WorldWideScience

Sample records for constant magnetic fields

  1. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K.; Kolikov, V.A.; Bogomolova, E.V.; Snetov, V.N.; Cherepkova, I.A.; Kiselev, A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  2. Magnetically modified biocells in constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramov, E.G.; Panina, L.K. [Saint Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kolikov, V.A., E-mail: kolikov1@yandex.ru [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Bogomolova, E.V. [Botanical Institute of the RAS after V.L.Komarov, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Snetov, V.N. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Cherepkova, I.A. [Saint Petersburg State Institute of Technology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kiselev, A.A. [Institute for Electrophysics and Electric Power of the RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Paper addresses the inverse problem in determining the area, where the external constant magnetic field captures the biological cells modified by the magnetic nanoparticles. Zero velocity isolines, in area where the modified cells are captured by the magnetic field were determined by numerical method for two locations of the magnet. The problem was solved taking into account the gravitational field, magnetic induction, density of medium, concentration and size of cells, and size and magnetization of nanoparticles attached to the cell. Increase in the number of the nanoparticles attached to the cell and decrease in the cell’ size, enlarges the area, where the modified cells are captured and concentrated by the magnet. Solution is confirmed by the visible pattern formation of the modified cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae. - Highlights: • The inverse problem was solved for finding zero velocity isolines of magnetically modified biological cells. • Solution of the inverse problem depends on the size of cells and the number of nanoparticles attached to the single cell. • The experimental data are in agreement with theoretical solution.

  3. Noninvasive valve monitor using constant magnetic and/or DC electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casada, Donald A.; Haynes, Howard D.

    1993-01-01

    One or more sources of steady magnetic field are carefully located on the outside of a valve body. The constant magnetic field is transmitted into the valve body and valve internals. A magnetic field detector carefully located on the outside of the valve body detects the intensity of the magnetic field at its location. As the position of a valve internal part is changed, there is an alteration in the magnetic field in the valve, and a consequent change in the detected magnetic field. Changes in the detected signal provide an indication of the position and motion of the valve internals.

  4. Particular features of conditioned electrodefensive reflex in white rats on background of constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shust, I.V.; Galantyuk, S.I.; Cheretyanko, Yu.V.

    Study of the influence of magnetic fields upon the higher nervous activity of man and animals has long been attracting the attention of researchers. It is indicated in the literature that magnetic fields inhibit development of conditioned reflexes in planarians, fishes, and mammals. However, there are data of opposite nature as well, indicating accelerated development of the avoidance reflex in animals exposed previously to a magnetic field. Researchers studied formation of a conditioned electrodefensive reflex (CER) in white rats exposed to a constant magnetic field (CMF), and the influence of a vitamin preparation - galascorbin - on formation of the CER in animals exposed to a CMF.

  5. Influence of constant magnetic field on aggregation processes in magnetite colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareev, K. G.; Kononova, I. E.; Levitckii, V. S.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Nalimova, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Colloids of Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles derived by a two-stage technique on the base of tetraetoxisilane soles were studied. Phase composition of the particles was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that phase transition of Fe3O4 into α-Fe2O3 occurs at a laser power exceeding a threshold value. The aggregation of the particles to linear structures in a constant magnetic field was studied by atomic force microscopy. The data on the change in resistance of Fe3O4/SiO2 colloids under an applied magnetic field were obtained.

  6. Cooling achieved by rotating an anisotropic superconductor in a constant magnetic field: A new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manh-Huong Phan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A new type of rotary coolers based on the temperature change (ΔTrot of an anisotropic superconductor when rotated in a constant magnetic field is proposed. We show that at low temperature the Sommerfeld coefficient γ(B,Θ of a single crystalline superconductor, such as MgB2 and NbS2, sensitively depends on the applied magnetic field (B and the orientation of the crystal axis (Θ, which is related to the electronic entropy (SE and temperature (T via the expression: SE=γT. A simple rotation of the crystal from one axis to one another in a constant magnetic field results in a change in γ and hence SE: ΔSE=ΔγT. A temperature change −ΔTrot ∼ 0.94 K from a bath temperature of 2.5 K is achieved by simply rotating the single crystal MgB2 by 90° with respect to the c-axis direction in a fixed field of 2 T. ΔTrot can be tuned by adjusting the strength of B within a wide magnetic field range. Our study paves the way for development of new materials and cryogenic refrigerators that are potentially more energy-efficient, simplified, and compact.

  7. [The influence of variable and constant magnetic fields on biota and biological activity of ordinary chernozem soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2007-01-01

    In model experiments on influence variable magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) an induction of 1500 and of 6000 mkTl and the constant magnetic field an induction of 6000 mkTl and of 15000 mkTl during 5 days of exposure on biological properties of chernozem ordinary is shown, that the soil microflora is more sensitive to magnetic fields, than enzymes activity. Bacteria are more sensitive, than microscopic mushrooms. Dehydrogenase it is steady against influence of all variants. Constant magnetic field by the induction of 15000 mkTl rendered practically identical authentic overwhelming influence on catalase and saccharase activity - on 51 and 47% accordingly.

  8. Magnetic field dependence of elastic constants in Pr1-xCaxMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Hirofumi; Nemoto, Yuichi; Goto, Terutaka; Tomioka, Yasuhide; Tokura, Yoshinori; Asamitsu, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated charge and orbital (quadrupolar) ordering in perovskite manganites Pr 1-x Ca x MnO 3 (x=0.35, 0.40, 0.50) by ultrasonic measurements. Only transverse (C 11 - C 12 )/2 mode of the x=0.35, 0.40 and 0.50 compounds shows a softening from 400 K down to the charge ordering point T co =220 - 240 K. This softening is originated from the bilinear coupling of the quadrupole moment of the e g orbital in Mn 3+ ion to the elastic strain. Furthermore, the elastic softening in both (C 11 - C 12 )/2 and C 44 modes due to the coupling of the charge fluctuation mode to elastic strain is observed just above T co , especially for the x=0.50 compound. The considerable magnetic field dependence of the elastic constants is observed. In particular, the magnetic fields up to 12 T releases completely the elastic softening of (C 11 - C 12 )/2 mode due to the fact that the charge fluctuation is suppressed under 12 T in the x=0.40 compound. (author)

  9. Energy spectrum of carriers in Kaner-type semiconductors in magnetic field of constant direction with trigonometric depending variation perpendicular to the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanly, A.M.; Babanly, A.M.; Huner, V.

    2010-01-01

    It was presented compact analytical solutions for the energy spectrum and wave functions of carriers in two-dimensional Kaner-type semiconductors in a magnetic field of constant direction with trigonometric depending variation perpendicular to the field direction

  10. Analytic solution of a relativistic two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in a constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalba, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    We obtain exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Pauli-Schroedinger equations for a two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the presence of a constant magnetic field. Analytic solutions for the energy spectrum are obtained for particular values of the magnetic field strength. The results are compared to those obtained in the non-relativistic and spinless case. We obtain that the relativistic spectrum does not present s states. (orig.)

  11. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of the elastic constants in Nd3Se4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futterer, H.; Yohannes, T.; Bach, H.; Pelzl, J.; Nahm, K.; Kim, C.K.

    1988-01-01

    The elastic constants of Nd 3 Se 4 show an anomalous behaviour above and below T c =52 K. Band effects are assumed to be the origin of the softening of C' in the paramagnetic region. Below T c extra shifts arise from magneto-elastic coupling. An elastic hysteresis is observed which is directly related to the magnetic hysteresis loop

  12. High Magnetic Field Study of Elastic Constants of the Cage-structure Compound SmBe13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mombetsu, S; Murazumi, T; Hiura, K; Yamazaki, S; Hidaka, H; Yanagisawa, T; Amitsuka, H; Shimizu, Y; Yasin, S; Zherlitsyn, S; Wosnitza, J

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic measurements were performed on the cage-structure compound SmBe 13 . We have investigated the magnetic field-temperature phase diagram of this material by using pulsed magnetic fields. We found that the low-temperature magnetic order is suppressed by a magnetic field of 43 T for H ∥ [001], which is smaller than the estimated value from mean-field approximation assuming the Γ 8 quartet crystal-electric-field ground state and simple antiferromagnetic order. We found that the elastic constant C 44 shows softening below the ordering temperature and has a local minimum below 7 T. These facts suggest that the low- temperature state is not a simple antiferromagnetically ordered state. In addition, no elastic anomaly due to rattling modes was found in the present measurements. (paper)

  13. [The influence of ultrasound and constant magnetic field on gametes, zygotes, and embryos of the sea urchin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdov, K A; Khlistun, O A; Drozdov, A L

    2008-01-01

    The influence of constant magnetic field, power 7 T, and ultrasound, frequency 2, 4 and 8 MHz, on gametes, fertization, embryos and larvae of the sea urchin was studied. It was shown that magnetic field breaks the process of the gamete fusion but does not influence gametes, embryos, and larvae. Ultrasound impairs the motility of spermatozoa and larvae, prevents the fertilization, and breaks the embryonic development. It is assumed that the effect of the magnetic field is connected with the response of the cortical cytoskeleton, which consists of bundles of actin microfilaments. The rearrangement of the cortical cytoskeleton occurs during the first 20 minutes after the contact of sperm with the egg. Also there is effect of magnetic fields on calcium ions, which are liberated during the first seconds after gamete contact. The effect of the ultrasound is explained by a small increase in water temperature and cavitation process, which break celluar structures.

  14. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  15. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D.; Nguyen, Duy-Anh P.; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  16. Direct relativistic formulation of constant magnetic and electric field effects in simple atoms. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A previously developed method of obtaining approximate solutions to the Dirac equation for the electron is applied to the problem of constant electric and magnetic effects in simple atoms. This method makes the relativistic formulation of these problems straightforward. In all cases the standard expressions are reproduced, as one would expect, and hence illustrates the simplicity and utility of the method. The Zeeman effect is calculated to order α 2 , α being the usual fine structure constant, and it is seen that only the lowest order solutions are required. That is, one needs only the nonrelativistic solutions. The Stark effect and dipole transition matrix elements are calculated only to zero order in α as it is felt that that is all that is required for comparison with experiment. One concludes that the discrepancies between the theoretical values and experimental values of the oscillator strengths must be explained on the basis of nonrelativistic effects. (author) [fr

  17. Effects of the pulse-driven magnetic field detuning on the calibration of coil constants while using noble gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the calibration of coil constants using the Free Induction Decay (FID signal of noble gases, we analyse the effects of the pulse-driven magnetic field detuning on the calibration results. This method is based on the inverse relation between the π/2 pulse duration and its amplitude. We confirmed that obtaining a precise frequency is a prerequisite for ensuring the accuracy of research using the initial amplitude of the FID signal. In this paper, the spin dynamics of noble gases and its time-domain solution under the driving pulse have been discussed with regard to different detuning ranges. Experimental results are in good agreement with our theoretical predictions, which indicate the correctness of our theoretical deduction. Therefore, the frequency of the pulse-driven magnetic field is an important factor to the calibration of coil constants, it should be determined with a high degree of accuracy.

  18. One-loop thermodynamic potential of charged massive particles in a constant homogeneous magnetic field at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinichenko, I. S.; Kazinski, P. O.

    2016-12-01

    The explicit expressions for the high-temperature expansions of the one-loop corrections to the thermodynamic potential coming from charged scalar and Dirac particles and, separately, from antiparticles in a constant homogeneous magnetic field are derived. The explicit expressions for the nonperturbative corrections to the effective action at finite temperature and density are obtained. Thermodynamic properties of a gas of charged scalars in a constant homogeneous magnetic field are analyzed in the one-loop approximation. It turns out that, in this approximation, the system suffers a first-order phase transition from the diamagnetic to the superconducting state at sufficiently high densities. The improvement of the one-loop result by summing the ring diagrams is investigated. This improvement leads to a drastic change in thermodynamic properties of the system. The gas of charged scalars passes to the ferromagnetic state rather than the superconducting one at high densities and sufficiently low temperatures, in the high-temperature regime.

  19. Modified magnetomechancial model in the constant and low intensity magnetic field based on J-A theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyou; Luo, Xu; Zhu, Haiyan; Liu, Jianxun; Han, Yiwei

    2017-06-01

    The existing magnetomechancial models cannot explain the different experimental phenomena when the ferromagnetic specimen is respectively subjected to tension and compression stress in the constant and low intensity magnetic field, especially in the compression case. To promote the development of magnetomechancial theory, the energy conservation equation, effective magnetic field equation, and anhysteretic magnetization equation of the original Jiles-Atherton (J-A) theory are elucidated and modified, an equation of the local equilibrium status is employed and the differential expression of the modified magnetomechancial model based on the modified J-A theory is established finally. The effect of stress and plastic deformation on the magnetic parameters is analyzed. An excellent agreement is achieved between the theoretic predictions by the present modified model and the previous experimental results. Comparing with the calculation results given by the existing models and experimental results, it is seen indeed that the modified magnetomechanical model can describe the different magnetization features during tension-release and compression-release processes much better, and is the only one which can accurately reflect the experimental observation that the magnetic induction intensity reverses to negative value with the increase of the compressive stress and applied field. Project supported by the Major Program of Sichuan Province Science and Technology Plan, China (Grant No. 2015SZ0010) and the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. 2014GZ0121).

  20. Modified magnetomechancial model in the constant and low intensity magnetic field based on J–A theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingyou; Luo Xu; Liu Jianxun; Han Yiwei; Zhu Haiyan

    2017-01-01

    The existing magnetomechancial models cannot explain the different experimental phenomena when the ferromagnetic specimen is respectively subjected to tension and compression stress in the constant and low intensity magnetic field, especially in the compression case. To promote the development of magnetomechancial theory, the energy conservation equation, effective magnetic field equation, and anhysteretic magnetization equation of the original Jiles–Atherton (J–A) theory are elucidated and modified, an equation of the local equilibrium status is employed and the differential expression of the modified magnetomechancial model based on the modified J–A theory is established finally. The effect of stress and plastic deformation on the magnetic parameters is analyzed. An excellent agreement is achieved between the theoretic predictions by the present modified model and the previous experimental results. Comparing with the calculation results given by the existing models and experimental results, it is seen indeed that the modified magnetomechanical model can describe the different magnetization features during tension-release and compression-release processes much better, and is the only one which can accurately reflect the experimental observation that the magnetic induction intensity reverses to negative value with the increase of the compressive stress and applied field. (paper)

  1. Classical theory of high intensity collisional absorption in a constant magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieruccini, M.; Ferrante, G.; Nuzzo, S.; Zarcone, M.

    The problem of gain and loss of kinetic energy by electrons colliding off ions, in the presence of a strong e.m. radiation and of a steady homogeneous magnetic field B, has been investigated within the framework of the classical non relativistic theory. The analysis is first restricted to the elementary process of the electron stimulated direct and inverse bremsstrahlung. The rate of change of the time averaged electron kinetic energy is numerically evaluated for the special cases when the radiation field is either linearly polarized along B, or circularly polarized in a plane perpendicular to B. For the former case, the appropriate Langevin equations are also derived, in order to describe the average motion of test electrons in velocity space.

  2. New high dielectric constant materials for tailoring the B1+ distribution at high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K; Smith, N B; Webb, A G

    2010-04-01

    The spatial distribution of electromagnetic fields within the human body can be tailored using external dielectric materials. Here, we introduce a new material with high dielectric constant, and also low background MRI signal. The material is based upon metal titanates, which can be made into a geometrically-formable suspension in de-ionized water. The material properties of the suspension are characterized from 100 to 400 MHz. Results obtained at 7 T show a significant increase in image intensity in areas such as the temporal lobe and base of the brain with the new material placed around the head, and improved performance compared to purely water-based gels. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mixed convection in a nanofluid filled-cavity with partial slip subjected to constant heat flux and inclined magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismael, Muneer A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering College, University of Basrah, Basrah (Iraq); Mansour, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Assuit University, Faculty of Science, Assuit (Egypt); Chamkha, Ali J. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Prince Sultan Endowment for Energy and Environment, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University, Al-Khobar 31952 (Saudi Arabia); Rashad, A.M., E-mail: am_rashad@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Aswan University, Faculty of Science, Aswan 81528 (Egypt)

    2016-10-15

    Mixed convection in a lid-driven square cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and subjected to inclined magnetic field is investigated in this paper. Partial slip effect is considered along the lid driven horizontal walls. A constant heat flux source on the left wall is considered, meanwhile the right vertical wall is cooled isothermally. The remainder cavity walls are thermally insulted. A control finite volume method is used as a numerical appliance of the governing equations. Six pertinent parameters were studied these; the orientation of the magnetic field (Φ=0–360°), Richardson number (Ri=0.001–1000), Hartman number (Ha=0–100), the size and position of the heat source (B=0.2–0.8, D=0.3–0.7, respectively), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0.0–0.1), and the lid-direction of the horizontal walls (λ=±1) where the positive sign means lid-driven to the right while the negative sign means lid-driven to the left. The results show that the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field can play a significant role in controlling the convection under the effect of partial slip. It is also found that the natural convection decreases with increasing the length of the heat source for all ranges of the studied parameters, while it is do so due to the vertical distance up to Hartman number of 50, beyond this value the natural convection decreases with lifting the heat source narrower to the top wall. - Highlights: • Partial slip along moving walls of MHD cavity filled with nanofluid is considered. • The suppression exerted by the magnetic field decreases with its orientation. • Nusselt number is enhanced slightly with nanoparticles at shortest heat source. • Nusselt number is enhanced with nanoparticles at stronger magnetic field.

  4. Field oriented control of permanent magnet synchronous motors with time constant adaption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afsharnia, S.; Vahedi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, initially, we present a method for on-line identifying of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine electrical parameters, then these parameters will be used in the vector control structure of motors. Simulation results show the efficiency of this method to parameters identifying of machine even in the presence of saturation, variation of temperature and etc. Because of simplicity and being economic, this method can be used by electro motors constructors to identify motor parameters for different operating points

  5. Exact Green's function method of solar force-free magnetic-field computations with constant alpha. I - Theory and basic test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Hilton, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions to the solar force-free magnetic-field boundary-value problem are obtained for constant alpha in Cartesian geometry by a Green's function approach. The uniqueness of the physical problem is discussed. Application of the exact results to practical solar magnetic-field calculations is free of series truncation errors and is at least as economical as the approximate methods currently in use. Results of some test cases are presented.

  6. Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Schöller, Markus; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief introduction into the use of the Zeeman effect in astronomy and the general detection of magnetic fields in stars, concentrating on the use of FORS2 for longitudinal magnetic field measurements.

  7. Large Quantum Probability Backflow and the Azimuthal Angle-Angular Momentum Uncertainty Relation for an Electron in a Constant Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a surprising aspect of quantum mechanics that is accessible to an undergraduate student. We discuss probability backflow for an electron in a constant magnetic field. It is shown that even for a wavepacket composed entirely of states with negative angular momentum the effective angular momentum can take on positive…

  8. Corrections for a constant radial magnetic field in the muon g - 2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silenko, Alexander J. [Belarusian State University, Research Institute for Nuclear Problems, Minsk (Belarus); Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    We calculate the corrections for constant radial magnetic field in muon g - 2 and electric-dipole-moment experiments in storage rings. While the correction is negligible for the current generation of g - 2 experiments, it affects the upcoming muon electric-dipole-moment experiment at Fermilab. (orig.)

  9. Electric-field effects on magnetic anisotropy and damping constant in Ta/CoFeB/MgO investigated by ferromagnetic resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, A.; Kanai, S.; Yamanouchi, M.; Ikeda, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate electric-field effects on the effective magnetic anisotropy energy density Keff and the Gilbert damping constant α in Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures with CoFeB thickness t ranging from 1.4 to 1.8 nm by ferromagnetic resonance. The electric field-induced modulation ratio of the areal energy density Kefft does not depend on the CoFeB thickness, indicating that the electric-field effect on the magnetic anisotropy originates from the modulation of CoFeB/MgO-interfacial magnetic anisotropy. A clear electric-field modulation of α is observed for the structure with t = 1.4 nm, and almost no modulation for the structures with t ≥ 1.5 nm.

  10. Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    of the fluid flow at the top of the core. However, what is measured at or near the surface of the Earth is the superposition of the core field and fields caused by magnetized rocks in the Earth’s crust, by electric currents flowing in the ionosphere, magnetosphere, and oceans, and by currents induced......he Earth has a large and complicated magnetic field, the major part of which is produced by a self-sustaining dynamo operating in the fluid outer core. Magnetic field observations provide one of the few tools for remote sensing the Earth’s deep interior, especially regarding the dynamics...... in the Earth by time-varying external fields. These sources have their specific characteristics in terms of spatial and temporal variations, and their proper separation, based on magnetic measurements, is a major challenge. Such a separation is a prerequisite for remote sensing by means of magnetic field...

  11. The quantum oscillator on complex projective space (Lobachewski space) in a constant magnetic field and the issue of generic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Pulak Ranjan

    2007-01-01

    We perform a one-parameter family of self-adjoint extensions characterized by the parameter ω 0 . This allows us to get generic boundary conditions for the quantum oscillator on N-dimensional complex projective space (CP N ) and on its non-compact version, i.e., Lobachewski space (L N ) in the presence of a constant magnetic field. As a result, we get a family of energy spectra for the oscillator. In our formulation the already known result of this oscillator also belongs to the family. We have also obtained an energy spectrum which preserves all the symmetries (full-hidden symmetry and rotational symmetry) of the oscillator. The method of self-adjoint extensions has also been discussed for a conic oscillator in the presence of the constant magnetic field

  12. Magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestel, L.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)

    1985-01-01

    The role of the Galactic magnetic field in the early stages of star formation is examined. The dynamical and observational consequences of the anisotropic collapse of cool gas clouds permeated by the local Galactic magnetic field are discussed. Magneto-gravitational equilibria of such clouds with subcritical mass-flux ratios, especially in the thin disk approximation, are addressed. Magnetic braking of both subcritical and supercritical masses is considered, and the consequences of flux leakage during the molecular cloud phase are discussed, including the effect on field topology

  13. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Pham, Dang-Lan [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software Town, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: hoanglv@hcmup.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity.

  14. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Pham, Dang-Lan; Le, Van-Hoang

    2013-01-01

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity

  15. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    In order to directly measure the magnetic fields in the vicinity of plasmas in a thermonuclear device, electric current is supplied to a conductor intersecting magnetic fields, and the position of the conductor is changed by generated electromagnetic forces, and the positional change of the conductor is measured to determine the magnetic fields. Namely, if electric current is supplied to the conductor crossing the magnetic fields, electromagnetic forces directly in proportion to the magnetic fields exert on the object. If the forces are measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If springs are attached to the conductor undergoing electromagnetic forces, as a method of measuring electromagnetic forces, since the distortion is in proportion to the electromagnetic forces, magnetic fields can be determined, for example, by changing the position of a contact of a variable resistor interlocking with the positional change of the spring. Since a semiconductor device which is sensitive to radiation is not necessary and the magnetic fields can be measured directly in this method for the measurement of the magnetic fields, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even in a long period of time. The device of the present invention can measure magnetic fields with no drift components of the integrator, has excellent radiation-resistance and can improve the plant safety. (N.H.)

  16. Magnetic field measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigemitsu; Abe, Mitsushi.

    1996-01-01

    If signal voltages are integrated with lapse of time in a thermonuclear device, erroneous voltages are also integrated with lapse of time thereby resulting in occurrence of measuring errors increased with lapse of time, and continuous measurement for magnetic fields at high accuracy for a long period of time has been difficult. Then, a movable coil is disposed in the magnetic fields to be measured in order to directly measure the magnetic fields at the periphery of the plasmas, and electric current is supplied to the coil and resulted electromagnetic force is measured to obtain a magnetic field. If electric current is supplied to the coil in the magnetic fields, electromagnetic force (rotational torque) directly in proportion to the magnetic fields is generated. If the electromagnetic force is measured, magnetic fields can be determined directly without using an integrator. If a resistor wire is disposed on one end of the coil so that the resistor wire extends/shrinks by the electromagnetic force and changes the resistance value, the electromagnetic force can be determined from the magnetic fields based on the change of the resistance values. Since the measurement using magnetic fields does not require semiconductor devices which are sensitive to radiation, and the magnetic fields can be measured directly, the measurement can be conducted at a constant accuracy even for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  17. In-situ neutron diffraction study of magnetic field induced reorientation in Ni-Mn-Ga under constant stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, Peter; Šittner, Petr; Novák, Václav; Prokleška, J.; Sechovsky, V.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Hanulla, S.P.; Heczko, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 10 (2008), 104224/1-104224/7 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : shape memory alloys * NiMnGa * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2008

  18. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-05-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant.

  19. Tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2017-10-01

    We show how all possible one-particle reducible tadpole diagrams in constant electromagnetic fields can be constructed from one-particle irreducible constant-field diagrams. The construction procedure is essentially algebraic and involves differentiations of the latter class of diagrams with respect to the field strength tensor and contractions with derivatives of the one-particle irreducible part of the Heisenberg-Euler effective Lagrangian in constant fields. Specific examples include the two-loop addendum to the Heisenberg-Euler effective action as well as a novel one-loop correction to the charged particle propagator in constant electromagnetic fields discovered recently. As an additional example, the approach devised in the present article is adopted to derive the tadpole contribution to the two-loop photon polarization tensor in constant fields for the first time.

  20. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, DM and EM for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hami- ltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant MS-valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamilto- nians employing ...

  1. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a theoretical approach to compute the molecular magnetic anisotropy parameters, and for single molecule magnets in any given spin eigenstate of exchange spin Hamiltonian. We first describe a hybrid constant -valence bond (VB) technique of solving spin Hamiltonians employing full spatial ...

  2. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we have studied the solutions of plane-symmetric Universe with variable ω in the presence and the absence of magnetic field of energy density ρ B . A special law of variation for Hubble's parameterproposed by Bermann in {\\it Nuovo Cimento} B 74, 182 (1983) has been utilized to solve the field equations.

  3. Spectra of magnetic chain graphs: coupling constant perturbations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Manko, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2015), s. 125302 ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum graph * magnetic field * coupling constant perturbation * eigenvalues in gaps * weak coupling Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.933, year: 2015

  4. Magnetic Field Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Calculator will calculate the total magnetic field, including components (declination, inclination, horizontal intensity, northerly intensity,...

  5. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-03

    Nov 3, 2016 ... Abstract. In this paper, we have studied the solutions of plane-symmetric Universe with variable ω in the presence and the absence of magnetic field of energy density ρB. A special law of variation for Hubble's parameter proposed by Bermann in Nuovo Cimento B 74, 182 (1983) has been utilized to solve ...

  6. Gravitational gauge fields and the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagels, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    We describe field theories for which the action is completely independent of the metric and connection of the space-time manifold. The metric in our approach is no more a fundamental field than a hadron field is a fundamental field in QCD. The fundamental fields in the action are O(5) gauge fields and combinations of these fields are interpreted as the metric and connection so that conventional general relativity is obtained. Remarkably, all renormalizable matter actions for scalar, spinor, and Yang-Mills gauge fields can be made metric independent. Significantly, we find a new elementary invariance of the action which implies the cosmological constant must vanish. Finally, we discuss the quantum theory resulting from these ideas

  7. Variable magnetic field (VMF) effect on the heat transfer of a half-annulus cavity filled by Fe3O4-water nanofluid under constant heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, M.; Zhou, J.; Geng, J.; Jing, D.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of a variable magnetic field (VMF) on the natural convection heat transfer of Fe3O4-water nanofluid in a half-annulus cavity is studied by finite element method using FlexPDE commercial code. After deriving the governing equations and solving the problem by defined boundary conditions, the effects of three main parameters (Hartmann Number (Ha), nanoparticles volume fraction (φ) and Rayleigh number (Ra)) on the local and average Nusselt numbers of inner wall are investigated. As a main outcome, results confirm that in low Eckert numbers, increasing the Hartmann number make a decrease on the Nusselt number due to Lorentz force resulting from the presence of stronger magnetic field.

  8. Magnetic Field Grid Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Magnetic Field Properties Calculator will computes the estimated values of Earth's magnetic field(declination, inclination, vertical component, northerly...

  9. Cosmological magnetic fields - V

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. Magnetic fields seem to be everywhere that we can look in the universe, from our own sun out to high-redshift Lyman-« systems. The fields we ... is the field tensor, is the four-potential, and В is the four-current. The field tensor is observer-independent, while the electric and magnetic fields depend on the ...

  10. Pair production by a constant external field in noncommutative QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, N.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we study QED on the noncommutative space in the constant electro-magnetic field background. Using the explicit solutions of the noncommutative version of Dirac equation in such background, we show that there are well-defined in and out-going asymptotic states and also there is a causal Green's function. We calculate the pair production rate in this case. We show that at tree level noncommutativity will not change the pair production and the threshold electric field. We also calculate the pair production rate considering the first loop corrections. In this case we show that the threshold electric field is decreased by the noncommutativity effects. (author)

  11. Relativistic motion in a constant electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Siu A.

    2009-01-01

    For a relativistic charged particle moving in a constant electromagnetic field, its velocity 4-vector has been well studied. However, despite the fact that both the electromagnetic field and the equations of motion are purely real, the resulting 4-velocity is seemingly due to a complex electromagnetic field. This work shows that this is not due to some complex formalism used (such as Clifford algebra) but is intrinsically due to the fact that the o(3,1) Lie algebra of the Lorentz group is equivalent to two commuting complex su(2) algebras. Expressing the complex su(2) generators in terms of the boost and rotation operators then naturally introduces a complex electromagnetic field. This work solves the equation of motion not as a matrix equation, but as an operator evolution equation in terms of the generators of the Lorentz group. The factorization of the real evolution operator into two commuting complex evolution operators then directly gives the time evolution of the velocity 4-vector without any reference to an intermediate field

  12. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, Mathias; Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    2017-01-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter’s planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor ...

  13. Organic magnetic field sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-01-24

    An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).

  14. 3D study of a bi facial polycrystalline photovoltaic cell under constant magnetic field and determination of the parameters of recombination from internal quantum yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZOUMA Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problem of the quality of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. This work has been done on square surface columnar grains of the bi facial solar cell. This study ends in the determination of the quality of bi facial solar cells from their recombination parameters. We propose an useful technique to determine these recombination parameters from the algorithm calculation that is based on the internal quantum efficiency. A set of dimensional approach like the three-dimensional model of the solar cell that allows taking into account the grain size and grain boundaries recombination velocity. The emitter contribution and the terrestrial magnetic field influence are taken into account too. While lighted, the emitter region becomes a recombination zone of the electron from the base region. We have obtained a new exhaustive analytical expression of the internal quantum efficiency. This theoretical efficiency is a function of the recombination parameters and it is used to fit the experimental curves of the internal quantum efficiency versus the wavelength. The results are in a good agreement with the experimental values.(Author) [fr

  15. Magnetized anisotropic dark energy models with constant ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-03

    Nov 3, 2016 ... Bianchi type-III cosmological model in the presence of magnetic aeolotropic dark energy. The only gen- eralization of the EoS parameter of the perfect fluid could also be to work out the EoS parameter singly on ... EoS parameters for the fluid on x-,y- and z-axes respectively, ω is the deviation-free EoS ...

  16. Touchless attitude correction for satellite with constant magnetic moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Hou-jun; Yang, Le-ping; Zhu, Yan-wei; Zhang, Yuan-wen; Huang, Huan

    2017-09-01

    Rescue of satellite with attitude fault is of great value. Satellite with improper injection attitude may lose contact with ground as the antenna points to the wrong direction, or encounter energy problems as solar arrays are not facing the sun. Improper uploaded command may set the attitude out of control, exemplified by Japanese Hitomi spacecraft. In engineering practice, traditional physical contact approaches have been applied, yet with a potential risk of collision and a lack of versatility since the mechanical systems are mission-specific. This paper puts forward a touchless attitude correction approach, in which three satellites are considered, one having constant dipole and two having magnetic coils to control attitude of the first. Particular correction configurations are designed and analyzed to maintain the target's orbit during the attitude correction process. A reference coordinate system is introduced to simplify the control process and avoid the singular value problem of Euler angles. Based on the spherical triangle basic relations, the accurate varying geomagnetic field is considered in the attitude dynamic mode. Sliding mode control method is utilized to design the correction law. Finally, numerical simulation is conducted to verify the theoretical derivation. It can be safely concluded that the no-contact attitude correction approach for the satellite with uniaxial constant magnetic moment is feasible and potentially applicable to on-orbit operations.

  17. Magnetic fields at Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ness, N.F.; Acuna, M.H.; Burlaga, L.F.; Connerney, J.E.P.; Lepping, R.P.; Neubauer, F.M.

    1989-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center-University of Delaware Bartol Research Institute magnetic field experiment on the Voyager 2 spacecraft discovered a strong and complex intrinsic magnetic field of Neptune and an associated magnetosphere and magnetic tail. A maximum magnetic field of nearly 10,000 nanoteslas (1 nanotesla = 10 -5 gauss) was observed near closest approach, at a distance of 1.18 R N . The planetary magnetic field between 4 and 15 R N can be well represented by an offset tilted magnetic dipole (OTD), displaced from the center of Neptune by the surprisingly large amount of 0.55 R N and inclined by 47 degrees with respect to the rotation axis. Within 4 R N , the magnetic field representation must include localized sources or higher order magnetic multipoles, or both, which are not yet well determined. As the spacecraft exited the magnetosphere, the magnetic tail appeared to be monopolar, and no crossings of an imbedded magnetic field reversal or plasma neutral sheet were observed. The auroral zones are most likely located far from the rotation poles and may have a complicated geometry. The rings and all the known moons of Neptune are imbedded deep inside the magnetosphere, except for Nereid, which is outside when sunward of the planet. The radiation belts will have a complex structure owing to the absorption of energetic particles by the moons and rings of Neptune and losses associated with the significant changes in the diurnally varying magnetosphere configuration. In an astrophysical context, the magnetic field of Neptune, like that of Uranus, may be described as that of an oblique rotator

  18. Magnetic fields in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    The possible role of a large-scale relic magnetic field in the history of the Universe is considered. The perturbation of the cosmic microwave back-ground radiation on large angular scales due to a homogeneous magnetic field is estimated in a simple relativistic model. This allows corresponding limits to be placed on the magnitude of any such large-scale relic magnetic field at the present time. These limits are essentially the strongest which can be set on the largest scales. A corresponding bound is obtained by use of the requirement that the field should not spoil the predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis. It is noted that the existence of large-scale cosmic magnetic fields would circumvent the limits previously set - also on the basis of nucleosynthesis considerations - on the large-scale anisotropy now present in the Universe. (author)

  19. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez Almeida, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the universe and play an important role in many astrophysical processes. However, they require specialised observational tools, and are challenging to model and understand. This volume provides a unified view of magnetic fields across astrophysical and cosmological contexts, drawing together disparate topics that are rarely covered together. Written by the lecturers of the XXV Canary Islands Winter School, it offers a self-contained introduction to cosmic magnetic fields on a range of scales. The connections between the behaviours of magnetic fields in these varying contexts are particularly emphasised, from the relatively small and close ranges of the Sun, planets and stars, to galaxies and clusters of galaxies, as well as on cosmological scales. Aimed at young researchers and graduate students, this up-to-date review uniquely brings together a subject often tackled by disconnected communities, conveying the latest advances as well as highlighting the limits of our current understandi...

  20. Magnetic field effects on microwave absorbing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira; Hollingsworth, Charles S.; Mckinney, Ted M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this program was to gather information to formulate a microwave absorber that can work in the presence of strong constant direct current (DC) magnetic fields. The program was conducted in four steps. The first step was to investigate the electrical and magnetic properties of magnetic and ferrite microwave absorbers in the presence of strong magnetic fields. This included both experimental measurements and a literature survey of properties that may be applicable to finding an appropriate absorbing material. The second step was to identify those material properties that will produce desirable absorptive properties in the presence of intense magnetic fields and determine the range of magnetic field in which the absorbers remain effective. The third step was to establish ferrite absorber designs that will produce low reflection and adequate absorption in the presence of intense inhomogeneous static magnetic fields. The fourth and final step was to prepare and test samples of such magnetic microwave absorbers if such designs seem practical.

  1. Transient anisotropic magnetic field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesenik, Marko; Gorican, Viktor; Trlep, Mladen; Hamler, Anton; Stumberger, Bojan

    2006-01-01

    For anisotropic magnetic material, nonlinear magnetic characteristics of the material are described with magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. The paper presents transient finite element calculation of the magnetic field in the anisotropic magnetic material based on the measured magnetization curves for different magnetization directions. For the verification of the calculation method some results of the calculation are compared with the measurement

  2. Magnetic Fields Versus Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-04-01

    Deep within giant molecular clouds, hidden by dense gas and dust, stars form. Unprecedented data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the intricate magnetic structureswoven throughout one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way.How Stars Are BornThe Horsehead Nebulasdense column of gas and dust is opaque to visible light, but this infrared image reveals the young stars hidden in the dust. [NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team]Simple theory dictates that when a dense clump of molecular gas becomes massive enough that its self-gravity overwhelms the thermal pressure of the cloud, the gas collapses and forms a star. In reality, however, star formation is more complicated than a simple give and take between gravity and pressure. Thedusty molecular gas in stellar nurseries is permeated with magnetic fields, which are thought to impede the inward pull of gravity and slow the rate of star formation.How can we learn about the magnetic fields of distant objects? One way is by measuring dust polarization. An elongated dust grain will tend to align itself with its short axis parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. This systematic alignment of the dust grains along the magnetic field lines polarizes the dust grains emission perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This allows us to infer the direction of the magnetic field from the direction of polarization.Magnetic field orientations for protostars e2 and e8 derived from Submillimeter Array observations (panels a through c) and ALMA observations (panels d and e). Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Koch et al. 2018]Tracing Magnetic FieldsPatrick Koch (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) and collaborators used high-sensitivity ALMA observations of dust polarization to learn more about the magnetic field morphology of Milky Way star-forming region W51. W51 is one of the largest star-forming regions in our galaxy, home to high-mass protostars e2, e8, and North.The ALMA observations reveal

  3. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...

  4. ISR Radial Field Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    There were 37 (normal) + 3 (special) Radial Field magnets in the ISR to adjust vertically the closed orbit. Gap heights and strengths were 200 mm and .12 Tm in the normal magnets, 220 mm and .18 Tm in the special ones. The core length was 430 mm in both types. Due to their small length as compared to the gap heights the end fringe field errors were very important and had to be compensated by suitably shaping the poles. In order to save on cables, as these magnets were located very far from their power supplies, the coils of the normal type magnets were formed by many turns of solid cpper conductor with some interleaved layers of hollow conductor directly cooled by circulating water

  5. Computing magnetic anisotropy constants of single molecule magnets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    stringent requirements for a molecule to behave as a. SMM. Modelling magnetic anisotropy in these sys- tems becomes necessary for developing new SMMs with desired properties. Magnetic anisotropy of SMMs is computed by treating the anisotropy Hamiltonian as a perturbation over the Heisenberg exchange ...

  6. Mercury's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is the only inner solar system body other than Earth to possess an active core dynamo-driven magnetic field and the only planet with a small, highly dynamic magnetosphere. Measurements made by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft have provided a wealth of data on Mercury's magnetic field environment. Mercury's weak magnetic field was discovered 40 years ago by the Mariner 10 spacecraft, but its large-scale geometry, strength and origin could not be definitively established. MESSENGER data have shown that the field is dynamo-generated and can be described as an offset axisymmetric dipole field (hereafter OAD): the magnetic equator lies ~0.2 RM (RM = 2440 km) north of the geographic equator and the dipole moment is 2.8 x1019 Am2 (~0.03% that of Earth's). The weak internal field and the high, but variable, solar wind ram pressure drive vigorous magnetospheric dynamics and result in an average distance from the planet center to the sub-solar magnetopause of only 1.42 RM. Magnetospheric models developed with MESSENGER data have allowed re-analysis of the Mariner 10 observations, establishing that there has been no measureable secular variation in the internal field over 40 years. Together with spatial power spectra for the OAD, this provides critical constraints for viable dynamo models. Time-varying magnetopause fields induce secondary core fields, the magnitudes of which confirm the core radius estimated from MESSENGER gravity and Earth-based radar data. After accounting for large-scale magnetospheric fields, residual signatures are dominated by additional external fields that are organized in the local time frame and that vary with magnetospheric activity. Birkeland currents have been identified, which likely close in the planetary interior at depths below the base of the crust. Near-periapsis magnetic field measurements at altitudes greater than 200 km have tantalizing hints of crustal fields, but crustal

  7. Cosmic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are important in the Universe and their effects contain the key to many astrophysical phenomena that are otherwise impossible to understand. This book presents an up-to-date overview of this fast-growing topic and its interconnections to plasma processes, astroparticle physics, high energy astrophysics, and cosmic evolution. The phenomenology and impact of magnetic fields are described in diverse astrophysical contexts within the Universe, from galaxies to the filaments and voids of the intergalactic medium, and out to the largest redshifts. The presentation of mathematical formulae is accessible and is designed to add insight into the broad range of topics discussed. Written for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics and related disciplines, this volume will inspire readers to devise new ways of thinking about magnetic fields in space on galaxy scales and beyond.

  8. Hydrodynamics, fields and constants in gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanyukovich, K.P.; Mel'nikov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of original inveatigations into problems of standard gravitation theory and its generalizations are presented. The main attention is paid to the application of methods of continuous media techniques in the gravitation theory; to the specification of the gravitation role in phenomena of macro- and microworld, accurate solutions in the case, when the medium is the matter, assigned by hydrodynamic energy-momentum tensor; and to accurate solutions for the case when the medium is the field. GRT generalizations are analyzed, such as the new cosmologic hypothesis which is based on the gravitation vacuum theory. Investigations are performed into the quantization of cosmological models, effects of spontaneous symmetry violation and particle production in cosmology. Graeity theory with fundamental Higgs field is suggested in the framework of which in the atomic unit number one can explain possible variations of the effective gravitational bonds, and in the gravitation bond, variations of masses of all particles

  9. Waves on the surface of a magnetic fluid layer in a traveling magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    The plane flow of a layer of incompressible viscous magnetic fluid with constant magnetic permeability under the action of a traveling magnetic field is analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field producing a sinusoidal traveling small-amplitude wave on the surface of a magnetic fluid is found. This flow can be used in designing mobile robots

  10. Magnetic field of Mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.J.; Beard, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The geomagnetic field, suitably scaled down and parameterized, is shown to give a very good fit to the magnetic field measurements taken on the first and third passes of the Mariner 10 space probe past Mercury. The excellence of the fit to a reliable planetary magnetospheric model is good evidence that the Mercury magnetosphere is formed by a simple, permanent, intrinsic planetary magnetic field distorted by the effects of the solar wind. The parameters used for a best fit to all the data are (depending slightly on the choice of data) 2.44--2.55 for the ratio of Mercury's magnetic field strength at the subsolar point to that of the earth's subsolar point field (this results in a dipole moment of 170 γR/sub M/ 3 (R/sub M/ is Mercury Radius), i.e., 2.41 x 10 22 G cm 3 in the same direction as the earth's dipole), approx.-113 γR/sub M/ 4 for the planetary quadrupole moment parallel to the dipole moment, 10degree--17degree for the tilt of the planet dipole toward the sun, 4.5degree for the tilt of the dipole toward dawn, and 2.5degree--7.6degree aberration angle for the shift in the tail axis from the planet-sun direction because of the planet's orbital velocity. The rms deviation overall for the entire data set compared with the theoretical fitted model for the magnetic field strength was 17 γ (approx.4% of the maximum field measured). If the data from the first pass that show presumed strong time variations are excluded, the overall rms deviation for the field magnitude is only 10 γ

  11. Efficient magnetic field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Iwan; Moonen, Niek; Buesink, Frits; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Measuring magnetic fields of equipment under test at low frequencies which is received by loop antennas using an EMI receiver with small bandwidths takes much time and can even reach a week for a standard measurement. This waste in time could be avoided by applying time domain measurements.

  12. Magnetic field of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Aleksey

    2013-04-01

    of electromagnetism. According to a rule of the left hand: if the magnetic field in a kernel is directed to drawing, electric current are directed to an axis of rotation of the Earth, - a action of force clockwise (to West). Definition of the force causing drift a kernel according to the law of Ampere F = IBlsin. Powerful force 3,5 × 1012 Nyton, what makes drift of the central part of a kernel of the Earth on 0,2 the longitude in year to West, and also it is engine of the mechanism of movement of slabs together with continents. Movement of a core of the Earth carry out around of a terrestrial axis one circulation in the western direction in 2000 of years. Linear speed of rotation of a kernel concerning a mantle on border the mantle a kernel: V = × 3,471 × 10 = 3,818 × 10 m/s = 33 m/day = 12 km/years. Considering greater viscosity of a mantle, the powerful energy at rotation of a kernel seize a mantle and lithospheric slabs and makes their collisions as a result of which there are earthquakes and volcano. Continents Northern and Southern America every year separate from the Europe and Africa on several centimeters. Atlantic ocean as a result of movement of these slabs with such speed was formed for 200 million years, that in comparison with the age of the Earth - several billions years, not so long time. Drift of a kernel in the western direction is a principal cause of delay of speed of rotation of the Earth. Flow of radial electric currents allot according to the law of Joule - Lenz, the quantity of warmth : Q = I2Rt = IUt, of thermal energy 6,92 × 1017 calories/year. This defines heating of a kernel and the Earth as a whole. In the valley of the median-Atlantic ridge having numerous volcanos, the lava flow constantly thus warm up waters of Atlantic ocean. It is a fact the warm current Gulf Stream. Thawing of a permafrost and ices of Arctic ocean, of glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica is acknowledgement: the warmth of earth defines character of thawing of

  13. Supersymmetry breaking in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akyeampong, D.A.

    1981-10-01

    The one-loop effective potential of an abelian supersymmetric model in an environment provided by a constant external magnetic field is derived. It is shown that magnetic field breaks supersymmetry and that the value of the resulting minimum potential is lower than that of the tree level. This could be relevant to the question of possible restoration of the symmetry at higher loops. (author)

  14. Magnetic fields in diffuse media

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, Elisabete; Melioli, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the current knowledge of magnetic fields in diffuse astrophysical media. Starting with an overview of 21st century instrumentation to observe astrophysical magnetic fields, the chapters cover observational techniques, origin of magnetic fields, magnetic turbulence, basic processes in magnetized fluids, the role of magnetic fields for cosmic rays, in the interstellar medium and for star formation. Written by a group of leading experts the book represents an excellent overview of the field. Nonspecialists will find sufficient background to enter the field and be able to appreciate the state of the art.

  15. Electric-Field Modulation of Damping Constant in a Ferromagnetic Semiconductor (Ga,Mn)As

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-07-01

    The modulation of the Gilbert damping constant α in (Ga,Mn)As by the application of an electric field is detected by ferromagnetic resonance measurements, where α increases with decreasing hole concentration. The smaller modulation of other magnetic parameters, such as magnetic anisotropy fields and Landé g factor, suggests that the modulation of α is governed by other effects rather than the spin-orbit coupling. Comparison of the conductivity dependence of α with that of the magnetization indicates that the magnetic disorder induced by carrier localization plays a major role in determining the magnitude of α in (Ga,Mn)As.

  16. Exact Electromagnetic Fields Produced by a Finite Wire with Constant Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, I.; Aquino, N.

    2008-01-01

    We solve exactly the problem of calculating the electromagnetic fields produced by a finite wire with a constant current, by using two methods: retarded potentials and Jefimenko's formalism. One result in this particular case is that the usual Biot-Savart law of magnetostatics gives the correct magnetic field of the problem. We also show…

  17. Multiple constant multiplication optimizations for field programmable gate arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Kumm, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This work covers field programmable gate array (FPGA)-specific optimizations of circuits computing the multiplication of a variable by several constants, commonly denoted as multiple constant multiplication (MCM). These optimizations focus on low resource usage but high performance. They comprise the use of fast carry-chains in adder-based constant multiplications including ternary (3-input) adders as well as the integration of look-up table-based constant multipliers and embedded multipliers to get the optimal mapping to modern FPGAs. The proposed methods can be used for the efficient implementation of digital filters, discrete transforms and many other circuits in the domain of digital signal processing, communication and image processing. Contents Heuristic and ILP-Based Optimal Solutions for the Pipelined Multiple Constant Multiplication Problem Methods to Integrate Embedded Multipliers, LUT-Based Constant Multipliers and Ternary (3-Input) Adders An Optimized Multiple Constant Multiplication Architecture ...

  18. Coronal Magnetic Field Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegelmann, Thomas; Petrie, Gordon J. D.; Riley, Pete

    2017-09-01

    Coronal magnetic field models use photospheric field measurements as boundary condition to model the solar corona. We review in this paper the most common model assumptions, starting from MHD-models, magnetohydrostatics, force-free and finally potential field models. Each model in this list is somewhat less complex than the previous one and makes more restrictive assumptions by neglecting physical effects. The magnetohydrostatic approach neglects time-dependent phenomena and plasma flows, the force-free approach neglects additionally the gradient of the plasma pressure and the gravity force. This leads to the assumption of a vanishing Lorentz force and electric currents are parallel (or anti-parallel) to the magnetic field lines. Finally, the potential field approach neglects also these currents. We outline the main assumptions, benefits and limitations of these models both from a theoretical (how realistic are the models?) and a practical viewpoint (which computer resources to we need?). Finally we address the important problem of noisy and inconsistent photospheric boundary conditions and the possibility of using chromospheric and coronal observations to improve the models.

  19. Earth's Magnetic Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    research with the aim to better characterise the state and dynamics of Earth’s magnetic field. Advances in the exploitation of geomagnetic observations hold a huge potential not only for an improved quantitative description of the field source but also for a better understanding of the underlying processes...... and physics. Key is the separation of the field sources in the observations, especially, but not solely, during times of quiet geomagnetic conditions, when the most subtle geomagnetic effects can be identified and become significant. The collected articles are based on the current constellation of ground......This volume provides a comprehensive view on the different sources of the geomagnetic field both in the Earth’s interior and from the field’s interaction with the terrestrial atmosphere and the solar wind. It combines expertise from various relevant areas of geomagnetic and near Earth space...

  20. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, M.; Lopusnik, R.; Fassbender, J.; Hillebrands, B.

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization reversal process. Comparing the case of perpendicular anisotropy with different kinds of in-plane anisotropies, a principal difference is found due to the symmetry of the shape anisotropy with respect to the anisotropy in question

  1. Solar Force-free Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Wiegelmann

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure and dynamics of the solar corona is dominated by the magnetic field. In most areas in the corona magnetic forces are so dominant that all non-magnetic forces like plasma pressure gradient and gravity can be neglected in the lowest order. This model assumption is called the force-free field assumption, as the Lorentz force vanishes. This can be obtained by either vanishing electric currents (leading to potential fields or the currents are co-aligned with the magnetic field lines. First we discuss a mathematically simpler approach that the magnetic field and currents are proportional with one global constant, the so-called linear force-free field approximation. In the generic case, however, the relation between magnetic fields and electric currents is nonlinear and analytic solutions have been only found for special cases, like 1D or 2D configurations. For constructing realistic nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field models in 3D, sophisticated numerical computations are required and boundary conditions must be obtained from measurements of the magnetic field vector in the solar photosphere. This approach is currently of large interests, as accurate measurements of the photospheric field become available from ground-based (for example SOLIS and space-born (for example Hinode and SDO instruments. If we can obtain accurate force-free coronal magnetic field models we can calculate the free magnetic energy in the corona, a quantity which is important for the prediction of flares and coronal mass ejections. Knowledge of the 3D structure of magnetic field lines also help us to interpret other coronal observations, e.g., EUV images of the radiating coronal plasma.

  2. Influence of the Gilbert damping constant on the flux rise time of write head fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl, Othmar; Schrefl, Thomas; Suess, Dieter; Schabes, Manfred E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic recording at fast data rates requires write heads with rapid rise times of the magnetic flux during the write process. We present three-dimensional (3D) micromagnetic finite element calculations of an entire ring head including 3D coil geometry during the writing of magnetic bits in granular media. The simulations demonstrate how input current profiles translate into magnetization processes in the head and which in turn generate the write head field. The flux rise time significantly depends on the Gilbert damping constant of the head material. Low damping causes incoherent magnetization processes, leading to long rise times and low head fields. High damping leads to coherent reversal of the magnetization in the head. As a consequence, the gap region can be quickly saturated which causes high head fields with short rise times

  3. Low field magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Sakellariou, Dimitrios; Meriles, Carlos A.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2010-07-13

    A method and system of magnetic resonance imaging does not need a large homogenous field to truncate a gradient field. Spatial information is encoded into the spin magnetization by allowing the magnetization to evolve in a non-truncated gradient field and inducing a set of 180 degree rotations prior to signal acquisition.

  4. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  5. The Capacitive Magnetic Field Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyatkov, D. O.; Yurchenko, A. V.; Balashov, V. B.; Yurchenko, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of a study of sensitive element magnetic field sensor are represented in this paper. The sensor is based on the change of the capacitance with an active dielectric (ferrofluid) due to the magnitude of magnetic field. To prepare the ferrofluid magnetic particles are used, which have a followingdispersion equal to 50 brand 5BDSR. The dependence of the sensitivity of the capacitive element from the ferrofluid with different dispersion of magnetic particles is considered. The threshold of sensitivity and sensitivity of a measuring cell with ferrofluid by a magnetic field was determined. The experimental graphs of capacitance change of the magnitude of magnetic field are presented.

  6. Master formulas for the dressed scalar propagator in a constant field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aftab; Ahmadiniaz, Naser; Corradini, Olindo; Kim, Sang Pyo; Schubert, Christian

    2017-06-01

    The worldline formalism has previously been used for deriving compact master formulas for the one-loop N-photon amplitudes in both scalar and spinor QED, and in the vacuum as well as in a constant external field. For scalar QED, there is also an analogous master formula for the propagator dressed with N photons in the vacuum. Here, we extend this master formula to include a constant field. The two-photon case is worked out explicitly, yielding an integral representation for the Compton scattering cross section in the field suitable for numerical integration in the full range of electric and magnetic field strengths.

  7. Master formulas for the dressed scalar propagator in a constant field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Aftab [Department of Physics, Gomal University, 29220 D.I. Khan, K.P.K (Pakistan); Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia 58040, Michoacán (Mexico); Ahmadiniaz, Naser, E-mail: Ahmadiniaz@ibs.re.kr [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 54150 (Korea, Republic of); Corradini, Olindo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 213/A, I-41125 Modena (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna (Italy); Kim, Sang Pyo [Center for Relativistic Laser Science, Institute for Basic Science, Gwangju 61005 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, Kunsan National University, Kunsan 54150 (Korea, Republic of); Schubert, Christian [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia 58040, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2017-06-15

    The worldline formalism has previously been used for deriving compact master formulas for the one-loop N-photon amplitudes in both scalar and spinor QED, and in the vacuum as well as in a constant external field. For scalar QED, there is also an analogous master formula for the propagator dressed with N photons in the vacuum. Here, we extend this master formula to include a constant field. The two-photon case is worked out explicitly, yielding an integral representation for the Compton scattering cross section in the field suitable for numerical integration in the full range of electric and magnetic field strengths.

  8. Master formulas for the dressed scalar propagator in a constant field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The worldline formalism has previously been used for deriving compact master formulas for the one-loop N-photon amplitudes in both scalar and spinor QED, and in the vacuum as well as in a constant external field. For scalar QED, there is also an analogous master formula for the propagator dressed with N photons in the vacuum. Here, we extend this master formula to include a constant field. The two-photon case is worked out explicitly, yielding an integral representation for the Compton scattering cross section in the field suitable for numerical integration in the full range of electric and magnetic field strengths.

  9. Interaction of Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields in HTSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyev Aleksandr Fedorovich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article a problem of interaction of the crossed magnetic fields in superconductors is considered. Superconducting materials have nonlinear magnetic properties. It allows using a non-linear magnetic susceptibility for measurement of feeble magnetic fields. We place a wire of superconducting material in a constant parallel uniform magnetic field. Then we let through a wire the alternating current leak. Interaction of mutual and perpendicular variation magnetic fields, with adequate accuracy is described by Ginzburg-Landau's equations. Approximate solution of the written equations is received. The component of a magnetic field parallel to a wire contains a variable component. Frequency of a variable component of the magnetic field is equal to the doubled current frequency. Amplitude of the variable component of the magnetic field is proportional to strength of the constant magnetic field. The experimental installation for research of interaction of mutually perpendicular magnetic fields is created. The cylinder from HTSC of ceramics of the YBa2Cu3O7-x was used as a sensor. Dependence of amplitude of the second harmonica of a variation magnetic field on strength of a constant magnetic field is received.

  10. Bare coupling constants and asymptotic behaviour in reggeon field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.

    1983-01-01

    A relation between the values of bare coupling constants and the asymptotic behaviour of the reggeon field theory (RFT) is discussed. It is shown how the numerical values of bare coupling constants fix the starting point of renormalization group trajectories which, in turn, determine the asymptotic behaviour of the RFT. Applications to a pure pomeron theory and a pomeron plus f-pole model are discussed. Some nontrivial phenomenological information concerning the values of bare triple-Regge pomeron-f-pole coupling constants is obtained

  11. Magnetic Fields: Visible and Permanent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkeljohn, Dorothy R.; Earl, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Children will be able to see the concept of a magnetic field translated into a visible reality using the simple method outlined. Standard shelf paper, magnets, iron filings, and paint in a spray can are used to prepare a permanent and well-detailed picture of the magnetic field. (Author/JN)

  12. The external magnetic field environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Calculations were made to predict magnetic field intensities surrounding an aircraft following a lightning strike. Aircraft design and aircraft structural geometry were considered in the computations. A wire grid aircraft model was used to aid in magnetic flux estimation.

  13. Continuum and discretum—Unified field theory and elementary constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Hans-Jürgen

    1992-03-01

    Unitary field theories and “SUPER-GUT” theories work with an universal continuum, the structured spacetime of R. Descartes, B. Spinoza, B. Riemann, and A. Einstein, or a (Machian (1 3) ) structured vacuum according the quantum theory of unitary fields (Dirac, (4,5) and Heisenberg (6 8) ). The atomistic aspect of the substantial world is represented by the fundamental constants which are invariant against “all transformations” and which “depend on nothings” (Planck (9 11) ). A satisfactory unitary theory has to involve these constants like the mathematical numbers. Today, Planck's conception of the three elementary constants ħ, c, and G may be the key to general relativistic quantum field theory like unitary theory. However, the elementary constants are a question of measurement-theory, also. According to Popper's theory (12 16) of induction, such unitary theories are “universal explaining theories.” The fundamental constants involve the complementarity between the universal statements in unitary theory and the “basic statements” in the language of classical observables.

  14. Mercury's magnetic field and interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connerney, J.E.P.; Ness, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic-field data collected on Mercury by the Mariner-10 spacecraft present substantial evidence for an intrinsic global magnetic field. However, studies of Mercury's thermal evolution show that it is most likely that the inner core region of Mercury solidified or froze early in the planet's history. Thus, the explanation of Mercury's magnetic field in the framework of the traditional planetary dynamo is less than certain

  15. Measurements of magnetic field alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Schmidt, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The procedure for installing Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) dipoles in their respective cryostats involves aligning the average direction of their field with the vertical to an accuracy of 0.5 mrad. The equipment developed for carrying on these measurements is described and the measurements performed on the first few prototypes SSC magnets are presented. The field angle as a function of position in these 16.6 m long magnets is a characteristic of the individual magnet with possible feedback information to its manufacturing procedure. A comparison of this vertical alignment characteristic with a magnetic field intensity (by NMR) characteristic for one of the prototypes is also presented. 5 refs., 7 figs

  16. NMR in pulsed magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Abou-Hamad, Edy

    2011-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments in pulsed magnetic fields up to 30.4 T focused on 1H and 93Nb nuclei are reported. Here we discuss the advantage and limitation of pulsed field NMR and why this technique is able to become a promising research tool. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Neutron stars: population; magnetic fields; X-ray binaries: evolution; millisecond pulsars: inter-connections. Abstract. This article briefly reviews our current understanding of the evolution of magnetic fields in neutron stars, which basically defines the evolutionary pathways between different observational classes ...

  18. The MAVEN Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J.; Lawton, P.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Sheppard, D.

    2014-01-01

    The MAVEN magnetic field investigation is part of a comprehensive particles and fields subsystem that will measure the magnetic and electric fields and plasma environment of Mars and its interaction with the solar wind. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, remotely mounted at the outer extremity of the two solar arrays on small extensions ("boomlets"). The sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics assemblies that are integrated within the particles and fields subsystem and draw their power from redundant power supplies within that system. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 65,536 nT per axis) with a quantization uncertainty of 0.008 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range and an accuracy of better than 0.05%. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic sample rate of 32 vector samples per second. Telemetry is transferred from each magnetometer to the particles and fields package once per second and subsequently passed to the spacecraft after some reformatting. The magnetic field data volume may be reduced by averaging and decimation, when necessary to meet telemetry allocations, and application of data compression, utilizing a lossless 8-bit differencing scheme. The MAVEN magnetic field experiment may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. A spacecraft magnetic control program was implemented to provide a magnetically clean environment for the magnetic sensors and the MAVEN mission plan provides for occasional spacecraft maneuvers - multiple rotations about the spacecraft x and z axes - to characterize spacecraft fields and/or instrument offsets in flight.

  19. Constant curvature black hole and dual field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rong-, Gen

    2002-09-01

    We consider a five-dimensional constant curvature black hole, which is constructed by identifying some points along a Killing vector in a five-dimensional AdS space. The black hole has the topology M4×S1, its exterior is time-dependent and its boundary metric is of the form of a three-dimensional de Sitter space times a circle, which means that the dual conformal field theory resides on a dynamical spacetime. We calculate the quasilocal stress-energy tensor of the gravitational background and then the stress-energy tenor of the dual conformal field theory. It is found that the trace of the tensor does indeed vanish, as expected. Further we find that the constant curvature black hole spacetime is just the “bubble of nothing” resulting from Schwarzschild-AdS black holes when the mass parameter of the latter vanishes.

  20. Cosmological magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic fields are observed not only in stars, but in galaxies, clusters, and even high redshift Lyman- systems. In principle, these fields could play an important role in structure formation and also affect the anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). The study of cosmological magnetic fields aims ...

  1. Quantum diffusion of magnetic fields in a numerical worldline approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Gies, Holger; Langfeld, Kurt

    2001-01-01

    We propose a numerical technique for calculating effective actions of electromagnetic backgrounds based on the worldline formalism. As a conceptually simple example, we consider scalar electrodynamics in three dimensions to one-loop order. Beyond the constant-magnetic-field case, serving as a benchmark test, we analyze the effective action of a step-function-like magnetic field -- a configuration that is inaccessible to derivative expansions. We observe magnetic-field diffusion, i.e., nonvanishing magnetic action density at space points near the magnetic step where the classical field vanishes.

  2. Eigenfunction method and mass operator in the quantum electrodynamics of a constant field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for the calculation of radiative effects in the quantum electrodynamics of an intense constant field. It is based on the application of the mass operator eigenfunctions and on diagonalization of the operator. A compact expression for the proper value of the electron mass operator in an arbitrary constant field and the corresponding elastic scattering amplitude are found. The imaginary part of the amplitude determines the decay rate of various states of the electron in the field; the real part contains the mass shift and the anomalous magnetic and electric moments as functions of the field and electron momentum. THe anomalous electric moment which arises in a field with a pseudoscalar EH not equal to 0 and the anomalous magnetic moment in an electric field which tends to the double Schwinger value with increase of the field strength are found and investigated in detail as are the mass shift and decay rate of the ground state of an electron in an electric field. In a weak field the mass shift contains the linear with respect to the field modulus classical term which characterizes the effect of acceleration on the structure of electron

  3. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  4. Resonant magnetic fields from inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Byrnes, Christian T; Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Urban, Federico R

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel scenario to generate primordial magnetic fields during inflation induced by an oscillating coupling of the electromagnetic field to the inflaton. This resonant mechanism has two key advantages over previous proposals. First of all, it generates a narrow band of magnetic fields at any required wavelength, thereby allaying the usual problem of a strongly blue spectrum and its associated backreaction. Secondly, it avoids the need for a strong coupling as the coupling is oscillating rather than growing or decaying exponentially. Despite these major advantages, we find that the backreaction is still far too large during inflation if the generated magnetic fields are required to have a strength of ${\\cal O}(10^{-15}\\, \\Gauss)$ today on observationally interesting scales. We provide a more general no-go argument, proving that this problem will apply to any model in which the magnetic fields are generated on subhorizon scales and freeze after horizon crossing.

  5. Magnetic fields and scintillator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; Ronzhin, A.; Hagopian, V.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental data have shown that the light output of a scintillator depends on the magnitude of the externally applied magnetic fields, and that this variation can affect the calorimeter calibration and possibly resolution. The goal of the measurements presented here is to study the light yield of scintillators in high magnetic fields in conditions that are similar to those anticipated for the LHC CMS detector. Two independent measurements were performed, the first at Fermilab and the second at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University

  6. Magnetic field reconnexion in a sheared field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugai, M.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear development of the Petschek mode in a sheared magnetic field where there is a field component Bsub(z) along an X line is numerically studied. It is found that finite-amplitude intermediate waves, adjacent to the slow shock, may eventually stand in the quasi-steady configuration; on the other hand, the fundamental characteristics of the Petschek-mode development are scarcely influenced, either qualitatively or quantitatively, by the Bsub(z) field. (author)

  7. ISR split-field magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus used at intersection 4 around the Split-Field Magnet by the CERN-Bologna Collaboration (experiment R406). The plastic scintillator telescopes are used for precise pulse-height and time-of-flight measurements.

  8. The Juno Magnetic Field Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Benn, M.; Bjarno, J. B.; Denver, T.; Espley, J.; Jorgensen, J. L.; Jorgensen, P. S.; Lawton, P.; Malinnikova, A.; Merayo, J. M.; Murphy, S.; Odom, J.; Oliversen, R.; Schnurr, R.; Sheppard, D.; Smith, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    The Juno Magnetic Field investigation (MAG) characterizes Jupiter's planetary magnetic field and magnetosphere, providing the first globally distributed and proximate measurements of the magnetic field of Jupiter. The magnetic field instrumentation consists of two independent magnetometer sensor suites, each consisting of a tri-axial Fluxgate Magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located imaging sensors mounted on an ultra-stable optical bench. The imaging system sensors are part of a subsystem that provides accurate attitude information (to ˜20 arcsec on a spinning spacecraft) near the point of measurement of the magnetic field. The two sensor suites are accommodated at 10 and 12 m from the body of the spacecraft on a 4 m long magnetometer boom affixed to the outer end of one of 's three solar array assemblies. The magnetometer sensors are controlled by independent and functionally identical electronics boards within the magnetometer electronics package mounted inside Juno's massive radiation shielded vault. The imaging sensors are controlled by a fully hardware redundant electronics package also mounted within the radiation vault. Each magnetometer sensor measures the vector magnetic field with 100 ppm absolute vector accuracy over a wide dynamic range (to 16 Gauss = 1.6 × 106 nT per axis) with a resolution of ˜0.05 nT in the most sensitive dynamic range (±1600 nT per axis). Both magnetometers sample the magnetic field simultaneously at an intrinsic sample rate of 64 vector samples per second. The magnetic field instrumentation may be reconfigured in flight to meet unanticipated needs and is fully hardware redundant. The attitude determination system compares images with an on-board star catalog to provide attitude solutions (quaternions) at a rate of up to 4 solutions per second, and may be configured to acquire images of selected targets for science and engineering analysis. The system tracks and catalogs objects that pass through the imager field of

  9. Robust Morse decompositions of piecewise constant vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Andrzej; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach to computing a Morse decomposition of a vector field on a triangulated manifold surface. The basic idea is to convert the input vector field to a piecewise constant (PC) vector field, whose trajectories can be computed using simple geometric rules. To overcome the intrinsic difficulty in PC vector fields (in particular, discontinuity along mesh edges), we borrow results from the theory of differential inclusions. The input vector field and its PC variant have similar Morse decompositions. We introduce a robust and efficient algorithm to compute Morse decompositions of a PC vector field. Our approach provides subtriangle precision for Morse sets. In addition, we describe a Morse set classification framework which we use to color code the Morse sets in order to enhance the visualization. We demonstrate the benefits of our approach with three well-known simulation data sets, for which our method has produced Morse decompositions that are similar to or finer than those obtained using existing techniques, and is over an order of magnitude faster.

  10. Decay of a weakly bound level in a monochromatic electromagnetic field and a static magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylyuk, V.M.; Ortner, J.

    2003-01-01

    We consider an electron that is bound by a zero-range potential and a constant magnetic field and which becomes disturbed by a monochromatic laser beam with elliptical polarization. The exact solution of the Schroedinger equation for an electron in the presence of an arbitrary electromagnetic wave and a static magnetic field is obtained. Exact expressions have been found for the complex energy, whose real and imaginary parts yield the level position and the width of an electron in a zero-range force field, a constant magnetic field, and a monochromatic electromagnetic field. These expressions have been analyzed in details for the case of a circularly polarized laser light

  11. Fermionic open string in a constant B-field background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an open fermionic string propagating freely and one moving in a constant antisymmetric background field are discussed. In contrast to several discussions in which boundary conditions are taken as primary Dirac constraints, we get the anti-Poisson brackets among the Fourier modes first. Then the anti-Poisson brackets among the string's coordinates can be obtained. It is shown that due to nontrivial boundary conditions, the string's end points are antinoncommutative. Contrary to the previous approaches in which the antinoncommutativity is obtained as the algebraic result, we find that antinoncommutativity originates dynamically

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance J coupling constant polarizabilities of hydrogen peroxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Hanna; Nielsen, Monia R.; Pagola, Gabriel I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the so far most extended investigation of the calculation of the coupling constant polarizability of a molecule. The components of the coupling constant polarizability are derivatives of the NMR indirect nuclear spin-spin coupling constant with respect to an external elec...

  13. Electric & Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... 102-486, Section 2118) Questions and Answers about Biological Effects and Potential Hazards of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields - ...

  14. MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS FOR FAST-CHANGING MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Several recent applications for fast ramped magnets have been found that require rapid measurement of the field quality during the ramp. (In one instance, accelerator dipoles will be ramped at 1 T/sec, with measurements needed to the accuracy typically required for accelerators.) We have built and tested a new type of magnetic field measuring system to meet this need. The system consists of 16 stationary pickup windings mounted on a cylinder. The signals induced in the windings in a changing magnetic field are sampled and analyzed to obtain the field harmonics. To minimize costs, printed circuit boards were used for the pickup windings and a combination of amplifiers and ADPs used for the voltage readout system. New software was developed for the analysis. Magnetic field measurements of a model dipole developed for the SIS200 accelerator at GSI are presented. The measurements are needed to insure that eddy currents induced by the fast ramps do not impact the field quality needed for successful accelerator operation

  15. Study of the reduced magnetic field required for thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, H. F. Y.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2016-11-01

    The reduced magnetic field required for thermally magnetization reversal discussed in this paper. Study of thermally assisted magnetization reversal conduct by using micromagnetic simulation. The magnetic dot size of the simulation was 50 nm × 50 nm × 20 nm. The perpendicularly anisotropy constant was 2 × 106 erg/cm3. Initial condition was set single domain configuration. Then a sufficiently thermal pulse was used to get stochastic effect so that the magnetization along to the induce field direction for pico second duration. The results show that the reduced magnetic field mechanism seem to be temporary antiferromagnetic configuration before single domain configuration in alinging along to field direction. The same mechanims observed for modify of thickness dot particles. The require magnetic field of 145 Oe in thermally assisted magnetization reversal open a posibility for MRAM application.

  16. Premixed combustion under electric field in a constant volume chamber

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2012-12-01

    The effects of electric fields on outwardly propagating premixed flames in a constant volume chamber were experimentally investigated. An electric plug, subjected to high electrical voltages, was used to generate electric fields inside the chamber. To minimize directional ionic wind effects, alternating current with frequency of 1 kHz was employed. Lean and rich fuel/air mixtures for both methane and propane were tested to investigate various preferential diffusion conditions. As a result, electrically induced instability showing cracked structure on the flame surface could be observed. This cracked structure enhanced flame propagation speed for the initial period of combustion and led to reduction in flame initiation and overall combustion duration times. However, by analyzing pressure data, it was found that overall burning rates are not much affected from the electric field for the pressurized combustion period. The reduction of overall combustion time is less sensitive to equivalence ratio for methane/air mixtures, whereas the results demonstrate pronounced effects on a lean mixture for propane. The improvement of combustion characteristics in lean mixtures will be beneficial to the design of lean burn engines. Two hypothetical mechanisms to explain the electrically induced instability were proposed: 1) ionic wind initiated hydrodynamic instability and 2) thermodiffusive instability through the modification of transport property such as mass diffusivity. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Photographing magnetic fields in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.B.; Wright, L.S.

    Magneto-optic techniques coupled with high-speed photography are being used to study the destruction of superconductivity by a magnetic field. The phenomenon of superconductivity will be introduced with emphasis placed on the properties of type I and type II superconductors in a magnetic field. The Faraday effect and its application to the study of the penetration of magnetic fields into these superconductors will be described; the relative effectiveness of some types of paramagnetic glass will be demonstrated. A number of cinefilms will be shown to illustrate the versatility of the magneto-optic method for observing flux motion and patterns. The analysis of data obtained from a high speed film (10,200 fps) of a flux jump in Nb-Zr will be presented and discussed

  18. Microscopic observation of magnetic bacteria in the magnetic field of a rotating permanent magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Pieter; Shcherbakov, Valeriy; Petersen, Nikolai

    2015-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are ubiquitous and can be found in both freshwater and marine environments. Due to intracellular chains of magnetic single domain particles, they behave like swimming compass needles. In external magnetic fields like the Earth's magnetic field, a torque is acting on the chain. This will cause the bacterium to be rotated and aligned with the external field. The swimming direction of magnetotactic bacteria can be controlled with external magnetic fields, which makes it convenient to study them under a light microscope. Usually, a special set of coils arranged around a light microscope is used to control the swimming magnetotactic bacteria. Here, we present a simple mechanical system with a permanent magnet, which produces a rotating magnetic field of nearly constant amplitude in the focal plane of a light microscope. The device is placed beside the light microscope and easily adaptable to almost any microscope and thus convenient for field experiments. To describe the trajectories qualitatively, a theoretical model of the trajectories is presented. This device can be used to control the swimming direction of magnetotactic bacteria and also for studying their magnetic and hydrodynamic properties.

  19. Modeling of Local Magnetic Field Enhancements within Solar Flux Ropes

    OpenAIRE

    Romashets, E; Vandas, M; Poedts, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    To model and study local magnetic-field enhancements in a solar flux rope we consider the magnetic field in its interior as a superposition of two linear (constant alpha) force-free magnetic-field distributions, viz. a global one, which is locally similar to a part of the cylinder, and a local torus-shaped magnetic distribution. The newly derived solution for a toroid with an aspect ratio close to unity is applied. The symmetry axis of the toroid and that of the cylinder may or may not coinci...

  20. Two charges on plane in a magnetic field: special trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Turbiner, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    A classical mechanics of two Coulomb charges on a plane $(e_1, m_1)$ and $(e_2, m_2)$ subject to a constant magnetic field perpendicular to a plane is considered. Special "superintegrable" trajectories (circular and linear) for which the distance between charges remains unchanged are indicated as well as their respectful constants of motion. The number of the independent constants of motion for special trajectories is larger for generic ones. A classification of pairs of charges for which spe...

  1. Regular nonminimal magnetic black holes in spacetimes with a cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Lemos, José P. S.; Zayats, Alexei E.

    2016-01-01

    We consider new regular exact spherically symmetric solutions of a nonminimal Einstein-Yang-Mills theory with a cosmological constant and a gauge field of magnetic Wu-Yang type. The most interesting solutions found are black holes with metric and curvature invariants that are regular everywhere, i.e., regular black holes. We set up a classification of the solutions according to the number and type of horizons. The structure of these regular black holes is characterized by four specific features: a small cavity in the neighborhood of the center, a repulsion barrier off the small cavity, a distant equilibrium point, in which the metric function has a minimum, and a region of Newtonian attraction. Depending on the sign and value of the cosmological constant, the solutions are asymptotically de Sitter (dS), asymptotically flat, or asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS).

  2. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  3. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Over the decades, one of the primary preoccupations of neutron star research has been to look for a unification scheme connecting the widely different observational classes (shown in Fig. 1). The magnetic field, ranging from 108 G in millisecond pulsars to 1015 G in mag- netars, has been central to this ...

  4. Magnetic fields in Neutron Stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viganò, D.; Pons, J.A.; Miralles, J.A.; Rea, N.; Cenarro, A.J.; Figueras, F.; Hernández-Monteagudo, J.; Bueno, T.; Valdivielso, L.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated neutron stars show a diversity in timing and spectral properties, which has historically led to a classification in different sub-classes. The magnetic field plays a key role in many aspects of the neutron star phenomenology: it regulates the braking torque responsible for their timing

  5. Measurement of the CMS Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00096921; Bergsma, F.; Campi, D.; Cure, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Herve, A.; Korienek, J.; Linde, F.; Lindenmeyer, C.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Nebel, T.; Smith, R.P.; Stickland, D.; Teafoe, G.; Veillet, L.; Zimmerman, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the magnetic field in the tracking volume inside the superconducting coil of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector under construction at CERN is done with a fieldmapper designed and produced at Fermilab. The fieldmapper uses 10 3-D B-sensors (Hall probes) developed at NIKHEF and calibrated at CERN to precision 0.05% for a nominal 4 T field. The precise fieldmapper measurements are done in 33840 points inside a cylinder of 1.724 m radius and 7 m long at central fields of 2, 3, 3.5, 3.8, and 4 T. Three components of the magnetic flux density at the CMS coil maximum excitation and the remanent fields on the steel-air interface after discharge of the coil are measured in check-points with 95 3-D B-sensors located near the magnetic flux return yoke elements. Voltages induced in 22 flux-loops made of 405-turn installed on selected segments of the yoke are sampled online during the entire fast discharge (190 s time-constant) of the CMS coil and integrated offline to provide a measurement of the...

  6. Focus on Materials Analysis and Processing in Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Sakka, Noriyuki Hirota, Shigeru Horii and Tsutomu Ando

    2009-01-01

    of MAP3. Other papers of the proceedings are published in Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Tournier and Beaugnon review experimental texturing in metallic melts by cooling in magnetic fields, which is modeled in detail in a study by Tournier. Wang et al provide further experimental results on the solidification of Mn-90.4 wt % Sb alloy in magnetic fields. The orientations of grains and particles induced by magnetic fields is reported by Horii et al (rare-earth-doped cuprates, Tanaka et al (barium-bismuth titanate ceramics, Liu and Schwartz (Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox/AgMg wires and Tsuda and Sakka (carbon nanotubes. Gielen et al present a model of how to quantify a molecular alignment using magnetic birefringence, and Ando et al simulate the movement of feeble particles in magnetic fields. Hirota et al report the experimental control of the lattice constant in a triangular lattice of feeble magnetic particles. The size separation of diamagnetic particles by magnetic fields is experimentally studied by Tarn et al and theoretically studied by Fukui et al. A setup measuring x-ray diffraction patterns in magnetic fields up to 5 T and temperatures above 200 oC has been developed by Mitsui et al.We hope that this focus issue will help readers to understand several aspects of materials analysis and processing in magnetic fields at the frontier of the science.

  7. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible.In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later c

  8. Behavior of small ferromagnetic particles in traveling magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deych, V. G.; Terekhov, V. P.

    1985-03-01

    Forces and moments acting on a magnetizable body in a traveling magnetic field are calculated for a body with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of the magnetic field. It is assumed that a particle of given linear dimension does not have a constant magnetic moment. The material of a particle is characterized by its magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity. The hypothesis that rotation plays a major role in the behavior of small particles is confirmed and the fact that a small particle rolls on a plane, without sliding, when the surface is perfectly rough, in the opposite direction from which the magnetic field travels is explained. Calculations are based on the magnetohydrodynamic equations for a quasi steady magnetic field, and the induced Foucault eddy currents are considered. The results are applicable to transport of ferrofluids and to such metallurgical devices as separators.

  9. Probing Magnetic Fields with Square Kilometre Array and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    /fulltext/joaa/037/04/0042. Keywords. Magnetic fields; telescopes; galaxies: magnetic fields; ISM: magnetic fields; stars: magnetic fields; turbulence. Abstract. Origin of magnetic fields, its structure and effects on dynamical processes in stars to ...

  10. RESICALC: Magnetic field modeling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    RESICALC, Version 1.0, is a Microsoft Windows application that describes the magnetic field environment produced by user-defined arrays of transmission lines, distribution lines, and custom conductors. These arrays simulate specific situations that may be encountered in real-world community settings. RESICALC allows the user to define an area or ''world'' that contains the transmission and/or distribution lines, user-defined conductors, and locations of residences. The world contains a ''reference grid'' within which RESICALC analyzes the magnetic field environment due to all conductors within the world. Unique physical parameters (e.g., conductor height and spacing) and operating characteristics can be assigned to all electrical conductors. RESICALC's output is available for the x, y, z axis separately, the resultant (the three axes added in quadrature), and the major axis, each in three possible formats: a three-dimensional map of the magnetic field, two dimensional-contours, and as a table with statistical values. All formats may be printed, accompanied by a three-dimensional view of the world the user has drawn. The view of the world and the corresponding three-dimensional field map may be adjusted to the elevation and rotation angle of the user's preference

  11. Establishment of magnetic coordinates for a given magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    A method is given for expressing the magnetic field strength in magnetic coordinates for a given field. This expression is central to the study of equilibrium, stability, and transport in asymmetric plasmas

  12. A Vorticity-Magnetic Field Dynamo Instability

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Eric G.; Chou, Tom

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the mean field magnetic dynamo to include local evolution of the mean vorticity in addition to the mean magnetic field. The coupled equations exhibit a general mean field dynamo instability that enables the transfer of turbulent energy to the magnetic field and vorticity on larger scales. The growth of the vorticity and magnetic field both require helical turbulence which can be supplied by an underlying global rotation. The dynamo coefficients are derived including the backreac...

  13. Liquid Droplet Dynamics in Gravity Compensating High Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojarevics, V.; Easter, S.; Pericleous, K.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical models are used to investigate behavior of liquid droplets suspended in high DC magnetic fields of various configurations providing microgravity-like conditions. Using a DC field it is possible to create conditions with laminar viscosity and heat transfer to measure viscosity, surface tension, electrical and thermal conductivities, and heat capacity of a liquid sample. The oscillations in a high DC magnetic field are quite different for an electrically conducting droplet, like liquid silicon or metal. The droplet behavior in a high magnetic field is the subject of investigation in this paper. At the high values of magnetic field some oscillation modes are damped quickly, while others are modified with a considerable shift of the oscillating droplet frequencies and the damping constants from the non-magnetic case.

  14. Straight ends for superconducting dipole magnet using constant perimeter geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royet, J.

    1989-01-01

    The ends of the SSC Dipole magnets are a very critical aspect of the superconducting cable windings needed for this large project. The internal coils, where the radius at the pole is as small as 3/10 of an inch for the first turn, are difficult to form with the very stiff cable, and a high tension is needed. The curing operation on the coils is performed in a heated forming press which applies an important additional stress on the superconducting wire and insulation. A new design of this sensitive region of the magnets was performed at LBL, and several prototypes were built and tested. In this paper the construction method used to solve some of the most critical problems is exposed along with a description of the experimental work in progress. 3 refs., 2 figs

  15. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  16. Measurements of Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagyard, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Various aspects of the measurement of solar magnetic fields are presented. The four major subdivisions of the study are: (1) theoretical understanding of solar vector magnetic fields; (3) techniques for interpretation of observational data; and (4) techniques for data display

  17. Remanent magnetization of instrument materials for low magnetic field applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mester, J.C.; Lockhart, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    We report remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility measurements made on materials used in the construction of cryogenic instruments. SQUID based magnetometers were used to make the measurements over a range of background fields from 10 2 to 10 -7 Gauss. Although the materials tested are generally regarded as non-magnetic, some samples have sufficiently high magnetization values, or values which vary with foundry lot and heat, that use in low field or magnetically sensitive applications is contraindicated. (author)

  18. Pressure, Chaotic Magnetic Fields and MHD Equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.R. Hudson & N. Nakajima

    2010-05-12

    Analyzes of plasma behavior often begin with a description of the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium, this being the simplest model capable of approximating macroscopic force balance. Ideal force balance is when the pressure gradient is supported by the Lorentz force, ∇p = j x B. We discuss the implications of allowing for a chaotic magnetic field on the solutions to this equation. We argue that the solutions are pathological and not suitable for numerical calculations. If the pressure and magnetic Field are continuous, the only non-trivial solutions have an uncountable infinity of discontinuities in the pressure gradient and current. The problems arise from the arbitrarily small length scales in the structure of the field, and the consequence of ideal force balance that the pressure is constant along the Field-lines, B • ∇p = 0. A simple method to ameliorate the singularities is to include a small but Finite perpendicular diffusion. A self-consistent set of equilibrium equations is described and some algorithmic approaches aimed at solving these equations are discussed.

  19. Magnetic Field Measurement of induction Hobs

    OpenAIRE

    森, 秀樹||モリ, ヒデキ||Mori, Hideki; 松井, 景樹||マツイ, ケイジュ||Matsui, Keiju; 山本, 勇||ヤマモト, イサム||Yamamoto, Isamu

    2004-01-01

    Recently domestic induction hobs have rapidly come into wide use in Japan. When cooking a strong high frequency magnetic field is generated in the area of induction hob. However, there are few reports of the measurement of the magnetic field during actual cooking. The magnetic field resulting from various working conditions of several types of induction hobs are reported here. Measurements of the magnetic field due to differences in various types of converter, the size and materials of the co...

  20. Behavior of magnetic superconductors in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdin, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the behavior in a magnetic field of magnetic superconductors in which the ferromagnetic and superconducting transition temperatures are close together. It is shown that as the temperature is lowered the order of the superconducting transition changes from second to first. The corresponding critical fields and the field and temperature dependences of the magnetization are determined. Attention is focused on a discontinuity in the magnetization in the vortex core in magnetic superconductors. This feature plus the relatively large scattering cross section make magnetic superconductors convenient objects for the study of the superconducting vortex lattice by neutron diffraction

  1. Microwave Measurements of Coronal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, K.

    2006-08-01

    Magnetic field measurements of the solar corona using microwave observation are reviewed. The solar corona is filled with highly ionised plasma and magnetic field. Moving charged particles interact with magnetic field due to Lorentz force. This results in gyration motion perpendicular to the magnetic field and free motion along the magnetic field. Circularly polarized electro-magnetic waves interact with gyrating electrons efficiently and the interaction depends on the sense of circular polarization (right-handed or left-handed). This is the reason why we can measure magnetic field strength through microwave observations. This process does not require complicated quantum physics but the classical treatment is enough. Hence the inversion of measured values to magnetic field strength is simpler than in the case of optical and infrared measurements. There are several methods to measure magnetic field strength through microwave observations. We can divide them into two categories: one is based on emission mechanisms and the other is based on wave propagation. In the case of emission mechanisms, thermal f-f emission, thermal gyro-resonance emission and non-thermal gyro-synchrotron emission can be used to measure magnetic field strength. In the case of wave propagation, polarization reversal due to propagation through quasi-transverse magnetic field region can be used. Examples of distribution of magnetic field strength in the solar corona measured by Nobeyama Radioheliograph will be presented.

  2. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Chen, H. H.; Deng, R. D.; Yan, Q. X.

    2016-02-01

    A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  3. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  4. Effective magnetic moment of neutrinos in strong magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A; Masood, S S; Gaitan, R; Rodríguez, S

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compute the effective magnetic moment of neutrinos propagating in dense high magnetized medium. Taking typical values of magnetic field and densities of astrophysical objects (such as the cores of supernovae and neutron stars) we obtain an effective type of dipole magnetic moment in agreement with astrophysical and cosmological bounds. (Author)

  5. Magnetic field measuring system for remapping the ORIC magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosko, S.W.; Hudson, E.D.; Lord, R.S.; Hensley, D.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility will integrate a new 25 MV tandem electrostatic acccelerator into the existing cyclotron laboratory which includes the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC). Computations of ion paths for beam injection from the new tandem into ORIC require field mapping in the regions traversed by the beam. Additional field data is also desired for the higher levels (approx.19 kG) now used for most heavy ion beams. The magnetic field measurement system uses 39 flip coil/current integrator sets with computer controlled data scanning. The coils are spaced radially at 1 inch intervals in an arm which can be rotated azimuthally in 2 degree increments. The entire flip coil assembly can be shifted to larger radii to measure fields beyond the pole boundary. Temperature stabilization of electronic circuitry permits a measurement resolution of +-1 gauss over a dynamic range of +-25,000 gauss. The system will process a scan of 8000 points in about one hour

  6. The magnetic field measurements of the booster synchrotron magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Masayuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Takikawa, Koji; Someya, Hirohiko; Kurosawa, Toshitake.

    1978-03-01

    The magnetic field properties of the booster synchrotron magnet are investigated. Method of the field measurement, magnetic field measuring system, its data acquisition system and procedure of data processing are described in detail, with a special emphasis on the accuracy in the measurement. The excitation dependences and distributions of the field strength, field gradient, multipole fields and their effective lengths are given and analyzed. The betatron tune and chromaticity are discussed by taking account of the effect of the fringing field as well as the multipole fields of focussing and defocussing sectors. (auth.)

  7. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.

    1988-06-01

    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  8. Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with Supercritical Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Shabad, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    It is pointed, that effects of refraction of electromagnetic radiation in the medium, formed by the magnetized vacuum, become essential already for relatively soft photons, not hard enough to create an electron-positron pair, including those belonging to soft gamma-, X-ray, optic and radio- range, if the magnetic field B exceeds the critical value of Bcr=m^2/e=4.4 10^13 Gauss. Three leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the one-loop polarization operator in a constant magnetic field ar...

  9. Effect of magnetic field on reduction of nickel oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M. W.; Fanick, R.; Jewett, J.; Rowe, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Results of observations recorded during constant temperature reduction of NiO, a paramagnetic substance, to Ni, a ferromagnetic element, are presented. The application of a large magnetic field (4,200 oersted) does not result in an acceleration of the reduction rate. To explain earlier observations that 500- and 1,400-oersted magnetic fields increase the reduction rate of iron ore which contains hematite (Fe2O3), Peters (1973) had suggested that thermodynamics theory could predict the acceleration in reaction rate when product and reactant species differ widely in their magnetic properties.

  10. The effect of magnetic field induced aggregates on ultrasound propagation in aqueous magnetic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parekh, Kinnari, E-mail: kinnariparekh.rnd@charusat.ac.in [Dr. KC Patel R& D Center, Charotar University of Science & Technology, Changa, 388421 Dist. Anand, Gujarat (India); Upadhyay, R.V. [PD Patel Institute of Applied Sciences, Charotar University of Science & Technology, Changa, 388421 Dist. Anand, Gujarat (India)

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasonic wave propagation in the aqueous magnetic fluid is investigated for different particle concentrations. The sound velocity decreases while acoustic impedance increases with increasing concentrations. The velocity anisotropy is observed upon application of magnetic field. The velocity anisotropy fits with Tarapov’s theory suggests the presence of aggregates in the system. We report that these aggregates are thermodynamically unstable and the length of aggregate changes continuously with increasing concentration and, or magnetic field and resulted in a decrease in effective magnetic moment. The Taketomi's theory fits well with the experimental data suggesting that the particle clusters are aligned in the direction of the magnetic field. The radius of cluster found to increase with increasing concentration, and then decreases whereas the elastic force constant increases and then becomes constant. The increase in cluster radius indicates elongation of aggregate length due to tip-to-tip interaction of aggregates whereas for higher concentration, the lateral alignment is more favorable than tip-to-tip alignment of aggregates which reduces the cluster radius making elastic force constant to raise. Optical images show that the chains are fluctuating and confirming the lateral alignment of chains at higher fields. - Highlights: • Magnetic field induced aggregates investigated using ultrasonic wave in aqueous magnetic fluid. • Velocity anisotropy induces upon applications of magnetic field. • Tarapov’s theory fit shows reduction in effective magnetic moment as concentration increases. • Taketomi's theory shows alignment of clusters in field direction. • Cluster radius increases and then decreases with increasing volume fractions. • Optical images show that fluctuating chains and lateral alignment of chains at higher fields.

  11. Permanent Magnet Ecr Plasma Source With Magnetic Field Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Frank C.; Spencer, John E.

    2000-12-19

    In a plasma-producing device, an optimized magnet field for electron cyclotron resonance plasma generation is provided by a shaped pole piece. The shaped pole piece adjusts spacing between the magnet and the resonance zone, creates a convex or concave resonance zone, and decreases stray fields between the resonance zone and the workpiece. For a cylindrical permanent magnet, the pole piece includes a disk adjacent the magnet together with an annular cylindrical sidewall structure axially aligned with the magnet and extending from the base around the permanent magnet. The pole piece directs magnetic field lines into the resonance zone, moving the resonance zone further from the face of the magnet. Additional permanent magnets or magnet arrays may be utilized to control field contours on a local scale. Rather than a permeable material, the sidewall structure may be composed of an annular cylindrical magnetic material having a polarity opposite that of the permanent magnet, creating convex regions in the resonance zone. An annular disk-shaped recurve section at the end of the sidewall structure forms magnetic mirrors keeping the plasma off the pole piece. A recurve section composed of magnetic material having a radial polarity forms convex regions and/or magnetic mirrors within the resonance zone.

  12. Measurements of magnetic field sources in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Electrical Systems Division of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has initiated several research projects to investigate magnetic field levels, their characteristics, and their sources. This paper describes measurements of magnetic field sources in schools. Magnetic field measurements were made at four schools in the service areas of two utility companies. Magnetic field measurements included profiles of the magnetic field versus distance near power lines, around the perimeter of the school buildings, and at several locations within each school. Twenty-four hour measurements were also made to record the temporal variation of the magnetic field at several locations at each school. The instrumentation, measurement techniques, and magnetic field sources identified are discussed

  13. On the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2008-04-01

    and most popular mechanism is the α-Ω mean field dynamo theory developed by a number of people in the late sixties. This theory and its application to galactic magnetic fields is discussed in considerable detail in this review. We point out certain difficulties with this theory that make it seem unlikely that this is the whole story. The main difficulty with this as the only such amplification mechanism is rooted in the fact that, on galactic scales, flux is constant and is frozen in the interstellar medium. This implies that flux must be removed from the galactic discs, as is well recognized by the standard theory. For our Galaxy this turns out to be a major problem, since unless the flux and the interstellar mass are somehow separated, some interstellar mass must also be removed from the deep galactic gravitational well. This is very difficult. It is pointed out that unless the field has a substantial field strength, much larger than that of the seed fields, this separation can hardly happen. And of course, it must if the α-Ω dynamo is to start from the ultra weak seed field. (It is our philosophy, expressed in this review, that if an origin theory is unable to create the magnetic field in our Galaxy it is essentially incomplete.) Thus, it is more reasonable for the first and largest amplification to occur before the Galaxy forms, and the matter embedded in the field is gravitationally trapped. Two such mechanisms are discussed for such a pregalactic origin; (1) they are generated in the turbulence of the protogalaxy and (2) the fields come from giant radio jets. Several arguments against a primordial origin are also discussed, as are ways around them. Our conclusion as to the most likely origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they are first produced at moderate field strengths by primordial mechanisms and then changed and their strength increased to their present value and structure by a galactic disc dynamo. The primordial mechanisms have not yet been

  14. Magnetization reversal of ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joonyeon; Yi, Hyunjung; Cheol Koo, Hyun; Mironov, V.L.; Gribkov, B.A.; Fraerman, A.A.; Gusev, S.A.; Vdovichev, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under inhomogeneous magnetic field induced by the tip of magnetic force microscope (MFM) in both theoretical and empirical ways. Systematic MFM observations were carried out on arrays of submicron-sized elliptical ferromagnetic particles of Co and FeCr with different sizes and periods. It clearly reveals the distribution of remanent magnetization and processes of local remagnetization of individual ferromagnetic particles. Modeling of remagnetization processes in ferromagnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field induced by MFM probe was performed on the base of Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for magnetization. MFM-induced inhomogeneous magnetic field is very effective to control the magnetic state of individual ferromagnetic nanoparticles as well as to create different distribution of magnetic field in array of ferromagnetic nanoparticles

  15. On the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, Russell M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2008-01-01

    and most popular mechanism is the α-Ω mean field dynamo theory developed by a number of people in the late sixties. This theory and its application to galactic magnetic fields is discussed in considerable detail in this review. We point out certain difficulties with this theory that make it seem unlikely that this is the whole story. The main difficulty with this as the only such amplification mechanism is rooted in the fact that, on galactic scales, flux is constant and is frozen in the interstellar medium. This implies that flux must be removed from the galactic discs, as is well recognized by the standard theory. For our Galaxy this turns out to be a major problem, since unless the flux and the interstellar mass are somehow separated, some interstellar mass must also be removed from the deep galactic gravitational well. This is very difficult. It is pointed out that unless the field has a substantial field strength, much larger than that of the seed fields, this separation can hardly happen. And of course, it must if the α-Ω dynamo is to start from the ultra weak seed field. (It is our philosophy, expressed in this review, that if an origin theory is unable to create the magnetic field in our Galaxy it is essentially incomplete.) Thus, it is more reasonable for the first and largest amplification to occur before the Galaxy forms, and the matter embedded in the field is gravitationally trapped. Two such mechanisms are discussed for such a pregalactic origin; (1) they are generated in the turbulence of the protogalaxy and (2) the fields come from giant radio jets. Several arguments against a primordial origin are also discussed, as are ways around them. Our conclusion as to the most likely origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they are first produced at moderate field strengths by primordial mechanisms and then changed and their strength increased to their present value and structure by a galactic disc dynamo. The primordial mechanisms have not yet been

  16. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  17. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  18. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this…

  19. Deformation of Water by a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijun; Dahlberg, E. Dan

    2011-01-01

    After the discovery that superconducting magnets could levitate diamagnetic objects, researchers became interested in measuring the repulsion of diamagnetic fluids in strong magnetic fields, which was given the name "The Moses Effect." Both for the levitation experiments and the quantitative studies on liquids, the large magnetic fields necessary…

  20. Monolayer phosphorene under time-dependent magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, J. P. G.; Aguiar, V.; Guedes, I.

    2018-02-01

    We obtain the exact wave function of a monolayer phosphorene under a low-intensity time-dependent magnetic field using the dynamical invariant method. We calculate the quantum-mechanical energy expectation value and the transition probability for a constant and an oscillatory magnetic field. For the former we observe that the Landau level energy varies linearly with the quantum numbers n and m and the magnetic field intensity B0. No transition takes place. For the latter, we observe that the energy oscillates in time, increasing linearly with the Landau level n and m and nonlinearly with the magnetic field. The (k , l) →(n , m) transitions take place only for l = m. We investigate the (0,0) →(n , 0) and (1 , l) and (2 , l) probability transitions.

  1. Thermal photons from gluon fusion with magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We compute the production of thermal photons in relativistic heavy-ion collisions by gluon fusion in the presence of an intense magnetic field, and during the early stages of the reaction. This photon yield is an excess over calculations that do not consider magnetic field effects. We add this excess to recent hydrodynamic calculations that are close to describing the experimental transverse momentum distribution in RHIC and LHC. We then show that with reasonable values for the temperature, magnetic field strength, and strong coupling constant, our results provide a very good description of such excess. These results support the idea that the origin of at least some of the photon excess observed in heavy-ion experiments may arise from magnetic field induced processes.

  2. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  3. Construction of Solar-Wind-Like Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dana Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Fluctuations in the solar wind fields tend to not only have velocities and magnetic fields correlated in the sense consistent with Alfven waves traveling from the Sun, but they also have the magnitude of the magnetic field remarkably constant despite their being broadband. This paper provides, for the first time, a method for constructing fields with nearly constant magnetic field, zero divergence, and with any specified power spectrum for the fluctuations of the components of the field. Every wave vector, k, is associated with two polarizations the relative phases of these can be chosen to minimize the variance of the field magnitude while retaining the\\random character of the fields. The method is applied to a case with one spatial coordinate that demonstrates good agreement with observed time series and power spectra of the magnetic field in the solar wind, as well as with the distribution of the angles of rapid changes (discontinuities), thus showing a deep connection between two seemingly unrelated issues. It is suggested that using this construction will lead to more realistic simulations of solar wind turbulence and of the propagation of energetic particles.

  4. Electrolytic tiltmeters inside magnetic fields: Some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Luque, J.M.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Garcia-Moral, L.A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F.J.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    We present observations of the electrolytic clinometers behaviour inside magnetic field environments introducing phenomenological expressions to account for the measured output voltage variations as functions of field gradients and field strengths

  5. Test chambers for cell culture in static magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Marek, E-mail: mag@iq.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Gawron, Stanisław, E-mail: s.gawron@komel.katowice.pl [Research and Development Centre of Electrical Machines. 188 Rozdzienskiego Street, 40-203 Katowice (Poland); Sieroń, Aleksander, E-mail: sieron1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Pawłowska–Góral, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgoral@sum.edu.pl [Department of Food and Nutrition in Sosnowiec. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 8 Jednosci Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland); Cieślar, Grzegorz, E-mail: cieslar1@tlen.pl [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland); Sieroń–Stołtny, Karolina [Department of Internal Diseases, Angiology and Physical Medicine in Bytom. Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. 15 Batorego Street, 41-902 Bytom (Poland)

    2013-04-15

    Article presents a test chamber intended to be used for in vitro cell culture in homogenous constant magnetic field with parametrically variable magnitude. We constructed test chambers with constant parameters of control homeostasis of cell culture for the different parameters of static magnetic field. The next step was the computer calculation of 2D and 3D simulation of the static magnetic field distribution in the chamber. The analysis of 2D and 3D calculations of magnetic induction in the cells' exposition plane reveals, in comparison to the detection results, the greater accuracy of 2D calculations (Figs. 9 and 10). The divergence in 2D method was 2–4% and 8 to 10% in 3D method (reaching 10% only out of the cells′ cultures margins). -- Highlights: ► We present test chamber to be used for in vitro cell culture in static magnetic field. ► The technical data of the chamber construction was presented. ► 2D versus 3D simulation of static magnetic field distribution in chamber was reported. ► We report the accuracy of 2D calculation than 3D.

  6. Effect of Static Magnetic Field on Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yuichiro; Kawasumi, Masashi; Saito, Masao

    The effect of magnetic field on cell has long been investigated, but there are few quantitative investigations of the migration of cells. Cell-migration is important as one of the fundamental activities of the cell. This study proposes a method to evaluate quantitatively the cell-diffusion constant and the effect of static magnetic field on cell migration. The cell-lines are neuroblastoma (NG108-15), fibroblastoma (NIH/3T3) and osteoblastoma (MC3T3-E1). The static magnetic field of 30 mT or 120 mT is impressed by a permanent magnet in vertical or horizontal direction to the dish. It is shown that the cell-diffusion constant can represent the cell migration as the cell activity. It is found that the cell migration is enhanced by exposure to the magnetic field, depending on the kind of cell. It is conjectured that the effect of static magnetic field affects the cell migration, which is at the downstream of the information transmission.

  7. Plasma opening switch with extrinsic magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgachev, G; Maslennikov, D

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We have demonstrated in series of experiments that plasma opening switch (POS) switching voltage (UPOS) is defined by energy density (w) deposited in the POS plasma. If we then consider a plasma erosion mainly responsible for the effect of POS switching (the erosion effect could be described by Hall or Child-Langmuir models) the energy density (w) could be measured as a function of a system "macro-parameter" such as the initial charging voltage of the capacity storage system (the Marx pulsed voltage generator) UMarx. The POS voltage in this case could be given by UPOS"aw=aUMarx4/7, where a is a constant. This report demonstrates that for the high-impedance POS which has limited charge density transferred through the POS plasma a"2.5 (MV3/7) with no external magnetic field applied. The use of the extrinsic magnetic field allows to increase a up to 3.6 (MV3/7) and to achieve higher voltages at the opening phase - UPOS=3.6UMarx4/7. To verify this approach set of experimental ...

  8. Improving the magnetic field homogeneity by varying magnetic field structure in a geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li; Wang, Wentao; Yao, Zhenjing; Gao, Qiang; Han, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic field structure is a key factor that affects performance of the magneto-electric geophone. In order to enhance the magnetic field homogeneity and magnetic induction intensity of the magnetic field structure, this paper proposes a new magnetic field structure. It consists of two cylindrical permanent magnets: an H-type magnetic boot and an external magnetic yoke. The proposed magnetic field structure can broaden the range of a uniform magnetic field and increase the magnetic field intensity of working air-gap. To confirm the validity of the design, the finite element analysis and real measurement experiments were conducted. The finite element simulations using the ANASYS Electromagnetics Suite 17.2.0 showed that the air-gap magnetic induction intensity is increased and the work space with a uniform magnetic field is broadened. Meanwhile, the output voltage of the coil is increased, and the harmonic distortion rate of output voltage is reduced. According to the real measurement experimental results, compared with the traditional magnetic field structure, the uniform range of the magnetic field is improved 23% in the entire air-gap path, and the magnetic induction intensity enhances 24% over the proposed new magnetic field structure.

  9. Generating the optimal magnetic field for magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Insinga, Andrea Roberto; Smith, Anders

    2016-01-01

    In a magnetic refrigeration device the magnet is the single most expensive component, and therefore it is crucially important to ensure that an effective magnetic field as possible is generated using the least amount of permanent magnets. Here we present a method for calculating the optimal...... in the optimal segmentation, for any number of segments specified. These two methods are used to determine the optimal magnet design of a 12-piece, two-pole concentric cylindrical magnet for use in a continuously rotating magnetic refrigeration device....

  10. Investigations on magnetic field induced optical transparency in magnetic nanofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Dillip Kumar; Philip, John

    2018-02-01

    We study the magnetic field induced optical transparency and its origin in magnetic nanoemulsion of droplets of average size ∼200 nm containing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Beyond a certain volume fraction (Φ > 0.0021) of magnetic nanoemulsion and a critical magnetic field (Hc1), the transmitted light intensity increases drastically and reaches a maximum at another critical magnetic field (Hc2), beyond which the transmitted light intensity decreases and reaches a plateau. Interestingly, the transmitted light intensity at Hc2 is found to increase linearly with Φ and the critical magnetic fields Hc1 and Hc2 follow power law decay with Φ (i.e. Hc ∼ Φ-x), with exponents 0.48 and 0.27, respectively. The light intensity recovers to its initial value when the magnetic field is switched off, indicating the perfect reversibility of the field induced transparency process. The observed straight line scattered patterns above Hc2, on a screen placed perpendicular to the incident beam, confirms the formation of rod like anisotropic nanostructures perpendicular to the direction of light propagation. The magneto-optical measurements in the emulsion confirm that the observed field induced transparency in magnetic emulsions for Φ > 0.0021 is due to the optical birefringence caused by the rod like nanostructures. The reduced birefringence is found to be proportional to the square of the applied magnetic field. This finding offers several possibilities in using magnetic nanofluids in tunable optical devices.

  11. Magnetic monopole and vector field of the spin 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantyushin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The motion of electrically charged particles in uniform magnetic field by time is considered. It is found out that additional force acting on eclectically charged particle from the spin 0 vector field side is proportional to the magnetic field. Proportion coefficient is equal to eg/4π (g - unknown parameter, determining of the rate and character of source non-preservation) - the analogue of constant thin structure α=e 2 /4π. Obtained results give evidence to suppose that for explanation of indicated experiments the monopole introduction is not essential

  12. The effect of the magnetic nanoparticle's size dependence of the relaxation time constant on the specific loss power of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabech, Mariem; Leliaert, Jonathan; Coene, Annelies; Crevecoeur, Guillaume; Van Roost, Dirk; Dupré, Luc

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia is a cancer treatment in which magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are subjected to an alternating magnetic field to induce heat in the tumor. The generated heat of MNPs is characterized by the specific loss power (SLP) due to relaxation phenomena of the MNP. Up to now, several models have been proposed to predict the SLP, one of which is the Linear Response Theory. One parameter in this model is the relaxation time constant. In this contribution, we employ a macrospin model based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation to investigate the relation between the Gilbert damping parameter and the relaxation time constant. This relaxation time has a pre-factor τ0 which is often taken as a fixed value ranging between 10-8 and 10-12 s. However, in reality it has small size dependence. Here, the influence of this size dependence on the calculation of the SLP is demonstrated, consequently improving the accuracy of this estimate.

  13. Dynamic shielding of the magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAU, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative study of the methods used to control and compensate the direct and alternative magnetic fields. Two frequently used methods in the electromagnetic compatibility of the complex biomagnetism installations were analyzed. The two methods refer to the use of inductive magnetic field sensors (only for alternative fields and of fluxgate magnetometers as active transducers which measures both the direct and alternative components of the magnetic field. The applications of the dynamic control of the magnetic field are: control of the magnetic field of the military ships, control of parasite magnetic field produced by power transformers and the electrical networks, protection of the mass spectrometers, electronic microscopes, SQUID and optical pumping magnetometers for applications in biomagnetism.

  14. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  15. Magnetic field measurements of the superEBIS superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herschcovitch, A.; Kponou, A.; Clipperton, R.; Hensel, W.; Usack, F.

    1994-01-01

    SuperEBIS was designed to have a solenoidal magnetic field of a 5 Tesla strength with a 120 cm long bore. The field was specified to be straight within 1 part in 10000 within the bore, and uniform to within 1 part in 1000 within the central 90 cm. Magnetic field measurements were performed with a computerized magnetic field measuring setup that was borrowed from W. Sampson's group. A preliminary test was made of a scheme to determine if the magnetic and mechanical axes of the solenoid coincided, and, if not, by how much

  16. Field free line magnetic particle imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Erbe, Marlitt

    2014-01-01

    Marlitt Erbe provides a detailed introduction into the young research field of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) and field free line (FFL) imaging in particular. She derives a mathematical description of magnetic field generation for FFL imaging in MPI. To substantiate the simulation studies on magnetic FFL generation with a proof-of-concept, the author introduces the FFL field demonstrator, which provides the world's first experimentally generated rotated and translated magnetic FFL field complying with the requirements for FFL reconstruction. Furthermore, she proposes a scanner design of consi

  17. Evolution of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous studies have provided the detailed information necessary for a substantive synthesis of the empirical relation between the magnetic field of the sun and the structure of the interplanetary field. The author points out the latest techniques and studies of the global solar magnetic field and its relation to the interplanetary field. The potential to overcome most of the limitations of present methods of analysis exists in techniques of modelling the coronal magnetic field using observed solar data. Such empirical models are, in principle, capable of establishing the connection between a given heliospheric point and its magnetically-connected photospheric point, as well as the physical basis for the connection. (Auth.)

  18. Cosmic Rays in Intermittent Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukurov, Anvar; Seta, Amit; Bushby, Paul J.; Wood, Toby S. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Snodin, Andrew P., E-mail: a.seta1@ncl.ac.uk, E-mail: amitseta90@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand)

    2017-04-10

    The propagation of cosmic rays in turbulent magnetic fields is a diffusive process driven by the scattering of the charged particles by random magnetic fluctuations. Such fields are usually highly intermittent, consisting of intense magnetic filaments and ribbons surrounded by weaker, unstructured fluctuations. Studies of cosmic-ray propagation have largely overlooked intermittency, instead adopting Gaussian random magnetic fields. Using test particle simulations, we calculate cosmic-ray diffusivity in intermittent, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. The results are compared with those obtained from non-intermittent magnetic fields having identical power spectra. The presence of magnetic intermittency significantly enhances cosmic-ray diffusion over a wide range of particle energies. We demonstrate that the results can be interpreted in terms of a correlated random walk.

  19. Inverse magnetic catalysis in Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model beyond mean field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Shijun

    2016-01-01

    We study inverse magnetic catalysis in the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model beyond mean field approximation. The feed-down from mesons to quarks is embedded in an effective coupling constant at finite temperature and magnetic field. While the magnetic catalysis is still the dominant effect at low temperature, the meson dressed quark mass drops down with increasing magnetic field at high temperature due to the dimension reduction of the Goldstone mode in the Pauli–Villars regularization scheme.

  20. Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale

    This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.

  1. Destabilizing effect of time-dependent oblique magnetic field on magnetic fluids streaming in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, Yusry O; Ghaly, Ahmed Y

    2004-01-01

    The present work studies Kelvin-Helmholtz waves propagating between two magnetic fluids. The system is composed of two semi-infinite magnetic fluids streaming throughout porous media. The system is influenced by an oblique magnetic field. The solution of the linearized equations of motion under the boundary conditions leads to deriving the Mathieu equation governing the interfacial displacement and having complex coefficients. The stability criteria are discussed theoretically and numerically, from which stability diagrams are obtained. Regions of stability and instability are identified for the magnetic fields versus the wavenumber. It is found that the increase of the fluid density ratio, the fluid velocity ratio, the upper viscosity, and the lower porous permeability play a stabilizing role in the stability behavior in the presence of an oscillating vertical magnetic field or in the presence of an oscillating tangential magnetic field. The increase of the fluid viscosity plays a stabilizing role and can be used to retard the destabilizing influence for the vertical magnetic field. Dual roles are observed for the fluid velocity in the stability criteria. It is found that the field frequency plays against the constant part for the magnetic field.

  2. High magnetic fields science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    This three-volume book provides a comprehensive review of experiments in very strong magnetic fields that can only be generated with very special magnets. The first volume is entirely devoted to the technology of laboratory magnets: permanent, superconducting, high-power water-cooled and hybrid; pulsed magnets, both nondestructive and destructive (megagauss fields). Volumes 2 and 3 contain reviews of the different areas of research where strong magnetic fields are an essential research tool. These volumes deal primarily with solid-state physics; other research areas covered are biological syst

  3. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.; Morgan, John P,.

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  4. Demagnetizing fields in active magnetic regenerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Smith, Anders

    2014-01-01

    A magnetic material in an externally applied magnetic field will in general experience a spatially varying internal magnetic field due to demagnetizing effects. When the performance of active magnetic regenerators (AMRs) is evaluated using numerical models the internal field is often assumed...... is in general both a function of the overall shape of the regenerator and its morphology (packed particles, parallel plates etc.) as well as the magnetization of the material. Due to the pronounced temperature dependence of the magnetization near the Curie temperature, the demagnetization field is also...... temperature dependent. We propose a relatively straightforward method to correct sufficiently for the demagnetizing field in AMR models. We discuss how the demagnetizing field behaves in regenerators made of packed spheres under realistic operation conditions....

  5. Trapped magnetic field measurements on HTS bulk by peak controlled pulsed field magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Tetsuya; Watasaki, Masahiro; Kimura, Yosuke; Miki, Motohiro; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2010-01-01

    For the past several years, we have studied the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) synchronous motor assembled with melt-textured Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk magnets. If the single pulse field magnetizes a bulk effectively, size of electrical motor will become small for the strong magnetic field of the HTS magnets without reducing output power of motor. In the previous study, we showed that the HTS bulk was magnetized to excellent cone-shape magnetic field distribution by using the waveform control pulse magnetization (WCPM) method. The WCPM technique made possible the active control of the waveform on which magnetic flux motion depended. We generated the pulse waveform with controlled risetime for HTS bulk magnetization to suppress the magnetic flux motion which decreases magnetization efficiency. The pulsed maximum magnetic flux density with slow risetime is not beyond the maximum magnetic flux density which is trapped by the static field magnetization. But, as for applying the pulse which has fast risetime, the magnetic flux which exceed greatly the threshold penetrates the bulk and causes the disorder of the trapped magnetic distribution. This fact suggests the possibility that the threshold at pulsed magnetization influences the dynamic magnetic flux motion. In this study, Gd-Ba-Cu-O bulk is magnetized by the controlled arbitrary trapezoidal shape pulse, of which the maximum magnetic flux density is controlled not to exceed the threshold. We will present the trapped magnetic characteristics and the technique to generate the controlled pulsed field.

  6. Magnetic field modification of ultracold molecule-molecule collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tscherbul, T V; Suleimanov, Yu V; Aquilanti, V; Krems, R V

    2009-01-01

    We present an accurate quantum mechanical study of molecule-molecule collisions in the presence of a magnetic field. The work focuses on the analysis of elastic scattering and spin relaxation in collisions of O 2 ( 3 Σ g - ) molecules at cold (∼0.1 K) and ultracold (∼10 -6 K) temperatures. Our calculations show that magnetic spin relaxation in molecule-molecule collisions is extremely efficient except at magnetic fields below 1 mT. The rate constant for spin relaxation at T=0.1 K and a magnetic field of 0.1 T is found to be as large as 6.1x10 -11 cm -3 s -1 . The magnetic field dependence of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections at ultracold temperatures is dominated by a manifold of Feshbach resonances with the density of ∼100 resonances per Tesla for collisions of molecules in the absolute ground state. This suggests that the scattering length of ultracold molecules in the absolute ground state can be effectively tuned in a very wide range of magnetic fields. Our calculations demonstrate that the number and properties of the magnetic Feshbach resonances are dramatically different for molecules in the absolute ground and excited spin states. The density of Feshbach resonances for molecule-molecule scattering in the low-field-seeking Zeeman state is reduced by a factor of 10.

  7. Mesogranulation and the Solar Surface Magnetic Field Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelles Chaouche, L.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Wiegelmann, T.; Bonet, J. A.; Knölker, M.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Schmidt, W.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-02-01

    The relation of the solar surface magnetic field with mesogranular cells is studied using high spatial (≈100 km) and temporal (≈30 s) resolution data obtained with the IMaX instrument on board SUNRISE. First, mesogranular cells are identified using Lagrange tracers (corks) based on horizontal velocity fields obtained through local correlation tracking. After ≈20 minutes of integration, the tracers delineate a sharp mesogranular network with lanes of width below about 280 km. The preferential location of magnetic elements in mesogranular cells is tested quantitatively. Roughly 85% of pixels with magnetic field higher than 100 G are located in the near neighborhood of mesogranular lanes. Magnetic flux is therefore concentrated in mesogranular lanes rather than intergranular ones. Second, magnetic field extrapolations are performed to obtain field lines anchored in the observed flux elements. This analysis, therefore, is independent of the horizontal flows determined in the first part. A probability density function (PDF) is calculated for the distribution of distances between the footpoints of individual magnetic field lines. The PDF has an exponential shape at scales between 1 and 10 Mm, with a constant characteristic decay distance, indicating the absence of preferred convection scales in the mesogranular range. Our results support the view that mesogranulation is not an intrinsic convective scale (in the sense that it is not a primary energy-injection scale of solar convection), but also give quantitative confirmation that, nevertheless, the magnetic elements are preferentially found along mesogranular lanes.

  8. Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.

  9. Transient Magnetic Field in a Conducting Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Piatek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we determine the transient magnetic field in a conducting cylinder placed in external longitudinal sine-shaped magnetic field using the solution of Bessell equation in cylindrical co-ordinates, and also applying integral Laplace transformations, attenuation and diffusion of the magnetic field strength in the cylinder. The resulting equations can be used to describe volume density of the power lost in the cylinder and to determine substitute parameters of the inductor-cylindrical work system.

  10. Novel Electrochemical Phenomena in Magnetic Fields(Research in High Magnetic Fields)

    OpenAIRE

    Mogi, Iwao; Kamiko, Masao

    1996-01-01

    Recent two topics are given of electrochemical studies in steady magnetic fields at the High Field Laboratory of Tohoku University. One is the magnetic-field-induced diffusion-limited-aggregation in the pattern formation of silver electrodeposits . The other is the magnetic field effect on the learning effect in a dopant-exchange process of an organic conducting polymer polypyrrole.

  11. Strongly Interacting Matter in Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shijun; Wu, Youjia; Zhuang, Pengfei

    Inverse magnetic catalysis effect on the chiral phase transition is investigated in the frame of SU(2) NJL model with Pauli-Villars regularization scheme. We consider two scenarios, the chiral chemical potential μ5 caused by sphalerons and magnetic inhibition of mesons π0. With different chiral chemical potential, we always obtain magnetic catalysis in the mean field calculation, due to the enhancement of Fermi surface of the pairing fermions by μ5. On the other hand, when going beyond the mean field approximation by including the feed-down from mesons to quarks, the competition between the magnetic catalysis effect of quarks and magnetic inhibition effect of mesons leads to the transition from inverse magnetic catalysis to delayed magnetic catalysis with increasing magnetic field.

  12. Minimizing magnetic fields for precision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarev, I.; Fierlinger, P.; Lins, T.; Marino, M. G.; Nießen, B.; Petzoldt, G.; Reisner, M.; Stuiber, S.; Sturm, M.; Taggart Singh, J.; Taubenheim, B.; Rohrer, H. K.; Schläpfer, U.

    2015-06-01

    An increasing number of measurements in fundamental and applied physics rely on magnetically shielded environments with sub nano-Tesla residual magnetic fields. State of the art magnetically shielded rooms (MSRs) consist of up to seven layers of high permeability materials in combination with highly conductive shields. Proper magnetic equilibration is crucial to obtain such low magnetic fields with small gradients in any MSR. Here, we report on a scheme to magnetically equilibrate MSRs with a 10 times reduced duration of the magnetic equilibration sequence and a significantly lower magnetic field with improved homogeneity. For the search of the neutron's electric dipole moment, our finding corresponds to a 40% improvement of the statistical reach of the measurement. However, this versatile procedure can improve the performance of any MSR for any application.

  13. Magnetic field measurements and mapping techniques

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    These lectures will present an overview of the most common techniques used for the measurement of magnetic field in accelerator magnets. The formalism for a harmonic description of the magnetic field will be presented, including a discussion of harmonics allowed under various types of symmetries in the magnet. The harmonic coil technique for measurement of field harmonics will be covered in depth. Using examples from recent projects, magnetic measurements will be shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring magnet production. Measurements of magnetic axis using extensions of the harmonic coil technique, as well as other techniques, such as the colloidal cell and stretched wire, will be covered. Topics of interest in superconducting magnets, such as time decay and snapback, requiring relatively fast measurements of the harmonics, will also be described.

  14. Operating a magnetic nozzle helicon thruster with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazunori, E-mail: kazunori@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira [Department of Electrical Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    A pulsed axial magnetic field up to ∼2.8 kG is applied to a 26-mm-inner-diameter helicon plasma thruster immersed in a vacuum chamber, and the thrust is measured using a pendulum target. The pendulum is located 30-cm-downstream of the thruster, and the thruster rf power and argon flow rate are fixed at 1 kW and 70 sccm (which gives a chamber pressure of 0.7 mTorr). The imparted thrust increases as the applied magnetic field is increased and saturates at a maximum value of ∼9.5 mN for magnetic field above ∼2 kG. At the maximum magnetic field, it is demonstrated that the normalized plasma density, and the ion flow energy in the magnetic nozzle, agree within ∼50% and of 10%, respectively, with a one-dimensional model that ignores radial losses from the nozzle. This magnetic nozzle model is combined with a simple global model of the thruster source that incorporates an artificially controlled factor α, to account for radial plasma losses to the walls, where α = 0 and 1 correspond to zero losses and no magnetic field, respectively. Comparison between the experiments and the model implies that the radial losses in the thruster source are experimentally reduced by the applied magnetic field to about 10% of that obtained from the no magnetic field model.

  15. Magnetic field and magnetic isotope effects on photochemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Masanobu

    1999-01-01

    By at present exact experiments and the theoretical analysis, it was clear that the magnetic field less than 2 T affected a radical pair reaction and biradical reaction. The radical pair life and the dissipative radical yield showed the magnetic field effects on chemical reactions. The radical pair mechanism and the triplet mechanism were known as the mechanism of magnetic field effects. The radical pair mechanism consists of four mechanisms such as the homogeneous hyperfine interaction (HFC), the delta-g mechanism, the relaxation mechanism and the level cross mechanism. In order to observe the magnetic effects of the radical pair mechanism, two conditions need, namely, the recombination rate of singlet radical pair > the dissipation rate and the spin exchange rate > the dissipation rate. A nanosecond laser photo-decomposition equipment can observe the magnetic field effects. The inversion phenomena of magnetic field effect, isolation of the relaxation mechanism and the delta-g mechanism, the magnetic field effect of heavy metal radical reaction, the magnetic field effect in homogeneous solvent, saturation of delta-g mechanism are explained. The succeeded examples of isotope concentration by the magnetic isotope effect are 17 O, 19 Si, 33 S, 73 Ge and 235 U. (S.Y.)

  16. Effect of sample shape on nonlinear magnetization dynamics under an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, Dmitry V.; Polyakov, Oleg P.

    2008-01-01

    Effect of sample shape on the nonlinear collective dynamics of magnetic moments in the presence of oscillating and constant external magnetic fields is studied using the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) approach. The uniformly magnetized sample is considered to be an ellipsoidal axially symmetric particle described by demagnetization factors and uniaxial crystallographic anisotropy formed some angle with an applied field direction. It is investigated as to how the change in particle shape affects its nonlinear magnetization dynamics. To produce a regular study, all results are presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams for all sufficient dynamics regimes of the considered system. In this paper, we show that the sample's (particle's) shape and its orientation with respect to the external field (system configuration) determine the character of magnetization dynamics: deterministic behavior and appearance of chaotic states. A simple change in the system's configuration or in the shapes of its parts can transfer it from chaotic to periodic or even static regime and back. Moreover, the effect of magnetization precession stall and magnetic moments alignment parallel or antiparallel to the external oscillating field is revealed and the way of control of such 'polarized' states is found. Our results suggest that varying the particle's shape and fields' geometry may provide a useful way of magnetization dynamics control in complex magnetic systems

  17. Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2002-01-01

    Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode

  18. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.

  19. The strongest magnetic fields in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, A; Falanga, M; Lyutikov, M; Mereghetti, S; Piran, T; Treumann, RA

    2016-01-01

    This volume extends the ISSI series on magnetic fields in the Universe into the domain of what are by far the strongest fields in the Universe, and stronger than any field that could be produced on Earth. The chapters describe the magnetic fields in non-degenerate strongly magnetized stars, degenerate stars (such as white dwarfs and neutron stars), exotic members called magnetars, and in their environments, as well as magnetic fields in the environments of black holes. These strong fields have a profound effect on the behavior of matter, visible in particular in highly variable processes like radiation in all known wavelengths, including Gamma-Ray bursts. The generation and structure of such strong magnetic fields and effects on the environment are also described.

  20. Response of Magnetic Force Microscopy Probes under AC Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungthong, A.; Ruksasakchai, P.; Saengkaew, K.; Cheowanish, I.; Damrongsak, B.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) probes with different coating materials were characterized under AC magnetic field. A perpendicular magnetic write head similar to those used in hard disk drives was employed as the AC magnetic field generator. In order to measure a response of MFM probes to AC magnetic field, a MFM probe under test was scanned, at a scan height of 10 nm, across the surface of the magnetic write head. During MFM imaging, the write head was biased by a sufficient magnitude of AC current, approximately 30 mA. A spectral analysis for a frequency sweep from 1 kHz to 100 MHz was extracted from post-processing MFM images. As expected, a MFM probe coated with hard magnetic alloys, i.e. FePt, has the lowest response to AC magnetic fields. MFM probes coated with soft magnetic alloys, i.e. NiFe and NiCoCr, have a relatively high and flat response across the frequency range. Ni coated MFM probe has the highest response to AC magnetic fields. In addition, CoCr and NiCo coated MFM probes show lower response than NiFe and NiCoCr probes at low frequencies; however, theirs response to AC magnetic field increase for the AC magnetic field with a frequency above 50 kHz. This can be implied that those MFM probes are a good candidate for being used to study the high-frequency performance of perpendicular magnetic write heads. Noting that response of all MFM probes significantly decreased when driven frequencies above 1 MHz due to the limitation of the hardware, i.e. response of quadrant photodiode and op-amp in a pre-amplifier.

  1. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  2. NMR magnetic field controller for pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheler, G.; Anacker, M.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance controller for magnetic fields, which can also be used for pulsed NMR investigations, is described. A longtime stability of 10 -7 is achieved. The control signal is generated by a modified time sharing circuit with resonance at the first side band of the 2 H signal. An exact calibration of the magnetic field is achieved by the variation of the H 1 - or of the time-sharing frequency. (author)

  3. Mitigating reentry radio blackout by using a traveling magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hypersonic flight or a reentry vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer that prevents electromagnetic wave transmission, which results in radio blackout. The magnetic-window method is considered a promising means to mitigate reentry communication blackout. However, the real application of this method is limited because of the need for strong magnetic fields. To reduce the required magnetic field strength, a novel method that applies a traveling magnetic field (TMF is proposed in this study. A mathematical model based on magneto-hydrodynamic theory is adopted to analyze the effect of TMF on plasma. The mitigating effects of the TMF on the blackout of typical frequency bands, including L-, S-, and C-bands, are demonstrated. Results indicate that a significant reduction of plasma density occurs in the magnetic-window region by applying a TMF, and the reduction ratio is positively correlated with the velocity of the TMF. The required traveling velocities for eliminating the blackout of the Global Positioning System (GPS and the typical telemetry system are also discussed. Compared with the constant magnetic-window method, the TMF method needs lower magnetic field strength and is easier to realize in the engineering field.

  4. Mitigating reentry radio blackout by using a traveling magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Li, Xiaoping; Xie, Kai; Liu, Yanming; Yu, Yuanyuan

    2017-10-01

    A hypersonic flight or a reentry vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer that prevents electromagnetic wave transmission, which results in radio blackout. The magnetic-window method is considered a promising means to mitigate reentry communication blackout. However, the real application of this method is limited because of the need for strong magnetic fields. To reduce the required magnetic field strength, a novel method that applies a traveling magnetic field (TMF) is proposed in this study. A mathematical model based on magneto-hydrodynamic theory is adopted to analyze the effect of TMF on plasma. The mitigating effects of the TMF on the blackout of typical frequency bands, including L-, S-, and C-bands, are demonstrated. Results indicate that a significant reduction of plasma density occurs in the magnetic-window region by applying a TMF, and the reduction ratio is positively correlated with the velocity of the TMF. The required traveling velocities for eliminating the blackout of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the typical telemetry system are also discussed. Compared with the constant magnetic-window method, the TMF method needs lower magnetic field strength and is easier to realize in the engineering field.

  5. Magnetic properties of the Ce2Fe17-x Mn x helical magnets up to high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchin, A.G.; Mushnikov, N.V.; Bartashevich, M.I.; Prokhnenko, O.; Khrabrov, V.I.; Lapina, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic properties of the Ce 2 Fe 17- x Mn x , x=0-2, alloys in magnetic fields up to 40 T are reported. The compounds with x=0.5-1 are helical antiferromagnets and those with 1 B that couple antiparallelly to the Fe moments. Easy-plane magnetic anisotropy in the Ce 2 Fe 17- x Mn x compounds weakens upon substitution of Mn for Fe. The absolute value of the first anisotropy constant in the Ce 2 Fe 17- x Mn x helical ferromagnets decreases slower with increasing temperature than that calculated from the third power of the spontaneous magnetization. Noticeable magnetic hysteresis in the Ce 2 Fe 17- x Mn x , x=0.5-2, helical magnets over the whole range of magnetic fields reflects mainly irreversible deformation of the helical magnetic structure during the magnetization of the compounds. A contribution from short-range order (SRO) magnetic clusters to the magnetic hysteresis of the helical magnets has been also estimated

  6. Structure of magnetic field in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic surfaces, necessary to plasma confinement, can be extinguished by resonant helical perturbations with small intensities due to plasma oscillations or external helical currents. The mapping of magnetic field is obtained intergrating numerically the differential equation of its lines. Criteria which evaluate the chaotic distribution of lines between resonant magnetic islands are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Magnetic field effects on brain monoamine oxidase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borets, V.M.; Ostrovskiy, V.Yu.; Bankovskiy, A.A.; Dudinskaya, T.F.

    1985-03-01

    In view of the increasing use of magnetotherapy, studies were conducted on the effects of 35 mTesla magnetic fields on monoamine oxidase activity in the rat brain. Under in vitro conditions a constant magnetic field in the continuous mode was most effective in inhibiting deamination of dopamine following 1 min exposure, while in vivo studies with 8 min or 10 day exposures showed that inhibition was obtained only with a variable field in the continuous mode. However, inhibition of dopamine deamination was only evident within the first 24 h after exposure was terminated. In addition, in none of the cases was norepinephrine deamination inhibited. The effects of the magnetic fields were, therefore, transient and selective with the CNS as the target system. 9 references.

  8. Imaginary potential in strongly coupled N = 4 SYM plasma in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu

    2018-03-01

    We study the effect of a constant magnetic field on the imaginary part of a quarkonia potential in a strongly-coupled N = 4 SYM plasma. We consider the pair axis to be aligned perpendicularly and parallel to the magnetic field, respectively. For both cases, we find that the presence of the magnetic field tends to enhance the imaginary potential thus decreasing the thermal width. In addition, the magnetic field has a stronger effect on the imaginary potential when the pair axis is perpendicular to the magnetic field rather than parallel.

  9. Molecular nanomagnet in periodic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, N.A.

    2002-01-01

    The behavior of molecular nanomagnets in periodic magnetic field transverse to the easy axis direction is investigated. It is shown that at sufficiently strong field the tunneling time can be considerably reduced

  10. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  11. Control of magnetism by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Fumihiro; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ohno, Hideo

    2015-03-01

    The electrical manipulation of magnetism and magnetic properties has been achieved across a number of different material systems. For example, applying an electric field to a ferromagnetic material through an insulator alters its charge-carrier population. In the case of thin films of ferromagnetic semiconductors, this change in carrier density in turn affects the magnetic exchange interaction and magnetic anisotropy; in ferromagnetic metals, it instead changes the Fermi level position at the interface that governs the magnetic anisotropy of the metal. In multiferroics, an applied electric field couples with the magnetization through electrical polarization. This Review summarizes the experimental progress made in the electrical manipulation of magnetization in such materials, discusses our current understanding of the mechanisms, and finally presents the future prospects of the field.

  12. The light-induced structuralization in magnetic fluids with negative Soret constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopcansky, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Kosice (Slovakia); Hnatic, Michal [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Kosice (Slovakia)]. E-mail: hnatic@saske.sk; Repasan, Marian [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Kosice (Slovakia); Potocova, Ivana [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Kosice (Slovakia); Timko, Milan [Institute of Experimental Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 043 53 Kosice (Slovakia); Turek, Ivan [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, Velky Diel, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Stelina, Julius [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, Velky Diel, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Musil, Ctibor [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, Velky Diel, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Bracinik, Juraj [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, Velky Diel, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Ayrjan, Edik [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Vekas, Ladislau [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy, Blvd. Mihai Viteazul 24, 1900 Timisoara (Romania); Bica, Doina [Center for Fundamental and Advanced Technical Research, Romanian Academy, Blvd. Mihai Viteazul 24, 1900 Timisoara (Romania)

    2005-03-15

    The structuralization of the colloidal particles concentration in illuminated magnetic fluids with negative Soret constant was investigated. A theoretical explanation of the phenomenon, based on the study of the thermodiffusion process in colloidal fluids, was made. The development of the structuralization after the intensity of the illumination reaches some critical value was both simulated and observed experimentally.

  13. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Rodolfo H.; Gomez, Sergio S.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown

  14. Analytical model for relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Rodolfo H. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)]. E-mail: rhromero@exa.unne.edu.ar; Gomez, Sergio S. [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Avenida Libertad 5500 (3400), Corrientes (Argentina)

    2006-04-24

    We present a simple analytical model for calculating and rationalizing the main relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shielding constant in atoms. It provides good estimates for those corrections and their trends, in reasonable agreement with accurate four-component calculations and perturbation methods. The origin of the effects in deep core atomic orbitals is manifestly shown.

  15. Ion pump using cylindrically symmetric spindle magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M. H.

    2012-11-01

    For all accelerators and many research and industries, excellent vacuum conditions are required and the highest possible pumping rates are necessary. For most applications the standard ion sputtering pump (ISP) meets these requirements and is optimal for financial point of view also. The physical principle of the ISP is well known and many companies manufacture variety of ISP. Most of them use dipole magnetic field produced by permanent magnet and electric dipole field between the electrodes in which tenuous plasma is created because of interaction of between the relatively fast electrons slow residual gas atoms. Performance of an ISP depends basically on the electron cloud density in between the titanium electrodes but in the available present configurations no consideration has been given to electron confinement which needs a mirror magnetic field. If this is incorporated it will make a robust ISP surely; furthermore, the requirement of constant feeding of high voltage to electrodes for supplying sufficient number of electrons will be reduced too. A study has been performed to create sufficient rotationally symmetric spindle magnetic field (SMF) with inherent presence of magnetic mirror effect to electron motion to confine them for longer time for enhancing the density of electron cloud between the electrodes. It will lessen the electric power feeding the electrodes and lengthen their life-time. Construction of further compact and robust ISP is envisaged herein. The field simulation using the commercially available permanent magnet together with simulation of electron motion in such field will be presented and discussed in the paper.

  16. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  17. Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the DNA synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, Anatoly L.; Orlov, Alexei P.; Kuznetsov, Dmitry A.; Breslavskaya, Natalia N.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects on the rate of DNA synthesis catalysed by polymerases β with isotopic ions 24Mg2+, 25Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ in the catalytic sites were detected. No difference in enzymatic activity was found between polymerases β carrying 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions with spinless, non-magnetic nuclei 24Mg and 26Mg. However, 25Mg2+ ions with magnetic nucleus 25Mg were shown to suppress enzymatic activity by two to three times with respect to the enzymatic activity of polymerases β with 24Mg2+ and 26Mg2+ ions. Such an isotopic dependence directly indicates that in the DNA synthesis magnetic mass-independent isotope effect functions. Similar effect is exhibited by polymerases β with Zn2+ ions carrying magnetic 67Zn and non-magnetic 64Zn nuclei, respectively. A new, ion–radical mechanism of the DNA synthesis is suggested to explain these effects. Magnetic field dependence of the magnesium-catalysed DNA synthesis is in a perfect agreement with the proposed ion–radical mechanism. It is pointed out that the magnetic isotope and magnetic field effects may be used for medicinal purposes (trans-cranial magnetic treatment of cognitive deceases, cell proliferation, control of the cancer cells, etc). PMID:23851636

  18. Coulomb blockade induced by magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors found that a Coulomb blockade can be induced by magnetic field. The authors illustrated this effect on the example of a ring consisting of two and many Josephson junctions. For the ring with two junctions we present an exact solution. The transition into Coulomb blockade state on a ring transforms into a linear array of Josephson junctions, although in latter case the effect of magnetic field disappears. In the state of Coulomb blockade the magnetization may be both diamagnetic and paramagnetic. The Coulomb blockade may also be removed by external magnetic field

  19. Rotating artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Lembessis, V. E.; Alqarni, A.; Alshamari, S.; Siddig, A.; Aldossary, O. M.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the creation of artificial gauge magnetic and electric fields created when a two-level atom interacts with an optical Ferris wheel light field.These fields have the spatial structure of the optical Ferris wheel field intensity profile. If this optical field pattern is made to rotate in space then we have the creation of artificial electromagnetic fields which propagate in closed paths. The properties of such fields are presented and discussed

  20. Magnetic Fields at the Center of Coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Philippe; Hui, Kaleonui; Goldman, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    In this note we synthesize and extend expressions for the magnetic field at the center of very short and very long current-carrying coils. Elementary physics textbooks present the following equation for the magnetic field inside a very long current-carrying coil (solenoid): B[subscript sol] = µ[subscript 0] (N/L) I, (1) where I is the current, N…

  1. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blazars—magnetic fields—polarimetry. 1. Introduction. It is known that blazar radiation consists of several components. In optical region synchrotron radiation produced by the moving of relativistic electrons in the mag- netic field of a jet dominates. Magnetic field controls practically all main physical processes in galaxies ...

  2. Hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovik, Yu.E.; Volkov, S.Yu.

    2004-01-01

    A hydrogen atom moving across a magnetic field is considered in a wide region of magnitudes of magnetic field and atom momentum. We solve the Schroedinger equation of the system numerically using an imaginary time method and find wave functions of the lowest states of atom. We calculate the energy and the mean electron-nucleus separation as a function of atom momentum and magnetic field. All the results obtained could be summarized as a phase diagram on the 'atom-momentum - magnetic-field' plane. There are transformations of wave-function structure at critical values of atom momentum and magnetic field that result in a specific behavior of dependencies of energy and mean interparticle separation on the atom momentum P. We discuss a transition from the Zeeman regime to the high magnetic field regime. A qualitative analysis of the complicated behavior of wave functions vs P based on the effective potential examination is given. We analyze a sharp transition at the critical momentum from a Coulomb-type state polarized due to atom motion to a strongly decentered (Landau-type) state at low magnetic fields. A crossover occurring at intermediate magnetic fields is also studied

  3. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... This paper reviews the current status of the theoretical models of the evolution of the magnetic fields of neutron stars other than magnetars. It appears that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay significantly only if they are in binary systems. Three major physical models for this, namely spindown-induced ...

  4. Earth magnetism a guided tour through magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Wallace H

    2001-01-01

    An introductory guide to global magnetic field properties, Earth Magnetism addresses, in non-technical prose, many of the frequently asked questions about Earth''s magnetic field. Magnetism surrounds and penetrates our Earth in ways basic science courses can rarely address. It affects navigation, communication, and even the growth of crystals. As we observe and experience an 11-year solar maximum, we may witness spectacular satellite-destroying solar storms as they interact with our magnetic field. Written by an acknowledged expert in the field, this book will enrich courses in earth science, atmospheric science, geology, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geophysics. Contains nearly 200 original illustrations and eight pages of full-color plates.* Largely mathematics-free and with a wide breadth of material suitable for general readers* Integrates material from geomagnetism, paleomagnetism, and solar-terrestrial space physics.* Features nearly 200 original illustrations and 4 pages of colour plates

  5. Classical theory of electric and magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Roland H

    1971-01-01

    Classical Theory of Electric and Magnetic Fields is a textbook on the principles of electricity and magnetism. This book discusses mathematical techniques, calculations, with examples of physical reasoning, that are generally applied in theoretical physics. This text reviews the classical theory of electric and magnetic fields, Maxwell's Equations, Lorentz Force, and Faraday's Law of Induction. The book also focuses on electrostatics and the general methods for solving electrostatic problems concerning images, inversion, complex variable, or separation of variables. The text also explains ma

  6. Parameterization and measurements of helical magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.; Okamura, M.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic fields with helical symmetry can be parameterized using multipole coefficients (a n , b n ). We present a parameterization that gives the familiar multipole coefficients (a n , b n ) for straight magnets when the helical wavelength tends to infinity. To measure helical fields all methods used for straight magnets can be employed. We show how to convert the results of those measurements to obtain the desired helical multipole coefficients (a n , b n )

  7. Mechanics of magnetic fluid column in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polunin, V.M.; Ryapolov, P.A.; Platonov, V.B.

    2017-01-01

    Elastic-and magnetic properties of magnetic fluid confined by ponderomotive force in a tube fixed in horizontal position are considered. The system is placed in a strong magnetic field under the influence of external static and dynamic perturbations. An experimental setup has been developed. A theoretical basis of the processes of magnetic colloid elastic deformation has been proposed. The values of the static ponderomotive elasticity coefficient and the elasticity coefficient under dynamic action are experimentally determined. The calculations of the saturation magnetization for two magnetic fluid samples, carried out according to the equation containing the dynamic elasticity coefficient, are in good agreement with the experimental magnetization curve. The described method is of interest when studying magnetophoresis and aggregation of nanoparticles in magnetic colloids.

  8. Buoyant convection during Czochralski silicon growth with a strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Y. Y.; Walker, J. S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper treats the buoyant convection during the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals with a steady, strong, non-uniform, axisymmetric magnetic field. We consider a family of magnetic fields which includes a uniform axial magnetic field and a "cusp" field which is produced by identical solenoids placed symmetrically above and below the plane of the crystal-melt interface and free surface. We investigate the evolution of the buoyant convection as the magnetic field is changed continuously from a uniform axial field to a cusp field, with a constant value of the root-mean-squared magnetic flux density in the melt. We also investigate changes as the magnetic flux density is increased. While the cusp field appears very promising, perfect alignment between the local magnetic field vector and the crystal-melt interface or free surface is not possible, so the effects of a slight misalignment are also investigated.

  9. Theoretical Interpretation of Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, F. I.; Wanas, M. I.; Eid, A. M.

    1995-06-01

    The paper discusses the possibilty of interpreting the magnetic fields of astronomical bodies in the framework of a unified field theory. Using one of the solutions of the generalized field theory, a direct relation between the polar magnetic field, the angular velocity and the gravitational potential of the body considered, is obtained. The geometric model used for applications has spherical symmetry and is of the type (FIGI). The predictions of the theoretical formula, obtained from the model, are compared with available observational data, and with the empirical formula of Blackett. The theoretical formula gives a possible interpretation of a seed magnetic field which will develop and produce the large-scale magnetic field observed for celestial objects. The formula shows that the field is generated as a result of rotation of a massive object.

  10. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Eric G.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. Here I discuss how magnetic helicity has come to help us understand the saturation of and sustenance of large scale dynamos, the need for either local or global helicity fluxes to avoid dynamo quenching, and the associated observational consequences. I also discuss how magnetic helicity acts as a hindrance to turbulent diffusion of large scale fields, and thus a helper for fossil remnant large scale field origin models in some contexts. I briefly discuss the connection between large scale fields and accretion disk theory as well. The goal here is to provide a conceptual primer to help the reader efficiently penetrate the literature.

  11. Orienting Paramecium with intense static magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, James M., Jr.; Guevorkian, Karine; Quindel, Carl

    2004-03-01

    Recent experiments on cell division suggest the application of intense static magnetic fields as a novel tool for the manipulation of biological systems [1]. The magnetic field appears to couple to the intrinsic anisotropies in the diamagnetic components of the cells. Here, we present measurements of the intrinsic average diamagnetic anisotropy of the whole single celled ciliate, Paramecium Caudatum. Magnetic fields, 2.5 T Paramecium Caudatum that were suspended in a density matched medium. The organisms align with their long axis parallel to the applied magnetic field. Their intrinsic diamagnetic anisotropy is 3x10-11 in cgs units. We will discuss the implications of these results for employing magnetic fields to probe the behavior of swimming Paramecium. [1] J. M. Valles, Jr. et al., Expt. Cell Res.274, 112-118 (2002).

  12. Probing Magnetic Fields of Early Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    How do magnetic fields form and evolve in early galaxies? A new study has provided some clever observations to help us answer this question.The Puzzle of Growing FieldsDynamo theory is the primary model describing how magnetic fields develop in galaxies. In this picture, magnetic fields start out as weak seed fields that are small and unordered. These fields then become ordered and amplified by large-scale rotation and turbulence in galaxy disks and halos, eventually leading to the magnetic fields we observe in galaxies today.Schematic showinghow to indirectly measure protogalactic magnetic fields. The measured polarization of a background quasar is altered by the fields in a foreground protogalaxy. Click for a closer look! [Farnes et al. 2017/Adolf Schaller/STSCI/NRAO/AUI/NSF]To test this model, we need observations of the magnetic fields in young protogalaxies. Unfortunately, we dont have the sensitivity to be able to measure these fields directly but a team of scientists led by Jamie Farnes (Radboud University in the Netherlands) have come up with a creative alternative.The key is to find early protogalaxies that absorb the light of more distant background objects. If a protogalaxy lies between us and a distant quasar, then magnetic fields of the protogalaxy if present will affect the polarization measurements of the background quasar.Observing Galactic Building BlocksTop: Redshift distribution for the background quasars in the authors sample. Bottom: Redshift distribution for the foreground protogalaxies the authors are exploring. [Farnes et al. 2017]Farnes and collaborators examined two types of foreground protogalaxies: Damped Lyman-Alpha Absorbers (DLAs) and Lyman Limit Systems (LLSs). They obtained polarimetric data for a sample of 114 distant quasars with nothing in the foreground (the control sample), 19 quasars with DLAs in the foreground, and 27 quasars with LLSs in the foreground. They then used statistical analysis techniques to draw conclusions about

  13. Two populations of the solar magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obridko, V. N.; Livshits, I. M.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamo theory suggests that there are two types of solar dynamo, namely the conventional mean-field dynamo, which produces large- and small-scale magnetic fields involved in the activity cycle, and also the small-scale dynamo, which produces a cycle independent small-scale magnetic field. The relative contribution of the two mechanisms to solar magnetism remains a matter of scientific debate, which includes the opinion that the contribution of the small-scale dynamo is negligible. Here, we consider several tracers of magnetic activity that separate cycle-dependent contributions to the background solar magnetic field from those that are independent of the cycle. We call background fields the magnetic fields outside active regions and give further development of this concept. The main message of our paper is that background fields include two relative separate populations. The background fields with a strength up to 100 Mx cm-2 are very poorly correlated with the sunspot numbers and vary little with the phase of the cycle. In contrast, stronger magnetic fields demonstrate pronounced cyclic behaviour. We discuss how this result can be included in the above-mentioned concepts of solar dynamo studies.

  14. Line formation in microturbulent magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domke, H.; Pavlov, G.G.

    1979-01-01

    The formation of Zeeman lines in Gaussian microturbulent magnetic fields is considered assuming LTE. General formulae are derived for the local mean values of the transfer matrix elements. The cases of one-dimensional (longitudinal), isotropic, and two-dimensional (transversal) magnetic microturbulence are studied in some detail. Asymptotic formulae are given for small mean as well as for small microturbulent magnetic fields. Characteristic effects of magnetic microturbulence on the transfer coefficients are: (i) the broadening of the frequency contours, although only for the case of longitudinal Zeeman effect and longitudinal magnetic microturbulence this effect can be described analogous to Doppler broadening, (ii) the appearance of a pseudo-Zeeman structure for nonlongitudinal magnetic microturbulence, (iii) the reduction of maximal values of circular polarization, and (iv) the appearance of characteristic linear polarization effects due to the anisotropy of the magnetic microturbulence. Line contours and polarization of Zeeman triplets are computed for Milne-Eddington atmospheres. It is shown that magnetic intensification due to microturbulent magnetic fields may be much more efficient than that due to regular fields. The gravity center of a Zeeman line observed in circularly polarized light remains a reasonable measure of the line of sight component of the mean magnetic field for a line strength eta 0 < approx. 2. For saturated lines, the gravity center distance depends significantly on the magnetic microturbulence and its anisotropy. The influence of magnetic microturbulence on the ratio of longitudinal field magnetographic signals shows that unique conclusions about the magnetic microstructure can be drawn from the line ratio measurements only in combination with further spectroscopic data or physical reasoning. (orig.)

  15. Warm inflation in presence of magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinelli, Gabriella [Centro Tecnológico, FES Aragón, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Avenida Rancho Seco S/N, Bosques de Aragón, Nezahualcóyotl, Estado de México 57130 (Mexico); Sánchez, Ángel [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Ayala, Alejandro; Mizher, Ana Julia [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, México Distrito Federal 04510 (Mexico)

    2013-07-23

    We present preliminary results on the possible effects that primordial magnetic fields can have for a warm inflation scenario, based on global supersymmetry, with a new-inflation-type potential. This work is motivated by two considerations: first, magnetic fields seem to be present in the universe on all scales which rises de possibility that they could also permeate the early universe; second, the recent emergence of inflationary models where the inflaton is not assumed to be isolated but instead it is taken as an interacting field, even during the inflationary expansion. The effects of magnetic fields are included resorting to Schwinger's proper time method.

  16. N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields: staggered fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cea, Paolo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Cosmai, Leonardo [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Amendola 173, I-70126 Bari (Italy)

    2015-12-10

    We investigate N{sub f}=1 QCD in external magnetic fields on the lattice. The background field is introduced by means of the so-called Schrödinger functional. We adopt standard staggered fermions with constant bare mass am=0.025 and magnetic fields with constant magnetic flux up to a{sup 2}eH≃2.3562. We find that the the deconfinement and chiral symmetry restoration temperatures do not depend on the strength of the applied magnetic field. Our method allow us to easily study the effects of the external magnetic fields on the QCD thermodynamics. We determine the influences of applied magnetic fields to the free energy, pressure, and equation of state of strongly interacting matter.

  17. Dipole-magnet field models based on a conformal map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Walstrom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, generation of charged-particle transfer maps for conventional iron-pole-piece dipole magnets to third and higher order requires a model for the midplane field profile and its transverse derivatives (soft-edge model to high order and numerical integration of map coefficients. An exact treatment of the problem for a particular magnet requires use of measured magnetic data. However, in initial design of beam transport systems, users of charged-particle optics codes generally rely on magnet models built into the codes. Indeed, if maps to third order are adequate for the problem, an approximate analytic field model together with numerical map coefficient integration can capture the important features of the transfer map. The model described in this paper is based on the fact that, except at very large distances from the magnet, the magnetic field for parallel pole-face magnets with constant pole gap height and wide pole faces is basically two dimensional (2D. The field for all space outside of the pole pieces is given by a single (complex analytic expression and includes a parameter that controls the rate of falloff of the fringe field. Since the field function is analytic in the complex plane outside of the pole pieces, it satisfies two basic requirements of a field model for higher-order map codes: it is infinitely differentiable at the midplane and also a solution of the Laplace equation. It is apparently the only simple model available that combines an exponential approach to the central field with an inverse cubic falloff of field at large distances from the magnet in a single expression. The model is not intended for detailed fitting of magnetic field data, but for use in numerical map-generating codes for studying the effect of extended fringe fields on higher-order transfer maps. It is based on conformally mapping the area between the pole pieces to the upper half plane, and placing current filaments on the pole faces. An

  18. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  19. Dynamic Magnetic Field Applications for Materials Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, K.; Grugel, Richard N.; Motakef, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic fields, variable in time and space, can be used to control convection in electrically conducting melts. Flow induced by these fields has been found to be beneficial for crystal growth applications. It allows increased crystal growth rates, and improves homogeneity and quality. Particularly beneficial is the natural convection damping capability of alternating magnetic fields. One well-known example is the rotating magnetic field (RMF) configuration. RMF induces liquid motion consisting of a swirling basic flow and a meridional secondary flow. In addition to crystal growth applications, RMF can also be used for mixing non-homogeneous melts in continuous metal castings. These applied aspects have stimulated increasing research on RMF-induced fluid dynamics. A novel type of magnetic field configuration consisting of an axisymmetric magnetostatic wave, designated the traveling magnetic field (TMF), has been recently proposed. It induces a basic flow in the form of a single vortex. TMF may find use in crystal growth techniques such as the vertical Bridgman (VB), float zone (FZ), and the traveling heater method. In this review, both methods, RMF and TMF are presented. Our recent theoretical and experimental results include such topics as localized TMF, natural convection dumping using TMF in a vertical Bridgman configuration, the traveling heater method, and the Lorentz force induced by TMF as a function of frequency. Experimentally, alloy mixing results, with and without applied TMF, will be presented. Finally, advantages of the traveling magnetic field, in comparison to the more mature rotating magnetic field method, will be discussed.

  20. Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch

  1. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  2. Interplanetary magnetic field and geomagnetic Dst variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V. L.; Desai, U. D.

    1973-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field has been shown to influence the ring current field represented by Dst. Explorer 28 hourly magnetic field observations have been used with the hourly Dst values. The moderate geomagnetic storms of 60 gammas and quiet-time fluctuations of 10 to 30 gammas are correlated with the north to south change of the interplanetary field component perpendicular to the ecliptic. This change in the interplanetary field occurs one to three hours earlier than the corresponding change in the Dst field.

  3. The Hanle effect in a random magnetic field. Dependence of the polarization on statistical properties of the magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, H.; Anusha, L. S.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2009-07-01

    Context: The Hanle effect is used to determine weak turbulent magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere, usually assuming that the angular distribution is isotropic, the magnetic field strength constant, and that micro-turbulence holds, i.e. that the magnetic field correlation length is much less than a photon mean free path. Aims: To examine the sensitivity of turbulent magnetic field measurements to these assumptions, we study the dependence of Hanle effect on the magnetic field correlation length, its angular, and strength distributions. Methods: We introduce a fairly general random magnetic field model characterized by a correlation length and a magnetic field vector distribution. Micro-turbulence is recovered when the correlation length goes to zero and macro-turbulence when it goes to infinity. Radiative transfer equations are established for the calculation of the mean Stokes parameters and they are solved numerically by a polarized approximate lambda iteration method. Results: We show that optically thin spectral lines and optically very thick ones are insensitive to the correlation length of the magnetic field, while spectral lines with intermediate optical depths (around 10-100) show some sensitivity to this parameter. The result is interpreted in terms of the mean number of scattering events needed to create the surface polarization. It is shown that the single-scattering approximation holds good for thin and thick lines but may fail for lines with intermediate thickness. The dependence of the polarization on the magnetic field vector probability density function (PDF) is examined in the micro-turbulent limit. A few PDFs with different angular and strength distributions, but equal mean value of the magnetic field, are considered. It is found that the polarization is in general quite sensitive to the shape of the magnetic field strength PDF and somewhat to the angular distribution. Conclusions: The mean field derived from Hanle effect analysis of

  4. Write field asymmetry in perpendicular magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Bai, Daniel Z.; Lin, Ed; Mao, Sining

    2012-04-01

    We present a systematic study of write field asymmetry by using micromagnetic modeling for a perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) writer structure. Parameters investigated include initial magnetization condition, write current amplitude, write current frequency, and initial write current polarity. It is found that the write current amplitude and frequency (data rate) are the dominant factors that impact the field asymmetry. Lower write current amplitude and higher write current frequency will deteriorate the write field asymmetry, causing recording performance (such as bit error rate) degradation.

  5. Decay constants of the heavy-light mesons from the field correlator method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badalian, A.M.; Bakker, B.L.G.; Simonov, Y. A.

    2007-01-01

    Meson Green's functions and decay constants fΓ in different channels Γ are calculated using the field correlator method. Both, spectrum and fΓ, appear to be expressed only through universal constants: the string tension σ, αs, and the pole quark masses. For the S-wave states the calculated masses

  6. TESTING GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD MODELS USING NEAR-INFRARED POLARIMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P.; Pinnick, A. F.

    2012-01-01

    This work combines new observations of NIR starlight linear polarimetry with previously simulated observations in order to constrain dynamo models of the Galactic magnetic field. Polarimetric observations were obtained with the Mimir instrument on the Perkins Telescope in Flagstaff, AZ, along a line of constant Galactic longitude (l = 150°) with 17 pointings of the 10' × 10' field of view between –75° < b < 10°, with more frequent pointings toward the Galactic midplane. A total of 10,962 stars were photometrically measured and 1116 had usable polarizations. The observed distribution of polarization position angles with Galactic latitude and the cumulative distribution function of the measured polarizations are compared to predicted values. While the predictions lack the effects of turbulence and are therefore idealized, this comparison allows significant rejection of A0-type magnetic field models. S0 and disk-even halo-odd magnetic field geometries are also rejected by the observations, but at lower significance. New predictions of spiral-type, axisymmetric magnetic fields, when combined with these new NIR observations, constrain the Galactic magnetic field spiral pitch angle to –6° ± 2°.

  7. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  8. Planetary nebulae and the interstellar magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiligman, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Previous workers have found a statistical correlation between the projected directions of the interstellar magnetic field and the major axes of planetary nebulae. This result has been examined theoretically using a numerical hydromagnetic model of a cold plasma nebula expanding into a uniform vacuum magnetic field, with nebular gas accreting on the surface. It is found that magnetic pressure alone is probably not sufficient to shape most planetary nebulae to the observed degree. Phenomena are discussed which could amplify simple magnetic pressure, alter nebular morphology and account for the observed correlation. (author)

  9. Tuning permanent magnets with adjustable field clamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schermer, R.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effective length of a permanent-magnet assembly can be varied by adjusting the geometrical parameters of a field clamp. This paper presents measurements on a representative dipole and quadrupole as the field clamp is withdrawn axially or radially. The detailed behavior depends upon the magnet multipolarity and geometry. As a rule-of-thumb, a 3-mm-thick iron plate placed at one end plane of the magnet will shorten the length by one-third of the magnet bore radius

  10. Influence of constant, alternating and cyclotron low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afinogenov, Gennadi; Afinogenova, Anna; Kalinin, Andrey

    2009-12-16

    Available data allow assuming the presence of stimulation of reparative processes under influence of low-intensity electromagnetic field, commensurable with a magnetic field of the Earth. Research of effects of low-intensity electromagnetic fields on fibroblast proliferative activity in human lungs in cell culture was performed.The influence of a constant electromagnetic field, an alternating electromagnetic field by frequency of 50 Hz and cyclotron electromagnetic field with identical intensity for all kinds of fields - 80 mcTl - on value of cellular mass and a correlation of live and dead cells in culture is investigated in three series of experiments. We used the universal electromagnetic radiator generating all three kinds of fields and supplied by a magnetometer which allows measuring the intensity of accurate within 0.1 mcTl including taking into account the Earth's magnetic field intensity.The peak value for stimulation cellular proliferation in the present experiences was two-hour influence by any of the specified kinds of electromagnetic fields. The irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field conducts positive dynamics in growth of live cells (up to 206+/-22%) and decreases the number of dead cells (down to 31+/-6%). Application of cyclotron magnetic fields promoted creation of optimum conditions for proliferation. As a result of researches we observed the reliable 30% increase of nitro-tetrazolium index (in nitro-tetrazolium blue test) after irradiation by cyclotron electromagnetic field in experience that testifies to strengthening of the cell breathing of living cells.In our opinion, it is necessary to pay attention not only to a pure gain of cells, but also to reduction of number dead cells that can be criterion of creation of optimum conditions for their specific development and valuable functioning.

  11. Tuning bacterial hydrodynamics with magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, C. J.; Mumper, E.; Brown, E. E.; Brangham, J. T.; Lower, B. H.; Lower, S. K.; Yang, F. Y.; Sooryakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are a group of motile prokaryotes that synthesize chains of lipid-bound, magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes. This study exploits their innate magnetism to investigate previously unexplored facets of bacterial hydrodynamics at surfaces. Through use of weak, uniform, external magnetic fields and local, micromagnetic surface patterns, the relative strength of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and flagellar force components is tuned through magnetic control of the bacteria's orientation. The resulting swimming behaviors provide a means to experimentally determine hydrodynamic parameters and offer a high degree of control over large numbers of living microscopic entities. The implications of this controlled motion for studies of bacterial motility near surfaces and for micro- and nanotechnology are discussed.

  12. Escape to infinity under the action of a potential and a constant electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Gascon, F G

    2003-01-01

    Escape to infinity is proved for a great variety of potentials, including the potential created by an infinite number of sources. Relativistic escape is studied. Escape in the presence of a constant electromagnetic field and a potential is also considered.

  13. Design of integral magnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Cheng Yinhui; Wu Wei; Li Baozhong; Zhou Hui; Li Jinxi; Zhu Meng

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic field is one of the important physical parameters in the measuring process of pulsed EMP. We researched on anti-interference and high-sensitivity measurement technique of magnetic field in this report. Semi rigid cables were to bent into ringed antenna so that the antenna was shielded from electric-field interference and had little inductance; In order to have high sensitivity, operational transconductance amplifier was used to produce an active integrator; We designed an optical-electronic transferring module to upgrade anti-interference capability of the magnetic-field measurement system. A measurement system of magnetic field was accomplished. The measurement system was composed of antenna, integrator, and optical-electric transferring module and so on. We calibrated the measurement system in coaxial TEM cell. It indicates that, the measurement system's respondence of rise time is up to 2.5 ns, and output width at 90%-maximum of the pulse is wider than 200 ns. (authors)

  14. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB∼m 2 π ∼ 0.02 GeV 2 at the RHIC and eB∼ 15m 2 π ∼ 0.3 GeV 2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B 0 and D 0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  15. Primordial magnetic fields in hybrid inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, A C; Davis, Anne Christine; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos

    1997-01-01

    We show that, during hybrid inflation, a primordial magnetic field can be created, sufficiently strong to seed the galactic dynamo and generate the observed galactic magnetic fields. Considering the inflaton dominated regime, our field is produced by the Higgs--field gradients, resulting from a grand unified phase transition. The evolution of the field is followed from its creation through to the epoch of structure formation, subject to the relevant constraints. We find that it is always possible to create a magnetic field of sufficient magnitude, provided the phase transition occurs during the final 15 e-foldings of the inflationary period. the achieved field can be coherent over large distances and, for some parameter space, it is strong enough to dispense with the galactic dynamo.

  16. Conductance of auroral magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, D.R.; Gurnett, D.A.; Goertz, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    DE-1 high-resolution double-probe electric-field data and simultaneous magnetic-field measurements are reported for two 1981 events with large electric fields which reversed over short distances. The data are presented graphically and analyzed in detail. A field-line conductance of about 1 nmho/sq m is determined for both upward and downward currents, and the ionospheric conductivity is shown, in the short-wavelength limit, to have little effect on the relationship between the (N-S) electric and (E-W) magnetic fields above the potential drop parallel to the magnetic-field lines. The results are found to be consistent with a linear relationship between the field-aligned current density and the parallel potential drop. 14 references

  17. Magnetic field decay in black widow pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Camile; de Avellar, Marcio G. B.; Horvath, J. E.; Souza, Rodrigo A. de; Benvenuto, O. G.; De Vito, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    We study in this work the evolution of the magnetic field in `redback-black widow' pulsars. Evolutionary calculations of these `spider' systems suggest that first the accretion operates in the redback stage, and later the companion star ablates matter due to winds from the recycled pulsar. It is generally believed that mass accretion by the pulsar results in a rapid decay of the magnetic field when compared to the rate of an isolated neutron star. We study the evolution of the magnetic field in black widow pulsars by solving numerically the induction equation using the modified Crank-Nicolson method with intermittent episodes of mass accretion on to the neutron star. Our results show that the magnetic field does not fall below a minimum value (`bottom field') in spite of the long evolution time of the black widow systems, extending the previous conclusions for much younger low-mass X-ray binary systems. We find that in this scenario, the magnetic field decay is dominated by the accretion rate, and that the existence of a bottom field is likely related to the fact that the surface temperature of the pulsar does not decay as predicted by the current cooling models. We also observe that the impurity of the pulsar crust is not a dominant factor in the decay of magnetic field for the long evolution time of black widow systems.

  18. Environmental magnetic fields: Influences on early embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, I.L.; Hardman, W.E.; Winters, W.D.; Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M. (Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A 10-mG, 50 to 60-Hz magnetic field is in the intensity and frequency range that people worldwide are often exposed to in homes and in the workplace. Studies about the effects of 50- to 100-Hz electromagnetic fields on various species of animal embryos (fish, chick, fly, sea urchin, rat, and mouse) indicate that early stages of embryonic development are responsive to fluctuating magnetic fields. Chick, sea urchin, and mouse embryos are responsive to magnetic field intensities of 10-100 mG. Results from studies on sea urchin embryos indicate that exposure to conditions of rotating 60-Hz magnetic fields, e.g., similar to those in our environment, interferes with cell proliferation at the morula stage in a manner dependent on field intensity. The cleavage stages, prior to the 64-cell stage, were not delayed by this rotating 60-Hz magnetic field suggesting that the ionic surges, DNA replication, and translational events essential for early cleavage stages were not significantly altered. Studies of histone synthesis in early sea urchin embryos indicated that the rotating 60-Hz magnetic field decreased zygotic expression of early histone genes at the morula stage and suggests that this decrease in early histone production was limiting to cell proliferation. Whether these comparative observations from animal development studies will be paralleled by results from studies of human embryogenesis, as suggested by some epidemiology studies, has yet to be established. 38 refs.

  19. Working in the magnetic field of ultrahigh field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Gombotz, H.

    2013-01-01

    Development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device technology continues to increase the static magnetic flux densities applied and consequently leads to considerably increased occupational exposure. This has already made it necessary to review limits of occupational exposure and to postpone European legal regulations for occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. This raises the question whether and if so which adverse health effects and health risks might be associated with occupational exposure to MRI ultra-high static magnetic fields. Based on a survey on interaction mechanisms recommendations and safety rules are presented to help minimize adverse health effects of emerging ultra-high field MRI. (orig.) [de

  20. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  1. The CMS Magnetic Field Map Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Klyukhin, V.I.; Andreev, V.; Ball, A.; Cure, B.; Herve, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Karimaki, V.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Popescu, S.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Virdee, T.

    2010-04-05

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive featuresinclude a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. During two major tests of the CMS magnet the magnetic flux density was measured inside the coil in a cylinder of 3.448 m diameter and 7 m length with a specially designed field-mapping pneumatic machine as well as in 140 discrete regions of the CMS yoke with NMR probes, 3-D Hall sensors and flux-loops. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet has been developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. A volume based representation of the magnetic field is used to provide the CMS simulation and reconstruction software with the magnetic field ...

  2. Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Field from MESSENGER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, A.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    We present a regional spherical-harmonic based crustal magnetic field model for Mercury between latitudes 45° and 70° N, derived from MESSENGER magnetic field data. In addition to contributions from the core dynamo, the bow shock, and the magnetotail, Mercury's magnetic field is also influenced by interactions with the solar wind. The resulting field-aligned currents generate magnetic fields that are typically an order of magnitude stronger at spacecraft altitude than the field from sources within Mercury's crust. These current sources lie within the satellite path and so the resulting magnetic field can not be modeled using potential-field approaches. However, these fields are organized in the local-time frame and their spatial structure differs from that of the smaller-scale crustal field. We account for large-scale magnetic fields in the local-time reference frame by subtracting from the data a low-degree localized vector spherical-harmonic model including curl components fitted at satellite altitude. The residual data exhibit consistent signals across individual satellite tracks in the body fixed reference frame, similar to those obtained via more rudimentary along-track filtering approaches. We fit a regional internal-source spherical-harmonic model to the night-time radial component of the residual data, allowing a maximum spherical-harmonic degree of L = 150. Due to the cross-track spacing of the satellite tracks, spherical-harmonic degrees beyond L = 90 are damped. The strongest signals in the resulting model are in the region around the Caloris Basin and over Suisei Planitia, as observed previously. Regularization imposed in the modeling allows the field to be downward continued to the surface. The strongest surface fields are 30 nT. Furthermore, the regional power spectrum of the model shows a downward dipping slope between spherical-harmonic degrees 40 and 80, hinting that the main component of the crustal field lies deep within the crust.

  3. Modeling and characterization of charged particle trajectories in an oscillating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irawan, Dani; Viridi, Sparisoma; Khotimah, Siti Nurul; Latief, Fourier Dzar Eljabbar; Novitrian

    2015-04-01

    A constant magnetic field has frequently been discussed and has been known that it can cause a charged particle to form interesting trajectories such as cycloid and helix in presence of electric field, but a changing magnetic field is rarely discussed. In this work, modeling and characterization of charged particle trajectories in oscillating magnetic field is reported. The modeling is performed using Euler method with speed corrector. The result shows that there are two types of trajectory patterns that will recur for every 180nT0 (n = 0, 1, 2, ..) in increasing of magnetic field oscillation period, where T0 is about 6.25 × 10-7 s.

  4. Cycloid trajectory for a spin in a rotating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangchul; Hu, Xuedong

    2013-03-01

    A cycloid is a curve traced by a point on the rim of a circle rolling on a straight (or in general, a base) line. In classical mechanics, it is known as the solution of two famous problems: the brachistochrone (least-time) curve and tautochrone (equal-time) curve. Here we show that a cycloid is the quantum trajectory on the Bloch sphere when a spin is dragged along by a rotating magnetic field. Here an imaginary circle, whose radius is determined by how fast the magnetic field is rotating, rolls on the base line of the rotating magnetic field on the Bloch sphere. If the magnetic field rotates slower, the radius of the rolling circle shrinks (to a point at the adiabatic limit, when the trajectory traces a circle that spans a solid angle proportional to the Berry phase). We find that like classical cycloid curves, the curtate cycloid on a Bloch sphere is generated for initial states within a circle on the Bloch sphere surface, and a prolate cycloid results from initial states outside of this circle. If the initial state is given by the center of the circle, the quantum trajectory is a line of a constant latitude on the Bloch sphere, parallel to the curve of the rotating magnetic field.

  5. Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-12-28

    The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems.

  6. Calculation of magnetic fields for engineering devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonias, J.S.

    1976-06-01

    The methodology of magnet technology and its application to various engineering devices are discussed. Magnet technology has experienced a rigid growth in the past few years as a result of the advances made in superconductivity, numerical methods and computational techniques. Included are discussions on: (1) mathematical models for solving magnetic field problems; (2) the applicability, usefulness, and limitations of computer programs that utilize these models; (3) examples of application in various engineering disciplines; and (4) areas where further contributions are needed

  7. Magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity and elastic constants of antiferromagnetic UN single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, P. de V.; Doorn, C.F. van

    1977-01-01

    Susceptibility and electrical resistivity measurements on UN indicate Tsub(N) approximately 53 K. The spin-disorder resistivity is mainly proportional to 1-m 2 sub(n)(msub(n) is the reduced sublattice magnetization). The elastic constant C 44 shows a renormalization proportional to M 2 sub(n), whereas C 11 exhibits an anomalous softening of 10% well below Tsub(N) at 47 K. (Auth.)

  8. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanocomposite: low loss and high dielectric constant materials with perceptible magnetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Mohaseen S; Palei, Prakash K; Patil, Santosh S; Kulkarni, Milind V; Maldar, Noormahmad N; Kale, Bharat B

    2014-09-21

    Herein, poly(methyl methacrylate)-bismuth ferrite (PMMA-BFO) nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in situ polymerization method for the first time. Initially, the as prepared bismuth ferrite (BFO) nanoparticles were dispersed in the monomer, (methyl methacrylate) by sonication. Benzoyl peroxide was used to initiate the polymerization reaction in ethyl acetate medium. The nanocomposite films were subjected to X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), (1)H NMR, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared spectroscopy (IR), dielectric and magnetic characterizations. The dielectric measurement of the nanocomposites was investigated at a frequency range of 10 Hz to 1 MHz. It was found that the nanocomposites not only showed a significantly increased value of the dielectric constant with an increase in the loading percentage of BFO as compared to pure PMMA, but also exhibited low dielectric loss values over a wide range of frequencies. The values of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of the PMMA-BFO5 (5% BFO loading) sample at 1 kHz frequency was found be ~14 and 0.037. The variation of the ferromagnetic response of the nanocomposite was consistent with the varying volume percentage of the nanoparticles. The remnant magnetization (Mr) and saturation magnetization (Ms) values of the composites were found to be enhanced by increasing the loading percentage of BFO. The value of Ms for PMMA-BFO5 was found to be ~6 emu g(-1). The prima facie observations suggest that the nanocomposite is a potential candidate for application in high dielectric constant capacitors. Significantly, based on its magnetic properties the composite will also be useful for use in hard disk components.

  9. Constraints on primordial magnetic fields from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Daniel; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We present generic bounds on magnetic fields produced from cosmic inflation. By investigating field bounds on the vector potential, we constrain both the quantum mechanical production of magnetic fields and their classical growth in a model independent way. For classical growth, we show that only if the reheating temperature is as low as T reh  ∼< 10 2  MeV can magnetic fields of 10 −15  G be produced on Mpc scales in the present universe. For purely quantum mechanical scenarios, even stronger constraints are derived. Our bounds on classical and quantum mechanical scenarios apply to generic theories of inflationary magnetogenesis with a two-derivative time kinetic term for the vector potential. In both cases, the magnetic field strength is limited by the gravitational back-reaction of the electric fields that are produced simultaneously. As an example of quantum mechanical scenarios, we construct vector field theories whose time diffeomorphisms are spontaneously broken, and explore magnetic field generation in theories with a variable speed of light. Transitions of quantum vector field fluctuations into classical fluctuations are also analyzed in the examples

  10. Magnetic coupling constants of self-assembled Cu(II) [3×3] grids: alternative spin model from theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Carmen J; Ben Amor, Nadia; Maynau, Daniel

    2014-07-14

    This paper reports a theoretical analysis of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic Cu(II) [3×3] grid. A two-step strategy, combining calculations on the whole grid and on binuclear fragments, has been employed to evaluate all the magnetic interactions in the grid. The calculations confirm an S = 7/2 ground state, which is in accordance with the magnetisation versus field curve and the thermal dependence of the magnetic moment data. Only the first-neighbour coupling terms present non-negligible amplitudes, all of them in agreement with the structure and arrangement of the Cu 3d magnetic orbitals. The results indicate that the dominant interaction in the system is the antiferromagnetic coupling between the ring and the central Cu sites (J3 = J4 ≈ -31 cm(-1)). In the ring two different interactions can be distinguished, J1 = 4.6 cm(-1) and J2 = -0.1 cm(-1), in contrast to the single J model employed in the magnetic data fit. The calculated J values have been used to determine the energy level distribution of the Heisenberg magnetic states. The effective magnetic moment versus temperature plot resulting from this ab initio energy profile is in good agreement with the experimental curve and the fitting obtained with the simplified spin model, despite the differences between these two spin models. This study underlines the role that the theoretical evaluations of the coupling constants can play on the rationalisation of the magnetic properties of these complex polynuclear systems. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Magnetization-transfer measurements of individual rate constants in the presence of multiple reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uǧurbil, Kâmil

    Magnetization-transfer techniques, such as saturation or inversion transfer, are extremely useful methods for measuring chemical-exchange rate constants which are comparable to spin-lattice relaxation rate constants of the exchanging spins. Although such determinations are relatively simple for a two-site exchange case, complications arise when multisite exchanges are involved. This severely restricts the applicability of this type of measurement, especially in whole cells and tissues where many reactants are utilized by more than one enzyme. In this paper, it is shown that a multisite exchange problem can first be reduced effectively to a two-site exchange, and a single rate constant can subsequently be measured simply and unequivocally. Application of this procedure to equilibrium and nonequilibrium chemical-exchange problems are discussed.

  12. High Field Magnetization of Tb Single Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roeland, L. W.; Cock, G. J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    The magnetization of Tb single crystals was measured in magnetic fields to 34T along the hard direction at temperature of 1.8, 4.2, 65.5 and 77K, and along with easy direction at 4.2 and 77K. The data are compared with the results of a self-consistent spin wave calculation using a phenomenological...

  13. Measurement of Radio Frequency Magnetic Field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartušek, Karel; Gescheidtová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 6 (2006), s. 555-558 ISSN 1931-7360 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : MR tomographic scanner * magnetic susceptibility * body implants * mapping the radiofrequency magnetic field * ANSYS Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  14. Magnetic field modulation spectroscopy of rubidium atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The magnetically modulated saturation absorption profile is studied for a wide range of external DC magnetic field. The salient features of Doppler-free signal generated by laser frequency modulation and atomic energy level modulation are compared. The DC offset of the signal profile is found to be unstable as ...

  15. Deformable nematic droplets in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.H.J.; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a Frank-Oseen elasticity theory for the shape and structure of deformable nematic droplets with homeotropic surface anchoring in the presence of a magnetic field. Inspired by recent experimental observations, we focus on the case where the magnetic susceptibility is negative, and find

  16. Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The magnetic field of a neutron star determines the evolution of its spin, its radia- tive properties and its interaction with the ... resulting in metal-like transport properties (electrical and heat conductivities) in this region (Yakovlev & Urpin ... from the spinning neutron star via magnetic coupling. The shorter the decay time scale.

  17. External magnetic field configurations for EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnevier, B.

    1982-08-01

    The strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field for stabilization of a pinch in an Extrap configuration can be created in various ways. Some possibilities both for the linear case and for the toroidal case are discussed. (author)

  18. The Polar BEAR magnetic field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bythrow, P. F.; Potemra, T. A.; Zanetti, L. J.; Mobley, F. F.; Scheer, L.; Radford, W. E.

    1987-09-01

    The objectives and the instrumentation of the Polar BEAR magnetic field experiment are described along with the preliminary results from simultaneous measurements of Birkeland currents and UV auroral emissions. The experiment consists of an integrated sensor head, analog electronics, and digital electronics. The sensor head is a single unit containing sensor windings for each of the three orthogonal axes, oriented parrallel to the spacecraft coordinates; to minimize interference from spacecraft-generated magnetic fields, the sensor unit is located at the end of the +y solar panel. The digital electronics package is essentially identical to that flown on HILAT. A signal processor digitizes the analog outputs of the three orthogonal axes of the flux-gate magnetometer to a 13-bit resolution, yielding a magnetic field range of + or - 63,000 nT and a resolution of 15.2 nT. The full-resolution magnetic field values are recovered by data processing techniques on the ground.

  19. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  20. KEK effort for high field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, T

    2011-01-01

    KEK has emphasized efforts to develop the RHQNb3Al superconductor and a sub-scale magnet reaching 13 T towards the HL-LHC upgrade in last years. In addition, relevant R&D regarding radiation resistance has been carried out. For higher field magnets beyond 15 T, HTS in combination with A15 superconductors should be one of baseline materials. However, all these superconductors are very sensitive to stress and strain and thorough understanding of behaviour is truly desired for realization of high field magnets. KEK has launched a new research subject on stress/strain sensitivity of HTS and A15 superconductors in collaboration with the neutron diffraction facility at J-PARC and High Field Laboratory in Tohoku University. Present activity for high field magnets at KEK is reported.

  1. THE SNS RING DIPOLE MAGNETIC FIELD QUALITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANDERER,P.; JACKSON,J.; JAIN,A.; LEE,Y.Y.; MENG,W.; PAPAPHILIPPOU,I.; SPATARO,C.; TEPIKIAN,S.; TSOUPAS,N.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    The large acceptance and compact size of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring implies the use of short, large aperture dipole magnets, with significant end field errors. The SNS will contain 32 such dipoles. We report magnetic field measurements of the first 16 magnets. The end field errors have been successfully compensated by the use of iron bumps. For 1.0 GeV protons, the magnets have been shimmed to meet the 0.01% specification for rms variation of the integral field. At 1.3 GeV, the rms variation is 0.036%. The load on the corrector system at 1.3 GeV will be reduced by the use of sorting.

  2. Proton imaging of stochastic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, A. F. A.; Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; White, T. G.; Lamb, D. Q.; Gregori, G.; Schekochihin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent laser-plasma experiments (Fox et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 111, 2013, 225002; Huntington et al., Nat. Phys., vol. 11(2), 2015, 173-176 Tzeferacos et al., Phys. Plasmas, vol. 24(4), 2017a, 041404; Tzeferacos et al., 2017b, arXiv:1702.03016 [physics.plasm-ph]) report the existence of dynamically significant magnetic fields, whose statistical characterisation is essential for a complete understanding of the physical processes these experiments are attempting to investigate. In this paper, we show how a proton-imaging diagnostic can be used to determine a range of relevant magnetic-field statistics, including the magnetic-energy spectrum. To achieve this goal, we explore the properties of an analytic relation between a stochastic magnetic field and the image-flux distribution created upon imaging that field. This `Kugland image-flux relation' was previously derived (Kugland et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. vol. 83(10), 2012, 101301) under simplifying assumptions typically valid in actual proton-imaging set-ups. We conclude that, as with regular electromagnetic fields, features of the beam's final image-flux distribution often display a universal character determined by a single, field-scale dependent parameter - the contrast parameter s/{\\mathcal{M}}lB$ - which quantifies the relative size of the correlation length B$ of the stochastic field, proton displacements s$ due to magnetic deflections and the image magnification . For stochastic magnetic fields, we establish the existence of four contrast regimes, under which proton-flux images relate to their parent fields in a qualitatively distinct manner. These are linear, nonlinear injective, caustic and diffusive. The diffusive regime is newly identified and characterised. The nonlinear injective regime is distinguished from the caustic regime in manifesting nonlinear behaviour, but as in the linear regime, the path-integrated magnetic field experienced by the beam can be extracted uniquely. Thus, in the linear and

  3. Split-Field Magnet facility upgraded

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Split Field Magnet (SFM) was the largest spectrometer for particles from beam-beam collisions in the ISR. It could determine particle momenta in a large solid angle, but was designed mainly for the analysis of forward travelling particles.As the magnet was working on the ISR circulating beams, its magnetic field had to be such as to restore the correct proton orbit.The SFM, therefore, produced zero field at the crossing point and fields of opposite signs upstream and downstream of it and was completed by 2 large and 2 small compensator magnets. The gradient effects were corrected by magnetic channels equipped with movable flaps. The useful magnetic field volume was 28 m3, the induction in the median plane 1.14 T, the gap heigth 1.1 m, the length 10.5 m, the weight about 1000 ton. Concerning the detectors, the SFM was the first massive application of multiwire proportional chambers (about 70000 wires) which filled the main and the large compensator magnets. In 1976 an improved programme was started with tw...

  4. High-Field Superconducting Magnets Supporting PTOLEMY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ann; Luo, Audrey; Osherson, Benjamin; Gentile, Charles; Tully, Chris; Cohen, Adam

    2013-10-01

    The Princeton Tritium Observatory for Light, Early Universe, Massive Neutrino Yield (PTOLEMY) is an experiment planned to collect data on Big Bang relic neutrinos, which are predicted to be amongst the oldest and smallest particles in the universe. Currently, a proof-of-principle prototype is being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test key technologies associated with the experiment. A prominent technology in the experiment is the Magnetic Adiabatic Collimation with an Electrostatic Filter (MAC-E filter), which guides tritium betas along magnetic field lines generated by superconducting magnets while deflecting those of lower energies. B field mapping is performed to ensure the magnets produce a minimum field at the midpoint of the configuration of the magnets and to verify accuracy of existing models. Preliminary tests indicate the required rapid decrease in B field strength from the bore of the more powerful 3.35 T magnet, with the field dropping to 0.18 T approximately 0.5 feet from the outermost surface of the magnet.

  5. Magnetic Fields of Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushan Konar

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... The emphasis here is on the evolution in binary systems and the newly emergent classes of millisecond pulsars. Keywords. Neutron stars: population—magnetic fields—X-ray binaries: evolution—millisecond pulsars: ...... Konar, S. 2013, in: Astronomical Society of India Conference. Series, Vol. 8, edited by ...

  6. Wake field in matched kicker magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent transverse instability observed in KEK booster proton synchrotron has been reported previously. This instability is induced by the interaction of the beam with kicker magnet for the fast beam extraction. To understand the mechanism completely, it is necessary to know the wake field in detail. Here, the wake field or induced current in the kicker magnet which is terminated with matched resistance is considered

  7. Ehrenfest force in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisakyan, A.N.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Samojlov, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    The Ehrenfest force in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is calculated. It is shown that there exist such (very rare) topologically nontrivial physical situations when the Gauss theorem in its classic formulation fails and, as a consequence, apart from the usual Lorentz force an additional, purely imaginary force acts on the charged particle. This force arises only in inhomogeneous magnetic fields of special configurations, has a purely quantum origin, and disappears in the classical limit

  8. Core Processes: Earth's eccentric magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause.......Earth’s magnetic field is characterized by a puzzling hemispheric asymmetry. Calculations of core dynamo processes suggest that lopsided growth of the planet’s inner core may be part of the cause....

  9. Magnetic fields and massive star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Ching, Tao-Chung; Chen, How-Huan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Qiu, Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Girart, Josep M.; Juárez, Carmen [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Liu, Hauyu; Tang, Ya-Wen; Koch, Patrick M.; Rao, Ramprasad; Lai, Shih-Ping [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhi-Yun [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Frau, Pau [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3 E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Li, Hua-Bai [Department of Physics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Padovani, Marco [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, UMR 8112 du CNRS, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Bontemps, Sylvain [OASU/LAB-UMR5804, CNRS, Université Bordeaux 1, F-33270 Floirac (France); Csengeri, Timea, E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-10

    Massive stars (M > 8 M {sub ☉}) typically form in parsec-scale molecular clumps that collapse and fragment, leading to the birth of a cluster of stellar objects. We investigate the role of magnetic fields in this process through dust polarization at 870 μm obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). The SMA observations reveal polarization at scales of ≲0.1 pc. The polarization pattern in these objects ranges from ordered hour-glass configurations to more chaotic distributions. By comparing the SMA data with the single dish data at parsec scales, we found that magnetic fields at dense core scales are either aligned within 40° of or perpendicular to the parsec-scale magnetic fields. This finding indicates that magnetic fields play an important role during the collapse and fragmentation of massive molecular clumps and the formation of dense cores. We further compare magnetic fields in dense cores with the major axis of molecular outflows. Despite a limited number of outflows, we found that the outflow axis appears to be randomly oriented with respect to the magnetic field in the core. This result suggests that at the scale of accretion disks (≲ 10{sup 3} AU), angular momentum and dynamic interactions possibly due to close binary or multiple systems dominate over magnetic fields. With this unprecedentedly large sample of massive clumps, we argue on a statistical basis that magnetic fields play an important role during the formation of dense cores at spatial scales of 0.01-0.1 pc in the context of massive star and cluster star formation.

  10. Neutron oscillations and the primordial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.

    1988-01-01

    It has been claimed that a primordial magnetic field must exist in order to suppress possible oscillations of neutrons into antineutrons which would otherwise affect the cosmological synthesis of helium. We demonstrate that such oscillations, even if they do occur, have a negligible effect on primordial nucleosynthesis, thus refuting the above claim. Hence the possible existence of a primordial magnetic field, relevant to current speculations concerning superconducting 'cosmic strings', remains an open question. (author)

  11. Fringe Field Effects on Bending Magnets, Derived for TRANSPORT/TURTLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloy, Riley [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Blitz, Sam [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2013-08-05

    A realistic magnetic dipole has complex effects on a charged particle near the entrance and exit of the magnet, even with a constant and uniform magnetic field deep within the interior of the magnet. To satisfy Maxwell's equations, the field lines near either end of a realistic magnet are significantly more complicated, yielding non-trivial forces. The effects of this fringe field are calculated to first order, applying both the paraxial and thin lens approximations. We find that, in addition to zeroth order effects, the position of a particle directly impacts the forces in the horizontal and vertical directions.

  12. The Strongest Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, J.; Sakurai, T.

    2017-12-01

    Sunspots are concentrations of magnetic fields on the solar surface. Generally, the strongest magnetic field in each sunspot is located in the dark umbra in most cases. A typical field strength in sunspots is around 3,000 G. On the other hand, some exceptions also have been found in complex sunspots with bright regions such as light bridges that separate opposite polarity umbrae, for instance with a strength of 4,300 G. However, the formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report an extremely strong magnetic field in a sunspot, which was located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. The strength is 6,250 G, which is the largest ever observed since the discovery of magnetic field on the Sun in 1908 by Hale. We obtained 31 scanned maps of the active region observed by Hinode/SOT/SP with a cadence of 3 hours over 5 days (February 1-6, 2014). Considering the spatial and temporal evolution of the vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity in the bright region, we suggested that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the outward flow from the other umbra (Evershed flow), like the subduction of the Earth's crust in plate tectonics.

  13. Interstellar magnetic fields: An observational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The plausibility of magnetic molecular clouds is established. It is shown that the empirically known relations between spectral line width, density, and cloud size can be derived from a virial equilibrium model where gravity is balanced by the sum of magnetic and pressure support. It is shown that substitution of measured density, cloud size, and line width measurements into the model can predict observed field strength to within a factor of two. The Zeeman effect is discussed and new measurements are presented for magnetic field strength based on OH and HI Zeeman observations at the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes. The Barnard 1 (B1) region, in the Perseus Molecular Cloud Complex, is discussed in detail. OH spectral line intensity maps are presented for the regions where the OH Zeeman effect was observed, which allow, for the first time, comparison of observed field strength values with predicted field strength values, using emission from a single molecular species. Spatial structure of magnetic fields in molecular clouds are investigated. New optical polarization maps are presented for the dark clouds in Perseus, Taurus, and Ophiuchus. The polarization observed is attributed to preferential extinction of background starlight by magnetically aligned dust grains in the clouds, and we analyze the polarization maps as maps of the projection of the magnetic field onto the plane of the sky

  14. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    to the present although the frequency of reversals has changed considerably through time. During a reversal, the intensity usually decreases by about an order of magnitude for several thousand years, while the field maintains its direction. The field... (IGRF). The IGRF is basically a weighted average of several candidate spherical harmonic models of the main field and its secular variation for a given epoch adopted by International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). The first IGRF...

  15. In-plane magnetic field dependence of electric field-induced magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, S.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamanouchi, M.; Ikeda, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2013-08-01

    Electric field-induced magnetization switching through magnetization precession is investigated as a function of in-plane component of external magnetic field for a CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular easy axis. The switching probability is an oscillatory function of the duration of voltage pulses and its magnitude and period depend on the magnitude of in-plane magnetic field. Experimental results are compared with simulated ones by using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Langevin equation, and possible factors determining the probability are discussed.

  16. Nuclear resonance apparatus including means for rotating a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, H.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus including magnet apparatus for generating a homogeneous static magnetic field between its magnetic poles, shims of a magnetic substance mounted on the magnetic poles to apply a first gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in a direction orthogonal as to the direction of line of magnetic force of the static magnetic field, gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus for generating a second gradient magnetic field having a gradient magnetic field intensity distribution in superimposition with the static magnetic field and for changing the magnetic field gradient of the first gradient magnetic field, an oscillator for generating an oscillating output having a frequency corresponding to the nuclear magnetic resonance condition of an atomic nucleus to be measured, a coil wound around a body to be examined for applying the output of said oscillator as electromagnetic waves upon the body, a receiver for detecting the nuclear magnetic resonance signals received by the coil, a gradient magnetic field controller making a magnetic field line equivalent to the combined gradient magnetic fields and for rotating the line along the section of the body to be examined by controlling said gradient magnetic field generating electromagnetic apparatus and devices for recording the nuclear magnetic resonance signals, for reconstructing the concentration distribution of the specific atomic nuclei in the section of the body, and a display unit for depicting the result of reconstruction

  17. Tracing Magnetic Fields with Spectroscopic Channel Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.; Yuen, Ka Ho

    2018-01-01

    We identify velocity channel map intensities as a new way to trace magnetic fields in turbulent media. This work makes use of both the modern theory of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, which predicts that magnetic eddies are aligned with the local direction of the magnetic field, and also the theory of spectral line position–position–velocity (PPV) statistics, which describes how velocity and density fluctuations are mapped onto PPV space. In particular, we use the fact that the fluctuations of the intensity of thin channel maps are mostly affected by the turbulent velocity, while the thick maps are dominated by density variations. We study how contributions of the fundamental MHD modes affect the Velocity Channel Gradients (VChGs), and demonstrate that the VChGs arising from Alfvén and slow modes are aligned perpendicular to the local direction of the magnetic field, while the VChGs produced by the fast mode are aligned parallel to the magnetic field. The dominance of Alfvén and slow modes in interstellar media will therefore allow reliable magnetic field tracing using the VChGs. We explore ways of identifying self-gravitating regions that do not require polarimetric information. In addition, we also introduce a new measure, termed “Reduced Velocity Centroids” (RVCGs), and compare its abilities with those of VChGs. We employed VChGs in analyzing GALFA 21 cm data and successfully compared the magnetic field directions with the Planck polarization observations. The applications of the suggested techniques include both tracing the magnetic field in diffuse interstellar media and star-forming regions, and removing the galactic foreground in the framework of cosmological polarization studies.

  18. Induced magnetic-field effects in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    In inductive plasma sources, the rapid spatial decay of the electric field arising from the skin effect produces a large radio frequency (RF) magnetic field via Faraday's law. We previously determined that this magnetic field leads to a reduction of the electron density in the skin region, as well as a reduction in the collisionless heating rate. The electron deficit leads to the formation of an electrostatic potential which pulls electrons in to restore quasineutrality. Here we calculate the electron density including both the induced and electrostatic fields. If the wave frequency is not too low, the ions respond only to the averaged fields, and hence the electrostatic field is oscillatory, predominantly at the second harmonic of the applied field. We calculate the potential required to establish a constant electron density, and compare with numerical orbit-code calculations. For times short compared to ion transit times, the quasineutral density is just the initial ion density. For timescales long enough that the ions can relax, the density profile can be found from the solution of fluid equations with an effective (ponderomotive-like) potential added. Although the time-varying electrostatic potential is an extra source of heating, the net effect of the induced magnetic and electrostatic fields through trapping, early turning, and direct heating is a significant reduction in collisionless heating for parameters of interest

  19. High-magnetic field atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses both the traditional developments of Zeeman techniques at strong fields and the fundamental concepts of diamagnetism. Topics considered include historical aspects, the production of high fields, the atom in a magnetic field (Hamiltonian and symmetries, the various magnetic regimes in atomic spectra), applications of the Zeeman effect at strong B fields, the Landau regime for loosely bound particles, theoretical concepts of atomic diamagnetism, and the ultra-high-field regime and quantum electrodynamics. It is concluded that the wide implications of the problem of the strongly magnetized hydrogen atom in various domains of physics and its conceptual importance concerning theoretical methods of classical and quantum mechanics justify the experimental and theoretical efforts in atomic physics

  20. Fast reconnection of weak magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.

    1998-01-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Ohnuki, T.; Spooner, N.; Lehner, M.

    2000-01-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 μm has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with zero magnetic field. The method can provide high spatial resolution in detectors with long drift distances and zero magnetic field. Negative ion drift chambers would be particularly useful at low pressures and in situations such as space-based or underground experiments where detector size scaleability is important and cost, space, or power constraints preclude the use of a magnetic field

  2. Maneuvering thermal conductivity of magnetic nanofluids by tunable magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaykumar; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2015-06-01

    We report an experimental investigation of magnetic field dependent thermal conductivity of a transformer oil base magnetic fluid as a function of volume fractions. In the absence of magnetic field, thermal conductivity increases linearly with an increase in volume fraction, and magnitude of thermal conductivity thus obtained is lower than that predicted by Maxwell's theory. This reveals the presence of clusters/oligomers in the system. On application of magnetic field, it exhibits a non-monotonous increase in thermal conductivity. The results are interpreted using the concept of a two-step homogenization method (which is based on differential effective medium theory). The results show a transformation of particle cluster configuration from long chain like prolate shape to the aggregated drop-like structure with increasing concentration as well as a magnetic field. The aggregated drop-like structure for concentrated system is supported by optical microscopic images. This shape change of clusters reduces thermal conductivity enhancement. Moreover, this structure formation is observed as a dynamic phenomenon, and at 226 mT field, the length of the structure extends with time, becomes maximum, and then reduces. This change results in the increase or decrease of thermal conductivity.

  3. Magnetic Field Response Measurement Acquisition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor- capacit or circuits produce magnetic field responses whose harmonic frequenci es correspond to states of physical properties for which the sensors measure. Power to the sensing element is acquired using Faraday induc tion. A radio frequency antenna produces the time varying magnetic fi eld used for powering the sensor, as well as receiving the magnetic field response of the sensor. An interrogation architecture for disce rning changes in sensor's response frequency, resistance and amplitud e is integral to the method thus enabling a variety of measurements. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method, thus eliminat ing the need to have a data acquisition channel dedicated to each se nsor. The method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to a ny form of acquisition hardware. A vast array of sensors can be used as interchangeable parts in an overall sensing system.

  4. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  5. Chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond mean field in a magnetized PNJL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shijun

    2018-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond the mean field approximation in a magnetized PNJL model. The feedback from mesons to quarks modifies the quark coupling constant and Polyakov potential. As a result, the separate critical temperatures for the two phase transitions at the mean field level coincide, and the magnetic catalysis becomes an inverse magnetic catalysis when the meson contribution is included.

  6. Magnetic Field Aided Indoor Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    at a deep subsurface fracture. . .or when a highly conductive active magma chamber at a volcanic site moves before an eruption” [1]. The second cause...is brought about “as a result of the loading of rock surfaces as a major dam is filled or at a volcano as a result of a change in the magma chamber... temperature fluctuations and the readings might not be stable over long periods of operation. Due to the design requirements of the device, the magnetic

  7. Magnetic flux density distribution in superconducting cylinders of arbitrary cross section subjected to an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournet, G.

    1982-07-01

    We show here how the application of the critical state model allows one to determine the magnetic flux density B⃗ in each point of a superconducting cylinder with an arbitrary cross section subjected to axial magnetic fields Hz; the B = 0 boundaries of the regions occupied by the vortices are so defined. We successively consider the cases where the critical current density Jc is either isotropic (constant or an arbitrary function of B) or tensorial, which means, for our problem, the use of two components Jcx and Jcy (either constant or depending on B but Jcx/Jcy remaining constant).

  8. The dressed nonrelativistic electron in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L.; Grebert, B.; Guillot, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a nonrelativistic electron interacting with a classical magnetic field pointing along the x 3 -axis and with a quantized electromagnetic field. Because of the translation invariance along the x 3 -axis, we consider the reduced Hamiltonian associated with the total momentum along the x 3 -axis and, after introducing an ultraviolet cutoff and an infrared regularization, we prove that the reduced Hamiltonian has a ground state if the coupling constant and the total momentum along the x 3 -axis are sufficiently small. Finally, we determine the absolutely continuous spectrum of the reduced Hamiltonian and we prove that the renormalized mass of the electron is greater than its bare one. (authors)

  9. Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the

  10. Magnetization relaxation of single molecule magnets after field cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julio F.; Alonso, Juan J.

    2004-03-01

    Magnetic clusters, such as Fe8 and Mn_12, behave at low temperatures as large single spins S. In crystals, anisotropy energies U allow magnetic relaxation only through tunneling at k_BTstackrelspins with dipolar interactions. To mimic tunneling effects, a spin on a lattice site where h is within some tunnel window -h_wmagnetic dipole field drift.

  11. Magnetic nanoparticles for applications in oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeraphatdit, Chorthip [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Enzymatic and thermochemical catalysis are both important industrial processes. However, the thermal requirements for each process often render them mutually exclusive: thermochemical catalysis requires high temperature that denatures enzymes. One of the long-term goals of this project is to design a thermocatalytic system that could be used with enzymatic systems in situ to catalyze reaction sequences in one pot; this system would be useful for numerous applications e.g. conversion of biomass to biofuel and other commodity products. The desired thermocatalytic system would need to supply enough thermal energy to catalyze thermochemical reactions, while keeping the enzymes from high temperature denaturation. Magnetic nanoparticles are known to generate heat in an oscillating magnetic field through mechanisms including hysteresis and relaxational losses. We envisioned using these magnetic nanoparticles as the local heat source embedded in sub-micron size mesoporous support to spatially separate the particles from the enzymes. In this study, we set out to find the magnetic materials and instrumental conditions that are sufficient for this purpose. Magnetite was chosen as the first model magnetic material in this study because of its high magnetization values, synthetic control over particle size, shape, functionalization and proven biocompatibility. Our experimental designs were guided by a series of theoretical calculations, which provided clues to the effects of particle size, size distribution, magnetic field, frequency and reaction medium. Materials of theoretically optimal size were synthesized, functionalized, and their effects in the oscillating magnetic field were subsequently investigated. Under our conditions, the materials that clustered e.g. silica-coated and PNIPAM-coated iron oxides exhibited the highest heat generation, while iron oxides embedded in MSNs and mesoporous iron oxides exhibited the least bulk heating. It is worth noting that the specific

  12. UNDERSTANDING THE GEOMETRY OF ASTROPHYSICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2010-01-01

    Faraday rotation measurements have provided an invaluable technique for probing the properties of astrophysical magnetized plasmas. Unfortunately, typical observations provide information only about the density-weighted average of the magnetic field component parallel to the line of sight. As a result, the magnetic field geometry along the line of sight, and in many cases even the location of the rotating material, is poorly constrained. Frequently, interpretations of Faraday rotation observations are dependent upon underlying models of the magnetic field being probed (e.g., uniform, turbulent, equipartition). However, we show that at sufficiently low frequencies, specifically below roughly 13(RM/1 rad m -2 ) 1/4 (B/1 G) 1/2 MHz, the character of Faraday rotation changes, entering what we term the 'super-adiabatic regime' in which the rotation measure (RM) is proportional to the integrated absolute value of the line-of-sight component of the field. As a consequence, comparing RMs at high frequencies with those in this new regime provides direct information about the geometry of the magnetic field along the line of sight. Furthermore, the frequency defining the transition to this new regime, ν SA , depends directly upon the local electron density and magnetic field strength where the magnetic field is perpendicular to the line of sight, allowing the unambiguous distinction between Faraday rotation within and in front of the emission region. Typical values of ν SA range from 10 kHz (below the ionospheric cutoff, but above the heliospheric cutoff) to 10 GHz, depending upon the details of the Faraday rotating environment. In particular, for resolved active galactic nuclei, including the black holes at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*) and M81, ν SA ranges from roughly 10 MHz to 10 GHz, and thus can be probed via existing and up-coming ground-based radio observatories.

  13. Alaska and Yukon magnetic compilation, residual total magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, W.; Saltus, Richard W.; Hayward, N.; Oneschuk, D.

    2017-01-01

    This map is a compilation of aeromagnetic surveys over Yukon and eastern Alaska. Aeromagnetic surveys measure the total intensity of the earth's magnetic field. The field was measured by a magnetometer aboard an aircraft flown in parallel lines spaced at 200 m to 10000 m across the map area. The magnetic field reflects magnetic properties of bedrock and provides qualitative and quantitative information used in geological mapping. Understanding the geology will help geologists map the area, assist mineral/hydrocarbon exploration activities, and provide useful information necessary for communities, aboriginal associations, and government to make land use decisions. This survey was flown to improve our knowledge of the area. It will support ongoing geological mapping and resource assessment.

  14. Measurement of gradient magnetic field temporal characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartusek, K.; Jflek, B.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a technique of measuring the time dependence and field distortions of magnetic fields due to eddy currents (EC) produced by time-dependent magnetic field gradients. The EC measuring technique makes use of a large volume sample and selective RF excitation pulses and free induction decay (FID) (or a spin or gradient echo) to measure the out-of-phase component of the FID, which is proportional to γδB, i.e. the amount the signal is off resonance. The measuring technique is sensitive, easy to implement and interpret, and used for determining pre-emphasis compensation parameters

  15. IMAGINE: Interstellar MAGnetic field INference Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Theo

    2018-03-01

    IMAGINE (Interstellar MAGnetic field INference Engine) performs inference on generic parametric models of the Galaxy. The modular open source framework uses highly optimized tools and technology such as the MultiNest sampler (ascl:1109.006) and the information field theory framework NIFTy (ascl:1302.013) to create an instance of the Milky Way based on a set of parameters for physical observables, using Bayesian statistics to judge the mismatch between measured data and model prediction. The flexibility of the IMAGINE framework allows for simple refitting for newly available data sets and makes state-of-the-art Bayesian methods easily accessible particularly for random components of the Galactic magnetic field.

  16. Acceleration of superparamagnetic particles with magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stange, R., E-mail: Robert.stange@tu-dresden.de; Lenk, F.; Bley, T.; Boschke, E.

    2017-04-01

    High magnetic capture efficiency in the context of Biomagnetic Separation (BMS) using superparamagnetic particles (SMPs) requires efficient mixing and high relative velocities between cellular and other targets and SMPs. For this purpose, batch processes or microfluidic systems are commonly used. Here, we analyze the characteristics of an in-house developed batch process experimental setup, the Electromagnetic Sample Mixer (ESM) described earlier. This device uses three electromagnets to increase the relative velocity between SMPs and targets. We carry out simulations of the magnetic field in the ESM and in a simpler paradigmatic setup, and thus were able to calculate the force field acting on the SMPs and to simulate their relative velocities and fluid dynamics due to SMP movement. In this way we were able to show that alternate charging of the magnets induces a double circular stream of SMPs in the ESM, resulting in high relative velocities of SMPs to the targets. Consequently, due to the conservation of momentum, the fluid experiences an acceleration induced by the SMPs. We validated our simulations by microscopic observation of the SMPs in the magnetic field, using a homemade apparatus designed to accommodate a long working-distance lens. By comparing the results of modeling this paradigmatic setup with the experimental observations, we determined that the velocities of the SMPs corresponded to the results of our simulations. - Highlights: • Investigation of a batch process setup for complex forming at Biomagnetic Separation. • Simulation of fluid flow characteristics in this Electro Magnetic Samplemixer. • Simulation of relative velocities between magnetic particles and fluid in the setup. • Simulation of fluid flow induced by the acceleration of magnet particles. • Validation of magnetic fields and flow characteristics in paradigmatic setups. • Reached relative velocity is higher than the sedimentation velocity of the particles • Alternating

  17. Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca

    2007-01-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field

  18. Neutron Scattering and High Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winn, Barry L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stone, Matthew B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The workshop “Neutron Scattering and High Magnetic Fields” was held September 4-5, 2014 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The workshop was held in response to a recent report by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences entitled “High Magnetic Field Science and Its Application in the United States: Current Status and Future Directions.”1 This report highlights the fact that neutron scattering measurements carried out in high magnetic fields provide important opportunities for new science. The workshop explored the range of the scientific discoveries that could be enabled with neutron scattering measurements at high fields (25 Tesla or larger), the various technologies that might be utilized to build specialized instruments and sample environment equipment to enable this research at ORNL, and possible routes to funding and constructing these facilities and portable high field sample environments.

  19. The Magnetic Field Structure of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Z. J.; Ding, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Zhong, J.; Poh, G.; Sun, W. J.; Wei, Y.; Chai, L. H.; Wan, W. X.; Shen, C.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we use the magnetic field data measured by MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the average magnetic field morphology of Mercury's magnetotail in the down tail 0-3 RM (RM = 2,440 km, Mercury's radius). It is found that Mercury has a terrestrial-like magnetotail; the magnetic field structure beyond 1.5 RM down tail is stretched significantly with typical lobe field 50 nT. A cross-tail current sheet separating the antiparallel field lines of lobes is present in the equatorial plane. The magnetotail width in north-south direction is about 5 RM, while the transverse width is about 4 RM. Thus, the magnetotail shows elongation along the north-south direction. At the cross-tail current sheet center, the normal component of magnetic field (10-20 nT) is much larger than the cross-tail component. The lobe-field-aligned component of magnetic field over current sheet can be well fitted by Harris sheet model. The curvature radius of field lines at sheet center usually reaches a minimum around midnight (100-200 km) with stronger current density (40-50 nA/m2), while the curvature radius increases toward both flanks (400-600 km) with the decreased current density (about 20 nA/m2). The half-thickness of current sheet around midnight is about 0.25 RM or 600 km, and the inner edge of current sheet is located at the down tail about 1.5 RM. Our results about the field structure in the near Mercury's tail show an evident dawn-dusk asymmetry as that found in the Earth's magnetotail, but reasons should be different. Possible reasons are discussed.

  20. Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Barba, Paolo Di; Wiak, S

    2008-01-01

    Covering the development of field computation in the past forty years, Field Models in Electricity and Magnetism intends to be a concise, comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to field models in electricity and magnetism, ranging from basic theory to numerical applications. The approach assumed throughout the whole book is to solve field problems directly from partial differential equations in terms of vector quantities. Theoretical issues are illustrated by practical examples. In particular, a single example is solved by different methods so that, by comparison of results, limitations and advantages of the various methods are made clear. The subjects of the synthesis of fields and of the optimal design of devices, which are growing in research and so far have not been adequately covered in textbooks, are developed in addition to more classical subjects of analysis. Topics covered include: vector fields: electrostatics, magnetostatics, steady conduction; analytical methods for solving boundary-value probl...

  1. Magnetic Fields in the Interstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan

    2017-01-01

    The Milky Way is magnetized. Invisible magnetic fields thread the Galaxy on all scales and play a vital but still poorly understood role in regulating flows of gas in the interstellar medium and the formation of stars. I will present highlights from my thesis work on magnetic fields in the diffuse interstellar gas and in accretion disks. At high Galactic latitudes, diffuse neutral hydrogen is organized into an intricate network of slender linear features. I will show that these neutral hydrogen “fibers” are extremely well aligned with the ambient magnetic field as traced by both starlight polarization (Clark et al. 2014) and Planck 353 GHz polarized dust emission (Clark et al. 2015). The structure of the neutral interstellar medium is more tightly coupled to the magnetic field than previously known. Because the orientation of neutral hydrogen is an independent predictor of the local dust polarization angle, our work provides a new tool in the search for inflationary gravitational wave B-mode polarization in the cosmic microwave background, which is currently limited by dust foreground contamination. Magnetic fields also drive accretion in astrophysical disks via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). I analytically derive the behavior of this instability in the weakly nonlinear regime and show that the saturated state of the instability depends on the geometry of the background magnetic field. The analytical model describes the behavior of the MRI in a Taylor-Couette flow, a set-up used by experimentalists in the ongoing quest to observe MRI in the laboratory (Clark & Oishi 2016a, 2016b).

  2. Electrically induced magnetic fields; a consistent approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batell, Brian; Ferstl, Andrew

    2003-09-01

    Electromagnetic radiation exists because changing magnetic fields induce changing electric fields and vice versa. This fact often appears inconsistent with the way some physics textbooks solve particular problems using Faraday's law. These types of problems often ask students to find the induced electric field given a current that does not vary linearly with time. A typical example involves a long solenoid carrying a sinusoidal current. This problem is usually solved as an example or assigned as a homework exercise. The solution offered by many textbooks uses the approximation that the induced, changing electric field produces a negligible magnetic field, which is only valid at low frequencies. If this approximation is not explicitly acknowledged, then the solution appears inconsistent with the description of electromagnetic radiation. In other cases, when the problem is solved without this approximation, the electric and magnetic fields are derived from the vector potential. We present a detailed calculation of the electric and magnetic fields inside and outside the long solenoid without using the vector potential. We then offer a comparison of our solution and a solution given in an introductory textbook.

  3. Upper critical magnetic field of superconducting films with magnetic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemberger, T.R.

    1978-01-01

    The upper critical magnetic field, H/sub c2/(T), of In-Mn and Pb-Mn alloy films was measured. H/sub c2/ was determined from the resistance of the films. The results were compared with the theory of Fulde and Maki. This theory assumes that the electron-phonon coupling is weak, and that the interaction between the impurity spins and the conduction electron spins is weak. The theory predicts that the pair-breaking effect of the magnetic impurities is temperature-independent, and that the pair-breaking effects of the magnetic impurities and the applied magnetic field are additive. Furthermore, it predicts explicitly the temperature dependence of H/sub c2/. The temperature dependence of H/sub c2/ for the In-Mn alloy films is well described by the Fulde-Maki theory, despite the moderately strong electron-phonon coupling and the strong interaction between the impurity spins and the conduction electron spins. The temperature dependence of H/sub c2/ for the Pb-Mn alloy films is not well described by the Fulde-Maki theory, probably due to the strong electron-phonon coupling in Pb. However, even without a quantitatively correct theory, one can conclude from the Pb-Mn data that the pair-breaking effect of the magnetic impurities is temperature independent, and that the pair-breaking effects of the magnetic impurities and the applied magnetic field are additive. For some of the Pb-Mn alloy films, there was a region of positive curvature in H/sub c2/(T) near the zero-field transition temperature. This positive curvature is not understood

  4. Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, P. J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gibson, J. P. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The campaign “Magnetic Field Observations at Purcell, Oklahoma” installed a ground-based magnetometer at Purcell’s U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility boundary installation at the Kessler Atmospheric and Ecological Field Station, University of Oklahoma, to measure local magnetic field variations. It is a part of the nine stations of the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC) placed as close to the 330° magnetic longitude as possible. This is the meridian in the world where land covers the greatest continuous range in magnetic latitude. Figure 1 shows the map of the magnetometer stations along the 330th magnetic meridian, including the Purcell (PCEL) station. The main scientific objective of the campaign is to detect the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies of the magnetic field line connected to the Purcell station. This magnetic field line extends from Purcell to the outer space at distances as far as 2 Earth radii (RE). To accurately identify FLR frequencies, however, simultaneous measurements at slightly different latitudes along the same meridian are necessary to allow the use of the cross-phase technique. This consideration explains the arrangement to operate magnetometers at the Americus (AMER) and Richardson (RICH) stations nearby. The measured resonant frequency can infer the plasma mass density along the field line through the method of normal-mode magnetoseismology. The magnetometer at the Purcell station can detect many other types of magnetic field fluctuations associated with the changes in the electric currents in the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, which by large are affected by the solar activity. In other words, the magnetic field data collected by this campaign are also useful for understanding space weather phenomena. The magnetometer was installed at Purcell’s ARM boundary facility in March 27, 2006. The construction of the triaxial fluxgate magnetometer used by the

  5. Magnetic Thermometer: Thermal effect on the Agglomeration of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Daeseong; Kim, Hackjin

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the agglomeration of magnetite nanoparticles in the aqueous solution under magnetic field by measuring temporal change of magnetic weight. The magnetic weight corresponds to the force due to the magnetization of magnetic materials. Superparamagnetic magnetite nanoparticles are synthesized and used in this work. When the aqueous solution of magnetite nanoparticle is placed under magnetic field, the magnetic weight of the sample jumps instantaneously by Neel and Brown mechanisms and thereafter increases steadily following a stretched exponential function as the nanoparticles agglomerate, which results from the distribution of energy barriers involved in the dynamics. Thermal motions of nanoparticles in the agglomerate perturb the ordered structure of the agglomerate to reduce the magnetic weight. Fluctuation of the structural order of the agglomerate by temperature change is much faster than the formation of agglomerate and explained well with the Boltzmann distribution, which suggests that the magnetic weight of the agglomerate works as a magnetic thermometer.

  6. Primordial magnetic fields from metric perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Maroto, A L

    2001-01-01

    We study the amplification of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations induced by the evolution of scalar metric perturbations at the end of inflation. Such perturbations break the conformal invariance of Maxwell equations in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds and allow the growth of magnetic fields on super-Hubble scales. We estimate the strength of the fields generated by this mechanism on galactic scales and compare the results with the present bounds on the galactic dynamo seed fields.

  7. One-particle reducible contribution to the one-loop spinor propagator in a constant field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ahmadiniaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extending work by Gies and Karbstein on the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian, it has recently been shown that the one-loop propagator of a charged scalar particle in a constant electromagnetic field has a one-particle reducible contribution in addition to the well-studied irreducible one. Here we further generalize this result to the spinor case, and find the same relation between the reducible term, the tree-level propagator and the one-loop Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian as in the scalar case. Our demonstration uses a novel worldline path integral representation of the photon-dressed spinor propagator in a constant electromagnetic field background.

  8. One-particle reducible contribution to the one-loop spinor propagator in a constant field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiniaz, N.; Bastianelli, F.; Corradini, O.; Edwards, J. P.; Schubert, C.

    2017-11-01

    Extending work by Gies and Karbstein on the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian, it has recently been shown that the one-loop propagator of a charged scalar particle in a constant electromagnetic field has a one-particle reducible contribution in addition to the well-studied irreducible one. Here we further generalize this result to the spinor case, and find the same relation between the reducible term, the tree-level propagator and the one-loop Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian as in the scalar case. Our demonstration uses a novel worldline path integral representation of the photon-dressed spinor propagator in a constant electromagnetic field background.

  9. Electronic and Magnetic Structures, Magnetic Hyperfine Fields and Electric Field Gradients in UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb) Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sajid; Yazdani-Kachoei, Majid; Jalali-Asadabadi, Saeid; Farooq, Muhammad Bilal; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2018-02-01

    Cubic uranium compounds such as UX3 (X is a non-transition element of groups IIIA or IVA) exhibit highly diverse magnetic properties, including Pauli paramagnetism, spin fluctuation and anti-ferromagnetism. In the present paper, we explore the structural, electronic and magnetic properties as well as the hyperfine fields (HFFs) and electric field gradients (EFGs) with quadrupole coupling constant of UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb) compounds using local density approximation, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrization of generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) including the Hubbard U parameter (GGA + U), a revised version of PBE-GGA that improves equilibrium properties of densely packed solids and their surfaces (PBEsol-GGA), and a hybrid functional (HF-PBEsol). The spin orbit-coupling calculations have been added to investigate the relativistic effect of electrons in these materials. The comparison between the experimental parameters and our calculated structural parameters we confirm the consistency and effectiveness of our theoretical tools. The computed magnetic moments show that magnetic moment increases from indium to lead in the UX3 family, and all these compounds are antiferromagnetic in nature. The EFGs and HFFs, as well as the quadrupole coupling constant of UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb), are discussed in detail. These properties primarily originate from f and p states of uranium and post-transition sites.

  10. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Z., E-mail: zigang@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M. [Laboratory of Applied Physics, Department of Marine Electronics and Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    A series of initial trapped fields after ZFC or FC magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. It is possible and easy to recover the lost trapped field and regain the best trapped field performance as before. In the re-magnetization process, the initial magnetic flux inside the bulk magnets will help to recover the trapped field. The optimum recovery field is recommended to be 2.5 times the saturation field of the bulk at LN2 temperature. Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  11. Monte Carlo solutions of Schroedinger's equation for H2+ ion in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Jiro; Tomishima, Yasuo

    1980-01-01

    The analytical expressions suitable for the Monte Carlo calculation to obtain the solution of Schroedinger's equation of hydrogen molecular ion in a strong magnetic field are derived. The wave functions, the energy values and the equilibrium internuclear distances of 1σsub(g) state of H 2 + are obtained numerically through the Monte Carlo simulation and compared with other results based on the variational method. The agreement between them is fairly good over a wide range of magnetic field. The calculation of the energy values of 1πsub(g) state of H 2 + for various internuclear distances taking a constant magnetic field as a parameter, shows that the antibonding 1πsub(g) state in the absence of the external magnetic field changes to a bonding state with an increasing magnetic field. The lowest energy values and the equilibrium internuclear distances of 1πsub(g) state are also calculated for various magnetic field. (author)

  12. High magnetic field magnetization of a new triangular lattice antiferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, H. D. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Stritzinger, Laurel Elaine Winter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harrison, Neil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-23

    In CsV(MoO4)2, the magnetic V3+ ions with octahedral oxygen-coordination form a geometrically frustrated triangular lattice. So fare, there is no magnetic properties reported on it. Recently, we successfully grew single crystals of CsV(MoO4)2 by using flux method. The susceptibility shows a sharp drop around 24 K, representing a long range magnetic ordering. To understand the physical properties of this new triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), we pursued high field magnetization measurements to answer two questions: (i) what is the saturation field, which will be very useful to calculate the exchange interaction of the system? (ii) Will it exhibit spin state transition, such as the up up down phase with 1/3-saturation moment as other TLAFs? Recently, we performed VSM measurements in Cell 8, Tallahassee, NHMFL, the results show that the magnetization reaches 0.38 MuB at 34 T, which is just 19% of the full moment of 2 MuB for V3+ (3d2) ions. Apparently we need higher field to reach 1/3 value or full moment.

  13. The CMS Magnetic Field Map Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Klyukhin, V. I.; Amapane, N.; Andreev, V.; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Hervé, A.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Karimaki, V.; Loveless, R.; Mulders, M.; Popescu, S.; Sarycheva, L. I.; Virdee, T.

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general-purpose detector designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive featuresinclude a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6 m diameter by 12.5 m long free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. During two major tests of the CMS magnet the magnetic flux density was measured insid...

  14. Streaming flows produced by oscillating interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on a permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, S.; Ito, M.; Ishimoto, Y.; Nix, S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes microstreaming flows generated by oscillating interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on a circular cylindrical permanent magnet in alternating magnetic field. The interface of magnetic fluid adsorbed on the NdFeB magnet responds to the external alternating magnetic flied as harmonic oscillation. The directions of alternating magnetic field are parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field of permanent magnet. The oscillation of magnetic fluid interface generates streaming flow around the magnet-magnetic fluid element in water. Microstreaming flows are observed with a high-speed video camera analysis system. The flow pattern generated by magnetic fluid motion depends on the Keulegan-Carpenter number and the Reynolds number.

  15. Magnetic resonance signal moment determination using the Earth's magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Fridjonsson, Einar Orn

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a method to manipulate magnetic resonance data such that the moments of the signal spatial distribution are readily accessible. Usually, magnetic resonance imaging relies on data acquired in so-called k-space which is subsequently Fourier transformed to render an image. Here, via analysis of the complex signal in the vicinity of the centre of k-space we are able to access the first three moments of the signal spatial distribution, ultimately in multiple directions. This is demonstrated for biofouling of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane module, rendering unique information and an early warning of the onset of fouling. The analysis is particularly applicable for the use of mobile magnetic resonance spectrometers; here we demonstrate it using an Earth\\'s magnetic field system.

  16. Diffusive processes in a stochastic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Vlad, M.; Vanden Eijnden, E.; Spineanu, F.; Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.

    1995-01-01

    The statistical representation of a fluctuating (stochastic) magnetic field configuration is studied in detail. The Eulerian correlation functions of the magnetic field are determined, taking into account all geometrical constraints: these objects form a nondiagonal matrix. The Lagrangian correlations, within the reasonable Corrsin approximation, are reduced to a single scalar function, determined by an integral equation. The mean square perpendicular deviation of a geometrical point moving along a perturbed field line is determined by a nonlinear second-order differential equation. The separation of neighboring field lines in a stochastic magnetic field is studied. We find exponentiation lengths of both signs describing, in particular, a decay (on the average) of any initial anisotropy. The vanishing sum of these exponentiation lengths ensures the existence of an invariant which was overlooked in previous works. Next, the separation of a particle's trajectory from the magnetic field line to which it was initially attached is studied by a similar method. Here too an initial phase of exponential separation appears. Assuming the existence of a final diffusive phase, anomalous diffusion coefficients are found for both weakly and strongly collisional limits. The latter is identical to the well known Rechester-Rosenbluth coefficient, which is obtained here by a more quantitative (though not entirely deductive) treatment than in earlier works

  17. The ARASE (ERG) magnetic field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ayako; Teramoto, Mariko; Nomura, Reiko; Nosé, Masahito; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Shinohara, Manabu; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Obana, Yuki; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Mita, Makoto; Takashima, Takeshi; Shinohara, Iku

    2018-03-01

    The fluxgate magnetometer for the Arase (ERG) spacecraft mission was built to investigate particle acceleration processes in the inner magnetosphere. Precise measurements of the field intensity and direction are essential in studying the motion of particles, the properties of waves interacting with the particles, and magnetic field variations induced by electric currents. By observing temporal field variations, we will more deeply understand magnetohydrodynamic and electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in the ultra-low-frequency range, which can cause production and loss of relativistic electrons and ring-current particles. The hardware and software designs of the Magnetic Field Experiment (MGF) were optimized to meet the requirements for studying these phenomena. The MGF makes measurements at a sampling rate of 256 vectors/s, and the data are averaged onboard to fit the telemetry budget. The magnetometer switches the dynamic range between ± 8000 and ± 60,000 nT, depending on the local magnetic field intensity. The experiment is calibrated by preflight tests and through analysis of in-orbit data. MGF data are edited into files with a common data file format, archived on a data server, and made available to the science community. Magnetic field observation by the MGF will significantly improve our knowledge of the growth and decay of radiation belts and ring currents, as well as the dynamics of geospace storms.

  18. Self-assembly of colloidal particles into strings in a homogeneous external electric or magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, F.; Vutukuri, H.R.; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.; Dijkstra, M.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal particles with a dielectric constant (magnetic susceptibility) mismatch with the surrounding solvent acquire a dipole moment in a homogeneous external electric (magnetic) field. The resulting dipolar interactions can lead to aggregation of the particles into string-like clusters. Recently,

  19. Field flattening in superconducting beam transport magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    Dipoles in which the beam traverses the midplane well away from tie magnet axis may benefit from flattening of the vertical field on the midplane. A procedure is described for doing so, making use of Chebyshev polynomials. In the case of the large aperture ''DX'' magnets located immediately on each side of the six intersection regions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Powder (RHIC), a comparison is made of the field of coils optimized in this way and of coils optimized in the more common way by minimizing the leading coefficients of the Fourier expansion about the magnet axis. The comparison is of the integrated Fourier coefficients of the field expanded locally along the beam trajectory

  20. Chiral battery, scaling laws and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, Sampurn; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Pandey, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the generation and evolution of magnetic field in the presence of chiral imbalance and gravitational anomaly which gives an additional contribution to the vortical current. The contribution due to gravitational anomaly is proportional to T "2 which can generate seed magnetic field irrespective of plasma being chirally charged or neutral. We estimate the order of magnitude of the magnetic field to be 10"3"0 G at T ∼ 10"9 GeV, with a typical length scale of the order of 10"−"1"8 cm, which is much smaller than the Hubble radius at that temperature (10"−"8 cm). Moreover, such a system possess scaling symmetry. We show that the T "2 term in the vorticity current along with scaling symmetry leads to more power transfer from lower to higher length scale as compared to only chiral anomaly without scaling symmetry.

  1. Generation of intense transient magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to a magnetic field. The target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet. An emitter, e.g. a microballoon of glass, metal or plastics, is subjected to a laser pulse to generate the plasma from which the return current flows into a wire cage or a coil and then to earth. (author)

  2. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

    2012-12-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  3. Magnetic fields of HgMn stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubrig, S.; González, J. F.; Ilyin, I.

    2012-01-01

    Context. The frequent presence of weak magnetic fields on the surface of spotted late-B stars with HgMn peculiarity in binary systems has been controversial during the two last decades. Recent studies of magnetic fields in these stars using the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique have...... by applying the moment technique on spectral lines of inhomogeneously distributed elements separately. Furthermore, we present new determinations of the mean longitudinal magnetic field for the HgMn star HD 65949 and the hotter analog of HgMn stars, the PGa star HD 19400, using FORS 2 installed at the VLT. We...... also give new measurements of the eclipsing system ARAur with a primary star of HgMn peculiarity, which were obtained with the SOFIN spectropolarimeter installed at the Nordic Optical Telescope. Methods. We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS...

  4. Solar Flare Magnetic Fields and Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, George

    2012-01-01

    This volume is devoted to the dynamics and diagnostics of solar magnetic fields and plasmas in the Sun’s atmosphere. Five broad areas of current research in Solar Physics are presented: (1) New techniques for incorporating radiation transfer effects into three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models of the solar interior and atmosphere, (2) The connection between observed radiation processes occurring during flares and the underlying flare energy release and transport mechanisms, (3) The global balance of forces and momenta that occur during flares, (4) The data-analysis and theoretical tools needed to understand and assimilate vector magnetogram observations and (5) Connecting flare and CME phenomena to the topological properties of the magnetic field in the Solar Atmosphere. The role of the Sun’s magnetic field is a major emphasis of this book, which was inspired by a workshop honoring Richard C. (Dick) Canfield.  Dick has been making profound contributions to these areas of research over a long and pro...

  5. Time of flight and range of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Karkantzakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the classical problem of the motion of a projectile in a constant gravitational field under the influenceof a retarding force proportional to the velocity. Specifically, we express the time of flight, the time of fall and the range ofthe motion as a function of the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile. We also prove that the time of fall isgreater than the time of rise with the exception of the case of zero constant of resistance where we have equality. Finally weprove a formula from which we can compute the constant of resistance per unit mass of the projectile from time of flight andrange of the motion when the acceleration due to gravity and the initial velocity of the projectile are known.

  6. Magnetic field measurements of the BLAST spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, Karen A.; Botto, Tancredi; Goodhue, Abigail; Hasell, Douglas; Loughnan, Dylan; Murphy, Kilian; Smith, Timothy Paul; Ziskin, Vitaliy

    2009-01-01

    The Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid has been built to study nuclear physics reactions using a stored, polarized electron beam and a variety of polarized targets internal to the storage ring. The spectrometer consists of eight coils surrounding the target cell. There is a requirement of nominally zero field along the centerline of the spectrometer for proper electron beam storage. In addition, the polarized internal targets require a low field gradient in the target region. Magnetic field measurements were made near the beam centerline to guide the alignment of the coils and satisfy the field magnitude and gradient requirements. After the coils were aligned, the magnetic field was measured in the detector regions to provide information for particle tracking.

  7. Magnetic Field Amplification via Protostellar Disc Dynamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Koldoba, A. V.; Wasserman, I.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically investigate the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc via an αΩ-dynamo and the resulting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) driven outflows. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter αd the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate σ ∝ Ω _K √{α _d}, before saturating to a value ∝ √{α _d}. The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of order 10^{-9} M_{⊙}/{yr} for T Tauri stars. This suggests αΩ-dynamos may be responsible for generating magnetic fields strong enough to launch observed outflows.

  8. Doped spin ladders under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, G.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis deals with the physics of doped two-leg ladders which are a quasi one-dimensional and unconventional superconductor. We particularly focus on the properties under magnetic field. Models for strongly correlated electrons on ladders are studied using exact diagonalization and density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Results are also enlightened by using the bosonization technique. Taking into account a ring exchange it highlights the relation between the pairing of holes and the spin gap. Its influence on the dynamics of the magnetic fluctuations is also tackled. Afterwards, these excitations are probed by the magnetic field by coupling it to the spin degree of freedom of the electrons through Zeeman effect. We show the existence of doping-dependent magnetization plateaus and also the presence of an inhomogeneous superconducting phase (FFLO phase) associated with an exceeding of the Pauli limit. When a flux passes through the ladder, the magnetic field couples to the charge degree of freedom of the electrons via orbital effect. The diamagnetic response of the doped ladder probes the commensurate phases of the t-J model at low J/t. Algebraic transverse current fluctuations are also found once the field is turned on. Lastly, we report numerical evidences of a molecular superfluid phase in the 3/2-spin attractive Hubbard model: at a density low enough, bound states of four fermions, called quartets, acquire dominant superfluid fluctuations. The observed competition between the superfluid and density fluctuations is connected to the physics of doped ladders. (author)

  9. Permanent Magnet Spiral Motor for Magnetic Gradient Energy Utilization: Axial Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The Spiral Magnetic Motor, which can accelerate a magnetized rotor through 90% of its cycle with only permanent magnets, was an energy milestone for the 20th century patents by Kure Tekkosho in the 1970's. However, the Japanese company used old ferrite magnets which are relatively weak and an electrically-powered coil to jump start every cycle, which defeated the primary benefit of the permanent magnet motor design. The principle of applying an inhomogeneous, anisotropic magnetic field gradient force Fz = μ cos φ dB/dz, with permanent magnets is well-known in physics, e.g., Stern-Gerlach experiment, which exploits the interaction of a magnetic moment with the aligned electron spins of magnetic domains. In this case, it is applied to dB/dθ in polar coordinates, where the force Fθ depends equally on the magnetic moment, the cosine of the angle between the magnetic moment and the field gradient. The radial magnetic field increases in strength (in the attractive mode) or decreases in strength (in the repulsive mode) as the rotor turns through one complete cycle. An electromagnetic pulsed switching has been historically used to help the rotor traverse the gap (detent) between the end of the magnetic stator arc and the beginning (Kure Tekko, 1980). However, alternative magnetic pulse and switching designs have been developed, as well as strategic eddy current creation. This work focuses on the switching mechanism, novel magnetic pulse methods and advantageous angular momentum improvements. For example, a collaborative effort has begun with Toshiyuki Ueno (University of Tokyo) who has invented an extremely low power, combination magnetostrictive-piezoelectric (MS-PZT) device for generating low frequency magnetic fields and consumes "zero power" for static magnetic field production (Ueno, 2004 and 2007a). Utilizing a pickup coil such as an ultra-miniature millihenry inductor with a piezoelectric actuator or simply Wiegand wire geometry, it is shown that the necessary

  10. Ultralow field magnetization reversal of two-body magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Field induced magnetization reversal was investigated in a system of two magnetic nanoparticles with uniaxial anisotropies and magnetostatic interaction. By using the micromagnetic simulation, ultralow switching field strength was found when the separation distance between the two particles reaches a critical small value (on nanometer scale in the perpendicular configuration where the anisotropic axes of the two particles are perpendicular to the separation line. The switching field increases sharply when the separation is away from the critical distance. The ultralow field switching phenomenon was missed in the parallel configuration where both the anisotropic axes are aligned along the separation line of the two particles. The micromagnetic results are consistent with the previous theoretical prediction [J. Appl. Phys. 109, 104303 (2011] where dipolar interaction between two single-domain magnetic particles was considered. Our present simulations offered further proofs and possibilities for the low-power applications of information storage as the two-body magnetic nanoparticles might be implemented as a composite information bit.

  11. Magnetic field calculation for Fermilab-style magnet coil end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, K.; McInturff, A.D.

    1982-09-01

    A simple end field calculation is described, which utilizes a reciprocal theorem of mutual inductance between actual windings and a virtual coil. The calculation method is applied to a Fermilab-style magnet, and the computation results are compared with those obtained by GFUN

  12. High magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgen, John [Oak Ridge, TN; Kisner, Roger [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard [Oak Ridge, TN; Ludtka, Gail [Oak Ridge, TN; Jaramillo, Roger [Knoxville, TN

    2009-05-19

    Methods and apparatus are described for high magnetic field ohmically decoupled non-contact treatment of conductive materials in a high magnetic field. A method includes applying a high magnetic field to at least a portion of a conductive material; and applying an inductive magnetic field to at least a fraction of the conductive material to induce a surface current within the fraction of the conductive material, the surface current generating a substantially bi-directional force that defines a vibration. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, the fraction of the conductive material is located within the portion of the conductive material and ohmic heating from the surface current is ohmically decoupled from the vibration. An apparatus includes a high magnetic field coil defining an applied high magnetic field; an inductive magnetic field coil coupled to the high magnetic field coil, the inductive magnetic field coil defining an applied inductive magnetic field; and a processing zone located within both the applied high magnetic field and the applied inductive magnetic field. The high magnetic field and the inductive magnetic field are substantially confocal, and ohmic heating of a conductive material located in the processing zone is ohmically decoupled from a vibration of the conductive material.

  13. Determination of anisotropy constants of protein encapsulated iron oxide nanoparticles by electron magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongyan [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Klem, Michael T.; Sebby, Karl B.; Singel, David J. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Young, Mark [Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Douglas, Trevor [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Idzerda, Yves U. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Center for Bio-Inspired Nanomaterials, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)], E-mail: Idzerda@montana.edu

    2009-02-15

    Angle-dependent electron magnetic resonance was performed on 4.9, 8.0, and 19 nm iron oxide nanoparticles encapsulated within protein capsids and suspended in water. Measurements were taken at liquid nitrogen temperature after cooling in a 1 T field to partially align the particles. The angle dependence of the shifts in the resonance field for the iron oxide nanoparticles (synthesized within Listeria-Dps, horse spleen ferritin, and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) all show evidence of a uniaxial anisotropy. Using a Boltzmann distribution for the particles' easy-axis direction, we are able to use the resonance field shifts to extract a value for the anisotropy energy, showing that the anisotropy energy density increases with decreasing particle size. This suggests that surface anisotropy plays a significant role in magnetic nanoparticles of this size.

  14. Magnetic Catalysis in Graphene Effective Field Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeTar, Carleton; Winterowd, Christopher; Zafeiropoulos, Savvas

    2016-12-23

    We report on the first calculation of magnetic catalysis at zero temperature in a fully nonperturbative simulation of the graphene effective field theory. Using lattice gauge theory, a nonperturbative analysis of the theory of strongly interacting, massless, (2+1)-dimensional Dirac fermions in the presence of an external magnetic field is performed. We show that in the zero-temperature limit, a nonzero value for the chiral condensate is obtained which signals the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry. This result implies a nonzero value for the dynamical mass of the Dirac quasiparticle.

  15. Ultracold plasma dynamics in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianli

    Plasmas, often called the fourth state of matter and the most common one in the universe, have parameters varying by many orders of magnitude, from temperature of a few hundred kelvin in the Earth's ionosphere to 10 16 K in the magnetosphere of a pulsar. Ultracold plasmas, produced by photoionizing a sample of laser-cooled and trapped atoms near the ionization limit, have extended traditional neutral plasma parameters by many orders of magnitude, to electron temperatures below 1 K and ion temperatures in the tens of muK to a few Kelvin, and densities of 105 cm -3 to 1010 cm-3. These plasmas thus provide a testing ground to study basic plasma theory in a clean and simple system with or without a magnetic field. Previous studies of ultracold plasmas have primarily concentrated on temperature measurements, collective modes and expansion dynamics in the absence of magnetic fields. This thesis presents the first study of ultracold plasma dynamics in a magnetic field. The presence of a magnetic field during the expansion can initiate various phenomena, such as plasma confinement and plasma instabilities. While the electron temperatures are very low in ultracold plasmas, we need only tens of Gauss of magnetic field to observe significant effects on the expansion dynamics. To probe the ultraocold plasma dynamics in a magnetic field, we developed a new diagnostic - projection imaging, which images the ion distribution by extracting the ions with a high voltage pulse onto a position-sensitive detector. Early in the lifetime of the plasma (explosion of the dense ion cloud. For later times, we measure the 2-D Gaussian width of the ion image, obtaining the transverse expansion velocity as a function of magnetic field (up to 70 G), and observe that the transverse expansion velocity scales as B-1/2, explained by a nonlinear ambipolar diffusion model that involes anisotropic diffusion in two different directions. We also present the first observation of a plasma instability in an

  16. The Magnetic Field of Planet Earth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulot, G.; Finlay, Chris; Constable, C. G.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic field of the Earth is by far the best documented magnetic field of all known planets. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of its characteristics and properties, thanks to the convergence of many different approaches and to the remarkable fact that surface rocks...... yr) to the longest (virtually the age of the Earth) time scales are finally reviewed, underlining the respective roles of the magnetohydodynamics at work in the core, and of the slow dynamic evolution of the planet as a whole....

  17. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  18. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI...

  19. Relativistic Scott correction in self-generated magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdös, Laszlo; Fournais, Søren; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We consider a large neutral molecule with total nuclear charge $Z$ in a model with self-generated classical magnetic field and where the kinetic energy of the electrons is treated relativistically. To ensure stability, we assume that $Z \\alpha alpha$ denotes the fine structure....../3}$ and it is unchanged by including the self-generated magnetic field. We prove the first correction term to this energy, the so-called Scott correction of the form $S(\\alpha Z) Z^2$. The current paper extends the result of \\cite{SSS} on the Scott correction for relativistic molecules to include a self-generated...... constant. We are interested in the ground state energy in the simultaneous limit $Z \\rightarrow \\infty$, $\\alpha \\rightarrow 0$ such that $\\kappa=Z \\alpha$ is fixed. The leading term in the energy asymptotics is independent of $\\kappa$, it is given by the Thomas-Fermi energy of order $Z^{7...

  20. Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2008-01-01

    While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.

  1. Magnetic and magnetoelastic anomalies of an Er.sub.2./sub.Co.sub.17./sub. single crystal in high magnetic fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andreev, Alexander V.; Skourski, Y.; Kuz'min, M.D.; Yasin, S.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Daou, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Iwasa, A.; Kondo, A.; Matsuo, A.; Kindo, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 18 (2011), "184422-1"-"184422-9" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/0339 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic and magnetoelastic anomalies * high magnetic fields * anisotropy constants Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  2. Effect of Hartree-Fock exact exchange on intramolecular magnetic coupling constants of organic diradicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daeheum; Ko, Kyoung Chul; Ikabata, Yasuhiro; Wakayama, Kazufumi; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Hiromi; Lee, Jin Yong

    2015-01-14

    The intramolecular magnetic coupling constant (J) of diradical systems linked with five- or six-membered aromatic rings was calculated to obtain the scaling factor (experimental J/calculated J ratio) for various density functional theory (DFT) functionals. Scaling factors of group A (PBE, TPSSh, B3LYP, B97-1, X3LYP, PBE0, and BH&HLYP) and B (M06-L, M06, M06-2X, and M06-HF) were shown to decrease as the amount of Hartree-Fock exact exchange (HFx) increases, in other words, overestimation of calculated J becomes more severe as the HFx increases. We further investigated the effect of HFx fraction of DFT functional on J value, spin contamination, and spin density distributions by comparing the B3LYP analogues containing different amount of HFx. It was revealed that spin contamination and spin densities at each atom increases as the HFx increases. Above all, newly developed BLYP-5 functional, which has 5% of HFx, was found to have the scaling factor of 1.029, indicating that calculated J values are very close to that of experimental values without scaling. BLYP-5 has potential to be utilized for accurate evaluation of intramolecular magnetic coupling constant (J) of diradicals linked by five- or six-membered aromatic ring couplers.

  3. Canonical approach to constructing constants of motion for nonlocal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garczynski, W.; Stelmach, J.

    1984-01-01

    A general method of derivation of conservation laws for non-local field theories is presented. Differences in comparison with a local case are stressed. Two kinds of Lagrangians appearing in a non-local theory are examined. Canonical choice of constants of motion is made corresponding to the transformations from the conformal and gauge groups. 11 refs. (author)

  4. High magnetic fields in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence J.; Parkin, Don E.; Crow, Jack E.; Schneider-Muntau, Hans J.; Sullivan, Neil S.

    During the past thirty years research using high magnetic fields has technically evolved in the manner, but not the magnitude, of the so-called big science areas of particle physics, plasma physics, neutron scattering, synchrotron light scattering, and astronomy. Starting from the laboratories of individual researchers it moved to a few larger universities, then to centralized national facilities with research and maintenance staffs, and, finally, to joint international ventures to build unique facilities, as illustrated by the subject of this conference. To better understand the nature of this type of research and its societal justification it is helpful to compare it, in general terms, with the aforementioned big-science fields. High magnetic field research differs from particle physics, plasma physics, and astronomy in three respects: (1) it is generic research that cuts across a wide range of scientific disciplines in physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and engineering; (2) it studies materials and processes that are relevant for a variety of technological applications and it gives insight into biological processes; (3) it has produced, at least, comparably significant results with incomparably smaller resources. Unlike neutron and synchrotron light scattering, which probe matter, high magnetic fields change the thermodynamic state of matter. This change of state is fundamental and independent of other state variables, such as pressure and temperature. After the magnetic field is applied, various techniques are then used to study the new state.

  5. Neutron energy focusing with magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, D.E.; Summhammer, J.; Rauch, H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: For the majority of neutron optics instruments and many neutron scattering techniques the use of a monochromatic neutron beam is vitally important. Most monochromators are passive, and often include an interaction with matter. They cut off certain parts of the spectrum, and as a consequence, large losses of neutron density occur, and the spectral density is depleted as well. On the other hand, active energy focusing systems enrich the beam in a very narrow velocity band without considerable losses. Here, we study the active monochromatization of neutrons, generated at a pulsed neutron source by interaction with magnetic fields. The first proposed set-up consists of magnets which surround the beam-line. They produce traveling magnetic waves with desired velocity to escort a neutron pulse between the source and an instrument. During the interaction, the magnetic field forces the neutrons to accelerate or decelerate to this velocity. Simulations show that a comoving magnetic field, shaped like an harmonic oscillator, or of a sinusoidal form, effectuates an increase of neutron intensity up to an order of magnitude in a small but variable velocity band. Consequently, the precision of related neutron scattering experiments is increased or their measurement time is decreased, accordingly. Another concept arises from static and rf spinflip stages. Thereby, an appropriate number of photons of the rf-field can be transmitted to or extracted from the neutrons. Polarized neutrons entering a static magnetic field which is oriented perpendicularly to the neutrons propagation direction, are subject to acceleration or deceleration depending on their spin orientation (Zeeman shift). Flipping the neutrons spin by on rf coil inside the static field, causes a second acceleration or deceleration of the neutrons when they are leaving the static field. They immediately enter the next stage with another static field, which is much smaller than the one they have just left. Its

  6. Magnetic field mediated conductance oscillation in graphene p–n junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Guang

    2018-04-01

    The electronic transport of graphene p–n junctions under perpendicular magnetic field is investigated in theory. Under low magnetic field, the transport is determined by the resonant tunneling of Landau levels and conductance versus magnetic field shows a Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation. At higher magnetic field, the p–n junction subjected to the quasi-classical regime and the formation of snake states results in periodical backscattering and transmission as magnetic field varies. The conductance oscillation pattern is mediated both by magnetic field and the carrier concentration on bipolar regions. For medium magnetic field between above two regimes, the combined contributions of resonant tunneling, snake states oscillation and Aharanov–Bohm interference induce irregular oscillation of conductance. At very high magnetic field, the system is subjected to quantum Hall regime. Under disorder, the quantum tunneling at low magnetic field is slightly affected and the oscillation of snake states at higher magnetic field is suppressed. In the quantum Hall regime, the conductance is a constant as predicted by the mixture rule.

  7. Biomaterials and Magnetic fields for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Mazuruk, Konstanty

    2003-01-01

    The field of biomaterials has emerged as an important topic in the purview of NASA s new vision of research activities in the Microgravity Research Division. Although this area has an extensive track record in the medical field as borne out by the routine use of polymeric sutures, implant devices, and prosthetics, novel applications such as tissue engineering, artificial heart valves and controlled drug delivery are beginning to be developed. Besides the medical field, biomaterials and bio-inspired technologies are finding use in a host of emerging interdisciplinary fields such as self-healing and self-assembling structures, biosensors, fuel systems etc. The field of magnetic fluid technology has several potential applications in medicine. One of the emerging fields is the area of controlled drug delivery, which has seen its evolution from the basic oral delivery system to pulmonary to transdermal to direct inoculations. In cancer treatment by chemotherapy for example, targeted and controlled drug delivery has received vast scrutiny and substantial research and development effort, due to the high potency of the drugs involved and the resulting requirement to keep the exposure of the drugs to surrounding healthy tissue to a minimum. The use of magnetic particles in conjunction with a static magnetic field allows smart targeting and retention of the particles at a desired site within the body with the material transport provided by blood perfusion. Once so located, the therapeutical aspect (radiation, chemotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) of the treatment, now highly localized, can be implemented.

  8. Magnetic field measurements on the sun and implications for stellar magnetic field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, W.H.; Giampapa, M.S.; Worden, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of solar magnetic field measurements in plages, sunspot umbrae, and sunspot penumbrae using high spectral resolution, unpolarized infrared H band spectral data are presented. A Fourier deconvolution analysis scheme similar to that utilized for stellar magnetic field measurements is adopted. As an example, a field strength of 3240 + or - 450 G is determined in a sunspot umbra combined with a value of 2000 + or - 180 G in the associated penumbra. These values are compared with a direct measurement of the spot umbra and penumbra field strengths based on the observed separation of the Zeeman components of the magnetically sensitive lines. Possible origins for the discrepancy between the results inferred by these two different techniques are discussed. The Fourier analysis results confirm the widespread occurrence of kilogauss level fields in the solar photosphere. The implications of the solar results for stellar magnetic field measurements are considered. 45 references.

  9. Stray Field Reduction in ALS Eddy Current Septum Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Shuman, Derek; Prestemon, Soren; Schlüter, Ross D; Steier, Christoph; Stover, Gregory D

    2005-01-01

    Stray field from an eddy current septum magnet adversely affects the circulating beam and can be reduced using several techniques. The stray field time history typically has a fast rise section followed by a long exponential decay section when pulsed with a half sine drive current. Changing the drive current pulse to a full sine has the effect of both reducing peak stray field magnitude by ~3x, and producing a quick decay from this peak to a lower field level which then has a similar long decay time constant as that from the half sine only drive current pulse. A method for tuning the second half sine (reverse) drive current pulse to eliminate the long exponential decay section is given.

  10. Mercury's Internal Magnetic Field: Modeling Core Fields with Smooth Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, H.; Johnson, C. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Purucker, M. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    MESSENGER's second flyby (M2) of Mercury on 6 October 2008 will provide significantly improved geographical sampling of the planet's internal magnetic field over previous measurements. Latitudinal coverage and spacecraft altitudes will be similar to those during MESSENGER's first encounter (M1), but the spacecraft trajectory will be displaced by about 180° in longitude, yielding the first magnetic measurements in the western hemisphere. We investigate spatial structure in Mercury's internal magnetic field by applying methods from inverse theory to construct low-degree-and-order spherical harmonic models. External fields predicted by a parameterized magnetospheric model are subtracted from the vector field observations. The approach takes into account noise contributions from long-wavelength uncertainties in the external field models, unexplained short-wavelength features, and spacecraft attitude errors. We investigate the effect of different regularization (smoothness) constraints on our inversions. Analyses of data from M1 and the two Mariner 10 flybys that penetrated the magnetosphere yield a preferred spherical harmonic solution to degree and order eight with the centered, axial dipole term g10 dominating. The model shows structure at low and mid-latitude regions near the flybys. Terms predicted by an analytical model for long- wavelength crustal fields - namely g10, g30 and g32 - are present, but their relative amplitudes are not consistent with such a field. We conclude that structure in our models is dominated by core, rather than by crustal, fields. We also investigate, through simulations, field morphologies that are recoverable while the spacecraft is in orbit about Mercury, under the assumption that the long-wavelength contributions from external sources can be accurately modeled and removed. Although the elliptical orbit of MESSENGER will impede the recovery of southern hemisphere structure, we obtain excellent recovery of the dipole field and of

  11. MAGNETIC FIELD TWISTING BY INTERGRANULAR DOWNDRAFTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taroyan, Youra; Williams, Thomas [Department of Physics, IMPACS, Aberystwyth University, Aberystwyth (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    The interaction of an intergranular downdraft with an embedded vertical magnetic field is examined. It is demonstrated that the downdraft may couple to small magnetic twists leading to an instability. The descending plasma exponentially amplifies the magnetic twists when it decelerates with depth due to increasing density. Most efficient amplification is found in the vicinity of the level, where the kinetic energy density of the downdraft reaches equipartition with the magnetic energy density. Continual extraction of energy from the decelerating plasma and growth in the total azimuthal energy occurs as a consequence of the wave-flow coupling along the downdraft. The presented mechanism may drive vortices and torsional motions that have been detected between granules and in simulations of magnetoconvection.

  12. Magnetic field dependence of vortex activation energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the resistance as a function of temperature and magnetic field in clean polycrystalline samples of NbSe2, MgB2 and Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (BSCCO) superconductors. Thermally activated flux flow behaviour is seen in all the three systems and clearly identified in bulk MgB2. While the activation energy at low fields for MgB2 ...

  13. Magnetic field influence on paramecium motility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, M.F.; Rosen, A.D. (State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The influence of a moderately intense static magnetic field on movement patterns of free swimming Paramecium was studied. When exposed to fields of 0.126 T, these ciliated protozoa exhibited significant reduction in velocity as well as a disorganization of movement pattern. It is suggested that these findings may be explained on the basis of alteration in function of ion specific channels within the cell membrane.

  14. Trapped field recovery of bulk superconductor magnets by static field magnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Z.; Tsuzuki, K.; Miki, M.; Felder, B.; Hara, S.; Izumi, M.

    2011-11-01

    Thanks to the trapped field of bulk high-temperature superconductors, they can be used as field-pole magnets in the high temperature superconducting (HTS) rotating machines. For example, an output power of 10 kW at 720 rpm was realized by an average trapped field of 0.56 T of eight melt-textured GdBa2Cu3Oy (Gd-123) bulks at liquid nitrogen temperature in TUMSAT in 2004. Similarly to the HTS machines involving 1G or 2G wires, the trapped field of the bulk is possibly sensitive and even can be attenuated by the AC component field during the operation. Hence, it is necessary to recover the trapped field once being decreased to some extent in the practical application. From this point, we have investigated the trapped field recovery of HTS bulk magnets by static field magnetization in the paper. A series of different initial trapped fields after zero-field-cooling or field-cooling magnetization are used to simulate the attenuated trapped field. By comparing the trapped field peak and its distribution, the trapped field was found to be able to recover by the static field magnetization method with a stronger excitation field and the initial trapped flux inside the bulk also has an influence on the recovery process. The optimum recovery field was found to be about 2.5 times the saturated trapped field of the bulk at liquid nitrogen temperature, by which the bulk can regain the former best trapped field performance.

  15. Magnetic fields and density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salsbury, Freddie Jr.

    1999-01-01

    A major focus of this dissertation is the development of functionals for the magnetic susceptibility and the chemical shielding within the context of magnetic field density functional theory (BDFT). These functionals depend on the electron density in the absence of the field, which is unlike any other treatment of these responses. There have been several advances made within this theory. The first of which is the development of local density functionals for chemical shieldings and magnetic susceptibilities. There are the first such functionals ever proposed. These parameters have been studied by constructing functionals for the current density and then using the Biot-Savart equations to obtain the responses. In order to examine the advantages and disadvantages of the local functionals, they were tested numerically on some small molecules

  16. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  17. Effect of electric-field modulation of magnetic parameters on domain structure in MgO/CoFeB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, T.; Kanai, S.; Okada, A.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2016-07-01

    We observe magnetic domain structures of MgO/CoFeB with a perpendicular magnetic easy axis under an electric field. The domain structure shows a maze pattern with electric-field dependent isotropic period. The analysis of the period indicates a major role of the electric-field modulation of interfacial magnetic anisotropy for the observation and possible contribution from electric-field modulation of the exchange stiffness constant.

  18. Compensation-device for a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to compensation device for a magnetic field generated through electric traction in a tram or train transport system that comprises an overhead line and rails, the overhead line and rails during operation being live, wherein a predetermined section of the overhead line and rails

  19. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation. 75 fluctuations have natural explanation in the frame of shock-in-jet model (Marscher. & Gear 1985; Hughes et al. 1989; Qian et al. 1991). However, the flare activity (especially periodical) presents some difficulties in this model. To eliminate these problems, Camenzind & Krockenberger ...

  20. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheolog- ical (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...

  1. Rotational Rectification of an Alternating Magnetic Field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 5. Rotational Rectification of an Alternating Magnetic Field. N Kumar. Classroom Volume 18 Issue 5 May 2013 pp 458-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/05/0458-0467 ...

  2. ATLAS Barrel Toroid magnet reached nominal field

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

     On 9 November the barrel toroid magnet reached its nominal field of 4 teslas, with an electrical current of 21 000 amperes (21 kA) passing through the eight superconducting coils as shown on this graph

  3. Historic Methods for Capturing Magnetic Field Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    I investigated two late 19th-century methods for capturing magnetic field images from iron filings for historical insight into the pedagogy of hands-on physics education methods, and to flesh out teaching and learning practicalities tacit in the historical record. Both methods offer opportunities for close sensory engagement in data-collection…

  4. Inversion layer thermopower in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, S.M.; Jonson, M.

    1982-11-20

    The authors calculate the thermopower of an ideal two-dimensional electron gas (inversion layer) in a quantising magnetic field. They find that the thermopower is a universal function of the reduced temperature which has a novel dependence on the chemical potential.

  5. Strain sensors for high field pulse magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zheng, Yan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Easton, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an investigation into several strain sensing technologies that are being considered to monitor mechanical deformation within the steel reinforcement shells used in high field pulsed magnets. Such systems generally operate at cryogenic temperatures to mitigate heating issues that are inherent in the coils of nondestructive, high field pulsed magnets. The objective of this preliminary study is to characterize the performance of various strain sensing technologies at liquid nitrogen temperatures (-196 C). Four sensor types are considered in this investigation: fiber Bragg gratings (FBG), resistive foil strain gauges (RFSG), piezoelectric polymers (PVDF), and piezoceramics (PZT). Three operational conditions are considered for each sensor: bond integrity, sensitivity as a function of temperature, and thermal cycling effects. Several experiments were conducted as part of this study, investigating adhesion with various substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum, and carbon fiber), sensitivity to static (FBG and RFSG) and dynamic (RFSG, PVDF and PZT) load conditions, and sensor diagnostics using PZT sensors. This work has been conducted in collaboration with the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL), and the results of this study will be used to identify the set of sensing technologies that would be best suited for integration within high field pulsed magnets at the NHMFL facility.

  6. Cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhuowei; Luo, Hao; Zhang, Hengdi; Zhao, Shichao; Tang, Xiaosong; Tong, Yanjin; Song, Zhenfei; Tan, Fuli; Zhao, Jianheng; Sun, Chengwei

    2014-05-01

    The cylindrical isentropic compression by ultrahigh magnetic field (MC-1) is a kind of unique high energy density technique. It has characters like ultrahigh pressure and low temperature rising, and would have widely used in areas like high pressure physics, new material synthesis and ultrahigh magnetic field physics. The Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (IFP, CAEP) has begun the experiment since 2011 and a primary experimental device had been set-up. In the experiments, a seed magnetic field of 5 Tesla were set-up first and compressed by a stainless steel liner which is driven by high explosive initiated synchronously. The internal diameter of the liner is 97 mm, and its thickness is 1.5 mm. The movement of liner was recorded optically and a typical turnaround phenomenon was observed. From the photography results the liner was compressed smoothly and evenly and its average velocity was about 5-6 km/s. In the experiment a axial magnetic field of over 1400 Tesla has been recorded. The MC-1 process was numerical simulated by 1D MHD code MC11D and the simulations are in accord with the experiments.

  7. Physics of semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Miura, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    This book summarizes most of the fundamental physical phenomena which semiconductors and their modulated structures exhibit in high magnetic fields. Readers can learn not only the basic theoretical background but also the present state of the art from the most advanced data in this rapidly growing research area.

  8. Manifestations of Magnetic Field Inhomogeneities Lawrence Rudnick

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Both observations and simulations reveal large inhomo- geneities in magnetic field distributions in diffuse plasmas. Incorporating these inhomogeneities into various calculations can significantly change the inferred physical conditions. In extragalactic sources, e.g., these can compromise analyses of spectral ...

  9. Manipulation of molecular structures with magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boamfa, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the use of magnetic fields as a handle to manipulate matter at a molecular level and as a tool to probe molecular properties or inter molecular interactions. The work consists of in situ optical studies of (polymer) liquid crystals and molecular aggregates in high

  10. Enhanced microactuation with magnetic field curing of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheological (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods ...

  11. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Helen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.

  12. Solar Magnetic Fields J. O. Stenflo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I wish to dedicate this presentation to my dear friend Arvind Bhatnagar, whom I have known for nearly four decades, since we shared office for half a year in 1968 in ..... The pattern of quiet-Sun magnetic fields appears to maintain a high degree of self- similarity as we zoom in on ever smaller scales, as illustrated in Fig. 5.

  13. Electro-mechanical resonant magnetic field sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temnykh, A.B.; Lovelace, R.V.E.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new type of magnetic field sensor, which is termed as an Electro-Mechanical Resonant Sensor (EMRS). The key part of this sensor is a small conductive elastic element with low damping rate and therefore, a high Q fundamental mode of frequency f 1 . An AC current is driven through the elastic element which, in the presence of a magnetic field, causes an AC force on the element. When the frequency of the AC current matches the resonant frequency of the element, maximum vibration of the element occurs and this can be measured precisely by optical means. We have built and tested a model sensor of this type by using for the elastic element, a length of copper wire of diameter 0.030 mm formed into a loop shape. The wire motion was measured using a light-emitting diode photo-transistor assembly. This sensor demonstrated a sensitivity better than 0.001 G for an applied magnetic field of ∼1 G and a good selectivity for the magnetic field direction. The sensitivity can be easily improved by a factor of ∼10-100 by a more sensitive measurement of the elastic element motion and by having the element in vacuum to reduce the drag force

  14. Magnetic field and gradient analysis around matrix for HGMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, S.K.; Ha, D.W.; Ko, R.K.; Kwon, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A High Gradient Magnetic Separator (HGMS) uses matrix to make high magnetic field gradient so that ferro- or para-magnetic particles can be attracted to them by high magnetic force. These matrixes are usually composed of stainless wires having high magnetization characteristics. This paper deals with superconducting HGMS which is aimed for purifying wastewater by using stainless steel matrix. Background magnetic field up to 6 T is generated by a superconducting solenoid and the stainless steel matrix are arranged inside of the solenoid. In order to calculate magnetic forces exerting on magnetic particles in wastewater, it is important to calculate magnetic field and magnetic field gradient those are proportional to the magnetic force acting on the particle. So we presents magnetic field distribution analysis result and estimates how many times of magnetic force will act on a particle when the matrix are arranged or not.

  15. Modelling the Earth's Main Magnetic Field by the spinning Astrid-2 satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, Jose Maria Garcia; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Risbo, T.

    1999-01-01

    and therefore the mapping of the Earth's magnetic field may be possible. The spinning of the spacecraft about a certain axis makes the stabilisation in space possible. This fact and the well distributed data over the globe makes the magnetic data well suited for the estimation of the magnetic field model...... at the spacecraft altitude (circa 1000km). Several methods for field modelling are presented in this paper with the assumption that the direction of the spin axis is nearly constant. In any case the orientation of the magnetometer is to bedetermined simultaneously with the instrument calibration and main field...

  16. Confining gauge theories and holographic entanglement entropy with a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudal, David [KU Leuven Campus Kortrijk - KULAK, Department of Physics,Etienne Sabbelaan 51 bus 7800, Kortrijk, 8500 (Belgium); Ghent University, Department of Physics and Astronomy,Krijgslaan 281-S9, Gent, 9000 (Belgium); Mahapatra, Subhash [KU Leuven Campus Kortrijk - KULAK, Department of Physics,Etienne Sabbelaan 51 bus 7800, Kortrijk, 8500 (Belgium)

    2017-04-06

    We consider the soft wall model for a heuristic holographical modelling of a confining gauge theory and discuss how the introduction of a (constant) magnetic field influences the (de)confinement phase structure. We use the entanglement entropy as a diagnostic tool in terms of the length of an entangling strip geometry. Due to the anisotropy introduced by the magnetic field, we find that the results depend on the orientation of the strip relative to the field. This allows to identify a richer, anisotropic, interplay between confinement and a magnetic field than possibly can be extracted from a more standard order parameter as, for example, the Polyakov loop expectation value.

  17. Scalar boson emission by electrons in the Weinberg-Salam theory under a constant electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionov, V.N.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of processes with the assistance of virtual and real Higgs scalar neutral σ-bosons in the presence of a constant external crossed electromagnetic field is conducted. In the second order of the perturbation theory in the Weinberg-Jalam model corresponding contribution into mass lepton operator in this base probability dependence of σ-boson emission and radiation field σ-bosn effects on the crossed field parameter is investigated: x=√(eFsub(μν)psup(ν)sup(2)/msup(3)

  18. Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O. N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.

    2017-07-01

    The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.

  19. Electrical conductivity of quark matter in magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Kerbikov, B.; Andreichikov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Fermion currents in dense quark matter embedded into magnetic field are under intense discussions motivated by Chiral Magnetic Effect. We argue that conductivity of quark matter may be independent of the magnetic field direction and not proportional to the magnetic field strength.

  20. Motion of a Charged Particle in a Constant and Uniform Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladino, L. A.; Rondón, S. H.; Orduz, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of software developed by the authors that allows the visualization of the motion of a charged particle under the influence of magnetic and electric fields in 3D, at a level suitable for introductory physics courses. The software offers the possibility of studying a great number of physical situations that can…

  1. Nonlocal modified Einstein's field equation and geometric origin of a small cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    We show that the description of the spacetime in terms of backward-forward extension of its corresponding metric leads to the geometric origin of a small cosmological constant. The nonlocal cosmological constant appears in the Einstein's field equation and its mathematical expression depends on the nonlocal metric, Ricci scalar and the infinitesimal nonlocal parameter introduced in the theory. The modified theory has interesting consequences in FRW cosmology, mainly a nonsingular universe, the occurrence of a late-time accelerated expansion of the universe and an early universe dominated by a negative energy density and a positive pressure. Our model can explain the acceleration of the universe without a fine-tuned cosmological constant Λ.

  2. Parahydrogen discriminated PHIP at low magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prina, I.; Buljubasich, L.; Acosta, R. H.

    2015-02-01

    Parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) is a powerful hyperpolarization technique. However, as the signal created has an anti-phase characteristic, it is subject to signal cancellation when the experiment is carried out in inhomogeneous magnetic fields or in low fields that lack the necessary spectral resolution. The use of benchtop spectrometers and time domain (TD) analyzers has continuously grown in the last years and many applications are found in the food industry, for non-invasive compound detection or as a test bench for new contrast agents among others. In this type of NMR devices the combination of low and inhomogeneous magnetic fields renders the application of PHIP quite challenging. We have recently shown that the acquisition of J-spectra in high magnetic fields not only removes the anti-phase peak cancellation but also produces a separation of thermal from hyperpolarized signals, providing Parahydrogen Discriminated (PhD-PHIP) spectra. In this work we extend the use of PhD-PHIP to low and inhomogeneous fields. In this case the strong coupling found for the protons of the sample renders spin-echo spectra that have a great complexity, however, a central region in the spectrum with only hyperpolarized signal is clearly identified. This experimental approach is ideal for monitoring real time chemical reaction of pure PHIP signals.

  3. Faraday diamagnetism under slowly oscillating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tsunehisa; Kimura, Fumiko; Kimura, Yosuke

    2018-04-01

    Diamagnetism is a universal phenomenon of materials arising from the orbital motion of electrons bound to atoms, which is commonly known as Langevin diamagnetism. The orbital motion also occurs according to the Faraday's law of induction when the applied magnetic field is oscillating. However, the influence of this dynamic effect on the magnetism of materials has seldom been studied. Here, we propose a new type diamagnetism coined Faraday diamagnetism. The magnitude of this diamagnetism evaluated by an atomic electric circuit model was as large as that of Langevin diamagnetism. The predicted scale of Faraday diamagnetism was supported by experiments.

  4. Navigation: Bat orientation using Earth's magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Richard A.; Thorup, Kasper; Vonhof, Maarten J.

    2006-01-01

    Bats famously orientate at night by echolocation 1 , but this works over only a short range, and little is known about how they navigate over longer distances 2 . Here we show that the homing behaviour of Eptesicus fuscus, known as the big brown bat, can be altered by artificially shifting...... the Earth's magnetic field, indicating that these bats rely on a magnetic compass to return to their home roost. This finding adds to the impressive array of sensory abilities possessed by this animal for navigation in the dark....

  5. Relativistic force field: parametric computations of proton-proton coupling constants in (1)H NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutateladze, Andrei G; Mukhina, Olga A

    2014-09-05

    Spin-spin coupling constants in (1)H NMR carry a wealth of structural information and offer a powerful tool for deciphering molecular structures. However, accurate ab initio or DFT calculations of spin-spin coupling constants have been very challenging and expensive. Scaling of (easy) Fermi contacts, fc, especially in the context of recent findings by Bally and Rablen (Bally, T.; Rablen, P. R. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 4818), offers a framework for achieving practical evaluation of spin-spin coupling constants. We report a faster and more precise parametrization approach utilizing a new basis set for hydrogen atoms optimized in conjunction with (i) inexpensive B3LYP/6-31G(d) molecular geometries, (ii) inexpensive 4-31G basis set for carbon atoms in fc calculations, and (iii) individual parametrization for different atom types/hybridizations, not unlike a force field in molecular mechanics, but designed for the fc's. With the training set of 608 experimental constants we achieved rmsd <0.19 Hz. The methodology performs very well as we illustrate with a set of complex organic natural products, including strychnine (rmsd 0.19 Hz), morphine (rmsd 0.24 Hz), etc. This precision is achieved with much shorter computational times: accurate spin-spin coupling constants for the two conformers of strychnine were computed in parallel on two 16-core nodes of a Linux cluster within 10 min.

  6. Primordial magnetic field amplification from turbulent reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzetta, Esteban; Kandus, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the possibility of primordial magnetic field amplification by a stochastic large scale kinematic dynamo during reheating. We consider a charged scalar field minimally coupled to gravity. During inflation this field is assumed to be in its vacuum state. At the transition to reheating the state of the field changes to a many particle/anti-particle state. We characterize that state as a fluid flow of zero mean velocity but with a stochastic velocity field. We compute the scale-dependent Reynolds number Re(k), and the characteristic times for decay of turbulence, t d and pair annihilation t a , finding t a d . We calculate the rms value of the kinetic helicity of the flow over a scale L and show that it does not vanish. We use this result to estimate the amplification factor of a seed field from the stochastic kinematic dynamo equations. Although this effect is weak, it shows that the evolution of the cosmic magnetic field from reheating to galaxy formation may well be more complex than as dictated by simple flux freezing

  7. The magnetic field dependent dynamic properties of magnetorheological elastomers based on hard magnetic particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Qianqian; Wang, Yu; Gong, Xinglong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, novel magnetorheological elastomers based on hard magnetic particles (H-MREs) were developed and the magnetic field dependent dynamic properties of the H-MREs were further investigated. The storage modulus of H-MREs could not only be increased by increasing magnetic field but also be decreased by the increasing magnetic field of opposite orientation. For the anisotropic H-MREs with 80 wt% NdFeB particles, the field-induced increasing and decreasing modulus was 426 kPa and 118 kPa respectively. Moreover, the dynamic performances of H-MREs significantly depended on the pre-structure magnetic field, magnetizing field and test magnetic field. The H-MREs were initially magnetized and formed the chain-like microstructure by the pre-structure magnetic field. The field-induced increasing and decreasing modulus of H-MREs both raised with increasing of the magnetizing field. When the magnetizing field increased from 400 to 1200 kA m-1, the field induced decreasing modulus of the 80 wt% isotropic H-MREs raised from 3 to 47 kPa. The magnetic field dependent curves of H-MREs’ storage modulus were asymmetric if the magnetizing field was higher than the test magnetic field. Based on the dipolar model of MREs and magnetic properties of hard magnetic material, a reasonable explanation was proposed to understand the H-MREs’ field dependent mechanical behaviors.

  8. An atlas of photospheric magnetic field observations and computed coronal magnetic fields: 1976-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, J. T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    1986-01-01

    Daily magnetogram observations of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field have been made at the John M. Wilcox Solar Observatory at Stanford since May of 1976. These measurements provide a homogeneous record of the changing solar field through most of solar cycle 21. Using the photospheric data, the configuration of the coronal and heliospheric fields can be calculated using a Potential Field-Source Surface model. This provides a three-dimensional picture of the heliospheric field evolution during the solar cycle. This paper announces the publication of UAG Report No. 94, an Atlas containing the complete set of synoptic charts of the measured photospheric magnetic field, the computed field at the source surface, and the coefficients of the multipole expansion of the coronal field. The general underlying structures of the solar and heliospheric fields, which determine the environment for solar-terrestrial relations and provide the context within which solar activity related events occur, can be approximated from these data.

  9. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  10. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-01-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons

  11. Numerical analyses of a Couette-Taylor flow in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, T; Kaneda, M

    2005-01-01

    An axisymmetric Couette-Taylor flow of liquid metal in the presence of a magnetic field has been numerically studied. An inner cylinder of a coaxial container is rotating at a constant angular velocity whereas the outer cylindrical wall is at rest. An axial or a toroidal magnetic field is applied to this configuration to investigate the influence of such magnetic fields on the liquid metal Couette-Taylor flow. The toroidal magnetic field can be produced with a straight wire along the central axis in which electric current passes. The governing equations of mass conservation, momentum, Ohm's law and conservation of electric charge for an axisymmetric cylindrical coordinate system have been numerically solved with a finite difference method using the HSMAC algorithm. In the numerical analyses, since the Joule heating and the induced magnetic field are neglected, the system parameters are the Hartmann number and the Reynolds number. The numerical results reveal significant difference in the Couette-Taylor flow depending on whether the applied magnetic field is axial or toroidal as well as on the Hartmann and Reynolds numbers. The axial magnetic field damps out the secondary flow efficiently and velocity gradient in the direction of the magnetic field tends to diminish while the toroidal magnetic field does not have such an efficient damping

  12. Validation of the CMS Magnetic Field Map

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00096921; Amapane, N.; Ball, A.; Curé, B.; Gaddi, A.; Gerwig, H.; Mulders, M.; Calvelli, V.; Hervé, A.; Loveless, R.

    2014-10-26

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4-T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10,000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux loops and 82 three-dimensional (3-D) Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The magnetic field description is compared with the measurements and discussed.

  13. The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Alternating Magnetic Field on the Behavior of Animals in the Presence of the Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the geomagnetic field can influence animal migration and homing. The magnetic field detection by animals is known as magnetoreception and it is possible due to two different transduction mechanisms: the first one through magnetic nanoparticles able to respond to the geomagnetic field and the second one through chemical reactions influenced by magnetic fields. Another behavior is the magnetic alignment where animals align their bodies to the geomagnetic field. It has been observed that magnetic alignment of cattle can be disrupted near electric power lines around the world. Experimentally, it is known that alternating magnetic fields can influence living beings, but the exact mechanism is unknown. The parametric resonance model proposes a mechanism to explain that effect on living beings and establishes that, in the presence of a constant magnetic field, molecules associated with biochemical reactions inside cells can absorb resonantly alternating magnetic fields with specific frequencies. In the present paper, a review is made about animal magnetoreception and the effects of alternating magnetic fields in living beings. It is suggested how alternating magnetic fields can interfere in the magnetic alignment of animals and a general conclusion is obtained: alternating magnetic field pollution can affect the magnetic sensibility of animals.

  14. Numerical analysis of tunneling paths in constant field SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Bruening, O.; Raabe, B.

    1991-03-01

    We present results of a computer analysis of euclidean solutions of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory Hamiltonian for constant fields. The accumulation of tunneling solutions in a certain region of phase space is investigated because it is expected to give a strong contribution to the path integral. Our analysis shows, that an infinite set of classical trajectories with finite action exists, and describes how they cluster. (orig.)

  15. Numerical analysis of tunneling paths in constant field SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, J.; Bruening, O.; Raabe, B.

    1992-01-01

    We present results of a computer analysis of euclidean solutions of the SU(2) lattice gauge theory Hamiltonian for constant fields. The accumulation of tunneling solutions in a certain region of phase space is investigated because it is expected to give a strong contribution to the path integral. Our analysis shows, that an infinite set of classical trajectories with finite action exists, and describes how they cluster. (orig.)

  16. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.

    2011-01-01

    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  17. NMR in rotating magnetic fields: Magic angle field spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakellariou, D.; Meriles, C.; Martin, R.; Pines, A.

    2004-09-10

    Magic angle sample spinning has been one of the cornerstones in high-resolution solid state NMR. Spinning frequencies nowadays have increased by at least one order of magnitude over the ones used in the first experiments and the technique has gained tremendous popularity. It is currently a routine procedure in solid-state NMR, high-resolution liquid-state NMR and solid-state MRI. The technique enhances the spectral resolution by averaging away rank 2 anisotropic spin interactions thereby producing isotropic-like spectra with resolved chemical shifts and scalar couplings. Andrew proposed that it should be possible to induce similar effects in a static sample if the direction of the magnetic field is varied, e.g., magic-angle rotation of the B0 field (B0-MAS) and this has been recently demonstrated using electromagnetic field rotation. Here we discuss on the possibilities to perform field rotation using alternative hardware, together with spectroscopic methods to recover isotropic resolution even in cases where the field is not rotating at the magic angle. Extension to higher magnetic fields would be beneficial in situations where the physical manipulation of the sample is inconvenient or impossible. Such situations occur often in materials or biomedical samples where ''ex-situ'' NMR spectroscopy and imaging analysis is needed.

  18. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet

  19. Calculation of the Magnetic Fields of the Electric Power Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patsiuk V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The task of calculation of per unit length parameters of multi-conductor electrical overhead transmission lines has been treated in the paper. The calculation of distribution of electric and magnetic fields has been performed by means of the finite volume method for entire span of the line. The theoretical justification of the method for calculation the parameters of electromagnetic field taking into account the change of the vector of magnetic potential along the line has been given. The problems of electrostatic and magnetostatic for a single electric conductor and unlimited long conductor with current have been solved. For the inner and total inductivities of a single conductor under the current have been obtained relationships and drawn dependences. Dependence between the speeds of light and of electromagnetic wave’s propagation has been presented. Based on the characteristics of distribution of electric and magnetic fields of multi-conductor lines has been provided the method of calculation of the matrix of own and mutual capacitances and inductivities the calculated values of per unit length parameters of compact 110 kV electric line which is in concordance with one of basic physical constant – the speed of light.

  20. Electric and magnetic fields at power frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Anthony B; Green, Lois M

    2010-01-01

    Exposures to electric and magnetic fields are among the most ubiquitous exposures that the Canadian population experiences. Sources of electric and magnetic field exposures may be occupational or residential and include proximity to certain types of electrical equipment, transmission and distribution power lines as well as appliance use. The early studies of children tended toward a consistent association between risks for leukemia and brain cancer and residential proximity to power lines having high wire configuration. More recent studies-and studies which have attempted to improve upon the measurement of exposure by using calculated fields, point-in-time or personal monitoring-have been inconsistent, with some suggesting increased risk and others not. Occupational exposures have suggested an increase in risk for leukemia, and to a lesser extent brain cancer and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. However, studies of residential exposures and cancer in adults generally have suggested no effect. Laboratory work has been unable to demonstrate a biological mechanism which might explain the epidemiological findings. In spite of extensive efforts over the past 20 years and many expert reviews, it has been difficult to reach consensus regarding the carcinogenic effects of electric and magnetic fields. Exposure assessment has proven to be complex, and agreement on the relevant exposure metric has not yet been obtained. There is justification to question whether point-in-time measures in homes are appropriate indices of the relevant etiological exposure, as they fail to account for changes over time, peak exposures or time-varying fields. Nevertheless, it is probably desirable to err on the side of caution in not placing too much weight on the inconsistencies. The IARC has classified EMF as a "possible carcinogen" which refers to the circumstances where there is limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and inadequate evidence in experimental animals. The IARC review indicated

  1. Note: A portable magnetic field for powering nanomotors, microswimmers, and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, P.; McNaughton, B. H.; Niinimäki, J.

    2013-08-01

    Time-varying magnetic fields are the basis of many modern devices and are used to remotely power and steer nanomotors and microswimmers. However, the required magnetic field setups are often prohibitively bulky laboratory setups that require technical expertise to build, modify, or relocate. Here we introduce a programmable magnetic field setup based on consumer electronics that is both portable and easy to use. The complete setup consists of a laptop computer, an audio amplifier, and audio inductors and was used to create complex magnetic fields in 0.5-2000 Hz frequency range with up to 4.7 mT amplitude. The setup was also validated using an example application, namely a rotating magnetic field with a constant amplitude and fixed frequency, which has applications in powering nanosensors and microswimmers.

  2. Perturbation theory and coupling constant analyticity in two-dimensional field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, B.

    1973-01-01

    Conjectural material and results over a year old are presented in the discussion of perturbation theory and coupling constant analyticity in two-dimensional field theories. General properties of perturbation series are discussed rather than questions of field theory. The question is interesting for two reasons: First, one would like to understand why perturbation theory is such a good guide (to show that perturbation theory determines the theory in some way). Secondly, one hopes to prove that some or all of the theories are nontrivial. (U.S.)

  3. Magnetic Field Water Treatment Section - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopec, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In the last year the activity of the team was focused on industrial implementing of methods developed, as well as on designing and implementing devices for magnetohydrodynamic water treatment and water filtration in the magnetic field. - Phase 1 of research for Ostrowiec Steelworks in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (IFJ N-3454 Research) on the possibilities of implementation of the methods of magnetohydrodynamic water treatment in water and sewage circuits, as well as of the method of filtration in the magnetic field were completed. In this part of research, phase analyses of deposits from water and sewage circuits were carried out. In the rolling mill circuit of Ostrowiec Steelworks, a magnetic filter with a capacity of 200 m 3 /h, designed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics was installed and tested. Implementation of this filter is predicted for the year 1999. - Research for the Kozienice Power Station in Swierze Gorne (IFJ N-3450 Research) on determination of the phase composition of total suspended solids in water-steam circuits was completed. - A preliminary evaluation was completed on economic effects of implementation of the prototype magnetic filter FM-500 which has been operational since 1993 in the circuit of turbine condensate cleaning in the 225 MW unit in the power station in Polaniec. (author)

  4. The influence of magnetic fields on crude oils viscosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Jose L.; Bombard, Antonio J. F. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Lab. de Reologia

    2009-07-01

    The crystallization of paraffin causes serious problems in the process of transportation of petroleum. This phenomenon increases the crude oil viscosity and implies an organic resin accumulation on pipeline wall, resulting in a reduced flux area or totally blocked pipes. One of the most challenging tasks for pipeline maintenance is solving this problem at low cost. Therefore, a method that inhibits the crystallization of paraffin and reduces the viscosity of crude oil could have many useful applications within the petroleum industry. Recent studies showed that magnetic fields reduce the Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and the viscosity of paraffin-based crude oil. For better understanding of this discovery, a series of tests was performed. This paper will show the influence of a DC magnetic field on rheological proprieties of three crude oils with different paraffin concentrations: a crude oil sample with 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 1); a crude oil sample with 6 % p/p of paraffin concentration (sample 2); a mixture of paraffin plus light crude oil with a total of 11 % p/p of paraffin concentration. These samples were placed in an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 1.3 Tesla. The samples' temperatures were conditioned around their Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT), and they were exposed to the field. As the viscosity of crude oil is very sensitive to the changes in temperature, it was ensured that the temperature has remained constant throughout the process. The sample 1 revealed a considerable reduction of viscosity: its original viscosity was 66 cP before magnetic field exposure, after that its viscosity was reduced to 39 cP. The other samples showed the same viscosity, before and after the magnetic field exposure. Since the samples 1 and 3 have the same paraffin concentrations, the viscosity reduction is not due only to the presence of paraffin; there must be other factors responsible for the interaction of sample 1 with the

  5. New Methods of Magnetic Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholtygin, A. F.

    2015-04-01

    The standard methods of magnetic field measurements, based on the relation between the Stokes V parameter and the first derivative of the line profile intensity were modified by applying a linear integral transform to both sides of this relation. We used the wavelet integral transform with the DOG wavelets. The key advantage of the proposed method is the effective suppression of the noise contribution both to the line profile and the Stokes V parameter. To test the proposed method, spectropolarimetric observations of the young O star θ1 Ori C were used. We also demonstrate that the smoothed Time Variation Spectra (smTVS) can be used as a tool for detecting the local stellar magnetic fields.

  6. Modified methods of stellar magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholtygin, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    The standard methods of the magnetic field measurement, based on an analysis of the relation between the Stokes V-parameter and the first derivative of the total line profile intensity, were modified by applying a linear integral operator \\hat{L} to both sides of this relation. As the operator \\hat{L}, the operator of the wavelet transform with DOG-wavelets is used. The key advantage of the proposed method is an effective suppression of the noise contribution to the line profile and the Stokes parameter V. The efficiency of the method has been studied using model line profiles with various noise contributions. To test the proposed method, the spectropolarimetric observations of the A0 star α2 CVn, the Of?p star HD 148937, and the A0 supergiant HD 92207 were used. The longitudinal magnetic field strengths calculated by our method appeared to be in good agreement with those determined by other methods.

  7. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...

  8. A Hybrid Constant and Oscillatory Field Ion Mobility Analyzer Using Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Hamid, Ahmed M.; Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Ewing, Robert G.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2018-02-01

    Here we explore the combination of constant and oscillatory fields applied in a single device to affect the continuous separation and filtering of ions based on their mobilities. The device explored allows confining and manipulating ions utilizing a combination of radio frequency (rf), direct current (DC) fields, and traveling waves (TW) in a structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM) module. We have investigated theoretically and experimentally a concept for continuous filtering of ions based on their mobilities where ions are mobility separated and selected by passage through two regions, both of which incorporated combined TW and constant fields providing opposing forces on the ions. The SLIM module was composed of two surfaces with mirror-image arrays of electrodes and had two regions where the different TW and opposing DC fields could be applied. The filtering capabilities are determined by the applied DC gradient and the TW parameters, such as speed, amplitude, and the TW sequence (i.e., the duty cycle of the traveling wave). The effects of different parameters on the sensitivity and the ion mobility (IM) resolution of the device have been investigated. By appropriately choosing the DC gradient and TW parameters for the two sections, it is possible to transmit ions of a selected mobility while filtering out others of both higher and lower mobility. The novel device described here provides a basis for the targeted analysis of compounds based upon the continuous selection of ions according to their mobility and without the need for high electric fields or pulsed injection.

  9. Antimagnets: controlling magnetic fields with superconductor-metamaterial hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Alvaro; Navau, Carles; Prat-Camps, Jordi; Chen Duxing

    2011-01-01

    Magnetism is very important in various areas of science and technology, ranging from magnetic recording through energy generation to trapping cold atoms. Physicists have managed to master magnetism-to create and manipulate magnetic fields-almost at will. Surprisingly, there is at least one property that has been elusive until now: how to 'switch off' the magnetic interaction of a magnetic material with existing magnetic fields without modifying them. Here we introduce the antimagnet, a design that conceals the magnetic response of a given volume from its exterior, without altering the external magnetic fields, in some respects analogous to recent theoretical proposals for cloaking electromagnetic waves with metamaterials. However, unlike these devices, which require extreme material properties, our device is feasible and needs only two kinds of available materials: superconductors and isotropic magnetic materials. Antimagnets may have applications in magnetic-based medical techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or in reducing the magnetic signature of vessels or planes.

  10. The spinning Astrid-2 satellite used for modeling the Earth's main magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Jørgensen, P.S.; Risbo, T.

    2002-01-01

    , and therefore mapping of the Earth's magnetic field was possible. The spacecraft spins about a highly stable axis in space. This fact and the globally distributed data make the magnetic measurements well suited for the estimate of a magnetic field model at the spacecraft altitude (about 1000 km). This paper...... to better than 5 nT(rms) for latitudes Equatorward of 50degrees. Several methods for field modeling are discussed in this paper under the assumption that the direction of the spin axis in inertial space is nearly constant, and this assumption is corroborated by the observations. The approximate inertial...

  11. LRS Bianchi Type II Massive String Cosmological Models with Magnetic Field in Lyra's Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianchi type II massive string cosmological models with magnetic field and time dependent gauge function ( in the frame work of Lyra's geometry are investigated. The magnetic field is in -plane. To get the deterministic solution, we have assumed that the shear ( is proportional to the expansion (. This leads to , where and are metric potentials and is a constant. We find that the models start with a big bang at initial singularity and expansion decreases due to lapse of time. The anisotropy is maintained throughout but the model isotropizes when . The physical and geometrical aspects of the model in the presence and absence of magnetic field are also discussed.

  12. Improving Magnet Designs With High and Low Field Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2011-01-01

    A general scheme for increasing the difference in magnetic flux density between a high and a low magnetic field region by removing unnecessary magnet material is presented. This is important in, e.g., magnetic refrigeration where magnet arrays have to deliver high field regions in close proximity...... to low field regions. Also, a general way to replace magnet material with a high permeability soft magnetic material where appropriate is discussed. As an example, these schemes are applied to a two dimensional concentric Halbach cylinder design resulting in a reduction of the amount of magnet material...

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Ultrahigh Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uğurbil, Kamil

    2014-01-01

    Since the introduction of 4 T human systems in three academic laboratories circa 1990, rapid progress in imaging and spectroscopy studies in humans at 4 T and animal model systems at 9.4 T have led to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in SNR and biological information content at these ultrahigh fields, as well as the presence of numerous challenges. Primary difference from lower fields is the deviation from the near field regime; at the frequencies corresponding to hydrogen resonance conditions at ultrahigh fields, the RF is characterized by attenuated traveling waves in the human body, which leads to image nonuniformities for a given sample-coil configuration because of interferences. These nonuniformities were considered detrimental to the progress of imaging at high field strengths. However, they are advantageous for parallel imaging for signal reception and parallel transmission, two critical technologies that account, to a large extend, for the success of ultrahigh fields. With these technologies, and improvements in instrumentation and imaging methods, ultra-high fields have provided unprecedented gains in imaging of brain function and anatomy, and started to make inroads into investigation of the human torso and extremities. As extensive as they are, these gains still constitute a prelude to what is to come given the increasingly larger effort committed to ultrahigh field research and development of ever better instrumentation and techniques. PMID:24686229

  14. Flatland Electrons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayegan, M.

    This paper provides a review of recent developments in the physics of two-dimensional carrier systems in perpendicular magnetic fields. The emphasis is on many-body phenomena in very clean GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures, probed via magnetotransport measurements. Topics that are discussed include the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, Wigner crystallization, composite Fermions, Skyrmions, stripe and bubble phases in single layer systems, and electron-hole pairing and Bose-Einstein condensation in interacting bilayer systems.

  15. Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/DEE/ENG/12-17 Ground Vehicle Navigation Using Magnetic Field Variation DISSERTATION Presented to...or groundwater content due to “deep subsurface fractures” [8]. Volcanoes and even man-made occurrences such as filling a large reservoir after a dam...Gradient Data from Effigy Mounds National Park, Iowa ”, 2005. URL http://www.archaeology-geophysics.com/Publications.html. 168 24. Judd, T. and T. Vu. “Use

  16. Biological effect of magnetic field on the fermentation of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dobšinský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the transformation process of matter is produced energy, which afterwards interacts with matter itself, and other forms of energy. Energy induced electromagnetic appliances may affect the processes occurring in biological systems. In our study we have evaluated the wine fermentation process of the magnetic field with different amplitudes of electromagnetic induction, the constant exposure of 30 minutes a day for 10 days. The device for inducing magnetism was constructed at the Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Enology at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra for research purposes. Essence of the device lies in the way of the management of direct current, which flows through the coil. Volume of direct current is regulated by network auto-transformer. Output of network autotransformer is rectified by two-way bridge rectifier. The coil is powered by a direct current voltage pulse. This device has a maximum value of the magnetic induction at 150 mT. At full power it must be supplied from three-phase socket with a rated current of 32 A. For our experiment, we chose wine grape variety of Hibernal, from Nitra wine region. The magnetic field induced by the electromagnetic device has an impact on the process of fermentation and sensory characteristics of a young wine. As part of the sensory profile, we noticed higher levels of residual sugar and speed up of the fermentation process and the process of purifying of the young wine. The influence of magnetic field on grape juice during the entire fermentation process and production of wine is a convenient way to improve the quality of wine without side effects or any chemical additives.

  17. One-loop QCD thermodynamics in a strong homogeneous and static magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Shubhalaxmi; Patra, Binoy Krishna

    2017-12-01

    We have studied how the equation of state of thermal QCD with two light flavors is modified in a strong magnetic field. We calculate the thermodynamic observables of hot QCD matter up to one-loop, where the magnetic field affects mainly the quark contribution and the gluon part is largely unaffected except for the softening of the screening mass. We have first calculated the pressure of a thermal QCD medium in a strong magnetic field, where the pressure at fixed temperature increases with the magnetic field faster than the increase with the temperature at constant magnetic field. This can be understood from the dominant scale of thermal medium in the strong magnetic field, being the magnetic field, in the same way that the temperature dominates in a thermal medium in the absence of magnetic field. Thus although the presence of a strong magnetic field makes the pressure of hot QCD medium larger, the dependence of pressure on the temperature becomes less steep. Consistent with the above observations, the entropy density is found to decrease with the temperature in the presence of a strong magnetic field which is again consistent with the fact that the strong magnetic field restricts the dynamics of quarks to two dimensions, hence the phase space becomes squeezed resulting in the reduction of number of microstates. Moreover the energy density is seen to decrease and the speed of sound of thermal QCD medium increases in the presence of a strong magnetic field. These findings could have phenomenological implications in heavy ion collisions because the expansion dynamics of the medium produced in non-central ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions is effectively controlled by both the energy density and the speed of sound.

  18. Mitigated-force carriage for high magnetic field environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtka, Gerard M.; Ludtka, Gail M.; Wilgen, John B.; Murphy, Bart L.

    2015-05-19

    A carriage for high magnetic field environments includes a plurality of work-piece separators disposed in an operable relationship with a work-piece processing magnet having a magnetic field strength of at least 1 Tesla for supporting and separating a plurality of work-pieces by a preselected, essentially equal spacing, so that, as a first work-piece is inserted into the magnetic field, a second work-piece is simultaneously withdrawn from the magnetic field, so that an attractive magnetic force imparted on the first work-piece offsets a resistive magnetic force imparted on the second work-piece.

  19. Magnetic hyperfine field at caesium in iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashworth, C.J.; Back, P.; Stone, N.J.; White, J.P.; Ohya, S.

    1990-01-01

    We report temperature dependence of nuclear orientation (NO), and the first observation of NMR/ON on Cs in iron. 132,136 Cs were implanted at room temperature into polycrystalline and single crystal iron. NO values for the (average) magnetic hyperfine field B hf (CsFe) are close to 34 T, intermediate between the value of 40.7 T found in on-line samples made at mK temperatures and the NMR/ON value of 27.8(2) T. The latter studies. The site/field distribution is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  20. Relativistic thermal plasmas - Effects of magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S.; Lightman, A. P.

    1983-01-01

    Processes and equilibria in finite, relativistic, thermal plasmas are investigated, taking into account electron-positron creation and annihilation, photon production by internal processes, and photon production by a magnetic field. Inclusion of the latter extends previous work on such plasmas. The basic relations for thermal, Comptonized synchrotron emission are analyzed, including emission and absorption without Comptonization, Comptonized thermal synchrotron emission, and the Comptonized synchrotron and bremsstrahlung luminosities. Pair equilibria are calculated, including approximations and dimensionless parameters, the pair balance equation, maximum temperatures and field strengths, and individual models and cooling curves.

  1. Tunneling decay in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpee, T.; Dykman, M.I.; Platzman, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    We provide a semiclassical theory of tunneling decay in a magnetic field and a three-dimensional potential of a general form. Because of broken time-reversal symmetry, the standard WKB technique has to be modified. The decay rate is found from the analysis of the Hamilton trajectories of the particle in complex phase space and time. In a magnetic field, the tunneling particle comes from beneath the barrier with a nonzero velocity. The exit location in the classically allowed region is obtained by matching the decaying and outgoing branches of the WKB wave function on a caustic of the set of the complex trajectories. The slope of the logarithm of the wave function sharply changes on the anti-Stokes surface where there occurs switching between different WKB branches. For potential wells that are parabolic near the minimum, we also provide a bounce-type formulation. The theory is applied to the models that are relevant to tunneling from correlated two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field parallel to the electron layer

  2. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  3. Magnetic separation technique for environmental water purification by strong magnetic field generator loading HTS bulk magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Kimura, T.; Mimura, D.; Fukui, S.; Ogawa, J.; Sato, T.; Ooizumi, M.; Yokoyama, K.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2010-11-01

    The magnetic separation technique in combination with high temperature superconducting bulk magnets has been investigated to purify the ground water which has been used in the coolant system for the incinerator furnace to cool the burning gas. The experiment has been operated by means of the newly-built alternating channel type magnetic separating device. The separation ratios of ferromagnetic flocks including fine magnetite powder have been estimated by means of the high gradient magnetic separation method with small iron balls filled in the water channels. As the magnetic force acting on the magnetic particle is given by the product of a magnetization of the material and a gradient of magnetic field, and as the ferromagnetic stainless steel balls yield the steep gradient of magnetic field around them in a strong magnetic field, the system has exhibited a quite excellent performance with respect to the separation ratios. The separation ratios of the flocks which contain the magnetite powder with the values more than 50 ppm have remained over 80% for under the flow rates less than 5 L/min.

  4. Field modeling for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel; Antunes, Andre; Saturnino, Guilherme B

    2015-01-01

    ) improving the usability of the tools for field calculation to the level that they can be easily used by non-experts. We then introduce a new version of our pipeline for field calculations (www.simnibs.org) that substantially simplifies setting up and running TMS and tDCS simulations based on Finite......Electric field calculations based on numerical methods and increasingly realistic head models are more and more used in research on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). However, they are still far from being established as standard tools for the planning and analysis in practical applications...... of TMS. Here, we start by delineating three main challenges that need to be addressed to unravel their full potential. This comprises (i) identifying and dealing with the model uncertainties, (ii) establishing a clear link between the induced fields and the physiological stimulation effects, and (iii...

  5. Solar Polarimetry and Magnetic Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2001-05-01

    The magnetic nature of most solar (spatially resolved or unresolved) structures is amply recognized. Magnetic fields of the Sun play a paramount rôle in the overall thermodynamic and dynamic state of our star. The main observable manifestation of solar magnetic fields is the polarization of light either through the Zeeman effect on spectral lines or through the Hanle effect (depolarization by very weak magnetic fields of light previously polarized by scattering). Hence, one can easily understand the increasing importance that polarimetry is experimenting continuously in solar physics. Under the title of this contribution a six-hour course was given during the summer school. Clearly, the limited extension allocated for the notes in these proceedings avoids an extensive account of the several topics discussed: 1) a description of light as an electromagnetic wave and the polarization properties of monochromatic, time-harmonic, plane waves; 2) the polarization properties of polychromatic light and, in particular, of quasi-monochromatic light; 3) the transformations of (partially) polarized light by linear optical systems and a description of the ways we measure the Stokes parameters by spatially and/or temporally modulating the polarimetric signal; 4) a discussion on specific problems relevant to solar polarimetry like seeing-induced and instrumental polarization, or modulation and demodulation, along with a brief description of current solar polarimeters; 5) the vector radiative transfer equation for polarized light and its links to the scalar one for unpolarized light, together with a summary of the Zeeman effect and its consequences on line formation in a magnetized stellar atmosphere; 7) an introduction of the paramount astrophysical problem, i.e., that of finding diagnostics that enable the solar physicist to interpret the observables in terms of the solar atmospheric quantities, including a discussion on contribution and response functions; and 8) a brief

  6. Field-ball milling induced anisotropy in magnetic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poudyal, Narayan [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Altuncevahir, Baki [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chakka, Vamsi [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Chen Kanghua [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Black, Truman D [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Liu, J Ping [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ding, Yong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Wang Zhonglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2004-12-21

    Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17} particles of submicrometre sizes have been prepared by ball milling in a magnetic field. Structural and magnetic characterization reveal that these submicrometre particles milled in a magnetic field, consisting of nanosize grains, exhibit strong magnetic anisotropy compared with the particles milled without a magnetic field. Based on in situ observations of the field-ball milling in a transparent container, the mechanism of field-induced anisotropy in the nanostructured hard magnetic particles is discussed. (rapid communication)

  7. High-field NMR using resistive and hybrid magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhehong; Kwak, Hyung-Tae; Bird, Mark; Cross, Timothy; Gor'kov, Peter; Brey, William; Shetty, Kiran

    2008-03-01

    Resistive and resistive-superconducting hybrid magnets can generate dc magnetic fields much higher than conventional superconducting NMR magnets but the field spatial homogeneity and temporal stability are usually not sufficient for high-resolution NMR experiments. Hardware and technique development addressing these issues are presented for high-resolution NMR at magnetic fields up to 40 T. Passive ferromagnetic shimming and magic-angle spinning are used effectively to reduce the broadening from inhomogeneous magnetic field. A phase correction technique based on simultaneous heteronuclear detection is developed to compensate magnetic field fluctuations to achieve high spectral resolution.

  8. Observations of magnetic fields in diffuse clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P. C.; Goodman, A. A.; Gusten, R.; Heiles, C.

    1995-03-01

    We report 32 statistically significant measurements of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field strength, Bz, in four diffuse clouds, via the Zeeman effect in the 21 cm line of H I. The region near Magnani, Blitz, and Mundy 1985 (MBM) 27-30 in the Ursa Major complex has Bz greater than 4 micro-G throughout a filamentary region 15 pc long, with significant structure on scales as small as 1.6 pc. The greatest field strength measured in this cloud is 19 +/- 2 micro-G, greater than in most diffuse clouds by a factor approximately 2. Comparison of measurements with different telescopes suggests that the field strength at the map peak may be significantly greater than 19 micro-G on scales smaller than 1.6 pc. The magnetic and kinetic energy densities M and K in this cloud are comparable, within a factor 2 of 2 x 10-11ergs/cu cm, and greater than the gravitational energy density by a factor approximately 500. Among the four clouds surveyed, six positions where CO emission is a local maximim have essentially the same mean line-of-sight field strength, Bz approximately = 8 micro-G, as do four positions where CO emission is too weak to be detected. The similarity of M and K in the diffuse clouds discussed here, as well as in denser, self-gravitating clouds, suggests strong coupling between magnetic fields and gas motions in some interstellar clouds, independent of their self-gravity. This coupling probably arises from ion-neutral collisions, which allow propagation of MHD waves.

  9. The Cosmological Constant and Domain Walls in Orientifold Field Theories and N=1 Gluodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Armoni, Adi

    2003-01-01

    We discuss domain walls and vacuum energy density (cosmological constant) in N=1 gluodynamics and in non-supersymmetric large N orientifold field theories which have been recently shown to be planar equivalent (in the boson sector) to N=1 gluodynamics. A relation between the vanishing force between two parallel walls and vanishing cosmological constant is pointed out. This relation may explain why the cosmological constant vanishes in the orientifold field theory at leading order although the hadronic spectrum of this theory does not contain fermions in the limit N-->infinity. The cancellation is among even and odd parity bosonic contributions, due to NS-NS and R-R cancellations in the annulus amplitude of the underlying string theory. We use the open-closed string channel duality to describe interaction between the domain walls which is interpreted as the exchange of composite ``dilatons'' and ``axions'' coupled to the walls. Finally, we study some planar equivalent pairs in which both theories in the parent...

  10. Field-dependent dynamic responses from dilute magnetic nanoparticle dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Balceris, Christoph; Costo, Rocio

    2017-01-01

    The response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to an oscillating magnetic field outside the linear response region is important for several applications including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and biodetection. The size and magnetic moment are two critical parameters for the pe...

  11. High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented

  12. Suppressing drift chamber diffusion without magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Martoff, C J; Ohnuki, T; Spooner, N J C; Lehner, M

    2000-01-01

    The spatial resolution in drift chamber detectors for ionizing radiation is limited by diffusion of the primary electrons. A strong magnetic field along the drift direction is often applied (Fancher et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 161 (1979) 383) because it suppresses the transverse diffusion, improving the resolution but at considerable increase in cost and complexity. Here we show that transverse track diffusion can be strongly suppressed without any magnetic field. This is achieved by using a gas additive which reversibly captures primary ionization electrons, forming negative ions. The ions drift with thermal energies even at very high drift fields and low pressures (E/P=28.5 V/cm torr), and the diffusion decreases with increasing drift field. Upon arrival at the avalanche region of the chamber the negative ions are efficiently stripped and ordinary avalanche gain is obtained. Using this technique, r.m.s. transverse diffusion less than 200 mu m has been achieved over a 15 cm drift path at 40 torr with ze...

  13. Hydrogen molecular ion in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The energy of the ground electronic state of H 2 /sup ts+/ is studied as a function of the internuclear separation R 12 , the angle theta, between the molecular axis and the magnetic field, and the field strength B. For small B the molecular diamagnetism reaches its maximum value when theta = π/2 and R 12 approx. =5 Bohr radii. This maximum value is about 50% greater than the diamagnetism of an isolated H atom. At large B the molecule shrinks due to magnetic compression of the electron wave function, and the molecular vibration frequencies increase substantially. A strong diamagnetic torque appears which tends to align the molecular axis along the field. This gives rise to a zero-point rotational oscillation about theta = 0 whose energy can substantially exceed that of the zero-point vibrational oscillation. The calculations presented indicate that even if the protons had infinite mass, the molecule would become unstable to dissociation at theta = π/2 in fields > or approx. =1.6 x 10 11 G

  14. Hydrogen atom in intense magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, V.; Kelly, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of a hydrogen atom situated in an intense magnetic field is investigaged. Three approaches are employed. An elementary Bohr picture establishes a crucial magnetic field strength, H sub a approximately equal to 5 x 10 to the 9th G. Fields in excess of H sub a are intense in that they are able to modify the characteristic atomic scales of length and binding energy. A second approach solves the Schrodinger equation by a combination of variational methods and perturbation theory. It yields analytic expressions for the wave functions and energy eigenvalues. A third approach determines the energy eigenvalues by reducing the Schrodinger equation to a one-dimensional wave equation, which is then solved numerically. Energy eigenvalues are tabulated for field strengths of 2 x 10 to the 10th G and 2 x 10 to the 12th G. It is found that at 2 x 10 to the 12th G the lowest energy eigenvalue is changed from -13.6 to about -180 eV in agreement with previous variational computations.

  15. Magnetic field dependence of the diffusion of single dextran molecules within a hydrogel containing magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Baradi, Ateyyah M; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Blythe, Harry J; Geoghegan, Mark

    2011-03-07

    We consider the effect of applied magnetic fields on the diffusion of single dextran molecules labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate within a ferrogel [a composite of magnetite nanoparticles in a poly(methacrylic acid) hydrogel] using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. We show that the mesh size of the ferrogel is controlled by the applied magnetic field, B, and scales as exp(-(4)√ξ(3)B(2)/2μ(0)k(B)T), where ξ is a correlation length, μ(0) the magnetic constant, k(B) the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature. The diffusion coefficient of the dextran can be modeled with a simple Stokes-Einstein law, containing the same scaling behavior with magnetic field as the swelling of the hydrogel. Furthermore, the magnetic field-dependent release of dextran from the hydrogel is also controlled by the same relationship. The samples were characterized by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and magnetometry experiments. Magnetic hysteresis loops from these ferrogels and zero field cooled∕field cooled measurements reveal single domain ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature with a similar coercivity for both as-prepared and fully swollen ferrogels, and for increasing magnetic nanoparticle concentration. SAXS experiments, such as the hysteresis loops, show that magnetite does not aggregate in these gels. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Water waves interacting with a current of constant vorticity: estimating the vorticity of the wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian; Touboul, Julien

    2017-04-01

    During the last ten years, the topic of water waves interacting with sheared current has drawn a lot of attention, since the interaction of water waves with vorticity was recently found to be significant when modeling the propagation of water waves. In this framework, the configuration involving constantly sheared current (indeed a constant vorticity) is of special interst, since the equations remain tractable. In this framework, it is demonstrated that the flow related to water waves can be described by means of potential theory, since the source term in the vorticity equation is proportionnal to the curvature of the current profile (Nwogu, 2009). In the mean time, the community often wonders if this argument is valid, since the existence of a perfectly linearly sheared current is purely theoretical, and the presence of the vorticity within the wave field can be external (through wave generation mechanisms, for instance). Thus, this work is dedicated to investigate the magnitude of the vorticity related to the wave field, in conditions similar to this analytical case of constant vorticity. This approach is based on the comparison of experimental data, and three models. The first model is linear, supposing a constantly seared current and water waves described by potential theory. The second is fully nonlinear, but still supposing that water waves are potential, and finally, the third model is fully nonlinear, but solves the Euler equations, allowing the existence of vorticity related to the waves. The confrontation of these three approaches with the experimental data will allow to quantify the wave-related vorticity within the total flow, and analyze its importance as a function of nonlinearity and vorticity magnitude. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N°ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  17. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Superconducting niobium in high rf magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.

    1988-01-01

    The benefit of superconducting cavities for accelerator applications depends on the field and Q/sub 0/ levels which can be achieved reliably in mass producible multicell accelerating structures. The presently observed field and Q/sub 0/ limitations are caused by anomalous loss mechanisms which are not correlated with the intrinsic properties of the pure superconductor but rather due to defects or contaminants on the superconducting surface. The ultimate performance levels of clean superconducting cavities built from pure Nb will be given by the rf critical field and the surface resistance of the superconductor. In the first part of this paper a short survey is given of the maximum surface magnetic fields achieved in single-cell cavities. The results of model calculations for the thermal breakdown induced by very small defects and for the transition to the defect free case is discussed in part 2. In the last chapter, a discussion is given for the rf critical field of Nb on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau Theory. It is shown that not only purity but also the homogeneity of the material should become important for the performance of superconducting Nb cavities at field levels beyond 100mT. Measurement results of the upper critical field for different grades of commercially available Nb sheet materials are given. 58 references, 20 figures, 1 table

  19. Low energy constituent quark and pion effective couplings in a weak external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghin, Fábio L.

    2018-03-01

    An effective model with pions and constituent quarks in the presence of a weak external background electromagnetic field is derived by starting from a dressed one gluon exchange quark-quark interaction. By applying the auxiliary field and background field methods, the structureless pion limit is considered to extract effective pion and constituent quark couplings in the presence of a weak magnetic field. The leading terms of a large quark and gluon masses expansion are obtained by resolving effective coupling constants which turn out to depend on a weak magnetic field. Two pion field definitions are considered for that. Several relations between the effective coupling constants and parameters can be derived exactly or in the limit of very large quark mass at zero and weak constant magnetic field. Among these ratios, the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner and the quark level Goldberger-Treiman relations are obtained. In addition to that, in the pion sector, the leading terms of Chiral Perturbation Theory coupled to the electromagnetic field are recovered. Some numerical estimates are provided for the effective coupling constants and parameters.

  20. Tracing magnetic fields with aligned grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields play a crucial role in various astrophysical processes, including star formation, accretion of matter, transport processes (e.g., transport of heat), and cosmic rays. One of the easiest ways to determine the magnetic field direction is via polarization of radiation resulting from extinction or/and emission by aligned dust grains. Reliability of interpretation of the polarization maps in terms of magnetic fields depends on how well we understand the grain-alignment theory. Explaining what makes grains aligned has been one of the big issues of the modern astronomy. Numerous exciting physical effects have been discovered in the course of research undertaken in this field. As both the theory and observations matured, it became clear that the grain-alignment phenomenon is inherent not only in diffuse interstellar medium or molecular clouds but also is a generic property of the dust in circumstellar regions, interplanetary space and cometary comae. Currently the grain-alignment theory is a predictive one, and its results nicely match observations. Among its predictions is a subtle phenomenon of radiative torques. This phenomenon, after having stayed in oblivion for many years after its discovery, is currently viewed as the most powerful means of alignment. In this article, I shall review the basic physical processes involved in grain alignment, and the currently known mechanisms of alignment. I shall also discuss possible niches for different alignment mechanisms. I shall dwell on the importance of the concept of grain helicity for understanding of many properties of grain alignment, and shall demonstrate that rather arbitrarily shaped grains exhibit helicity when they interact with gaseous and radiative flows

  1. From the Gyration of Electrons to Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Employing Bohr's quantum theory, the author deduces three limits, which correspond to the magnetic fields of white dwarfs, neutron stars and the strongest in the universe. The author discusses the possible origins of magnetic fields due to collapse of stars, which produces a magnetic field of 10[superscript 8] T. Although the complete analysis…

  2. Superconducting Sphere in an External Magnetic Field Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazonov, Sergey N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give the intelligible procedure for undergraduate students to grasp proof of the fact that the magnetic field outside the hollow superconducting sphere (superconducting shell) coincides with the field of a point magnetic dipole both when an uniform external magnetic field is applied as when a ferromagnetic sphere…

  3. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  4. Artificial magnetic-field quenches in synthetic dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, F.; Oktel, M. Ö.

    2018-02-01

    Recent cold atom experiments have realized models where each hyperfine state at an optical lattice site can be regarded as a separate site in a synthetic dimension. In such synthetic ribbon configurations, manipulation of the transitions between the hyperfine levels provide direct control of the hopping in the synthetic dimension. This effect was used to simulate a magnetic field through the ribbon. Precise control over the hopping matrix elements in the synthetic dimension makes it possible to change this artificial magnetic field much faster than the time scales associated with atomic motion in the lattice. In this paper, we consider such a magnetic-flux quench scenario in synthetic dimensions. Sudden changes have not been considered for real magnetic fields as such changes in a conducting system would result in large induced currents. Hence we first study the difference between a time varying real magnetic field and an artificial magnetic field using a minimal six-site model. This minimal model clearly shows the connection between gauge dependence and the lack of on-site induced scalar potential terms. We then investigate the dynamics of a wave packet in an infinite two- or three-leg ladder following a flux quench and find that the gauge choice has a dramatic effect on the packet dynamics. Specifically, a wave packet splits into a number of smaller packets moving with different velocities. Both the weights and the number of packets depend on the implemented gauge. If an initial packet, prepared under zero flux in an n -leg ladder, is quenched to Hamiltonian with a vector potential parallel to the ladder, it splits into at most n smaller wave packets. The same initial wave packet splits into up to n2 packets if the vector potential is implemented to be along the rungs. Even a trivial difference in the gauge choice such as the addition of a constant to the vector potential produces observable effects. We also calculate the packet weights for arbitrary initial and

  5. Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Dudas, Emilian; Schweizer, Julian

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N = 1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of symmetries of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson lines as Goldstone bosons.

  6. Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus; Schweizer Julian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian [Univ. Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau (France). Ecole Polytechnique

    2016-12-15

    Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N=1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of symmetries of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson lines as Goldstone bosons.

  7. Effective field theory for magnetic compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Dierigl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian [Centre de Physique Théorique, École Polytechnique, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay,F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Schweizer, Julian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY,22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-10

    Magnetic flux plays an important role in compactifications of field and string theories in two ways, it generates a multiplicity of chiral fermion zero modes and it can break supersymmetry. We derive the complete four-dimensional effective action for N=1 supersymmetric Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories in six dimensions compactified on a torus with flux. The effective action contains the tower of charged states and it accounts for the mass spectrum of bosonic and fermionic fields as well as their level-dependent interactions. This allows us to compute quantum corrections to the mass and couplings of Wilson lines. We find that the one-loop corrections vanish, contrary to the case without flux. This can be traced back to the spontaneous breaking of symmetries of the six-dimensional theory by the background gauge field, with the Wilson lines as Goldstone bosons.

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of magnetic island interacting with external helical magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S.; Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The control of magnetic islands is one of important issues for magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Magnetic islands strongly affect the achievable β''-value by modifying transports, equilibrium fields (i.e. radial profiles of electric current, pressure and electric field) and the stability of plasmas. The induction of resonant helical magnetic fields, which interact with magnetic islands, is an effective method to control the dynamics of magnetic islands. In the Large Helical Device (LHD), magnetic islands are excited by the external magnetic, and the generation of equilibrium poloidal E x B flows by magnetic islands is observed. On the other hand, the external helical magnetic fields have been used to control the poloidal rotation and the stability of magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas. The error field, which is caused by the misalignment of toroidal magnetic coil, plays a similar role to the external helical magnetic field. The locking of the rotation of magnetic islands by error field triggers the disruption in tokamak plasmas. Thus, it is important to understand the basic mechanism of the interaction between magnetic islands and external helical magnetic fields. In this study, nonlinear simulation of drift tearing mode is performed using a set of reduced two-fluid equations, and the detailed study of the interaction between magnetic islands with external helical magnetic fields is reported. The external helical field associated with magnetic islands is imposed by means of finite amplitude of perturbed magnetic flux (vector potential) at edge boundary. In our simulation, the locking (stop) of the rotation of magnetic islands is observed. The rotation of magnetic island is basically driven by the diamagnetic drift flow and E x B flow. It is found that contributions of these flows approximately cancel each other inside the separatrix of magnetic island in the locking phase. The detailed mechanism of the locking of magnetic island rotation is

  9. Numerical calculation of transient field effects in quenching superconducting magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwerg, Juljan Nikolai

    2010-07-01

    The maximum obtainable magnetic induction of accelerator magnets, relying on normal conducting cables and iron poles, is limited to around 2 T because of ohmic losses and iron saturation. Using superconducting cables, and employing permeable materials merely to reduce the fringe field, this limit can be exceeded and fields of more than 10 T can be obtained. A quench denotes the sudden transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state. The drastic increase in electrical resistivity causes ohmic heating. The dissipated heat yields a temperature rise in the coil and causes the quench to propagate. The resulting high voltages and excessive temperatures can result in an irreversible damage of the magnet - to the extend of a cable melt-down. The quench behavior of a magnet depends on numerous factors, e.g. the magnet design, the applied magnet protection measures, the external electrical network, electrical and thermal material properties, and induced eddy current losses. The analysis and optimization of the quench behavior is an integral part of the construction of any superconducting magnet. The dissertation is divided in three complementary parts, i.e. the thesis, the detailed treatment and the appendix. In the thesis the quench process in superconducting accelerator magnets is studied. At first, we give an overview over features of accelerator magnets and physical phenomena occurring during a quench. For all relevant effects numerical models are introduced and adapted. The different models are weakly coupled in the quench algorithm and solved by means of an adaptive time-stepping method. This allows to resolve the variation of material properties as well as time constants. The quench model is validated by means of measurement data from magnets of the Large Hadron Collider. In a second step, we show results of protection studies for future accelerator magnets. The thesis ends with a summary of the results and a critical outlook on aspects which could

  10. Axial magnetic field injection in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Adams, M. B.; Davies, J. R.; Seyler, C. E.

    2017-10-01

    MagLIF is a fusion concept using a Z-pinch implosion to reach thermonuclear fusion. In current experiments, the implosion is driven by the Z-machine using 19 MA of electrical current with a rise time of 100 ns. MagLIF requires an initial axial magnetic field of 30 T to reduce heat losses to the liner wall during compression and to confine alpha particles during fusion burn. This field is generated well before the current ramp starts and needs to penetrate the transmission lines of the pulsed-power generator, as well as the liner itself. Consequently, the axial field rise time must exceed hundreds of microseconds. Any coil capable of being submitted to such a field for that length of time is inevitably bulky. The space required to fit the coil near the liner, increases the inductance of the load. In turn, the total current delivered to the load decreases since the voltage is limited by driver design. Yet, the large amount of current provided by the Z-machine can be used to produce the required 30 T field by tilting the return current posts surrounding the liner, eliminating the need for a separate coil. However, the problem now is the field penetration time, across the liner wall. This paper discusses why skin effect arguments do not hold in the presence of resistivity gradients. Numerical simulations show that fields larger than 30 T can diffuse across the liner wall in less than 60 ns, demonstrating that external coils can be replaced by return current posts with optimal helicity.

  11. The enduring legacy of the “constant-field equation” in membrane ion transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In 1943, David Goldman published a seminal paper in The Journal of General Physiology that reported a concise expression for the membrane current as a function of ion concentrations and voltage. This body of work was, and still is, the theoretical pillar used to interpret the relationship between a cell’s membrane potential and its external and/or internal ionic composition. Here, we describe from an historical perspective the theory underlying the constant-field equation and its application to membrane ion transport. PMID:28931632

  12. Design of constant current charging power supply for J-TEXT ohmic field capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Shudong; Zhang Ming; Rao Bo; Yu Kexun; Yang Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The charging characteristic of the capacitor charging power supply was analyzed with practical series resonant topology. The method that setting two current taps and regulating PWM switching frequency was putted forward with close loop controlling algorithm to charge the multi-group capacitor banks with constant current. A capacitor charging power supply with the max output current 6.5 A and the max output voltage 2000 V is designed. Experimental results show that, this power supply can charge the four capacitor banks to any four different voltages in 1 minute with charging accuracy less than 1%, and meet the requirements of J-TEXT ohmic field power system. (authors)

  13. A modified CAS-CI approach for an efficient calculation of magnetic exchange coupling constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Karin; Staemmler, Volker

    2013-09-01

    A modification of the conventional wavefunction-based CAS-CI method for the calculation of magnetic exchange coupling constants J in small molecules and transition metal complexes is presented. In general, CAS-CI approaches yield much too small values for J since the energies of the important charge transfer configurations are calculated with the ground state orbitals and are therefore much too high. In the present approach we improve these energies by accounting for the relaxation of the orbitals in the charge transfer configurations. The necessary relaxation energies R can be obtained in separate calculations using mononuclear or binuclear model systems. The method is applied to a few examples, small molecules, binuclear transition metal complexes, and bulk NiO. It allows to obtaining fairly reliable estimates for J at costs that are not higher than those of conventional CAS-CI calculations. Therefore, extended and very time-consuming perturbation theory (PT2), configuration interaction (CI), or coupled cluster (CC) schemes on top of the CAS-CI calculation can be avoided and the modified CAS-CI (MCAS-CI) approach can be applied to rather large systems.

  14. The effects of high magnetic field on the morphology and microwave electromagnetic properties of MnO 2 powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Yuping, Duan; Shuqing, Li; Xiaogang, Li; Shunhua, Liu

    2010-07-01

    MnO 2 with a sea urchin-like ball chain shape was first synthesized in a high magnetic field via a simple chemical process, and a mechanism for the formation of this grain shape was discussed. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, and vector network analysis. The dielectric constant and the loss tangent clearly decreased under a magnetic field. The magnetic loss tangent and the imaginary part of the magnetic permeability increased substantially. Furthermore, the theoretically calculated values of reflection loss showed that the absorption peaks shifted to a higher frequency with increases in the magnetic field strength.

  15. Magnetic field-controlled microfluidic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kyle M; Hemmert, Jared W; White, Henry S

    2002-01-23

    Several new forms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow occurring in the solution gap between two 250-microm-diameter Pt microdisk electrodes, oriented in a face-to-face geometry and immersed in a uniform magnetic field (1 T), are described. The MHD flow results from the Lorentz force generated by diffusion of electrochemically generated molecular ions through the magnetic field. Individual microscopic flow tubes ( approximately 50-microm radius) spanning the gap between the face-to-face electrodes are observed during the 1-e(-) reduction of nitrobenzene in acetonitrile solutions. The flow tubes extend up to approximately 2 cm in length and are stable for indefinite periods. Directional transport of the electrogenerated nitrobenzene radical anion over macroscopic distances within the flow tubes, with minimal diffusional broadening, is demonstrated using an ultramicroelectrode probe to map the convective flux of redox species. Pulsed MHD transport of small packets of molecules and the formation of large area (approximately 3 cm(2)), microscopically thin (25 microm) rotating sheets of solution are also demonstrated. The results suggest that electrochemical methods, in combination with magnetohydrodynamic principles, may be useful for external field-controlled microfluidic systems.

  16. National survey of residential magnetic field exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karipidis, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    The release of the Doll report in the UK, and its reported association between prolonged exposures to higher levels of power frequency magnetic fields and a small risk of leukaemia in children, has heightened community concerns. This disquiet among the general public has prompted the possibility of a national survey of residential magnetic field exposures to be implemented. Measurement methodologies were reviewed by the author and long-term measurements made by a logger placed in the living room for a 24-hour period were chosen as a surrogate measurement for the evaluation of exposure. An international comparison of similar surveys is presented, showing great deficiency, with the exception of Schuz et al and the UKCCS, in the number of homes surveyed. Factors influencing the selection of residences in the survey sample are elucidated and a range of sample sizes is presented with varying precision and confidence levels. Finally a feasible sample of 1,000 homes is chosen and a cost estimate is calculated with extra options for the measurement of the child's bedroom, a schools' survey and child personal exposure measurements included in the outlay. The purpose of the proposed national survey is to determine the proportion of Australian homes that are exposed to fields greater than 0.4 μT and the influence of proximity to powerlines as a cause. The study would also enable an interstate and international comparison of exposures to be made. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  17. Cosmological dynamics with non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrycyna, Orest [Theoretical Physics Division, National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Szydłowski, Marek, E-mail: orest.hrycyna@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: marek.szydlowski@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)

    2015-11-01

    Dynamical systems methods are used to investigate global behaviour of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model in gravitational theory with a non-minimally coupled scalar field and a constant potential function. We show that the system can be reduced to an autonomous three-dimensional dynamical system and additionally is equipped with an invariant manifold corresponding to an accelerated expansion of the universe. Using this invariant manifold we find an exact solution of the reduced dynamics. We investigate all solutions for all admissible initial conditions using theory of dynamical systems to obtain a classification of all evolutional paths. The right-hand sides of the dynamical system depend crucially on the value of the non-minimal coupling constant therefore we study bifurcation values of this parameter under which the structure of the phase space changes qualitatively. We found a special bifurcation value of the non-minimal coupling constant which is distinguished by dynamics of the model and may suggest some additional symmetry in matter sector of the theory.

  18. Evaluation of magnetic field distribution of superconducting bulk magnets with the same pole arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, K.; Oka, T.; Noto, K.

    2008-01-01

    We study on the construction of superconducting permanent magnets by RE123 bulk materials and the investigation of these industrial applications such as a magnetic separation. The bulk magnets can generate strong magnetic field in comparison with common permanent magnets and iron-cored electromagnets. In order to propagate an industrial application of bulk magnet in the feature, it is necessary to form various shape of magnetic field, as well as its strength is enlarged. In this paper, the strong magnetic field in the radial direction has been constructed by a pair of bulk magnets. Two Gd123 bulk materials are magnetized by the IMRA method and these are arranged face-to-face with the same pole facing each other. When the radial component of magnetic fields, B x , is measured in the open space between the magnetic poles with a gap of 50 mm, the area of |B x | > 0.5 T increases to 148% compared with the single pole

  19. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated...... using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...... biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads....

  20. Linear field demagnetisation of artificial magnetic square ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Phillip Morgan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied experimentally the states formed in artificial square ice nanomagnet systems following demagnetisation in a rotating in-plane applied magnetic field that reduces to zero in a manner that is linear in time. The final states are found to be controlled via the system's lattice constant, which determines the strength of the magnetostatic interactions between the elements, as well as the field ramping rate. We understand these effects as a requirement that the system undergoes a sufficiently large number of active rotations within the critical field window in which elements may be reversed, such that the interactions are allowed to locally exert their influence if the ground state is to be approached. On the other hand, if quenched disorder is too strong when compared to the interaction strength, any close approach to the ground state is impossible. These results show that it is not necessary for there to be any ac component to the field amplitude that is applied to the system during demagnetisation, which is the method almost exclusively employed in field protocols reported to date. Furthermore, by optimising the parameters of our linear demagnetisation protocol, the largest field-generated ground state domains yet reported are found.

  1. Magnetic field-assisted electrochemical discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chih-Ping; Mai, Chao-Chuang; Wu, Kun-Ling; Hsu, Yu-Shan; Yan, Biing-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is an effective unconventional method for micromachining in non-conducting materials, such as glass, quartz and some ceramics. However, since the spark discharge performance becomes unpredictable as the machining depth increases, it is hard to achieve precision geometry and efficient machining rate in ECDM drilling. One of the main factors for this is the lack of sufficient electrolyte flow in the narrow gap between the tool and the workpiece. In this study a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) convection, which enhances electrolyte circulation has been applied to the ECDM process in order to upgrade the machining accuracy and efficiency. During electrolysis in the presence of a magnetic field, the Lorenz force induces the charged ions to form a MHD convection. The MHD convection then forces the electrolyte into movement, thus enhancing circulation of electrolyte. Experimental results show that the MHD convection induced by the magnetic field can effectively enhance electrolyte circulation in the micro-hole, which contributes to higher machining efficiency. Micro-holes in glass with a depth of 450 µm are drilled in less than 20 s. At the same time, better electrolyte circulation can prevent deterioration of gas film quality with increasing machining depth, while ensuring stable electrochemical discharge. The improvement in the entrance diameter thus achieved was 23.8% while that in machining time reached 57.4%. The magnetic field-assisted approach proposed in the research does not require changes in the machining setup or electrolyte but has proved to achieve significant enhancement in both accuracy and efficiency of ECDM.

  2. In situ observation of magnetic orientation process of feeble magnetic materials under high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Hirota et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An in situ microscopic observation of the magnetic orientation process of feeble magnetic fibers was carried out under high magnetic fields of up to 10 T using a scanning laser microscope. In the experiment, carbon fibers and needle-like titania fibers with a length of 1 to 20 μm were used. The fibers were observed to gradually orient their axes parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. The orientation behavior of the sample fibers was evaluated on the basis of the measured duration required for a certain angular variation. As predicted from the theoretical consideration, it was confirmed that the duration required for a certain angular variation normalized by the viscosity of the fluid is described as a function of the fiber length. The results obtained here appear useful for the consideration of the magnetic orientation of materials suspended in a static fluid.

  3. Control of reversible magnetization switching by pulsed circular magnetic field in glass-coated amorphous microwires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Alexander; Zhukov, Arkady; Gonzalez, Julian; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    Magnetization reversal in magnetic microwires was studied in the presence of external mechanical stress and helical magnetic fields using the magneto-optical Kerr effect. It was found that a combination of tuned magnetic anisotropy and a direct current or pulsed circular magnetic field activated different types of magnetization reversal scenarios. The application of the pulsed magnetic field of 10 ns time duration induced a transient controlling action to switch the magnetic states without activating a domain wall motion. This created a promising method for tuning the giant magneto-impedance effect.

  4. Review of MFTF yin-yang magnet displacement and magnetic field measurements and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, C.L.; Myall, J.O.; Wohlwend, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    During the recent testing of the MFTF yin-yang magnet, measurements of coil position, structural case strain, and magnetic field were made to verify calculated values. Measurements to detect magnet movement were taken throughout cooldown and during the operation of the magnet. The magnetic field at the mirror points was measured by Hall-effect probes. The magnet position, structural case strain, and magnetic field measurements indicated a reasonably close correlation with calculated values. Information obtained from the yin-yang test has been very useful in setting realistic mechanical alignment values for the new MFTF-B magnet system

  5. Pulse magnetic field measuring system for Kicker and septum magnets of INDUS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, R.S.; Yadav, R.R.; Senthil Kumar, S.; Gaud, Vinod; Veerabhadraiah, T.; Kotaiah, S.

    2005-01-01

    In Indus-2 (2.5 GeV SRS), injection of 700 MeV electron into 2.5 GeV storage ring will be accomplished using four Kicker magnets and two septum magnets. The high performance of Pulse Magnets-Kickers and Septums are important for the efficiency of beam injection. A test bench was setup for the accurate pulse magnetic field measurements. This paper will describe Pulse Magnetic field measuring system, high speed digitizer, Magnetic Probes, calibration for Pulsed Magnetic Measurements and accurate mapping of pulse magnetic field (3 μs, 50 μs and 100 μs half sine wave. (author)

  6. Biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault de Boesinghe, L. de

    1979-01-01

    A review is made by the author of the literature about the biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields. A distinction is made between the observations made on man and the experience on animals. The results do not allow to reach a uniform conclusion. The used methodology is furthermore often open for discussion. One fundamental question remains: is there or not a threshold value. The question may be asked if objective modifications would not better come out in the light of systematical programs studies. This review of the literature gives results which anyway justify a systematic study of this subject. (author)

  7. High-magnetic-field research collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettee, J.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The purpose of this project was to develop collaborations with the academic community to exploit scientific research potential of the pulsed magnetic fields that might be possible with electrically pulsed devices, as well as magneto-cumulative generators. The author started with a campaign of experiments using high-explosive-driven flux compression generators. The campaign's objective was to explore completely novel ideas in condensed-matter physics and chemistry. The initiative was very successful in pulling together top researchers from around the world

  8. Studies of the Martian Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    This report covers two awards: the first NAGW-2573 was awarded to enable participation in the Mars 94 mission that slipped to become the Mars 96 mission. Upon the unfortunate failure of Mars 96 to achieve its intended trajectory, the second grant was awarded to closeout the Mars 96 activities. Our initial efforts concentrated on assisting our colleagues: W. Riedler, K. Schwingenschuh, K. Gringanz, M. Verigin and Ye. Yeroshenko with advice on the development of the magnetic field portion of the investigation and to help them with test activities. We also worked with them to properly analyze the Phobos magnetic field and plasma data in order to optimize the return from the Mars 94/96 mission. This activity resulted in 18 papers on Mars scientific topics, and two on the instrumentation. One of these latter two papers was the last of the papers written, and speaks to the value of the closeout award. These 20 papers are listed in the attached bibliography. Because we had previously studied Venus and Titan and since it was becoming evident that the magnetic field was very weak, we compared the various properties of the Martian interaction with those of the analogous interactions at Venus and Titan while other papers simply analyzed the properties of the interaction as Phobos 2 observed them. One very interesting observation was the identification of ions picked up in the solar wind, originating in Mars neutral atmosphere. These had been predicted by our earlier observation of cyclotron waves at the proton gyrofrequency in the region upstream from Mars in the solar wind. Of course, the key question we addressed was that of the intrinsic or induced nature of the Martian magnetic field. We found little evidence for the former and much for the latter point of view. We also discussed the instrumentation planned for the Mars balloon and the instrumentation on the orbiter. In all these studies were very rewarding despite the short span of the Phobos data. Although they did not

  9. Josephson tunnel junctions in a magnetic field gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    We measured the magnetic field dependence of the critical current of high-quality Nb-based planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of a controllable nonuniform field distribution. We found skewed and slowly changing magnetic diffraction patterns quite dissimilar from the Fraunhofer......-like ones typical of a homogeneous field. Our findings can be well interpreted in terms of recent theoretical predictions [R. Monaco, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 033906 (2010)] for a uniform magnetic field gradient, leading to Fresnel-like magnetic diffraction patterns. We also show that Fiske resonances can...... be suppressed by an asymmetric magnetic field profile. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  10. Rotating-frame gradient fields for magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance in low fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Louis-Serge; Pines, Alexander; Demas, Vasiliki

    2014-01-21

    A system and method for Fourier encoding a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal is disclosed. A static magnetic field B.sub.0 is provided along a first direction. An NMR signal from the sample is Fourier encoded by applying a rotating-frame gradient field B.sub.G superimposed on the B.sub.0, where the B.sub.G comprises a vector component rotating in a plane perpendicular to the first direction at an angular frequency .omega.in a laboratory frame. The Fourier-encoded NMR signal is detected.

  11. Theoretical investigation of magnetic property in paramagnetic neodymium gallium garnet under high magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Liu Gongqiang; Wang Jinhui

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic property in neodymium gallium garnet (NdGaG) is studied by the quantum theory. The ground configuration split states are calculated taking into account the spin-orbit interaction and crystal field effect. Taking account of the Nd-Nd exchange interaction, a good agreement between experimental and theoretical values can be obtained for the variation of the magnetic moment with the external magnetic field under 'extreme' conditions (low temperature and high magnetic field). Moreover, the temperature dependence of magnetic moment and the magnetic susceptibility χ is also discussed. Above 30 K, the magnetization (M) shows a linear field (H e ) dependence

  12. Phenomena in J-coupled nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in low magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelt, Stephan; Haesing, F. Wolfgang; Kuehn, Holger; Bluemich, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory and experimental results of phenomena associated to J-coupled nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at low magnetic fields ( -4 T). So far it was believed that in low field the chemical shift and with it the homonuclear J-coupling information is lost. This contribution shows that the network of all homo- and heteronuclear J-coupling constants can be measured in low magnetic fields, thus revealing the whole molecular structure even in the absence of any chemical shift information. The chemical group of the form YX N (Y=rare spin 1/2, X=observed spin 1/2, N=number of spins X) can be identified by the number of lines in the heteronuclear coupled X spectrum if the strong J-coupling condition is valid. If two molecular groups, such as YX N and AX M-N (A=group without nuclear spin, M=total number of coupled spinsX), are bound together then all homo- and heteronuclear J-coupling constants appear in the X-NMR spectrum as pairs of multiplets. A vector model is presented which explains the relation between the molecular structure and the number of observed lines in a multiplet pair. The linewidths of the different NMR lines inside one multiplet are measured to be substantially different and depend on the total spin state of the molecule. If M is an odd number and M-1 spins X of the molecule are coupled into (M-1)/2 singlets, then intramolecular dipole-dipole relaxation as well as J-coupling mediated relaxation processes are suppressed and very narrow lines are observed

  13. Axial magnetic field produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Q.L.; McMurry, S.M.; Coey, J.M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Axial magnetic fields produced by axially and radially magnetized permanent magnet rings were studied. First, the axial magnetic field produced by a current loop is introduced, from which the axial field generated by an infinitely thin solenoid and by an infinitely thin current disk can be derived. Then the axial fields produced by axially and by radially magnetized permanent magnet rings can be obtained. An analytic formula for the axial fields produced by two axially magnetized rings is given. A permanent magnet with a high axial gradient field is fabricated, the measured results agree with the theoretical calculation very well. As an example, the axial periodic field produced by an arrangement of alternating axially and radially magnetized rings has been discussed

  14. Magnetic field induced augmented thermal conduction phenomenon in magneto nanocolloids

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyar, Ajay; Dhar, Purbarun; Nandi, Tandra; Das, Sarit K.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic field induced drastically augmented thermal conductivity of magneto nanocolloids involving magnetic oxide nanoparticles, viz. Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Nickel oxide (NiO), Cobalt oxide (Co3O4), dispersed in different base fluids (heat transfer oil, kerosene, and ethylene glycol) have been reported. Experiments reveal the augmented thermal transport under the external applied magnetic field, with kerosene based MNCs showing at relatively low magnetic field intensities as compared to the heat tran...

  15. Interaction between laser-produced plasma and guiding magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Transportation properties of laser-produced plasma through a guiding magnetic field were examined. A drifting dense plasma produced by a KrF laser was injected into an axisymmetric magnetic field induced by permanent ring magnets. The plasma ion flux in the guiding magnetic field was measured by a Faraday cup at various distances from the laser target. Numerical analyses based on a collective focusing model were performed to simulate plasma particle trajectories and then compared with the experimental results. (author)

  16. A comparison of the heating effect of magnetic fluid between the alternating and rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beković, Miloš; Trlep, Mladen; Jesenik, Marko; Hamler, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fluids are distinct magnetic materials that have recently been the subject of extensive research precisely because of their unique properties. One of them is the heating effect when exposed to alternating magnetic fields, wherein the objective is to use this property in medicine as an alternative method for the treatment of tumors in the body. In this paper, we focus on two methods of magnetizing magnetic fluids, firstly using the alternating magnetic field (AMF), and secondly with the rotational magnetic field (RMF). The effects of the first are scientifically well-established, whilst the impact of RMF has not as yet been investigated as presented in this article. So far the effects of RMF have only been studied at low frequencies and high amplitudes, or vice versa. This article presents the results of heating at high frequencies and high magnetic field amplitudes, and the results compared with AMF. This paper presents the construction and implementation of a measuring system which is suitable both types of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Development of a new measurement system for the characterization of magnetic fluids. • System enables pulsed magnetic field, or a rotary magnetic field. • Analysis of the conditions to create a rotational magnetic field by means of a double power supply. • Good agreement between the analytical and numerical calculation of magnetic field and measurements. • Increase of the heating power when sample is exposed to rotating field compared to pulsating field

  17. NUMERICAL MODELING THE INTERACTION OF A MAGNETIC FIELD WITH A CYLINDRICAL MAGNETIC FLUID LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Polevikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined method of finite differences and boundary elements is applied to solve a nonlinear conjugate problem of magnetostatics describing, the interaction of a uniform magnetic field with a cylindrical magnetic fluid layer. Magnetic permeability of the fluid is considered to be a non-linearly dependent on the magnetic field intensity. Shielding properties of a cylindrical thick-walled magneticfluid layer, depending on the external magnetic field intensity, are investigated. A shielding effectiveness factor is calculated.

  18. A 77 K MOS magnetic field detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R S; Torres, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica Optica y Electronica, Puebla (Mexico); Garcia, P.J. [Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz (Mexico); Gutierrez, E.A. [Motorola, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    An integrated MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor)-compatible magnetic field detector (split-drain MAGFET) for operation at liquid-nitrogen temperature LNT (77 K) is presented. The measured relative magnetic sensibility (S{sub a}) is approximately 14%/T (double the value ever reported) using a non-optimized MAGFET structure (W/L) = (100 mm/125 mm). The cryo-magnetic structure was tested without a built-in preamplifier. It presents a power consumption of the order of mW. [Spanish] A traves de este articulo se presenta un detector de campo magnetico (split-drain MAGFET), basado en el transistor de efecto de campo MOS (metal-oxido-semiconductor), y totalmente compatible con procesos de fabricacion de circuitos integrados CMOS. La operacion optima de este detector es a temperaturas criogenicas. Aqui se presentan los resultados experimentales de la caracterizacion de una estructura no optimizada con dimensiones (W / L) = (100 mm/125 mm) a la temperatura del nitrogeno liquido (77 K). La sensibilidad relativa medida es de cerca del 14 % T, casi el doble del valor maximo antes reportado en la literatura. El dispositivo se midio sin un pre-amplificador integrado, mostrando un consumo de potencia del orden de microwatts.

  19. Metal/Polymer Based Stretchable Antenna for Constant Frequency Far-Field Communication in Wearable Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2015-10-06

    Body integrated wearable electronics can be used for advanced health monitoring, security, and wellness. Due to the complex, asymmetric surface of human body and atypical motion such as stretching in elbow, finger joints, wrist, knee, ankle, etc. electronics integrated to body need to be physically flexible, conforming, and stretchable. In that context, state-of-the-art electronics are unusable due to their bulky, rigid, and brittle framework. Therefore, it is critical to develop stretchable electronics which can physically stretch to absorb the strain associated with body movements. While research in stretchable electronics has started to gain momentum, a stretchable antenna which can perform far-field communications and can operate at constant frequency, such that physical shape modulation will not compromise its functionality, is yet to be realized. Here, a stretchable antenna is shown, using a low-cost metal (copper) on flexible polymeric platform, which functions at constant frequency of 2.45 GHz, for far-field applications. While mounted on a stretchable fabric worn by a human subject, the fabricated antenna communicated at a distance of 80 m with 1.25 mW transmitted power. This work shows an integration strategy from compact antenna design to its practical experimentation for enhanced data communication capability in future generation wearable electronics.

  20. Field-theoretic simulations of block copolymer nanocomposites in a constant interfacial tension ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Jason P.; Riggleman, Robert A.

    2017-04-01

    Block copolymers, due to their ability to self-assemble into periodic structures with long range order, are appealing candidates to control the ordering of functionalized nanoparticles where it is well-accepted that the spatial distribution of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix dictates the resulting material properties. The large parameter space associated with block copolymer nanocomposites makes theory and simulation tools appealing to guide experiments and effectively isolate parameters of interest. We demonstrate a method for performing field-theoretic simulations in a constant volume-constant interfacial tension ensemble (n V γ T ) that enables the determination of the equilibrium properties of block copolymer nanocomposites, including when the composites are placed under tensile or compressive loads. Our approach is compatible with the complex Langevin simulation framework, which allows us to go beyond the mean-field approximation. We validate our approach by comparing our n V γ T approach with free energy calculations to determine the ideal domain spacing and modulus of a symmetric block copolymer melt. We analyze the effect of numerical and thermodynamic parameters on the efficiency of the n V γ T ensemble and subsequently use our method to investigate the ideal domain spacing, modulus, and nanoparticle distribution of a lamellar forming block copolymer nanocomposite. We find that the nanoparticle distribution is directly linked to the resultant domain spacing and is dependent on polymer chain density, nanoparticle size, and nanoparticle chemistry. Furthermore, placing the system under tension or compression can qualitatively alter the nanoparticle distribution within the block copolymer.