enjoys global super-conformal and local kappa-symmetry of which a detailed discussion is given. Moreover, the finiteness of its vacuum expectation value is proven at leading order in perturbation theory. We determine the leading vacuum expectation value for general paths both at the component field level up to quartic order in anti-commuting coordinates and in the full non-chiral superspace in suitable gauges. Finally, we discuss loops built from quadric splines joined in such a way that the path derivatives are continuous at the intersection.

  5. Smooth Wilson Loops in N=4 Non-Chiral Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Beisert, Niklas; Plefka, Jan; Vergu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    We consider a supersymmetric Wilson loop operator for 4d N=4 super Yang-Mills theory which is the natural object dual to the AdS_5 x S^5 superstring in the AdS/CFT correspondence. It generalizes the traditional bosonic 1/2 BPS Maldacena-Wilson loop operator and completes recent constructions in the literature to smooth (non-light-like) loops in the full N=4 non-chiral superspace. This Wilson loop operator enjoys global superconformal and local kappa-symmetry of which a detailed discussion is given. Moreover, the finiteness of its vacuum expectation value is proven at leading order in perturbation theory. We determine the leading vacuum expectation value for general paths both at the component field level up to quartic order in anti-commuting coordinates and in the full non-chiral superspace in suitable gauges. Finally, we discuss loops built from quadric splines joined in such a way that the path derivatives are continuous at the intersection.

  6. An Operator Product Expansion for Polygonal null Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F; Maldacena, Juan; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    We consider polygonal Wilson loops with null edges in conformal gauge theories. We derive an OPE-like expansion when several successive lines of the polygon are becoming aligned. The limit corresponds to a collinear, or multicollinear, limit and we explain the systematics of all the subleading corrections, going beyond the leading terms that were previously considered. These subleading corrections are governed by excitations of high spin operators, or excitations of a flux tube that goes between two Wilson lines. The discussion is valid for any conformal gauge theory, for any coupling and in any dimension. For N=4 super Yang Mills we check this expansion at strong coupling and at two loops at weak coupling . We also make predictions for the remainder function at higher loops. In the process, we also derived a new version for the TBA integral equations that determine the strong coupling answer and present the area as the associated Yang-Yang functional.

  7. Entanglement entropy of Wilson loops: Holography and matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Gentle, Simon A

    2014-01-01

    A half-BPS circular Wilson loop in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $SU(N)$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in an arbitrary representation is described by a Gaussian matrix model with a particular insertion. The additional entanglement entropy of a spherical region in the presence of such a loop was recently computed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena using exact matrix model results. In this note we utilize the supergravity solutions that are dual to such Wilson loops in a representation with order $N^2$ boxes to calculate this entropy holographically. Employing the matrix model results of Gomis, Matsuura, Okuda and Trancanelli we express this holographic entanglement entropy in a form that can be compared with the calculation of Lewkowycz and Maldacena. We find complete agreement between the matrix model and holographic calculations.

  8. Entanglement entropy of Wilson loops: Holography and matrix models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentle, Simon A.; Gutperle, Michael

    2014-09-01

    A half-Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfeld circular Wilson loop in N=4 SU(N) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in an arbitrary representation is described by a Gaussian matrix model with a particular insertion. The additional entanglement entropy of a spherical region in the presence of such a loop was recently computed by Lewkowycz and Maldacena using exact matrix model results. In this paper we utilize the supergravity solutions that are dual to such Wilson loops in a representation with order N2 boxes to calculate this entropy holographically. Employing the matrix model results of Gomis, Matsuura, Okuda and Trancanelli we express this holographic entanglement entropy in a form that can be compared with the calculation of Lewkowycz and Maldacena. We find complete agreement between the matrix model and holographic calculations.

  9. Wilson-Loop Symmetry Breaking Reexamined

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamula, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The splitting in energy of gauge field vacua on the non-simply connected space $S^3/Z_2$ is reconsidered. We show the calculation to the one-loop level for a Yang-Mills vector with a ghost field. We confirm our previous result and give a solution to the question posed by Freire, Rom\\~ao and Barroso.

  10. Wilson-loop symmetry breaking reexamined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A.; Shiraishi, K.

    1988-12-01

    The splitting in energy of gauge field vacua on the non-simply connected space S 3/Z 2 is reconsidered. We show the calculation to the one-loop level for a Yang-Mills vector with a ghost field. We confirm our previous result and give a solution to the question posed by Freire, Romão and Barroso.

  11. Wilson loop invariants from WN conformal blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Alekseev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knot and link polynomials are topological invariants calculated from the expectation value of loop operators in topological field theories. In 3D Chern–Simons theory, these invariants can be found from crossing and braiding matrices of four-point conformal blocks of the boundary 2D CFT. We calculate crossing and braiding matrices for WN conformal blocks with one component in the fundamental representation and another component in a rectangular representation of SU(N, which can be used to obtain HOMFLY knot and link invariants for these cases. We also discuss how our approach can be generalized to invariants in higher-representations of WN algebra.

  12. Mixed symmetry Wilson-loop interactions in the worldline formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, James P

    2016-01-01

    Using the worldline formalism of the Dirac field with a non-Abelian gauge symmetry we show how to describe the matter field transforming in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group. Colour degrees of freedom are carried on the worldline by auxiliary fields, responsible for providing path ordering and the Wilson-loop coupling. The Hilbert space of these fields is reducible but we make use of recent work in order to project onto a single, arbitrary, irreducible representation. By functionally quantising the resulting theory we show that this procedure correctly generates the Wilson-loop interaction between the gauge field and the matter field taken to transform in a chosen representation. This work has direct application to physical observables such as scattering amplitudes in the presence of such a matter multiplet and lifts the restriction on the type of matter that has previously featured in worldline calculations.

  13. Probing Wilson Loops in the QCD Instanton Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the quark and gluon condensates in the presence of a rectangular Wilson loop using the QCD instanton vacuum with three light dynamical quarks. The scalar quark condensate is found to decrease while the gluon condensate to increase. We also derive the static potential between two QCD dipoles and show that it is attractive but short ranged at large distances. Its relevance to static QCD string interactions is discussed.

  14. Infinite N phase transitions in continuum Wilson loop operators

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2006-01-01

    We define smoothed Wilson loop operators on a four dimensional lattice and check numerically that they have a finite and nontrivial continuum limit. The continuum operators maintain their character as unitary matrices and undergo a phase transition at infinite N reflected by the eigenvalue distribution closing a gap in its spectrum when the defining smooth loop is dilated from a small size to a large one. If this large N phase transition belongs to a solvable universality class one might be able to calculate analytically the string tension in terms of the perturbative Lambda-parameter. This would be achieved by matching instanton results for small loops to the relevant large-N-universal function which, in turn, would be matched for large loops to an effective string theory. Similarities between our findings and known analytical results in two dimensional space-time indicate that the phase transitions we found only affect the eigenvalue distribution, but the traces of finite powers of the Wilson loop operators...

  15. All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Esterlis, Ilya

    2016-07-01

    Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 → 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 → 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar {N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of the box Wilson loops is dictated by (dual) conformal invariance, the complete kinematic dependence of the singular terms for the self-crossing hexagon on the one nonsingular variable is determined to all loop orders. The complete logarithmic dependence on the singular variable can be obtained through nine loops, up to a couple of constants, using a correspondence with the multi-Regge limit. As a byproduct, we obtain a simple formula for the leading logs to all loop orders. We also show that, although the MHV six-gluon amplitude is singular, remarkably, the transcendental functions entering the non-MHV amplitude are finite in the same limit, at least through four loops.

  16. Integrability of Smooth Wilson Loops in N=4 Superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Beisert, Niklas; Plefka, Jan; Vergu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the Yangian symmetry of smooth supersymmetric Maldacena-Wilson loops in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. This hidden symmetry extends the global superconformal symmetry present for these observables. A gauge-covariant action of the Yangian generators on the Wilson line is established that generalizes previous constructions built upon path variations. Employing these generators the Yangian symmetry is proven for general paths in non-chiral N=4 superspace at the first perturbative order. The bi-local piece of the level-one generators requires the use of a regulator due to divergences in the coincidence limit. We perform regularization by point splitting in detail, thereby constructing additional local and boundary contributions as regularization for all level-one Yangian generators. Moreover, the Yangian algebra at level one is checked and compatibility with local kappa-symmetry is established. Finally, the consistency of the Yangian symmetry is shown to depend on two propertie...

  17. BPS Wilson loops and Bremsstrahlung function in ABJ(M): a two loop analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Marco S. [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Griguolo, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parmaand INFN Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Leoni, Matias [Physics Department, FCEyN-UBA & IFIBA-CONICETCiudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Penati, Silvia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano-Bicoccaand INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenzeand INFN Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-06-19

    We study a family of circular BPS Wilson loops in N=6 super Chern-Simons-matter theories, generalizing the usual 1/2-BPS circle. The scalar and fermionic couplings depend on two deformation parameters and these operators can be considered as the ABJ(M) counterpart of the DGRT latitudes defined in N=4 SYM. We perform a complete two-loop analysis of their vacuum expectation value, discuss the appearance of framing-like phases and propose a general relation with cohomologically equivalent bosonic operators. We make an all-loop proposal for computing the Bremsstrahlung function associated to the 1/2-BPS cusp in terms of these generalized Wilson loops. When applied to our two-loop result it reproduces the known expression. Finally, we comment on the generalization of this proposal to the bosonic 1/6-BPS case.

  18. Construction of novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines in $\\mathcal N=2,3$ quiver super Chern-Simons-matter (CSM) theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and $\\mathcal N=4$ orbifold ABJM theory. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for Wilson loops in ABJM theory and $\\mathcal N=4$ orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops are $Q$-exact with $Q$ being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.

  19. Dual conformal transformations of smooth holographic Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, Amit

    2016-01-01

    We study dual conformal transformations of minimal area surfaces in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ corresponding to holographic smooth Wilson loops and some other related observables. To act with dual conformal transformations we map the string solutions to the dual space by means of T-duality, then we apply a conformal transformation and finally T-dualize back to the original space. The transformation maps between string solutions with different boundary contours. The boundary contours of the minimal surfaces are not mapped back to the AdS boundary, and the regularized area of the surface changes.

  20. Poisson Brackets of Normal-Ordered Wilson Loops

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C. -W. H.; Rajeev, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    We formulate Yang-Mills theory in terms of the large-N limit, viewed as a classical limit, of gauge-invariant dynamical variables, which are closely related to Wilson loops, via deformation quantization. We obtain a Poisson algebra of these dynamical variables corresponding to normal-ordered quantum (at a finite value of $\\hbar$) operators. Comparing with a Poisson algebra one of us introduced in the past for Weyl-ordered quantum operators, we find, using ideas closly related to topological g...

  1. Poisson brackets of normal-ordered Wilson loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.-W. H.; Rajeev, S. G.

    1999-04-01

    We formulate Yang-Mills theory in terms of the large-N limit, viewed as a classical limit, of gauge-invariant dynamical variables, which are closely related to Wilson loops, via deformation quantization. We obtain a Poisson algebra of these dynamical variables corresponding to normal-ordered quantum (at a finite value of ℏ) operators. Comparing with a Poisson algebra one of us introduced in the past for Weyl-ordered quantum operators, we find, using ideas closely related to topological graph theory, that these two Poisson algebras are, roughly speaking, the same. More precisely speaking, there exists an invertible Poisson morphism between them.

  2. Wilson loop expectations in $SU(N)$ lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarov, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a rigorous formulation and proof of the $1/N$ expansion for Wilson loop expectations in strongly coupled $SU(N)$ lattice gauge theory in any dimension. The coefficients of the expansion are represented as absolutely convergent sums over trajectories in a string theory on the lattice, establishing a kind of gauge-string duality. Moreover, it is shown that in large $N$ limit, calculations in $SU(N)$ lattice gauge theory with coupling strength $2\\beta$ corresponds to those in $SO(N)$ lattice gauge theory with coupling strength $\\beta$ when $|\\beta|$ is sufficiently small.

  3. Wilson loops at strong coupling for curved contours with cusps

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We construct the minimal surface in AdS, relevant for the strong coupling behaviour of local supersymmetric Wilson loops in N=4 SYM for a closed contour formed out of segments of two intersecting circles. Its regularised area is calculated including all divergent parts and the finite renormalised term. Furthermore we prove, that for generic planar curved contours with cusps the cusp anomalous dimensions are functions of the respective cusp angles alone. They do not depend on other local data of the cusps.

  4. Higher Rank ABJM Wilson Loops from Matrix Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookmeyer, Jonathan; Liu, James; Zayas, Leopoldo

    2017-01-01

    We compute the expectation values of 1/6 supersymmetric Wilson Loops in ABJM theory in higher rank representations. Using standard matrix model techniques, we calculate the expectation value in the rank m fully symmetric and fully antisymmetric representation where m is scaled with N. To leading order, we find agreement with the classical action of D6 and D2 branes in AdS4 ×CP3 respectively. Further, we compute the first subleading order term, which, on the AdS side, makes a prediction for the one-loop effective action of the corresponding D6 and D2 branes. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY 1559988 and the US Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-SC0007859.

  5. A Tale of Two Spaces: BPS Wilson Loops in Minkowski Spacetime and Euclidean Space

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-01-01

    We discuss BPS Wilson loops of $d=4$ $\\mathcal N=4$ super Yang-Mills theory, $d=3$ $\\mathcal N=2$ super Chern-Simons-matter theory, and $d=3$ $\\mathcal N=6$ Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, in both Minkowski spacetime and Euclidean space. We find that there are timelike and null BPS Wilson loops in Minkowski spacetime, but spacelike BPS Wilson loops do not exist. We attribute this to the conflicts of reality conditions of spinors. However, in Euclidean space spacelike Wilson loops do exist. There are both Wilson lines of infinite straight lines and Wilson loops of circles. This is because the reality conditions of spinors are lost after Wick rotation. The result is reasonable in view of AdS/CFT correspondence.

  6. Construction and classification of novel BPS Wilson loops in quiver Chern–Simons-matter theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ouyang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we construct and classify novel Drukker–Trancanelli (DT type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circles in N=2,3 quiver superconformal Chern–Simons-matter theories, Aharony–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena (ABJM theory, and N=4 orbifold ABJM theory. Generally we have four classes of Wilson loops, and all of them preserve the same supersymmetries as the BPS Gaiotto–Yin (GY type Wilson loops. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for two classes of Wilson loops in ABJM theory and N=4 orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and GY type Wilson loops are Q-exact with Q being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the DT type Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.

  7. Construction and classification of novel BPS Wilson loops in quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we construct and classify novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines and circles in N = 2 , 3 quiver superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory. Generally we have four classes of Wilson loops, and all of them preserve the same supersymmetries as the BPS Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for two classes of Wilson loops in ABJM theory and N = 4 orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and GY type Wilson loops are Q-exact with Q being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the DT type Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.

  8. Integrability of smooth Wilson loops in N=4 superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisert, Niklas; Müller, Dennis; Plefka, Jan; Vergu, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    We perform a detailed study of the Yangian symmetry of smooth supersymmetric Maldacena-Wilson loops in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. This hidden symmetry extends the global superconformal symmetry present for these observables. A gauge-covariant action of the Yangian generators on the Wilson line is established that generalizes previous constructions built upon path variations. Employing these generators the Yangian symmetry is proven for general paths in non-chiral N=4 superspace at the first perturbative order. The bi-local piece of the level-one generators requires the use of a regulator due to divergences in the coincidence limit. We perform regularization by point splitting in detail, thereby constructing additional local and boundary contributions as regularization for all level-one Yangian generators. Moreover, the Yangian algebra at level one is checked and compatibility with local kappa-symmetry is established. Finally, the consistency of the Yangian symmetry is shown to depend on two properties: the vanishing of the dual Coxeter number of the underlying superconformal algebra and the existence of a novel superspace "G-identity" for the gauge field theory. This tightly constrains the conformal gauge theories to which integrability can possibly apply.

  9. Single spin asymmetries from a single Wilson loop

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniël; Mulders, Piet; Zhou, Jian

    2015-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dynamical origins, but that in the limit of small longitudinal momentum fraction $x$ only one origin remains. We find that in this limit only the $C$-odd or dipole-type gluon TMDs survive and become identical to each other. At small $x$ they are all given by the expectation value of a single Wilson loop inside the transversely polarized hadron, the so-called spin-dependent odderon. This universal origin of transverse spin asymmetries at small $x$ is of importance to current and future experimental studies, paving the way to a better understanding of the role of gluons in the three-dimensional structure of spin-polarized protons.

  10. Gravity duals of half-BPS Wilson loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Hoker, Eric; Estes, John; Gutperle, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We explicitly construct the fully back-reacted half-BPS solutions in Type IIB supergravity which are dual to Wilson loops with 16 supersymmetries in N = 4 super Yang-Mills. In a first part, we use the methods of a companion paper to derive the exact general solution of the half-BPS equations on the space AdS{sub 2} x S{sup 2} x S{sup 4} x {sigma}, with isometry group SO(2, 1) x SO(3) x SO(5) in terms of two locally harmonic functions on a Riemann surface {sigma} with boundary. These solutions, generally, have varying dilaton and axion, and non-vanishing 3-form fluxes. In a second part, we impose regularity and topology conditions. These non-singular solutions may be parametrized by a genus g {>=} 0 hyperelliptic surface {sigma}, all of whose branch points lie on the real line. Each genus g solution has only a single asymptotic AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} region, but exhibits g homology 3-spheres, and an extra g homology 5-spheres, carrying respectively RR 3-form and RR 5-form charges. For genus 0, we recover AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} with 3 free parameters, while for genus g {>=} 1, the solution has 2g+5 free parameters. The genus 1 case is studied in detail. Numerical analysis is used to show that the solutions are regular throughout the g = 1 parameter space. Collapse of a branch cut on {sigma} subtending either a homology 3-sphere or a homology 5-sphere is non-singular and yields the genus g-1 solution. This behavior is precisely expected of a proper dual to a Wilson loop in gauge theory.

  11. From Polygon Wilson Loops to Spin Chains and Back

    CERN Document Server

    Sever, Amit; Wang, Tianheng

    2012-01-01

    Null Polygon Wilson Loops (WL) in N=4 SYM can be computed using the Operator Product Expansion in terms of a transition amplitude on top of a color flux tube (FT). That picture is valid at any value of the 't Hooft coupling. So far it has been efficiently used at weak coupling (WC) in cases where only a single particle is flowing. At any finite value of the coupling however, an infinite number of particles are flowing on top of the color FT. A major open problem in this approach was how to deal with generic multi-particle states at WC. In this paper we study the propagation of any number of FT excitations at WC. We do this by first mapping the WL into a sum of two point functions of local operators. This map allows us to translate the integrability techniques developed for the spectrum problem back to the WL. E.g., the FT Hamiltonian can be represented as a simple kernel acting on the loop. Having an explicit representation for the FT Hamiltonian allows us to treat any number of particles on an equal footing....

  12. Correlation Function of Circular Wilson Loops at Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Dekel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We study the correlation function of two circular Wilson loops at strong coupling in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, the problem maps to finding the minimal surface between two circles defined on the boundary of AdS, and the fluctuations around the classical solution in AdS_5 x S^5. At the classical level, we derive the string solution in H_3 x S^1 explicitly, and focus on properties such as stability and phase transition. Furthermore, a computation of the associated algebraic curve is given. At the quantum level, the one-loop partition function is constructed by introducing quadratic bosonic and fermionic fluctuations around the classical solution, embedded in AdS_5 x S^5. We find an analytic, formal expression for the partition function in terms of an infinite product by employing the Gel'fand-Yaglom method and supersymmetric regularization. We regulate the expression and evaluate the partition function numerically.

  13. 3-loop contributions to heavy flavor Wilson coefficients of neutral and charged current DIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselhuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-15

    . A new method is presented for the calculation of such diagrams with equal masses, contributing to the OMEs A{sub gq,Q} and A{sub gg,Q}. The method uses a Mellin-Barnes representation instead of a generalized hypergeometric function and keeps, for convergence reasons, one of the Feynman parameter integrals unintegrated. The above symbolic summation methods are used to solve the sum of residues in terms of cyclotomic harmonic polylogarithms. Many properties of these functions are implemented in the package Harmonic Sums. Since the result is first derived as a generating function, the symbolic summation machinery is applied a second time, solving difference equations and simplifying sums needed to derive the Nth Taylor coefficient for symbolic N. First the O({alpha}{sub s}) contributions are revisited, due to partly different results in the foregoing literature, which can be clarified. At 1-loop order, an efficient representation in Mellin space allowing for fast numerical evaluations is designed, including power corrections. Also here errors in the literature are corrected. Here the 1-loop expressions are also expanded for 1>>m{sup 2}/Q{sup 2} up to the constant term. A careful recalculation of the gluonic contribution is performed as well as a calculation in leading logarithmic approximation. The leading logarithmic calculation shows that the same sign error occurs for the pure-singlet contribution at two loops. The heavy quark corrections of charged current deep-inelastic scattering are extended to 2-loop order. The factorization of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at large values of Q{sup 2} is derived for the charged current case. Using the light flavor Wilson coefficients and operator matrix elements up to 2-loop order from the literature, x- and N-space expressions for all heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at two loops are given.

  14. 1/4 BPS Wilson Loop in beta-deformed Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Chong-Sun

    2007-01-01

    We consider general BPS Wilson loop operators in the N=1 beta-deformed supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and derive the boundary condition satisfied by the dual string worldsheet. The boundary condition is found to be deformed and is characterized by the vielbein of the deformed supergravity metric. We also construct the string dual configuration for the 1/4 BPS Wilson loop operators. The string lies on a deformed three-sphere instead of a two-sphere as in the undeformed case. We compute the expectation value of the Wilson loop operator using the AdS/CFT correspondence and find that it is independent of the deformation.

  15. Novel Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield Wilson Loops in Three-dimensional Quiver Super Chern-Simons-matter Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju

    2015-01-01

    We show that generic three-dimensional $\\mathcal N=2$ quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type Wilson loops. In Aharnoy-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, we find that the generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto-Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for the generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops only happens for special values of the parameters.

  16. Wilson loops and chiral correlators on squashed spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, F.; Morales, J. F.; Poghossian, R.

    2017-08-01

    After a very brief recollection of how my scientific collaboration with Ugo started, in this talk I will present some recent results obtained with localization: the deformed gauge theory partition function Z(τ → | q) and the expectation value of circular Wilson loops W on a squashed four-sphere will be computed. The partition function is deformed by turning on τJ trΦJ interactions with Φ the N = 2 superfield. For the N = 4 theory SUSY gauge theory exact formulae for Z and W in terms of an underlying U(N) interacting matrix model can be derived thus replacing the free Gaussian model describing the undeformed N = 4 theory. These results will be then compared with those obtained with the dual CFT according to the AGT correspondence. The interactions introduced previously are in fact related to the insertions of commuting integrals of motion in the four-point CFT correlator and the chiral correlators are expressed as τ-derivatives of the gauge theory partition function on a finite Ω-background.

  17. Entanglement Entropy and Wilson Loop in St\\"{u}ckelberg Holographic Insulator/Superconductor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Li, Li; Li, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    We study the behaviors of entanglement entropy and vacuum expectation value of Wilson loop in the St\\"{u}ckelberg holographic insulator/superconductor model. This model has rich phase structures depending on model parameters. Both the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry and the heavy quark potential from the Wilson loop show that there exists a "confinement/deconfinement" phase transition. In addition, we find that the non-monotonic behavior of the entanglement entropy with respect to chemical potential is universal in this model. The pseudo potential from the spatial Wilson loop also has a similar non-monotonic behavior. It turns out that the entanglement entropy and Wilson loop are good probes to study the properties of the holographic superconductor phase transition.

  18. Recent Results on the 3-Loop Heavy Flavor Wilson Coefficients in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Blümlein, J; Raab, C; Wißbrock, F; Ablinger, J; Hasselhuhn, A; Round, M; Schneider, C; von Manteuffel, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the calculation of the 3-loop massive Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering at general values of $N$ for neutral and charged current reactions in the asymptotic region $Q^2 \\gg m^2$.

  19. Coadjoint Orbits and Wilson Loops in Five Dimensional Topological Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Noma, Yui

    2009-01-01

    We give path integral expressions of Wilson loops. This work is an extension of the relation between characters of Lie groups and quantum mechanics whose phase spaces are coadjoint orbits. The path-ordering operators in Wilson loops are considered as the time-ordering operators of the quantum mechanics. Then, by using this expression the formal discussion are simplified. As an application of this expression, we considered one-point functions of BPS Wilson loops in a five dimensional topological gauge theory defined on M_4\\times S^1. We found that the Wilson loop gives interaction terms between charged particles and certain gauge fields on the instanton moduli space, and makes the non-charged particle charged under the gauge fields.

  20. Wilson loops in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SQCD from Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Okuyama, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    We study 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in 3d $\\mathcal{N}=4$ $U(N)$ Yang-Mills theory with one adjoint and $N_f$ fundamental hypermultiplets from the Fermi gas approach. By numerical fitting, we find the first few worldsheet instanton corrections to the Wilson loops with winding numbers 1, 2 and 3. We verify that our Fermi gas results are consistent with the matrix model results in the planar limit.

  1. Determination of low-energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herdoiza, Gregorio [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst fuer Kernphysik, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid, Contoblanco (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Univ. Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Michael, Chris [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Ottnad, Konstantin; Urbach, Carsten [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen und Kernphysik; Univ. Bonn (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    By matching Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD determinations of pseudoscalar meson masses to Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory we determine the low-energy constants W{sub 6}{sup '}, W{sub 8}{sup '} and their linear combination c{sub 2}. We explore the dependence of these low-energy constants on the choice of the lattice action and on the number of dynamical flavours.

  2. Asymptotic behavior of large polygonal Wilson loops in confining gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Pobylitsa, P V

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of effective string theory (EST), the asymptotic behavior of a large Wilson loop in confining gauge theories can be expressed via Laplace determinant with Dirichlet boundary condition on the Wilson contour. For a general polygonal region, Laplace determinant can be computed using the conformal anomaly and Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. One can construct ratios of polygonal Wilson loops whose large-size limit can be expressed via computable Laplace determinants and is independent of the (confining) gauge group. These ratios are computed for hexagon polygons both in EST and by Monte Carlo (MC) lattice simulations for the tree-dimensional lattice Z2 gauge theory (dual to Ising model) near its critical point. For large hexagon Wilson loops a perfect agreement is observed between the asymptotic EST expressions and the lattice MC results.

  3. From the holomorphic Wilson loop to `d log' loop-integrands for super-Yang-Mills amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Lipstein, Arthur E

    2012-01-01

    The S-matrix for planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory can be computed as the correlation function for a holomorphic polygonal Wilson loop in twistor space. In an axial gauge, this leads to the construction of the all-loop integrand via MHV diagrams in twistor space. We show that at MHV, this formulation leads directly to expressions for loop integrands in d log form; i.e., the integrand is a product of exterior derivatives of logarithms of rational functions. For higher MHV degree, it is in d log form multiplied by delta functions. The parameters appearing in the d log form arise geometrically as the coordinates of insertion points of propagators on the holomorphic Wilson loop or on MHV vertices. We discuss a number of examples at one and two loops and give a preliminary discussion of the evaluation of the 1-loop MHV amplitude.

  4. Fréchet derivative for light-like Wilson loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Cherednikov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We address the equations of motion for the light-like QCD Wilson exponentials defined in the generalized loop space. We attribute an important class of the infinitesimal shape variations of the rectangular light-like Wilson loops to the Fréchet derivative associated to a diffeomorphism in loop space what enables the derivation of the law of the classically conformal-invariant shape variations. We show explicitly that the Fréchet derivative coincides (at least in the leading perturbative order with the area differential operator introduced in the previous works. We discuss interesting implications of this result which will allow one to relate the rapidity evolution and ultra-violet evolution of phenomenologically important quantum correlation functions (such as 3-dimensional parton distribution functions and geometrical properties of the light-like cusped Wilson loops.

  5. Interaction of wilson loops in the SU(N) gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. The average of two Wilson loops is expressed in terms of gauge invariant field strength correlators. Assuming the existence of finite correlation length T_g and taking into account the absence of a fixed direction in colour space, we generalize the area law asymptotics for the case of the average of two Wilson loops embedded into the same plane. The results are presented in terms of averaged single Wilson loop operators in irreducible representations which correspond to the geometry of the contours. A special reduction of our results (obtained for arbitrary dimensionality of space-time) to the case of two-dimensional SU(N) theory is performed and the connection to the results existing in literature is established.

  6. Hedgehogs in Wilson loops and phase transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, V.A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Chernodub, M.N. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117259 Moscow (Russian Federation) and Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 803, S-75108 Uppsala (Sweden)]. E-mail: maxim.chernodub@itep.ru; Kozlov, I.E. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, RU-119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-08-07

    We suggest that the gauge-invariant hedgehog-like structures in the Wilson loops are physically interesting degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills theory. The trajectories of these 'hedgehog loops' are closed curves corresponding to center-valued (untraced) Wilson loops and are characterized by the center charge and winding number. We show numerically in the SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that the density of hedgehog structures in the thermal Wilson-Polyakov line is very sensitive to the finite-temperature phase transition. The (additively normalized) hedgehog line density behaves like an order parameter: The density is almost independent of the temperature in the confinement phase and changes substantially as the system enters the deconfinement phase. In particular, our results suggest that the (static) hedgehog lines may be relevant degrees of freedom around the deconfinement transition and thus affect evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Localization of gauge theory on a four-sphere and supersymmetric Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Pestun, Vasily

    2007-01-01

    We prove conjecture due to Erickson-Semenoff-Zarembo and Drukker-Gross which relates supersymmetric circular Wilson loop operators in the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with a Gaussian matrix model. We also compute the partition function and give a new matrix model formula for the expectation value of a supersymmetric circular Wilson loop operator for the pure N=2 and the N=2* supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a four-sphere. A four-dimensional N=2 superconformal gauge theory is treated similarly.

  8. α'-expansion of antisymmetric Wilson loops in N =4 SYM from Fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Masaatsu; Okuyama, Kazumi

    2016-11-01

    We study the large 't Hooft coupling expansion of 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in the antisymmetric representation in N =4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory at the leading order in the 1/N expansion. Via AdS/CFT correspondence, this expansion corresponds to the α expansion in bulk type IIB string theory. We show that this expansion can be systematically computed by using the low temperature expansion of the Fermi distribution function, known as the Sommerfeld expansion in statistical mechanics. We check numerically that our expansion agrees with the exact result of antisymmetric Wilson loops recently found by Fiol and Torrents.

  9. Surprises in the AdS algebraic curve constructions - Wilson loops and correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janik, Romuald A., E-mail: romuald@th.if.uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Institute for Advanced Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram Campus, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Laskos-Grabowski, Pawel, E-mail: plg@th.if.uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. Maxa Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2012-08-21

    The algebraic curve (finite-gap) classification of rotating string solutions was very important in the development of integrability through comparison with analogous structures at weak coupling. The classification was based on the analysis of monodromy around the closed string cylinder. In this paper we show that certain classical Wilson loop minimal surfaces corresponding to the null cusp and qq{sup Macron} potential with trivial monodromy can, nevertheless, be described by appropriate algebraic curves. We also show how a correlation function of a circular Wilson loop with a local operator fits into this framework. The latter solution has identical monodromy to the pointlike BMN string and yet is significantly different.

  10. Scaling properties of Wilson loops pierced by P-vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Patrick; Greensite, Jeffrey Paul

    2012-01-01

    these ratios are plotted versus loop area in physical units, for a range of lattice couplings, it is found that the points fall approximately on a single curve, consistent with scaling. We also find that the ratios are rather insensitive to the point where the minimal area of the loop is pierced by the P-vortex....

  11. Hedgehogs in Wilson loops and phase transition in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, V A; Kozlov, I E

    2006-01-01

    We suggest that the gauge-invariant hedgehogs-like structures in the Wilson loops are physically interesting degrees of freedom in the Yang-Mills theory. The trajectories of these hedgehogs are closed curves which correspond to center-valued (untraced) Wilson loops and are characterized by the center charge and by the winding number. We show numerically in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory that the density of the hedgehogs in the thermal Wilson-Polyakov line is very sensitive to the finite temperature phase transition. The (additively normalized) hedgehog density behaves as an order parameter: the density is almost independent of the temperature in the confinement phase and changes substantially as the system gets into the deconfinement phase. Our results suggest in particular that the (static) hedgehogs may be relevant degrees of freedom around the deconfinement transition, and thus affect evolution of the quark-gluon plasma in high-energy heavy ion collisions.

  12. Renormalisation constants of quark bilinears in lattice QCD with four dynamical Wilson quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blossier, B.; Brinet, M.; Carrasco, N.; Dimopoulos, P.; Du, X.; Frezzotti, R.; Gimenez, V.; Herdoiza, G.; Jansen, K.; Lubicz, V.; Palao, D.; Pallante, E.; Pene, O.; Petrov, K.; Reker, S.; Rossi, G. C.; Sanfilippo, F.; Scorzato, L.; Simula, S.; Urbach, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the non-perturbative computation of the RI-MOM renormalisation constants in a mass-independent scheme for the action with Iwasaki glue and four dynamical Wilson quarks employed by ETMC. Our project requires dedicated gauge ensembles with four degenerate sea quark

  13. Recent results on the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.; Freitas A. de; Raab, C.; Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Round, M.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Manteuffel, A. von [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Mainz Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik

    2013-07-15

    We report on recent progress in the calculation of the 3-loop massive Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering at general values of N for neutral and charged current reactions in the asymptotic region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}.

  14. Minimal area surfaces dual to Wilson loops and the Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changyu; He, Yifei; Kruczenski, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in {N}=4 SYM to minimal area surfaces in AdS 5 × S 5 space. Recently, a new approach to study minimal area surfaces in AdS 3 ⊂ AdS 5 was discussed based on a Schroedinger equation with a periodic potential determined by the Schwarzian derivative of the shape of the Wilson loop. Here we use the Mathieu equation, a standard example of a periodic potential, to obtain a class of Wilson loops such that the area of the dual minimal area surface can be computed analytically in terms of eigenvalues of such equation. As opposed to previous examples, these minimal surfaces have an umbilical point (where the principal curvatures are equal) and are invariant under λ-deformations. In various limits they reduce to the single and multiple wound circular Wilson loop and to the regular light-like polygons studied by Alday and Maldacena. In this last limit, the periodic potential becomes a series of deep wells each related to a light-like segment. Small corrections are described by a tight-binding approximation. In the circular limit they are well approximated by an expansion developed by A. Dekel. In the particular case of no umbilical points they reduce to a previous solution proposed by J. Toledo. The construction works both in Euclidean and Minkowski signature of AdS 3.

  15. Minimal area surfaces dual to Wilson loops and the Mathieu equation

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Changyu; Kruczenski, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in N=4 SYM to minimal area surfaces in $AdS_5\\times S^5$ space. Recently, a new approach to study minimal area surfaces in $AdS_3 \\subset AdS_5$ was discussed based on a Schroedinger equation with a periodic potential determined by the Schwarzian derivative of the shape of the Wilson loop. Here we use the Mathieu equation, a standard example of a periodic potential, to obtain a class of Wilson loops such that the area of the dual minimal area surface can be computed analytically in terms of eigenvalues of such equation. As opposed to previous examples, these minimal surfaces have an umbilical point (where the principal curvatures are equal) and are invariant under $\\lambda$-deformations. In various limits they reduce to the single and multiple wound circular Wilson loop and to the regular light-like polygons studied by Alday and Maldacena. In this last limit, the periodic potential becomes a series of deep wells each related to a light-like segment. Small correc...

  16. Probing Wilson loops in N=4 Chern–Simons-matter theories at weak coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Griguolo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For three-dimensional N=4 super-Chern–Simons-matter theories associated to necklace quivers U(N0×U(N1×⋯U(N2r−1, we study at quantum level the two kinds of 1/2 BPS Wilson loop operators recently introduced in arXiv:1506.07614. We perform a two-loop evaluation and find the same result for the two kinds of operators, so moving to higher loops a possible quantum uplift of the classical degeneracy. We also compute the 1/4 BPS bosonic Wilson loop and discuss the quantum version of the cohomological equivalence between fermionic and bosonic Wilson loops. We compare the perturbative result with the Matrix Model prediction and find perfect matching, after identification and remotion of a suitable framing factor. Finally, we discuss the potential appearance of three-loop contributions that might break the classical degeneracy and briefly analyze possible implications on the BPS nature of these operators.

  17. New results on the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, Jakob; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Bluemlein, Johannes; Freitas, Abilio de; Wissbrock, Fabian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hasselhuhn, Alexander [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Klein, Sebastian [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik E

    2013-01-02

    We report on recent results obtained for the 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deepinelastic scattering (DIS) at general values of the Mellin variable N at larger scales of Q{sup 2}. These concern contributions to the gluonic ladder-topologies, the transition matrix elements in the variable flavor scheme of O(n{sub f}T{sup 2}{sub F}) and O(T{sup 2}{sub F}), and first results on higher 3-loop topologies. The knowledge of the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients at 3-loop order is of importance to extract the parton distribution functions and {alpha}{sub s}(M{sup 2}{sub Z}) in complete NNLO QCD analyses of the world precision data on the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  18. 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes-Kepler-Univ. Linz (Austria). RISC; Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Raab, C.; Round, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Manteuffel, A. von [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Wissbrock, F. [Johannes-Kepler-Univ. Linz (Austria). RISC; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); IHES Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-09-15

    We present our most recent results on the calculation of the heavy flavor contributions to deep-inelastic scattering at 3-loop order in the large Q{sup 2} limit, where the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients are known to factorize into light flavor Wilson coefficients and massive operator matrix elements. We describe the different techniques employed for the calculation and show the results in the case of the heavy flavor non-singlet and pure singlet contributions to the structure function F{sub 2}(x,Q{sup 2}).

  19. 3-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ablinger, J; Blümlein, J; De Freitas, A; Hasselhuhn, A; von Manteuffel, A; Raab, C; Round, M; Schneider, S; Wißbrock, F

    2014-01-01

    We present our most recent results on the calculation of the heavy flavor contributions to deep-inelastic scattering at 3-loop order in the large $Q^2$ limit, where the heavy flavor Wilson coefficients are known to factorize into light flavor Wilson coefficients and massive operator matrix elements. We describe the different techniques employed for the calculation and show the results in the case of the heavy flavor non-singlet and pure singlet contributions to the structure function $F_2(x,Q^2)$.

  20. On the amplitude/Wilson loop duality in N=2 SCQCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Leoni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We compute the four-point amplitude with external adjoint particles in N=2 SCQCD at two loops using N=1 superspace Feynman diagrams, extending the results of arXiv:1406.7283. We consider the diagrammatic difference with the corresponding process of N=4 SYM finding a non-vanishing result, which is a non-trivial function of the kinematic variables. This demonstrates that in N=2 SCQCD, even in the sector with external particles in the vector multiplet, the amplitude/Wilson loop duality is inevitably broken at two loops.

  1. Wilson Loops in 2D Noncommutative Euclidean Gauge Theory: 2. 1/\\theta Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Y; Ambjorn, Jan; Dubin, Andrei; Makeenko, Yuri

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the $1/\\theta$ and 1/N expansions of the Wilson loop averages $_{U_\\theta (N)}$ in the two-dimensional noncommutative $U_\\theta (N)$ gauge theory with the parameter of noncommutativity $\\theta$. For a generic rectangular contour $C$, a concise integral representation is derived (non-perturbatively both in the coupling constant $g^{2}$ and in $\\theta$) for the next-to-leading term of the $1/\\theta$ expansion. In turn, in the limit when ${\\theta}$ is much larger than the area $A(C)$ of the surface bounded by $C$, the large $\\theta$ asymptote of this representation is argued to yield the next-to-leading term of the $1/\\theta$ series. For both of the expansions, the next-to-leading contribution exhibits only a power-like decay for areas $A(C)>>\\sigma^{-1}$ (but $A(C)<<{\\theta}$) much larger than the inverse of the string tension $\\sigma$ defining the range of the exponential decay of the leading term. Consequently, for large $\\theta$, it hinders a direct stringy interpretation of the subleading t...

  2. One-loop Wilson loops and the particle-interface potential in AdS/dCFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius de Leeuw

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We initiate the calculation of quantum corrections to Wilson loops in a class of four-dimensional defect conformal field theories with vacuum expectation values based on N=4 super Yang–Mills theory. Concretely, we consider an infinite straight Wilson line, obtaining explicit results for the one-loop correction to its expectation value in the large-N limit. This allows us to extract the particle-interface potential of the theory. In a further double-scaling limit, we compare our results to those of a previous calculation in the dual string-theory set-up consisting of a D5-D3 probe-brane system with flux, and we find perfect agreement.

  3. One-loop Wilson loops and the particle-interface potential in AdS/dCFT

    CERN Document Server

    de Leeuw, Marius; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We initiate the calculation of quantum corrections to Wilson loops in a class of four-dimensional defect conformal field theories with vacuum expectation values (vevs) based on N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Concretely, we consider an infinite straight Wilson line, obtaining explicit results for the one-loop correction to its expectation value. This allows us to extract the particle-interface potential of the theory. We compare our results to those of a previous calculation in the dual string-theory set-up consisting of a D3-D5 probe-brane system with flux. In a double-scaling limit, we find agreement up to contributions that correspond to a shift in the vev of the scalar fields.

  4. Recent progress on the calculation of three-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ablinger, A; Blümlein, J; De Freitas, A; Hasselhuhn, A; von Manteuffel, A; Raab, C; Round, M; Schneider, C; Wißbrock, F

    2014-01-01

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the three-loop heavy flavor contributions to the Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering in the asymptotic region $Q^2 \\gg m^2$. We discuss the different methods used to compute the required operator matrix elements and the corresponding Feynman integrals. These methods very recently allowed us to obtain a series of new operator matrix elements and Wilson coefficients like the flavor non-singlet and pure singlet Wilson coefficients.

  5. Holographic mutual information and distinguishability of Wilson loop and defect operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hartnoll, Sean A

    2014-01-01

    The mutual information of disconnected regions in large $N$ gauge theories with holographic gravity duals can undergo phase transitions. These occur when connected and disconnected bulk Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces exchange dominance. That is, the bulk `soap bubble' snaps as the boundary regions are drawn apart. We give a gauge-theoretic characterization of this transition: States with and without a certain defect operator insertion -- the defect separates the entangled spatial regions -- are shown to be perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is connected. Meanwhile, states with and without a certain Wilson loop insertion -- the Wilson loop nontrivially threads the spatial regions -- are perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is disconnected. The quantum relative entropy of two perfectly distinguishable states is infinite. The results are obtained by relating the soap bubble transition to Hawking-Page (deconfinement) transitions in the Renyi entropies, wher...

  6. BPS Wilson loops in N=4 SYM: Examples on hyperbolic submanifolds of space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Branding, Volker

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a family of supersymmetric Wilson loops of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in Minkowski space. Our examples focus on curves restricted to hyperbolic submanifolds, H_3 and H_2, of space-time. Generically they preserve two supercharges, but in special cases more, including a case which has not been discussed before, of the hyperbolic line, conformal to the straight line and circle, which is half-BPS. We discuss some general properties of these Wilson loops and their string duals and study special examples in more detail. Generically the string duals propagate on a complexification of AdS_5 x S^5 and in some specific examples the compact sphere is effectively replaced by a de-Sitter space.

  7. Study of Wilson loop functionals in 2D Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Aroca, J M; Kubyshin, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    The derivation of the explicit formula for the vacuum expectation value of the Wilson loop functional for an arbitrary gauge group on an arbitrary orientable two-dimensional manifold is considered both in the continuum case and on the lattice. A contribution to this quantity, coming from the space of invariant connections, is also analyzed and is shown to be similar to the contribution of the monopoles.

  8. Holographic mutual information and distinguishability of Wilson loop and defect operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Mahajan, Raghu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2015-02-16

    The mutual information of disconnected regions in large N gauge theories with holographic gravity duals can undergo phase transitions. These occur when connected and disconnected bulk Ryu-Takayanagi surfaces exchange dominance. That is, the bulk ‘soap bubble’ snaps as the boundary regions are drawn apart. We give a gauge-theoretic characterization of this transition: States with and without a certain defect operator insertion — the defect separates the entangled spatial regions — are shown to be perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is connected. Meanwhile, states with and without a certain Wilson loop insertion — the Wilson loop nontrivially threads the spatial regions — are perfectly distinguishable if and only if the Ryu-Takayanagi surface is disconnected. The quantum relative entropy of two perfectly distinguishable states is infinite. The results are obtained by relating the soap bubble transition to Hawking-Page (deconfinement) transitions in the Rényi entropies, where defect operators and Wilson loops are known to act as order parameters.

  9. Gluon and Wilson loop TMDs for hadrons of spin $\\leq$ 1

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniël; van Daal, Tom; Mulders, Piet J; Signori, Andrea; Zhou, Ya-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the parametrizations of gluon transverse momentum dependent (TMD) correlators in terms of TMD parton distribution functions (PDFs). These functions, referred to as TMDs, are defined as the Fourier transforms of hadronic matrix elements of nonlocal combinations of gluon fields. The nonlocality is bridged by gauge links, which have characteristic paths (future or past pointing), giving rise to a process dependence that breaks universality. For gluons, the specific correlator with one future and one past pointing gauge link is, in the limit of small $x$, related to a correlator of a single Wilson loop. We present the parametrization of Wilson loop correlators in terms of Wilson loop TMDs and discuss the relation between these functions and the small-$x$ `dipole' gluon TMDs. This analysis shows which gluon TMDs are leading or suppressed in the small-$x$ limit. We discuss hadronic targets that are unpolarized, vector polarized (relevant for spin-$1/2$ and spin-$1$ hadrons), and tensor pol...

  10. Numerical study of large-N phase transition of smeared Wilson loops in 4D pure YM theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmayer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    In Euclidean four-dimensional SU(N) pure gauge theory, eigenvalue distributions of Wilson loop parallel transport matrices around closed spacetime curves show non-analytic behavior (a 'large-N phase transition') at a critical size of the curve. We focus mainly on an observable composed of traces of the Wilson loop operator in all totally antisymmetric representations, which is regularized with the help of smearing. By studying sequences of square Wilson loops on a hypercubic lattice with standard Wilson action, it is shown that this observable has a nontrivial continuum limit as a function of the physical size of the loop. We furthermore present (preliminary) numerical results confirming that, for large N, the N dependence in the critical regime is governed by the universal exponents 1/2 and 3/4 as expected (Burgers universality).

  11. Renormalisation constants of quark bilinears in lattice QCD with four dynamical Wilson quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B; Carrasco, N; Dimopoulos, P; Du, X; Frezzotti, R; Gimenez, V; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Lubicz, V; Palao, D; Pallante, E; Pene, O; Petrov, K; Reker, S; Rossi, G C; Sanfilippo, F; Scorzato, L; Simula, S; Urbach, C

    2011-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the non-perturbative computation of the RI-MOM renormalisation constants in a mass-independent scheme for the action with Iwasaki glue and four dynamical Wilson quarks employed by ETMC. Our project requires dedicated gauge ensembles with four degenerate sea quark flavours at three lattice spacings and at several values of the standard and twisted quark mass parameters. The RI-MOM renormalisation constants are obtained from appropriate O(a) improved estimators extrapolated to the chiral limit.

  12. Wilson Loops in 2D Noncommutative Euclidean Gauge Theory: 1. Perturbative Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Ambjørn, Jan; Makeenko, Y

    2004-01-01

    We calculate quantum averages of Wilson loops (holonomies) in gauge theories on the Euclidean noncommutative plane, using a path-integral representation of the star-product. We show how the perturbative expansion emerges from a concise general formula and demonstrate its anomalous behavior at large parameter of noncommutativity for the simplest nonplanar diagram of genus 1. We discuss various UV/IR regularizations of the two-dimensional noncommutative gauge theory in the axial gauge and, using the noncommutative loop equation, construct a consistent regularization.

  13. Wilson loop remainder function for null polygons in the limit of self-crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2011-01-01

    The remainder function of Wilson loops for null polygons becomes divergent if two vertices approach each other. We apply RG techniques to the limiting configuration of a contour with self-intersection. As a result for the two loop remainder we find a quadratic divergence in the logarithm of the distance between the two approaching vertices. The divergence is multiplied by a factor, which is given by a pure number plus the product of two logarithms of cross-ratios characterising the conformal geometry of the self-crossing.

  14. Semiclassical partition function for strings dual to Wilson loops with small cusps in ABJM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Damia, Jeremías; Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2015-03-01

    We compute the 1-loop partition function for strings in , whose worldsheets end along a line with small cusp angles in the boundary of AdS. We obtain these 1-loop results in terms of the vacuum energy for on-shell modes. Our results verify the proposal by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in arXiv:1312.5682 for the exact Bremsstrahlung function up to the next to leading order in the strong coupling expansion. The agreement is observed for cusps distorting either the 1/2 BPS or the 1/6 BPS Wilson line.

  15. Semiclassical partition function for strings dual to Wilson loops with small cusps in ABJM

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera-Damia, Jeremias; Silva, Guillermo A

    2014-01-01

    We compute the 1-loop partition function for strings in $AdS_4\\times\\mathbb{CP}^3$, whose worldsheets end along a line with small cusp angles in the boundary of AdS. We obtain these 1-loop results in terms of the vacuum energy for on-shell modes. Our results verify the proposal by Lewkowycz and Maldacena in arXiv:1312.5682 for the exact Bremsstrahlung function up to the next to leading order in the strong coupling expansion. The agreement is observed for cusps distorting either the 1/2 BPS or the 1/6 BPS Wilson line.

  16. The quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop in ${\\cal N}=4$ Chern-Simons-matter theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Marco S; Leoni, Matias; Mauri, Andrea; Penati, Silvia; Seminara, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    In three dimensional ${\\cal N}=4$ Chern-Simons-matter theories two independent fermionic Wilson loop operators can be defined, which preserve half of the supersymmetry charges and are cohomologically equivalent at classical level. We compute their three-loop expectation value in a convenient color sector and prove that the degeneracy is uplifted by quantum corrections. We expand the matrix model prediction in the same regime and by comparison we conclude that the quantum 1/2 BPS Wilson loop is the average of the two operators. We provide an all-loop argument to support this claim at any order. As a by-product, we identify the localization result at three loops as a correction to the framing factor induced by matter interactions. Finally, we comment on the quantum properties of the non-1/2 BPS Wilson loop operator defined as the difference of the two fermionic ones.

  17. Renormalization Constants of Quark Operators for the Non-Perturbatively Improved Wilson Action

    CERN Document Server

    Becirevic, D; Lubicz, V; Martinelli, G; Papinutto, Mauro; Reyes, J

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive lattice calculation of the renormalization constants of bilinear and four-quark operators for the non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson action. The results are obtained in the quenched approximation at four values of the lattice coupling by using the non-perturbative RI/MOM renormalization method. Several sources of systematic uncertainties, including discretization errors and final volume effects, are examined. The contribution of the Goldstone pole, which in some cases may affect the extrapolation of the renormalization constants to the chiral limit, is non-perturbatively subtracted. The scale independent renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators have been also computed by using the lattice chiral Ward identities approach and compared with those obtained with the RI-MOM method. For those renormalization constants the non-perturbative estimates of which have been already presented in the literature we find an agreement which is typically at the level of 1%...

  18. All orders results for self-crossing Wilson loops mimicking double parton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J

    2016-01-01

    Loop-level scattering amplitudes for massless particles have singularities in regions where tree amplitudes are perfectly smooth. For example, a 2 to 4 gluon scattering process has a singularity in which each incoming gluon splits into a pair of gluons, followed by a pair of 2 to 2 collisions between the gluon pairs. This singularity mimics double parton scattering because it occurs when the transverse momentum of a pair of outgoing gluons vanishes. The singularity is logarithmic at fixed order in perturbation theory. We exploit the duality between scattering amplitudes and polygonal Wilson loops to study six-point amplitudes in this limit to high loop order in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. The singular configuration corresponds to the limit in which a hexagonal Wilson loop develops a self-crossing. The singular terms are governed by an evolution equation, in which the hexagon mixes into a pair of boxes; the mixing back is suppressed in the planar (large N_c) limit. Because the kinematic dependence of t...

  19. A profusion of $1/2$ BPS Wilson loops in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Chern-Simons-matter theories

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Michael; Trancanelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We initiate the study of $1/2$ BPS Wilson loops in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ Chern-Simons-matter theories in three dimensions. We consider a circular or linear quiver with Chern-Simons levels $k$, $-k$ and $0$, and focus on loops preserving one of the two $SU(2)$ subgroups of the $R$-symmetry. In the cases with no vanishing Chern-Simons levels, we find a pair of Wilson loops for each pair of adjacent nodes on the quiver connected by a hypermultiplet (nodes connected by twisted hypermultiplets have Wilson loops preserving another set of supercharges). We expect this classical pairwise degeneracy to be lifted by quantum corrections. In the case with nodes with vanishing Chern-Simons terms connected by twisted hypermultiplets, we find that the usual $1/4$ BPS Wilson loops are automatically enlarged to $1/2$ BPS, as happens also in 3-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. When the nodes with vanishing Chern-Simons levels are connected by untwisted hypermultiplets, we do not find any Wilson loops coupling to those nodes which are c...

  20. Spectra of Certain Holographic ABJM Wilson Loops in Higher Rank Representations

    CERN Document Server

    Mück, Wolfgang; Rathee, Vimal

    2016-01-01

    The holographic configurations dual to Wilson loops in higher rank representations in the ABJM theory are described by branes with electric flux along their world volumes. In particular, D2 and D6 branes with electric flux play a central role as potential dual to totally symmetric and totally antisymmetric representations, respectively. We compute the spectra of excitations of these brane configurations in both, the bosonic and fermionic sectors. We highlight a number of aspects that distinguish these configurations from their D3 and D5 cousins including new peculiar mixing terms in the fluctuations. We neatly organize the spectrum of fluctuations into the corresponding supermultiplets.

  1. The 1/N correction in the D3-brane description of circular Wilson loop at strong coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, E I

    2014-01-01

    We compute the one-loop correction to the probe D3-brane action in AdS5 x S5 expanded around the classical Drukker-Fiol solution ending on a circle at the boundary. It is given essentially by the logarithm of the one-loop partition function of an Abelian ${\\cal N}=4$ vector multiplet in AdS2 x S2 geometry. This one-loop correction is expected to describe the subleading 1/N term in the expectation value of circular Wilson loop in the totally symmetric rank k representation in SU(N) SYM theory at strong coupling. In the limit k << N when the circular Wilson loop expectation values for the symmetric representation and for the product of k fundamental representations are expected to match we find that this one-loop D3-brane correction agrees with the gauge theory result for the k-fundamental case.

  2. Recent progress on the calculation of three-loop heavy flavor Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Raab, C.; Round, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Manteuffel, A. von [Mainz Univ. (Germany). PRISMA Cluster of Excellence; Wissbrock, F. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); IHES Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2014-07-15

    We report on our latest results in the calculation of the three-loop heavy flavor contributions to the Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering in the asymptotic region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}. We discuss the different methods used to compute the required operator matrix elements and the corresponding Feynman integrals. These methods very recently allowed us to obtain a series of new operator matrix elements and Wilson coefficients like the flavor non-singlet and pure singlet Wilson coefficients.

  3. Scaling properties of the perturbative Wilson loop in two-dimensional noncommutative Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, A.; Nardelli, G.; Torrielli, A.

    2002-10-01

    Commutative Yang-Mills theories in 1+1 dimensions exhibit an interesting interplay between geometrical properties and U(N) gauge structures: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with n windings a nontrivial scaling intertwines n and N. In the noncommutative case the interplay becomes tighter owing to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries in a larger gauge group U(∞). We perform an explicit perturbative calculation of such a loop up to O(g6) rather surprisingly, we find that in the contribution from the crossed graphs (the genuine noncommutative terms) the scaling we mentioned occurs for large n and N in the limit of maximal noncommutativity θ=∞. We present arguments in favor of the persistence of such a scaling at any perturbative order and succeed in summing the related perturbative series.

  4. Euclidean Wilson loops and Minimal Area Surfaces in Minkowski AdS3

    CERN Document Server

    Irrgang, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence relates Wilson loops in N=4 SYM theory to minimal area surfaces in AdS5xS5 space. If the Wilson loop is Euclidean and confined to a plane (t,x) then the dual surface is Euclidean and lives in Minkowski AdS3. In this paper we study such minimal area surfaces generalizing previous results obtained in the Euclidean case. Since the surfaces we consider have the topology of a disk, the holonomy of the flat current vanishes which is equivalent to the condition that a certain boundary Schroedinger equation has all its solutions anti-periodic. If the potential for that Schroedinger equation is found then reconstructing the surface and finding the area become simpler. In particular we write a formula for the Area in terms of the Schwarzian derivative of the contour. Finally an infinite parameter family of analytical solutions using Riemann Theta functions is described. In this case, both the area and the shape of the surface are given analytically and used to check the previous results.

  5. $\\alpha'$-expansion of Anti-Symmetric Wilson Loops in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM from Fermi Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Horikoshi, Masaatsu

    2016-01-01

    We study the large 't Hooft coupling expansion of 1/2 BPS Wilson loops in the anti-symmetric representation in $\\N=4$ super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory at the leading order in the 1/N expansion. Via AdS/CFT correspondence, this expansion corresponds to the $\\alpha'$ expansion in bulk type IIB string theory. We show that this expansion can be systematically computed by using the low temperature expansion of Fermi distribution function, known as the Sommerfeld expansion in statistical mechanics. We check numerically that our expansion agrees with the exact result of anti-symmetric Wilson loops recently found by Fiol and Torrents.

  6. Chern-Simons theory and Wilson loops in the Brillouin zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Biao; Vafa, Cumrun; Vafa, Farzan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Berry connection is conventionally defined as a static gauge field in the Brillouin zone. Here we show that for three-dimensional (3D) time-reversal invariant superconductors, a generalized Berry gauge field behaves as a fluctuating field of a Chern-Simons gauge theory. The gapless nodal lines in the momentum space play the role of Wilson loop observables, while their linking and knot invariants modify the gravitational theta angle. This angle induces a topological gravitomagnetoelectric effect where a temperature gradient induces a rotational energy flow. We also show how topological strings may be realized in the six-dimensional phase space, where the physical space defects play the role of topological D-branes.

  7. Wilson Loop Area Law for 2D Yang-Mills in Generalized Axial Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    We prove that Wilson loop expectation values for arbitrary simple closed contours obey an area law up to second order in perturbative two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. Our analysis occurs within a general family of axial-like gauges, which include and interpolate between holomorphic gauge and the Wu-Mandelstam-Liebrandt light cone gauge. Our methods make use of the homotopy invariance properties of iterated integrals of closed one-forms, which allows us to evaluate the nontrivial integrals occurring at second order. We close with a discussion on complex gauge-fixing and deformation of integration cycles for holomorphic path integrals to shed light on some of the quantum field-theoretic underpinnings of our results.

  8. Gravitational Field Excitation from the First Term of Quantum Wilson Loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Liang; SHAO Dan; SHAO Chang-Gui; H. Noda; CHEN Yi-Han

    2006-01-01

    In 4-dimensional R-gravity, using the linear and square terms of the expanding expression of the space-time connection, we calculate the possible curvature excitation (order k4) of gravitational field, which is given by the first term of quantum Wilson loop 〈w〉 through two-point Green's function of the connection. At the same time using the tree diagram propagators of gravitons, the lowest order (k4) correction to 〈w〉 is also calculated through the graviton self-energy in the term. Under the accuracy condition up to order k4, we have obtained a complete expression of the excitation contributed from the leading term 〈w(2)〉 of 〈w〉.

  9. QCD condensates and holographic Wilson loops for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, J. L.; Trinchero, R. C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the boundary is considered. This is done for asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spaces. The condensates of even dimension n =2 through 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficient of an in the expansion of the on-shell subtracted Nambu-Goto action for small a. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the condensates is universal in the sense that they only depend on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  10. Wilson Loops and Area-Preserving Diffeomorphisms in Twisted Noncommutative Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Riccardi, M; Riccardi, Mauro; Szabo, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    We use twist deformation techniques to analyse the behaviour under area-preserving diffeomorphisms of quantum averages of Wilson loops in Yang-Mills theory on the noncommutative plane. We find that while the classical gauge theory is manifestly twist covariant, the holonomy operators break the quantum implementation of the twisted symmetry in the usual formal definition of the twisted quantum field theory. These results are deduced by analysing general criteria which guarantee twist invariance of noncommutative quantum field theories. From this a number of general results are also obtained, such as the twisted symplectic invariance of noncommutative scalar quantum field theories with polynomial interactions and the existence of a large class of holonomy operators with both twisted gauge covariance and twisted symplectic invariance.

  11. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses [Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Goity, Jose L. [Hampton University, Hampton, VA 23668 (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Trinchero, Roberto C. [Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); CONICET, Rivadavia 1917, 1033 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  12. Scaling and low energy constants in lattice QCD with N_f=2 maximally twisted Wilson quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Herdoiza, G; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

    2007-01-01

    We report on the scaling of basic hadronic observables in lattice QCD with N_f=2 maximally twisted Wilson dynamical quarks. We give preliminary results for some of the Gasser-Leutwyler low energy constants, the chiral condensate and the average mass of u and d quarks.

  13. Five-Loop Running of the QCD coupling constant

    CERN Document Server

    Baikov, P A; Kühn, J H

    2016-01-01

    We analytically compute the five-loop term in the beta function which governs the running of $\\alpha_s$ --- the quark-gluon coupling constant in QCD. The new term leads to a reduction of the theory uncertainty in $\\alpha_s$ taken at the Z-boson scale as extracted from the $\\tau$-lepton decays as well as to new, improved by one more order of perturbation theory, predictions for the effective coupling constants of the Standard Model Higgs boson to gluons and for its total decay rate to the quark-antiquark pairs.

  14. Observables in Loop Quantum Gravity with a cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Maïté

    2013-01-01

    An open issue in loop quantum gravity (LQG) is the introduction of a non-vanishing cosmological constant $\\Lambda$. In 3d, Chern-Simons theory provides some guiding lines: $\\Lambda$ appears in the quantum deformation of the gauge group. The Turaev-Viro model, which is an example of spin foam model is also defined in terms of a quantum group. By extension, it is believed that in 4d, a quantum group structure could encode the presence of $\\Lambda\

  15. Constant-Frequency Pulsed Phase-Locked-Loop Measuring Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Kushnick, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop measuring device is sensitive to small changes in phase velocity and easily automated. Based on use of fixed-frequency oscillator in measuring small changes in ultrasonic phase velocity when sample exposed to such changes in environment as changes in pressure and temperature. Automatically balances electrical phase shifts against acoustical phase shifts to obtain accurate measurements of acoustical phase shifts.

  16. Perturbative computation of string one-loop corrections to Wilson loop minimal surfaces in AdS 5 × S 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forini, V.; Tseytlin, A. A.; Vescovi, E.

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the computation of the 1-loop string correction to the "latitude" minimal surface in AdS 5 × S 5 representing 1/4 BPS Wilson loop in planar N=4 SYM theory previously addressed in arXiv:1512.00841 and arXiv:1601.04708. We resolve the problem of matching with the subleading term in the strong coupling expansion of the exact gauge theory result (derived previously from localization) using a different method to compute determinants of 2d string fluctuation operators. We apply perturbation theory in a small parameter (angle of the latitude) corresponding to an expansion near the AdS 2 minimal surface representing 1/2 BPS circular Wilson loop. This allows us to compute the corrections to the heat kernels and zeta-functions of the operators in terms of the known heat kernels on AdS 2. We apply the same method also to two other examples of Wilson loop surfaces: generalized cusp and k-wound circle.

  17. Three loop massive operator matrix elements and asymptotic Wilson coefficients with two different masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablinger, J.; Blümlein, J.; De Freitas, A.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C.; Wißbrock, F.

    2017-08-01

    Starting at 3-loop order, the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering and the massive operator matrix elements describing the variable flavor number scheme receive contributions of Feynman diagrams carrying quark lines with two different masses. In the case of the charm and bottom quarks, the usual decoupling of one heavy mass at a time no longer holds, since the ratio of the respective masses, η = mc2 / mb2 ∼ 1 / 10, is not small enough. Therefore, the usual variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) has to be generalized. The renormalization procedure in the two-mass case is different from the single mass case derived in [1]. We present the moments N = 2 , 4 and 6 for all contributing operator matrix elements, expanding in the ratio η. We calculate the analytic results for general values of the Mellin variable N in the flavor non-singlet case, as well as for transversity and the matrix element Agq(3). We also calculate the two-mass scalar integrals of all topologies contributing to the gluonic operator matrix element Agg. As it turns out, the expansion in η is usually inapplicable for general values of N. We therefore derive the result for general values of the mass ratio. From the single pole terms we derive, now in a two-mass calculation, the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. We introduce a new general class of iterated integrals and study their relations and present special values. The corresponding functions are implemented in computer-algebraic form.

  18. Three loop massive operator matrix elements and asymptotic Wilson coefficients with two different masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Hasselhuhn, A.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Wissbrock, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); IHES, Bures-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-05-15

    Starting at 3-loop order, the massive Wilson coefficients for deep-inelastic scattering and the massive operator matrix elements describing the variable flavor number scheme receive contributions of Feynman diagrams carrying quark lines with two different masses. In the case of the charm and bottom quarks, the usual decoupling of one heavy mass at a time no longer holds, since the ratio of the respective masses, η=m{sup 2}{sub c}/m{sup 2}{sub b}∝1/10, is not small enough. Therefore, the usual variable flavor number scheme (VFNS) has to be generalized. The renormalization procedure in the two-mass case is different from the single mass case derived earlier (I. Bierenbaum, J: Bluemlein, S. Klein, 2009). We present the moments N=2,4 and 6 for all contributing operator matrix elements, expanding in the ratio η. We calculate the analytic results for general values of the Mellin variable N in the flavor non-singlet case, as well as for transversity and the matrix element A{sup (3)}{sub gq}. We also calculate the two-mass scalar integrals of all topologies contributing to the gluonic operator matrix element A{sub gg}. As it turns out, the expansion in η is usually inapplicable for general values of N. We therefore derive the result for general values of the mass ratio. From the single pole terms we derive, now in a two-mass calculation, the corresponding contributions to the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. We introduce a new general class of iterated integrals and study their relations and present special values. The corresponding functions are implemented in computer-algebraic form.

  19. Wilson loops on Riemann surfaces, Liouville theory and covariantization of the conformal group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matone, Marco; Pasti, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    The covariantization procedure is usually referred to the translation operator, that is the derivative. Here we introduce a general method to covariantize arbitrary differential operators, such as the ones defining the fundamental group of a given manifold. We focus on the differential operators representing the sl2(ℝ) generators, which in turn, generate, by exponentiation, the two-dimensional conformal transformations. A key point of our construction is the recent result on the closed forms of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. In particular, our covariantization receipt is quite general. This has a deep consequence since it means that the covariantization of the conformal group is always definite. Our covariantization receipt is quite general and apply in general situations, including AdS/CFT. Here we focus on the projective unitary representations of the fundamental group of a Riemann surface, which may include elliptic points and punctures, introduced in the framework of noncommutative Riemann surfaces. It turns out that the covariantized conformal operators are built in terms of Wilson loops around Poincaré geodesics, implying a deep relationship between gauge theories on Riemann surfaces and Liouville theory.

  20. Perturbative expansions from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy

    CERN Document Server

    Trottier, H D; Lepage, G P; MacKenzie, P B

    2002-01-01

    Perturbative coefficients for Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are extracted from Monte Carlo simulations at weak coupling. The lattice volumes and couplings are chosen to ensure that the lattice momenta are all perturbative. Twisted boundary conditions are used to eliminate the effects of lattice zero modes and to suppress nonperturbative finite-volume effects due to Z(3) phases. Simulations of the Wilson gluon action are done with both periodic and twisted boundary conditions, and over a wide range of lattice volumes (from $3^4$ to $16^4$) and couplings (from $\\beta \\approx 9$ to $\\beta \\approx 60$). A high precision comparison is made between the simulation data and results from finite-volume lattice perturbation theory. The Monte Carlo results are shown to be in excellent agreement with perturbation theory through second order. New results for third-order coefficients for a number of Wilson loops and the static-quark self-energy are reported.

  1. Noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory: Wilson loop in two-dimensional Yang-Mills, and unitarity from string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrielli, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    The results of our research on noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to string theory are exposed with details. 1) We give an introduction to noncommutative quantum field theory and its derivation from open string theory in an antisymmetric background. 2) We perform a perturbative Wilson loop calculation for 2D NCYM. We compare the LCG results for the WML and the PV prescription. With WML the loop is well-defined and regular in the commutative limit. With PV the result is singular. This is intriguing: in the commutative theory their difference is related to topological excitations, moreover PV provides a point-like potential. 3) Commutative 2D YM exhibits an interplay between geometrical and U(N) gauge properties: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with n windings a scaling intertwines n and N. In the NC case the interplay becomes tighter due to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries. Surprisingly, in our up to O(g^6) (and beyond) crossed graphs calculations the scaling we mentioned occurs for large n, N and theta. 4) We discuss the breakdown of perturbative unitarity of noncommutative electric-type QFT in the light of strings. We consider the analytic structure of string loop two-point functions suitably continuing them off-shell, and then study the Seiberg-Witten limit. In this way we pick up how the unphysical tachyonic branch cut appears in the NC field theory.

  2. Noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory Wilson loop in two-dimensional Yang-Mills, and unitarity from string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Torrielli, A

    2003-01-01

    The results of our research on noncommutative perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to string theory are exposed with details. 1) We give an introduction to noncommutative quantum field theory and its derivation from open string theory in an antisymmetric background. 2) We perform a perturbative Wilson loop calculation for 2D NCYM. We compare the LCG results for the WML and the PV prescription. With WML the loop is well-defined and regular in the commutative limit. With PV the result is singular. This is intriguing: in the commutative theory their difference is related to topological excitations, moreover PV provides a point-like potential. 3) Commutative 2D YM exhibits an interplay between geometrical and U(N) gauge properties: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with n windings a scaling intertwines n and N. In the NC case the interplay becomes tighter due to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries. Surprisingly, in our up to O(g^6) (and beyond) crossed graphs calculations th...

  3. Scaling properties of the perturbative Wilson loop in two-dimensional non-commutative Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bassetto, A; Torrielli, A

    2002-01-01

    Commutative Yang-Mills theories in 1+1 dimensions exhibit an interesting interplay between geometrical properties and U(N) gauge structures: in the exact expression of a Wilson loop with $n$ windings a non trivial scaling intertwines $n$ and $N$. In the non-commutative case the interplay becomes tighter owing to the merging of space-time and ``internal'' symmetries in a larger group $U(\\infty)$. We perform an explicit perturbative calculation of such a loop up to ${\\cal O}(g^6)$; rather surprisingly, we find that in the contribution from the crossed graphs (the genuine non-commutative terms) the scaling we mentioned occurs for large $n$ and $N$ in the limit of maximal non-commutativity $\\theta=\\infty$. We present arguments in favour of the persistence of such a scaling at any perturbative order and succeed in summing the related perturbative series.

  4. Lattice Wess-Zumino model with Ginsparg-Wilson fermions: One-loop results and GPU benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Giedt, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We numerically evaluate the one-loop counterterms for the four-dimensional Wess-Zumino model formulated on the lattice using Ginsparg-Wilson fermions of the overlap (Neuberger) variety, such that a lattice version of U(1)_R symmetry is exactly preserved in the limit of vanishing bare mass. We confirm previous findings by other authors that at one loop there is no renormalization of the superpotential in the lattice theory. We discuss aspects of the simulation of this model that is planned for a follow-up work, and outline a strategy for nonperturbative improvement of the lattice supercurrent through measurements of \\susy\\ Ward identities. Related to this, some benchmarks for our graphics processing unit code are provided. An initial simulation finds a nearly vanishing vacuum expectation value for the auxiliary field, consistent with approximate supersymmetry.

  5. Holographic Wilson loops in symmetric representations in N=2{sup ∗} super-Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen-Lin, Xinyi [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Uppsala, SE-751 08 (Sweden); Dekel, Amit [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Zarembo, Konstantin [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, Stockholm, SE-106 91 (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University,Uppsala, SE-751 08 (Sweden)

    2016-02-17

    We construct the D3-brane solution in the holographic dual of the N=2{sup ∗} theory that describes Wilson lines in symmetric representations of the gauge group. The results perfectly agree with the direct field-theory predictions based on localization.

  6. Wilson loops and the geometry of matrix models in AdS{sub 4}/CFT{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquet, Daniel; Sparks, James [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,24-29 St Giles’, Oxford OX1 3LB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-16

    We study a general class of supersymmetric AdS{sub 4}×Y{sub 7} solutions of M-theory that have large N dual descriptions as N=2 Chern-Simons-matter theories on S{sup 3}. The Hamiltonian function h{sub M} for the M-theory circle, with respect to a certain contact structure on Y{sub 7}, plays an important role in the duality. We show that an M2-brane wrapping the M-theory circle, giving a fundamental string in AdS{sub 4}, is supersymmetric precisely at the critical points of h{sub M}, and moreover the value of this function at the critical point determines the M2-brane action. Such a configuration determines the holographic dual of a BPS Wilson loop for a Hopf circle in S{sup 3}, and leads to an effective method for computing the Wilson loop on both sides of the correspondence in large classes of examples. We find agreement in all cases, including for several infinite families, and moreover we find that the image h{sub M}(Y{sub 7}) determines the range of support of the eigenvalues in the dual large N matrix model, with the critical points of h{sub M} mapping to points where the derivative of the eigenvalue density is discontinuous.

  7. Minimal Surfaces of the $AdS_5\\times S^5$ Superstring and the Symmetries of Super Wilson Loops at Strong Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Munkler, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    Based on an extension of the holographic principle to superspace, we provide a strong-coupling description of smooth super Wilson loops in terms of minimal surfaces of the $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring. We employ the classical integrability of the Green-Schwarz superstring on $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ to derive the superconformal and Yangian $Y[\\mathfrak{psu}(2,2|4)]$ Ward identities for the super Wilson loop, thus extending the strong coupling results obtained for the Maldacena-Wilson loop. In the course of the derivation, we determine the minimal surface solution up to third order in an expansion close to the conformal boundary.

  8. Minimal surfaces of the {{AdS}}_{5}\\times {S}^{5} superstring and the symmetries of super Wilson loops at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münkler, Hagen; Pollok, Jonas

    2015-09-01

    Based on an extension of the holographic principle to superspace, we provide a strong-coupling description of smooth super Wilson loops in {N}=4 super Yang-Mills theory in terms of minimal surfaces of the {{AdS}}5× {S}5 superstring. We employ the classical integrability of the Green-Schwarz superstring on {{AdS}}5× {S}5 to derive the superconformal and Yangian Y[{psu}(2,2| 4)] Ward identities for the super Wilson loop, thus extending the strong coupling results obtained for the Maldacena-Wilson loop. In the course of the derivation, we determine the minimal surface solution up to third order in an expansion close to the conformal boundary.

  9. Renormalization constants for Wilson fermion lattice QCD with four dynamical flavours

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Herdoiza, G; Jansen, K; Lubicz, V; Palao, D; Rossi, G C

    2010-01-01

    We report on an ongoing non-perturbative computation of RI-MOM scheme renormalization constants for the lattice action with four dynamical flavours currently in use by ETMC. For this goal dedicated simulations with four degenerate sea quark flavours are performed at several values of the standard and twisted quark mass parameters. We discuss a method for removing possible O(a) artifacts at all momenta and extrapolating renormalization constant estimators to the chiral limit. We give preliminary results at one lattice spacing.

  10. Confinement understanding the relation between the Wilson loop and dual theories of long distance Yang Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, M; Brambilla, Nora; Prosperi, G M; Zachariasen, F

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we express the velocity dependent, spin dependent heavy quark potential V_{q\\bar q} in QCD in terms of a Wilson Loop W(\\Gamma) determined by pure Yang Mills theory. We use an effective dual theory of long-distance Yang Mills theory to calculate W(\\Gamma) for large loops; i.e. for loops of size R > R_{FT}. (R_{FT} is the flux tube radius, fixed by the value of the Higgs (monopole) mass of the dual theory, which is a concrete realization of the Mandelstam 't Hooft dual superconductor mechanism of confinement). We replace W(\\Gamma) by W_{eff}(\\Gamma), given by a functional integral over the dual variables, which for R > R_{FT} can be evaluated by a semiclassical expansion, since the dual theory is weakly coupled at these distances. The classical approximation gives the leading contribution to W_{eff}(\\Gamma) and yields a velocity dependent heavy quark potential which for large R becomes linear in R, and which for small R approaches lowest order perturbative QCD. This latter fact means that these re...

  11. Precision calculation of 1/4-BPS Wilson loops in AdS$_5\\times S^5$

    CERN Document Server

    Forini, V; Griguolo, L; Seminara, D; Vescovi, E

    2015-01-01

    We study the strong coupling behaviour of $1/4$-BPS circular Wilson loops (a family of "latitudes") in ${\\cal N}=4$ Super Yang-Mills theory, computing the one-loop corrections to the relevant classical string solutions in AdS$_5\\times$S$^5$. Supersymmetric localization provides an exact result that, in the large 't Hooft coupling limit, should be reproduced by the sigma-model approach. To avoid ambiguities due to the absolute normalization of the string partition function, we compare the $ratio$ between the generic latitude and the maximal 1/2-BPS circle: Any measure-related ambiguity should simply cancel in this way. We use Gel'fand-Yaglom method to calculate the relevant functional determinants, that present some complications with respect to the standard circular case. After a careful numerical evaluation of our final expression we still find disagreement with the localization answer: The difference is encoded into a precise "remainder function". We comment on the possible origin and resolution of this dis...

  12. Lattice Wess-Zumino model with Ginsparg-Wilson fermions: One-loop results and GPU benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Dzienkowski, Eric; Giedt, Joel

    2010-10-01

    We numerically evaluate the one-loop counterterms for the four-dimensional Wess-Zumino model formulated on the lattice using Ginsparg-Wilson fermions of the overlap (Neuberger) variety, together with an auxiliary fermion (plus superpartners), such that a lattice version of U(1)R symmetry is exactly preserved in the limit of vanishing bare mass. We confirm previous findings by other authors that at one loop there is no renormalization of the superpotential in the lattice theory, but that there is a mismatch in the wave-function renormalization of the auxiliary field. We study the range of the Dirac operator that results when the auxiliary fermion is integrated out, and show that localization does occur, but that it is less pronounced than the exponential localization of the overlap operator. We also present preliminary simulation results for this model, and outline a strategy for nonperturbative improvement of the lattice supercurrent through measurements of supersymmetry Ward identities. Related to this, some benchmarks for our graphics processing unit code are provided. Our simulation results find a nearly vanishing vacuum expectation value for the auxiliary field, consistent with approximate supersymmetry at weak coupling.

  13. Precision calculation of 1/4-BPS Wilson loops in AdS5×S5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forini, V.; Puletti, V. Giangreco M.; Griguolo, L.; Seminara, D.; Vescovi, E.

    2016-02-01

    We study the strong coupling behaviour of 1/4-BPS circular Wilson loops (a family of "latitudes") in {N}=4 Super Yang-Mills theory, computing the one-loop corrections to the relevant classical string solutions in AdS5 ×S5. Supersymmetric localization provides an exact result that, in the large 't Hooft coupling limit, should be reproduced by the sigma-model approach. To avoid ambiguities due to the absolute normalization of the string partition function, we compare the ratio between the generic latitude and the maximal 1/2-BPS circle: any measure-related ambiguity should simply cancel in this way. We use the Gel'fand-Yaglom method with Dirichlet boundary conditions to calculate the relevant functional determinants, that present some complications with respect to the standard circular case. After a careful numerical evaluation of our final expression we still find disagreement with the localization answer: the difference is encoded into a precise "remainder function". We comment on the possible origin and resolution of this discordance.

  14. Structure constants of planar N =4 Yang Mills at one loop

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, L F; Gava, E; Narain, K S; Alday, Luis F.; David, Justin R.; Gava, Edi

    2005-01-01

    We study structure constants of gauge invariant operators in planar N=4 Yang-Mills at one loop with the motivation of determining features of the string dual of weak coupling Yang-Mills. We derive a simple renormalization group invariant formula characterizing the corrections to structure constants of any primary operator in the planar limit. Applying this to the scalar SO(6) sector we find that the one loop corrections to structure constants of gauge invariant operators is determined by the one loop anomalous dimension Hamiltonian in this sector. We then evaluate the one loop corrections to structure constants for scalars with arbitrary number of derivatives in a given holomorphic direction. We find that the corrections can be characterized by suitable derivatives on the four point tree function of a massless scalar with quartic coupling. We show that individual diagrams violating conformal invariance can be combined together to restore it using a linear inhomogeneous partial differential equation satisfied ...

  15. Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz on the GKP vacuum as a defect spin chain: scattering, particles and minimal area Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Fioravanti, Davide; Rossi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Moving from Beisert-Staudacher equations, the complete set of Asymptotic Bethe Ansatz equations and $S$-matrix for the excitations over the GKP vacuum is found. The resulting model on this new vacuum is an integrable spin chain of length $R=2\\ln s$ ($s=$ spin) with particle rapidities as inhomogeneities, two (purely transmitting) defects and $SU(4)$ (residual R-)symmetry. The non-trivial dynamics of ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM appears in elaborated dressing factors of the 2D two-particle scattering factors, all depending on the 'fundamental' one between two scalar excitations. From scattering factors we determine bound states. In particular, we study the strong coupling limit, in the non-perturbative, perturbative and giant hole regimes. Eventually, from these scattering data we construct the $4D$ pentagon transition amplitudes (perturbative regime). In this manner, we detail the multi-particle contributions (flux tube) to the MHV gluon scattering amplitudes/Wilson loops (OPE or BSV series) and re-sum them to the Thermo...

  16. Design of a constant-voltage and constant-current controller with dual-loop and adaptive switching frequency control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingping, Chen; Zhiqian, Li

    2015-05-01

    A 5.0-V 2.0-A flyback power supply controller providing constant-voltage (CV) and constant-current (CC) output regulation without the use of an optical coupler is presented. Dual-close-loop control is proposed here due to its better regulation performance of tolerance over process and temperature compared with open loop control used in common. At the same time, the two modes, CC and CV, could switch to each other automatically and smoothly according to the output voltage level not sacrificing the regulation accuracy at the switching phase, which overcomes the drawback of the digital control scheme depending on a hysteresis comparator to change the mode. On-chip compensation using active capacitor multiplier technique is applied to stabilize the voltage loop, eliminate an additional package pin, and save on the die area. The system consumes as little as 100 mW at no-load condition without degrading the transient response performance by utilizing the adaptive switching frequency control mode. The proposed controller has been implemented in a commercial 0.35-μm 40-V BCD process, and the active chip area is 1.5 × 1.0 mm2. The total error of the output voltage due to line and load variations is less than ±1.7%.

  17. Heat kernels on cone of AdS2 and k-wound circular Wilson loop in AdS5 × S5 superstring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, R.; Tseytlin, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that should be representing k-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on k-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of AdS2 with deficit 2π (1-k). We compute the determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  18. Heat kernels on cone of $AdS_2$ and $k$-wound circular Wilson loop in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, R

    2015-01-01

    We compute the one-loop world-sheet correction to partition function of $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring that should be representing $k$-fundamental circular Wilson loop in planar limit. The 2d metric of the minimal surface ending on $k$-wound circle at the boundary is that of a cone of $AdS_2$ with deficit $2\\pi (1-k)$. We compute determinants of 2d fluctuation operators by first constructing heat kernels of scalar and spinor Laplacians on the cone using the Sommerfeld formula. The final expression for the k-dependent part of the one-loop correction has simple integral representation but is different from earlier results.

  19. Dilatonic Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Manjarin, J J

    2001-01-01

    In this letter we study the dilatonic corrections to the static gauge potential between heavy sources. These corrections come from the solutions to the the low est order beta equations. In the energetically favoured branch, the potential obtained is characterised by having a linear confining term, an $L$ independent term and another 1/L piece. This is indicative of a L\\"uscher-type behaviour in the strong-coupling regime of the dual gauge theory. On the other hand, we also explore the singularity as a point where the theory becomes free.

  20. SL(2,C) Chern-Simons Theory, a non-Planar Graph Operator, and 4D Loop Quantum Gravity with a Cosmological Constant: Semiclassical Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Haggard, Hal M; Kamiński, Wojciech; Riello, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    We study the expectation value of a nonplanar Wilson graph operator in SL(2,C) Chern-Simons theory on $S^3$. In particular we analyze its asymptotic behaviour in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern-Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. When the Wilson graph operator has a specific form, motivated by loop quantum gravity, the critical point equations obtained in this double-scaling limit describe a very specific class of flat connection on the graph complement manifold. We find that flat connections in this class are in correspondence with the geometries of constant curvature 4-simplices. The result is fully non-perturbative from the perspective of the reconstructed geometry. We also show that the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude contains at the leading order an oscillatory part proportional to the Regge action for the single 4-simplex in the presence of a cosmological constant. In particular, the cosmological term contains the full-fledged ...

  1. Constant Gaussian curvature surfaces in the 3-sphere via loop groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Inoguchi, Jun-Ichi; Kobayashi, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study constant positive Gauss curvature K surfaces in the 3-sphere S3 with 0constant negative curvature surfaces. We show that the so-called normal Gauss map for a surface in S3 with Gauss curvature K... by the second fundamental form if and only if K is constant. We give a uniform loop group formulation for all such surfaces with K≠0, and use the generalized d’Alembert method to construct examples. This representation gives a natural correspondence between such surfaces with K

  2. Two-Loop Quantum Gravity Corrections to Cosmological Constant in Landau Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Ken-ji

    2015-01-01

    The anomalous dimensions of the Planck mass and the cosmological constant are calculated in a renormalizable quantum conformal gravity with a single dimensionless coupling, which is formulated using dimensional regularization on the basis of Hathrell's works for conformal anomalies. The dynamics of the traceless tensor field is handled by the Weyl action, while that of the conformal-factor field is described by the induced Wess-Zumino actions, including the Riegert action as the kinetic term. Loop calculations are carried out in Landau gauge in order to reduce the number of Feynman diagrams as well as to avoid some uncertainty. Especially, we calculate two-loop quantum gravity corrections to the cosmological constant. It suggests that there is a dynamical solution to the cosmological constant problem.

  3. Testing the AdS/CFT correspondence by Monte Carlo calculation of BPS and non-BPS Wilson loops in 4d N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Masazumi; Nishimura, Jun; Tsuchiya, Asato

    2011-01-01

    We test the AdS/CFT correspondence by calculating Wilson loops in N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory on R*S^3 in the planar limit. Our method is based on a novel large-N reduction, which reduces the problem to Monte Carlo calculations in the plane-wave matrix model or the BMN matrix model, which is a 1d gauge theory with 16 supercharges. By using the gauge-fixed momentumspace simulation, we obtain results respecting 16 supersymmetries. We report on the Monte Carlo results for the BPS circular Wilson loop, which reproduce the exact result up to strong coupling. As a future prospect, we calculate a track-shapedWilson loop from the gravity side, which shows that a clear test of the AdS/CFT for the non-BPS case is also feasible.

  4. Emergence of product of constant curvature spaces in loop quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Dadhich, Naresh; Singh, Parampreet

    2015-01-01

    The loop quantum dynamics of Kantowski-Sachs spacetime and the interior of higher genus black hole spacetimes with a cosmological constant has some peculiar features not shared by various other spacetimes in loop quantum cosmology. As in the other cases, though the quantum geometric effects resolve the physical singularity and result in a non-singular bounce, after the bounce a spacetime with small spacetime curvature does not emerge in either the subsequent backward or the forward evolution. Rather, in the asymptotic limit the spacetime manifold is a product of two constant curvature spaces. Interestingly, though the spacetime curvature of these asymptotic spacetimes is very high, their effective metric is a solution to the Einstein's field equations. Analysis of the components of the Ricci tensor shows that after the singularity resolution, the Kantowski-Sachs spacetime leads to an effective metric which can be interpreted as the `charged' Nariai, while the higher genus black hole interior can similarly be ...

  5. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson disease is a rare inherited disorder that prevents your body from getting rid of extra copper. You ... extra copper into bile, a digestive fluid. With Wilson disease, the copper builds up in your liver, and ...

  6. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in copper, such as –shellfish –liver –mushrooms –nuts –chocolate • A person cannot prevent Wilson disease; however, people with a family history of Wilson disease, especially those with an affected ...

  7. Principle and Implementation of an MC4044-Based Phase Locked Loop for Constant Speed Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An inexpensive MC4044-based phase locked loop for constant speed control of a DC motor is discussed. It operates on a principle similar to that of a frequency synthesizer. The paper introduces the system configuration with a detailed description of its operating principle, some practical design considerations are discussed with an experimental study to test the control performance of the newly designed system. The experimental result shows that the phase locked control system can regulate the speed of a DC torque motor with a precision up to 0.0022%(1σ).

  8. Chiral Dynamics With Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Splittorff, K

    2012-01-01

    Close to the continuum the lattice spacing affects the smallest eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator in a very specific manner determined by the way in which the discretization breaks chiral symmetry. These effects can be computed analytically by means of Wilson chiral perturbation theory and Wilson random matrix theory. A number of insights on chiral Dynamics with Wilson fermions can be obtained from the computation of the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator. For example, the unusual volume scaling of the smallest eigenvalues observed in lattice simulations has a natural explanation. The dynamics of the eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator also allow us to determine the additional low energy constants of Wilson chiral perturbation theory and to understand why the Sharpe-Singleton scenario is only realized in unquenched simulations.

  9. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for measurement of ultrasonic velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yost, William T; Cantrell, John H; Kushnick, Peter W

    1991-10-01

    A new instrument based on a constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) concept has been developed to accurately measure the ultrasonicwavevelocity in liquids and changes in ultrasonicwavevelocity in solids and liquids. An analysis of the system shows that it is immune to many of the frequency-dependent effects that plague other techniques including the constant phase shifts of reflectors placed in the path of the ultrasonicwave.Measurements of the sound velocity in ultrapure water are used to confirm the analysis. The results are in excellent agreement with values from the literature, and establish that the CFPPLL provides a reliable, accurate way to measurevelocities, as well as for monitoring small changes in velocity without the sensitivity to frequency-dependent phase shifts common to other measurement systems. The estimated sensitivity to phase changes is better than a few parts in 10{sup 7}.

  10. Vector and Axial Currents in Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Sinya; Sharpe, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    We reconsider the construction of the vector and axial-vector currents in Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory (WChPT), the low-energy effective theory for lattice QCD with Wilson fermions. We discuss in detail the finite renormalization of the currents that has to be taken into account in order to properly match the currents. We explicitly show that imposing the chiral Ward identities on the currents does, in general, affect the axial-vector current at O(a). As an application of our results we compute the pion decay constant to one loop in the two flavor theory. Our result differs from previously published ones.

  11. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop instrument for measurement of ultrasonic velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Kushnick, Peter W.

    1991-10-01

    A new instrument based on a constant-frequency pulsed phase-locked-loop (CFPPLL) concept has been developed to accurately measure the ultrasonic wave velocity in liquids and changes in ultrasonic wave velocity in solids and liquids. An analysis of the system shows that it is immune to many of the frequency-dependent effects that plague other techniques. Measurements of the sound velocity in ultrapure water are used to confirm the analysis. The results are in excellent agreement with values from the literature, and establish that the CFPPLL provides a reliable, accurate way to measure velocities, as well as for monitoring small changes in velocity without the sensitivity to frequency-dependent phase shifts common to other measurement systems. The estimated sensitivity to phase changes is better than a few parts in 10 to the 7th.

  12. A constant loop bandwidth fractional-N frequency synthesizer for GNSS receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Xizhen; Xiao Shimao; Jin Yuhua; Wu Qiwu; Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun

    2012-01-01

    A constant loop bandwidth fractional-N frequency synthesizer for portable civilian global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers implemented in a 130 nm 1P6M CMOS process is introduced.Via discrete working regions,the LC-VCO obtains a wide tuning range with a simple structure and small VCO gain.Spur suppression technology is proposed to minimize the phase offset introduced by PFD and charge pumps.The optimized bandwidth is maintained by an auto loop calibration module to adjust the charge pump current when the PLL output frequency changes or the temperature varies.Measurement results show that this synthesizer attains an in-band phase noise lower than -93 dBc at a 10 kHz offset and a spur less than -70 dBc; the bandwidth varies by ± 3% for all the GNSS signals.The whole synthesizer consumes 4.5 mA current from a 1 V supply,and its area (without the LO tested buffer) is 0.5 mm2.

  13. A Multichannel Calorimetric Simultaneous Assay Platform Using a Microampere Constant-Current Looped Enthalpy Sensor Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hsien-Chin; Huang, Su-Hua; Jiang, Joe-Air; Lee, Yeun-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Calorimetric biochemical measurements offer various advantages such as low waste, low cost, low sample consumption, short operating time, and labor-savings. Multichannel calorimeters can enhance the possibility of performing higher-throughput biochemical measurements. An enthalpy sensor (ES) array is a key device in multichannel calorimeters. Most ES arrays use Wheatstone bridge amplifiers to condition the sensor signals, but such an approach is only suitable for null detection and low resistance sensors. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a multichannel calorimetric simultaneous assay (MCSA) platform. An adjustable microampere constant-current (AMCC) source was designed for exciting the ES array using a microampere current loop measurement circuit topology. The MCSA platform comprises a measurement unit, which contains a multichannel calorimeter and an automatic simultaneous injector, and a signal processing unit, which contains multiple ES signal conditioners and a data processor. This study focused on the construction of the MCSA platform; in particular, construction of the measurement circuit and calorimeter array in a single block. The performance of the platform, including current stability, temperature sensitivity and heat sensitivity, was evaluated. The sensor response time and calorimeter constants were given. The capability of the platform to detect relative enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The experimental results show that the proposed MCSA is a flexible and powerful biochemical measurement device with higher throughput than existing alternatives. PMID:28165412

  14. A Multichannel Calorimetric Simultaneous Assay Platform Using a Microampere Constant-Current Looped Enthalpy Sensor Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Chin Wei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calorimetric biochemical measurements offer various advantages such as low waste, low cost, low sample consumption, short operating time, and labor-savings. Multichannel calorimeters can enhance the possibility of performing higher-throughput biochemical measurements. An enthalpy sensor (ES array is a key device in multichannel calorimeters. Most ES arrays use Wheatstone bridge amplifiers to condition the sensor signals, but such an approach is only suitable for null detection and low resistance sensors. To overcome these limitations, we have developed a multichannel calorimetric simultaneous assay (MCSA platform. An adjustable microampere constant-current (AMCC source was designed for exciting the ES array using a microampere current loop measurement circuit topology. The MCSA platform comprises a measurement unit, which contains a multichannel calorimeter and an automatic simultaneous injector, and a signal processing unit, which contains multiple ES signal conditioners and a data processor. This study focused on the construction of the MCSA platform; in particular, construction of the measurement circuit and calorimeter array in a single block. The performance of the platform, including current stability, temperature sensitivity and heat sensitivity, was evaluated. The sensor response time and calorimeter constants were given. The capability of the platform to detect relative enzyme activity was also demonstrated. The experimental results show that the proposed MCSA is a flexible and powerful biochemical measurement device with higher throughput than existing alternatives.

  15. Decoupling constant for $\\alpha_s$ and the effective gluon-Higgs coupling to three loops in supersymmetric QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Zerf, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the decoupling constant for $\\alpha_s$ which relates the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model to Quantum Chromodynamics with five or six active flavours. The new results can be used to study the stability of $\\alpha_s$ evaluated at a high scale from the knowledge of its value at $M_Z$. We furthermore derive a low-energy theorem which allows the calculation of the coefficient function of the effective Higgs boson-gluon operator from the decoupling constant. This constitutes the first independent check of the matching coefficient to three loops.

  16. One-loop omega-potential of charged massive fields in a constant homogeneous magnetic field at high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinichenko, I S

    2016-01-01

    The explicit expressions for the high-temperature expansions of the one-loop corrections to the omega-potential coming from the charged scalar and Dirac particles and, separately, from antiparticles in a constant homogeneous magnetic field are derived. The explicit expressions for the non-perturbative corrections to the effective action at finite temperature and density are obtained. The thermodynamic properties of a gas of charged scalars in a constant homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed in the one-loop approximation. It turns out that, in this approximation, the system suffers the first order phase transition from the diamagnetic to the superconducting state at sufficiently high densities. The improvement of the one-loop result by summing the ring diagrams is investigated. This improvement leads to a drastic change of the thermodynamic properties of the system. The gas of charged scalars passes to the ferromagnetic state in place of the superconducting one at high densities and sufficiently low temperat...

  17. Wilson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent organ damage. Changes in Eating, Diet, and Nutrition People with Wilson disease should reduce their dietary copper intake by avoiding foods that are high in copper, such as shellfish liver mushrooms nuts chocolate People should not eat these foods during the ...

  18. Strong-coupling constant with flavor thresholds at five loops in the anti M anti S scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Onishchenko, A.I.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2006-07-15

    We present in analytic form the matching conditions for the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub s}{sup (n{sub f})}({mu}) at the flavor thresholds to four loops in the modified minimal-subtraction scheme. Taking into account the present knowledge on the coefficient {beta}{sub 4} of the Callan-Symanzik beta function of quantum chromo-dynamics, we thus derive a five-loop formula for {alpha}{sub s}{sup (n{sub f})}({mu}) together with appropriate relationships between the asymptotic scale parameters {lambda}{sup (n{sub f})} for different numbers of flavors n{sub f}. (Orig.)

  19. Wilson lines in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednikov, Igor O; Veken, Frederik F van der

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to get the reader acquainted with theoretical and mathematical foundations of the concept of Wilson loops in the context of modern quantum field theory. It teaches how to perform independently with some elementary calculations on Wilson lines, and shows the recent development of the subject in different important areas of research.

  20. Cusped Wilson lines in symmetric representations

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Diego H; Trancanelli, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We study the cusped Wilson line operators and Bremsstrahlung functions associated to particles transforming in the rank-$k$ symmetric representation of the gauge group $U(N)$ for ${\\cal N} = 4$ super Yang-Mills. We find the holographic D3-brane description for Wilson loops with internal cusps in two different limits: small cusp angle and $k\\sqrt{\\lambda}\\gg N$. This allows for a non-trivial check of a conjectured relation between the Bremsstrahlung function and the expectation value of the 1/2 BPS circular loop in the case of a representation other than the fundamental. Moreover, we observe that in the limit of $k\\gg N$, the cusped Wilson line expectation value is simply given by the exponential of the 1-loop diagram. Using group theory arguments, this eikonal exponentiation is conjectured to take place for all Wilson loop operators in symmetric representations with large $k$, independently of the contour on which they are supported.

  1. Predicting Planck scale and Newton constant from a Yang-Mills gauge theory: 1 and 2-loops estimates

    CERN Document Server

    Sobreiro, Rodrigo F

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a model for an emergent gravity based on $SO(5)$ Yang-Mills action in Euclidian four-dimensional spacetime was proposed. In this work we provide some 1 and 2-loop computations and show that the model can accomodate suitable predicting values for the Newton's gravitational constant. Moreover, it is shown that the typical scale of the expected phase transition between the quantum theory and the geometrodynamical phase is consistent with Planck scale. We also provide a discussion on the cosmological constant problem.

  2. Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudianos, G; Gitlin, J D

    2000-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting from the absence or dysfunction of a copper transporting P-type ATPase encoded on chromosome 13. This ATPase is expressed in hepatocytes where it is localized to the trans-Golgi network and transports copper into the secretory pathway for incorporation into ceruloplasmin and excretion into the bile. Under physiologic circumstances, biliary excretion represents the sole mechanism for copper excretion, and thus affected individuals have progressive copper accumulation in the liver. When the capacity for hepatic storage is exceeded, cell death ensues with copper release into the plasma, hemolysis, and tissue deposition. Presentation in childhood may include chronic hepatitis, asymptomatic cirrhosis, or acute liver failure. In young adults, neuropsychiatric symptoms predominate and include dystonia, tremor, personality changes, and cognitive impairments secondary to copper accumulation in the central nervous system. The laboratory diagnosis of Wilson's disease is confirmed by decreased serum ceruloplasmin, increased urinary copper content, and elevated hepatic copper concentration. Molecular genetic analysis is complex as more than 100 unique mutations have been identified and most individuals are compound heterozygotes. Copper chelation with penicillamine is an effective therapy in most patients and hepatic transplantation is curative in individuals presenting with irreversible liver failure. Elucidation of the molecular genetic basis of Wilson's disease has permitted new insights into the mechanisms of cellular copper homeostasis.

  3. Renormalization of Wilson operators in Minkowski space

    CERN Document Server

    Andra, A

    1996-01-01

    We make some comments on the renormalization of Wilson operators (not just vacuum -expectation values of Wilson operators), and the features which arise in Minkowski space. If the Wilson loop contains a straight light-like segment, charge renormalization does not work in a simple graph-by-graph way; but does work when certain graphs are added together. We also verify that, in a simple example of a smooth loop in Minkowski space, the existence of pairs of points which are light-like separated does not cause any extra divergences.

  4. Exact 1/4 BPS Loop - Chiral Primary Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Semenoff, G W; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Young, Donovan

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of 1/4 BPS Wilson loops with the infinite family of 1/2 BPS chiral primary operators are computed in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory by summing planar ladder diagrams. Leading loop corrections to the sum are shown to vanish. The correlation functions are also computed in the strong-coupling limit by examining the supergravity dual of the loop-loop correlator. The strong coupling result is found to agree with the extrapolation of the planar ladders. The result is related to known correlators of 1/2 BPS Wilson loops and 1/2 BPS chiral primaries by a simple re-scaling of the coupling constant, similar to an observation of Drukker, hep-th/0605151, for the case of the 1/4 BPS loop vacuum expectation value.

  5. QCD One-Loop Effective Coupling Constant and Quark Mass Given in a Mass-Dependent Renormalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jun-Chen; SHAN Lian-You; CAO Ying-Hui

    2001-01-01

    The QCD one-loop renormalization is restudied in a mass-dependent subtraction scheme in which the quark mass is not set to vanish and the renormalization point is chosen to be an arbitrary time-like momentum. The correctness of the subtraction is ensured by the Ward identities which are respected in all the processes of subtraction.By considering the mass effect, the effective coupling constant and the effective quark masses derived by solving the renormalization group equations are given in improved expressions which are different from the previous results.PACS numbers: 11.10.Gh, 11.10.Hi, 12.38.-t, 12.38.Bx

  6. Brillouin improvement for Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Durr, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    We present a parameter-free Wilson-type lattice Dirac operator with an 81-point stencil for the covariant derivative and the Laplacian which attempts to minimize the breaking of rotational symmetry near the boundary of the Brillouin zone. The usefulness of this "Brillouin operator" in practical applications is explored by studying the scaling of pseudoscalar decay constants in quenched QCD, with rather good results in the physical charm region. We also investigate the suitability of this operator as a kernel to the overlap procedure. Here, the resulting overlap operator is found to be cheaper to construct and significantly better localized than the variety with the standard Wilson kernel.

  7. Development of Digital Hysteresis Current Control with PLL Loop Gain Compensation Strategy for PWM Inverters with Constant Switching Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Belhaouchet

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Hysteresis current control is one of the simplest techniques used to control the magnitude and phase angle of motor current for motor drives systems. However, this technique presents several disadvantages such as operation at variable switching frequency which can reveal problems of filtering, interference between the phases in the case of the three-phase systems with insulated neutral connection or delta connection, and irregularity of the modulation pulses which especially causes an acoustic noise on the level of the machine for the high power drive. In this paper, a new technique is proposed for a variable-hysteresis-band controller based on dead beat control applied to three phase voltage source PWM inverters feeding AC motors. Its main aim is firstly ensure a constant switching frequency and secondly the synchronization of modulation pulses using the phase-locked-loop with loop gain compensation in order to ensure a better stability. The behavior of the proposed technique is verified by simulation.

  8. Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akemann, G.; Damgaard, Poul Henrik; Splittorff, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral Perturbation Theory and chiral Random Matrix Theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator...... as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral Random Matrix Theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral Perturbation Theory. All results are obtained for fixed index...... of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral Perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator....

  9. Bootstrapping the Three-Loop Hexagon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; /CERN /SLAC; Drummond, James M.; /CERN /Annecy, LAPTH; Henn, Johannes M.; /Humboldt U., Berlin /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2011-11-08

    We consider the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. We apply constraints from the operator product expansion in the near-collinear limit to the symbol of the remainder function at three loops. Using these constraints, and assuming a natural ansatz for the symbol's entries, we determine the symbol up to just two undetermined constants. In the multi-Regge limit, both constants drop out from the symbol, enabling us to make a non-trivial confirmation of the BFKL prediction for the leading-log approximation. This result provides a strong consistency check of both our ansatz for the symbol and the duality between Wilson loops and MHV amplitudes. Furthermore, we predict the form of the full three-loop remainder function in the multi-Regge limit, beyond the leading-log approximation, up to a few constants representing terms not detected by the symbol. Our results confirm an all-loop prediction for the real part of the remainder function in multi-Regge 3 {yields} 3 scattering. In the multi-Regge limit, our result for the remainder function can be expressed entirely in terms of classical polylogarithms. For generic six-point kinematics other functions are required.

  10. One-loop omega-potential of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.; Shipulya, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    Rapidly convergent expansions of a one-loop contribution to the partition function of quantum fields with ellipsoid constant-energy surface dispersion law are derived. The omega-potential is naturally decomposed into three parts: the quasiclassical contribution, the contribution from the branch cut of the dispersion law, and the oscillating part. The low- and high-temperature expansions of the quasiclassical part are obtained. An explicit expression and a relation of the contribution from the cut with the Casimir term and vacuum energy are established. The oscillating part is represented in the form of the Chowla-Selberg expansion of the Epstein zeta function. Various resummations of this expansion are considered. The general procedure developed is then applied to two models: massless particles in a box both at zero and nonzero chemical potential, and electrons in a thin metal film. Rapidly convergent expansions of the partition function and average particle number are obtained for these models. In particular, the oscillations of the chemical potential of conduction electrons in graphene and a thin metal film due to a variation of size of the crystal are described.

  11. Askey-Wilson polynomial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornwinder, T.H.

    2012-01-01

    Askey-Wilson polynomial refers to a four-parameter family of q-hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials which contains all families of classical orthogonal polynomials (in the wide sense) as special or limit cases.

  12. Wilson's Disease Association International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Colorado and graduated with a B.S. in finance. Latest News & Announcements Search Our Site About WDA ... Help Donate Volunteer Shop Online Search the Internet Corporate Sponsorship Marketplace Copyright © 1978 - 2017 The Wilson Disease ...

  13. Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainardi Paola

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a distinct facial phenotype (high forehead, frontal bossing, large eyebrows, medially flaring and sparse in the middle part, hypertelorism, deep set but large eyes, large and uplifted ear lobes, with a central depression, saddle nose with prominent rounded nasal tip, prominent columella, open mouth, with M-shaped upper lip, frequent smiling, and a prominent but narrow and triangular pointed chin, moderate-to-severe intellectual deficiency, epilepsy and variable congenital malformations including Hirschsprung disease (HSCR, genitourinary anomalies (in particular hypospadias in males, congenital heart defects, agenesis of the corpus callosum and eye anomalies. The prevalence of MWS is currently unknown, but 171 patients have been reported so far. It seems probable that MWS is under-diagnosed, particularly in patients without HSCR. MWS is caused by heterozygous mutations or deletions in the Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 gene, ZEB2, previously called ZFHX1B (SIP1. To date, over 100 deletions/mutations have been reported in patients with a typical phenotype; they are frequently whole gene deletions or truncating mutations, suggesting that haploinsufficiency is the main pathological mechanism. Studies of genotype-phenotype analysis show that facial gestalt and delayed psychomotor development are constant clinical features, while the frequent and severe congenital malformations are variable. In a small number of patients, unusual mutations can lead to an atypical phenotype. The facial phenotype is particularly important for the initial clinical diagnosis and provides the hallmark warranting ZEB2 mutational analysis, even in the absence of HSCR. The majority of MWS cases reported so far were sporadic, therefore the recurrence risk is low. Nevertheless, rare cases of sibling recurrence have been observed. Congenital malformations and seizures require

  14. Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavelli, Livia; Mainardi, Paola Cerruti

    2007-10-24

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a distinct facial phenotype (high forehead, frontal bossing, large eyebrows, medially flaring and sparse in the middle part, hypertelorism, deep set but large eyes, large and uplifted ear lobes, with a central depression, saddle nose with prominent rounded nasal tip, prominent columella, open mouth, with M-shaped upper lip, frequent smiling, and a prominent but narrow and triangular pointed chin), moderate-to-severe intellectual deficiency, epilepsy and variable congenital malformations including Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), genitourinary anomalies (in particular hypospadias in males), congenital heart defects, agenesis of the corpus callosum and eye anomalies. The prevalence of MWS is currently unknown, but 171 patients have been reported so far. It seems probable that MWS is under-diagnosed, particularly in patients without HSCR. MWS is caused by heterozygous mutations or deletions in the Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 gene, ZEB2, previously called ZFHX1B (SIP1). To date, over 100 deletions/mutations have been reported in patients with a typical phenotype; they are frequently whole gene deletions or truncating mutations, suggesting that haploinsufficiency is the main pathological mechanism. Studies of genotype-phenotype analysis show that facial gestalt and delayed psychomotor development are constant clinical features, while the frequent and severe congenital malformations are variable. In a small number of patients, unusual mutations can lead to an atypical phenotype. The facial phenotype is particularly important for the initial clinical diagnosis and provides the hallmark warranting ZEB2 mutational analysis, even in the absence of HSCR. The majority of MWS cases reported so far were sporadic, therefore the recurrence risk is low. Nevertheless, rare cases of sibling recurrence have been observed. Congenital malformations and seizures require precocious clinical

  15. Resumming the POPE at One Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Lam, Ho Tat

    2016-01-01

    The Pentagon Operator Product Expansion represents polygonal Wilson loops in planar $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills in terms of a series of flux tube excitations for finite coupling. We demonstrate how to re-sum this series at the one loop level for the hexagonal Wilson loop dual to the six-point MHV amplitude. By summing over a series of effective excitations we find expressions which integrate to logarithms and polylogarithms, reproducing the known one-loop result.

  16. Design of Digital AGC Loops with Constant Settling Time%恒定建立时间数字AGC环路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周三文; 卢满宏; 黄建国

    2013-01-01

    针对传统恒定建立时间数字AGC(自动增益控制)环路实现方式复杂、成本高的问题,基于AGC环路的对数模型,推导出AGC环路建立时间恒定的条件,提出采用线性放大器实现恒定建立时间AGC环路的方法,该方法能够在数字实现上省去传统方式的指数运算单元,降低了实现复杂度和成本.另外,对于非突跳或突跳幅度较小输入信号,利用输出信号平方检测代替对数功率检测,省去传统方式的对数运算单元,进一步降低了实现复杂度和成本.通过上述2种改进,提出了一种简单的恒定建立时间数字AGC环路设计方法.Simulink仿真证明了该设计方法的正确性.该方法应用于无线数字接收机中,能够简化设计,节约成本.%Based on the logarithmic model of AGC (Automatic Gain Control),conditions for keeping constant settling time of AGC loops have been derived and a method using a linear amplifier to achieve a constant settling time AGC loop is proposed to simplify the design and reduce the cost of conventional constant settling time digital AGC loops.The exponential computing unit of the conventional method is eliminated,thus reducing the complexity and cost of implementation.Furthermore,square detection is used instead of the conventional logarithmic power detection for non-sudden jump or slight sudden jump input signals,and this lowers the cost further.Based on the two improvements,a simplified design method is proposed for constant settling time digital AGC loops.Correctness of the design method is proved by the simulation results.The method can be used in wireless digital receivers to simplify design and to save cost.

  17. Renormalization constants and beta functions for the gauge couplings of the Standard Model to three-loop order

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaila, Luminita N; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We compute the beta functions for the three gauge couplings of the Standard Model in the minimal subtraction scheme to three loops. We take into account contributions from all sectors of the Standard Model. The calculation is performed using both Lorenz gauge in the unbroken phase of the Standard Model and background field gauge in the spontaneously broken phase. Furthermore, we describe in detail the treatment of $\\gamma_5$ and present the automated setup which we use for the calculation of the Feynman diagrams. It starts with the generation of the Feynman rules and leads to the bare result for the Green's function of a given process.

  18. Holomorphic representation of constant mean curvature surfaces in Minkowski space: Consequences of non-compactness in loop group methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Rossman, Wayne; Schmitt, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    We give an infinite dimensional generalized Weierstrass representation for spacelike constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in Minkowski 3-space $\\R^{2,1}$. The formulation is analogous to that given by Dorfmeister, Pedit and Wu for CMC surfaces in Euclidean space, replacing the group $SU_2$ with...

  19. Two-loop QED operator matrix elements with massive external fermion lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Freitas, Abilio de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela). Dept. de Fisica; Neerven, Wilhelmus van [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands). Institut-Lorentz

    2011-07-15

    The two-loop massive operator matrix elements for the fermionic local twist-2 operators with external massive fermion lines in Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) are calculated up to the constant terms in the dimensional parameter {epsilon}=D-4. We investigate the hypothesis of F. A. Berends et al. (1988) that the 2-loop QED initial state corrections to e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation into a virtual neutral gauge boson, except power corrections of O((m{sup 2}{sub f}/s){sup k}), k {>=} 1, can be represented in terms of these matrix elements and the massless 2-loop Wilson coefficients of the Drell-Yan process. (orig.)

  20. Wilson lines in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherednikov, Igor Olegovich [Antwerpen Univ., Antwerp (Belgium). Fysica Dept.; Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Mertens, Tom; Veken, Frederik F. van der [Antwerpen Univ., Antwerp (Belgium). Fysica Dept.

    2014-07-01

    Wilson lines (also known as gauge links or eikonal lines) can be introduced in any gauge field theory. Although the concept of the Wilson exponentials finds an enormously wide range of applications in a variety of branches of modern quantum field theory, from condensed matter and lattice simulations to quantum chromodynamics, high-energy effective theories and gravity, there are surprisingly few books or textbooks on the market which contain comprehensive pedagogical introduction and consecutive exposition of the subject. The objective of this book is to get the potential reader acquainted with theoretical and mathematical foundations of the concept of the Wilson loops in the context of modern quantum field theory, to teach him/her to perform independently some elementary calculations with Wilson lines, and to familiarize him/her with the recent development of the subject in different important areas of research. The target audience of the book consists of graduate and postgraduate students working in various areas of quantum field theory, as well as researchers from other fields.

  1. The Two-Loop Six-Gluon MHV Amplitude in Maximally Supersymmetric Yang-Mills Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Z; Kosower, D A; Roiban, R; Spradlin, M; Vergu, C; Volovich, A

    2008-01-01

    We give a representation of the parity-even part of the planar two-loop six-gluon MHV amplitude of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, in terms of loop-momentum integrals with simple dual conformal properties. We evaluate the integrals numerically in order to test directly the ABDK/BDS all-loop ansatz for planar MHV amplitudes. We find that the ansatz requires an additive remainder function, in accord with previous indications from strong-coupling and Regge limits. The planar six-gluon amplitude can also be compared with the hexagonal Wilson loop computed by Drummond, Henn, Korchemsky and Sokatchev in arXiv:0803.1466 [hep-th]. After accounting for differing singularities and other constants independent of the kinematics, we find that the Wilson loop and MHV-amplitude remainders are identical, to within our numerical precision. This result provides non-trivial confirmation of a proposed n-point equivalence between Wilson loops and planar MHV amplitudes, and suggests that an additional mechanism besides dual conformal...

  2. Woodrow Wilson on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Isaiah

    2012-01-01

    In this 1960 article Isaiah Berlin compares Woodrow Wilson's emphasis on the need to educate university students for life in the real world with the difference between Oxford "realism" and Cambridge "idealism" in the nineteenth century. Oxford favoured a Wilsonian preference for general education over (but not to the exclusion of) pure…

  3. Woodrow Wilson on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Isaiah

    2012-01-01

    In this 1960 article Isaiah Berlin compares Woodrow Wilson's emphasis on the need to educate university students for life in the real world with the difference between Oxford "realism" and Cambridge "idealism" in the nineteenth century. Oxford favoured a Wilsonian preference for general education over (but not to the exclusion of) pure…

  4. Wilson's disease in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarac, Zana; Duić, Zeljko; Stasenko, Sandra; Partl, Jasenka Zmijanac; Valetić, Josip; Cvrlje, Vesna Colić

    2013-12-01

    Wilson's disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. It causes cirrhosis of the liver, consequently followed by disorder of the menstrual cycle and infertility. Successful decopperizing may lead to restoration of the ovulatory cycle and enable pregnancy. Increased copper levels may cause preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction and neurologic damages in the fetus. Pregnant women with decompensated liver cirrhosis face more complications, including bleeding from esophageal varices, liver failure, encephalopathy, and rupture of the splenic artery. We present a case of Wilson's disease in a patient who had spontaneously conceived three times. The first pregnancy ended with delivery of a healthy baby at term. In second pregnancy, medically induced abortion was performed in the 12th week because of deterioration of the underlying disease, liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension. In the same year, the patient underwent liver transplantation. Two years after the transplantation, the patient spontaneously conceived and delivered vaginally a healthy child.

  5. Wilsons Disease: Diagnostic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Gelincik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Wilson disease (WD is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene that encodes a P-type copper ATPase, ATP7B. In WD, a mutated dysfunctional ATP7B leads to a progressive accumulation of Cu in the liver and brain. Clinically, WND shows considerable phenotypic variability including fulminant hepatic failure, hemolysis, chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis and cirrhosis, and neuro-psychiatric disease with or without hepatic involvement. An 18 -year-old female patient who has the diagnosis of Wilson s disease was referred from outside center for genetic counseling. The mutations p.M1169T was identified in the homozygous form. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 345-352

  6. Piecewise Linear Wilson lines

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Veken, Frederik F

    2014-01-01

    Wilson lines, being comparators that render non-local operator products gauge invariant, are extensively used in QCD calculations, especially in small-$x$ calculations, calculations concerning validation of factorisation schemes and in calculations for constructing or modelling parton density functions. We develop an algorithm to express piecewise path ordered exponentials as path ordered integrals over the separate segments, and apply it on linear segments, reducing the number of diagrams needed to be calculated. We show how different linear path topologies can be related using their colour structure. This framework allows one to easily switch results between different Wilson line structures, which is especially useful when testing different structures against each other, e.g. when checking universality properties of non-perturbative objects.

  7. Using Wilson flow to study the SU(3) deconfinement transition

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, Saumen; Lytle, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We explore the use of Wilson flow to study the deconfinement transition in SU(3) gauge theory. We use the flowed Polyakov loop as a renormalized order parameter for the transition, and use it to renormalize the Polyakov loop. We also study the flow properties of the electric and magnetic gluon condensates, and demonstrate that the difference of the flowed operators shows rapid change across the transition point.

  8. Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engenheiro, E; Møller, R S; Pinto, M

    2008-01-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder with mental retardation and variable multiple congenital abnormalities due to mutations of the ZEB2 (ZFHX1B) gene at 2q22. MWS was first described in 1998 and the causative gene was delineated in 2001. Since then, 115 dif...... was established only after finding of disruption of the ZEB2 gene by a balanced translocation breakpoint and an interstitial microdeletion, respectively....

  9. Hypersialorrhea in Wilson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocello, Jean-Marc; Osmani, Karima; Pernon, Michaela; Chevaillier, Gérard; de Brugière, Claire; Remy, Pascal; Wenisch, Emilie; Cousin, Catherine; Girardot-Tinant, Nadège; Woimant, France

    2015-10-01

    Hypersialorrhea, corresponding to excessive salivation is a symptom frequently reported in Wilson's disease, especially in its neurological form. The prevalence of this frequent complaint has not been often evaluated. During a 7-month period, 87 consecutive Wilson's disease patients answered to the simple question "do you have the sensation of excess saliva in your mouth?" to evaluate the frequency of this symptom. A sub-sample of 10 consecutive Wilson's disease patients with drooling was recruited to undergo quantitative and qualitative measures to evaluate the mechanism of hypersialorrhea. Excessive drooling or excess saliva was found in 46 % of patients followed at the French Reference Centre. Ninety-eight percent of them presented neurological symptoms and drooling was found in only one patient without neurological symptoms. Our study showed that patients with a complaint of excessive saliva produced significantly higher quantities of saliva at rest than controls. Endoscopic examination was abnormal in six patients. A significant decrease of swallowing frequency, longer swallow latencies, and poor swallowing capacities may partly explain the salivary stasis. Oropharyngeal sensitivity disorders were present in 50 % of our patients. The decrease of the swallowing frequency observed in all patients could be related to cognitive and behavioral abnormalities with initiation difficulties objectified by longer latencies triggered by all the ingested volumes. This study confirmed the hypothesis of a multifactorial origin of hypersialorrhea in patients who have been diagnosed in Wilson's disease. It was essential to evaluate drooling with a multidisciplinary consultation to better identify the underlying mechanisms and to implement strategies for speech therapy and therapeutic adaptation.

  10. Casoratian Identities for the Wilson and Askey-Wilson Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Odake, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    Infinitely many Casoratian identities are derived for the Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials in parallel to the Wronskian identities for the Hermite, Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials, which were reported recently by the present authors. These identities form the basis of the equivalence between eigenstate adding and deleting Darboux transformations for solvable (discrete) quantum mechanical systems. Similar identities hold for various reduced form polynomials of the Wilson and Askey-Wilson polynomials, e.g. the continuous q-Jacobi, continuous (dual) (q-)Hahn, Meixner-Pollaczek, Al-Salam-Chihara, continuous (big) q-Hermite, etc.

  11. From Loops to Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Neuberger, H

    2010-01-01

    The generating function for all antisymmetric characters of a Wilson loop matrix in SU(N) Yang Mills theory is the partition function of a fermion living on the curve describing the loop. This generalizes to fermion subsystems living on higher dimensional submanifolds, for example, surfaces. This write-up also contains some extra background, in response to some questions raised during the oral presentation.

  12. Worldlines as Wilson Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Daniel; /SLAC /Stanford U., Dept. Phys.

    2008-04-29

    Gravitational theories do not admit gauge invariant local operators. We study the limits under which there exists a quasi-local description for a class of non-local gravitational observables where a sum over worldlines plays the role of the Wilson line for gauge theory observables. We study non-local corrections to the local description and circumstances where these corrections become large. We find that these operators are quasi-local in at space and AdS, but fail to be quasi-local in de Sitter space.

  13. Supersymmetric Open Wilson Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Edward B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study Open Wilson Lines (OWL's) in the context of two Supersymmetric Yang Mills theories. First we consider four dimensional N=2 Supersymmetric Yang Mills Theory with hypermultiplets transforming in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, and find supersymmetric OWL's only in the superconformal versions of these theories. We then consider four dimensional N=4 SYM coupled to a three dimensional defect hypermultiplet. Here there is a semi-circular supersymmetric OWL, which is related to the ray by a conformal transformation. We perform a perturbative calculation of the operators in both theories, and discuss using localization to compute them non-perturbatively.

  14. [Jacqueline Wilson. Tracy Beakeri sari] / Krista Kivisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivisalu, Krista, 1968-

    2016-01-01

    Tutvustus: Wilson, Jacqueline. Tracy Beakeri lugu. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, 2015 ; Wilson, Jacqueline. Pühadeüllatus. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2015 ; Wilson, Jacqueline. Julgusmäng. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2015

  15. [Jacqueline Wilson. Tracy Beakeri sari] / Krista Kivisalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivisalu, Krista, 1968-

    2016-01-01

    Tutvustus: Wilson, Jacqueline. Tracy Beakeri lugu. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, 2015 ; Wilson, Jacqueline. Pühadeüllatus. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2015 ; Wilson, Jacqueline. Julgusmäng. [Tallinn] : Pegasus, c2015

  16. Wilson's disease: a diagnostic dilemma.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazer, H; Larcher, V F; Ede, R J; Mowat, A P; Williams, R.

    1983-01-01

    A 13 year old boy presented with headache, sore throat, myalgia, and fever and subsequently developed haemolytic anaemia and acute liver failure. Wilson's disease, a rare cause of acute liver failure, was diagnosed at necropsy. In such cases Wilson's disease must be diagnosed at an early stage for treatment to be effective. The most reliable indications are increased urinary and hepatic copper concentrations.

  17. Robert Wilson og muscial formatet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eigtved, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger hvordan Robert Wilson og Tom Waits' forestilling The Black Rider (1995) forholder sig til musicalkonventionerne......Artiklen undersøger hvordan Robert Wilson og Tom Waits' forestilling The Black Rider (1995) forholder sig til musicalkonventionerne...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Wilson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body. Mutations in the ATP7B gene prevent the transport protein from functioning properly. With a shortage of functional ... GeneReview: Wilson Disease MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Wilson's disease National Human Genome Research Institute General Information from MedlinePlus (5 ...

  19. Testing the OPE Wilson coefficient for $A^2$ from lattice QCD with a dynamical charm

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B; Brinet, M; De Soto, F; Morenas, V; Pène, O; Petrov, K; Rodríguez-Quintero, J

    2013-01-01

    Gluon and ghost propagators data, obtained in Landau gauge from lattice simulations with two light and two heavy dynamical quark flavours ($N_f$=2+1+1), are described here with a running formula including a four-loop perturbative expression and a nonperturbative OPE correction dominated by the local operator $A^2$. The Wilson coefficients and their variation as a function of the coupling constant are extracted from the numerical data and compared with the theoretical expressions that, after being properly renormalized, are known at ${\\cal O}(\\alpha^4)$. As also $\\Lambda_{\\msbar}$ is rather well known for $N_f$=2+1+1, this allows for a precise consistency test of the OPE approach in the joint description of different observables.

  20. Topology, Random Matrix Theory and the spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator

    CERN Document Server

    Deuzeman, Albert; Wuilloud, Jaïr

    2011-01-01

    We study the spectrum of the hermitian Wilson Dirac operator in the epsilon-regime of QCD in the quenched approximation and compare it to predictions from Wilson Random Matrix Theory. Using the distributions of single eigenvalues in the microscopic limit and for specific topological charge sectors, we examine the possibility of extracting estimates of the low energy constants which parametrise the lattice artefacts in Wilson chiral perturbation theory. The topological charge of the field configurations is obtained from a field theoretical definition as well as from the flow of eigenvalues of the hermitian Wilson Dirac operator, and we determine the extent to which the two are correlated.

  1. [Wilson disease: liver form].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Montero, Luis; Ortega Álvarez, Félix; Sumire Umeres, Julia; Cok García, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is a disorder of copper metabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive, which produces toxic copper accumulation mainly in the liver and brain, in general has two ways presentation, liver at early ages and neurological in later ages. We present the case of a female patient of 21 years diagnosed of WD in liver cirrhosis that started with an edematous ascites without any neurological symptoms despite the age. Their laboratory studies showed decrease in serum ceruloplasmin and high cupruria within 24 hours of the disease , characteristic data of WD. Although WD is not a common disease should be suspected in all chronic liver disease of unknown etiology with negative viral markers and autoimmunity with or without neurological manifestations as soon as posible and starting treatment with copper chelating mainly leads to a substantial improvement the prognosis of these patients.

  2. Wilson's Disease and Hepatic Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐荣华; 薛峥; 叶启发

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To investigate the changes in neurological symptoms and signs, as well as serum copper,serum ceruloplasmin after hepatic transplantation in patients with Wilson's disease, neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper, serum ceruloplasmin before and after hepatic transplantation in18 patients with Wilson's disease were observed, and those changes were followed up in 20 non-oper ative controls treated with penicillamine. Our results showed that the neurological symptoms and signs, serum copper and serum ceruloplasmin were improved in the operative group but deteriorated in the non-operative control group. Our study showed that hepatic transplantation is better than peni cillamine in the treatment of Wilson's disease.

  3. The Non-Abelian Exponentiation theorem for multiple Wilson lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gardi, Einan; White, Chris D

    2013-01-01

    We study the structure of soft gluon corrections to multi-leg scattering amplitudes in a non-Abelian gauge theory by analysing the corresponding product of semi-infinite Wilson lines. We prove that diagrams exponentiate such that the colour factors in the exponent are fully connected. This completes the generalisation of the non-Abelian exponentiation theorem, previously proven in the case of a Wilson loop, to the case of multiple Wilson lines in arbitrary representations of the colour group. Our proof is based on the replica trick in conjunction with a new formalism where multiple emissions from a Wilson line are described by effective vertices, each having a connected colour factor. The exponent consists of connected graphs made out of these vertices. We show that this readily provides a general colour basis for webs. We further discuss the kinematic combinations that accompany each connected colour factor, and explicitly catalogue all three-loop examples, as necessary for a direct computation of the soft a...

  4. The non-Abelian exponentiation theorem for multiple Wilson lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardi, Einan; Smillie, Jennifer M.; White, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    We study the structure of soft gluon corrections to multi-leg scattering amplitudes in a non-Abelian gauge theory by analysing the corresponding product of semi-infinite Wilson lines. We prove that diagrams exponentiate such that the colour factors in the exponent are fully connected. This completes the generalisation of the non-Abelian exponentiation theorem, previously proven in the case of a Wilson loop, to the case of multiple Wilson lines in arbitrary representations of the colour group. Our proof is based on the replica trick in conjunction with a new formalism where multiple emissions from a Wilson line are described by effective vertices, each having a connected colour factor. The exponent consists of connected graphs made out of these vertices. We show that this readily provides a general colour basis for webs. We further discuss the kinematic combinations that accompany each connected colour factor, and explicitly catalogue all three-loop examples, as necessary for a direct computation of the soft anomalous dimension at this order.

  5. Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, B E

    1976-01-01

    Wilson's disease, or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism which usually affects young people. Excess copper accumulates in the tissues, primarily in the liver, brain, and cornea. This copper deposition results in a wide range of hepatic and neurological symptoms, and may produce psychiatric illness. Hepatic involvement often occurs in childhood, while neurological deficits generally are detected at a later age. The disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion. Ocular findings are of particular importance because the corneal copper deposition, forming the Kayser-Fleischer ring,is the only pathognomonic sign of the disease. The structure of the ring and the presence of copper have been well established. An anterior capsular deposition of copper in the lens results in a characteristic sunflower cataract in some of these patients. Other ocular abnormalities have been described but are much less common. The pathogenesis of the disease and the basic genetic defect remain obscure. It is clear that there is excess copper in the tissues, but the mechanism of its deposition is unknown. It is in some way associated with a failure to synthesize the serum copper protein ceruloplasmin normally. Another theory suggests that an abnormal protein with a high affinity for copper may bind the metal in the tissues. The diagnosis may be suggested by the clinical manifestations and confirmed by the presence of a Kayser-Fleischer ring. In the absence of these findings biochemical determinations are necessary. The most important of these are the serum ceruloplasmin, the urinary copper, and the hepatic copper concentration on biopsy. Treatment consists in the administration of the copper chelating agent, penicillamine, and the avoidance of a high copper intake. This usually results in marked clinical improvement if irreversible tissue damage has not occurred. Maintenance therapy for life is necessary in order to continue the negative

  6. Two-loop renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar fermion bilinears on the lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouroupathis, A.; Panagopoulos, H.

    2007-11-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators ψ¯Γψ, where Γ denotes the scalar and pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor nonsinglet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, Zm. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, Zψ, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in cSW, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constants, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the one-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. Finally, we present our results in the MS¯ scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum. The corresponding results, for fermions in an arbitrary representation, are included in the Appendix.

  7. Two-loop renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar fermion bilinears on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2007-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI $^\\prime$ scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar{\\psi}\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes the Scalar and Pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor non-singlet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, $Z_m$. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, $Z_{\\psi}$, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the 1-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. Finally, we present our results in the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum.

  8. Women and Woodrow Wilson Fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Nancy J.

    1986-01-01

    Based on a presentation made at the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, considers the effect these fellowships had on the scholarly careers of the women to whom they have been awarded. (Author/ABB)

  9. Six-dimensional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracey, J. A.; Simms, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    We renormalize the six-dimensional cubic theory with an O (N )×O (m ) symmetry at three loops in the modified minimal subtraction (MS ¯ ) scheme. The theory lies in the same universality class as the four-dimensional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson model. As a check we show that the critical exponents derived from the three-loop renormalization group functions at the Wilson-Fisher fixed point are in agreement with the large N d -dimensional critical exponents of the underlying universal theory. Having established this connection we analyze the fixed point structure of the perturbative renormalization group functions to estimate the location of the conformal window of the O (N )×O (2 ) model.

  10. Higher loop renormalization of fermion bilinear operators

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2007-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar\\psi\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ denotes the Scalar and Pseudoscalar Dirac matrices, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor non-singlet and singlet operators; the latter, in the scalar case, leads directly to the two-loop fermion mass renormalization, $Z_m$. As a prerequisite for the above, we also compute the quark field renormalization, $Z_\\psi$, up to two loops. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. We also confirm the 1-loop renormalization functions, for generic gauge. A longer write-up of the present work, including the conversion of our results to the MSbar scheme and a generalization to arbitrary fermion representations, can be found in arXiv:0707.2906 .

  11. Loop Quantization Versus Fock Quantization Of P-form Electromagnetism On Static Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Carrion Alvarez, M

    2004-01-01

    As a warmup for studying dynamics and gravitons in loop quantum gravity. Varadajan showed that Wilson loops give operators on the Fock space for electromagnetism in Minkowski spacetime—but only after regularizing the loops by smearing them with a Gaussian. Unregularized Wilson loops are too singular to give densely defined operators. Here we present a rigorous treatment of unsmeared Wilson loops for vacuum electromagnetism on an arbitrary globally hyperbolic static spacetime. Our Wilson loops are not operators, but “quasioperators”: sesquilinear forms on the dense subspace of Fock space spanned by coherent states corresponding to smooth classical solutions. To obtain this result we begin by carefully treating electromagnetism on globally hyperbolic static spacetimes, addressing various issues that are usually ignored, such as the definition of Aharonov-Bohm modes when space is noncompact. We then use a new construction of Fock space based on coherent states to define Wilson loop ...

  12. Loop Equations in Abelian Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bartolo, C; Pe~na, F; Bartolo, Cayetano Di; Leal, Lorenzo; Peña, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    The equations obeyed by the vacuum expectation value of the Wilson loop of Abelian gauge theories are considered from the point of view of the loop-space. An approximative scheme for studying these loop-equations for lattice Maxwell theory is presented. The approximation leads to a partial difference equation in the area and length variables of the loop, and certain physically motivated ansatz is seen to reproduce the mean field results from a geometrical perspective.

  13. Renormalization of Wilson Operators in the Light-Cone Gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Andrasi, A

    2001-01-01

    We test the renormalization of Wilson operators and the Mandelstam- Leibbrandt gauge in the case when the sides of the loop are parallel to the n, n* vectors used in the M-L gauge. Graphs which in the Feynman gauge are free of ultra-violet divergences, in the M-L gauge show double divergences and single divergences with non-local si and ci functions. In Appendix C we briefly discuss the problems of the M-L gauge for loops containing spacelike lines.

  14. Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson. Wilson's disease, Queen Square and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussolle, E; Trocello, J-M; Woimant, F; Lachaux, A; Quinn, N

    2013-12-01

    This historical article describes the life and work of the British physician Samuel Alexander Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937), who was one of the world's greatest neurologists of the first half of the 20th century. Early in his career, Wilson spent one year in Paris in 1903 where he learned from Pierre-Marie at Bicêtre Hospital. He subsequently retained uninterrupted links with French neurology. He also visited in Leipzig the German anatomist Paul Flechsig. In 1904, Wilson returned to London, where he worked for the rest of his life at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic (later the National Hospital for Nervous Diseases, and today the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery) in Queen Square, and also at Kings' College Hospital. He wrote on 'the old motor system and the new', on disorders of motility and muscle tone, on the epilepsies, on aphasia, apraxia, tics, and pathologic laughing and crying, and most importantly on Wilson's disease. The other objective of our paper is to commemorate the centenary of Wilson's most important work published in 1912 in Brain, and also in Revue Neurologique, on an illness newly recognized and characterized by him entitled "Progressive lenticular degeneration, a familial nervous disease associated with liver cirrhosis". He analyzed 12 clinical cases, four of whom he followed himself, but also four cases previously published by others and a further two that he considered in retrospect had the same disease as he was describing. The pathological profile combined necrotic damage in the lenticular nuclei of the brain and hepatic cirrhosis. This major original work is summarized and discussed in the present paper. Wilson not only delineated what was later called hepato-lenticular degeneration and Wilson's disease, but also introduced for the first time the terms extrapyramidal syndrome and extrapyramidal system, stressing the role of the basal ganglia in motility. The present historical work emphasizes the special

  15. Pathogenesis and management of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masaru

    2014-04-01

    Hepatolenticular degeneration, commonly known as Wilson disease, is an autosomal recessive inherited disease of abnormal copper metabolism, characterized by the accumulation of copper in the body due to decreased biliary excretion of copper from hepatocytes. Wilson disease protein, ATP7B, functions in copper excretion into bile and in copper secretion to the bloodstream coupled with ceruloplasmin synthesis. Various kinds of mutations of ATP7B cause Wilson disease. Wilson disease is a rare genetic disease that can be treated pharmacologically. Recognition and prompt diagnosis are very important, because Wilson disease is fatal if left untreated. In this review, I summarize the pathogenesis and management of Wilson disease.

  16. Befriending Askey-Wilson polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Szabłowski, Paweł J

    2011-01-01

    Although our main interest is with the Askey-Wilson (AW) polynomials we recall and review four other families of the so-called Askey-Wilson scheme of polynomials. We do this for completeness as well as for better exposition of AW properties. Our main results concentrate on the complex parameters case, revealing new fascinating symmetries between the variables and some of the parameters. In particular we express Askey-Wilson polynomials as linear combinations of Al-Salam--Chihara (ASC) polynomials which together with the obtained earlier expansion of the Askey-Wilson density forms complete generalization of the situation met in the case of Al-Salam--Chihara and q-Hermite polynomials and the Poisson-Mehler expansion formula. As a by-product we get useful identities involving ASC polynomials. Finally by certain re-scaling of variables and parameters we arrive to AW polynomials and AW densities that have clear probabilistic interpretation. We recall some known and present some believed to be unknown identities an...

  17. Population screening for Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Si Houn

    2014-05-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper transport caused by mutations in the gene encoding an ATPase, ATP7B. Early detection of Wilson's disease is critical because effective medical treatments such as chelating agents and zinc salts are available, which can prevent lifelong neurological disabilities and/or cirrhosis. It is unfortunate that most patients are brought to our attention after they have developed serious complications such as brain damage or cirrhosis, despite the availability of effective treatments. The diagnosis is usually made through copper measurement in the liver tissue, followed by confirmation with genetic testing of the ATP7B gene. Currently, there are no effective biomarkers or methods suitable for newborn screening for Wilson's disease. Ceruloplasmin has been tested for pediatric and newborn screening with limited outcome. Recently, liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (LC-MRM-MS) has emerged as a robust technology that may enable multiplex quantification of signature proteotypic peptides with low abundance. The application of this technology may help facilitate the research on Wilson's disease for protein expression, biomarker study, diagnosis, and, hopefully, screening.

  18. How Is Wilson Disease Inherited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nationalities has the disease. Of the 23 different human chromosomes, the gene responsible for Wilson disease is located on chromosome 13. The gene is called ATP7B and it contains the genetic information necessary to make a copper transport protein that plays a key role in incorporating copper ...

  19. Ken Wilson: Solving the Strong Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Peskin, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Ken Wilson's ideas on the renormalization group were shaped by his attempts to build a theory of the strong interactions based on the concepts of quantum field theory. I describe the development of his ideas by reviewing four of Wilson's most important papers. [contribution to the Journal of Statistical Physics Special Issue in Memory of K. G. Wilson

  20. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV) power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a "mass" counterterm in the auxiliary $z$-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  1. Improved quasi parton distribution through Wilson line renormalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiunn-Wei Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments showed that hadron light-cone parton distributions could be directly extracted from spacelike correlators, known as quasi parton distributions, in the large hadron momentum limit. Unlike the normal light-cone parton distribution, a quasi parton distribution contains ultraviolet (UV power divergence associated with the Wilson line self energy. We show that to all orders in the coupling expansion, the power divergence can be removed by a “mass” counterterm in the auxiliary z-field formalism, in the same way as the renormalization of power divergence for an open Wilson line. After adding this counterterm, the quasi quark distribution is improved such that it contains at most logarithmic divergences. Based on a simple version of discretized gauge action, we present the one-loop matching kernel between the improved non-singlet quasi quark distribution with a lattice regulator and the corresponding quark distribution in dimensional regularization.

  2. Generalized loop space and TMDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertens Tom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Standard Model describes the three (of four basic interactions known in Nature in terms of the quantum fields which are constituted by representations of special unitary gauge groups of symmetry. However, the physical observables do not always coincide with the fundamental degrees of freedom of the Standard Model. Therefore it can be useful to switch to the loop space representation of the gauge theory, where the variables are inherently gauge invariant but the degrees of freedom are absorbed in the path/loop dependence. Over-completeness of this space requires the introduction of an equivalence relation which is provided by Wilson loop functionals operating on piecewise regular paths. It is well known that certain Wilson loops show the same singularity structure as some Transverse Momentum Dependent PDFs (TMDs, which are not renormalizable by the common methods due to exactly this singularity structure. By introducing geometrical operators, like the area-derivative, we were able to derive an evolution equation for these Wilson loops and we hope to apply this method in the future to find some renormalization schemes for TMDs.

  3. EXPLICIT ERROR ESTIMATE FOR THE NONCONFORMING WILSON'S ELEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jikun ZHAO; Shaochun CHEN

    2013-01-01

    In this article,we study the explicit expressions of the constants in the error estimate of the nonconforming finite element method.We explicitly obtain the approximation error estimate and the consistency error estimate for the Wilson's element without the regular assumption,respectively,which implies the final finite element error estimate.Such explicit a priori error estimates can be used as computable error bounds.

  4. Wilson flow and scale setting from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Bornyakov, V G; Hudspith, R; Nakamura, Y; Perlt, H; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Schiller, A; Stüben, H; Zanotti, J M

    2015-01-01

    We give a determination of the phenomenological value of the Wilson (or gradient) flow scales t0 and w0 for 2+1 flavours of dynamical quarks. The simulations are performed keeping the average quark mass constant, which allows the approach to the physical point to be made in a controlled manner. O(a) improved clover fermions are used and together with four lattice spacings this allows the continuum extrapolation to be taken.

  5. The epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory with Wilson-type fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Shindler, A. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division

    2009-11-15

    In this proceeding contribution we report on the ongoing effort to simulate Wilson-type fermions in the so called epsilon regime of chiral perturbation theory (cPT).We present results for the chiral condensate and the pseudoscalar decay constant obtained with Wilson twisted mass fermions employing two lattice spacings, two different physical volumes and several quark masses. With this set of simulations we make a first attempt to estimate the systematic uncertainties. (orig.)

  6. Cerebral imaging for Wilson disease; Zerebrale Bildgebung bei Morbus Wilson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, K.; Saleh, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Suedmeyer, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurologie

    2007-03-15

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive inherited copper metabolic disorder that is characterized by diminished biliary excretion of copper and a raised serum level of free copper. This leads to a toxic copper accumulation, particularly in the liver and the brain. Therefore, clinical symptoms are dominated by hepatic and extrapyramidal symptoms. Untreated Wilson disease has an unfavorable outcome. Cerebral changes are depicted most sensitively by magnetic resonance tomography. Pathological findings mainly focus on the basal ganglia, the midbrain and the brainstem. Depending on the therapy and the severity of the neurological symptoms, signal increase as well as signal decrease may be observed in T1-weighted (T1w) and T2-weighted (T2w) images and can be reversible when using an appropriate therapy. Hyperintense areas in T2-weighted images are induced by edema, gliosis, demyelinisation or cystic degeneration. Signal increase in T1-weighted images are found in patients with hepatic insufficiency and are probably due to manganese deposits. Signal decrease in T2-weighted images is probably caused by the paramagnetic effect of the copper accumulation. Furthermore, recent studies show a correlation between the clinical severity and changes in diffusion-weighted sequences. Although cross-section imaging plays a rather subordinate role in the primary diagnostics of Wilson disease, the described cerebral changes in patients with extrapyramidal disturbances should include Wilson disease in the differential. Persistent or progressive hyperintense lesions in T2-weighted images reflect therapy failure, and clinical recovery correlates to an improvement in MR images. Therefore, repeat MR imaging can be used to monitor medical therapy.

  7. The absolute voltage and the lead vector of Wilson's central terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N; Shimizu, Y; Nishiyama, G; Mashima, S; Okamoto, Y

    1996-03-01

    The absolute potential value of Wilson's central terminal was calculated at 2 msec intervals during a cardiac cycle in 60 clinical cases. Starting from the body surface potential data at 128 thoracic locations, the effect of immersion of the body into an infinite conductor on the surface potential was calculated to obtain values with reference to zero potential at infinity. The conductivity of the outside medium was then made to approach zero. Comparison of the result with the original map showed nearly a constant shift of the potential, corresponding to the voltage of Wilson's terminal. In addition, the cardiac vector was calculated as the first approximation of the cardiac electromotive force and the lead vector of Wilson's terminal was obtained in order that the scalar product of the cardiac vector and the lead vector approximated the observed voltage of Wilson's terminal. The results indicate that the voltage of the Wilson electrode depended on the surface voltage with a peak value near the maximal QRS force in most of the cases. The peak voltage of Wilson's terminal was either positive or negative, and was 0.15 mV in absolute value on average. Voltage variations of Wilson's terminal during a cardiac cycle were 0.20 mV as an average of all cases. The voltage of Wilson's terminal also depended on the direction of the equivalent cardiac vector. The lead vector of Wilson's terminal was found to be directed superiorly in most of the cases. The average magnitude of the lead vector of Wilson's terminal was 0.097 omega/cm, which corresponded to about 1/4 of that of lead I.

  8. Wilson's Disease Presenting With Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Acıpayam, Can; Altunay, Ali; Nilüfer İLHAN; Atçı, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Wilson’s disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism characterized by excessive amount of copper in liver, brain, eye and other body tissues. Diagnosis is based on the presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings, typical neurological symptoms, and/or a low serum ceruloplasmin concentration. The main clinical symptoms are usually due to hepatic and/or neurologic involvement. Pancytopenia is a rare initial symptom of Wilson Disease. An 11-year-old female presented with pancytopenia. ...

  9. Wilson's disease: An endocrine revelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Nitin; Shetty, Sahana; Thomas, Nihal; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil

    2014-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder of copper metabolism. The affected patients, who otherwise have a near normal life span, may often suffer from some potentially treatable and under recognized endocrine disorders that may hinder their quality of life. We explored previously published literature on the various endocrine aspects of this disease with their probable underlying mechanisms, highlighting the universal need of research in this area. PMID:25364683

  10. Thermodynamics in 2+1 flavor QCD with improved Wilson quarks by the fixed scale approach

    CERN Document Server

    Umeda, T; Ejiri, S; Hatsuda, T; Kanaya, K; Maezawa, Y; Ohno, H

    2012-01-01

    We study thermodynamic properties of 2+1 flavor QCD with improved Wilson quarks coupled with the RG improved Iwasaki glue, using the fixed scale approach. We present the results for the equation of state, renormalized Polyakov loop, and chiral condensate.

  11. [Wilson's disease - a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowska, Kornelia; Skrzypek, Julita; Chabik, Grzegorz; Członkowska, Anna; Zaborowska, Marzena; Wawrzyniak, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) or hepatolenticular degeneration, is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by mutations in the Wilson disease protein (ATP7B) gene. It is characterized by impaired copper metabolism leading to its accumulation in various tissues and organs, including the liver and central nervous system, this results in the development of characteristic liver disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Liver symptoms usually appear during first three decades of life, while psychiatric symptoms are observed in people who are in their twenties or older. WD is one of few genetic diseases that can be effectively treated with pharmacotherapy. However, some cases, especially diagnosed late in the course of the disease, may not respond well to treatment. Here we present a case of a 22-year-old male with neurological, psychiatric and liver disease symptoms as an example of diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in patients. Wilson's disease (WD) should be considered in all patients presenting with neurological, psychiatric and liver disease symptoms especially those of young age.

  12. Haplotype studies in Wilson disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.R.; Bull, P.C.; Roberts, E.A.; Cox, D.W.; Walshe, J.M. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    In 51 families with Wilson disease, the authors have studied DNA haplotypes of dinucleotide repeat polymorphisms (CA repeats) in the 13q14.3 region, to examine these markers for association with the Wilson disease gene (WND). In addition to a marker (D13S133) described elsewhere, the authors have developed three new highly polymorphic markers (D13S314, D13S315, and D13S316) close to the WND locus. The authors have examined the distribution of marker alleles at the loci studied and have found that D13S314, D13S133, and D13S316 each show nonrandom distribution on chromosomes carrying the WND mutation. The authors have studied haplotypes of these three markers and have found that there are highly significant differences between WND and normal haplotypes in northern European families. These findings have important implications for mutation detection and molecular diagnosis in families with Wilson disease. 25 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Ward identities and Wilson renormalization group for QED

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, M; Marchesini, G

    1994-01-01

    We analyze a formulation of QED based on the Wilson renormalization group. Although the ``effective Lagrangian'' used at any given scale does not have simple gauge symmetry, we show that the resulting renormalized Green's functions correctly satisfies Ward identities to all orders in perturbation theory. The loop expansion is obtained by solving iteratively the Polchinski's renormalization group equation. We also give a new simple proof of perturbative renormalizability. The subtractions in the Feynman graphs and the corresponding counterterms are generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions.

  14. Ward identities and Wilson renormalization group for QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, M.; D'Attanasio, M.; Marchesini, G.

    1994-04-01

    We analyze a formulation of QED based on the Wilson renormalization group. Although the "effective lagrangian" used at any given scale does not have simple gauge symmetry, we show that the resulting renormalized Green's function correctly satisfies Ward identities to all orders in perturbation theory. The loop expansion is obtained by solving iteratively the Polchinski renormalization group equation. We also give a new simple proof of perturbative renormalizability. The subtractions in the Feynman graphs and the corresponing counter-terms are generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions.

  15. The q overlineq relativistic interaction in the Wilson loop approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, N.; Vairo, A.

    1998-05-01

    We study the q overlineq relativistic interaction starting from the Feynman-Schwinger representation of the gauge-invariant quark-antiquark Green function. We focus on the one-body limit and discuss the obtained non-perturbative interaction kernel of the Dirac equation.

  16. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common dyn

  17. Excited hexagon Wilson loops for strongly coupled N=4 SYM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, J.; Kotanski, J. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2010-10-15

    This work is devoted to the six-gluon scattering amplitude in strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. At weak coupling, an appropriate high energy limit of the so-called remainder function, i.e. of the deviation from the BDS formula, may be understood in terms of the lowest eigenvalue of the BFKL hamiltonian. According to Alday et al., amplitudes in the strongly coupled theory can be constructed through an auxiliary 1-dimensional quantum system. We argue that certain excitations of this quantum system determine the Regge limit of the remainder function at strong coupling and we compute its precise value. (orig.)

  18. Single Spin Asymmetries from a Single Wilson Loop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Echevarria, Miguel G.; Mulders, Piet J.; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We study the leading-power gluon transverse-momentum-dependent distributions (TMDs) of relevance to the study of asymmetries in the scattering off transversely polarized hadrons. Next-to-leading-order perturbative calculations of these TMDs show that at large transverse momentum they have common

  19. Wilson Loops for M2- and M5-brane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Quijada, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quark and anti-quark interaction energy in different positions in spaces generated by $N$ coincident $M2$- and $M5$-branes. We use the Maldacena-Rey-Yee method for calculating this energy as a function of quark-antiquark separation. We obtain the solution for these problems as integrals of the metric elements. For limiting regimes we find simpler solutions for which some potentials exhibit a confinement behavior.

  20. Catatonia: an unusual manifestation of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aniruddha; Thanapal, Sivakumar; Sood, Mamta; Khandelwal, Sudhir K

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease, characterized by abnormal copper accumulation in the human body, may present with psychiatric manifestations in about one-fifth of patients. The authors report a patient with Wilson's disease who initially presented with acute psychosis and later developed catatonic symptoms. The atypical presentation led to a delay in diagnosis and institution of appropriate treatment. Wilson's disease can be ruled out in all young patients presenting with psychiatric symptoms for the first time by screening for a Kayser-Fleischer ring.

  1. Anisotropic Superconvergence Analysis for the Wilson Nonconforming Element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaochun Chen; Huixia Sun; Shipeng Mao

    2006-01-01

    The regular condition (there exists a constant c independent of the element K and the mesh such that hK/ρK ≤ c, where hK and ρK are diameters of K and the biggest ball contained in K, respectively) or the quasi-uniform condition is a basic assumption in the analysis of classical finite elements. In this paper, the supercloseness for consistency error and the superconvergence estimate at the central point of the element for the Wilson nonconforming element in solving second-order elliptic boundary value problem are given without the above assumption on the meshes. Furthermore the global superconvergence for the Wilson nonconforming element is obtained under the anisotropic meshes. Lastly, a numerical test is carried out which confirms our theoretical analysis.

  2. Spectral Properties of the Wilson Dirac Operator and RMT

    CERN Document Server

    Kieburg, Mario; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2013-01-01

    Random Matrix Theory has been successfully applied to lattice Quantum Chromodynamics. In particular, a great deal of progress has been made on the understanding, numerically as well as analytically, of the spectral properties of the Wilson Dirac operator. In this paper, we study the infra-red spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator via Random Matrix Theory including the three leading order $a^2$ correction terms that appear in the corresponding chiral Lagrangian. A derivation of the joint probability density of the eigenvalues is presented. This result is used to calculate the density of the complex eigenvalues, the density of the real eigenvalues and the distribution of the chiralities over the real eigenvalues. A detailed discussion of these quantities shows how each low energy constant affects the spectrum. Especially we consider the limit of small and large (which is almost the mean field limit) lattice spacing. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of the Random Matrix Theory show a perfect agreement wi...

  3. Cholestatic liver disease masquerading as Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Vikrant; Rawat, Dinesh; Khanna, Rajeev; Alam, Seema

    2015-03-01

    Wilson disease and cholestatic liver diseases may present as a diagnostic dilemma if standard guidelines incorporating markers of copper overload are followed. We hereby present a series of four cases of sclerosing cholangitis masquerading as Wilson disease. True Wilson disease cases had significantly lower ceruloplasmin (6 vs. 16 mg/dL) and higher 24-hour urinary copper (322.3 vs. 74.5 μg/day) as compared to mimickers. Initial low serum ceruloplasmin levels normalized in mimickers on follow up, and this may used as a diagnostic indicator. Standard Wilson disease diagnostic criteria thus need further modification especially in developing countries to help avoid mismanagement.

  4. Wilson-Mikity综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许炽华; 沈时霖

    1989-01-01

    @@ Wilson-Mikity综合征(简称WMS),是发生在极低体重儿的一种慢性呼吸困难疾病.1960年首次由美国的Wilson和Mikity所报道,后为世界各国公认,并以此命名[1~3].本病为一种独立疾病,长期来病因不明,近年来日本有较多的研究并证明与胎儿宫内感染有关[2~4].

  5. QCD thermodynamics with continuum extrapolated Wilson fermions II

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, Szabolcs; Fodor, Zoltan; Holbling, Christian; Katz, Sandor D; Krieg, Stefan; Nogradi, Daniel; Szabo, Kalman K; Toth, Balint C; Trombitas, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We continue our investigation of 2+1 flavor QCD thermodynamics using dynamical Wilson fermions in the fixed scale approach. Two additional pion masses, approximately 440 MeV and 285 MeV, are added to our previous work at 545 MeV. The simulations were performed at 3 or 4 lattice spacings at each pion mass. The renormalized chiral condensate, strange quark number susceptibility and Polyakov loop is obtained as a function of the temperature and we observe a decrease in the light chiral pseudo-critical temperature as the pion mass is lowered while the pseudo-critical temperature associated with the strange quark number susceptibility or the Polyakov loop is only mildly sensitive to the pion mass. These findings are in agreement with previous continuum results obtained in the staggered formulation.

  6. Supercurrent conservation in the lattice Wess-Zumino model with Ginsparg-Wilson fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Giedt, Joel; Paki, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    We study supercurrent conservation for the four-dimensional Wess-Zumino model formulated on the lattice. The formulation is one that has been discussed several times, and uses Ginsparg-Wilson fermions of the overlap (Neuberger) variety, together with an auxiliary fermion (plus superpartners), such that a lattice version of U(1)R symmetry is exactly preserved in the limit of vanishing bare mass. We show that the almost naive supercurrent is conserved at one loop. By contrast we find that this is not true for Wilson fermions and a canonical scalar action. We provide nonperturbative evidence for the nonconservation of the supercurrent in Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Supercurrent conservation in the lattice Wess-Zumino model with Ginsparg-Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Chen; Paki, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We study supercurrent conservation for the four-dimensional Wess-Zumino model formulated on the lattice. The formulation is one that has been discussed several times, and uses Ginsparg-Wilson fermions of the overlap (Neuberger) variety, together with an auxiliary fermion (plus superpartners), such that a lattice version of U(1)_R symmetry is exactly preserved in the limit of vanishing bare mass. We show that the almost naive supercurrent is conserved at one loop. By contrast we find that this is not true for Wilson fermions and a canonical scalar action. We provide nonperturbative evidence for the nonconservation of the supercurrent in Monte Carlo simulations.

  8. Exact Answers to Approximate Questions Noncommutative Dipoles, Open Wilson Lines, and UV-IR Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Rey, S J

    2002-01-01

    In this lecture, I put forward conjectures asserting that, in all noncommutative field theories, (1) open Wilson lines and their descendants constitute a complete set of interpolating operators of `noncommutative dipoles', obeying dipole relation, (2) infrared dynamics of the noncommutative dipoles is dual to ultraviolet dynamics of the elementary noncommutative fields, and (3) open string field theory is a sort of noncommutative field theory, whose open Wilson lines are interpolating operators for closed strings. I substantiate these conjectures by various intuitive arguments and explicit computations of one- and two-loop Feynman diagrammatics.

  9. Lattice simulations with Nf=2 +1 improved Wilson fermions at a fixed strange quark mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Gunnar S.; Scholz, Enno E.; Simeth, Jakob; Söldner, Wolfgang; RQCD Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The explicit breaking of chiral symmetry of the Wilson fermion action results in additive quark mass renormalization. Moreover, flavor singlet and nonsinglet scalar currents acquire different renormalization constants with respect to continuum regularization schemes. This complicates keeping the renormalized strange quark mass fixed when varying the light quark mass in simulations with Nf=2 +1 sea quark flavors. Here we present and validate our strategy within the CLS (coordinated lattice simulations) effort to achieve this in simulations with nonperturbatively order-a improved Wilson fermions. We also determine various combinations of renormalization constants and improvement coefficients.

  10. Gauge theory loop operators and Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drukker, Nadav [Humboldt Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Gomis, Jaume; Okuda, Takuda [Perimeter Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Teschner, Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    We propose a correspondence between loop operators in a family of four dimensional N=2 gauge theories on S{sup 4} - including Wilson, 't Hooft and dyonic operators - and Liouville theory loop operators on a Riemann surface. This extends the beautiful relation between the partition function of these N=2 gauge theories and Liouville correlators found by Alday, Gaiotto and Tachikawa. We show that the computation of these Liouville correlators with the insertion of a Liouville loop operator reproduces Pestun's formula capturing the expectation value of a Wilson loop operator in the corresponding gauge theory. We prove that our definition of Liouville loop operators is invariant under modular transformations, which given our correspondence, implies the conjectured action of S-duality on the gauge theory loop operators. Our computations in Liouville theory make an explicit prediction for the exact expectation value of 't Hooft and dyonic loop operators in these N=2 gauge theories. The Liouville loop operators are also found to admit a simple geometric interpretation within quantum Teichmueller theory as the quantum operators representing the length of geodesics. We study the algebra of Liouville loop operators and show that it gives evidence for our proposal as well as providing definite predictions for the operator product expansion of loop operators in gauge theory. (orig.)

  11. Wade Wilson Controls NFL Defenses, Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K

    1989-12-01

    When Minnesota Vikings quarterback Wade Wilson was diagnosed with diabetes just days before the 1985 season, he scrambled to learn how to manage the disease. With his health-and perhaps his career-hanging in the balance, Wilson deftly made the life-style changes necessary to continue play.

  12. LATTICE QCD THERMODYNAMICS WITH WILSON QUARKS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EJIRI,S.

    2007-11-20

    We review studies of QCD thermodynamics by lattice QCD simulations with dynamical Wilson quarks. After explaining the basic properties of QCD with Wilson quarks at finite temperature including the phase structure and the scaling properties around the chiral phase transition, we discuss the critical temperature, the equation of state and heavy-quark free energies.

  13. The Fading Legacy of Woodrow Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W.

    1988-01-01

    Reexamines Woodrow Wilson's contribution to public administration and arrives at four conclusions: (1) the study of public administration was developed in Europe; (2) Wilson's politics/administration dichotomy was different than the European model; (3) his dichotomy was based on an incorrect translation and abandoned; and (4) his dichotomy was…

  14. Wilson's disease; increased aluminum in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, M; Yoshimasu, F; Yase, Y; Uebayashi, Y

    1979-01-01

    Interaction of trace metal metabolism was studied in a patient with Wilson's dease. Atomic absorption analysis showed markedly increased urinary excretion of copper and aluminum and an increased aluminum content was found in the biopsied liver by neutron activation analysis. These findings suggest a complicated pathogenetic mechanism involving other metals besides copper in the Wilson's disease.

  15. The link between copper and Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchase, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Wilson's disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism leading to copper accumulation in the liver and extrahepatic organs such as the brain and cornea. Patients may present with combinations of hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Copper is the therapeutic target for the treatment of Wilson's disease. But how did copper come to be linked with Wilson's disease? The answer encompasses a study of enzootic neonatal ataxia in lambs in the 1930s, the copper-chelating properties of British Anti-Lewisite, and the chemical analysis for copper of the organs of deceased Wilson's disease patients in the mid-to-late 1940s. Wilson's disease is one of a number of copper-related disorders where loss of copper homeostasis as a result of genetic, nutritional or environmental factors affects human health.

  16. Photometric Observations of 107P/Wilson-Harrington

    CERN Document Server

    Urakawa, Seitaro; Nishiyama, Kota; Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Noritsugu; Abe, Shinsuke; Ishiguro, Masateru; Kitazato, Kohei; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ohta, Kouji; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Nagayama, Shogo; Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Yoshikawa, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    We present lightcurve observations and multiband photometry for 107P/Wilson-Harrington using five small- and medium-sized telescopes. The lightcurve has shown a periodicity of 0.2979 day (7.15 hour) and 0.0993 day (2.38 hour), which has a commensurability of 3:1. The physical properties of the lightcurve indicate two models: (1) 107P/Wilson-Harrington is a tumbling object with a sidereal rotation period of 0.2979 day and a precession period of 0.0993 day. The shape has a long axis mode (LAM) of L1:L2:L3 = 1.0:1.0:1.6. The direction of the total rotational angular momentum is around {\\lambda} = 310{\\deg}, {\\beta} = -10{\\deg}, or {\\lambda} = 132{\\deg}, {\\beta} = -17{\\deg}. The nutation angle is approximately constant at 65{\\deg}. (2) 107P/Wilson-Harrington is not a tumbler. The sidereal rotation period is 0.2979 day. The shape is nearly spherical but slightly hexagonal with a short axis mode (SAM) of L1:L2:L3 = 1.5:1.5:1.0. The pole orientation is around {\\lambda} = 330{\\deg}, {\\beta} = -27{\\deg}. In addition, ...

  17. Loop variables in the geometry of a rotating black string

    CERN Document Server

    De Carvalho, A M M; Furtado, C; Furtado, Claudio; Moraes, Fernando

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we analyze in the Wilson loop context the parallel transport of vectors and spinors around a closed loop in the background space-time of a rotating black string in order to classify its global properties. We also examine particular closed orbits in this space-time and verify the Mandelstam relations.

  18. Liver transplantation for Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilsky, Michael L

    2014-05-01

    Although Wilsons's disease (WD) may be treated with copper chelation (to remove copper) or zinc salts (to prevent absorption) to alleviate or prevent symptom development in most patients, there are WD patients for whom medical therapy is inadequate and survival would be unlikely without liver transplantation. Liver transplantation is indicated for the ∼5% of WD patients with acute liver failure as the first presentation of disease, most commonly in the second decade of life, or those who present with end-stage liver disease and severe hepatic insufficiency, most commonly in the third and fourth decades. Liver transplantation restores normal biliary copper excretion (thereby preventing disease recurrence) and promotes removal of copper from extrahepatic sites. Outcomes of liver transplantation for WD are excellent, including both cadaveric and living donors.

  19. Wilson Benesch Discovery音箱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈煐光

    2002-01-01

    @@ 在为数不多的英国高级音箱厂家之中,Wilson Benesch是最富创新意念和最讲究校声技艺的一家.厂方将碳纤这种物质运用在Hi-Fi器材之中得到很大的成功.他们用碳纤混合素材来制造的盘臂头组合Act 1+Act 2被誉为世上最靓声的LP唱片重播组合之一,而用碳纤制作部分声箱的处女作Act One更在数年前面世之后轰动音响界,其真实无匹的小提琴声和无穷尽的音乐感赢得不少高级音响玩家的钟爱.

  20. Kenneth Wilson and lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ukawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the physics and computation of lattice QCD, a space-time lattice formulation of quantum chromodynamics, and Kenneth Wilson's seminal role in its development. We start with the fundamental issue of confinement of quarks in the theory of the strong interactions, and discuss how lattice QCD provides a framework for understanding this phenomenon. A conceptual issue with lattice QCD is a conflict of space-time lattice with chiral symmetry of quarks. We discuss how this problem is resolved. Since lattice QCD is a non-linear quantum dynamical system with infinite degrees of freedom, quantities which are analytically calculable are limited. On the other hand, it provides an ideal case of massively parallel numerical computations. We review the long and distinguished history of parallel-architecture supercomputers designed and built for lattice QCD. We discuss algorithmic developments, in particular the difficulties posed by the fermionic nature of quarks, and their resolution. The triad of efforts toward b...

  1. Monitoring copper in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshe, J M

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring copper metabolism in patients with Wilson's disease is not an exact science. At present, there are no simple methods of estimating the total body load of this metal. Indirect methods must therefore be used. A survey of the current literature shows that most approaches rely on the determination of blood and urine copper concentration. Both these should decrease with treatment. In parallel with decreased copper concentration, there should be subsequent improvement in more routine laboratory tests including liver and renal function, blood count parameters, and clotting factors. Lack of compliance is revealed by a reversal of this trend. This chapter critically reviews current testing methods and describes other approaches that may be helpful.

  2. Cognitive impairment in Wilson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Anizio Ferreira Frota

    Full Text Available Abstract Wilson's disease (WD or hepatolenticular degeneration is a rare, genetic and systemic disease, caused by a deficit in the metabolism of copper, leading to its accumulation in different organs, mainly the liver, followed by the central nervous system, especially the basal ganglia. When symptoms begin between the second and third decades of life, approximately 50% of the patients show neurological symptoms. Although dystonia and dysarthria are the most common neurological signs, cognitive changes have been reported since the first cases were described in 1912. Memory change is one of the most common impairments, but other cognitive changes have been reported, including dementia in untreated cases. In this article we review the cognitive changes in WD patients and the occurrence of dementia.

  3. Wilson's disease and other neurological copper disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandmann, Oliver; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Kaler, Stephen G

    2015-01-01

    The copper metabolism disorder Wilson's disease was first defined in 1912. Wilson's disease can present with hepatic and neurological deficits, including dystonia and parkinsonism. Early-onset presentations in infancy and late-onset manifestations in adults older than 70 years of age are now well recognised. Direct genetic testing for ATP7B mutations are increasingly available to confirm the clinical diagnosis of Wilson's disease, and results from biochemical and genetic prevalence studies suggest that Wilson's disease might be much more common than previously estimated. Early diagnosis of Wilson's disease is crucial to ensure that patients can be started on adequate treatment, but uncertainty remains about the best possible choice of medication. Furthermore, Wilson's disease needs to be differentiated from other conditions that also present clinically with hepatolenticular degeneration or share biochemical abnormalities with Wilson's disease, such as reduced serum ceruloplasmin concentrations. Disordered copper metabolism is also associated with other neurological conditions, including a subtype of axonal neuropathy due to ATP7A mutations and the late-onset neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  4. Three-loop corrections to the soft anomalous dimension in multileg scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Almelid, Øyvind; Gardi, Einan

    2016-01-01

    We present the three-loop result for the soft anomalous dimension governing long-distance singularities of multi-leg gauge-theory scattering amplitudes of massless partons. We compute all contributing webs involving semi-infinite Wilson lines at three loops and obtain the complete three-loop correction to the dipole formula. We find that non-dipole corrections appear already for three coloured partons, where the correction is a constant without kinematic dependence. Kinematic dependence appears only through conformally-invariant cross ratios for four coloured partons or more, and the result can be expressed in terms of single-valued harmonic polylogarithms of weight five. While the non-dipole three-loop term does not vanish in two-particle collinear limits, its contribution to the splitting amplitude anomalous dimension reduces to a constant, and it only depends on the colour charges of the collinear pair, thereby preserving strict collinear factorization properties. Finally we verify that our result is consi...

  5. Sunflower cataract: do not forget Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Tomasz; Langwińska-Wośko, Ewa; Dzieżyc, Karolina; Członkowska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old man with liver cirrhosis of unknown aetiology for 6 years was admitted to our department to confirm the diagnosis of Wilson's disease. He consulted an ophthalmologist who suspected the presence of a sunflower cataract and Kayser-Fleischer ring. At admission, his liver function tests were modestly impaired (Child-Pugh C, 10 pts). Neurological examination was normal, but cognitive functions were mildly impaired. Based on the copper metabolism abnormalities and clinical manifestation, we diagnosed Wilson's disease (Ferenci score, 6 pts) and started treatment with d-penicillamine. Presenting the case we would like to emphasise the significance of the ophthalmological examination in Wilson's disease diagnosis.

  6. The microscopic Twisted Mass Dirac spectrum and the spectral determination of the LECs of Wilson $\\chi$-PT

    CERN Document Server

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Splittorff, K; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2015-01-01

    We present the comparison of the analytical microscopic spectral density for lattice QCD with $N_{\\rm f}=2$ twisted mass fermions with the one obtained on the lattice utilizing configurations produced by the ETM collaboration. We extract estimates for the chiral condensate as well as the low-energy constant $W_8$ of Wilson $\\chi$-PT by employing spectral information of the Wilson Dirac operator with fixed index at finite volume.

  7. Neuroimaging findings in Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and congenital malformations, including Hirschsprung disease, genital and eye anomalies, and congenital heart defects, caused by haploinsufficiency o...

  8. Neuroimaging findings in Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garavelli, Livia; Ivanovski, Ivan; Caraffi, Stefano Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and congenital malformations, including Hirschsprung disease, genital and eye anomalies, and congenital heart defects, caused by haploinsufficiency o...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Mowat-Wilson syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Health Topic: Congenital Heart Defects Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Mowat-Wilson syndrome Additional NIH Resources (2 ... Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ...

  10. Sextet Model with Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We present new results from our ongoing study of the SU(3) sextet model with two flavors in the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. In the simulations use unimproved Wilson fermions to investigate the infrared properties of the model. We have previously presented results for the spectrum of the model in the weak coupling regime. Here, to better understand the overall behavior of the lattice model, we map its non-trivial phase structure in the space of bare parameters. At strong coupling, we observe a first order phase transition when decreasing the bare quark mass. This first order transition weakens when moving towards weaker couplings with an endpoint at a finite value of the bare coupling, after which it appears to be a continuous transition. We also investigate the behavior of the mass spectrum and scale-setting observable, as a function of the quark mass, and show that their qualitative behavior change significantly when moving from the strong coupling into the weak coupling phase.

  11. Non-perturbative renormalization of quark bilinear operators with N{sub f}=2 (tmQCD) Wilson fermions and the tree-level improved gauge action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinou, M. [Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Dimopoulos, P. [Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Rome (Italy); Frezzotti, R. [Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Roma (IT)] (and others)

    2010-06-15

    We present results for the renormalization constants of bilinear quark operators obtained b4>UNL<426>UNL using the tree-level Symanzik improved gauge action and the N{sub f}=2 twisted mass fermion action at maximal twist, which guarantees automatic O(a)- improvement. Our results are also relevant for the corresponding standard (untwisted) Wilson fermionic action since the two actions only differ, in the massless limit, by a chiral rotation of the quark fields. The scale-independent renormalization constants Z{sub V}, Z{sub A} and the ratio Z{sub P}/Z{sub S} have been computed using the RI-MOM approach, as well as other alternative methods. For Z{sub A} and Z{sub P}/Z{sub S}, the latter are based on both standard twisted mass and Osterwalder-Seiler fermions, while for Z{sub V} a Ward Identity has been used. The quark field renormalization constant Z{sub q} and the scale dependent renormalization constants Z{sub S}, Z{sub P} and Z{sub T} are determined in the RI-MOM scheme. Leading discretization effects of O(g{sup 2}a{sup 2}), evaluated in one-loop perturbation theory, are explicitly subtracted from the RI-MOM estimates. (orig.)

  12. Renormalisation of the energy-momentum tensor in scalar field theory using the Wilson flow

    CERN Document Server

    Capponi, Francesco; Ehret, Susanne; Pellegrini, Roberto; Rago, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A non-perturbative renormalisation prescription for the energy-momentum tensor, based on space-time symmetries along the Wilson flow, has been proposed recently in the context of 4-dimensional gauge theories. We extend this construction to the case of a scalar field theory, and investigate its numerical feasibility by studying Ward identities in 3-dimensional scalar field theory. After introducing the Wilson flow for the scalar field theory we discuss its renormalisation properties and the determination of the renormalisation constants for the energy-momentum tensor.

  13. Non-perturbative running of renormalization constants from correlators in coordinate space using step scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Korcyl, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Working in a quenched setup with Wilson twisted mass valence fermions, we explore the possibility to compute non-perturbatively the step scaling function using the coordinate (X-space) renormalization scheme. This scheme has the advantage of being on-shell and gauge invariant. The step scaling method allows us to calculate the running of the renormalization constants of quark bilinear operators. We describe here the details of this calculation. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the feasibility of the X-space scheme when used in small volume simulations required by the step scaling technique. Eventually, we translate our final results to the continuum MSbar scheme and compare against four-loop analytic formulae finding satisfactory agreement.

  14. Non-perturbative running of renormalization constants from correlators in coordinate space using step scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Korcyl, Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Working in a quenched setup with Wilson twisted mass valence fermions, we explore the possibility to compute non-perturbatively the step scaling function using the coordinate (X-space) renormalization scheme. This scheme has the advantage of being on-shell and gauge invariant. The step scaling method allows us to calculate the running of the renormalization constants of quark bilinear operators. We describe here the details of this calculation. The aim of this exploratory study is to identify the feasibility of the X-space scheme when used in small volume simulations required by the step scaling technique. Eventually, we translate our final results to the continuum MS ‾ scheme and compare against four-loop analytic formulae finding satisfactory agreement.

  15. String Scale Cosmological Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Chalmers, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    The cosmological constant is an unexplained until now phenomena of nature that requires an explanation through string effects. The apparent discrepancy between theory and experiment is enourmous and has already been explained several times by the author including mechanisms. In this work the string theory theory of abolished string modes is documented and given perturbatively to all loop orders. The holographic underpinning is also exposed. The matching with the data of the LIGO and D0 experi...

  16. President Wilson's brain trust: Woodrow Wilson, Francis X. Dercum, and American neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Ryan D

    2009-01-01

    On October 2, 1919, President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke that paralyzed the left half of his body. Wilson's stroke forced the American public to confront stroke, and laypeople came to identify stroke as a nervous disorder, rather than a condition rooted solely in psychological phenomena. His medical care was overseen by Cary Grayson, his personal internist, and Francis X. Dercum, a remarkably accomplished neurologist from Philadelphia. Dercum was very involved in the treatment of the President, from the day of the stroke until years later. While the medical records have been destroyed, some basic facts of Wilson's treatment and rehabilitation can be inferred from the literature. Although Woodrow Wilson was an exceptional patient, his care, albeit administered by some of the most famous physicians of the era, was typical of the time. Therefore, this paper's approach to Wilson's 1919 stroke contextualizes the President's case into the larger scheme of early twentieth-century neurology.

  17. A new method of calculating the running coupling constant --- theoretical formulation ---

    CERN Document Server

    Bilgici, E; Itou, E; Kurachi, M; Lin, C -J D; Matsufuru, H; Ohki, H; Onogi, T; Yamazaki, T

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new method to compute the running coupling constant of gauge theories on the lattice. We first give the definition of the running coupling in the new scheme using the Wilson loops in a finite volume, and explain how the running of the coupling constant is extracted from the measurement of the volume dependence. The perturbative calculation of the renormalization constant to define the scheme is also given at the leading order. As a benchmark test of the new scheme we apply the method the case of the quenched QCD. We show the preliminary result from our numerical simulations which are carried out with plaquette gauge action for various lattice sizes and bare lattice couplings. With techniques to improve the statistical accuracy, we show that we can determine the non-perturbative running of the coupling constant in a wide range of the energy scale with relatively small number of gauge configurations in our scheme. We compare our lattice data of the running coupling constant with perturbative renorm...

  18. The strong coupling constant of QCD with four flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Fatih

    2010-11-01

    In this thesis we study the theory of strong interaction Quantum Chromodynamics on a space-time lattice (lattice QCD) with four flavors of dynamical fermions by numerical simulations. In the early days of lattice QCD, only pure gauge field simulations were accessible to the computational facilities and the effects of quark polarization were neglected. The so-called fermion determinant in the path integral was set to one (quenched approximation). The reason for this approximation was mainly the limitation of computational power because the inclusion of the fermion determinant required an enormous numerical effort. However, for full QCD simulations the virtual quark loops had to be taken into account and the development of new machines and new algorithmic techniques made the so-called dynamical simulations with at least two flavors possible. In recent years, different collaborations studied lattice QCD with dynamical fermions. In our project we study lattice QCD with four degenerated flavors of O(a) improved Wilson quarks in the Schroedinger functional scheme and calculate the energy dependence of the strong coupling constant. For this purpose, we determine the O(a) improvement coefficient c{sub sw} with four flavors and use this result to calculate the step scaling function of QCD with four flavors which describes the scale evolution of the running coupling. Using a recursive finite-size technique, the {lambda} parameter is determined in units of a technical scale L{sub max} which is an unambiguously defined length in the hadronic regime. The coupling {alpha}{sub SF} of QCD in the so-called Schroedinger functional scheme is calculated over a wide range of energies non-perturbatively and compared with 2-loop and 3-loop perturbation theory as well as with the non-perturbative result for only two flavors. (orig.)

  19. Wilson protein expression, copper excretion and sweat production in sweat glands of Wilson disease patients and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Karl

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Wilson disease, copper is not sufficiently excreted into bile due to the absence or malfunction of the Wilson protein copper ATPase in the excretory pathway of hepatocytes. Copper is found in sweat. It is unknown if the Wilson protein plays a role in copper excretion into sweat. It is the aim of this study to investigate Wilson protein expression in sweat glands and analysing its effects on copper excretion into sweat in controls and patients with Wilson disease. Methods Immunofluorescent analysis of the Wilson protein in skin samples from normal rat, LEC rat and human skin biopsies were performed. Pilocarpin-induced sweat gland stimulation by iontophoretic transfer adapted from the methods used for cystic fibrosis sweat test was used for sweat induction. Sweat volume, sweat copper concentration, serum ceruloplasmin and serum copper were analysed in 28 Wilson patients and 21 controls. Results The Wilson protein is expressed in human and rat sweat gland epithelia. Copper concentration in sweat is not significantly different between controls and Wilson patients. Wilson patients produce significantly smaller volumes of sweat compared to controls. Sweat production is partially reversible in Wilson patients under medical treatment for Wilson disease or after liver transplantation Conclusion Wilson patients show a reduced sweat production with unaltered sweat copper concentration. The Wilson protein might play an important role in physiological sweat production.

  20. The Universal Askey-Wilson Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Terwilliger

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1992 A. Zhedanov introduced the Askey-Wilson algebra AW=AW(3 and used it to describe the Askey-Wilson polynomials. In this paper we introduce a central extension Δ of AW, obtained from AW by reinterpreting certain parameters as central elements in the algebra. We call Δ the universal Askey-Wilson algebra. We give a faithful action of the modular group PSL_2(Z on Δ as a group of automorphisms. We give a linear basis for Δ. We describe the center of Δ and the 2-sided ideal Δ[Δ,Δ]Δ. We discuss how Δ is related to the q-Onsager algebra.

  1. Lattice simulations with $N_f=2+1$ improved Wilson fermions at a fixed strange quark mass

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, Gunnar S; Simeth, Jakob; Söldner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The explicit breaking of chiral symmetry of the Wilson fermion action results in additive quark mass renormalization. Moreover, flavour singlet and non-singlet scalar currents acquire different renormalization constants with respect to continuum regularization schemes. This complicates keeping the renormalized strange quark mass fixed when varying the light quark mass in simulations with $N_f=2+1$ sea quark flavours. Here we present and validate our strategy within the CLS (Coordinated Lattice Simulations) effort to achieve this in simulations with non-perturbatively order-$a$ improved Wilson fermions. We also determine various combinations of renormalization constants and improvement coefficients.

  2. The three-loop $\\beta$-function of SU(N) lattice gauge theories with overlap fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, M

    2007-01-01

    We briefly report our calculation of the 2-loop coefficient of the coupling constant renormalization function Z_g in lattice perturbation theory. The quantity under study is defined through g_0 = Z_g g, where g_0 (g) is the bare (renormalized) coupling constant. The 2-loop expression for Z_g can be directly related to the 3-loop bare beta-function beta_L(g_0). Our calculation is performed using overlap fermions and Wilson gluons, and the background field technique has been chosen for convenience. Our results depend explicitly on the number of fermion flavors (N_f) and colors (N). Since the dependence of Z_g on the overlap parameter rho cannot be extracted analytically, we tabulate our results for different values of rho in the allowed range (0loop results for Z_g versus rho exhibit a nontrivial dependence on the overlap parameter. A longer write-up of this work may be found in 0709.4368.

  3. The Gauge String Solution of the D>=3 Yang-Mills Loop Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    2001-01-01

    I adapt the Gauge String, representing the strong coupling (SC) expansion in the continuous D>=3 Yang-Mills theory (YM_{D}) with a sufficiently large bare coupling constant \\lambda>\\lambda_{cr} and a fixed ultraviolet cut off \\Lambda, to the analysis of the regularized Wilson's loop-averages. When generalized to describe the fat (rather than infinitely thin) flux-tubes, the pattern of thus modified U(N) Gauge String is proved to be consistent with the chain of the judiciously regularized U(N) Loop equations. In particular, we reveal the dimensional reduction YM_{D}=>YM_{2}, taking place in the extreme SC limit \\lambda=>\\infty, and compare it with the implications of the AdS/CFT correspondence conjecture. On the other hand, for the loop-averages associated to the sufficiently large minimal areas, the proposed stringy pattern is supposed to be in the one infrared universality class (provided the loops are without zig-zag backtrackings) with the novel implementation of the noncritical D-dimensional Nambu-Goto st...

  4. Bruce Medalists at the Mt. Wilson Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenn, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    The institution which succeeded the Mt. Wilson Station of Yerkes Observatory in 1904 has had six names and three sites. From 1948-1980 it was united with Caltech's Palomar Observatory, and since then its main observatory has been in Chile, though still headquartered on Santa Barbara Street in Pasadena. For more than half of the twentieth century it was the leading observatory in the world. One bit of evidence for this is the amazing number of its staff members awarded the Bruce Medal. The Catherine Wolfe Bruce Gold Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific has been awarded for lifetime contributions to astronomy since 1898. It is an international award. It wasn't until 1963 that the number of medalists who had worked primarily in the United States reached half the total. Yet fourteen of the first 87 medalists spent most of their careers at Mt. Wilson, including the period when it was Mt. Wilson and Palomar, and another three were Caltech observers who used the telescopes of the jointly operated observatory. Several more medalists made substantial use of the telescopes on Mt. Wilson and Palomar Mountain. We will discuss highlights of the careers of a number of these distinguished astronomers: directors George Ellery Hale, Walter Adams, Ira Bowen, and Horace Babcock; solar observer and satellite discoverer Seth Nicholson; instrument builder Harold Babcock; galactic and cosmological observers Frederick Seares, Edwin Hubble, Walter Baade, Rudolph Minkowski, and Allan Sandage; and spectroscopists Paul Merrill, Alfred Joy, Olin Wilson, Jesse Greenstein, Maarten Schmidt, and Wallace Sargent. We will touch briefly on others who used Mt. Wilson and/or Palomar, including Harlow Shapley, Joel Stebbins, Charlotte Moore Sitterly, Donald Osterbrock, and Albert Whitford.

  5. Exact results for vortex loop operators in 3d supersymmetric theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukker, Nadav; Okuda, Takuya; Passerini, Filippo

    2014-07-01

    Three dimensional field theories admit disorder line operators, dubbed vortex loop operators. They are defined by the path integral in the presence of prescribed singularities along the defect line. We study half-BPS vortex loop operators for = 2 supersymmetric theories on 3, its deformation and 1 × 2. We construct BPS vortex loops defined by the path integral with a fixed gauge or flavor holonomy for infinitesimal curves linking the loop. It is also possible to include a singular profile for matter fields. For vortex loops defined by holonomy, we perform supersymmetric localization by calculating the fluctuation modes, or alternatively by applying the index theory for transversally elliptic operators. We clarify how the latter method works in situations without fixed points of relevant isometries. Abelian mirror symmetry transforms Wilson and vortex loops in a specific way. In particular an ordinary Wilson loop transforms into a vortex loop for a flavor symmetry. Our localization results confirm the predictions of abelian mirror symmetry.

  6. Isolated lingual involvement in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Neera; Joshi, Laxmikant; Duggal, Ashish; Puri, Vinod; Khwaja, Geeta Anjum

    2015-01-01

    Lingual involvement can occur in a variety of neurological disorders including pyramidal, extrapyramidal and lower motor neuron disorders. It can be seen in the form of tremor, bradykinesia, dystonia, atrophy and weakness of tongue movements and can clinically present as difficulty in swallowing and dysarthria which can be a source of great discomfort to the patient. We describe a patient who presented with isolated lingual involvement and was diagnosed to have Wilsons's disease. This case emphasizes the clinical variability in presentation of Wilson's disease and importance of early clinical diagnosis.

  7. A note on two-loop superloop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitsky, A. V.

    2012-11-01

    We explore the duality between supersymmetric Wilson loop on null polygonal contours in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and next-to-maximal helicity violating (NMHV) scattering amplitudes. Earlier analyses demonstrated that the use of a dimensional regulator for ultraviolet divergences, induced due to presence of the cusps on the loop, yields anomalies that break both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. At one-loop order, these are present only in Grassmann components localized in the vicinity of a single cusp and result in a universal function for any number of sites of the polygon that can be subtracted away in a systematic manner leaving a well-defined supersymmetric remainder dual to corresponding components of the superamplitude. The question remains though whether components which were free from the aforementioned supersymmetric anomaly at leading order of perturbation theory remain so once computed at higher orders. Presently we verify this fact by calculating a particular component of the null polygonal super Wilson loop at two loops restricting the contour kinematics to a two-dimensional subspace. This allows one to perform all computations in a concise analytical form and trace the pattern of cancellations between individual Feynman graphs in a transparent fashion. As a consequence of our consideration we obtain a dual conformally invariant result for the remainder function in agreement with one-loop NMHV amplitudes.

  8. Varying Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Damour, Thibault Marie Alban Guillaume

    2003-01-01

    We review some string-inspired theoretical models which incorporate a correlated spacetime variation of coupling constants while remaining naturally compatible both with phenomenological constraints coming from geochemical data (Oklo; Rhenium decay) and with present equivalence principle tests. Barring unnatural fine-tunings of parameters, a variation of the fine-structure constant as large as that recently ``observed'' by Webb et al. in quasar absorption spectra appears to be incompatible with these phenomenological constraints. Independently of any model, it is emphasized that the best experimental probe of varying constants are high-precision tests of the universality of free fall, such as MICROSCOPE and STEP. Recent claims by Bekenstein that fine-structure-constant variability does not imply detectable violations of the equivalence principle are shown to be untenable.

  9. Wilson disease : from clinical to molecular

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwen, Roderick Henk Johan

    1991-01-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive copper storage disease. It is characterized by an inability of the liver to; excrete copper into bile and to incorporate copper into ceruloplasmin. This results in a gradual accumulation of copper in the liver and subsequently in the brain and other organs, I

  10. Spasmodic Muscle Cramps and Wilson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago report a case of Wilson disease (WD in a 10-year-old-boy presenting with 3 months of increasingly severe spasmodic muscle cramps and weakness in lower extremities, upper extremities, and cramps in face and chest.

  11. The Cora Wilson Stewart Moonlight Schoolhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Harold; Curtis, Mike

    1974-01-01

    Describes the establishment of adult education programs on "moonlit nights" by Cora Wilson Stewart, Superintendent of Rowan County Schools in Kentucky (1904-1912). Over 1,200 adults signed up the first year to take such courses as vocal music, reading, writing, spelling, arithmetic, and drills. From this activity the Illiteracy…

  12. Cora Wilson Stewart: Crusader against Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, Willie

    This book is a biography of Cora Wilson Stewart, a Rowan County, Kentucky, school superintendent who rose to prominence with the establishment of the Moonlight Schools for adults with low literacy levels in 1911. It presents the details of her Kentucky crusade against illiteracy, then examines the personal part of her life as well as her later…

  13. Wilson Fermions with Four Fermion Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari;

    2015-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a four fermion theory, known as Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) theory, via Wilson fermions. Four fermion interactions naturally occur in several extensions of the Standard Model as a low energy parameterisation of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electrowe...

  14. Two-loop renormalization of vector, axial-vector and tensor fermion bilinears on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Skouroupathis, A

    2008-01-01

    We compute the two-loop renormalization functions, in the RI' scheme, of local bilinear quark operators $\\bar{\\psi}\\Gamma\\psi$, where $\\Gamma$ corresponds to the Vector, Axial-Vector and Tensor Dirac operators, in the lattice formulation of QCD. We consider both the flavor nonsinglet and singlet operators. We use the clover action for fermions and the Wilson action for gluons. Our results are given as a polynomial in $c_{SW}$, in terms of both the renormalized and bare coupling constant, in the renormalized Feynman gauge. Finally, we present our results in the MSbar scheme, for easier comparison with calculations in the continuum. The corresponding results, for fermions in an arbitrary representation, together with some special features of superficially divergent integrals, are included in the Appendices.

  15. Ginsparg-Wilson Pions Scattering on a Staggered Sea

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J W; De van Water, R S; Walker-Loud, A; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Connell, Donal O'; Water, Ruth S. Van de; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we calculate isospin 2 (I=2) pion-pion scattering in chiral perturbation theory for a partially quenched, mixed action theory with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks and staggered sea quarks. We determine the scattering length at threshold for both 2 sea quarks and 2+1 sea quarks in the isospin limit. The scattering length, expressed in terms of the pion mass and the decay constant measured on the lattice, has no contributions from mixed valence-sea mesons. Thus, it does not depend upon the parameter, C_Mix, that appears in the chiral Lagrangian of the mixed theory. This result holds for both 2 and 2+1 flavors of sea quarks. Finally, we take the continuum limit of our mixed action results and give expressions for the scattering length in continuum 2 and 2+1 flavor partially quenched chiral perturbation theory.

  16. Exponentiation for products of Wilson lines within the generating function approach

    CERN Document Server

    Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2015-01-01

    We present the generating function approach to the perturbative exponentiation of correlators of a product of Wilson lines and loops. The exponentiated expression is presented in the closed form as an algebraic function of correlators of known operators, which can be seen as a generating function for web diagrams. The expression is naturally split onto two parts: the exponentiation kernel, which accumulates all non-trivial information about web diagrams, and the defect of exponentiation, which reconstructs the matrix exponent and is a function of the exponentiation kernel. The detailed comparison of the presented approach with existing approaches to exponentiation is presented as well. We also give examples of calculations within the generating function exponentiation, namely, we consider different configurations of light-like Wilson lines in the multi-gluon-exchange-webs (MGEW) approximation. Within this approximation the corresponding correlators can be calculated exactly at any order of perturbative expans...

  17. Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrou, C; Korzec, T; Panagopoulos, H; Stylianou, F

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative and non-perturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the non-perturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial vector operators. Non-perturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing $a$ corresponding to $\\beta=3.9, 4.05, 4.20$. Subtraction of ${\\cal O}(a^2)$ terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to ${\\cal O}(a^2)$. The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI$'$-MOM scheme, for both perturbative and non-perturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set...

  18. An eigenvalue problem for the associated Askey-Wilson polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruder, Andrea; Suslov, Sergei K

    2012-01-01

    To derive an eigenvalue problem for the associated Askey-Wilson polynomials, we consider an auxiliary function in two variables which is related to the associated Askey-Wilson polynomials introduced by Ismail and Rahman. The Askey-Wilson operator, applied in each variable separately, maps this function to the ordinary Askey-Wilson polynomials with different sets of parameters. A third Askey-Wilson operator is found with the help of a computer algebra program which links the two, and an eigenvalue problem is stated.

  19. Classical Loop Actions of Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Armand-Ugon, D; Griego, J R; Setaro, L; Armand-Ugon, Daniel; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Setaro, Leonardo

    1994-01-01

    Since the first attempts to quantize Gauge Theories and Gravity in the loop representation, the problem of the determination of the corresponding classical actions has been raised. Here we propose a general procedure to determine these actions and we explicitly apply it in the case of electromagnetism. Going to the lattice we show that the electromagnetic action in terms of loops is equivalent to the Wilson action, allowing to do Montecarlo calculations in a gauge invariant way. In the continuum these actions need to be regularized and they are the natural candidates to describe the theory in a ``confining phase''.

  20. Symmetries of KdV and loop groups

    CERN Document Server

    Schiff, J; Schiff, Jeremy; Sci, Comp

    1996-01-01

    A simple version of the Segal-Wilson map from the SL(2,C) loop group to a class of solutions of the KdV hierarchy is given, clarifying certain aspects of this map. It is explained how the known symmetries, including Backlund transformations, of KdV arise from simple, field independent, actions on the loop group. A variety of issues in understanding the algebraic structure of Backlund transformations are thus resolved.

  1. One loop amplitude for Heterotic string on $T^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Sasmal, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the results of one loop string amplitude calculations for the Heterotic string theory compactified on a torus with or without Wilson lines. We give the complete elliptic genus and the harmonic part of the CP-even amplitude for the gauge groups $SO(32)$, $E_8 \\times E_8$, $SO(16)^2$ and $SO(8)^4$.

  2. SL (2, C) Chern-Simons theory, a non-planar graph operator, and 4D quantum gravity with a cosmological constant: Semiclassical geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Han, Muxin; Kamiński, Wojciech; Riello, Aldo

    2015-11-01

    We study the expectation value of a nonplanar Wilson graph operator in SL (2, C) Chern-Simons theory on S3. In particular we analyze its asymptotic behavior in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern-Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. When the Wilson graph operator has a specific form, motivated by loop quantum gravity, the critical point equations obtained in this double-scaling limit describe a very specific class of flat connection on the graph complement manifold. We find that flat connections in this class are in correspondence with the geometries of constant curvature 4-simplices. The result is fully non-perturbative from the perspective of the reconstructed geometry. We also show that the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude contains, at the leading order, an oscillatory part proportional to the Regge action for the single 4-simplex in the presence of a cosmological constant. In particular, the cosmological term contains the full-fledged curved volume of the 4-simplex. Interestingly, the volume term stems from the asymptotics of the Chern-Simons action. This can be understood as arising from the relation between Chern-Simons theory on the boundary of a region, and a theory defined by an F2 action in the bulk. Another peculiarity of our approach is that the sign of the curvature of the reconstructed geometry, and hence of the cosmological constant in the Regge action, is not fixed a priori, but rather emerges semiclassically and dynamically from the solution of the equations of motion. In other words, this work suggests a relation between 4-dimensional loop quantum gravity with a cosmological constant and SL (2, C) Chern-Simons theory in 3 dimensions with knotted graph defects.

  3. SL(2,C Chern–Simons theory, a non-planar graph operator, and 4D quantum gravity with a cosmological constant: Semiclassical geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hal M. Haggard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the expectation value of a nonplanar Wilson graph operator in SL(2,C Chern–Simons theory on S3. In particular we analyze its asymptotic behavior in the double-scaling limit in which both the representation labels and the Chern–Simons coupling are taken to be large, but with fixed ratio. When the Wilson graph operator has a specific form, motivated by loop quantum gravity, the critical point equations obtained in this double-scaling limit describe a very specific class of flat connection on the graph complement manifold. We find that flat connections in this class are in correspondence with the geometries of constant curvature 4-simplices. The result is fully non-perturbative from the perspective of the reconstructed geometry. We also show that the asymptotic behavior of the amplitude contains, at the leading order, an oscillatory part proportional to the Regge action for the single 4-simplex in the presence of a cosmological constant. In particular, the cosmological term contains the full-fledged curved volume of the 4-simplex. Interestingly, the volume term stems from the asymptotics of the Chern–Simons action. This can be understood as arising from the relation between Chern–Simons theory on the boundary of a region, and a theory defined by an F2 action in the bulk. Another peculiarity of our approach is that the sign of the curvature of the reconstructed geometry, and hence of the cosmological constant in the Regge action, is not fixed a priori, but rather emerges semiclassically and dynamically from the solution of the equations of motion. In other words, this work suggests a relation between 4-dimensional loop quantum gravity with a cosmological constant and SL(2,C Chern–Simons theory in 3 dimensions with knotted graph defects.

  4. The Universal One-Loop Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Drozd, Aleksandra; Quevillon, Jérémie; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    We present the universal one-loop effective action for all operators of dimension up to six obtained by integrating out massive, non-degenerate multiplets. Our general expression may be applied to loops of heavy fermions or bosons, and has been checked against partial results available in the literature. The broad applicability of this approach simplifies one-loop matching from an ultraviolet model to a lower-energy effective field theory (EFT), a procedure which is now reduced to the evaluation of a combination of matrices in our universal expression, without any loop integrals to evaluate. We illustrate the relationship of our results to the Standard Model (SM) EFT, using as an example the supersymmetric stop and sbottom squark Lagrangian and extracting from our universal expression the Wilson coefficients of dimension-six operators composed of SM fields.

  5. MATHEMATICAL CONSTANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, H.P.; Potter, Elinor

    1971-03-01

    This collection of mathematical data consists of two tables of decimal constants arranged according to size rather than function, a third table of integers from 1 to 1000, giving some of their properties, and a fourth table listing some infinite series arranged according to increasing size of the coefficients of the terms. The decimal values of Tables I and II are given to 20 D.

  6. Hemaka's constant

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    As proposed in a previous paper, the decorations of ancient objects can provide some information on the approximate evaluations of constant {\\pi}, the ratio of circumference to diameter. Here we discuss some disks found in the tomb of Hemaka, the chancellor of a king of the First Dynasty of Egypt, about 3000 BC. The discussion is based on measurements of the dimensionless ratio of lengths.

  7. [Wilson's disease: clinical spectrum of liver disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa Palominos, Alejandra; Ibáñez Samaniego, Luis; Catalina Rodríguez, María-Vega; Pajares Díaz, José; Clemente Ricote, Gerardo

    2013-02-01

    Wilson's disease is a hereditary autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism,characterized by copper accumulation in the liver and brain. This rare entity, which has a broad clinical spectrum, is often difficult to diagnose and should therefore always be suspected in patients with liver disease of unclear cause. We describe two types of manifestation of liver disease in two patients; the first developed fulminant hepatic failure requiring urgent liver transplantation and the second showed advanced chronic liver disease and received standard medical treatment. The objective of this clinical observation is to analyze the diagnosis of Wilson's disease in two patients with distinct onset, illustrating the broad clinical spectrum of the disease, and its treatment.

  8. ADHM Revisited: Instantons and Wilson Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Tong, David

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the well-studied D0-D4 system of D-branes and its relationship to the ADHM construction. It is well known that the D0-branes appear as instantons in the D4-brane worldvolume. We add a Wilson line to the D4-brane in the guise of an extended fundamental string and determine how this affects the D0-brane dynamics. As the D0-brane moves in the presence of the Wilson line, it experiences a Lorentz force, proportional to its Yang-Mills gauge connection. From the perspective of the D0-brane quantum mechanics, this force emerges through the ADHM construction of the self-dual gauge connection.

  9. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson Chiral Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Mandula, Jeffrey E

    2009-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luscher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter subgroup, and the factor group whose elements are its cosets is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, non-commuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example - free overlap fermions - these non-canonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are...

  10. Wilson fermions in the epsilon regime

    CERN Document Server

    Bär, Oliver; Schaefer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We extend the epsilon-expansion of continuum chiral perturbation theory to nonzero lattice spacing in the framework of Wilson Chiral Perturbation Theory. We distinguish various regimes by defining the relative power counting of the quark mass m and the lattice spacing a. We observe that for m ~ a Lambda^2_QCD, the explicit breaking of chiral symmetry in Wilson fermions is still driven by the quark mass and lattice corrections are highly suppressed. The lattice spacing effects become more pronounced for smaller quark masses and may lead to non-trivial corrections of the continuum results at next-to-leading order. We compute these corrections for standard current and density correlation functions. A fit to lattice data shows that these corrections are small, as expected.

  11. Bloch state tomography using Wilson lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tracy; Duca, Lucia; Reitter, Martin; Grusdt, Fabian; Demler, Eugene; Endres, Manuel; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Bloch, Immanuel; Schneider, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Topology and geometry are essential to our understanding of modern physics, underlying many foundational concepts from high-energy theories, quantum information, and condensed-matter physics. In condensed-matter systems, a wide range of phenomena stem from the geometry of the band eigenstates, which is encoded in the matrix-valued Wilson line for general multiband systems. Using an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms loaded in a honeycomb optical lattice, we realize strong-force dynamics in Bloch bands that are described by Wilson lines and observe an evolution in the band populations that directly reveals the band geometry. Our technique enables a full determination of band eigenstates, Berry curvature, and topological invariants, including single- and multiband Chern and Z2 numbers.

  12. [Severe hemolytic jaundice and Wilson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, D; Bareiss, P; Jesel, B; Warter, J

    1976-12-01

    The onset of spontaneous hemolytic jaundice in a young subject should lead to the search for Wilson's disease when clinical examination reveals cirrhosis. This hemolysis may evolve in the form of severe jaundice to a stage where the cirrhosis remains usually latent or well tolerated. The intervention of a toxic, allergic of infective factor liable to produce a hepatic lesion which frees a dose of copper sufficient to trigger off hemolysis, is discussed. The mechanism of the latter, that of the coagulation disorders observed, liver cell failure and widespread intravascular coagulation, are analysed in this paper and compared with data in the literature. The dramatic character of the case indicates that it is necessary to treat as a routine with penicillamine all homozygous forms of Wilson's disease.

  13. Kenneth G Wilson (1936-2013)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-01

    We describe how Wilson’s concept of the renormalizationgroup revolutionized our understanding of the physics ofphase transitions, and of quantum field theory in general. Weunderline the key ideas of Wilson, based on earlier ideas ofLandau, Ginzburg, Kadanoff and many others, which gaveus an insight into the observed universality of diverse physicalphenomena, and the remarkable efficacy of a few simplemodels to describe them.

  14. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors with Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors continue to be of major interest for experimentalists and phenomenologists alike. They provide important insights into the structure of nuclear matter. For a range of interesting momenta they can be calculated on the lattice. The limiting factor continues to be the value of the pion mass. We present the latest results of the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with two dynamical, non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  15. Anisotropy tuning with the Wilson flow

    CERN Document Server

    Borsanyi, S; Fodor, Z; Katz, S D; Krieg, S; Kurth, T; Mages, S; Schafer, A; Szabo, K K

    2012-01-01

    We use the Wilson flow to define the gauge anisotropy at a given physical scale. We demonstrate the use of the anisotropic flow by performing the tuning of the bare gauge anisotropy in the tree-level Symanzik action for several lattice spacings and target anisotropies. We use this method to tune the anisotropy parameters in full QCD, where we also exploit the diminishing effect of a well chosen smearing on the renormalization of the fermion anisotropy.

  16. The Legacy of G. Wilson Knight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raw Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available G. Wilson Knight (1897-1985 was one of the most influential Shakespearean critics of the mid-twentieth century. This piece surveys his work from 1930 until the early 1980s. Much affected by the First World War, he developed a style of criticism based on Christian principles of respect for other people and belief in an all-powerful God. Many of his most famous pieces (in THE WHEEL OF FIRE, for instance argue for human insignificance in an indifferent universe. It is up to all of us as individuals to develop methods of coping with this world. Wilson Knight’s ideas gained particular currency during the Second World War, when Britain’s very future seemed at risk due to the threat of Nazi invasion. Although much derided for his use of transcendent language—especially by his contemporary F. R. Leavis—Wilson Knight’s ideas seem to have acquired new significance in a globalized world, where individuals fight to main their identity in a technology-driven environment.

  17. Ted Wilson passes on the torch

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    As part of the Laboratory's outreach programme, the CERN Accelerator School (CAS) brings together students and experienced physicists from all over the world with the aim of promoting the understanding of accelerator physics. As head of the School for 11 years, Ted Wilson became a CERN ambassador to the outside community. He retired in March, handing over the reigns of the CAS to Daniel Brandt. Ted Wilson and his assistant, Suzanne von Wartburg, during an EPAC meeting in 1994.The accelerator schools allowed some time for relaxation in the local surrounding for students as well as for the director of CAS.As a boy, Ted Wilson could have embarked on a career in pop music rather than physics, rubbing shoulders at secondary school in Liverpool with two of the future Beatles. But prefering classical music and answering the call of science, he took the more serious of the two paths, studying physics first at Oxford University then at the Rutherford Laboratory. After a year at CERN and four years at the Rutherford La...

  18. QCD with overlap fermions: Running coupling and the 3-loop beta-function

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, M

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the relation between the bare coupling constant g_0 and the MSbar-renormalized coupling g_MS: g_0 = Z_g(g_0,a \\mu) g_MS, to 2 loops in perturbation theory. We employ the standard Wilson action for gluons and the overlap action for fermions. For convenience, we have worked with the background field technique, which only requires evaluation of 2-point Green's function for the problem at hand. Our results depend explicitly on the number of fermion flavors (N_f) and colors (N). Since the dependence of Z_g on the overlap parameter rho cannot be extracted analytically, we tabulate our results for different values in the allowed range of rho (0 < rho < 2), focusing on values which are being used most frequently in simulations. Knowledge of Z_g allows us to derive the 3-loop coefficient of the bare beta-function (beta_L(g_0)) which, unlike the 1- and 2-loop coefficients, is regularization-dependent. The nontrivial dependence of Z_g and of beta_L(g_0) on rho is plotted for various choices of N, N_f.

  19. The kaon mass in 2+1+1 flavor twisted mass Wilson ChPT

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    We construct the chiral low-energy effective theory for 2+1+1 flavor lattice QCD with twisted mass Wilson fermions. In contrast to existing results we assume a heavy charm quark mass such that the D mesons are too heavy to appear as degrees of freedom in the effective theory. As an application we compute the kaon mass to 1-loop order in the LCE regime. The result contains a chiral logarithm involving the neutral pion mass which has no analogue in continuum ChPT.

  20. New Results on the 3-Loop Heavy Flavor Corrections in Deep-Inelastic Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Behring, A; De Freitas, A; Pfoh, T; Raab, C; Round, M; Ablinger, J; Hasselhuhn, A; Schneider, C; Wißbrock, F; von Manteuffel, A

    2013-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the calculation of the 3-loop massive Wilson coefficients in deep-inelastic scattering at general values of $N$ for neutral and charged current reactions in the asymptotic region $Q^2 \\gg m^2$. Four new out of eight massive operator matrix elements and Wilson coefficients have been obtained recently. We also discuss recent results on Feynman graphs containing two-massive fermion lines and present complete results for the bubble topologies for all processes.

  1. Cell therapy to remove excess copper in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjeev

    2014-05-01

    To achieve permanent correction of Wilson's disease by a cell therapy approach, replacement of diseased hepatocytes with healthy hepatocytes is desirable. There is a physiological requirement for hepatic ATP7B-dependent copper (Cu) transport in bile, which is deficient in Wilson's disease, producing progressive Cu accumulation in the liver or brain with organ damage. The ability to repopulate the liver with healthy hepatocytes raises the possibility of cell therapy in Wilson's disease. Therapeutic principles included reconstitution of bile canalicular network as well as proliferation in transplanted hepatocytes, despite toxic amounts of Cu in the liver. Nonetheless, cell therapy studies in animal models elicited major differences in the mechanisms driving liver repopulation with transplanted hepatocytes in Wilson's disease versus nondiseased settings. Recently, noninvasive imaging was developed to demonstrate Cu removal from the liver, including after cell therapy in Wilson's disease. Such developments will help advance cell/gene therapy approaches, particularly by offering roadmaps for clinical trials in people with Wilson's disease.

  2. Clinical zinc deficiency as early presentation of Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Küry, Sébastien; De Bruyne, Ruth; Vanakker, Olivier M; Schmitt, Sébastien; Vande Velde, Saskia; Blouin, Eric; Bézieau, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    Wilson disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of the copper metabolism caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ATP-ase Cu(2+) transporting polypeptide (ATP7B) gene. The copper accumulation in different organs leads to the suspicion of Wilson disease. We describe a child with clinical zinc deficiency as presenting symptom of Wilson disease, which was confirmed by 2 mutations within the ATP7B gene and an increased copper excretion.

  3. Intractable Rickets as Presenting Feature of Wilson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bahrami-Ahmadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Rickets by definition is a condition in which the bone mineralization is defective. Among the large cause of Rickets (Vitamin D deficiency, gastrointestinal disorders, acidosis, renal tubular abnormalities..., Wilson's disease is a relatively rare cause. There are few cases of Wilson's disease presenting first as rickets in the literature. ‎ Here we present an Afghan girl with Wilson's disease presenting with intractable Rickets.‎

  4. Molecular studies of ceruloplasmin deficiency in Wilson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Czaja, M J; Weiner, F R; Schwarzenberg, S J; Sternlieb, I.; Scheinberg, I. H.; Van Thiel, D.H.; LaRusso, N F; Giambrone, M. A.; Kirschner, R.; Koschinsky, M L

    1987-01-01

    Deficiency of serum ceruloplasmin is a characteristic biochemical abnormality of Wilson's disease, although the mechanism of this finding is unknown. Ceruloplasmin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were therefore examined in five patients with Wilson's disease and five controls with other types of hepatic disease. Northern and dot blot hybridizations showed that detectable ceruloplasmin mRNA was present in all of the patients with Wilson's disease, including one patient with no detectable serum cer...

  5. Non-perturbative renormalization of the quark condensate in Ginsparg-Wilson regularizations

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, Pilar; Lellouch, L P; Wittig, H; Hernandez, Pilar; Jansen, Karl; Lellouch, Laurent; Wittig, Hartmut

    2001-01-01

    We present a method to compute non-perturbatively the renormalization constant of the scalar density for Ginsparg-Wilson fermions. It relies on chiral symmetry and is based on a matching of renormalization group invariant masses at fixed pseudoscalar meson mass, making use of results previously obtained by the ALPHA Collaboration for O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. Our approach is quite general and enables the renormalization of scalar and pseudoscalar densities in lattice regularizations that preserve chiral symmetry and of fermion masses in any regularization. As an application we compute the non-perturbative factor which relates the renormalization group invariant quark condensate to its bare counterpart, obtained with overlap fermions at beta=5.85 in the quenched approximation.

  6. Procedural learning changes in patients with Wilson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yumei Jiang; Xiang Shen; Xiaoping Wang; Wenjie Li

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we compared explicit memory performance, using the Wechsler Memory Scale, and implicit memory performance, using the Nissen software version of the serial reaction time task, in patients with Wilson's disease to normal controls. The Wilson's disease patients exhibited deficits in explicit memory tasks, such as figure recall and understanding memory. Moreover, the Wilson's disease patients exhibited deficits in implicit memory tasks, including significantly prolonged response times. These findings indicate that Wilson's disease patients have explicit and implicit partial memory impairments.

  7. Perturbative renormalization and infrared finiteness in the Wilson renormalization group the massless scalar case

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, M; Marchesini, G

    1993-01-01

    A new proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness for a scalar massless theory is obtained from a formulation of renormalized field theory based on the Wilson renormalization group. The loop expansion of the renormalized Green functions is deduced from the Polchinski equation of renormalization group. The resulting Feynman graphs are organized in such a way that the loop momenta are ordered. It is then possible to analyse their ultraviolet and infrared behaviours by iterative methods. The necessary subtractions and the corresponding counterterms are automatically generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions for the ``relevant'' vertices at the normalization point. The proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness is simply based on dimensional arguments and does not require the usual analysis of topological properties of Feynman graphs.

  8. Perturbative renormalization and infrared finiteness in the Wilson renormalization group: the massless scalar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, M.; D'Attanasio, M.; Marchesini, G.

    1993-11-01

    A new proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness for a scalar massless theory is obtained from a formulation of renormalized field theory based on the Wilson renormalization group. The loop expansion of the renormalized Green functions is deduced from the Polchinski equation of renormalization group. The resulting Feynman graphs are organized in such a way that the loop momenta are ordered. It is then possible to analyse their ultraviolet and infrared behaviours by iterative methods. The necessary subtractions and the corresponding counterterms are automatically generated in the process of fixing the physical conditions for the "relevant" vertices at the normalization point. The proof of perturbative renormalizability and infrared finiteness is simply based on dimensional arguments and does not require the usual analysis of topological properties of Feynman graphs.

  9. A note on two-loop superloop

    CERN Document Server

    Belitsky, A V

    2012-01-01

    We explore the duality between supersymmetric Wilson loop on null polygonal contours in maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and next-to-maximal helicity violating (NMHV) scattering amplitudes. Earlier analyses demonstrated that the use of a dimensional regulator for ultraviolet divergences, induced due to presence of the cusps on the loop, yields anomalies that break both conformal symmetry and supersymmetry. At one-loop order, these are present only in Grassmann components localized in the vicinity of a single cusp and result in a universal function for any number of sites of the polygon that can be subtracted away in a systematic manner leaving a well-defined supersymmetric remainder dual to corresponding components of the superamplitude. The question remains though whether components which were free from the aforementioned supersymmetric anomaly at leading order of perturbation theory remain so once computed at higher orders. Presently we verify this fact by calculating a particular component of the...

  10. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Hay, W. W.; de Boer, P. L.

    2011-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic, the interpretation of the palaeogeographical distribution of black shales is still dominated by an oversimplistic set of three uniformitarian depositional models that do not capture the complexity and dynamics of environments of black shale accumulation. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open) ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are in fact a uniformitarian simplification of the variety of depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of black shales, their position in the basin infill sequence and their nature (e.g. type of organic matter, lithology) depend on basin evolution because the latter controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited.

  11. Loop equations and bootstrap methods in the lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. Anderson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pure gauge theories can be formulated in terms of Wilson Loops by means of the loop equation. In the large-N limit this equation closes in the expectation value of single loops. In particular, using the lattice as a regulator, it becomes a well defined equation for a discrete set of loops. In this paper we study different numerical approaches to solving this equation. Previous ideas gave good results in the strong coupling region. Here we propose an alternative method based on the observation that certain matrices ρˆ of Wilson loop expectation values are positive definite. They also have unit trace (ρˆ⪰0,Trρˆ=1, in fact they can be defined as reduced density matrices in the space of open loops after tracing over color indices and can be used to define an entropy associated with the loss of information due to such trace SWL=−Tr[ρˆln⁡ρˆ]. The condition that such matrices are positive definite allows us to study the weak coupling region which is relevant for the continuum limit. In the exactly solvable case of two dimensions this approach gives very good results by considering just a few loops. In four dimensions it gives good results in the weak coupling region and therefore is complementary to the strong coupling expansion. We compare the results with standard Monte Carlo simulations.

  12. Response to "An Experiment in Method" (J. L. J. Wilson)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlik, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to "An Experiment in Method" by J.L.J. Wilson. In 1960-61 Wilson was invited to give lectures on "modern techniques in adult education" as part of a training school for those involved in the work of developing "Co-operatives for Aborigines" which were sponsored by the…

  13. Density-dependent mass gain by Wilson's Warblers during stopover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey F. Kelly; Linda S. DeLay; Deborah M. Finch

    2002-01-01

    The need restore energetic reserves at stopover sites constrains avian migration ecology. To describe that constraint, we examined relationships among mass gained by Wilson's Warblers (Wilsonia pusilla) during stopover, abundance of Wilson's Warblers (i.e. capture rate), and arthropod abundance during autumn migration. We found that amount...

  14. Woodrow Wilson: Prophet of Peace. Teaching with Historic Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehner, Thomas B.

    This lesson describes President Woodrow Wilson's struggle with and his ultimate failure at achieving lasting world peace through the League of Nations. The lesson focuses on November 23, 1923, the eve of the fifth anniversary of the Armistice that concluded World War I, when a frail and ill Wilson was ready to deliver a commemorative address by…

  15. Non-vanishing at m -> 0 of the 1-loop self-mass of an electron of mass m propagating in a graphene-like medium in a constant external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Machet, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The 1-loop self-energy of a Dirac electron of mass m propagating in a thin medium simulating graphene in an external magnetic field B is investigated in Quantum Field Theory. Equivalence is shown with the so-called reduced QED_{3+1} on a 2-brane. Schwinger-like methods are used to calculate the self-mass \\delta m_{LLL} of the electron when it lies in the lowest Landau level. Unlike in standard QED_{3+1}, it does not vanish at the limit m -> 0 :\\delta m_{LLL} -> (\\alpha/2)\\sqrt{pi/2}sqrt{\\hbar|e|B/c^2}; all Landau levels of the virtual electron are taken into account and on mass-shell renormalization conditions are implemented. Restricting to the sole lowest Landau level of the virtual electron is explicitly shown to be inadequate. Resummations at higher orders lie beyond the scope of this work.

  16. Analysis of the human Atox 1 homologue in Wilson patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel Simon; Mark Schaefer; Jürgen Reichert; Wolfgang Stremmel

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the metallochaperone antioxidant-1 (Atoxl) gene sequence in Wilson disease patients.METHODS: Mutation analysis of the four exons of the Atoxl gene including the intron- exon boundaries was performed in 63 Wilson disease patients by direct sequencing.RESULTS: From 63 selected patients no mutations were identified after the entire coding region including the intron- exon boundaries of Atoxl were sequenced.One known polymorphism within the Atoxl gene (5'UTR-99 T>C) in 31 (49%) of the Wilson patients as well as one previously undescribed variation (5'UTR -68 C>T)in 2 of the Wilson patients could be detected. Statistical analyses revealed that the existence of a variation within the Atoxl- gene showed a tendency towards an earlier onset of the disease.CONCLUSION: Based on the data of this study, no major role can be attributed to Atoxl in the pathophysiology or clinical variation of Wilson disease.

  17. Loop-to-loop coupling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2012-05-01

    This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.

  18. Two Meson Systems with Ginsparg-Wilson Valence Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J W; Walker-Loud, A; Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Connell, Donal O'; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Unphysical effects associated with finite lattice spacing and partial quenching may lead to the presence of unphysical terms in chiral extrapolation formulae. These unphysical terms must then be removed during data analysis before physical predictions can be made. In this work, we show that through next-to-leading order, there are no unphysical counterterms in the extrapolation formulae, expressed in lattice-physical parameters, for meson scattering lengths in theories with Ginsparg-Wilson valence quarks. Our work applies to essentially any sea quark discretization, provided that chiral perturbation theory is a valid approximation. We demonstrate our results with explicit computations and show that, in favorable circumstances, the extrapolation formulae do not depend on the unknown constant C_Mix appearing at lowest order in the mixed action chiral Lagrangian. We show that the I=1 K-K scattering length does not depend on C_Mix in contrast to the I = 3/2 K-pi scattering length. In addition, we show that these ...

  19. Gauge theories with overlap fermions in an arbitrary representation: Evaluation of the 3-loop beta-function

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, M

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the calculation of the relation between the bare coupling constant g_0 and the MSbar-renormalized coupling g_MS, g_0 = Z_g(g_0,a\\mu) g_MS, to 2 loops in perturbation theory, with fermions in an arbitrary representation of the gauge group SU(N). Our calculation is performed using overlap fermions and Wilson gluons, and the background field technique has been chosen for convenience. The corresponding results in the fundamental representation appear in our longer publication [arXiv:0709.4368]. The 3-loop coefficient of the bare beta-function, b_2^L, is extracted using the 2-loop expression for Z_g, and it is presented as a function of the overlap parameter rho, the number of fermion flavors (N_f) and the number of colors (N). We also provide the expression for the ratio Lambda_L/Lambda_MS, in an arbitrary representation. A plot of Lambda_L/Lambda_MS is given in the adjoint representation.

  20. Wilson Dslash Kernel From Lattice QCD Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Balint [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Smelyanskiy, Mikhail [Parallel Computing Lab, Intel Corporation, California, USA; Kalamkar, Dhiraj D. [Parallel Computing Lab, Intel Corporation, India; Vaidyanathan, Karthikeyan [Parallel Computing Lab, Intel Corporation, India

    2015-07-01

    Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) is a numerical technique used for calculations in Theoretical Nuclear and High Energy Physics. LQCD is traditionally one of the first applications ported to many new high performance computing architectures and indeed LQCD practitioners have been known to design and build custom LQCD computers. Lattice QCD kernels are frequently used as benchmarks (e.g. 168.wupwise in the SPEC suite) and are generally well understood, and as such are ideal to illustrate several optimization techniques. In this chapter we will detail our work in optimizing the Wilson-Dslash kernels for Intel Xeon Phi, however, as we will show the technique gives excellent performance on regular Xeon Architecture as well.

  1. Global Wilson-Fisher fixed points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttner, Andreas; Litim, Daniel F.; Marchais, Edouard

    2017-08-01

    The Wilson-Fisher fixed point with O (N) universality in three dimensions is studied using the renormalisation group. It is shown how a combination of analytical and numerical techniques determine global fixed points to leading order in the derivative expansion for real or purely imaginary fields with moderate numerical effort. Universal and non-universal quantities such as scaling exponents and mass ratios are computed, for all N, together with local fixed point coordinates, radii of convergence, and parameters which control the asymptotic behaviour of the effective action. We also explain when and why finite-N results do not converge pointwise towards the exact infinite-N limit. In the regime of purely imaginary fields, a new link between singularities of fixed point effective actions and singularities of their counterparts by Polchinski are established. Implications for other theories are indicated.

  2. Phenotypic convergence of Menkes and Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansagi, Boglarka; Lewis-Smith, David; Pal, Endre; Duff, Jennifer; Griffin, Helen; Pyle, Angela; Müller, Juliane S; Rudas, Gabor; Aranyi, Zsuzsanna; Lochmüller, Hanns; Chinnery, Patrick F; Horvath, Rita

    2016-12-01

    Menkes disease is an X-linked multisystem disorder with epilepsy, kinky hair, and neurodegeneration caused by mutations in the copper transporter ATP7A. Other ATP7A mutations have been linked to juvenile occipital horn syndrome and adult-onset hereditary motor neuropathy.(1,2) About 5%-10% of the patients present with "atypical Menkes disease" characterized by longer survival, cerebellar ataxia, and developmental delay.(2) The intracellular copper transport is regulated by 2 P type ATPase copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. These proteins are expressed in the trans-Golgi network that guides copper to intracellular compartments, and in copper excess, it relocates copper to the plasma membrane to pump it out from the cells.(3)ATP7B mutations cause Wilson disease with dystonia, ataxia, tremor, and abnormal copper accumulation in the brain, liver, and other organs.(4).

  3. Wilson Fermions with Four Fermion Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Hietanen, Ari; Pica, Claudio; Sannino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a four fermion theory, known as Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) theory, via Wilson fermions. Four fermion interactions naturally occur in several extensions of the Standard Model as a low energy parameterisation of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking these operators, at an effective level, are used to endow the Standard Model fermions with masses. Furthermore these operators, when sufficiently strong, can drastically modify the fundamental composite dynamics by, for example, turning a strongly coupled infrared conformal theory into a (near) conformal one with desirable features for model building. As first step, we study spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking for the lattice version of the NJL model.

  4. Wilson-Cowan Equations for Neocortical Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jack D; Neuman, Jeremy; van Drongelen, Wim

    2016-12-01

    In 1972-1973 Wilson and Cowan introduced a mathematical model of the population dynamics of synaptically coupled excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the neocortex. The model dealt only with the mean numbers of activated and quiescent excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and said nothing about fluctuations and correlations of such activity. However, in 1997 Ohira and Cowan, and then in 2007-2009 Buice and Cowan introduced Markov models of such activity that included fluctuation and correlation effects. Here we show how both models can be used to provide a quantitative account of the population dynamics of neocortical activity.We first describe how the Markov models account for many recent measurements of the resting or spontaneous activity of the neocortex. In particular we show that the power spectrum of large-scale neocortical activity has a Brownian motion baseline, and that the statistical structure of the random bursts of spiking activity found near the resting state indicates that such a state can be represented as a percolation process on a random graph, called directed percolation.Other data indicate that resting cortex exhibits pair correlations between neighboring populations of cells, the amplitudes of which decay slowly with distance, whereas stimulated cortex exhibits pair correlations which decay rapidly with distance. Here we show how the Markov model can account for the behavior of the pair correlations.Finally we show how the 1972-1973 Wilson-Cowan equations can account for recent data which indicates that there are at least two distinct modes of cortical responses to stimuli. In mode 1 a low intensity stimulus triggers a wave that propagates at a velocity of about 0.3 m/s, with an amplitude that decays exponentially. In mode 2 a high intensity stimulus triggers a larger response that remains local and does not propagate to neighboring regions.

  5. Small Signal Modeling and Analysis of Open-loop Response Time Constant of MMC%模块化多电平换流器小信号模型及开环响应时间常数分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘栋; 汤广福; 郑健超; 贺之渊; 杨岳峰; 李强

    2012-01-01

    It is very hard to analyze the relationship between dynamic response and main circuit parameters of modular multi-level converter (MMC), because its AC and DC voltage is established by distributed sub-module capacitances. For providing basis for the design of the MMC controller, this paper presented the modeling method for MMC's state space equation and open-loop transfer function from state variables to control variables, and presented the controlled source decoupled model of average sub-module in the rotating coordinate system. Based on the systematic research and experience in developing the 49-level MMC-HVDC dynamic simulator, comparison result shows that the modeling process is valid and could be used in design of a closed-loop controller for actual MMC-HVDC project.%模块化多电平换流器(modular multi-level converter,MMC)由于其交直流电压由分散储能的子模块电容建立,因此分析其主电路参数与动态响应的关系非常困难.为给MMC-HVDC工程控制器的设计提供依据,分析此类系统一般运动模型和控制模型的建立过程,推导旋转坐标系下的子模块平均值受控源解耦模型和换流器状态空间方程;利用系统稳态工作点附近的小信号模型得到开环传递函数和动态响应表达式.最后针对中国电力科学研究院开发的MMC-HVDC动模仿真装置,利用经验公式和该文的方法分别计算开环响应时间常数,对比结果证明理论分析的正确性.

  6. Do Large Abelian Monopole Loops Survive the Continuum Limit?

    CERN Document Server

    Grady, M

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the monopole loop length distribution is performed in Wilson-action SU(2) lattice gauge theory. A pure power law in the inverse length is found, at least for loops of length, $l$, less than the linear lattice size $N$. This power shows a definite $\\beta$ dependence, passing 5 around $\\beta =2.9$, and appears to have very little finite lattice size dependence. It is shown that when this power exceeds 5, no loops any finite fraction of the lattice size will survive the infinite lattice limit. This is true for any reasonable size distribution for loops larger than N. The apparent lack of finite size dependence in this quantity would seem to indicate that abelian monopole loops large enough to cause confinement do not survive the continuum limit. Indeed they are absent for all $\\beta > 2.9$.

  7. 恒负载时转速降落开环补偿方法与实验研究%Open-loop Speed Loss Compensation Method and Experiment Study under Constant Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐南更; 彭天好; 张川; 许军; 王光洪

    2012-01-01

    分析变转速泵控马达调速系统转速降落的主要原因,指出系统泄漏和电机机械特性均能引起转速降落,推导出转速降落补偿系数表达式,建立了恒负载时变转速泵控马达调速系统转速降落补偿方法.实验结果表明:在恒负载时,采用所提出的补偿方法能够很好地实现转速降落补偿.%The reasons of motor speed loss in variable-speed pump-control-motor governing system were analyzed. It was pointed out that system leakage and electromotor mechanical properties were the reasons. Speed drop compensation coefficient expression was derived, and the compensation method under constant load in variable-speed pump-control-motor governing system was built. The experiment results show that using this compensation method, motor speed loss in constant load can be compensated.

  8. Hard Loops, Soft Loops, and High Density Effective Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, T

    2003-01-01

    We study several issues related to the use of effective field theories in QCD at large baryon density. We show that the power counting is complicated by the appearance of two scales inside loop integrals. Hard dense loops involve the large scale $mu^2$ and lead to phenomena such as screening and damping at the scale $gmu$. Soft loops only involve small scales and lead to superfluidity and non-Fermi liquid behavior at exponentially small scales. Four-fermion operators in the effective theory are suppressed by powers of $1/mu$, but they get enhanced by hard loops. As a consequence their contribution to the pairing gap is only suppressed by powers of the coupling constant, and not powers of $1/mu$. We determine the coefficients of four-fermion operators in the effective theory by matching quark-quark scattering amplitudes. Finally, we introduce a perturbative scheme for computing corrections to the gap parameter in the superfluid phase

  9. B-physics from the ratio method with Wilson twisted mass fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Carrasco, N; Frezzotti, R; Gimenez, V; Lubicz, G Herdoiza V; Martinelli, G; Michael, C; Palao, D; Rossi, G C; Sanfilippo, F; Shindler, A; Simula, S; Tarantino, C

    2012-01-01

    We present a precise lattice QCD determination of the b-quark mass, of the B and Bs decay constants and first preliminary results for the B-mesons bag parameter. Simulations are performed with Nf = 2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at four values of the lattice spacing and the results are extrapolated to the continuum limit. Our calculation benefits from the use of improved interpolating operators for the B-mesons and employs the so-called ratio method. The latter allows a controlled interpolation at the b-quark mass between the relativistic data around and above the charm quark mass and the exactly known static limit.

  10. PERBANDINGAN TEORI PERILAKU PENCARIAN INFORMASI MENURUT ELLIS, WILSON DAN KUHLTHAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiyastuti Widiyastuti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSetiap pemustaka memiliki perilaku pencarian informasi yang berbeda sesuai dengan kebutuhannya. Perilaku pencarian informasi mengacu kepada bagaimana seseorang mencari dan meramu suatu informasi yang diperolehnya. Setidaknya terdapat tiga teori perilaku pencarian informasi, yaitu teori-teori yang dikemukakan oleh Ellis, Wilson dan Kuhlthau. Ketiga tokoh tersebut mencetuskan teori yang dapat digunakan untuk mengkaji perilaku pencarian informasi pemustaka. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk membandingkan ketia teori tersebut. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa terdapat enam perbedaan dari teori Ellis, Wilson dan Kuhlthau dan satu kesamaan antara teori Ellis dan Wilson, tetapi masih terbuka kemungkinan ditemukan perbedaan lainnya.Kata Kunci: Pencarian Informasi, Ellis, Wilson, Kuhlthau.AbstractEllis, Wilson and Kuhlthau are figures in information study who propose their theories about information seeking behavior. Their theories are applied as a guide in doing study regards users in library. Users studies is needed to know users’ characteristics so that library management would arrange suitable collection and provide suitable facility for the users. Information seeking theory according to Ellis, Wilson and Kuhlthau are different but connected. There are six differences between those theories but one similarity nonetheles there is possibility of other differences among their theories. Keywords: Information Seeking, Ellis, Wilson, Kuhlthau

  11. Molecular studies of ceruloplasmin deficiency in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, M J; Weiner, F R; Schwarzenberg, S J; Sternlieb, I; Scheinberg, I H; Van Thiel, D H; LaRusso, N F; Giambrone, M A; Kirschner, R; Koschinsky, M L

    1987-10-01

    Deficiency of serum ceruloplasmin is a characteristic biochemical abnormality of Wilson's disease, although the mechanism of this finding is unknown. Ceruloplasmin messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were therefore examined in five patients with Wilson's disease and five controls with other types of hepatic disease. Northern and dot blot hybridizations showed that detectable ceruloplasmin mRNA was present in all of the patients with Wilson's disease, including one patient with no detectable serum ceruloplasmin. However, the ceruloplasmin mRNA levels in the Wilson's disease patients were only 33% that of controls (P less than 0.001). In contrast, albumin mRNA levels in the Wilson's disease patients averaged 161% that of controls. In an attempt to better delineate the level of gene expression responsible for this decrease in ceruloplasmin mRNA, the nuclear run-on assay was used to analyze transcriptional rates. The amount of ceruloplasmin gene transcription in four Wilson's patients was decreased to 44% that of three controls. These results indicate that the diminished serum ceruloplasmin levels in patients with Wilson's disease are due at least in part to a decrease in ceruloplasmin gene transcription.

  12. String coupling constant seems to be 1

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Youngsub

    2016-01-01

    We present a reasoning that the string coupling constant should be 1 from the assumption that the area spectrum derived from loop quantum gravity must be equal to the area spectrum calculated from "stringy differential geometry." To this end, we will use the loop quantum gravity area spectrum constructions proposed by Brian Kong and us, and stringy differential geometry based on double field theory recently proposed by Imtak Jeon, Kanghoon Lee and Jeong-Hyuck Park.

  13. Accuracy analysis of wilson-θ method with modified acceleration%加速度修正的Wilson-θ法的精度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方德平; 王全凤

    2010-01-01

    Wilson-θ法分为加速度未经过和经过t+△t时刻动力平衡方程修正的Wilson-θ①法和Wilson-θ②法.Wilson-θ①法是无条件稳定的,而Wilson-θ②法不再是无条件稳定的.计算精度分析表明:Wilson-θ②法对计算精度的提高不明显;其稳定的范围和计算精度均小于线性加速度法,不宜采用.

  14. Copper removal strategies for Wilson's disease crisis in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, H V; Talekar, C R; Bellapart, J; Leggett, B A; Boots, R J

    2014-03-01

    Wilson's disease is a rare, inherited, autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism which leads to an accumulation of copper in body tissues. If a patient develops a Wilson's crisis, mortality can approach 100%. The treatment of such patients is mostly organ support but a possible treatment goal is to try to rapidly remove copper from their system. We performed a literature search on methods for de-coppering strategies for patients in intensive care with known Wilson's disease. We found 11 case reports where therapeutic plasma exchange was used and six case reports where various forms of albumin dialysis were used as techniques for rapidly reducing serum copper levels. To date, the case reports are encouraging that therapeutic plasma exchange and albumin dialysis can either delay or prevent the need for liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure due to Wilson's disease. However, these case reports are mainly in the paediatric or young adult population, thus further studies in adults are warranted.

  15. Ten-Year Study of a Wilson's Disease Dysarthric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda Susan; Parnell, Martha M.

    1987-01-01

    The 10-year longitudinal case study describes the history, speech therapy program, and treatment results for an adult male with Wilson's disease, a genetically based metabolic progressive neurological disorder which includes severe speech problems. (DB)

  16. Pyoderma Gangrenosum-A New Manifestation of Wilson Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freg, George Naiem Ibrahiem; Shah, Venisha; Nagral, Aabha; Jhaveri, Ajay

    2016-03-01

    Seventeen year old girl, a known case of Wilson disease presented to us with a non-healing skin ulcer followed by appearance of jaundice, ascites and progressive fatigue of 1 month duration. She was diagnosed to have Wilson disease 5 years back and had been well controlled on d-penicillamine. On enquiry, she was found to be noncompliant with her medication in the preceding 6 months. On examination, she had severe pallor, icterus with moderate ascites and oedema feet. Investigations revealed severe haemolytic anemia and deranged liver function. The lesion was diagnosed to be pyoderma gangrenosum on skin biopsy. The appearance of a cutaneous lesion followed by deterioration in the liver disease and hemolysis suggested uncontrolled Wilson disease as the triggering factor. Chelation therapy improved her haemoglobin and liver function as well as led to healing of the ulcer. We describe pyoderma gangrenosum as a new manifestation of Wilson disease.

  17. Minn fuq l-ixkaffa : program 3 : Jacqueline Wilson

    OpenAIRE

    Grech, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    Sergio Grech together with author Trevor Zahra, look into the works of 17 famous world renowned authors, such as Charles Dickens, Paolo Coelho, Ha Jin, Jacqueline Wilson, William Shakespeare, Philip Pullman, Kundera and Kazuo Ishiguro just to mention a few.

  18. A new approach to piecewise linear Wilson lines

    CERN Document Server

    Van der Veken, Frederik F

    2014-01-01

    Wilson lines are key objects in many QCD calculations. They are parallel transporters of the gauge field that can be used to render non-local operator products gauge invariant, which is especially useful for calculations concerning validation of factorization schemes and in calculations for constructing or modelling parton density functions. We develop an algorithm to express Wilson lines that are defined on piecewise linear paths in function of their Wilson segments, reducing the number of diagrams needed to be calculated. We show how different linear path topologies can be related using their color structure. This framework allows one to easily switch results between different Wilson line structures, which is helpful when testing different structures against each other, e.g. when checking universality properties of non-perturbative objects.

  19. Woodrow Wilson Fellows--Who Are They Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, Richard K.

    1975-01-01

    The Woodrow Wilson Senior Fellows are prominent leaders in business and government that are sent to college campuses for a week instead of a one-night lecture. This program has proved to be immensely popular on campuses. (PG)

  20. Loop formulation of the supersymmetric nonlinear O(N) sigma model

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhauer, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    We derive the fermion loop formulation for the supersymmetric nonlinear O$(N)$ sigma model by performing a hopping expansion using Wilson fermions. In this formulation the fermionic contribution to the partition function becomes a sum over all possible closed non-oriented fermion loop configurations. The interaction between the bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom is encoded in the constraints arising from the supersymmetry and induces flavour changing fermion loops. For $N \\ge 3$ this leads to fermion loops which are no longer self-avoiding and hence to a potential sign problem. Since we use Wilson fermions the bare mass needs to be tuned to the chiral point. For $N=2$ we determine the critical point and present boson and fermion masses in the critical regime.

  1. Calculating osmotic pressure according to nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zhan, Tingting; Zhan, Xiancheng; Wang, Xiaolan; Tan, Xiaoying; Guo, Yiping; Li, Chengrong

    2014-08-01

    Abstract The osmotic pressure of NaCl solutions was determined by the air humidity in equilibrium (AHE) method. The relationship between the osmotic pressure and the concentration was explored theoretically, and the osmotic pressure was calculated according to the nonelectrolyte Wilson nonrandom factor (N-Wilson-NRF) model from the concentration. The results indicate that the calculated osmotic pressure is comparable to the measured one.

  2. Sleep disturbance in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth; Mowat, David; Wilson, Meredith; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated sleep disturbance in people with MWS. In a series of unstructured interviews focused on development and behaviors in MWS, family members frequently reported sleep disturbance, particularly early-morning waking and frequent night waking. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was therefore administered to a sample of 35 individuals with MWS, along with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) to measure behavioral and emotional disturbance. A high level of sleep disturbance was found in the MWS sample, with 53% scoring in the borderline range and 44% in the clinical disorder range for at least one subscale of the SDSC. Scores were highest for the Sleep-wake transition disorders subscale, with 91% of participants reaching at least the borderline disorder range. A significant positive association was found between total scores on the SDSC and the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. These results suggest that sleep disorders should be screened for in people with MWS, and where appropriate, referrals to sleep specialists made for management of sleep problems.

  3. Mowat-Wilson syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuturilo Goran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS is characterised by severe mental retardation and multiple congenital anomalies. Key features for diagnosis are specific facial dysmorphism with uplifted ear lobes and Hirschsprung's disease. Ganglionic disorders of the colon, both the number of ganglion cells and the length of the aganglionic segment vary significantly in these patients. The disease is caused by ZFHX1B gene mutation. The management of MWS is symptomatic. Case outline. We report a four-year old boy with mental retardation, specific facial dysmorphy and multiple anomalies. During prenatal follow-up intrauterine growth retardation was revealed. Karyotype was normal. Clinical findings showed that growth and mental retardation, gastrointestinal disturbance and heart defect were predominant. A gastrostoma was inserted. Hypoganglionosis of the colon caused severe obstipation. He had a severe stenosis of the pulmonary artery and was a candidate for cardiac surgery. There were several attempts to establish diagnosis, but so far, without results. Conclusion. Hirschsprung's disease/hypoganglionosis of the colon associated with other congenital anomalies or mental retardation require evaluation for dysmorphic syndromes. One of them is MWS, presented in this report.

  4. Obituary: Peter Robert Wilson, 1929-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Herschel B.

    2009-01-01

    It is with great sadness that I report the passing of Peter Robert Wilson, a well-known and well-loved figure in the solar physics community. Peter was on the faculty of the Department of Applied Mathematics at the University of Sydney for 39 years, and Chair of the department for 24 of these years. He was the author or co-author of more than 80 scientific research papers and a book, Solar and Stellar Activity Cycles (1994), published by Cambridge University Press. He died suddenly of a heart attack, at his home in Glebe, Australia, in the early morning of 11 November 2007. Peter was an organizer of, and participant in, many international conferences and workshops. He traveled extensively, holding visiting appointments at the University of Colorado (JILA), at Cambridge University, at the College de France (Paris), and at the California Institute of Technology [CalTech]. Most of his work was in the field of solar physics, but he also did some work on the philosophy of science and on tides. Peter came from a line of mathematicians. His father, Robert Wilson, immigrated to Australia from Glasgow in 1911, and became a mathematics teacher at Scotch College, a private school in Melbourne. There his name was changed to 'Bill' because 'Bob' was already taken." Peter's enjoyment of this story as characteristic of Australian academia (as any fan of Monty Python would understand) is indicative of his infectious sense of humor. In a similar vein, he claimed ancestry traced back to the eighteenth-century Scottish mathematician Alexander Wilson, Professor of Astronomy at the University of Glasgow. That Wilson is famous in the solar physics community for his discovery, known as the "Wilson Effect," of the photospheric depressions associated with sunspots. Peter himself could not resist writing a paper on this subject, and was delighted when the bait was taken by some less-informed colleagues who chided him for "naming an effect after himself." "Bill" Wilson married Naomi

  5. Wilson disease in a Nigerian child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esezobor Christopher

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Wilson disease is rarely reported among African children. This report describes the second case report of a Nigerian child with Wilson disease in three decades. Case presentation An eight-year-old African boy presented with generalized oedema and ascites and proteinuria. Over the next three weeks he developed conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia, severe coagulopathy and prominent extrapyramidal features consisting of rigidity, tremors at rest and in action, shuffling gait, slurred speech and emotional lability. Slit-lamp examination of his eyes revealed Kayser-Fleischer rings and sunflower cataracts. His serum caeruloplasmin level was 5mg/dL. Using the scoring system proposed by the 8th International Meeting of Wilson Disease and Menkes Disease, a diagnosis of Wilson disease was made. Conclusions Wilson disease does occur in African children, although the diagnosis is rarely made. A diagnosis of Wilson disease should be entertained in the evaluation of African children presenting with liver dysfunction and/or extrapyramidal neurological features.

  6. Hadron masses and decay constants in quenched QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Göckeler, M; Petters, D; Pleiter, D; Rakow, P E L; Schierholz, G; Stephenson, P

    2000-01-01

    We present results for the mass spectrum and decay constants using non-perturbatively O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Three values of beta and 30 different quark masses are used to obtain the chiral and continuum limits. Special emphasis will be given to the question of taking the chiral limit and the existence of non-analytic behavior predicted by quenched chiral perturbation theory (qxPT).

  7. Stability discussion of two integration formats for Wilson-θ Method%Wilson-θ法两种积分格式的稳定性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方德平; 王全凤

    2008-01-01

    Wilson-θ法分为加速度未经过和经过动力平衡方程修正的Wilson-θ①法和Wilson-θ②法;推导了单自由庹体系的Wilson-θ①、②法的状态传递算子,由传递算子的谱半径来判断Wilson-θ①、②法的稳定性.计算结果表明:Wilson-θ①法的稳定性是无条件的,Wilson-θ②法的稳定性不是无条件的;并给出了Wilson-θ②法的稳定范围.

  8. Strong Wilson polygons from the lodge of free and bound mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonini, Alfredo; Fioravanti, Davide [Sezione INFN di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Piscaglia, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Università di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Rossi, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università della Calabria and INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza,Arcavacata di Rende, 87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2016-04-05

    Previously predicted by the S-matrix bootstrap of the excitations over the GKP quantum vacuum, the appearance of a new particle at strong coupling — formed by one fermion and one anti-fermion — is here confirmed: this two-dimensional meson shows up, along with its infinite tower of bound states, while analysing the fermionic contributions to the Operator Product Expansion (collinear regime) of the Wilson null polygon loop. Moreover, its existence, free and bound, turns out to be a powerful idea in re-summing all the contributions (at large coupling) for a general n-gon (n≥6) to a Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz, which is proven to be equivalent to the known one and suggests new structures for a special Y-system.

  9. Strong Wilson polygons from the lodge of free and bound mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Alfredo; Fioravanti, Davide; Piscaglia, Simone; Rossi, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Previously predicted by the S-matrix bootstrap of the excitations over the GKP quantum vacuum, the appearance of a new particle at strong coupling — formed by one fermion and one anti-fermion — is here confirmed: this two-dimensional meson shows up, along with its infinite tower of bound states, while analysing the fermionic contributions to the Operator Product Expansion (collinear regime) of the Wilson null polygon loop. Moreover, its existence, free (This term is used here as opposite to bound, thus as unbound) and bound, turns out to be a powerful idea in re-summing all the contributions (at large coupling) for a general n-gon ( n ≥ 6) to a Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz, which is proven to be equivalent to the known one and suggests new structures for a special Y-system.

  10. Strong Wilson polygons from the lodge of free and bound mesons

    CERN Document Server

    Bonini, Alfredo; Piscaglia, Simone; Rossi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Previously predicted by the $S$-matrix bootstrap of the excitations over the GKP quantum vacuum, the appearance of a new particle at strong coupling -- formed by one fermion and one anti-fermion -- is here confirmed: this meson shows up, along with its infinite tower of bound states, while analysing the fermionic contributions to the Operator Product Expansion (collinear regime) of the Wilson null polygon loop. Moreover, its existence, free \\footnote{This term is used here as opposite to bound, thus as {\\it unbound}.} and bound, turns out to be a powerful idea in re-summing all the contributions (at large coupling) for a general $n$-gon ($n\\geq 6$) to a Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz, which is proven to be equivalent to the known one and suggests new structures for a special $Y$-system.

  11. Wilson lines and UV sensitivity in magnetic compactifications arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Ghilencea, D.M.

    We investigate the ultraviolet (UV) behaviour of 6D N=1 supersymmetric effective (Abelian) gauge theories compactified on a two-torus ($T_2$) with magnetic flux. To this purpose we compute offshell the one-loop correction to the Wilson line state self-energy. The offshell calculation is actually necessary to capture the usual effective field theory expansion in powers of $(\\partial/\\Lambda)$. Particular care is paid to the regularization of the (divergent) momentum integrals, which is relevant for identifying the corresponding counterterm(s). We find a counterterm which is a new higher dimensional effective operator of dimension d=6, that is enhanced for a larger compactification area (where the effective theory applies) and is consistent with the symmetries of the theory. Its consequences are briefly discussed and comparison is made with orbifold compactifications without flux.

  12. A genetic study of Wilson's disease in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Alison J; Durkie, Miranda; Hague, Stephen; McLay, Kirsten; Emmerson, Jennifer; Lo, Christine; Klaffke, Stefanie; Joyce, Christopher J; Dhawan, Anil; Hadzic, Nedim; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Kirk, Richard; Elizabeth Allen, K; Nicholl, David; Wong, Siew; Griffiths, William; Smithson, Sarah; Giffin, Nicola; Taha, Ali; Connolly, Sally; Gillett, Godfrey T; Tanner, Stuart; Bonham, Jim; Sharrack, Basil; Palotie, Aarno; Rattray, Magnus; Dalton, Ann; Bandmann, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have failed to identify mutations in the Wilson's disease gene ATP7B in a significant number of clinically diagnosed cases. This has led to concerns about genetic heterogeneity for this condition but also suggested the presence of unusual mutational mechanisms. We now present our findings in 181 patients from the United Kingdom with clinically and biochemically confirmed Wilson's disease. A total of 116 different ATP7B mutations were detected, 32 of which are novel. The overall mutation detection frequency was 98%. The likelihood of mutations in genes other than ATP7B causing a Wilson's disease phenotype is therefore very low. We report the first cases with Wilson's disease due to segmental uniparental isodisomy as well as three patients with three ATP7B mutations and three families with Wilson's disease in two consecutive generations. We determined the genetic prevalence of Wilson's disease in the United Kingdom by sequencing the entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of ATP7B in 1000 control subjects. The frequency of all single nucleotide variants with in silico evidence of pathogenicity (Class 1 variant) was 0.056 or 0.040 if only those single nucleotide variants that had previously been reported as mutations in patients with Wilson's disease were included in the analysis (Class 2 variant). The frequency of heterozygote, putative or definite disease-associated ATP7B mutations was therefore considerably higher than the previously reported occurrence of 1:90 (or 0.011) for heterozygote ATP7B mutation carriers in the general population (P Wilson's disease of 1:30 000 (P = 0.00093). Our study provides strong evidence for monogenic inheritance of Wilson's disease. It also has major implications for ATP7B analysis in clinical practice, namely the need to consider unusual genetic mechanisms such as uniparental disomy or the possible presence of three ATP7B mutations. The marked discrepancy between the genetic prevalence and the number of

  13. Symmetry-Preserving Loop Regularization and Renormalization of QFTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    A new symmetry-preserving loop regularization method proposed in Ref. 1 is further investigated. It is found that its prescription can be understood by introducing a regulating distribution function to the proper-time formalism of irreducible loop integrals. The method simulates in many interesting features to the momentum cutoff, Pauli-Villars and dimensional regularization. The loop regularization method is also simple and general for the practical calculations to higher loop graphs and can be applied to both underlying and effective quantum field theories including gauge, chiral, supersymmetric and gravitational ones as the new method does not modify either the Lagrangian formalism or the spacetime dimension of original theory. The appearance of characteristic energy scale Mc and sliding energy scale μs offers a systematic way for studying the renormalization-group evolution of gauge theories in the spirit of Wilson-Kadanoff and for exploring important effects of higher dimensional interaction terms in the infrared regime.

  14. Pregnancy in Wilson disease - management and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffenberger, Jan; Beinhardt, Sandra; Gotthardt, Daniel N; Haag, Nicola; Freissmuth, Clarissa; Reuner, Ulrike; Gauss, Annika; Stremmel, Wolfgang; Schilsky, Michael L; Ferenci, Peter; Weiss, Karl Heinz

    2017-08-31

    Introduction Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism causing toxic hepatic and neural copper accumulation. Clinical symptoms vary widely, from asymptomatic disease to acute liver failure or chronic liver disease without or with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Continuation of specific medical treatment for WD is recommended during pregnancy, but reports of pregnancy outcomes in WD patients are sparse. Patients and methods In a retrospective, multicenter study, 282 pregnancies in 136 WD patients were reviewed. Age at disease onset, age at conception and WD-specific treatments were recorded. Maternal complications during pregnancy, rate of spontaneous abortions and birth defects were analyzed with respect to medical treatment during pregnancy. Results Worsening of liver function tests was evident during 16/282 (6%) pregnancies and occurred in undiagnosed patients as well as in those under medical treatment. Liver test abnormalities resolved in all cases after delivery. Aggravation of neurological symptoms during pregnancy was rare (1%) but tended to persist after delivery. The overall spontaneous abortion rate in the study cohort was 73/282 (26%). Patients with an established diagnosis of WD receiving medical treatment experienced significantly fewer spontaneous abortions than patients with undiagnosed WD (Odds ratio: 2.853 [95% CI: 1.634-4.982]). Birth defects occurred in 7/209 (3%) live births. Conclusion Pregnancy in WD patients on anti-copper therapy is safe. The spontaneous abortion rate in treated patients was lower than that in therapy-naive patients. Although the teratogenic potential of copper chelators is a concern, the rate of birth defects in our cohort was low. Treatment for WD should be maintained during pregnancy, and patients should be monitored closely for hepatic and neurologic symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. The Wilson disease gene: Haplotypes and mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, G.R.; Roberts, E.A.; Cox, D.W. [Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Walshe, J.M. [Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive defect of copper transport. The gene involved in WND, located on chromosome 13, has recently been shown to be a putative copper transporting P-type ATPase, designated ATP7B. The gene is highly similar to ATP7A, located on the X chromosome, which is defective in Menkes disease, another disorder of copper transport. We have available for study WND families from Canada (34 families), the United Kingdom (32 families), Japan (4 families), Iceland (3 families) and Hong Kong (2 families). We have utilized four highly polymorphic CA repeat markers (D13S296, D13S301, D13S314 and D13S316) surrounding the ATP7B locus to construct haplotypes in these families. Analysis indicates that there are many unique WND haplotypes not present on normal chromosomes and that there may be a large number of different WND mutations. We have screened the WND patients for mutations in the ATP7B gene. Fifty six patients, representing all of the identified haplotypes, have been screened using single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP), followed by selective sequencing. To date, 19 mutations and 12 polymorphisms have been identified. All of the changes are nucleotide substitutions or small insertions/deletions and there is no evidence for larger deletions as seen in the similar gene on the X chromosome, ATP7A. Haplotypes of close markers and the ability to detect some of the mutations present in the gene allow for more reliable molecular diagnosis of presymptomatic sibs of WND patients. A reassessment of individuals previously diagnosed in the presymptomatic phase is now required, as we have have identified some heterozygotes who are biochemically indistinguishable from affected homozygotes. The identification of specific mutations will soon allow direct diagnosis of WND patients with a high level of certainty.

  16. Simulating QCD at the physical point with N{sub f}=2 Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, A. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). CaSToRC; Alexandrou, C. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). CaSToRC; Cyprus Univ. Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Burger, F. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). NIC; Collaboration: European Twisted Mass Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-15

    We present simulations of QCD using N{sub f}=2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at a∼0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces O(a{sup 2}) cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  17. Simulating QCD at the Physical Point with $N_f=2$ Wilson Twisted Mass Fermions at Maximal Twist

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Rehim, A; Burger, F; Constantinou, M; Dimopoulos, P; Frezzotti, R; Hadjiyiannakou, K; Jansen, K; Kallidonis, C; Kostrzewa, B; Koutsou, G; Mangin-Brinet, M; Petschlies, M; Pientka, G; Rossi, G C; Urbach, C; Wenger, U

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of QCD using Nf=2 dynamical Wilson twisted mass lattice QCD with physical value of the pion mass and at one value of the lattice spacing. Such simulations at ~0.09 fm became possible by adding the clover term to the action. While O(a) improvement is still guaranteed by Wilson twisted mass fermions at maximal twist, the introduction of the clover term reduces cutoff effects related to isospin symmetry breaking. We give results for a set of phenomenologically interesting observables like pseudo-scalar masses and decay constants, quark masses and the anomalous magnetic moments of leptons. We mostly find remarkably good agreement with phenomenology, even though we cannot take the continuum and thermodynamic limits.

  18. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz–Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behavior of the surfaces at ...

  19. Timelike Constant Mean Curvature Surfaces with Singularities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Svensson, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We use integrable systems techniques to study the singularities of timelike non-minimal constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in the Lorentz–Minkowski 3-space. The singularities arise at the boundary of the Birkhoff big cell of the loop group involved. We examine the behavior of the surfaces...

  20. Study of the systematic errors in the calculation of renormalization constants of the topological susceptibility on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Allès, B; Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pica, C

    2005-01-01

    We present a study of the systematic effects in the nonperturbative evaluation of the renormalization constants which appear in the field-theoretical determination of the topological susceptibility in pure Yang-Mills theory. The study is performed by computing the renormalization constants on configurations that have been calibrated by use of the Ginsparg-Wilson formalism and by cooling.

  1. True unipolar ECG machine for Wilson Central Terminal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Gaetano D

    2015-01-01

    Since its invention (more than 80 years ago), modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle) for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of "Wilson Central Terminal" in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis) associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography) has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso.

  2. True Unipolar ECG Machine for Wilson Central Terminal Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano D. Gargiulo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its invention (more than 80 years ago, modern electrocardiography has employed a supposedly stable voltage reference (with little variation during the cardiac cycle for half of the signals. This reference, known by the name of “Wilson Central Terminal” in honor of its inventor, is obtained by averaging the three active limb electrode voltages measured with respect to the return ground electrode. However, concerns have been raised by researchers about problems (biasing and misdiagnosis associated with the ambiguous value and behavior of this reference voltage, which requires perfect and balanced contact of at least four electrodes to work properly. The Wilson Central Terminal has received scant research attention in the last few decades even though consideration of recent widespread medical practice (limb electrodes are repositioned closer to the torso for resting electrocardiography has also sparkled concerns about the validity and diagnostic fitness of leads not referred to the Wilson Central Terminal. Using a true unipolar electrocardiography device capable of precisely measuring the Wilson Central Terminal, we show its unpredictable variability during the cardiac cycle and confirm that the integrity of cardinal leads is compromised as well as the Wilson Central Terminal when limb electrodes are placed close to the torso.

  3. Anesthetic Management of a Pediatric Patient With Wilsons Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Mehmet; Karapolat, Sami

    2010-01-01

    Wilsons disease, characterized by cirrhosis, extrapyramidal symptoms and Kayser-Fleischer corneal rings, is a rare hereditary disease of human copper metabolism. Clinical findings in Wilsons disease are complex and neurological symptoms such as tremor, dysarthria, rigid dystonia, seizures, psychiatric disorders, acute liver failure, chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis may develop. A 4-year-old male patient was operated for traumatic depressed skull fracture and intracerebral hematoma. He was diagnosed with Wilsons disease at the age of 2.5 years and treated with zinc sulphate and D-penicillamine. General anesthesia was induced with propofol, fentanyl, atracurium, and maintained with isoflurane, and oxygen. No complications were encountered during the operation or in the postoperative period. We concluded that general anesthesia can successfully be given to Wilsons disease patients using an anesthetic agent, the metabolism of which is least affected by the liver disease, one that induces least hepatic toxicity. By close follow-up of patients clinically and biochemically, it is possible to reduce the complication rates to a minimum. Keywords Wilson's Disease; Craniocerebral trauma; Thoracic injuries; General anesthesia; Surgery PMID:21811529

  4. Obituary: Andrew Stephen Wilson, 1947-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2009-01-01

    On 24 May 2008, Andrew Stephen Wilson passed away at the age of 61, in his home in Silver Spring, Maryland, from complications resulting from a painful spinal illness. Andrew was arguably one of the first truly multi-wavelength astronomers of his generation. His scientific work on active galactic nuclei [AGN] spanned the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio to the X-rays. Andrew was born in Doncaster, Yorkshire, England, on 26 March 1947. He was the younger of two brothers whose births were separated by the Second World War. His father, Norman, came from a relatively affluent family who were coal merchants. His mother, Mary, came from a less comfortable background, one of seven children, daughter of a skilled cabinet maker/French polisher, who went through a very hard time during the depression. As a teacher, she placed enormous value on hard work and education as a way of gaining advancement in life. When Andrew was four, the family moved to Skipton, a nice market town in the Yorkshire dales. Andrew went to a small village school until age eleven when he entered Ermysted's Grammar School. He was an enthusiastic soccer and cricket player. He never lost his enthusiasm for soccer and supported the local soccer team, Leeds United, for all his life. Andrew also followed the Yorkshire county cricket team. Andrew's interest in astronomy stemmed from the fact that at Ermysted's Grammar School someone donated a four-inch refracting telescope, so he and his friends used to go back in the evenings to investigate the rings of Saturn, the moons of Jupiter, and various nebulae. While an undergraduate at Cambridge, Andrew joined the astronomy club and ground an 8-inch mirror by hand as a part of a telescope that he set up in the backyard of his parents' house. Andrew spent hours observing with this telescope, and it was the wonder of the family. At Cambridge, Andrew obtained his bachelor's degree with first-class honors in 1969. During a short visit in London with his

  5. Misdiagnosis of Wilson's disease in a patient with psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doval Nimisha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic outcome of Wilson's disease significantly depends upon its early recognition. As Wilson's disease is a rare disorder with protean manifestations, its diagnosis and subsequent treatment are often delayed. We elaborate here the case of a young boy who had initially presented with psychiatrc symptoms suggestive of dissociative fugue followed by withdrawn behaviour and was treated by a psychiatrist with minimal response. This was associated with symptoms of tremors, hypersalivation, and slowness of movements. This case highlights the delay in diagnosing Wilson's disease when faced with the case of a young adult with psychiatric manifestations. It is extremely important for physicians, psychiatrists and health professionals at primary care level to recognize and diagnose this treatable disease at an early stage.

  6. White matter changes in Wilson's disease: A radiological enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumava Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilson's disease is a metabolic disorder which presents with hepatitis or hepatic decompensation commonly. Neurologic manifestations are late and include movement disorders, personality changes, and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain shows high signal changes in putamen, lentiform nucleus, thalamus, and brainstem. White matter lesions are rare. We report a child of Wilson's disease who presented to us with dystonia, rigidity, myoclonus and had symmetrical white matter changes in the fronto-parietooccipital region. Diffusion restriction in bilateral frontoparietal areas was also seen which is rare in chronic cases like ours. Atypical MRI characteristics should be considered in patients with clinical signs of neurological involvement in Wilson's disease as it is a devastating but treatable disease.

  7. Misdiagnosis of Wilson's Disease in a Patient with Psychiatric Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimisha, Doval; Dhruv, Batra; Vikas, Moun; Sneh, Jha K; Rakesh, Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic outcome of Wilson's disease significantly depends upon its early recognition. As Wilson's disease is a rare disorder with protean manifestations, its diagnosis and subsequent treatment are often delayed. We elaborate here the case of a young boy who had initially presented with psychiatrc symptoms suggestive of dissociative fugue followed by withdrawn behaviour and was treated by a psychiatrist with minimal response. This was associated with symptoms of tremors, hypersalivation, and slowness of movements. This case highlights the delay in diagnosing Wilson's disease when faced with the case of a young adult with psychiatric manifestations. It is extremely important for physicians, psychiatrists and health professionals at primary care level to recognize and diagnose this treatable disease at an early stage.

  8. Clinical considerations for an effective medical therapy in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Karl Heinz; Stremmel, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessively inherited copper overload disorder that leads to hepatic and/or neurologic symptoms. More than a century after the first description of Wilson's disease, the available medical treatment options have not been standardized. The efficacy of the commonly used drugs is satisfactory for hepatic disease, but disappointing in the neurologic patients, including the risk of neurologic deterioration after the initiation of chelation therapy. An approach to overcome this problem is the careful and systematic assessment of biochemical response patterns and the quantitative monitoring of symptoms using validated rating scales. Standardized dosage strategies that address changes in copper pools might improve adherence and reduce side effects. Such an approach may reduce long-term morbidity. In this paper, we discuss considerations for an effective medical treatment and requirements for future studies in Wilson's disease.

  9. White matter changes in Wilson's disease: A radiological enigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Soumava; Solanki, Bhavesh; Guha, Goutam; Saha, Shankar Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Wilson's disease is a metabolic disorder which presents with hepatitis or hepatic decompensation commonly. Neurologic manifestations are late and include movement disorders, personality changes, and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain shows high signal changes in putamen, lentiform nucleus, thalamus, and brainstem. White matter lesions are rare. We report a child of Wilson's disease who presented to us with dystonia, rigidity, myoclonus and had symmetrical white matter changes in the fronto-parietooccipital region. Diffusion restriction in bilateral frontoparietal areas was also seen which is rare in chronic cases like ours. Atypical MRI characteristics should be considered in patients with clinical signs of neurological involvement in Wilson's disease as it is a devastating but treatable disease.

  10. Low serum alkaline phosphatase activity in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, W A; Bhatt, H; Combes, B

    1986-01-01

    Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase activity were observed early in the course of two patients with Wilson's disease presenting with the combination of severe liver disease and Coombs' negative acute hemolytic anemia. A review of other cases of Wilson's disease revealed that 11 of 12 patients presenting with hemolytic anemia had values for serum alkaline phosphatase less than their respective sex- and age-adjusted mean values; in eight, serum alkaline phosphatase activity was less than the lower value for the normal range of the test. Low values for serum alkaline phosphatase were much less common in Wilson's disease patients with more chronic forms of presentation. Copper added in high concentration to serum in vitro did not have an important effect on serum alkaline phosphatase activity. The mechanism responsible for the decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase activity in patients is uncertain.

  11. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  12. Dynamic PID loop control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, L.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Soyars, W.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.; DeGraff, B.; Darve, C.; /Fermilab

    2011-06-01

    The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters oscillation.

  13. Dynamic PID loop control

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, L; Theilacker, J; Soyars, W; Martinez, A; Bossert, R; DeGraff, B; Darve, C

    2012-01-01

    The Horizontal Test Stand (HTS) SRF Cavity and Cryomodule 1 (CM1) of eight 9-cell, 1.3GHz SRF cavities are operating at Fermilab. For the cryogenic control system, how to hold liquid level constant in the cryostat by regulation of its Joule-Thompson JT-valve is very important after cryostat cool down to 2.0 K. The 72-cell cryostat liquid level response generally takes a long time delay after regulating its JT-valve; therefore, typical PID control loop should result in some cryostat parameter oscillations. This paper presents a type of PID parameter self-optimal and Time-Delay control method used to reduce cryogenic system parameters' oscillation.

  14. Gluon and Wilson loop TMDs for hadrons of spin ≤ 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Daniel; Cotogno, Sabrina; van Daal, Tom; Mulders, Piet J.; Signori, Andrea; Zhou, Ya-Jin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the parametrizations of gluon transverse momentum dependent (TMD) correlators in terms of TMD parton distribution functions (PDFs). These functions, referred to as TMDs, are defined as the Fourier transforms of hadronic matrix elements of nonlocal combinations of gluon fiel

  15. The $q\\overline{q}$ relativistic interaction in the Wilson loop approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Nora; Brambilla, Nora; Vairo, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    We study the $q \\bar{q}$ relativistic interaction starting from the Feynman-Schwinger representation of the gauge-invariant quark-antiquark Green function. We focus on the one-body limit and discuss the obtained non-perturbative interaction kernel of the Dirac equation.

  16. The $q \\bar{q}$ relativistic interaction in the Wilson loop approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brambilla, Nora; Vairo, Antonio

    1997-01-01

    We study the $q \\bar{q}$ relativistic interaction starting from the Feynman-Schwinger representation of the gauge-invariant quark-antiquark Green function. We focus on the one-body limit and discuss the obtained non-perturbative interaction kernel of the Dirac equation.

  17. Wilson Loops on Riemann Surfaces, Liouville Theory and Covariantization of the Conformal Group

    CERN Document Server

    Matone, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The covariantization procedure is usually referred to the translation operator, that is the derivative. Here we introduce a general method to covariantize arbitrary differential operators, such as the ones defining the fundamental group of a given manifold. We focus on the differential operators representing the sl(2,R) generators, which in turn, generate, by exponentiation, the two-dimensional conformal transformations. A key point of our construction is the recent result on the closed forms of the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. In particular, our covariantization receipt is quite general. This has a deep consequence since it means that the covariantization of the conformal group is {\\it always definite}. Our covariantization receipt is quite general and apply in general situations, including AdS/CFT. Here we focus on the projective unitary representations of the fundamental group of a Riemann surface, which may include elliptic points and punctures, introduced in the framework of noncommutative Riemann s...

  18. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked loop measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Kushnick, Peter W. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A measuring apparatus is presented that uses a fixed frequency oscillator to measure small changes in the phase velocity ultrasonic sound when a sample is exposed to environmental changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, etc. The invention automatically balances electrical phase shifts against the acoustical phase shifts in order to obtain an accurate measurement of electrical phase shifts.

  19. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked loop measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Kushnick, Peter W.; Cantrell, John H.

    1993-06-01

    A measuring apparatus is presented that uses a fixed frequency oscillator to measure small changes in the phase velocity ultrasonic sound when a sample is exposed to environmental changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, etc. The invention automatically balances electrical phase shifts against the acoustical phase shifts in order to obtain an accurate measurement of electrical phase shifts.

  20. Constant frequency pulsed phase-locked loop measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T.; Kushnick, Peter W.; Cantrell, John H.

    1991-08-01

    A measuring apparatus is presented that uses a fixed frequency oscillator to measure small changes in the phase velocity ultrasonic sound when a sample is exposed to environmental changes such as changes in pressure, temperature, etc. The invention automatically balances electrical phase shifts against the acoustical phase shifts in order to obtain an accurate measurement of electrical phase shifts.

  1. New results on the 3-loop heavy flavor corrections in deep-inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behring, A.; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Zeuthen (Germany); and others

    2013-12-15

    We report on recent progress in the calculation of the 3-loop massiveWilson coefficients in deep inelastic scattering at general values of N for neutral- and charged-current reactions in the asymptotic region Q{sup 2}>>m{sup 2}. Four new out of eight massive operator matrix elements and Wilson coefficients have been obtained recently. We also discuss recent results on Feynman graphs containing two massive fermion lines and present complete results for the bubble topologies for all processes.

  2. One-loop Noncommutative U(1) Gauge Theory from Bosonic Worldline Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kiem, Y H; Ryou, C; Sato, H T; Kiem, Youngjai; Kim, Yeonjung; Ryou, Cheol; Sato, Haru-Tada

    2002-01-01

    We develop a method to compute the one-loop effective action of noncommutative U(1) gauge theory based on the bosonic worldline formalism, and derive compact expressions for N-point 1PI amplitudes. The method, resembling perturbative string computations, shows that open Wilson lines emerge as a gauge invariant completion of certain terms in the effective action. The terms involving open Wilson lines are of the form reminiscent of closed string exchanges between the states living on the two boundaries of a cylinder. They are also consistent with recent matrix theory analysis and the results from noncommutative scalar field theories with cubic interactions.

  3. CT hypodensity on cerebral white matter in Wilson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Jardim

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Wilson's disease in an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism where systemic manifestations are secondary to thei accumulation of copper in hepatic, nervous and other tissues. In CNS, the structural lesions most commonly found by CT scan are ventricular dilatation, cortical atrophy, basal ganglia hyperdensities, and brainstem and cerebellar atrophy. Degenerative changes of cerebral white matter seen on early anatomo-pathologic studies, but were almost never found on CT scan from recently described patients. We report a case of Wilson's disease with an unusually rapid deterioration where asymmetric low-densities in the subcortical white matter were disclosed by CT scan.

  4. Face of the giant panda sign in Wilson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chakraborty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilson disease usually presents with neurologic or hepatic manifestations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain is very informative in diagnosiing of this disease, especially in patients with neurological features. High T2 signal intensity in the corpus striatum is the most commonly encountered MRI finding. The 'face of the giant panda' sign is seen on axial T2-weighted MRI, and results from abnormal signal intensities in the midbrain. Though uncommon, the sign is considered as the pathognomonic MRI sign of Wilson disease.

  5. Clinical presentation and mutations in Danish patients with Wilson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Horn, Nina; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the clinical presentation and diagnosis in all Danish patients (49, 41 unrelated) with Wilson disease (WND). On the basis of the number of diagnosed patients from 1990-2008, the prevalence was estimated to be 1:49¿500. Among routinely used diagnostic tests, none were consiste......This study describes the clinical presentation and diagnosis in all Danish patients (49, 41 unrelated) with Wilson disease (WND). On the basis of the number of diagnosed patients from 1990-2008, the prevalence was estimated to be 1:49¿500. Among routinely used diagnostic tests, none were...

  6. Clinical presentation and mutations in Danish patients with Wilson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Horn, Nina; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the clinical presentation and diagnosis in all Danish patients (49, 41 unrelated) with Wilson disease (WND). On the basis of the number of diagnosed patients from 1990-2008, the prevalence was estimated to be 1:49 500. Among routinely used diagnostic tests, none were consiste......This study describes the clinical presentation and diagnosis in all Danish patients (49, 41 unrelated) with Wilson disease (WND). On the basis of the number of diagnosed patients from 1990-2008, the prevalence was estimated to be 1:49 500. Among routinely used diagnostic tests, none were...

  7. Mowat-Wilson syndrome in a Moroccan consanguineous family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratbi Ilham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mowat-Wilson syndrome is a mental retardation-multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a typical facies, developmental delay, epilepsy, and variable congenital malformations, including Hirschsprung disease, urogenital anomalies, congenital heart disease, and agenesis of the corpus callosum. This disorder is sporadic and is caused by heterozygous mutations or deletions of the ZFHX1B gene located in the 2q22 region. We report here the first Moroccan patient, born to consanguineous parents, with Mowat-Wilson syndrome, due to a de novo, unreported mutation of the ZFHX1B gene.

  8. Wilson's disease, Kayser and Fleischer's sign and Walshe's treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N

    1991-01-01

    Wilson's disease is named after Kinnier Wilson (1878-1937), a famous British neurologist. It is an inherited condition, due to an excess of copper in the liver and brain. The mechanism is unknown, but the gene has been mapped to chromosome 13. The worldwide prevalence is about 30 per million. Patients present with liver disease and/or neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is crucial because there is an effective treatment. This treatment, usually with penicillamine, must be continued for life and without interruption. Liver transplantation may be lifesaving in patients with fulminant hepatitis, or with severe liver disease which is unresponsive to treatment.

  9. Spectral properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator and random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieburg, Mario; Verbaarschot, Jacobus J. M.; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2013-11-01

    Random matrix theory has been successfully applied to lattice quantum chromodynamics. In particular, a great deal of progress has been made on the understanding, numerically as well as analytically, of the spectral properties of the Wilson-Dirac operator. In this paper, we study the infrared spectrum of the Wilson-Dirac operator via random matrix theory including the three leading order a2 correction terms that appear in the corresponding chiral Lagrangian. A derivation of the joint probability density of the eigenvalues is presented. This result is used to calculate the density of the complex eigenvalues, the density of the real eigenvalues, and the distribution of the chiralities over the real eigenvalues. A detailed discussion of these quantities shows how each low-energy constant affects the spectrum. Especially we consider the limit of small and large (which is almost the mean field limit) lattice spacing. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations of the random matrix theory show a perfect agreement with the analytical predictions. Furthermore we present some quantities which can be easily used for comparison of lattice data and the analytical results.

  10. Hexagon remainder function in the limit of self-crossing up to three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Dorn, Harald

    2011-01-01

    We consider Wilson loops in planar N=4 SYM for null polygons in the limit of two crossing edges. The analysis is based on a renormalisation group technique. We show that the previously obtained result for the leading and next-leading divergent term of the two loop hexagon remainder is in full agreement with the appropriate continuation of the exact analytic formula for this quantity. Furthermore, we determine the coefficients of the leading and next-leading singularity for the three loop remainder function for null n-gons with n >= 6.

  11. Closing the loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassau, E; Atlas, E; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    Closed-loop algorithms can be found in every aspect of everyday modern life. Automation and control are used constantly to provide safety and to improve quality of life. Closed-loop systems and algorithms can be found in home appliances, automobiles, aviation and more. Can one imagine nowadays driving a car without ABS, cruise control or even anti-sliding control? Similar principles of automation and control can be used in the management of diabetes mellitus (DM). The idea of an algorithmic/technological way to control glycaemia is not new and has been researched for more than four decades. However, recent improvements in both glucose-sensing technology and insulin delivery together with advanced control and systems engineering made this dream of an artificial pancreas possible. The artificial pancreas may be the next big step in the treatment of DM since the use of insulin analogues. An artificial pancreas can be described as internal or external devices that use continuous glucose measurements to automatically manage exogenous insulin delivery with or without other hormones in an attempt to restore glucose regulation in individuals with DM using a control algorithm. This device as described can be internal or external; can use different types of control algorithms with bi-hormonal or uni-hormonal design; and can utilise different ways to administer them. The different designs and implementations have transitioned recently from in silico simulations to clinical evaluation stage with practical applications in mind. This may mark the beginning of a new era in diabetes management with the introduction of semi-closed-loop systems that can prevent or minimise nocturnal hypoglycaemia, to hybrid systems that will manage blood glucose (BG) levels with minimal user intervention to finally fully automated systems that will take the user out of the loop. More and more clinical trials will be needed for the artificial pancreas to become a reality but initial encouraging

  12. Constant-bandwidth constant-temperature hot-wire anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligeza, P

    2007-07-01

    A constant-temperature anemometer (CTA) enables the measurement of fast-changing velocity fluctuations. In the classical solution of CTA, the transmission band is a function of flow velocity. This is a minor drawback when the mean flow velocity does not significantly change, though it might lead to dynamic errors when flow velocity varies over a considerable range. A modification is outlined, whereby an adaptive controller is incorporated in the CTA system such that the anemometer's transmission band remains constant in the function of flow velocity. For that purpose, a second feedback loop is provided, and the output signal from the anemometer will regulate the controller's parameters such that the transmission bandwidth remains constant. The mathematical model of a CTA that has been developed and model testing data allow a through evaluation of the proposed solution. A modified anemometer can be used in measurements of high-frequency variable flows in a wide range of velocities. The proposed modification allows the minimization of dynamic measurement errors.

  13. Rapidity evolution of Wilson lines at the next-to-leading order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitsky, Ian [JLAB, Old Dominion U.; Chirilli, Giovanni [LBL

    2013-12-01

    At high energies particles move very fast so the proper degrees of freedom for the fast gluons moving along the straight lines are Wilson-line operators - infinite gauge factors ordered along the line. In the framework of operator expansion in Wilson lines the energy dependence of the amplitudes is determined by the rapidity evolution of Wilson lines. We present the next-to-leading order hierarchy of the evolution equations for Wilson-line operators.

  14. Localization of the Wilson's disease protein in human liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, M; Roelofsen, H; Wolters, H; Hofmann, WJ; Muller, M; Kuipers, F; Stremmel, W; Vonk, RJ

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: Wilson's disease is an autosomal-recessive disorder of copper metabolism that results from the absence or dysfunction of a copper-transporting P-type adenosine triphosphatase that leads to impaired biliary copper excretion and disturbed holoceruloplasmin synthesis, To gain further

  15. Finite Temperature Phase Diagramm of QCD with improved Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Karsch, Frithjof; Oevers, M; Schmidt, P

    1998-01-01

    We present first results of a study of two flavour QCD with Wilson fermions at finite temperature. We have used tree level Symanzik improvement in both the gauge and fermion part of the action. In a first step we explore the phase diagramm on an $8^3 \\times 4$ lattice, with particular emphasis on checking Aoki's conjecture with an improved action.

  16. Alagille Syndrome and Wilson Disease in Siblings: A Diagnostic Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Amson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe two siblings, each with a different, rare genetic condition that affects liver function. The index case, the 18-year-old asymptomatic brother of a young man recently diagnosed with Wilson disease, presented for Wilson disease screening and was also found to have abnormal liver function suggestive of cholestasis. However, ceruloplasmin level, 24 h urine copper concentration and liver synthetic function were normal. Further hepatic investigations and genetic mutation analysis were performed, ultimately leading to a diagnosis of Alagille syndrome. He was treated with ursodiol, which resulted in normalization of his liver function tests. Subsequently, he was found to be a carrier for a mutation in the Wilson disease gene, ATP7B. In the present report, the potential implications of being a heterozygote for Wilson disease in the context of Alagille syndrome are discussed. Also stressed is that care must be exercised by the clinician when diagnosing family members who may present with two different disorders closely mimicking one another.

  17. Elevated copper impairs hepatic nuclear receptor function in Wilson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results in accumulation of copper in the liver as a consequence of mutations in the gene encoding the copper-transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). WD is a chronic liver disorder, and individuals with the disease present with a variety of co...

  18. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  19. Feynman graph solution to Wilson's exact renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Sonoda, H

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new prescription for renormalizing Feynman diagrams. The prescription is similar to BPHZ, but it is mass independent, and works in the massless limit as the MS scheme with dimensional regularization. The prescription gives a diagrammatic solution to Wilson's exact renormalization group differential equation.

  20. An interview with Steve Wilson. Interview by Kathryn Senior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steve

    2010-05-01

    Stephen Wilson is Professor of Developmental Genetics at University College, London, UK. He was recently awarded the Remedios Caro Almela Prize for Research in Developmental Neurobiology. We interviewed Steve to find out about how he started on the road to developmental biology research, how he got interested in the brain, his achievements and future challenges.

  1. Proteomic investigation of whole saliva in Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Sanna, Monica; Manconi, Barbara; Fanni, Daniela; Demelia, Luigi; Sorbello, Orazio; Iavarone, Federica; Castagnola, Massimo; Faa, Gavino; Messana, Irene

    2015-10-14

    Wilson's disease is a rare inherited disorder of copper metabolism, manifesting hepatic, neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Early diagnosis is often unfeasible and a unique diagnostic test is currently inapplicable. We performed the qualitative/quantitative characterization of the salivary proteome/peptidome of 32 Wilson's disease patients by an integrated top-down/bottom-up approach. Patients exhibited significant higher levels of S100A9 and S100A8 proteoforms, and their oxidized forms with respect to controls. Oxidation occurred on methionine and tryptophan residues, and on the unique cysteine residue, in position 42 in S100A8, and 3 in S100A9, that generated glutathionylated, cysteinylated, sulfinic, sulfonic, and disulfide dimeric forms. Wilson's disease patient saliva showed high levels of two new fragments of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, and of α-defensins 2 and 4. Overall, the salivary proteome of Wilson's disease patients reflected oxidative stress and inflammatory conditions characteristic of the pathology, highlighting differences that could be useful clues of disease exacerbation.

  2. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Expansions of Wilson Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chuan WANG

    2008-01-01

    We consider expansions of the type arising from Wilson bases.We characterize such expansions for L2(R).As an application,we see that such an expansion must be orthonormal,in contrast to the case of wavelet expansions generated by translations and dilation.

  3. P wave dispersion is prolonged in patients with Wilson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the P wave dispersion as a noninvasive marker of intra-atrial conduction disturbances in patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: We compared Wilson's disease patients (n=18) with age matched healthy subjects (n=15) as controls. The diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, laboratory tests (ceruloplasmin, urinary and hepatic copper concentrations). P wave dispersion, a measurement of the heterogeneity of atrial depolarization, was measured as the difference between the duration of the longest and the shortest P-waves in 12 lead electrocardiography. RESULTS: All the patients were asymptomatic on cardiological examination and have sinusal rhythm in electrocardiography. Left ventricular and left atrial diameters, left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular mass index were similar in both groups. The Wilson's disease patients had a significantly higher P wave dispersion compared with the controls (44.7+5.8vs 25.7±2.5,P<0.01=. CONCLUSION: There was an increase in P wave dispersion in cardiologically asymptomatic Wilson's disease patients which probably represents an early stage of cardiac involvement.

  4. Wilson lines and gauge invariant off-shell amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Kotko, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    We study matrix elements of Fourier-transformed straight infinite Wilson lines as a way to calculate gauge invariant tree-level amplitudes with off-shell gluons. The off-shell gluons are assigned "polarization vectors" which (in the Feynman gauge) are transverse to their off-shell momenta and define the direction of the corresponding Wilson line operators. The infinite Wilson lines are first regularized to prove the correctness of the method. We have implemented the method in a computer FORM program that can calculate gluonic matrix elements of Wilson line operators automatically. In addition we formulate the Feynman rules that are convenient in certain applications, e.g. proving the Ward identities. Using both the program and the Feynman rules we calculate a few examples, in particular the matrix elements corresponding to gauge invariant $g^{*}g^{*}g^{*}g$ and $g^{*}g^{*}g^{*}g^{*}g$ processes. An immediate application of the approach is in the high energy scattering, as in a special kinematic setup our resu...

  5. Cardiac arrhythmia in Wilson's disease: An oversighted and overlooked entity!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Bhupender Kumar; Wadhwa, Ankur; Singh, Richa; Gupta, Saurabh

    2016-01-01

    Wilson's disease is a multisystem disorder which manifests with hepatic, neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and cardiac symptoms. The hepatic and neurological manifestations often overshadow the other system involvement including cardiac symptoms and signs, which may prove fatal. We report a case of a young female who presented with progressive parkinsonian features and dystonia for around 4 months followed 2 months later by the complaint of episodes of light-headedness. She was diagnosed to have Wilson's disease based on the presence of Kayser–Fleischer ring and laboratory parameters of copper metabolism. Electrocardiography of the patient incidentally revealed 2nd degree Mobitz type-1 atrioventricular block explaining her episodes of light-headedness. She was started on penicillamine and trihexyphenidyl. The heart block improved spontaneously. Cardiac autonomic function tests including blood pressure response to standing and heart rate response to standing were observed to be normal. We review the literature on cardiac manifestations of Wilson's disease and emphasize that patients with Wilson's disease should be assessed for cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac dysfunction as these may have therapeutic and prognostic implications. PMID:27695244

  6. Partition function for the eigenvalues of the Wilson line

    CERN Document Server

    Gocksch, A

    1993-01-01

    In a gauge theory at nonzero temperature the eigenvalues of the Wilson line form a set of gauge invariant observables. By constructing the corresponding partition function for the phases of these eigenvalues, we prove that the trivial vacuum, where the phases vanish, is a minimum of the free energy.

  7. Imaginary Parts and Discontinuities of Wilson Line Correlators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laenen, Eric; Larsen, Kasper J.; Rietkerk, Robbert

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a notion of position-space cuts of eikonal diagrams, the set of diagrams appearing in the perturbative expansion of the correlator of a set of straight semi-infinite Wilson lines. The cuts are applied directly to the position-space representation of any such diagramand compute its

  8. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  9. Participation of Negroes in Woodrow Wilson Fellowship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhaupt, Hans

    Woodrow Wilson Fellowships were awarded to 107 graduates from Negro colleges between 1958 and 1962 but to only 69 graduates during the following 5 years. The realization that this drop may have been caused by increased recruiting of Negro students by northern colleges and concern about the small number of black students at the graduate level led…

  10. Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. Report for 1971-1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Princeton, NJ.

    This document presents the annual report for the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation for 1971-72. Included in the report are a listing of the Board of Trustees; a listing of the officers and staff of the Foundation; descriptions of the First Year Fellowship Program, the Dissertation Fellowships, the Internship Programs, the Martin Luther…

  11. 78 FR 73559 - Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement, Grand Teton...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... National Park Service Moose-Wilson Corridor Comprehensive Management Plan, Environmental Impact Statement... the Moose-Wilson Corridor, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. DATES: The National Park Service will...://parkplanning.nps.gov/MooseWilson , at the Grand Teton National Park Headquarters Building, 1 Teton Park...

  12. Status of the Lambda Lattice Scale for the SU(3) Wilson gauge action

    CERN Document Server

    Berg, Bernd A

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Yang-Mills gradient flow technique there is renewed interest in the issue of scale setting in lattice gauge theory. Here I compare for the SU(3) Wilson gauge action the non-perturbative lambda scales of Edwards, Heller and Klassen (EHK), Necco and Sommer (NS), both relying on Sommer's method using the quark potential, with the lambda scale derived by Bazavov, Berg and Velytsky (BBV) from deconfining phase transition data of the Bielefeld group. It turns out that these scales are based on mutually inconsistent data. Nevertheless their over-all agreement is still at a better than +/- 2% in the coupling constant range for which one expects them to apply. Somewhat surprisingly the scale based on the deconfining transition is consistent with the relevant part of the EHK data (baring one data point, which is closest to the strong coupling region), while the NS scale is not.

  13. The corrections from one loop and two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams to muon MDM in BLMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shu-Min; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Yan, Ben; Zhan, Xi-Jie

    2014-01-01

    In a supersymmetric extension of the standard model where baryon and lepton numbers are local gauge symmetries(BLMSSM) and the Yukawa couplings between Higgs doublets and exotic quarks are considered, we study the one loop diagrams and the two-loop Barr-Zee type diagrams with a closed Fermi(scalar) loop between the vector Boson and Higgs. Using the effective Lagrangian method, we deduce the Wilson coefficients of dimension 6 operators contributing to the anomalous magnetic moment of muon, which satisfies the electromagnetic gauge invariance. In the numerical analysis, we consider the experiment constraints from Higgs and neutrino data. In some parameter space, the new physics contribution is large and even reaches $24\\times10^{-10}$, which can remedy the deviation well.

  14. 一种改进的Wilson-θ法及其算法稳定性%AN IMPROVED WILSON-θ METHOD AND ITS COMPUTATIONAL STABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏启祥; 刘浩吾; 何川

    2003-01-01

    在传统的Wilson-θ法的基础上,导出了改进的Wilson-θ法,比较了其与传统Wilson-θ法的异同点,分析了改进Wilson-θ法的稳定性.利用改进的Wilson-θ法建立了求解流固耦合方程的迭代算法,并对该算法进行检验,结果表明:改进的Wilson-θ法能方便地求解流固耦合振动方程,并能提高计算的效率.

  15. Where Are They Now? A Survey of Woodrow Wilson Fellows and Woodrow Wilson Dissertation Fellows Elected Between 1945 and 1971.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, Princeton, NJ.

    Woodrow Wilson Fellows and Dissertation Fellows elected between 1945 and 1971 were surveyed to trace their educational careers, judge the effectiveness of the selection process, and determine what they are now doing with their education. Some elements covered by other national studies were included to make possible a comparison of the Woodrow…

  16. Determination of c_sw in N_f=3+1 Lattice QCD with massive Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Patrick; Stollenwerk, Felix; Wolff, Ulli

    2015-01-01

    We develop a strategy for the non-perturbative determination of the O(a)-improvement coefficient c_sw for Wilson fermions with massive sea quarks. The improvement condition is defined via the PCAC relation in the Schr\\"odinger functional. It is imposed along a line of constant physics designed to be close to the correct mass of the charm quark. The numerical work uses the tree-level improved L\\"uscher-Weisz gauge action in N_f=3+1 Lattice QCD.

  17. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  18. The finite Bruck Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    We continue the work by Aschbacher, Kinyon and Phillips [AKP] as well as of Glauberman [Glaub1,2] by describing the structure of the finite Bruck loops. We show essentially that a finite Bruck loop $X$ is the direct product of a Bruck loop of odd order with either a soluble Bruck loop of 2-power order or a product of loops related to the groups $PSL_2(q)$, $q= 9$ or $q \\geq 5$ a Fermat prime. The latter possibillity does occur as is shown in [Nag1, BS]. As corollaries we obtain versions of Sylow's, Lagrange's and Hall's Theorems for loops.

  19. Cosmological Constant, Fine Structure Constant and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Hao; Li, Hong-Yu; Xue, Dong-Ze

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the cosmological constant model $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, which is well motivated from three independent approaches. As is well known, the evidence of varying fine structure constant $\\alpha$ was found in 1998. If $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$ is right, it means that the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be also varying. In this work, we try to develop a suitable framework to model this varying cosmological constant $\\Lambda\\propto\\alpha^{-6}$, in which we view it from an interacting vacuum energy perspective. We propose two types of models to describe the evolutions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\alpha$. Then, we consider the observational constraints on these models, by using the 293 $\\Delta\\alpha/\\alpha$ data from the absorption systems in the spectra of distant quasars, and the data of type Ia supernovae (SNIa), cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). We find that the model parameters can be tightly constrained to the narrow ranges of ${\\cal O}(10^{-5})$ t...

  20. Constant External Fields in Gauge Theory and the Spin 0, 1/2, 1 Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, M; Schubert, C; Reuter, Martin; Schmidt, Michael G.; Schubert, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the usefulness of the ``string-inspired technique'' for gauge theory calculations in a constant external field background. Our approach is based on Strassler's worldline path integral approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism, and on the construction of worldline (super--) Green's functions incorporating external fields as well as internal propagators. The worldline path integral representation of the gluon loop is reexamined in detail. We calculate the two-loop effective actions induced for a constant external field by a scalar and spinor loop, and the corresponding one-loop effective action in the gluon loop case.

  1. Renormalization of Polyakov loops in fundamental and higher representations

    CERN Document Server

    Kaczmarek, O; Hübner, K

    2007-01-01

    We compare two renormalization procedures, one based on the short distance behavior of heavy quark-antiquark free energies and the other by using bare Polyakov loops at different temporal entent of the lattice and find that both prescriptions are equivalent, resulting in renormalization constants that depend on the bare coupling. Furthermore these renormalization constants show Casimir scaling for higher representations of the Polyakov loops. The analysis of Polyakov loops in different representations of the color SU(3) group indicates that a simple perturbative inspired relation in terms of the quadratic Casimir operator is realized to a good approximation at temperatures $T \\gsim T_c$ for renormalized as well as bare loops. In contrast to a vanishing Polyakov loop in representations with non-zero triality in the confined phase, the adjoint loops are small but non-zero even for temperatures below the critical one. The adjoint quark-antiquark pairs exhibit screening. This behavior can be related to the bindin...

  2. QCD at imaginary chemical potential with Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the phase diagram in the temperature, imaginary chemical potential plane for QCD with three degenerate quark flavors using Wilson type fermions. While more expensive than the staggered fermions used in past studies in this area, Wilson fermions can be used safely to simulate systems with three quark flavors. In this talk, we focus on the (pseudo)critical line that extends from $\\mu=0$ in the imaginary chemical potential plane, trace it to the Roberge-Weiss line, and determine its location relative to the Roberge-Weiss transition point. In order to smoothly follow the (pseudo)critical line in this plane we perform a multi-histogram reweighting in both temperature and chemical potential. To perform reweighting in the chemical potential we use the compression formula to compute the determinants exactly. Our results are compatible with the standard scenario.

  3. Schroedinger functional formalism with Ginsparg-Wilson fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Schroedinger functional formalism is given as a field theory in a finite volume with a Dirichlet boundary condition in temporal direction. When one tries to construct this formalism with the Ginsparg-Wilson fermion including the overlap Dirac operator and the domain-wall fermion one easily runs into difficulties. The reason is that if the Dirichlet boundary condition is simply imposed on the Wilson Dirac operator $DW$ inside of the overlap Dirac operator an exponentially small eigenvalue appears in $DW$, which affects the locality properties of the operator. In this paper we propose a new procedure to impose the Schroedinger functional Dirichlet boundary condition on the overlap Dirac operator using an orbifolding projection.

  4. O(a^2) cutoff effects in Wilson fermion simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Frezzotti, R

    2007-01-01

    We show that the size of the O(a^2) flavour violating cutoff artifacts that have been found to affect the value of the neutral pion mass in simulations with maximally twisted Wilson fermions is controlled by a continuum QCD quantity that is fairly large and is determined by the dynamical mechanism of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. One can argue that the neutral pion mass is the only physical quantity blurred by such cutoff effects. O(a^2) corrections of this kind are also present in standard Wilson fermion simulations, but they can either affect the determination of the pion mass or be shifted from the latter to other observables, depending on the way the critical mass is evaluated.

  5. Chiral solution to the Ginsparg-Wilson equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Dorota M.; Kaplan, David B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a chiral solution of the Ginsparg-Wilson equation. This work is motivated by our recent proposal for nonperturbatively regulating chiral gauge theories, where five-dimensional domain wall fermions couple to a four-dimensional gauge field that is extended into the extra dimension as the solution to a gradient flow equation. Mirror fermions at the far surface decouple from the gauge field as if they have form factors that become infinitely soft as the distance between the two surfaces is increased. In the limit of an infinite extra dimension we derive an effective four-dimensional chiral overlap operator which is shown to obey the Ginsparg-Wilson equation, and which correctly reproduces a number of properties expected of chiral gauge theories in the continuum.

  6. Emergent geometry from field theory: Wilson's renormalization group revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Seok; Park, Chanyong

    2016-06-01

    We find a geometrical description from a field theoretical setup based on Wilson's renormalization group in real space. We show that renormalization group equations of coupling parameters encode the metric structure of an emergent curved space, regarded to be an Einstein equation for the emergent gravity. Self-consistent equations of local order-parameter fields with an emergent metric turn out to describe low-energy dynamics of a strongly coupled field theory, analogous to the Maxwell equation of the Einstein-Maxwell theory in the AdSd +2 /CFTd +1 duality conjecture. We claim that the AdS3 /CFT2 duality may be interpreted as Landau-Ginzburg theory combined with Wilson's renormalization group, which introduces vertex corrections into the Landau-Ginzburg theory in the large-Ns limit, where Ns is the number of fermion flavors.

  7. A Chiral Solution to the Ginsparg-Wilson Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Grabowska, Dorota M

    2016-01-01

    We present a chiral solution of the Ginsparg-Wilson equation. This work is motivated by our recent proposal for nonperturbatively regulating chiral gauge theories, where five-dimensional domain wall fermions couple to a four-dimensional gauge field that is extended into the extra dimension as the solution to a gradient flow equation. Mirror fermions at the far surface decouple from the gauge field as if they have form factors that become infinitely soft as the distance between the two surfaces is increased. In the limit of an infinite extra dimension we derive an effective four-dimensional chiral overlap operator which is shown to obey the Ginsparg-Wilson equation, and which correctly reproduces a number of properties expected of chiral gauge theories in the continuum.

  8. Raising and Lowering Operators for Askey-Wilson Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sahi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe two pairs of raising/lowering operators for Askey-Wilson polynomials, which result from constructions involving very different techniques. The first technique is quite elementary, and depends only on the ''classical'' properties of these polynomials, viz. the q-difference equation and the three term recurrence. The second technique is less elementary, and involves the one-variable version of the double affine Hecke algebra.

  9. Orthotropic liver transplantation for intractable neurological manifestations of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Vaibhav K; Tank, Anad H; Modi, Pranjal R

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's disease (WD) is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder characterized by copper accumulation and toxicity, affecting mainly the liver and brain. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the definitive therapy for patients with WD. Acute fulminant hepatic failure and decompensated cirrhosis are well-established indications for OLT. Patients with severe neurologic impairment can also be benefited by OLT. Here, we present a patient who underwent OLT for isolated neurological WD.

  10. Wilson's disease: assessment of D-penicillamine treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Caillie-Bertrand, M; Degenhart, H J; Luijendijk, I; Bouquet, J.; Sinaasappel, M.

    1985-01-01

    Serum copper and zinc concentrations and 24 hour urinary copper and zinc excretion were determined serially from the beginning of treatment with D-penicillamine in four children with Wilson's disease. The data show a progressive decrease in both serum copper and zinc concentrations in all. Urinary copper excretion gradually levelled off to approximately 50% of initial values, but zinc excretion increased. Urinary zinc:copper ratios therefore increased with the duration of treatment. Copper el...

  11. Wilson's disease: an analysis of 28 Brazilian children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleine, Rodolpho Truffa; Mendes, Renata; Pugliese, Renata; Miura, Irene; Danesi, Vera; Porta, Gilda

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males) with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 – 240 months). The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 – 18 years). Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far. PMID:22473403

  12. Dynamics and the Wilson Cycle: An EarthScope vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Cynthia; Humphreys, Eugene; Williams, Michael; van der Lee, Suzan; Levin, Vadim; Webb, Laura; Becker, Thorsten

    2017-04-01

    Wilson's model has two major components, each with distinctive observables. Initial subduction of ocean lithosphere collides continents across a closing ocean basin, creating a mountain range; rifting then initiates within the collisional orogeny and progresses to create oceanic spreading and creation of a new ocean basin. Subduction eventually initiates near the old, cold, and heavily sedimented continental margin, leading to subduction, and repeating the cycle. This model is largely kinematic in nature, and predictive in application. We re-evaluate the Wilson Cycle in light of process-oriented perspectives afforded by the surface to mantle Earthscope results. Repeating episodes of mountain building by means of continental collisions remains clear, but new observations augment or diverge from Wilson's concepts. A 'new' component stems from observations from both the East and West coasts: translational fault systems played critical roles in continental accretion, collision, and rifting. Earthscope data sets also have enabled imaging of the structure of western U.S. lithosphere with unprecedented detail. From new and existing data sets, we conclude that collision occurs in 'ribbons' in large part linked to the shapes of the landmasses colliding landmasses, and deformation includes a major component of transform tectonics. Post-orogenic gravitational collapse may occur far inboard of the site of collision. A third 'new' feature is that plate coupling with the mantle leads to deformation outside the classic Wilson Cycle. For example, the passive margin of eastern N. America shows tectonic activity, uplift, and magmatism long after the onset of seafloor spreading, demonstrating the dynamic nature of lithosphere-asthenosphere coupling. A 'fourth' observation is that lateral density contrasts and volatile migration during subduction and collision effectively refertilize mantle lithosphere, and pre-condition later tectonic cycles.

  13. Darboux Transformation for Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Xing; Liu, Qing-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A coupled system known as the Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation is reexamined. With the help of a Lax operator of fourth order, its proper Darboux transformation is constructed. Also, a nonlinear superposition formula is worked out for the associated Bäcklund transformation and some solutions are calculated. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11271366, 11331008 and 11401572, and the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities

  14. Wilson's disease: an analysis of 28 Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Truffa Kleine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Clinical-laboratory and evolutionary analysis of twenty-eight patients with Wilson's disease. METHODS: Twenty-eight children (twelve females and sixteen males with Wilson's disease were evaluated retrospectively between 1987 and 2009, with a follow-up of 72 months (1 - 240 months. The clinical, laboratory, and histologic features at diagnosis were recorded at the end of the study. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (2 - 18 years. Twelve patients were asymptomatic, seven had hepatitis symptoms, five had raised aminotransferase levels, three had hepatomegaly associated with neurological disorders, one had fulminant hepatitis with hemolytic anemia, and six patients presented with a Kayser-Fleischer ring. A histological analysis revealed that six children had chronic hepatitis, seven had cirrhosis, two had steatosis, one had portal fibrosis, and one had massive necrosis. The treatment consisted of D-penicillamine associated with pyridoxine for 26 patients. Adverse effects were observed in the other two patients: one presented with uncontrollable vomiting and the other demonstrated elastosis perforans serpiginosa. At the end of the study, all 26 treated patients were asymptomatic. Twenty-four of the patients were treated with D-penicillamine and pyridoxine, and two were treated with trientine and zinc sulfate. A liver transplant was performed in one patient with fulminant hepatitis, but the final patient died 48 hours after admission to the intensive care unit. CONCLUSIONS: Family screenings associated with early treatment are important in preventing Wilson's disease symptoms and potentially fatal disease progression. The study suggests that Wilson's disease must be ruled out in children older than two years presenting with abnormal levels of hepatic enzymes because of the heterogeneity of symptoms and the encouraging treatment results obtained so far.

  15. I=2 Pion Scattering Phase Shift with Wilson Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Fukugita, M; Hashimoto, S; Ishikawa, K-I; Ishizuka, N; Iwasaki, Y; Kanaya, K; Kaneko, T; Kuramashi, Y; Lesk, V; Okawa, M; Taniguchi, Y; Ukawa, A; Yoshié, T

    2012-01-01

    We present results of phase shift for I=2 $S$-wave $\\pi\\pi$ system with the Wilson fermions in the quenched approximation. The finite size method proposed by L\\"uscher is employed, and calculations are carried out at $\\beta=5.9$ ($a^{-1}=1.934(16)$ GeV from $m_\\rho$) on $24^3 \\times 60$, $32^3 \\times 60$, and $48^3 \\times 60$ lattices.

  16. Pseudonoise code tracking loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflame, D. T. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A delay-locked loop is presented for tracking a pseudonoise (PN) reference code in an incoming communication signal. The loop is less sensitive to gain imbalances, which can otherwise introduce timing errors in the PN reference code formed by the loop.

  17. A closed loop controller for electron-beam evaporators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Alan; Stroscio, Joseph A.

    1996-06-01

    A simple instrument for automatically controlling the deposition rate of an electron-beam evaporator is described. The design incorporates a commercially available, microprocessor based, proportional-integral-differential process controller that provides loop control and automatic determination of optimal proportional, integral, and differential loop constants. A logarithmic amplifier is used to linearize the overall loop response. The controller is used in conjunction with a compact electron-beam heated evaporator.

  18. The epsilon regime with twisted mass Wilson fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bar, Oliver; Shindler, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the leading lattice spacing effects in mesonic two-point correlators computed with twisted mass Wilson fermions in the epsilon-regime. By generalizing the procedure already introduced for the untwisted Wilson chiral effective theory, we extend the continuum chiral epsilon expansion to twisted mass WChPT. We define different regimes, depending on the relative power counting for the quark masses and the lattice spacing. We explicitly compute, for arbitrary twist angle, the leading O(a^2) corrections appearing at NLO in the so-called GSM^* regime. As in untwisted WChPT, we find that in this situation the impact of explicit chiral symmetry breaking due to lattice artefacts is strongly suppressed. Of particular interest is the case of maximal twist, which corresponds to the setup usually adopted in lattice simulations with twisted mass Wilson fermions. The formulae we obtain can be matched to lattice data to extract physical low energy couplings, and to estimate systematic uncertainties coming from ...

  19. Wilson Martins: between the intelligentsia and the university (1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Névio de Campos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this article is to analyze the presence of Ortega y Gasset in the Parana’s State group during the 1950s, especially his influence in the thinking of Wilson Martins, and to emphasize the debate on the ideas of the intellectual and the university. The article discusses about the contributions of this Parana’s thinker on the Parana’s university teaching constituting and organizing process, and emphasizes that the Wilson Martins’ role consisted in promoting the debate on the presence of the intellectual person in modern society, attributing the mission as guardian of the moral and herald of cultural renovation, without forgetting the Brazilian and European political-cultural context as the founding background to higher education. It bases itself on the speech entitled “The rebellion against intelligence and the mission of the university”, that occurred at the University of Parana in 1951, and on the work The History of Brazilian Intelligence, written by Wilson Martins.

  20. Zinc acetate for the treatment of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G J

    2001-09-01

    Zinc acetate (Galzin, Gate Pharmaceutical Co.) has been developed for the treatment of Wilson's disease, an inherited disease of copper accumulation and copper toxicity in brain and liver. Zinc acetate has been approved by the US FDA for maintenance therapy of adult and paediatric Wilson's disease patients but also has efficacy in the treatment of pregnant patients and presymptomatic patients from the beginning. It also has value as adjunctive therapy for the initial treatment of symptomatic patients. Zinc's mechanism of action involves induction of intestinal cell metallothionein (Mt), which blocks copper absorption from the intestinal track. A negative copper balance is caused by blockade not only of absorption of food copper but the blockade of reabsorption of the considerable amount of endogenously secreted copper in saliva, gastric juice and intestinal secretions. Zinc is completely effective in controlling copper levels and toxicity in Wilson's disease, as are other anticopper agents. Zinc's major advantage over other anticopper agents is its extremely low level of toxicity. The only side effect is some degree of initial gastric irritation in approximately10% of patients, which usually decreases and becomes insignificant over time. As with all long-term therapies, compliance is a problem in some patients and dictates regular monitoring with 24 h urine copper and zinc measurements. As with all anticopper therapies, over a long period of time, overtreatment and induction of copper deficiency can occur. This is to be avoided particularly in children because copper is required for growth.